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Sample records for problem exercise spe-3

  1. Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angseesing, J. P. A.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)

  2. Resolvent-Techniques for Multiple Exercise Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Sören; Lempa, Jukka

    2015-02-15

    We study optimal multiple stopping of strong Markov processes with random refraction periods. The refraction periods are assumed to be exponentially distributed with a common rate and independent of the underlying dynamics. Our main tool is using the resolvent operator. In the first part, we reduce infinite stopping problems to ordinary ones in a general strong Markov setting. This leads to explicit solutions for wide classes of such problems. Starting from this result, we analyze problems with finitely many exercise rights and explain solution methods for some classes of problems with underlying Lévy and diffusion processes, where the optimal characteristics of the problems can be identified more explicitly. We illustrate the main results with explicit examples.

  3. Recent improvements in SPE3D: a VR-based surgery planning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Verdonschot, Nico

    2014-02-01

    SPE3D is a surgery planning environment developed within TLEMsafe project [1] (funded by the European Commission FP7). It enables the operator to plan a surgical procedure on the customized musculoskeletal (MS) model of the patient's lower limbs, send the modified model to the biomechanical analysis module, and export the scenario's parameters to the surgical navigation system. The personalized patient-specific three-dimensional (3-D) MS model is registered with 3-D MRI dataset of lower limbs and the two modalities may be visualized simultaneously. Apart from main planes, any arbitrary MRI cross-section can be rendered on the 3-D MS model in real time. The interface provides tools for: bone cutting, manipulating and removal, repositioning muscle insertion points, modifying muscle force, removing muscles and placing implants stored in the implant library. SPE3D supports stereoscopic viewing as well as natural inspection/manipulation with use of haptic devices. Alternatively, it may be controlled with use of a standard computer keyboard, mouse and 2D display or a touch screen (e.g. in an operating room). The interface may be utilized in two main fields. Experienced surgeons may use it to simulate their operative plans and prepare input data for a surgical navigation system while student or novice surgeons can use it for training.

  4. Adventures in Exercise Physiology: Enhancing Problem Solving and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A.

    2004-01-01

    I altered the format of an exercise physiology course from traditional lecture to emphasizing daily reading quizzes and group problem-solving activities. I used the SALGains evaluation to compare the two approaches and saw significant improvements in the evaluation ratings of students who were taught using the new format. Narrative responses…

  5. Exercises are problems too: implications for teaching problem-solving in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, Kristina; Garmendia, Mikel; Barragués, José-Ignacio; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2016-09-01

    Frequently, in university-level general physics courses, after explaining the theory, exercises are set based on examples that illustrate the application of concepts and laws. Traditionally formulated numerical exercises are usually solved by the teacher and students through direct replacement of data in formulae. It is our contention that such strategies can lead to the superficial and erroneous resolution of such exercises. In this paper, we provide an example that illustrates that students tend to solve problems in a superficial manner, without applying fundamental problem-solving strategies such as qualitative analysis, hypothesis-forming and analysis of results, which prevents them from arriving at a correct solution. We provide evidence of the complexity of an a priori simple exercise in physics, although the theory involved may seem elementary at first sight. Our aim is to stimulate reflection among instructors to follow these results when using examples and solving exercises with students.

  6. Clinical Reasoning Terms Included in Clinical Problem Solving Exercises?

    PubMed

    Musgrove, John L; Morris, Jason; Estrada, Carlos A; Kraemer, Ryan R

    2016-05-01

    Background Published clinical problem solving exercises have emerged as a common tool to illustrate aspects of the clinical reasoning process. The specific clinical reasoning terms mentioned in such exercises is unknown. Objective We identified which clinical reasoning terms are mentioned in published clinical problem solving exercises and compared them to clinical reasoning terms given high priority by clinician educators. Methods A convenience sample of clinician educators prioritized a list of clinical reasoning terms (whether to include, weight percentage of top 20 terms). The authors then electronically searched the terms in the text of published reports of 4 internal medicine journals between January 2010 and May 2013. Results The top 5 clinical reasoning terms ranked by educators were dual-process thinking (weight percentage = 24%), problem representation (12%), illness scripts (9%), hypothesis generation (7%), and problem categorization (7%). The top clinical reasoning terms mentioned in the text of 79 published reports were context specificity (n = 20, 25%), bias (n = 13, 17%), dual-process thinking (n = 11, 14%), illness scripts (n = 11, 14%), and problem representation (n = 10, 13%). Context specificity and bias were not ranked highly by educators. Conclusions Some core concepts of modern clinical reasoning theory ranked highly by educators are mentioned explicitly in published clinical problem solving exercises. However, some highly ranked terms were not used, and some terms used were not ranked by the clinician educators. Effort to teach clinical reasoning to trainees may benefit from a common nomenclature of clinical reasoning terms.

  7. Complex Problem Exercises in Developing Engineering Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Electromagnetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.

    2011-01-01

    Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…

  8. CATHARE2 calculation of SPE-3 test small break loca on PMK facility

    SciTech Connect

    Laugier, E.; Radet, J.

    1995-09-01

    Bind and post test calculations with CATHARE2 have been performed concerning the SPE-4 exercise organized under the auspices of IAEA on the hungarian PMK-2 facility, a one loop scaled model of VVER 440/213 Nuclear Power Plant. The SPE-4 test is a cold leg SBLOCA associated to a {open_quotes}bleed and feed{close_quotes} procedure applied in the secondary circuit. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the post test calculation. For the first part of the transient (until the end of the SIT activations), the primary and secondary pressures are rather well predicted, leading to a good agreement with the experimental trips, as scram, flow coast down, SIT beginning and end of activation. Nevertheless, some discrepancy with the experiment may be due to an over prediction of the thermal exchanges from the primary to the secondary circuits. For the second part of the transient, the predicted primary circuit repressurization is shifted after the SITs are off, while in the experiment this event immediately follows the end of SIT activation. The delay in the calculation leads to underpredict primary and secondary pressures, thus anticipating the timing of events, such as LPIS and emergency feedwater activation.

  9. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Margaret; Obi, Curtis

    2015-04-30

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and farfield data that are available.This revised document includes reports on baseline shift corrections for the SPE-2 and SPE-3 shots that were missing from the original January 2015 version.

  10. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Margaret; Obi, Curtis

    2015-01-26

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  11. A Cochlear Implant Signal Processing Lab: Exploration of a Problem-Based Learning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, P. T.; McClellan, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an introductory signal processing laboratory and examines this laboratory exercise in the context of problem-based learning (PBL). Centered in a real-world application, a cochlear implant, the exercise challenged students to demonstrate a working software-based signal processor. Partnering in groups of two or three, second-year…

  12. In Physics Class, Exercises Can Also Cause Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johsua, Samuel; Dupin, Jean-Jacques

    1991-01-01

    French tenth grade physics classes were observed as they studied electric circuits over a one-year period. An analysis is presented of tests taken during the year. The main point separating "average" students from "good" ones is their performances in "implicitly difficult exercises," that is, in what appears beforehand to be a minor deviation from…

  13. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  14. Clinical Problem Solving Exercises for Pre-Clinical Medical Education: A Design, Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordage, Georges

    Clinical problem solving exercises for preclinical medical education that were developed at Michigan State University School of Osteopathic Medicine are described. Two types of outcomes were set as priorities in the design and implementation of the problem solving sessions: small group peer interactions as instructional and evaluative resources;…

  15. Creative Problem-Solving Exercises and Training in FCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcketti, Sara B.; Karpova, Elena; Barker, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Creative problem-solving has been linked to successful adjustment to the demands of daily life. The ability to recognize problems as opportunities can be an essential skill when dealing with uncertainty and adapting to continuous changes, both in personal and professional lives. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals should strive to…

  16. Use of a problem-based learning exercise to teach the lean 8-step problem-solving method.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Elizabeth G; Warshawsky, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Doctor of nursing practice (DNP) graduates must be prepared to lead quality improvement (QI) initiatives in health care settings; however, effective and feasible teaching strategies pose a challenge for many DNP program faculties. This article describes a successful and practical problem-based learning exercise for students to work through the QI process using the Lean 8-step problem-solving method. Suggestions for faculty and recommendations for future activities are discussed.

  17. Keeping Fit with Asta O'Donnell. An Exercise Program for Problem Backs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Asta

    An estimated 75 million people in the United States suffer from some type of back problem. Most are caused by muscle strain and improper posture. This book describes an exercise program designed to relieve muscle strain, improve and correct posture, and reduce stress and tension. The book is divided into four sections: "Warm Ups,""Basic Exercise…

  18. Problem-Based Teaching in International Management: A Political/Economic Risk Assessment Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Paula S.; White, Marion M.; Zisk, Daniel S.; Cavazos, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This article draws from the current literature to examine problem-based learning (PBL) as a management education tool, and provides an example of how to incorporate PBL into an undergraduate international management course. Also included are an explanation of, and specific guidelines for, a PBL exercise focused on the analysis of "country risk"…

  19. Useful Material Efficiency Green Metrics Problem Set Exercises for Lecture and Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andraos, John

    2015-01-01

    A series of pedagogical problem set exercises are posed that illustrate the principles behind material efficiency green metrics and their application in developing a deeper understanding of reaction and synthesis plan analysis and strategies to optimize them. Rigorous, yet simple, mathematical proofs are given for some of the fundamental concepts,…

  20. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  1. Incorporating a Modified Problem-Based Learning Exercise in a Traditional Lecture and Lab-Based Dairy Products Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liceaga, Andrea M.; Ballard, Tameshia S.; Skura, Brent J.

    2011-01-01

    A modified problem-based learning (PBL) exercise was implemented in a food science Dairy Products course, which had previously been taught in the traditional lecture and laboratory format only. The first 10 wk of the course consisted of weekly lectures and laboratory exercises. During the remaining 3 wk, students were presented with a case study…

  2. The Influence of Antecedent Exercise on Problem Behaviors in Persons with Mental Retardation: A Failure to Replicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jan L.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt to replicate previous studies showing a positive effect of antecedent exercise on problem behavior found no consistent changes in problem behaviors for six adults with severe mental retardation exposed to either daily jogging or leisure games (attention control). (Author/DB)

  3. Incorporating problem-based learning exercises into an environmental health curriculum.

    PubMed

    Silbart, Lawrence K

    2006-05-01

    Environmental health professionals are often confronted with difficult conflicts involving multiple stakeholders. A problem-based-learning approach was used to engage students in a mock conflict resolution exercise involving the heavily publicized dispute over industrial contamination of an aquifer supplying drinking water to neighborhoods in Woburn, Massachusetts. This dispute provided the basis for the bestselling novel A Civil Action, by Jonathan Harr, as well as a major motion picture bearing the same name. Students were assigned to one of three stakeholder groups: the affected families, an industry consortium, or state and federal regulatory authorities. These stakeholder groups were then directed to participate in alternative-dispute-resolution mock negotiations, with the course instructor serving as a neutral facilitator. The "problem" the students were assigned was to reach a consent agreement that was acceptable to all three stakeholder groups. Two groups of undergraduate students (from different semesters) successfully completed all five phases of this endeavor, with nearly unanimous agreement that the approach was more rapid and potentially less expensive than the civil-litigation process portrayed in the book and movie. The alternative-dispute-resolution approach also provided a less adversarial environment, thereby allowing the industry and community groups to work together to forge a more creative, long-term agreement than that which resulted from the actual civil litigation. PMID:16696452

  4. Simulating Results of Experiments on Gene Regulation of the Lactose Operon in Escherichia coli; a Problem-Solving Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchen, Trevor; Metcalfe, Judith

    1987-01-01

    Describes a simulation of the results of real experiments which use different strains of Escherichia coli. Provides an inexpensive practical problem-solving exercise to aid the teaching and understanding of the Jacob and Monod model of gene regulation. (Author/CW)

  5. The Value of Removing Daily Obstacles via Everyday Problem-Solving Theory: Developing an Applied Novel Procedure to Increase Self-Efficacy for Exercise.

    PubMed

    Artistico, Daniele; Pinto, Angela Marinilli; Douek, Jill; Black, Justin; Pezzuti, Lina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a novel procedure to increase self-efficacy for exercise. Gains in one's ability to resolve day-to-day obstacles for entering an exercise routine were expected to cause an increase in self-efficacy for exercise. Fifty-five sedentary participants (did not exercise regularly for at least 4 months prior to the study) who expressed an intention to exercise in the near future were selected for the study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) an Experimental Group in which they received a problem-solving training session to learn new strategies for solving day-to-day obstacles that interfere with exercise, (2) a Control Group with Problem-Solving Training which received a problem-solving training session focused on a typical day-to-day problem unrelated to exercise, or (3) a Control Group which did not receive any problem-solving training. Assessment of obstacles to exercise and perceived self-efficacy for exercise were conducted at baseline; perceived self-efficacy for exercise was reassessed post-intervention (1 week later). No differences in perceived challenges posed by obstacles to exercise or self-efficacy for exercise were observed across groups at baseline. The Experimental Group reported greater improvement in self-efficacy for exercise compared to the Control Group with Training and the Control Group. Results of this study suggest that a novel procedure that focuses on removing obstacles to intended planned fitness activities is effective in increasing self-efficacy to engage in exercise among sedentary adults. Implications of these findings for use in applied settings and treatment studies are discussed.

  6. Does exercise stimulate protein breakdown in humans. Isotopic approaches to the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    Protein metabolism in exercise has been investigated for 100 yr, yet it is still unclear if exercise induces an increased rate of protein breakdown. We have recently addressed this general question in a series of experiments in human subjects using stable isotopic tracers. In this paper, the results of those studies are reviewed. We have found that in light exercise the de-carboxylation of leucine is increased. However, urea production is not increased correspondingly, nor is the rate of incorporation into urea of nitrogen from either leucine or lysine. Further complicating the picture is the fact that lysine de-carboxylation is not markedly elevated in exercise. From these studies, we must conclude that isotopic techniques which have achieved general acceptance in other circumstances cannot reliably be used to answer the question of whether exercise stimulates protein breakdown in humans. However, these methods do provide results which enable a better understanding of the metabolism of the individual amino acids in exercise.

  7. The Problem of Exercise Adherence: Fighting Sloth in Nations with Market Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses physical activity and exercise adherence, describing five conundrums that retard advances in knowledge about causal determinants of physical activity and successful interventions that increase physical activity and exercise adherence: adoption versus maintenance; social marketing versus product marketing; mediators of physical activity;…

  8. "Exercise Dependence"--A Problem or Natural Result of High Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Bond, Dale S.; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence (ED) in 267 weight-loss maintainers (WLM) and 213 normal-weight (NW) controls. Methods: PA and ED assessed via accelerometery and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire. Results: WLM had higher PA levels and ED scores than those of NW (P less than 0.0001). WLM status (P = 0.006)…

  9. Reasoning Exercises in Assisted Living: a cluster randomized trial to improve reasoning and everyday problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine; Herman, Ruth; Bontempo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the study Assisted living (AL) residents are at risk for cognitive and functional declines that eventually reduce their ability to care for themselves, thereby triggering nursing home placement. In developing a method to slow this decline, the efficacy of Reasoning Exercises in Assisted Living (REAL), a cognitive training intervention that teaches everyday reasoning and problem-solving skills to AL residents, was tested. Design and methods At thirteen randomized Midwestern facilities, AL residents whose Mini Mental State Examination scores ranged from 19–29 either were trained in REAL or a vitamin education attention control program or received no treatment at all. For 3 weeks, treated groups received personal training in their respective programs. Results Scores on the Every Day Problems Test for Cognitively Challenged Elders (EPCCE) and on the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS) showed significant increases only for the REAL group. For EPCCE, change from baseline immediately postintervention was +3.10 (P<0.01), and there was significant retention at the 3-month follow-up (d=2.71; P<0.01). For DAFS, change from baseline immediately postintervention was +3.52 (P<0.001), although retention was not as strong. Neither the attention nor the no-treatment control groups had significant gains immediately postintervention or at follow-up assessments. Post hoc across-group comparison of baseline change also highlights the benefits of REAL training. For EPCCE, the magnitude of gain was significantly larger in the REAL group versus the no-treatment control group immediately postintervention (d=3.82; P<0.01) and at the 3-month follow-up (d=3.80; P<0.01). For DAFS, gain magnitude immediately postintervention for REAL was significantly greater compared with in the attention control group (d=4.73; P<0.01). Implications REAL improves skills in everyday problem solving, which may allow AL residents to maintain self-care and extend AL residency. This benefit

  10. Exercise intolerance in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: more than a heart problem

    PubMed Central

    Upadhya, Bharathi; Haykowsky, Mark J; Eggebeen, Joel; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of HF in older adults, and is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. Furthermore, HFpEF is increasing out of proportion to HF with reduced EF (HFrEF), and its prognosis is worsening while that of HFrEF is improving. Despite the importance of HFpEF, our understanding of its pathophysiology is incomplete, and optimal treatment remains largely undefined. A cardinal feature of HFpEF is reduced exercise tolerance, which correlates with symptoms as well as reduced quality of life. The traditional concepts of exercise limitations have focused on central dysfunction related to poor cardiac pump function. However, the mechanisms are not exclusive to the heart and lungs, and the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease has evolved. Substantial attention has focused on defining the central versus peripheral mechanisms underlying the reduced functional capacity and exercise tolerance among patients with HF. In fact, physical training can improve exercise tolerance via peripheral adaptive mechanisms even in the absence of favorable central hemodynamic function. In addition, the drug trials performed to date in HFpEF that have focused on influencing cardiovascular function have not improved exercise capacity. This suggests that peripheral limitations may play a significant role in HF limiting exercise tolerance, a hallmark feature of HFpEF. PMID:26089855

  11. Why Is That Dog Paralyzed? A Problem-Based Case & Laboratory Exercise about Neuromuscular Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanick, Mark; Graham, Kerri; Wessel, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Students are provided with a mystery concerning dogs that are paralyzed. This motivates a laboratory exercise to measure parameters from the dog's "blood" to determine whether the paralysis is due to pesticide poisoning or an autoimmune attack on nerve myelin. Most of the materials are available from the grocery store. The real-world nature of the…

  12. The Eyes Have It: A Problem-Based Learning Exercise in Molecular Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harold B.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular evolution provides an interesting context in which to use problem-based learning because it integrates a variety of topics in biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. This three-stage problem for advanced students deals with the structure, multiple functions, and properties of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes, and the related…

  13. Problem-Based Learning: An Exercise on Vermont's Legalization of Civil Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Susan M.; Hurlbert, Janet McNeil

    2004-01-01

    The majority of literature regarding problem-based learning demonstrates its usefulness as a teaching technique in the natural sciences curriculum. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the broad purpose is to illustrate the application of problem-based learning for instructing students about controversial issues in sociology. Within the…

  14. Multimodal Guided Self-Help Exercise Program to Prevent Speech, Swallowing, and Shoulder Problems Among Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Cnossen, Ingrid C; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Rinkel, Rico NPM; Aalders, IJke J; de Goede, Cees JT; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek HF; Langendijk, Johannes A; Witte, Birgit I; Leemans, C Rene

    2014-01-01

    Background During a 6-week course of (chemo)radiation many head and neck cancer patients have to endure radiotherapy-induced toxicity, negatively affecting patients’ quality of life. Pretreatment counseling combined with self-help exercises could be provided to inform patients and possibly prevent them from having speech, swallowing, and shoulder problems during and after treatment. Objective Our goal was to investigate the feasibility of a multimodal guided self-help exercise program entitled Head Matters during (chemo)radiation in head and neck cancer patients. Methods Head and neck cancer patients treated with primary (chemo)radiation or after surgery were asked to perform Head Matters at home. This prophylactic exercise program, offered in three different formats, aims to reduce the risk of developing speech, swallowing, shoulder problems, and a stiff neck. Weekly coaching was provided by a speech and swallowing therapist. Patients filled out a diary to keep track of their exercise activity. To gain insight into possible barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence, reports of weekly coaching sessions were analyzed by 2 coders independently. Results Of 41 eligible patients, 34 patients were willing to participate (83% uptake). Of participating patients, 21 patients completed the program (64% adherence rate). The majority of participants (58%) had a moderate to high level of exercise performance. Exercise performance level was not significantly associated with age (P=.50), gender (P=.42), tumor subsite (P=1.00) or tumor stage (P=.20), treatment modality (P=.72), or Head Matters format (Web-based or paper) (P=1.00). Based on patients’ diaries and weekly coaching sessions, patients’ perceived barriers to exercise were a decreased physical condition, treatment-related barriers, emotional problems, lack of motivation, social barriers, and technical problems. Patients’ perceived facilitators included an increased physical condition, feeling motivated, and

  15. Exercise for the Overweight Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1990-01-01

    Exercise can help patients maintain lean body mass during weight loss. Although exercise is not extremely useful in shedding excess pounds, it helps keep off weight lost through calorie restriction. This article discusses the specifics of exercise prescription, types of exercise, motivation to exercise, and special problems such as diabetes. (SM)

  16. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  17. Orthostasis: exercise and exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.

  18. Exercise training in asthma.

    PubMed

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  19. Walking Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... daily activities, get around, and exercise. Having a problem with walking can make daily life more difficult. ... walk is called your gait. A variety of problems can cause an abnormal gait and lead to ...

  20. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise. ... emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  1. The exercise of public health powers in an era of human rights: the particular problems of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Harris, A; Martin, R

    2004-07-01

    Public health legislation provides powers of removal to hospital and detention in circumstances where a patient with active, infectious tuberculosis (TB) is unwilling to comply with the recommended treatment programme. However, these public health powers were drafted at a time of very different scientific understandings of the epidemiology of disease, and at a time of a very different appreciation of the balance between State paternalism and individual rights. The re-emergence of TB as a serious threat to public health in Britain, and the increasing incidence of multi-drug-resistant TB raises concerns about public health approaches to non-compliant patients. The Human Rights Act (1998) introduces into English domestic law, protections against interference with individual rights by public authorities. The Human Rights Act not only provides a new basis of challenge of the exercise of powers by a public body, but has also had implications for the development of traditional means of challenge such as judicial review and litigation for damages. The consequence is that NHS authorities and local authorities are now more vulnerable to challenge in the exercise of public health powers. Health bodies should explore all possible alternatives to detention of a patient suffering from TB. It is to be hoped that the heralded reform to public health legislation is undertaken as a priority.

  2. Water Exercise Causes Ripples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Water exercise provides benefits independently of participants' skill levels, and reduces the likelihood of injury from overuse syndromes and heat-related problems. The advantages of water resistance exercises for athletes and for elderly, overweight, or physically disabled people are discussed. (MT)

  3. Kegel exercises - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... men and women who have problems with urine leakage or bowel control. You may have these problems: ... nerve disorders may also have problems with urine leakage or bowel control. Kegel exercises can be done ...

  4. Whose Problem Is It? Yours, Mine or Ours. An Exercise in Shared Responsibility. Research Report 79-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Lorna M.; Stennett, R. G.

    The report--half of which consists of appendixes--describes a pilot project in London, Ontario (Canada) designed to examine the issues involved in including constant communication and cooperation between classroom teachers (CTs) and learning resource teachers (LRTs) as part of the remedial process for students with learning problems. A series of…

  5. A Problem-Based Learning Approach to Civics Education: Exploring the Free Exercise Clause with Supreme Court Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnotti, John; Russell, William B., III

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to empower those interested in teaching students powerful and engaging social studies. Through the lens of Supreme Court simulations, this article provides educators with a viable, classroom-tested lesson plan to bring Problem-Based Learning into their classrooms. The specific aim of the lesson is to provide students…

  6. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  7. Negotiating Corporate Culture: An Exercise in Documentation (Exercise Exchange).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Tracy T.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an exercise for a technical writing course on documenting a problem within a corporate environment, thus giving students experience in appropriate documentation to tackle some of the operational, political, and ethical problems common in the workplace. (SR)

  8. Exercise stress test

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise ECG; ECG - exercise treadmill; EKG - exercise treadmill; Stress ECG; Exercise electrocardiography; Stress test - exercise treadmill; CAD - treadmill; Coronary artery disease - treadmill; Chest pain - treadmill; Angina - treadmill; ...

  9. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... of power to help them cope with low self-esteem. Although compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany ... a downward spiral of negative thinking and low self-esteem. continue Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad ...

  10. Exercise and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chipkin, S R; Klugh, S A; Chasan-Taber, L

    2001-08-01

    As rates of diabetes mellitus and obesity continue to increase, physical activity continues to be a fundamental form of therapy. Exercise influences several aspects of diabetes, including blood glucose concentrations, insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors. Blood glucose concentrations reflect the balance between skeletal muscle uptake and ambient concentrations of both insulin and counterinsulin hormones. Difficulties in predicting the relative impact of these factors can result in either hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Despite the variable impact of exercise on blood glucose, exercise consistently improves insulin action and several cardiovascular risk factors. Beyond the acute impact of physical activity, long-term exercise behaviors have been repeatedly associated with decreased rates of type 2 diabetes. While exercise produces many benefits, it is not without risks for patients with diabetes mellitus. In addition to hyperglycemia, from increased hepatic glucose production, insufficient insulin levels can foster ketogenesis from excess concentrations of fatty acids. At the opposite end of the glucose spectrum, hypoglycemia can result from excess glucose uptake due to either increased insulin concentrations, enhanced insulin action or impaired carbohydrate absorption. To decrease the risk for hypoglycemia, insulin doses should be reduced prior to exercise, although some insulin is typically still needed. Although precise risks of exercise on existing diabetic complications have not been well studied, it seems prudent to consider the potential to worsen nephropathy or retinopathy, or to precipitate musculoskeletal injuries. There is more substantive evidence that autonomic neuropathy may predispose patients to arrhythmias. Of clear concern, increased physical activity can precipitate a cardiac event in those with underlying CAD. Recognizing these risks can prompt actions to minimize their impact. Positive actions that are part of exercise programs for

  11. A laboratory exercise in experimental bioimmuration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankiewicz, C.

    1998-01-01

    A paleobiologic laboratory exercise using lunch meat, cheeses, and condiments provides a means for studying a method of fossil preservation called "bioimmuration." The exercise also has students deal with problems associated with other aspects of taphonomy, taxonomy, and paleoecology.

  12. Morning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…

  13. Exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  14. Prescriptive Exercise for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscopo, John

    1985-01-01

    In addition to physical benefits, exercise also provides a natural way to sustain mental alertness in the aging individual by supplying oxygen to the brain. A table focuses on 10 specific health-fitness problems with suggested prescriptive exercises designed to ameliorate the condition. (MT)

  15. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  16. Creater-cizes: Creativity Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Creativity exercises, or creater-cizes, can help camp staff generate ideas and solve problems. Common techniques are brainstorming, story-boarding, analogies and metaphors, association and free association, spinning, and lists. Defines and gives examples of each technique. (SAS)

  17. [Exercise addiction: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Kurimay, Tamás

    2008-01-01

    Exercise in appropriate quantity and of proper quality contributes significantly to the preserve our health. On the contrary, excessive exercise may be harmful to health. The term 'exercise addiction' has been gaining increasing recognition to describe the latter phenomenon. The exact definition of exercise addiction and its potential associations with other disorders is still under study, although according to the authors this phenomenon can be primarily described as a behavioral addiction. Accordingly, exercise addiction, among other behavioral and mental disorders, can be well describe within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum suggested by Hollander (1993). There are several tools used to assess exercise addiction. The authors here present the Hungarian version of the Exercise Dependence Scale (Hausenblas és Downs, 2002) and the Exercise Addiction Inventory (Terry, Szabo és Griffiths, 2004). Exercise addiction has many symptoms in common and also shows a high comorbidity with eating disorders and body image disorders. It may be more closely associated with certain sports but more data is needed to demonstrate this specificity with more certainty. Sel-evaluation problems seem to have a central role in the etiology from a psychological aspect. The relevance of neurohormonal mechanisms is less clear. The authors emphasize the importance of further research on exercise addiction. One important question to be answered is if this disorder is an independent entity to be classified as a distinct clinical disorder or is it rather a subgroup of another disorder.

  18. Special Medical Problems of Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Joan M.

    1987-01-01

    This article addresses the situations in which athletes with special needs and considerations participate in sports. The health problems discussed are diabetes mellitus, exercise-induced asthma, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and epilepsy. (MT)

  19. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    Age and exercise ... to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you have never exercised, ... things you enjoy and stay independent as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also ...

  20. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases. Many teens who play sports have higher self-esteem than their less active pals, and exercise can ... may have a distorted body image and low self-esteem. They may see themselves as overweight or out ...

  1. Exercise Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... lungs. Examples of aerobic exercise include walking, hiking, running, aerobic dance, biking, rowing, swimming, and cross-country ... Brisk walking can burn as many calories as running, but it is less likely to cause injuries ...

  2. Exercise response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Michel, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bicycle ergometer and a graded stress protocol were used to conduct exercise stress tests for the Apollo project. The graded exercise tests permitted a progressive evaluation of physiological control system response and provided a better understanding of safe stress limits; heart rate was used for determining stress levels. During each test, workload, heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas exchange (oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and minute volume) measurements were made. The results are presented and discussed.

  3. Exercise London: a disaster exercise involving numerous casualties

    PubMed Central

    Theoret, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A large-scale disaster exercise was conducted to assess how one large community would handle such a situation — particularly, how it would deal with 150 casualties. The planning, undertaken by a subcommittee composed of representatives of all resource groups in the city, took more than a year. The deficiencies of the disaster plan detected during the exercise, which included a lack of trained personnel and various problems of communication, are now being corrected. PMID:1260617

  4. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  5. Exercise-induced asthma

    MedlinePlus

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  6. Exercise and Posture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info For Teens Message Boards & Forums Donate Shop Exercise & Posture About Spondylitis / Exercise & Posture Overview For The ... Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ...

  7. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  8. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Divisions Home Health Insights Exercise Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  9. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  10. Budget Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clowes, Darrel A.

    Following a discussion of the factors to be considered in constructing feasible college budgets, an exercise in budget development is presented involving a hypothetical community college with 2,500 full-time equivalent (FTE) students, 500 in developmental education, 750 each in transfer and technical programs, and 500 undecided. Exercise…

  11. [Exercise addiction].

    PubMed

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  12. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  13. Medical Students' Satisfaction and Academic Performance with Problem-Based Learning in Practice-Based Exercises for Epidemiology and Health Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez-Mejías, E.; Amezcua-Prieto, C.; Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Olvera-Porcel, M. C.; Jiménez-Moleón, J. J.; Lardelli Claret, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of problem-based learning (PBL) on university students' satisfaction with and academic performance in a course on epidemiology and social and demographic health. The participants in this interventional study were 529 students (272 in the intervention group and 257 in the control group) enrolled in a…

  14. The health effects of exercising in air pollution.

    PubMed

    Giles, Luisa V; Koehle, Michael S

    2014-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well known. Many of the most accessible forms of exercise, such as walking, cycling, and running often occur outdoors. This means that exercising outdoors may increase exposure to urban air pollution. Regular exercise plays a key role in improving some of the physiologic mechanisms and health outcomes that air pollution exposure may exacerbate. This problem presents an interesting challenge of balancing the beneficial effects of exercise along with the detrimental effects of air pollution upon health. This article summarizes the pulmonary, cardiovascular, cognitive, and systemic health effects of exposure to particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide during exercise. It also summarizes how air pollution exposure affects maximal oxygen consumption and exercise performance. This article highlights ways in which exercisers could mitigate the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure during exercise and draws attention to the potential importance of land use planning in selecting exercise facilities.

  15. NEACRP standard problem exercise on criticality codes for dissolving fissile oxides in acids: A reference method for treating the fuel double heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Santamarina, A.; Smith, H.J. . Div. d'Etudes et de Developpement des Reacteurs); Whitesides, G.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The value of international comparison studies by the OECD-NEA Criticality Working Group has again been demonstrated by this study. Computational methods that had been commonly used for criticality safety calculations and which were shown to be valid for systems for which experimental data existed, were demonstrated to be inadequate when extrapolated to some simulated actual situations. The major source of dispersion in the results in international criticality benchmark calculations on problems treating a fuel double heterogeneity is shown to be the incorrect evaluation of effective resonance cross sections for 238U. A reference calculational method is proposed and used to evaluate theoretically the errors created by various standard methods of calculating the effects of self-shielding of resonance cross sections. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

  17. Work, exercise, and space flight. 3: Exercise devices and protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1989-01-01

    Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.

  18. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  19. Fibromyalgia, Fibro Fog, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Karper, William B; Letvak, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Fibro fog causes serious problems for those with fibromyalgia syndrome. The mechanisms that cause it have not been well identified. Since prescription medication and other conventional medical interventions have proven less than satisfactory, and while waiting for more investigational information, research suggests that exercise might be helpful.

  20. Simulated International Politics: Classroom Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert M.; And Others

    The manual consists of six easy to use simulation exercises for foreign relation classes at the secondary level. The games are designed to teach decision making skills, to sensitize students to the manner in which Americans have come to view the world, to help students understand the need to manage problems before they become too severe, and to…

  1. Exercise in the menopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Shangold, M M

    1990-04-01

    An exercise program for menopausal women that includes both aerobic and resistance training may prevent or relieve problems such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, and depression. The risk of cardiovascular disease increases in women after menopause; in both men and women, regular aerobic exercise may improve cardiorespiratory endurance and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise also prevents some age-related increases in body fat and it elevates resting metabolic rate, which correlates directly with lean body mass. Inactivity, not hormonal change, is the most common cause of obesity. Resistance training can improve muscle strength and bone density. Increases in bone mineral content have been found at lumbar vertebral and distal radial sites in women who participate in exercise programs. Weight-bearing exercise in conjunction with estrogen replacement therapy and calcium supplementation helps to prevent osteoporosis. Many women experience mood changes at menopause. Some of these symptoms are caused by chronic sleep deprivation due to night flushes and respond best to estrogen; others are related to levels of brain chemicals and respond favorably to exercise. PMID:2179791

  2. Exercise in the menopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Shangold, M M

    1990-04-01

    An exercise program for menopausal women that includes both aerobic and resistance training may prevent or relieve problems such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, and depression. The risk of cardiovascular disease increases in women after menopause; in both men and women, regular aerobic exercise may improve cardiorespiratory endurance and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise also prevents some age-related increases in body fat and it elevates resting metabolic rate, which correlates directly with lean body mass. Inactivity, not hormonal change, is the most common cause of obesity. Resistance training can improve muscle strength and bone density. Increases in bone mineral content have been found at lumbar vertebral and distal radial sites in women who participate in exercise programs. Weight-bearing exercise in conjunction with estrogen replacement therapy and calcium supplementation helps to prevent osteoporosis. Many women experience mood changes at menopause. Some of these symptoms are caused by chronic sleep deprivation due to night flushes and respond best to estrogen; others are related to levels of brain chemicals and respond favorably to exercise.

  3. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Moderate physical activity can ease stress that impairs memory, study suggests To use the sharing features on ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Excessive stress can lead to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can ...

  4. Learn to love exercise

    MedlinePlus

    Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...

  5. Rotator cuff exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Shoulder exercises ... A key part in your recovery is doing exercises to make the muscles and tendons in your ... for everyday tasks or sports activities Before doing exercises at home, ask your doctor or physical therapist ...

  6. Diet and Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested in covering the latest ... Health Statistics concludes that 35 percent of adults exercise regularly (more than 6 of 10 don’t), ...

  7. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  8. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  9. Emergency exercise methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Klimczak, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Competence for proper response to hazardous materials emergencies is enhanced and effectively measured by exercises which test plans and procedures and validate training. Emergency exercises are most effective when realistic criteria is used and a sequence of events is followed. The scenario is developed from pre-determined exercise objectives based on hazard analyses, actual plans and procedures. The scenario should address findings from previous exercises and actual emergencies. Exercise rules establish the extent of play and address contingencies during the exercise. All exercise personnel are assigned roles as players, controllers or evaluators. These participants should receive specialized training in advance. A methodology for writing an emergency exercise plan will be detailed.

  10. Exercise Versus +Gz Acceleration Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, J. M.; Knapp, C. F.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Decreased working capacity and "orthostatic" intolerance are two major problems for astronauts during and after landing from spaceflight in a return vehicle. The purpose was to test the hypotheses that (1) supine-passive-acceleration training, supine-interval-exercise plus acceleration training, and supine exercise plus acceleration training will improve orthostatic tolerance (OT) in ambulatory men; and that (2) addition of aerobic exercise conditioning will not influence this enhanced OT from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven untrained men (24-38 yr) underwent 3 training regimens (30 min/d x 5d/wk x 3wk on the human-powered centrifuge - HPC): (a) Passive acceleration (alternating +1.0 Gz to 50% Gzmax); (b) Exercise acceleration (alternating 40% - 90% V02max leg cycle exercise plus 50% of HPCmax acceleration); and (c) Combined intermittent exercise-acceleration at 40% to 90% HPCmax. Maximal supine exercise workloads increased (P < 0.05) by 8.3% with Passive, by 12.6% with Exercise, and by 15.4% with Combined; but maximal V02 and HR were unchanged in all groups. Maximal endurance (time to cessation) was unchanged with Passive, but increased (P < 0.05) with Exercise and Combined. Resting pre-tilt HR was elevated by 12.9% (P < 0.05) only after Passive training, suggesting that exercise training attenuated this HR response. All resting pre-tilt blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were not different pre- vs. post-training. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and HR were increased (P < 0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training attenuated the increased Passive tilt tolerance. Resting (pre-tilt) and post-tilt cardiac R-R interval, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and cardiac output were all uniformly reduced (P < 0.05) while peripheral resistance was uniformly increased (P < 0.05) pre-and post-training for the three regimens indicating no effect of any training regimen on those cardiovascular

  11. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children and adolescents with asthma who report symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Benny L; Fiorino, Elizabeth K; Matta-Arroyo, Esther; Needleman, Joshua P

    2006-11-01

    Patients with asthma often report symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. We performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing to establish the cause of exercise limitation in patients with asthma, under treatment, who reported symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Ten of the 42 patients meeting criteria for inclusion in our study (24%) developed exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Exercise limitation without exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was found in both obese and non-obese patients, suggesting that poor fitness is a problem independent of body habitus. Including cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the management of children with suspected exercise-induced bronchoconstriction would provide a better understanding of the etiology of their symptoms and facilitate more appropriate treatment.

  12. Exercise countermeasures for spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a physiological basis for the use of exercise as a weightlessness countermeasure, outline special considerations for the development of exercise countermeasures, review and evaluate exercise used during space flight, and provide new approaches and concepts for the implementation of novel exercise countermeasures for future space flight. The discussion of the physiological basis for countermeasures examines maximal oxygen uptake, blood volume, metabolic responses to work, muscle function, bone loss, and orthostatic instability. The discussion of considerations for exercise prescriptions during space flight includes operational considerations, type of exercise, fitness considerations, age and gender, and psychological considerations. The discussion of exercise currently used in space flight examines cycle ergometry, the treadmill, strength training devices, electrical stimulation, and the Penguin suit worn by Russian crews. New approaches to exercise countermeasures include twin bicycles, dynamic resistance exercisers, maximal exercise effects, grasim (gravity simulators), and the relationship between exercise and LBNP. PMID:11541470

  13. Headaches and exercise.

    PubMed

    McCrory, P

    2000-09-01

    Exercise-related headache is one of the most common medical problems affecting the modern-day athlete. Despite the high prevalence of headache in community populations, the epidemiology of sports-related headache is unclear. In certain collision sports, up to 50% of athletes report regular headaches as a consequence of their athletic participation. The classification of the different types of sport-related headache by the International Headache Society (IHS) and in previously published articles does not adequately encompass the clinical problem faced by team physicians. Confusion exists where terms such as 'effort headache' and 'exertional headache' may be used to describe similar entities. In this review, the specific headache entities discussed include benign exertional headache, effort headache, acute post-traumatic headache and cervicogenic headache. For the sports physician, an understanding of the variety of specific headache syndromes that occur with particular sports is necessary for everyday clinical practice. This article reviews the common exercise-related headache syndromes and attempts to provide a framework for their overall management. Team physicians also need to be cognisant that many of the standard preparations used to treat headaches may be banned drugs under International Olympic Committee (IOC) rules. PMID:10999425

  14. GREECE--SELECTED PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTONFFY, ANDREA PONTECORVO; AND OTHERS

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE IS PRESENTED FOR A 10-WEEK STUDY OF ANCIENT GREEK CIVILIZATION AT THE 10TH-GRADE LEVEL. TEACHING MATERIALS FOR THE UNIT INCLUDE (1) PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES DEALING WITH THE PERIOD FROM THE BRONZE AGE THROUGH THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD, (2) GEOGRAPHY PROBLEMS, AND (3) CULTURAL MODEL PROBLEM EXERCISES. THOSE CONCEPTS WITH WHICH…

  15. Exercise Is Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrick, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

  16. Kegel Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kegel Exercise Tips Page Content What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

  17. Learning While Exercising for Science Education in Augmented Reality among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Kuei-Fang; Chen, Nian-Shing; Huang, Shih-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Because of a shortage of physical exercise, concerns about adolescents have recently been raised in Taiwan. In educational environments where student exercise has been limited by scheduling constraints and the lack of physical exercise has become a vital problem, "learning while exercising" may be part of a possible solution. This study developed…

  18. [Diabetes mellitus and exercise].

    PubMed

    Yoh, Kousei

    2006-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most important life-style related diseases. As for the type 2 diabetes mellitus in particular, lack of exercise has a large influence on the onset and disease progress. We can improve glucose tolerance by exercising. Exercise is the most important fundamental treatment in diabetes mellitus. Continuation and safety become important to let exercise therapy succeed. It is important with a diabetic that a lot of patients without exercise habit should start to gain exercise habit. When we expect an exercise effect, we should take consideration of intensity and volume in exercise for performing. We should consider each contraindication matter even if we put it to have many complications with a diabetic when we perform exercise therapy. A case-by-case exercise treatment in diabetic patient is required.

  19. Eccentric exercise testing and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    1994-01-01

    Some researchers and practitioners have touted the benefits of including eccentric exercise in strength training programs. However, others have challenged its use because they believe that eccentric actions are dangerous and lead to injuries. Much of the controversy may be based on a lack of understanding of the physiology of eccentric actions. This review will present data concerning eccentric exercise in strength training, the physiological characteristics of eccentric exercise, and the possible stimulus for strength development. Also a discussion of strength needs for extended exposure to microgravity will be presented. Not only is the use of eccentric exercise controversial, but the name itself is fraught with problems. The correct pronunciation is with a hard 'c' so that the word sounds like ekscentric. The confusion in pronunciation may have been prevented if the spelling that Asmussen used in 1953, excentric, had been adopted. Another problem concerns the expressions used to describe eccentric exercise. Commonly used expressions are negatives, eccentric contractions, lengthening contractions, resisted muscle lengthenings, muscle lengthening actions, and eccentric actions. Some of these terms are cumbersome (i.e., resisted muscle lengthenings), one is slang (negatives), and another is an oxymoron (lengthening contractions). Only eccentric action is appropriate and adoption of this term has been recommended by Cavanagh. Despite the controversy that surrounds eccentric exercise, it is important to note that these types of actions play an integral role in normal daily activities. Eccentric actions are used during most forms of movement, for example, in walking when the foot touches the ground and the center of mass is decelerated and in lowering objects, such as placing a bag of groceries in the car.

  20. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-12-31

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.

  1. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction. PMID:24409425

  2. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction. PMID:24409425

  3. Older women and exercise: theory of planned behavior beliefs.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Maas, Meridean L

    2003-01-01

    Despite well-documented benefits of exercise, aging women remain largely sedentary. Further understanding of beliefs associated with exercise could result in more-effective public health interventions to increase exercise in this vulnerable population. This study examined the relationships between theory of planned behavior constructs and exercise behavior and exercise intention in older women. Constructs from the theory of planned behavior (behavioral beliefs, perceived control beliefs, and normative beliefs) were examined in a sample of 225 women aged 65 and older. Exercise was measured with the Baecke Physical Activity Scale. All women were interviewed, to prevent literacy and vision problems from hampering participation. Significant predictors of exercise behavior were perceived control beliefs and behavioral beliefs. Significant predictors of exercise intentions were perceived control beliefs, behavioral beliefs, and normative beliefs. Specific belief items predicting exercise behavior were that exercise is good for health and that exercise is difficult because of tiredness, as well as the lack of commitment and time. These findings provide partial support for the application of the theory of planned behavior to exercise in older women. The findings suggest that interventions should focus on increasing women's confidence that they can overcome barriers to exercise.

  4. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    than conventional exercise for maintaining size and strength of muscles and bones needs great consideration for further research. These approaches represent a potential solution to the problem of compromising valuable time for exercise that is needed for daily operations.

  5. Exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer.

    PubMed

    Cetinus, E; Uzel, M; Bilgiç, E; Karaoguz, A; Herdem, M

    2004-04-01

    Recurrent pain in the lower leg caused by exercise is a common problem in athletes. The main causes are exercise induced compartment syndrome, periostitis of the tibia, stress fracture, venous diseases, obliterative arterial diseases, and shin splints. Exercise induced compartment syndrome is the least common. A recurrent tightening or tense sensation and aching in anatomically defined compartments is pathognomonic. The symptoms are caused by abnormally high pressure in compartments of the leg during and after exercise. In this report, a case of exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer is described.

  6. Are Criticisms of Exercise Well-Founded?

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    As with many decisions in public health, reasons for the advocacy of vigorous exercise can never be demonstrated by a large-scale, randomized controlled experiment. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence that physicians should be more active in commending regular physical activity to their patients, not only for its impact on mood state and thus perceived health, but also for its value in preventing and treating such common organic conditions as coronary heart disease, hypertension, maturity onset diabetes, and osteoporosis. For these problems, exercise is more effective and has fewer side effects than many alternative forms of therapy. Although some risks from injudicious exercise remain, they have been greatly exaggerated by those opposed to exercise. The advantages of a well-planned regimen (which should be centred on the enhancement of normal daily activity) far outweigh the risks that a musculoskeletal problem may be provoked or worsened by the prescribed activity. PMID:21274252

  7. Myasthenia gravis and endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Bernd Volker; Valero-Burgos, Encarna; Costa, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of a runner with myasthenia gravis who completed an ultra endurance event. Myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disease that usually results in skeletal muscle weakness, which worsens with exercise and strenuous aerobic exercise, is generally contraindicated. Our runner completed a 220-km, 5-day ultramarathon and presented with various symptoms including muscular skeletal weakness, cramps, generalized fatigue, unintelligible speech, involuntary eye and mouth movements, problems swallowing, food lodging in his throat, and problems breathing. Risk factors identified for exacerbations are running in extreme temperatures, prolonged runs (especially a distance of 30 km or more), running uphill, lack of sleep, and stress. The medical team was in the novel situation to look after a runner with myasthenia gravis and needed to be aware of the patient's condition, symptoms, and risk factors to safely care for him.

  8. Chemicals, Exercise and Hyperactivity: A Short Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Geoffrey N.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-two primary school children were evaluated on their problem-solving ability and attention level, immediately following either an aerobic exercise or a passive activity. Results indicated that physical activity of moderate intensity enhanced problem-solving performance; the two hyperactive children improved their ability to stay on task,…

  9. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    MedlinePlus

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... your bones strong and lower your risk of osteoporosis and fractures as you get older. Before you begin an exercise program, talk with your health care provider if: ...

  10. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  11. Kids and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family How Can Families Be ... a Fit Kid Why Exercise Is Cool Cold-Weather Sports Strength Training Weight Management: Strength Training Exercises ( ...

  12. Exercise during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs Exercise During Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Exercise During Pregnancy FAQ119, May 2016 PDF Format ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  13. Exercise After Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs Exercise After Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Exercise After Pregnancy FAQ131, June 2015 PDF Format ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  14. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals ...

  15. Exercise and immunity

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunity. Heavy, long-term exercise (such as marathon running and intense gym training) could actually cause harm. Studies have shown that people who follow a moderately energetic lifestyle, benefit most from starting (and sticking to) an exercise ...

  16. Isometric exercise (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because ...

  17. Exercise for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise and physical activity are good for just about everyone, including older adults. There are four main ... jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

  18. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  19. Exercise and Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every ... children more likely to develop asthma. How does exercise cause asthma symptoms? The symptoms of asthma are ...

  20. Writing Exercises from "Exercise Exchange." Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Charles R., Ed.

    Reflecting current practices in the teaching of writing, the exercises in this compilation were drawn from the journal "Exercise Exchange." The articles are arranged into six sections: sources for writing; prewriting; modes for writing; writing and reading; language, mechanics, and style; and revising, responding, and evaluating. Among the topics…

  1. Problem Analysis: Challenging All Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Katie; Davis, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Garcia and Davis describe problem analysis as the process of examining a given mathematics exercise to find ways in which the problem can be modified and extended to create a richer learning opportunity for students. Students are often reluctant to attempt what they perceive to be higher-order thinking problems, but problem…

  2. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  3. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  4. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  5. Japanese Radio Exercises. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    This unit focuses on Japanese radio exercises which became popular in Japan just after World War II and are still used among students and workers in companies to help raise morale and form group unity. The exercises reflect the general role of exercise in Japanese culture--to serve as a symbol of unity and cooperation among the Japanese, as well…

  6. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  7. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

  8. Exercise, Aging and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stanley P.; Cundiff, David E.

    1988-01-01

    The question of whether or not a lifelong program of exercise actually has a bearing on longevity is discussed. The effects of exercise on the aging process, and the longevity-exercise relationship are reviewed. The conflicting evidence on the subject is presented. (JL)

  9. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  10. Exercise and arthritis. Exercise and the back.

    PubMed

    Liemohn, W

    1990-11-01

    activity; I personally endorse cross-country ski machines such as the NordicTrack (Chaska, Minnesota). The latter provides an excellent opportunity to develop aerobic conditioning without impact; moreover it incorporates the tenets of stabilization training because it is essential that the skier uses the abdominal muscles to brace and stabilize the trunk. Cross-country ski machines do, however, present certain coordination requirements to which not all individuals can adapt readily. In conclusion, although exercise is by no means a panacea, it very well may be nature's elixir that will enable some individuals beset by mechanical problems of the back to assume a more active and enjoyable life. PMID:2087586

  11. Exercise and the microbiota

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Orla; Cronin, Owen; Clarke, Siobhan F; Murphy, Eileen F; Molloy, Micheal G; Shanahan, Fergus; Cotter, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is linked with poor health, most commonly obesity and associated disorders, the corollary being that exercise offers a preventive strategy. However, the scope of exercise biology extends well beyond energy expenditure and has emerged as a great ‘polypill’, which is safe, reliable and cost-effective not only in disease prevention but also treatment. Biological mechanisms by which exercise influences homeostasis are becoming clearer and involve multi-organ systemic adaptations. Most of the elements of a modern lifestyle influence the indigenous microbiota but few studies have explored the effect of increased physical activity. While dietary responses to exercise obscure the influence of exercise alone on gut microbiota, professional athletes operating at the extremes of performance provide informative data. We assessed the relationship between extreme levels of exercise, associated dietary habits and gut microbiota composition, and discuss potential mechanisms by which exercise may exert a direct or indirect influence on gut microbiota. PMID:25800089

  12. Exercise training in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Paul; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Conraads, Viviane M.

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of heart failure (HF) is a growing epidemic that causes a significant socio-economic burden. Despite considerable progress in the management of patients with HF, mortality and morbidity remain a major healthcare concern and frequent hospital admissions jeopardize daily life and social activities. Exercise training is an important adjunct nonpharmacological treatment modality for patients with HF that has proven positive effects on mortality, morbidity, exercise capacity and quality of life. Different training modalities are available to target the problems with which HF patients are faced. It is essential to tailor the prescribed exercise regimen, so that both efficiency and safety are guaranteed. Electrical implanted devices and mechanical support should not exclude patients from exercise training; however, particular precautions and a specialized approach are advised. At least 50% of patients with HF, older than 65 years of age, present with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). Although the study populations included in studies evaluating the effect of exercise training in this population are small, the results are promising and seem to support the idea that exercise training is beneficial for HFPEF patients. Both the short- and especially long-term adherence to exercise training remain a major challenge that can only be tackled by a multidisciplinary approach. Efforts should be directed towards closing the gap between recommendations and the actual implementation of training programmes. PMID:23634278

  13. [Exercise as the cornerstone of cardiovascular prevention].

    PubMed

    Boraita Pérez, Araceli

    2008-05-01

    Lack of physical activity in the general population is a public health problem and is recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of coronary disease. The relative risk of inactivity is similar to that of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Consequently, a sedentary lifestyle is associated with a concurrent increase in cardiovascular disease. Engaging regularly in mild-to-moderate physical exercise results in a range of physiological adaptations that are beneficial for health. Various studies have demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between regular exercise and the risk of coronary heart disease, cardiac events and death. Exercise improves the lipid profile and glycemic control, reduces or prevents hypertension, obesity and stress, and promotes fitness and longevity. However, most evidence for the benefits of exercise comes from observational studies and, although maximum oxygen uptake and the duration of exercise on an exercise stress test are powerful predictors of mortality, there is no agreement on the quantity or intensity of the physical activity needed for primary or secondary prevention. On the other hand, although there is a temporarily increased risk of acute myocardial infarction during exhaustive exercise, the balance of risks and benefits is strongly in favor of the benefits because there is a minimum threshold for the weekly energy expenditure required to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  14. Understanding the role of exercise in health promotion.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Ian

    An inactive lifestyle is associated with poor health. Exercise is an important part of preventative strategies for many chronic conditions. This guided reflection article examines evidence on the role of exercise in preventing weight gain, osteoporosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mental health problems. It aims to enable nurses to make informed recommendations to their patients about the ways in which appropriate exercise can bring health-related benefits.

  15. Effects of endurance exercise on the reproductive system of men: the "exercise-hypogonadal male condition".

    PubMed

    Hackney, A C

    2008-10-01

    An increasing number of investigative research studies point to participation in endurance exercise training as having significant detrimental effects upon reproductive hormonal profiles in men. Specifically, men chronically exposed to this type of exercise training exhibit persistently reduced basal (resting-state) free and total testosterone concentrations without concurrent LH elevations. Men displaying these symptoms have been deemed to exhibit the "exercise-hypogonadal male condition". The exact physiological mechanism inducing the reduction of testosterone in these men is currently unclear, but is postulated to be a dysfunction (or perhaps a readjustment) within the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular regulatory axis. The potential exists for the reduced testosterone concentrations within exercise-hypogonadal men to be disruptive and detrimental to some anabolic-androgenic testosterone- dependent physiological processes. Findings on this point are limited, but do suggest spermatogenesis problems may exist in some cases. Alternatively, reductions in circulating testosterone concentrations could have cardiovascular protective effects and thus be beneficial to the health of these men. Present evidence suggests the exercise-hypogonadal condition is limited to men who have been persistently involved in chronic endurance exercise training for an extended period time (i.e., years), and it is not a highly prevalent occurrence (although, a thorough epidemiological investigation on the topic is lacking in the literature). Many questions regarding the male reproductive endocrine adaptive process to exercise training still remain unanswered, necessitating the need for much further investigation on the topic, especially with respect to the exercise-hypogonadal condition.

  16. Affective response to exercise as a component of exercise motivation: Attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, and temporal stability of intentions

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Bethany M.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2009-01-01

    Problem: A positive affective response is associated with increased participation in voluntary exercise, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well known. Consistent with a Theory of Planned Behaviour perspective, we tested whether affective response to exercise leads to greater motivation in terms of attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and intentions to exercise. We were also specifically interested in whether a positive affective response leads to more temporally stable intentions. Method: Participants (N = 127) self-reported Theory of Planned Behaviour constructs and exercise behavior at baseline and three months later, and provided reports of exercise-related affect during a 30-minute bout of moderate intensity treadmill exercise at baseline. Results: We show that participants who experience greater improvements in positive affect, negative affect and fatigue during exercise tended to report more positive attitudes, exercise self-efficacy and intentions to exercise three months later. Affective response was not predictive of subjective norms. As hypothesized, positive affective response was associated with more stable intentions over time. Conclusions: We conclude that a positive affective response to acute bouts of exercise can aid in building and sustaining exercise motivation over time. PMID:20161385

  17. Waking Up the Storyteller inside Us: Three Writing Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Helena; Levy, Julian

    1993-01-01

    Presents three writing exercises ("quick plots,""fairy tales: traveling," and "what did Shakespeare see when he closed his eyes?") designed to be completed with a group of people. Notes that the exercises can help students create solutions to the problems they run into when writing fiction. (RS)

  18. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 20: Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Reference Materials Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. For the purposes of the gaming exercise, APEX…

  19. Product Bundling and Shared Information Goods: A Pricing Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, William G.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an exercise in which two pricing problems (product bundling and the sharing of digital information goods) can be understood using the same analytical approach. The exercise allows students to calculate the correct numerical answers with relative ease, while the teaching plan demonstrates the importance of the…

  20. Exercises to Accompany Mathematics 301. Curriculum Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    These sample problems, exercises, questions, and projects were compiled to supplement the guide for the Manitoba course Mathematics 301 in order to assist teachers in implementing the program. Arranged according to the modules of the course guide, they are coded to the objectives of the program. Review exercises follow either the subtopics within…

  1. Exercise Counseling--How Physical Educators Can Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthitt, Vicki L.; Harvey, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    To teach students to maintain active lifestyles, physical educators must know what motivates students to exercise. The article discusses factors contributing to youth inactivity, what physical educators can do about the problem, and what research says about exercise motivation and adherence. Six recommendations for physical educators are included.…

  2. The Team Boat Exercise: Enhancing Team Communication Midsemester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Pamela L.; Friedman, Barry A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the Team Boat Exercise, which was developed to provide students with a mechanism for addressing team problems and enhancing team communication midsemester. The inspiration for the exercise came from a video by Prentice Hall, Inc. (2001). Part III of the video, entitled "Corporate Coaching," shows senior staff members from the…

  3. Water exercise in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Katz, V L

    1996-08-01

    Exercise in the water offers several physiological advantages to the pregnant woman. The hydrostatic force of water pushes extravascular fluid into the vascular spaces, producing an increase in central blood volume that may lead to increased uterine blood flow. This force is proportional to the depth of immersion. The increase in blood volume is proportional to the woman's edema. A marked diuresis and natriuresis accompanies the fluid shifts. The buoyancy of water supports the pregnant women. Water is thermoregulating. Studies of pregnant women exercising in the water have shown less fetal heart rate changes in the water than on land in response to exertion. Pregnant women's heart rates and blood pressures during water exercise are lower than on land exercise, reflecting the immersion-induced increase in circulating blood volume. The physiology of water exercise offers some compensation for the physiological changes of exercise on land that may beneficially affect pregnancy.

  4. Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

  5. BLOOD DESTRUCTION DURING EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    Broun, G. O.

    1922-01-01

    The following changes have been demonstrated to take place in the blood of dogs during exercise. 1. An increase in the per cent of cells and hemoglobin in the blood of the jugular vein occurs early in the course of exercise. It probably results from a redistribution of red corpuscles, with an increase in their proportion in the peripheral blood. 2. As exercise is continued, there is a definite increase in plasma volume. 3. A coincident decrease both in the total cell volume and the pigment volume during prolonged exercise suggests that blood destruction then occurs. PMID:19868689

  6. EVA Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The EVA (Extra Vehicular Activity) Exercise Device for evaluation and effectiveness of weightlessness on astronauts during long duration spaceflights, at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California

  7. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris

    2007-01-01

    The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

  8. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Joseph; Wellington, Daniel; Miller, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 34 year-old man who developed exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis after unaccustomed high-intensity exercise. Subclinical rhabdomyolysis is common after heavy exercise, yet it is uncommon for patients to seek medical advice. The presentation is variable and despite potentially life-threatening complications the diagnosis may be easily missed by patients and healthcare professionals. A high-index of suspicion is critical to avoid missing the diagnosis. We summarise the current knowledge, clinical course, complications and management of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis. PMID:27657164

  9. GREMEX update (Goddard research engineering management exercise)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaccaro, M. J.; Denault, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Management simulation techniques offer training in management problems. Exercise was developed to provide experience in research and development project decision making from management rather than technological perspective. Program and documentation have been revised innumerable times in past. Described report is revised version as it exists to date.

  10. Adapted PBL Practical Exercises: Benefits for Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Use was made of adapted problem-based learning (PBL) practical exercises to address the disengagement of apprentices with the existing assembly-style electronic laboratory programme. Apprentices perceived the traditional routines as having little real-world relevance. This detracted from the value and benefit to them of the practical component of…

  11. How Interviewers' Stereotypes Influence Memory: An Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachau, Daniel A.; Hussang, Matt

    1992-01-01

    Because students rarely see themselves as irrational, hateful, or insecure, they tend to believe that stereotypes are not their problem. This article describes an exercise that helps students recognize their own racial biases and understand the influence of stereotypes on memory. Because stereotypes facilitate the processing and recall of…

  12. An Exercise in Vehicle Kinematics and Energetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Solomon; Gluck, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We physics teachers are forever in search of real-life applications of the theoretical concepts we teach. In mechanics we often utilize vehicle motion exercises, yet most textbook problems involving these are rather tame and deal with constant acceleration. What often captures the imagination of students is the actual performance of cars they…

  13. Exercises in Drawing and Utilizing Free-Body Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kurt

    1999-01-01

    Finds that students taking algebra-based introductory physics have difficulty with one- and two-body problems in particle mechanics. Provides graded exercises for drawing and utilizing free-body diagrams. (CCM)

  14. Exercise May Help People Who Already Have Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Exercise May Help People Who Already Have Memory Loss But effects only lasted as long as ... 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older people who have memory and thinking problems may get a slight benefit ...

  15. An Interactive Exercise To Learn Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Organelle Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klionsky, Daniel J.; Tomashek, John J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a cooperative, interactive problem-solving exercise for studying eukaryotic cell structure and function. Highlights the dynamic aspects of movement through the cell. Contains 15 references. (WRM)

  16. Estimated Muscle Loads During Squat Exercise in Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Christopher D.; Kim, Brandon T.; Li, Zhao; DeWitt, John K.; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass in microgravity is one of the primary factors limiting long-term space flight. NASA researchers have developed a number of exercise devices to address this problem. The most recent is the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), which is currently used by astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) to emulate typical free-weight exercises in microgravity. ARED exercise on the ISS is intended to reproduce Earth-level muscle loads, but the actual muscle loads produced remain unknown as they cannot currently be measured directly. In this study we estimated muscle loads experienced during squat exercise on ARED in microgravity conditions representative of Mars, the moon, and the ISS. The estimates were generated using a subject-specific musculoskeletal computer model and ARED exercise data collected on Earth. The results provide insight into the capabilities and limitations of the ARED machine.

  17. Stay active and exercise - arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your overall health and sense of well-being. Exercise keeps your muscles strong and increases your range ... Water exercises may be the best exercise for your arthritis. Swimming laps, water aerobics, or even just walking in ...

  18. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  19. Insulin therapy and exercise.

    PubMed

    Kourtoglou, Georgios I

    2011-08-01

    Medical nutrition therapy and physical exercise are the cornerstones of the diabetes management. Patients with type 1 DM always need exogenous insulin administration, recently available in the form of insulin analogs. In type 2 DM, characterized by increased insulin resistance and progressive decline of the beta-cell function, various antidiabetic medications are used. Most of the subjects with type 2 DM will finally need insulin. The main site of insulin action is the skeletal muscle, while the liver is the main site of glucose storage in the form of glycogen. With the modern diabetes therapies it is possible to rapidly reach and maintain normoglycemia in both types of DM but with the cost of higher incidence of hypoglycemia, especially related to exercise. Regular physical exercise causes a lot of beneficial effects in healthy as well as diabetic subjects of all age groups. In type 1 DM physical exercise is a fundamental element for both physical and mental development. In type 2 DM it has a main role in diabetes control. The increased hepatic glucose production and the increased muscular glucose uptake during exercise are closely interrelated in all exercise intensities. In diabetes mellitus there is a disturbed energy substrate use during exercise leading to either hypo- or hyperglycemia. The influence of low or moderate intensity aerobic exercise on diabetes control has been well studied. The inappropriately high insulinemia combined with the low glucose levels can lead to severe hypoglycemia if proper measures are not taken. Prolonged exercise can also predispose to decreased glucose counter regulation. It is better for the type 1 diabetic subject to postpone the exercise session in very high (>300 mg/dl) or very low (<70 mg/dl) BG levels. Every insulin treated subject is recommended to be checked for any existing diabetic complication before the start of every exercise program. Glucose measurement with glucose meters or sometimes with Continuous Glucose

  20. Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…

  1. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... you finish doing all 4 exercises, put an ice pack on your shoulder for 20 minutes. It's best to use a plastic bag with ice cubes in it or a bag of frozen peas, not gel packs. If you do all 4 exercises 3 to ...

  2. Exercise and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas W.

    This book paints a broad picture of the role of exercise in children's health and provides information for the physician and other health care providers on healthful forms of physical activity for children. The book is divided into three parts: (1) "Developmental Exercise Physiology: The Physiological Basis of Physical Fitness in Children"; (2)…

  3. Exercise for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents can set a good example by being active themselves. Exercising together can be fun for everyone. Competitive sports can help kids stay fit. Walking or biking to school, dancing, bowling and yoga are some other ways for kids to get exercise.

  4. Exercise through Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  5. Lab Exercises for Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.; And Others

    This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

  6. Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool (ESPRIT) - A Compact Stereo-based Motion Capture Solution For Exercise Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mun Wai

    2015-01-01

    Crew exercise is important during long-duration space flight not only for maintaining health and fitness but also for preventing adverse health problems, such as losses in muscle strength and bone density. Monitoring crew exercise via motion capture and kinematic analysis aids understanding of the effects of microgravity on exercise and helps ensure that exercise prescriptions are effective. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed ESPRIT to monitor exercise activities, detect body markers, extract image features, and recover three-dimensional (3D) kinematic body poses. The system relies on prior knowledge and modeling of the human body and on advanced statistical inference techniques to achieve robust and accurate motion capture. In Phase I, the company demonstrated motion capture of several exercises, including walking, curling, and dead lifting. Phase II efforts focused on enhancing algorithms and delivering an ESPRIT prototype for testing and demonstration.

  7. Exercise and weight control.

    PubMed

    Stefanick, M L

    1993-01-01

    Several important questions need to be answered to increase the likelihood that exercise will be accepted by the millions in the population who are obese. What is the minimum exercise "dose" (intensity, duration, frequency) and what is the optimal mode to bring about substantial fat weight loss, with minimal loss of lean mass? What is the best nutritional plan to optimize fat utilization during exercise, without impairing performance or loss of lean mass? Which diet and exercise programs maximally increase utilization of centrally deposited fat and how can hyperplastic obesity best be treated? Also of interest is the potential role of resistance exercise for weight loss, and the predictors of weight loss success. For instance, do individuals with gynoid obesity really differ from individuals with android obesity in their utilization and loss of body fat during exercise? The potential advantages of exercise include: stimulation of fat as opposed to carbohydrate oxidation; increased energy use during the exercise itself and in the postexercise period; protection of lean body mass; possible reversal of the diet-induced suppression of BMR; and other health benefits. Among other parameters, the effectiveness of exercise on weight loss may be influenced by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise bouts and the duration of the training program, the nature of the excess fat stores, i.e., whether the person has obesity characterized by hyperplastic or hypertrophic adipose tissue or central (with large-intra-abdominal depot) or peripheral obesity, the composition and caloric content of the diet, and behavioral aspects that affect adherence to the program. With respect to this latter concern, even if a person has been very successful at weight loss in a metabolic ward or intensive program, he/she must eventually return to the outside world and figure out for himself/herself how to eat real food and/or maintain an activity level that promotes weight maintenance

  8. Exercise and cancer recovery.

    PubMed

    Visovsky, Constance; Dvorak, Colleen

    2005-05-01

    Disease and cancer treatment-related side effects such as decreased energy level, muscle weakness, and declines in functional status and body mass have been well documented. There is evidence that exercise, such as low intensity aerobics walking, Tai Chi, or cycling, results in an overall decrease in fatigue levels over the course of cancer treatment. Additionally, there is evidence that regular physical activity or exercise can decrease emotional stress, blood pressure, the duration of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pain. Exercise also has been shown to increase quality of life and improve the maximal oxygen uptake during exertion, sleep patterns, and cognition. However, the majority of studies of exercise and cancer have been conducted with women with early stage breast cancer, limiting the generalizability of these studies to other cancer populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of the extant research evidence about th e benefits of exercise related to cancer recovery. PMID:15977980

  9. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Kegel exercises ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women with urinary stress incontinence Men with urinary stress incontinence after prostate surgery People who have fecal ...

  10. [Exercise-induced asthma].

    PubMed

    Dinh Xuan, A T; Marsac, J; Lockhart, A

    1988-12-10

    Exercise-induced asthma only differs from common asthma in its causative factor. It is a typical asthmatic attack which follows a strenuous and continuous physical exercise lasting 5 to 10 minutes, most often in cold and dry weather. The prevalence of exercise-induced asthma has not yet been firmly established; its pathophysiological mechanisms are still debated, and the respective roles of heat and water losses by the airways are not clearly defined. However, the influence of the type of exercise as a precipitating factor of exercise-induced asthma is now well-known. All things being equal, swimming generates less asthma than running and cycling. This enables the subjects to be directed towards the most suitable sports and encouraged to improve their physical fitness. Drug treatment of exercise-induced asthma must preferentially be preventive; it relies on cromoglycate and beta-2 adrenergic agonists, the latter being also capable of treating acute exercise-induced bronchial obstruction. Education of the patients and their family is also important.

  11. Exercise and Inherited Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Christopher C; Laksman, Zachary W M; Mellor, Gregory; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Krahn, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an apparently healthy individual is a tragedy that prompts a series of investigations to identify the cause of death and to prevent SCD in potentially at-risk family members. Several inherited channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, including long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular cardiomyopathy (CPVT), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are associated with exercise-related SCD. Exercise restriction has been a historical mainstay of therapy for these conditions. Syncope and cardiac arrest occur during exercise in LQTS and CPVT because of ventricular arrhythmias, which are managed with β-blockade and exercise restriction. Exercise may provoke hemodynamic or ischemic changes in HCM, leading to ventricular arrhythmias. ARVC is a disease of the desmosome, whose underlying disease process is accelerated by exercise. On this basis, expert consensus has erred on the side of caution, recommending rigorous exercise restriction for all inherited arrhythmias. With time, as familiarity with inherited arrhythmia conditions has increased and patients with milder forms of disease are diagnosed, practitioners have questioned the historical rigorous restrictions advocated for all. This change has been driven by the fact that these are often children and young adults who wish to lead active lives. Recent evidence suggests a lower risk of exercise-related arrhythmias in treated patients than was previously assumed, including those with previous symptoms managed with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. In this review, we emphasize shared decision making, monitored medical therapy, individual and team awareness of precautions and emergency response measures, and a more permissive approach to recreational and competitive exercise.

  12. [Asthma and exercise].

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J

    2002-09-01

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is defined as the clinical occurrence of shortness of breath, cough or wheeze that occurs typically 5-15 minutes after the cessation of the exercise. In most patients with EIA, bronchoconstriction is followed by a refractory period, during which repeated exertion causes less bronchoconstriction. The occurrence of this type of asthma is influenced by the intensity and the duration of exercise. It is now generally believed that EIA affects all patients with asthma if challenged with exercise of sufficient intensity. The estimate prevalence varies from 7 to 15% in the general population. EIA appears also to affect 3-14% of athletes. It is now clear that hyperventilation and hypertonicity of airway-lining fluid provide the stimulus for EIA with release of constrictor mediators. Recently, incidence of new diagnoses of asthma is associated with heavy exercise in communities with high concentrations of ozone, thus, air pollution and outdoor exercise could contribute to the development of asthma in children. Beta-agonists and/or disodium cromoglycate remain the preferred first-line therapy for EIA but now antileukotrienes provide an attractive therapeutic alternative. General recommendations can help reduce its severity: warm-up; breath through mask when exercising in cold, dry conditions; in recent years some reports have suggested that training and conditioning may help athletes and non-athletes with asthma have fewer symptoms after exercise, increase the threshold of exercise necessary to induce airway obstruction and finally improve their well-being. Scuba diving stays an absolute contra-indication if asthma.

  13. Exercise and Inherited Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Christopher C; Laksman, Zachary W M; Mellor, Gregory; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Krahn, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an apparently healthy individual is a tragedy that prompts a series of investigations to identify the cause of death and to prevent SCD in potentially at-risk family members. Several inherited channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, including long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular cardiomyopathy (CPVT), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are associated with exercise-related SCD. Exercise restriction has been a historical mainstay of therapy for these conditions. Syncope and cardiac arrest occur during exercise in LQTS and CPVT because of ventricular arrhythmias, which are managed with β-blockade and exercise restriction. Exercise may provoke hemodynamic or ischemic changes in HCM, leading to ventricular arrhythmias. ARVC is a disease of the desmosome, whose underlying disease process is accelerated by exercise. On this basis, expert consensus has erred on the side of caution, recommending rigorous exercise restriction for all inherited arrhythmias. With time, as familiarity with inherited arrhythmia conditions has increased and patients with milder forms of disease are diagnosed, practitioners have questioned the historical rigorous restrictions advocated for all. This change has been driven by the fact that these are often children and young adults who wish to lead active lives. Recent evidence suggests a lower risk of exercise-related arrhythmias in treated patients than was previously assumed, including those with previous symptoms managed with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. In this review, we emphasize shared decision making, monitored medical therapy, individual and team awareness of precautions and emergency response measures, and a more permissive approach to recreational and competitive exercise. PMID:26927864

  14. Exercise physiology in COPD.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, R; Berton, E; Huertas, A; Laveneziana, P; Palange, P

    2003-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms contribute to exercise limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The ability to increase ventilation during exercise is reduced; the more advanced the disease, the more impaired the exercise tolerance is. However, factors other than ventilatory limitation play an important role in reducing the exercise capacity in COPD. Data implicating peripheral muscle atrophy and muscle weakness as cofactors have been reported in individuals with advanced disease. At this stage daily activities are curtailed to avoid exertional respiratory discomfort. Recent studies have demonstrated that the muscle aerobic capacity of stable hypoxemic COPD patients is impaired; oxygen uptake (V'O2) kinetics and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies have shown that these patients rely heavily on non-aerobic energy sources even during moderate, sustained workloads. Finally, early occurrence of metabolic acidosis has been demonstrated in patients with mild to severe COPD during exercise. Inadequate tissue oxygenation appears to result from a defect in peripheral oxygen utilization rather than from a reduction in O2 bulk flow. Peripheral factors may include: a) impaired diffusive conductance for O2 between red cells and mitochondria; b) heterogeneous distribution of O2 bulk flow within the exercising muscle fibers; c) inertia of the oxidative processes at the cellular level; d) changes in distribution of muscle fibers, e) reduction in muscle aerobic enzymes; and f) poor nutritional status. Since muscle dysfunction has an important role in the development of exercise intolerance, physical rehabilitation is more and more used as part of the treatment of COPD. The aim of this review is to briefly discuss current views on the mechanisms responsible for the reduced ability to exercise and the rationale for exercise rehabilitation in COPD patients. PMID:14635502

  15. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Taro; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old man presented with acute flushing, pruritus and warmth followed by collapse after vigorous exercise in a gymnasium. After resting for 30 min and receiving a rapid infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride, he was finally stable. He admitted that he had a similar experience 5 years earlier during exercise. Based on the patient's history, his symptoms were attributed to exercise-induced anaphylaxis. None of his episodes was associated with any suspicious co-triggers of anaphylaxis. He was successfully discharged from hospital without any complications after receiving guidance on how to prevent this condition. PMID:22669856

  16. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences.

  17. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Taro; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old man presented with acute flushing, pruritus and warmth followed by collapse after vigorous exercise in a gymnasium. After resting for 30 min and receiving a rapid infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride, he was finally stable. He admitted that he had a similar experience 5 years earlier during exercise. Based on the patient's history, his symptoms were attributed to exercise-induced anaphylaxis. None of his episodes was associated with any suspicious co-triggers of anaphylaxis. He was successfully discharged from hospital without any complications after receiving guidance on how to prevent this condition.

  18. Labeling exercise fat-burning increases post-exercise food consumption in self-imposed exercisers.

    PubMed

    Fenzl, Navina; Bartsch, Katja; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2014-10-01

    The goal of the study was to determine whether the label given to an exercise bout affects immediate post-exercise food intake. The authors hypothesized that explicitly labeling an exercise bout 'fat-burning' (vs. labeling an exercise bout 'endurance' exercise) would increase post-exercise food intake in individuals who self-impose physical activity, because they are more likely to see the label as signal of activated fat metabolism and license to reward oneself. No such effect was expected for individuals who do not self-impose physical activity but consider exercise enjoyable. Ninety-six participants took part in an experiment manipulating the label given to an exercise bout (fat-burning exercise or endurance exercise) between participants. They cycled on an ergometer for 20 minutes at a consistent work rate (55-65% of predicted VO2 max) and were offered ad libitum food (i.e., pretzel pieces) after the exercise bout. The results showed that self-imposed exercisers, that is, individuals with low behavioral regulation and individuals with high psychological distress, high fatigue levels, and low positive well-being when exercising, ate more food after exercise when the bout was labeled fat-burning exercise rather than endurance exercise. The results help develop health interventions, indicating that the tendency to compensate for energy expended following physical activity depends on both the label given to the exercise bout and the degree to which individuals self-impose physical activity.

  19. Exercise and oxidative stress methodology: a critique.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, R R

    2000-08-01

    Historically, exercise physiologists' interest in oxygen has primarily centered on the problem of oxygen consumption. However, the interest of the general scientific community in oxygen-centered radicals has raised awareness of the oxygen paradox and has motivated investigators to question whether exercise-stimulated "overconsumption" of oxygen might induce an oxidative stress and pose some risk to biological systems. In recent years, a considerable amount of research has demonstrated that radicals are capable of damaging a vast array of biological targets. Unfortunately, the work related to oxidative stress and antioxidants subsequent to exercise has been narrow in scope. This paper provides a brief review of the shortcomings of the present state of knowledge in this discipline and outlines topics requiring attention. PMID:10919973

  20. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  1. National Survey of Water Exercise Participants. D.C., July 5-8, 1988). Papers by U.S.S.R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midtlyng, Joanna; Nelson, C. Van Cleave

    This survey generated a profile of a typical water exercise participant. Data include: (1) subject's medical clearance for water exercise, swimming ability, physical and related problems, reasons for participation and perceived psycho-physical benefits of water exercise; (2) techniques of monitoring water exercise intensity: kinds of flotation…

  2. Exercise and activity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... basketball and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with ... biking. Group sports are another option, such as soccer, football, basketball, karate, or tennis. Choose an exercise ...

  3. Diabetes and exercise (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... function throughout the day. By maintaining a healthy diet and sufficient exercise, a person with type 2 diabetes may be able to keep their blood sugar in the normal non-diabetic range without medicine.

  4. [Diabetes, sport and exercise].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Hermann

    2011-05-01

    Physical activity is an essential element in the therapy of type 2 Diabetes mellitus. For physicians and therapists, it is of vital importance to motivate each patient to include exercise into routine daily life. Individual therapy plans are, thus, required.

  5. Getting Exercise in College

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... hours of studying burn mental energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. ...

  6. Exercise and Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... supporting your weight against gravity. This promotes bone density and protects against osteoporosis. What does cardiovascular exercise ... doing different activities, such as tennis and swimming. Water-based activities, such as swimming or water aerobics, ...

  7. Exercise clothing and shoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a reflective belt or vest. Protect yourself from Lyme disease if you exercise in wooded areas. Wear long sleeves and pants and tuck your pants into your socks. Or, use an insect repellant containing DEET or permethrin.

  8. Exercises in Applied Geochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackleton, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews exercises in the analysis of samples and interpretations of results from the geochemical survey portion of a three year teacher education program in geology presented at Salisbury College of Advanced Education. (SL)

  9. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Hand and Finger Exercises  Place your palm flat on a table. Raise and lower your fingers one ... times for ____ seconds.  Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  10. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of EIB. Avoid exercising in extremely cold temperatures or when you have a respiratory infection, such ... by T Sinha, MD; AK David, MD (American Family Physician February 15, 2003, http://www.aafp.org/ ...

  11. Exercise-induced purpura.

    PubMed

    Leung, A K; Grant, R M; Truscott, R

    1990-09-01

    A 11-year-old boy developed purpura on the back and chest on more than 5 occasions following vigorous exercise. This eruption should be added to the list of differential diagnosis of the dermatosis experienced by athletes.

  12. Emerging Relationships between Exercise, Sensory Nerves, and Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Michael A.; Kluding, Patricia M.; Wright, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of physical activity as a therapeutic tool is rapidly growing in the medical community and the role exercise may offer in the alleviation of painful disease states is an emerging research area. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex mechanism, which clinicians and researchers are continually working to better understand. The limited therapies available for alleviation of these pain states are still focused on pain abatement and as opposed to treating underlying mechanisms. The continued research into exercise and pain may address these underlying mechanisms, but the mechanisms which exercise acts through are still poorly understood. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of how the peripheral nervous system responds to exercise, the relationship of inflammation and exercise, and experimental and clinical use of exercise to treat pain. Although pain is associated with many conditions, this review highlights pain associated with diabetes as well as experimental studies on nerve damages-associated pain. Because of the global effects of exercise across multiple organ systems, exercise intervention can address multiple problems across the entire nervous system through a single intervention. This is a double-edged sword however, as the global interactions of exercise also require in depth investigations to include and identify the many changes that can occur after physical activity. A continued investment into research is necessary to advance the adoption of physical activity as a beneficial remedy for neuropathic pain. The following highlights our current understanding of how exercise alters pain, the varied pain models used to explore exercise intervention, and the molecular pathways leading to the physiological and pathological changes following exercise intervention.

  13. Emerging Relationships between Exercise, Sensory Nerves, and Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Michael A; Kluding, Patricia M; Wright, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of physical activity as a therapeutic tool is rapidly growing in the medical community and the role exercise may offer in the alleviation of painful disease states is an emerging research area. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex mechanism, which clinicians and researchers are continually working to better understand. The limited therapies available for alleviation of these pain states are still focused on pain abatement and as opposed to treating underlying mechanisms. The continued research into exercise and pain may address these underlying mechanisms, but the mechanisms which exercise acts through are still poorly understood. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of how the peripheral nervous system responds to exercise, the relationship of inflammation and exercise, and experimental and clinical use of exercise to treat pain. Although pain is associated with many conditions, this review highlights pain associated with diabetes as well as experimental studies on nerve damages-associated pain. Because of the global effects of exercise across multiple organ systems, exercise intervention can address multiple problems across the entire nervous system through a single intervention. This is a double-edged sword however, as the global interactions of exercise also require in depth investigations to include and identify the many changes that can occur after physical activity. A continued investment into research is necessary to advance the adoption of physical activity as a beneficial remedy for neuropathic pain. The following highlights our current understanding of how exercise alters pain, the varied pain models used to explore exercise intervention, and the molecular pathways leading to the physiological and pathological changes following exercise intervention. PMID:27601974

  14. Emerging Relationships between Exercise, Sensory Nerves, and Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Michael A.; Kluding, Patricia M.; Wright, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of physical activity as a therapeutic tool is rapidly growing in the medical community and the role exercise may offer in the alleviation of painful disease states is an emerging research area. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex mechanism, which clinicians and researchers are continually working to better understand. The limited therapies available for alleviation of these pain states are still focused on pain abatement and as opposed to treating underlying mechanisms. The continued research into exercise and pain may address these underlying mechanisms, but the mechanisms which exercise acts through are still poorly understood. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of how the peripheral nervous system responds to exercise, the relationship of inflammation and exercise, and experimental and clinical use of exercise to treat pain. Although pain is associated with many conditions, this review highlights pain associated with diabetes as well as experimental studies on nerve damages-associated pain. Because of the global effects of exercise across multiple organ systems, exercise intervention can address multiple problems across the entire nervous system through a single intervention. This is a double-edged sword however, as the global interactions of exercise also require in depth investigations to include and identify the many changes that can occur after physical activity. A continued investment into research is necessary to advance the adoption of physical activity as a beneficial remedy for neuropathic pain. The following highlights our current understanding of how exercise alters pain, the varied pain models used to explore exercise intervention, and the molecular pathways leading to the physiological and pathological changes following exercise intervention. PMID:27601974

  15. Troponin and exercise.

    PubMed

    Gresslien, T; Agewall, S

    2016-10-15

    Cardiac troponins are the preferred biomarkers in diagnostic of myocardial infarction, but these markers also can rise in response to exercise. Multiple studies have assessed troponins post-exercise, but the results have varied and there have been disagreements about the mechanism of troponin release. The aim of this paper was to review the literature, and to consider factors and mechanisms regarding exercise-induced increase of troponin. 145 studies were found after a search in pubmed and inclusion of additional articles found in the reference list of the first articles. Results showed that troponin rises in 0-100% of subjects after prolonged heavy exercise like marathon, but also after short-term and intermittent exercise like 30min of running and basketball. The variation can be due to factors like intensity, age, training experience, variation in sample size, blood sample timing and troponin assay. The pattern of troponin level post-exercise corresponds to release from the cytosolic compartment of cardiomyocytes. Increased membrane permeability might be caused by production of reactive oxygen species or alterations in calcium, pH, glucose/fat metabolism or in communication between integrins. Other suggested mechanisms are increased cardiovascular stress, inflammation, vasculitis, release of troponin degradation products in "blebs", dehydration, impaired renal clearance and expression of cardiac troponin in skeletal muscle. It can be concluded that both heavy and light exercise may cause elevated troponin, which have to be considered when patient are suspected to have a myocardial infarction. Several factors probably influence post-exercise levels of troponin, but the mechanism of release is most likely physiologic.

  16. Troponin and exercise.

    PubMed

    Gresslien, T; Agewall, S

    2016-10-15

    Cardiac troponins are the preferred biomarkers in diagnostic of myocardial infarction, but these markers also can rise in response to exercise. Multiple studies have assessed troponins post-exercise, but the results have varied and there have been disagreements about the mechanism of troponin release. The aim of this paper was to review the literature, and to consider factors and mechanisms regarding exercise-induced increase of troponin. 145 studies were found after a search in pubmed and inclusion of additional articles found in the reference list of the first articles. Results showed that troponin rises in 0-100% of subjects after prolonged heavy exercise like marathon, but also after short-term and intermittent exercise like 30min of running and basketball. The variation can be due to factors like intensity, age, training experience, variation in sample size, blood sample timing and troponin assay. The pattern of troponin level post-exercise corresponds to release from the cytosolic compartment of cardiomyocytes. Increased membrane permeability might be caused by production of reactive oxygen species or alterations in calcium, pH, glucose/fat metabolism or in communication between integrins. Other suggested mechanisms are increased cardiovascular stress, inflammation, vasculitis, release of troponin degradation products in "blebs", dehydration, impaired renal clearance and expression of cardiac troponin in skeletal muscle. It can be concluded that both heavy and light exercise may cause elevated troponin, which have to be considered when patient are suspected to have a myocardial infarction. Several factors probably influence post-exercise levels of troponin, but the mechanism of release is most likely physiologic. PMID:27420587

  17. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  18. Exercise and cancer.

    PubMed

    Knobf, M Tish; Winters-Stone, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 13.7 million cancer survivors in the United States. Persistent and late effects of cancer therapy have contributed to an increased risk for co-morbid illness and higher all-cause mortality. Physical exercise is a targeted rehabilitative intervention following cancer therapy and a health promotion risk reduction intervention for patients as they transition into survivorship. This chapter provides a brief overview of the research on exercise and cancer survivor outcomes with a specific focus on randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the effects of exercise on body composition and bone health. There were 17 RCT trials that were identified with body composition outcomes. There was no change in weight in 16/17 trials, 4 reported decreases in percent fat mass and 2 reported increases in lean mass. Eight exercise trials were identified with bone outcomes, two of which had pharmacologic comparison arms. These trials demonstrated preservation of bone in the intervention group compared with loss in the usual care or placebo control group. The majority of trials were with breast cancer survivors, the largest survivor group. Many are overweight or obese at diagnosis; weight gain continues to increase after therapy; and treatment is associated with bone loss. The findings of the 25 trials reviewed suggest that exercise maintains weight and bone mass in a high risk population. However, differences in design, measurement of body composition and bone mass and lack of targeted exercise to the specific outcomes warrants additional research to improve the quality of life for survivors.

  19. Exercise, intestinal barrier dysfunction and probiotic supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Frauwallner, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Athletes exposed to high-intensity exercise show an increased occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms like cramps, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, and bleeding. These problems have been associated with alterations in intestinal permeability and decreased gut barrier function. The increased GI permeability, a so-called 'leaky gut', also leads to endotoxemia, and results in increased susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases, due to absorption of pathogens/toxins into tissue and the bloodstream. Key components that determine intestinal barrier function and GI permeability are tight junctions, protein structures located in the paracellular channels between epithelial cells of the intestinal wall. The integrity of tight junctions depends on sophisticated interactions between the gut residents and their expressed substances, the intestinal epithelial cell metabolism and the activities of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Probiotic supplements are an upcoming group of nutraceuticals that could offer positive effects on athlete's gut and entire health. Some results demonstrate promising benefits for probiotic use on the athlete's immune system. There is also evidence that probiotic supplementation can beneficially influence intestinal barrier integrity in acute diseases. With regard to exercise-induced GI permeability problems, there is still a lack of studies with appropriate data and a gap to understand the underlying mechanisms to support such health beneficial statements implicitly. This article refers (i) to exercise-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction, (ii) provides suggestions to estimate increased gut barrier permeability in athletes, and (iii) discusses the potential of probiotic supplementation to counteract an exercise-induced leaky gut. PMID:23075554

  20. Ethics in exercise science research.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2002-01-01

    Ethical evaluation is a vital but sometimes neglected component of research policy in the exercise sciences. This article reviews some issues in human research, with particular reference to studies undertaken by the exercise scientist. The typical composition and functions of the research review committee are examined in the context of individual and institutional ethical norms. In multicentre trials, there are often problems in coordinating ethical approval between institutions. On-going monitoring of research may have value in the detection of fraud. A reduction in the secrecy of committee proceedings would allow a closer auditing of the research review process. Authors need to give more thought to developing appropriate research questions. Scarce resources may be wasted because of inappropriate study design or an inadequate statistical analysis of the results. The costs of any proposed investigation must be weighed carefully against possible benefits. Confidentiality is particularly important when collecting data at the worksite or over the internet. Informed consent should be based on a full disclosure of risks; the participant should be competent to understand the nature and magnitude of these risks, and undue pressure to participate in an experiment must be avoided. The opposition to placebo trials expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki requires careful consideration of the use of control groups, since regular exercise is known to benefit health. If research is conducted in under-developed societies, the standards of treatment of the participants should match those expected in developed societies. The publication of findings must be fair and well balanced; examples of fraud and misconduct continue to be reported. Some journals apparently still publish papers, even if they have not received an initial institutional review. Editors should restore meaning to the word 'author', avoid the bias to a publication of 'positive' results, limit the impact of

  1. Analysis of the Argonne distance tabletop exercise method.

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E. A.; Nieves, L. A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-14

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and evaluate the Argonne Distance Tabletop Exercise (DISTEX) method. DISTEX is intended to facilitate multi-organization, multi-objective tabletop emergency response exercises that permit players to participate from their own facility's incident command center. This report is based on experience during its first use during the FluNami 2007 exercise, which took place from September 19-October 17, 2007. FluNami 2007 exercised the response of local public health officials and hospitals to a hypothetical pandemic flu outbreak. The underlying purpose of the DISTEX method is to make tabletop exercising more effective and more convenient for playing organizations. It combines elements of traditional tabletop exercising, such as scenario discussions and scenario injects, with distance learning technologies. This distance-learning approach also allows playing organizations to include a broader range of staff in the exercise. An average of 81.25 persons participated in each weekly webcast session from all playing organizations combined. The DISTEX method required development of several components. The exercise objectives were based on the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Target Capabilities List. The ten playing organizations included four public health departments and six hospitals in the Chicago area. An extent-of-play agreement identified the objectives applicable to each organization. A scenario was developed to drive the exercise over its five-week life. Weekly problem-solving task sets were designed to address objectives that could not be addressed fully during webcast sessions, as well as to involve additional playing organization staff. Injects were developed to drive play between webcast sessions, and, in some cases, featured mock media stories based in part on player actions as identified from the problem-solving tasks. The weekly 90-minute webcast sessions were discussions among the playing organizations that were

  2. [Therapeutic exercise for patients with chronic low-back pain].

    PubMed

    Grazio, Simeon; Grgurević, Lovorka; Vlak, Tonko; Perić, Porin; Nemčić, Tomislav; Vrbanić, Tea Schurrer Luke; Kadojić, Mira; Gnjidić, Zoja; Grubišić, Frane; Balen, Diana; Vuga, Katarina Lohman; Ćurković, Boždiar

    2014-01-01

    Low Back Pain (LBP) is a major medical and socio-economical problem in the industrialized countries. Exercise therapy is the keystone of conservative treatment for chronic low back pain (CLBP). Numerous randomized trials and clinical practice guidelines have supported that exercise diminishes disability and pain severity while improving fitness and occupational status in patients with CLBP, as well as decrease its recurrence rate. However, there is no significant evidence that one particular type of exercise is clearly more effective than others. Here we present a descriptive review of different types of exercise for therapeutic or prevention purposes in patients with CLBP. Studies suggest that individually tailored, supervised exercise programs are associated with the best outcomes. High quality clinical trials are needed to determine the effectiveness of specific interventions (type, time, intensity and other characteristics) aimed at individuals and/or specific target groups.

  3. Exercise prescription patterns in patients treated with vestibular rehabilitation after concussion

    PubMed Central

    Alsalaheen, Bara A.; Whitney, Susan L.; Mucha, Anne; Morris, Laura O.; Furman, Joseph M.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Individuals with concussion often complain of persistent dizziness and imbalance, and these problems have been treated with vestibular rehabilitation exercises. The purpose of this study is to describe the vestibular rehabilitation exercise prescriptions provided to individuals after concussion. Methods A retrospective chart review of vestibular rehabilitation home exercise programs prescribed by physical therapists for 104 participants who were diagnosed with concussion was conducted. Each of the exercises was classified by exercise type, duration and frequency. Frequency counts of the most common exercise types were recorded. Exercise progression patterns were examined by determining how exercise types were modified from visit to visit. Results Eye-Head Coordination exercises were the most commonly prescribed exercise type (in 95% of participants), followed by Standing Static balance exercises (in 88% of participants), and Ambulation exercises (in 76% of participants). Conclusions Understanding the prescription patterns of expert clinicians may elucidate the vestibular-related impairments of individuals after concussion and may provide a resource for therapists who may be starting vestibular rehabilitation programs for management of individuals with concussion. In order to improve quality of care, future research should be directed to relate outcomes to the exercise prescription patterns. PMID:22786783

  4. Role of exercise in the treatment of alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    MANTHOU, EIRINI; GEORGAKOULI, KALLIOPI; FATOUROS, IOANNIS G.; GIANOULAKIS, CHRISTINA; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS; JAMURTAS, ATHANASIOS Z.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use can cause harmful effects on the human body, which are associated with serious health problems, and it can also lead to the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). There is certain evidence that physical exercise positively affects excessive alcohol use and the associated problems by leading to reduced alcohol intake. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, Medline and Web of Science. The search terms used as keywords were: Addiction, abuse, alcohol use disorders, exercise training, β-endorphin, opioids, brain, ethanol and alcohol. The current study presents the studies that reported on the use of exercise in the treatment of AUDs between 1970 and 2015. The potential psychological and physiological mechanisms that contribute to the action of exercise were also reviewed, highlighting the role of β-endorphin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in AUDs and the possible association among physical activity, the endogenous opioid system and the desire for alcohol. Only 11 studies were identified that refer to the effect of exercise on alcohol consumption and/or the associated outcomes. Six of those studies concluded that exercise may have a positive impact towards alcohol consumption, abstinence rates or the urge to drink. One of those studies also indicated that a bout of exercise affects the endogenous opioids, which may be associated with the urge to drink. Another 3 studies indicated that responses to acute exercise in individuals with AUDs are different compared to those in healthy ones. Generally, despite limited research data and often contradictory results, there is certain early promising evidence for the role of exercise as an adjunctive tool in the treatment of AUDs. Physiological and biochemical parameters that would confirm that exercise is safe for individuals with AUDs should be examined in future studies. PMID:27123244

  5. Diabetes and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Peirce, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, in particular in those at higher risk, and has an important role in reducing the significant worldwide burden of this type of diabetes. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the acute and long term physiological benefits of physical activity, although the precise duration, intensity, and type of exercise have yet to be fully elucidated. However, in type 1 diabetes, the expected improvements in glycaemic control with exercise have not been clearly established. Instead significant physical and psychological benefits of exercise can be achieved while careful education, screening, and planning allow the metabolic, microvascular, and macrovascular risks to be predicted and diminished. 


 PMID:10378067

  6. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities. PMID:25458104

  7. Exercise and gonadal function.

    PubMed

    Elias, A N; Wilson, A F

    1993-10-01

    Exercise is associated with release of a number of pituitary and hypothalamic hormones and a decline in the concentration of luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is generally not influenced by exercise. Serum inhibin concentrations, which are reciprocally influenced by serum FSH concentrations, are increased in some animals but are unchanged after acute exercise in human males. Teleologically, the decline in gonadotrophic hormone (LH) secretion after exercise may be geared to enhance individual survival over species propagation in times of stress, analogous to the postulated 'fight or flight' reaction. The decrease in gonadotrophic hormone (LH) secretion is believed to be due to changes in gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse frequency and amplitude, particularly in women, who often develop amenorrhoea. Males have less dramatic changes in their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, although a significant decrease in serum testosterone in physically conditioned males can usually be demonstrated. In this update possible mechanisms for the decline in gonadotrophin secretion with exercise are briefly discussed.

  8. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities.

  9. Exercise and Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Phu, Steven; Boersma, Derek; Duque, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a major component of the frailty syndrome and is also a strong predictor of disability, morbidity, and mortality in older persons. Without any available pharmacological intervention to sarcopenia, non-pharmacological interventions are the only option to prevent these poor outcomes in sarcopenic patients. Among those interventions, physical activity with or without protein supplementation has demonstrated to be effective in improving muscle mass and function and in preventing disability and frailty in older persons. Additionally, to the beneficial effect of physical activity on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, a regular exercise program (3 times/wk) that includes resistance and endurance exercise training would have a major positive effect on sarcopenic muscle through improving muscle mass, strength, and function. In this review, we looked at the effect of exercise on sarcopenic frail older persons from the biological aspects of the response of the muscle to exercise to some practical aspects of exercise prescription in this high-risk population. We conclude that, although challenging, older persons should be encouraged to participate in this type of programs, which would improve not only their function and independence but also their quality of life. PMID:26071171

  10. Exercise for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Baker, K; McAlindon, T

    2000-09-01

    Adverse outcomes in knee osteoarthritis include pain, loss of function, and disability. These outcomes can have devastating effects on the quality of life of those suffering from the disease. Treatments have generally targeted pain, assuming that disability would improve as a direct result of improvements in pain. However, there is evidence to suggest that determinants of pain and disability differ. In general, treatments have been more successful at decreasing pain rather than disability. Many of the factors that lead to disability can be improved with exercise. Exercise, both aerobic and strength training, have been examined as treatments for knee osteoarthritis, with considerable variability in the results. The variability between studies may be due to differences in study design, exercise protocols, and participants in the studies. Although there is variability among studies, it is notable that a majority of the studies had a positive effect on pain and or disability. The mechanism of exercise remains unclear and merits future studies to better define a concise, clear exercise protocol that may have the potential for a public health intervention.

  11. Acute Exercise Improves Physical Sexual Arousal in Women Taking Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antidepressants can impair sexual arousal. Exercise increases genital arousal in healthy women, likely due to increasing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Purpose Test if exercise increases genital arousal in women taking antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which suppress SNS activity, and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), which suppress the SNS less. Method Women reporting antidepressant-related sexual arousal problems (N=47) participated in three counterbalanced sessions where they watched an erotic film while we recorded genital and SNS arousal. In two sessions, women exercised for 20 min, either 5 or 15 min prior to the films. Results During the no-exercise condition, women taking SSRIs showed significantly less genital response than women taking SNRIs. Exercise prior to sexual stimuli increased genital arousal in both groups. Women reporting greater sexual dysfunction had larger increases in genital arousal post-exercise. For women taking SSRIs, genital arousal was linked to SNS activity. Conclusions Exercise may improve antidepressant-related genital arousal problems. PMID:22403029

  12. Feasibility of exercise during treatment for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Elizabeth Ann; Coon, Sharon; Hall-Barrow, Julie; Richards, Kathy; Gaylor, David; Stewart, Beth

    2003-10-01

    Fatigue and insomnia are problems for patients with cancer. Research findings show that aerobic exercise decreases cancer-related fatigue. Because patients with cancer who have skeletal muscle wasting may not obtain maximum benefit from aerobic exercise training, exercise programs may need to include resistance training. Thus far, testing exercise as an intervention for fatigue has focused on patients with breast cancer and excluded patients with bone metastasis. There is a need to test the feasibility and effectiveness of exercise for patients with other types of cancer and with bone involvement. The effect of aerobic and strength resistance training on the sleep of patients with cancer has not been tested. A pilot/feasibility study with a randomized controlled design was conducted to investigate home-based exercise therapy for 24 patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation as treatment for multiple myeloma. None of the patients injured themselves. Because of the small sample size in the feasibility study, the effect of exercise on lean body weight was the only end point that obtained statistical significance. However, the results suggest that an individualized exercise program for patients receiving aggressive treatment for multiple myeloma is feasible and may be effective for decreasing fatigue and mood disturbance, and for improving sleep.

  13. The history of "Exercise Is Medicine" in ancient civilizations.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Charles M

    2014-06-01

    In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine, with endorsement from the American Medical Association and the Office of the Surgeon General, launched a global initiative to mobilize physicians, healthcare professionals and providers, and educators to promote exercise in their practice or activities to prevent, reduce, manage, or treat diseases that impact health and the quality of life in humans. Emerging from this initiative, termed Exercise Is Medicine, has been an extensively documented position stand by the American College of Sports Medicine that recommended healthy adults perform 150 min of moderate dynamic exercise per week. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the foundation for this global initiative and its exercise prescription for health and disease prevention has roots that began in antiquity more than two millennia ago. Individuals and concepts to remember are that Susruta of India was the first “recorded” physician to prescribe moderate daily exercise, Hippocrates of Greece was the first “recorded” physician to provide a written exercise prescription for a patient suffering from consumption, and the global influence of Galen from Rome combined with his recommendation on the use of exercise for patients in the management of disease prevailed until the 16th century. Historically intertwined with these concepts was exercise being advocated by select physicians to minimize the health problems associated with obesity, diabetes, and inactivity. PMID:25039081

  14. The Intermediate School Principal: An In-Basket Simulation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musella, Donald F.; Joyce, H. Donald

    The materials in this booklet simulate some of the problems that intermediate (junior high, middle, and senior elementary) school principals could face under actual working conditions. Taken from the real-life problems of some intermediate school principals, the exercises are presented in the form of in-basket items -- letters, memos, phone…

  15. Simulation Exercises for an Undergraduate Digital Process Control Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Deborah E.; Schork, F. Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Presents six problems from an alternative approach to homework traditionally given to follow-up lectures. Stresses the advantage of longer term exercises which allow for creativity and independence on the part of the student. Problems include: "System Model,""Open-Loop Simulation,""PID Control,""Dahlin Algorithm,""Analytical Predictor," and…

  16. The cooperative monitoring of military forces: An exercise in strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This exercise examines a hypothetical security problem associated with conventional military forces and border security: a surprise attack. The goal of the exercise is to provide an opportunity to think about how cooperative monitoring can be part of regional security. Two hypothetical countries, VOLCANOES and MOUNTAINS, have been created for this exercise based on the US states of Arizona and New Mexico. They were selected for their size and variety of terrain. Hypothetical background information and characteristics of the two countries are provided. An outline of activities is given, including prioritization of security concerns and monitoring of objectives for security concerns. 6 tabs.

  17. Workshop on Countering Space Adaptation with Exercise: Current Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Bernard A. (Editor); Siconolfi, Steven F. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings represent an update to the problems associated with living and working in space and the possible impact exercise would have on helping reduce risk. The meeting provided a forum for discussions and debates on contemporary issues in exercise science and medicine as they relate to manned space flight with outside investigators. This meeting also afforded an opportunity to introduce the current status of the Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) science investigations and inflight hardware and software development. In addition, techniques for physiological monitoring and the development of various microgravity countermeasures were discussed.

  18. Exercise in Pregnancy: Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Artal, Raul

    2016-09-01

    In recent years it has been recognized that in all phases of life, including pregnancy, physical activity promotes health benefits and precludes comorbidities, the scientific evidence is indisputable. Several organizations around the world have updated in recent years the guidelines and recommendations for exercise in pregnancy. The December 2015, updated guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists emphasize that physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risk. Although recommending exercise in pregnancy, the anatomic/physiological changes, absolute and relative contraindications should be considered. Women who exercised regularly before pregnancy, in the absence of contraindications, can continue and engage in moderate to strenuous activities, although information on strenuous activities in pregnancy is still limited. This review summarizes the most recent published and recommended guidelines. PMID:27398880

  19. Locomotor exercise in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Whitmore, H.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for exercise in space by means of locomotion are established and addressed with prototype treadmills for use during long-duration spaceflight. The adaptation of the human body to microgravity is described in terms of 1-G locomotor biomechanics, the effects of reduced activity, and effective activity-replacement techniques. The treadmill is introduced as a complement to other techniques of force replacement with reference given to the angle required for exercise. A motor-driven unit is proposed that can operate at a variety of controlled speeds and equivalent grades. The treadmills permit locomotor exercise as required for long-duration space travel to sustain locomotor and cardiorespiratory capacity at a level consistent with postflight needs.

  20. Temperature regulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, M

    1998-06-01

    During strenuous exercise the body's heat production may exceed 1000 W. Some of the heat produced is stored, raising body core temperature by a few degrees. Rises in body temperature are sensed by central and skin thermoreceptors and this sensory information is processed by the hypothalamus to trigger appropriate effector responses. Other sensory inputs from baroreceptors and osmoreceptors can modify these responses. Evaporation of sweat and increased skin blood flow are effective mechanisms for the dissipation of heat from the body but dehydration impairs the capacity to sweat and lose body heat. Hot, humid environments or inappropriate clothing may compromise the ability to lose heat from the body. Exercise training improves tolerance to exercise in the heat by increasing the sensitivity of the sweat rate/core temperature relationship, decreasing the core temperature threshold for sweating and increasing total blood volume.

  1. [Metabolic intolerance to exercise].

    PubMed

    Arenas, J; Martín, M A

    2003-01-01

    Exercise intolerance (EI) is a frequent cause of medical attention, although it is sometimes difficult to come to a final diagnosis. However, there is a group of patients in whom EI is due to a metabolic dysfunction. McArdle's disease (type V glucogenosis) is due to myophosphorylase (MPL) deficiency. The ischemic exercise test shows a flat lactate curve. The most frequent mutations in the PYGM gene (MPL gene) in Spanish patients with MPL deficiency are R49X and W797R. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II deficiency is invariably associated to repetitive episodes of myoglobinuria triggered by exercise, cold, fever or fasting. The diagnosis depends on the demonstration of CPT II deficiency in muscle. The most frequent mutation in the CPT2 gene is the S113L. Patients with muscle adenylate deaminase deficiency usually show either a mild myopathy or no symptom. The diagnosis is based on the absence of enzyme activity in muscle and the lack of rise of ammonia in the forearm ischemic exercise test. The mutation Q12X in the AMPD1 gene is strongly associated with the disease. Exercise intolerance is a common complaint in patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) deficiencies, although it is often overshadowed by other symptoms and signs. Only recently we have come to appreciate that exercise intolerance can be the sole presentation of defects in the mtDNA, particularly in complex I, complex III, complex IV, or in some tRNAs. In addition, myoglobinuria can be observed in patients under statin treatment, particularly if associated with fibrates, due to an alteration in the assembly of the complex IV of the MRC. PMID:12838448

  2. Multi-purpose exercises: Making DOE exercises meet state and local exercise requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S. ); Rowland, R.A. . Chemical Preparedness Div.)

    1991-01-01

    Exercises provide opportunities for different emergency response groups to practice their combined response. State and local governments receiving financial assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency under Comprehensive Cooperative Agreements must hold regular exercises demonstrating their response to different types of hazards. Department of Energy, other federal, and industrial installations have exercise requirements, as do other facilities such as hospitals and airports. Combining exercise efforts can help state and local responders satisfy their exercise requirements while reducing the total number of required exercises, enhancing the realism of the response, and promoting in integrated community response. 11 refs.

  3. Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, MC

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients. PMID:22486393

  4. Eye Exercises and Reading Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Earl J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Evaluated with a total of 60 primary-grade children was the effectiveness in improving ocular motor control of three training programs: the Bender proprioceptive facilitative feedback exercises, the Marsden ball program, and perceptual exercises. (DB)

  5. Exercising with a Muscle Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: • cramping in muscles (probably related to insufficient energy supply for muscles) • pain in muscles • weakness of exercised muscles • dark urine that looks like cola, following exercise (seek ...

  6. Exercise, Lymphokines, Calories, and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of epidemiological studies suggesting that exercise reduces the risk of cancer concludes that exercise may help defend against cancer by preventing obesity, stimulating lymphokines, and/or facilitating other healthful changes in behavior. (Author/CB)

  7. ISS Update: SPRINT Exercise Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Lori Ploutz-Snyder, Ph.D., NASA Lead Exercise Physiology Scientist, about the SPRINT exercise program used by the crew members aboard the Inter...

  8. Exercise, the Brain, and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone in the prevention and management of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension often to the range that raises the safety concern, which may prohibit patients from regular exercise. This augmented pressor response is shown to be related to excessive sympathetic stimulation caused by overactive muscle reflex. Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction further contributes to the rise in BP during exercise in hypertension. Exercise training has been shown to reduce both exercise pressor reflex and attenuate the abnormal vasoconstriction. Hypertension also contributes to cognitive impairment, and exercise training has been shown to improve cognitive function through both BP-dependent and BP-independent pathways. Additional studies are still needed to determine if newer modes of exercise training such as high-intensity interval training may offer advantages over traditional continuous moderate training in improving BP and brain health in hypertensive patients.

  9. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  10. Standard exercise report format (SERF)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This talk summarizes the reasons for the development of draft SERF the Standard Exercise Report Format used for reporting the results of emergency preparedness exercises, and gives a summary of the format and rational behind it.

  11. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  12. COPD: benefits of exercise training.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    In patients with stable, moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), general exercise training, including limb exercises, provides sustained improvement in various quality of life domains, compared with care without pulmonary rehabilitation. After a COPD exacerbation, exercise training appears to reduce the risk of hospitalisation in the following months by at least half. Few studies have evaluated the adverse effects of exercise training in COPD, but based on the data available in 2015, its harm-benefit balance appears favourable. PMID:27152405

  13. Closing the Loop with Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altizer, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Conducting exercises provides a critical bridge between the theory of an Emergency Action Plan and its effective implementation. When conducted properly, exercises can fill the gap between training and after-action review to close the preparedness loop--before an actual emergency occurs. Often exercises are planned and conducted on campus based on…

  14. Exercise and Fluid Balance Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlicht, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    One common piece of advice that exercise professionals give their clients is to drink water before, during, and after exercise. During exercise people can lose as much as three liters of water per hour (about 100 ounces) through sweat. Dehydration alters normal sweat patterns, which can lead to an increased core body temperature. Since most of the…

  15. Cognitive Aging and Physical Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Ellen; Sharps, Matthew J.

    2003-01-01

    Younger (n=58) and older (n=49) adults completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and recall tests of verbal and visual stimuli with maximum and minimum semantic support. Category support did not help young adults who exercised less. Older adults' exercise had no effect on use of category support; less-frequent exercisers had poorer results…

  16. Interdisciplinary Exercises in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastonguay, Paul R.

    1975-01-01

    Lists a series of thought questions to stimulate a student to undertake his own interdisciplinary exercises to correlate his learnings in his own way. The statements are designed to challenge the mind, in order to develop a personal framework on topics such as life, the meaning of man, and the evolution and bondage of social structure. (BR)

  17. Home-Based Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... do when I don't have access to physical therapy? While VEDA does not recommend doing vestibular exercises ... already existing ringing Fluid discharge from your ears Pain and ... try a general low-impact and balance-strengthening fitness program. The more ...

  18. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  19. Exercise and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Improve the way the body uses and controls blood sugar (glucose) which reduced the risk of Type II diabetes WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF EXERCISE? You can get dehydrated (lose too much water) if you do not drink enough liquids to keep up your fluid levels. Injuries may take more time to heal. You ...

  20. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  1. Life Chances Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a life chances exercise that helps students identify the life chances that they and society value. Explains that students learn that the attainment of important life chances is related to the family into which one is born. Discusses John Rawls' social theory. Suggests that participants may need to consider alternative systems of economic…

  2. Exercise and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this presentation on exercise and aging, the following explanations are made: the nature of physical fitness, physical fitness values, the importance of recognizing individual differences, physiological changes occurring with age through the adult years, physical fitness studies pertaining to middle-aged persons, the trainability of older…

  3. The Role of Macronutrients in Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Christopher M.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the role of macronutrients in exercise, examining research pertaining to exercise intensity, exercise duration, macronutrient intake, and mode of exercise as they pertain to both athletes and recreational exercisers. The paper explains that coaches and trainers must interpret and apply research findings to individual exercisers,…

  4. Exercise thermoregulation and hyperprolactinaemia.

    PubMed

    Low, David; Cable, Tim; Purvis, Alison

    The anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL), measured in the peripheral blood circulation, reflects alterations in central brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) and dopaminergic activity and is used as a marker of 'central fatigue' during active heat exposure. Significant correlations have consistently been found between PRL and core temperature (T(CORE)) during prolonged exercise. There has been no investigation into the relationship between PRL and other key thermoregulatory variables during exercise, such as weighted mean skin (T(SK)) and mean body temperature (T(B)), heat storage (HS), thermal gradient (T(GRAD)), heart rate (HR) and skin blood flow (cutaneous vascular conductance, CVC). Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain if a significant relationship exists between PRL and these thermoregulatory variables during prolonged exercise. Nine active male subjects conducted three trials of approximately 60% VO(2peak) at 70-80 rpm for 45 min on a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer at three different ambient temperatures [6 degrees C (Cold), 18 degrees C (Neutral) and 30 degrees C (Hot)] to elicit varying levels of thermoregulatory stress during exercise. Significant differences existed in T(SK), T(B), HS, T(GRAD) and CVC across the environmental conditions (p < 0.001). Core temperature (T(CORE)), HR and PRL were significantly elevated only in Hot (p < 0.05). Moderate correlations were found for T(CORE), T(SK), T(B), HS, T(GRAD), HR and CVC with post-exercise PRL (rho = 0.358-0.749). The end-of-exercise <38.0 degrees C T(CORE) responses were not (rho = -0.129, p > 0.05) but the >38.0 degrees C T(CORE) responses were (rho = 0.845, p < 0.001) significantly related to their corresponding PRL responses. The significant relationships between PRL release and T(SK), T(B), HS, T(GRAD), HR and CVC have extended previous research on T(CORE) and PRL release and indicate an association between these thermoregulatory variables, as well as T(CORE), and serotonergic

  5. Same Old Problem, New Name? Alerting Students to the Nature of the Problem-Solving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Magen, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Students frequently misconceive the process of problem-solving, expecting the linear process required for solving an exercise, rather than the convoluted search process required to solve a genuine problem. In this paper we present an activity designed to foster in students realization and appreciation of the nature of the problem-solving process,…

  6. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  7. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-15

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  8. Upright exercise or supine lower body negative pressure exercise maintains exercise responses after bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. M.; Bennett, B. S.; Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Ford, S. R.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Adaptation to bed rest or space flight is accompanied by an impaired ability to exercise in an upright position. We hypothesized that a daily, 30-min bout of intense, interval exercise in upright posture or supine against lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would maintain upright exercise heart rate and respiratory responses after bed rest. Twenty-four men (31 +/- 3 yr) underwent 5 d of 6 degree head-down tilt: eight performed no exercise (CON), eight performed upright treadmill exercise (UPex), and eight performed supine treadmill exercise against LBNP at -51.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg (LBNPex). Submaximal treadmill exercise responses (56, 74, and 85% of VO2peak) were measured pre- and post-bed rest. In CON, submaximal heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and ventilation were significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) after bed rest. In UPex and LBNPex, submaximal exercise responses were similar pre- and post-bed rest. Our results indicate that a daily 30-min bout of intense, interval upright exercise training or supine exercise training against LBNP is sufficient to maintain upright exercise responses after 5 d of bed rest. These results may have important implications for the development of exercise countermeasures during space flight.

  9. Exercise therapy for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Heather R

    2015-05-01

    The benefit of exercise for pain control likely comes from the impact of exercise on the endogenous opioid system and on central pain modulatory systems. Patients with some chronic pain conditions seem to have a dysfunctional endogenous pain modulatory system, which should be considered when prescribing exercise. The prescription of exercise for chronic pain must address the biomechanical issues and the psychosocial factors that contribute to the patient's pain and disability. Patient education, coordination of care within the health care team, and selecting an exercise regimen that is meaningful to and achievable by the patient are all important components to promote a successful rehabilitation program. PMID:25952064

  10. Personality, emotional intelligence and exercise.

    PubMed

    Saklofske, Donald H; Austin, Elizabeth J; Rohr, Betty A; Andrews, Jac J W

    2007-11-01

    The associations of personality and self-report emotional intelligence (EI) with attitudes to exercise and self-reported exercise behaviour were investigated in a sample of 497 Canadian undergraduates. A positive attitude to exercise was negatively associated with Neuroticism and uncorrelated with other personality traits and EI. Exercise behaviour was positively associated with Extraversion and EI and negatively associated with Neuroticism. Structural equation modelling indicated that EI mediated the relationship between personality and exercise behaviour. The interpretation of this result in terms of EI having some properties of a coping style is discussed.

  11. Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?

    PubMed

    Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-01-01

    As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function. PMID:24617099

  12. Design of hydrotherapy exercise pools.

    PubMed

    Edlich, R F; Abidin, M R; Becker, D G; Pavlovich, L J; Dang, M T

    1988-01-01

    Several hydrotherapy pools have been designed specifically for a variety of aquatic exercise. Aqua-Ark positions the exerciser in the center of the pool for deep-water exercise. Aqua-Trex is a shallow underwater treadmill system for water walking or jogging. Swim-Ex generates an adjustable laminar flow that permits swimming without turning. Musculoskeletal conditioning can be accomplished in the above-ground Arjo shallow-water exercise pool. A hydrotherapy pool also can be custom designed for musculoskeletal conditioning in its shallow part and cardiovascular conditioning in a deeper portion of the pool. Regardless of the type of exercise, there is general agreement that the specific exercise conducted in water requires significantly more energy expenditure than when the same exercise is performed on land. PMID:3192611

  13. Genes, exercise, growth, and the sedentary, obese child.

    PubMed

    Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2008-09-01

    It is still not possible to provide an evidence-based answer to the question of whether regular exercise is essential for normal growth. It is also unclear whether very low levels of exercise result in growth deficits. Regular exposure to exercise is characterized by heterogeneity in responsiveness, with most individuals experiencing improvements in fitness traits but a significant proportion showing only very minor gains. Whether a sedentary mode of life during the growing years results in a permanent deficit in cardiorespiratory fitness or a diminished ability to respond favorably to regular exercise later in life remains to be investigated. Although several genes have been associated with fitness levels or response to regular exercise, the quality of the evidence is weak mainly because studies are statistically underpowered. The special case of the obese, sedentary child is discussed, and the importance of the "energy gap" in the excess weight gain during growth is highlighted. Obese, sedentary children have high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, elevated glycemia and type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, respiratory problems, orthopedic complications, and other health disorders more frequently than normal weight, physically active children. The role of genetic differences in the inclination to be sedentary or physically active is reviewed. An understanding of the true role of genetic differences and regular exercise on the growth of children will require more elaborate paradigms incorporating not only DNA sequence variants and exercise exposure but also information on nutrition, programming, and epigenetic events during fetal life and early postnatal years.

  14. Experimental heart rate regulation in cycle-ergometer exercises.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michele; Pietrosanti, Stefano; Scalzi, Stefano; Tomei, Patrizio; Verrelli, Cristiano Maria

    2013-01-01

    The heart rate can be effectively used as a measure of the exercise intensity during long duration cycle-ergometer exercises: precisely controlling the heart rate (HR) becomes crucial especially for athletes or patients with cardiovascular/obesity problems. The aim of this letter is to experimentally show how the nonlocal and nonswitching nonlinear control that has been recently proposed in the literature for the HR regulation in treadmill exercises can be effectively applied to cycle-ergometer exercises at constant cycling speed. The structure of the involved nonlinear model for the HR dynamics in cycle-ergometer exercises is mathematically inspired by the structure of a recently identified and experimentally validated nonlinear model for the HR dynamics in treadmill exercises: the role played by the treadmill speed is played here by the work load while the zero speed case for the treadmill exercise is here translated into the cycling operation under zero work load. Experimental results not only validate the aforementioned nonlinear model but also demonstrate the effectiveness--in terms of precise HR regulation--of an approach which simply generalizes to the nonlinear framework the classical proportional-integral control design. The possibility of online modifying the HR reference on the basis of the heart rate variability (HRV) is also suggested and experimentally motivated.

  15. Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers.

    PubMed

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior. PMID:25602145

  16. Automatic evaluations and exercise setting preference in frequent exercisers.

    PubMed

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to test whether exercise-related stimuli can elicit automatic evaluative responses and whether automatic evaluations reflect exercise setting preference in highly active exercisers. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was employed. Seventy-two highly active exercisers (26 years ± 9.03; 43% female) were subliminally primed (7 ms) with pictures depicting typical fitness center scenarios or gray rectangles (control primes). After each prime, participants consciously evaluated the "pleasantness" of a Chinese symbol. Controlled evaluations were measured with a questionnaire and were more positive in participants who regularly visited fitness centers than in those who reported avoiding this exercise setting. Only center exercisers gave automatic positive evaluations of the fitness center setting (partial eta squared = .08). It is proposed that a subliminal Affect Misattribution Procedure paradigm can elicit automatic evaluations to exercising and that, in highly active exercisers, these evaluations play a role in decisions about the exercise setting rather than the amounts of physical exercise. Findings are interpreted in terms of a dual systems theory of social information processing and behavior.

  17. A Mathematical Optimization Problem in Bioinformatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyer, Laurie J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the sequence alignment problem in bioinformatics. Through examples, we formulate sequence alignment as an optimization problem and show how to compute the optimal alignment with dynamic programming. The examples and sample exercises have been used by the author in a specialized course in bioinformatics, but could be adapted…

  18. Problem Solving Interactions on Electronic Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Michael; And Others

    Arguing that electronic networking provides a medium which is qualitatively superior to the traditional classroom for conducting certain types of problem solving exercises, this paper details the Water Problem Solving Project, which was conducted on the InterCultural Learning Network in 1985 and 1986 with students from the United States, Mexico,…

  19. Exercise for tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Tendinopathies are one of the most common sports/musculoskeletal injury in modern western societies. Many physiotherapy approaches have been recommended in the literature for the management of tendinopathy. The most effective treatment in the management of tendinopathy is the eccentric training. Load, speed and frequency of contractions are the three principles of eccentric exercises, discussed in this report. However, eccentric training is not effective for all patients with tendinopathy and the effectiveness of this approach when applied as monotherapy is lower than it is applied as part of the rehabilitation process. For this reason, clinicians combine eccentric training with other physiotherapy techniques such as stretching, isometric and lumbar stability exercises, electrotherapy, manual therapy, soft tissue manipulation techniques, taping and acupuncture in the management of tendinopathies. Further research is needed to find out which treatment strategy combined with eccentric training will provide the best results in the rehabilitation of tendinopathy. PMID:26140271

  20. Caffeine and exercise.

    PubMed

    Paluska, Scott A

    2003-08-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, and athletes frequently use it as an ergogenic aid. It improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. To a lesser degree it also enhances short-term, high-intensity athletic performance. Caffeine improves concentration, reduces fatigue, and enhances alertness. Habitual intake does not diminish caffeine's ergogenic properties. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the physiologic effects of caffeine, but adenosine receptor antagonism most likely accounts for the primary mode of action. It is relatively safe and has no known negative performance effects, nor does it cause significant dehydration or electrolyte imbalance during exercise. Routine caffeine consumption may cause tolerance or dependence, and abrupt discontinuation produces irritability, mood shifts, headache, drowsiness, or fatigue. Major sport governing bodies ban excessive use of caffeine, but current monitoring techniques are inadequate, and ethical dilemmas persist regarding caffeine intake by athletes. PMID:12834577

  1. Exercise, appetite and weight management: understanding the compensatory responses in eating behaviour and how they contribute to variability in exercise-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    King, N A; Horner, K; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M; Wood, R E; Bryant, E; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Hopkins, M; Martins, C; Blundell, J E

    2012-04-01

    Does exercise promote weight loss? One of the key problems with studies assessing the efficacy of exercise as a method of weight management and obesity is that mean data are presented and the individual variability in response is overlooked. Recent data have highlighted the need to demonstrate and characterise the individual variability in response to exercise. Do people who exercise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake? The authors address the physiological, psychological and behavioural factors potentially involved in the relationship between exercise and appetite, and identify the research questions that remain unanswered. A negative consequence of the phenomena of individual variability and compensatory responses has been the focus on those who lose little weight in response to exercise; this has been used unreasonably as evidence to suggest that exercise is a futile method of controlling weight and managing obesity. Most of the evidence suggests that exercise is useful for improving body composition and health. For example, when exercise-induced mean weight loss is <1.0 kg, significant improvements in aerobic capacity (+6.3 ml/kg/min), systolic (-6.00 mm Hg) and diastolic (-3.9 mm Hg) blood pressure, waist circumference (-3.7 cm) and positive mood still occur. However, people will vary in their responses to exercise; understanding and characterising this variability will help tailor weight loss strategies to suit individuals.

  2. Estrogen mediation of hormone responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Robert R; Francois, Michelle; Castracane, V Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The roles of estrogens extend from the regulation of reproduction to other functions involved in control of metabolism, fluid balance, as well as gastrointestinal, lung, and brain function, with a strong effect on other hormones that subsequently alter the physiology of multiple tissues. As such, alteration of endogenous estrogens across the menstrual cycle, or from oral contraception and estrogen replacement therapy, can affect these tissues. Due to the important effects that estrogens have on different tissues, there are many investigations concerning the effects of a human estrogenic environment on endocrine responses to exercise. The following review will describe the consequences of varying estrogen levels on pituitary, adrenal, gonadal, and endocrine function, followed by discussion of the outcomes of different estrogen levels on endocrine tissues in response to exercise, problems encountered for interpretation of findings, and recommended direction for future research. PMID:22512823

  3. Exercise-induced compartment syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Klodell, C T; Pokorny, R; Carrillo, E H; Heniford, B T

    1996-06-01

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis is a frequent event occurring after severe forms of exercise. This is usually a short-lived, uncomplicated phenomenon that is seldom of any clinical significance. The rare progression of this muscle injury to compartment syndrome is, however, a limb- and life-threatening condition that typically presents in the anterior compartment of the lower leg. A case is reported of a young man who participated in physical activity well beyond his normal level of exertion and subsequently developed bilateral lower extremity compartment syndrome requiring surgical decompression. To our knowledge, this is the only description of this complication occurring in a multicompartment, bilateral distribution. The combination of the rarity and morbidity of this condition, as well as the multitude of very common benign injuries that present in the same manner as the problem discussed, make this insult especially dangerous.

  4. Exercise and the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Taunton, J.; Rhodes, E.; Donnelly, M.; Warren, J.; O'Brien, S.

    1992-01-01

    By the year 2025, more than 25% of Canadians will be older than 65; and nearly half the population older than 65 has some degree of disability. With physiologic aging comes a gradual loss of functional capacity and independence that becomes a major health burden. Researchers have shown that lifelong, moderate levels of exercise are associated with increased longevity, enhanced physical function, and longer-lasting independent living. PMID:21221294

  5. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  6. Fructose, exercise, and health.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Richard J; Murray, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The large daily energy intake common among athletes can be associated with a large daily intake of fructose, a simple sugar that has been linked to metabolic disorders. Fructose commonly is found in foods and beverages as a natural component (e.g., in fruits) or as an added ingredient (as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup [HFCS]). A growing body of research suggests that excessive intake of fructose (e.g., >50 g.d(-1)) may be linked to development of the metabolic syndrome (obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, proinflammatory state, prothrombosis). The rapid metabolism of fructose in the liver and resultant drop in hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels have been linked with mitochondrial and endothelial dysfunction, alterations that could predispose to obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. However, for athletes, a positive aspect of fructose metabolism is that, in combination with other simple sugars, fructose stimulates rapid fluid and solute absorption in the small intestine and helps increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during exercise, an important response for improving exercise performance. Although additional research is required to clarify the possible health-related implications of long-term intake of large amounts of dietary fructose among athletes, regular exercise training and consequent high daily energy expenditure may protect athletes from the negative metabolic responses associated with chronically high dietary fructose intake.

  7. [Insulin and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1987-04-01

    Secretion of some pituitary hormones and sympatho-adrenal activity increase very early during exercise. Sympathetic activation is of major importance in cardiovascular adaptation, thermoregulation, etc. Furthermore among the hormonal consequences of such activation those related to insulin are capital. In animal and human subjects basal insulin level decrease during prolonged and progressive exercise. With habitual exercise, both basal and stimulated insulin levels are reduced. It seems that the reduced basal level could be due to alpha-adrenergic inhibition of the islets of Langerhans, while the reduced stimulated response could be the consequence of increased clearance. In trained subjects, in spite of reduced insulin secretion tolerance to glucose is normal due to increased sensitivity to insulin. Sensitivity to insulin is particularly enhanced at the muscular tissue level; it is accompanied by increased hexokinase and glycogen synthetase activity. As a consequence glucose uptake remains optimal at the muscular level. In the liver, both insulin sensitivity and glucokinase activity are reduced, so that glucose is spared and the muscular glycogen store can be restored. At the adipocyte level, metabolic adaptations are such that triglyceride turnover is greatly increased, favouring fuel supply and resaturation of stores.

  8. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, A L; Austen, K F

    1980-08-01

    Sixteen patients were seen because of possibly life-threatening exercise-associated symptoms similar to anaphylactic reactions. Asthma attacks, cholinergic urticaria and angioedema, and cardiac arrythmias are recognized as exertion-related phenomena in predisposed patients but are distinct from the syndrome described here. A syndrome characterized by the exertion-related onset of cutaneous pruritus and warmth, the development of generalized urticaria, and the appearance of such additional manifestations as collapse in 12 patients, gastrointestinal tract symptoms in five patients, and upper respiratory distress in 10 patients has been designated exercise-induced anaphylaxis, because of the striking similarity of this symptom complex to the anaphylactic syndrome elicited by ingestion or injection of a foreign antigenic substance. There is a family history of atopic desease for 11 patients and cold urticaria for two others and a personal history of atopy in six. The size of the wheals, the failure to develop an attack with a warm bath or shower or a fever, and the prominence of syncope rule against the diagnosis of conventional cholinergic urticaria. There is no history or evidence of an encounter with an environmental source of antigen during the exercise period. PMID:7400473

  9. Exercise and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Imhof, A; Koenig, W

    2001-08-01

    Long-term moderate or strenuous physical activity is associated with a considerable reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in primary and secondary prevention. Various mechanisms, including changes in lipids, lifestyle habits, and other positive physiologic effects, have been suggested to mediate these beneficial effects. In addition, the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems appear to play an important role. Fibrinogen has been convincingly shown to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Other hemostatic and fibrinolytic parameters that are predictive of coronary events include factor VII, platelet hyperreactivity, plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and tissue-plasminogen activator. The effects of exercise on fibrinogen have been intensively studied. Several randomized controlled trials, various other intervention studies and a large number of population-based cross-sectional studies all found an inverse relationship between measures of sport activity or leisure activity and plasma fibrinogen. The magnitude of the effect reported might be associated with a sizeable reduction in major coronary events. Relatively few data are available on the effects of endurance exercise on markers of the fibrinolytic system, with inconsistent results. Acute exercise leads to a transient activation of the coagulation system, which is accompanied by an increase in the fibrinolytic capacity in healthy subjects. Patients with ischemic heart disease, who cannot increase their fibrinolytic potential, however, may be at considerable risk for acute ischemic events if they are exposed to unaccustomed strenuous physical exertion.

  10. Exercise preconditioning of the myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kavazis, Andreas N

    2009-01-01

    Diseases of the heart (e.g. myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury) remain the major cause of death in the industrialized world. Therefore, developing a pragmatic countermeasure to reduce myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury is vital. In this regard, a plethora of evidence indicates that regular exercise can protect the heart during an ischaemia reperfusion insult (i.e. cardioprotection). This review summarizes studies indicating that both short-term (i.e. 1-5 days) and long-term (i.e. weeks to months) endurance exercise provides cardioprotection. Data are presented showing that exercise duration and exercise intensity are both important factors in achieving a cardioprotective phenotype. Importantly, it appears that the exercise duration of a single exercise session should last for 60 minutes and should be performed at about 75% maximum oxygen consumption in order to achieve exercise-induced cardioprotection. Furthermore, data are presented showing that exercise-induced cardioprotection against myocardial stunning can persist for at least 9 days after the cessation of exercise training, but is lost 18 days after exercise. This review also summarizes the exercise-induced adaptations that occur to the myocardium. In particular, extrinsic changes observed in human and animal models include neural, hormonal, humoral, vascular and reduced body fat. Other anatomical and biochemical/molecular changes that have been studied as putative mechanisms in exercise-induced cardioprotection include alterations in anatomic coronary arteries, induction of myocardial heat shock proteins, increased myocardial cyclooxygenase-2 activity, elevated endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, nitric oxide production, improved function of sarcolemmal and/or mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels and increased myocardial antioxidant capacity. However, the most compelling evidence for exercise-induced cardioprotection is the fact that exercise training

  11. Effect of Exercise Training and +Gz Acceleration Training on Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, Joyce; Knapp, Charles F.; Cowell, Stephenie A.; Pemberton, Kendra N.; Wilson, Heather W.; Vener, Jamie M.; Evetts, Simon N.

    2001-01-01

    Countermeasures for reduction in work capacity (maximal oxygen uptake and strength) during spaceflight and enhanced orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing and egress from the return vehicle are continuing problems. The purpose for this study was to test the hypothesis that passive-acceleration training; supine, interval, exercise plus acceleration training and exercise combined with acceleration training would improve orthostatic tolerance in ambulatory men; and that addition of the aerobic exercise conditioning would not alter this improved tolerance from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven men (24-38 yr) underwent "Passive" training on the Ames human-powered centrifuge (HPC) for 30 min, "Exercise" training on the cycle ergometer with constant +Gz acceleration; and "Combined" exercise training at 40% to 90% of the HPC +Gz(max) exercise level. Maximal supine exercise loads increased significant (P<0.05) by 8.3% (Passive), 12.6% (Exercise), and by 15.4% (Combined) after training, but their post-training maximal oxygen uptakes and maximal heart rates were unchanged. Maximal time to fatigue (endurance) was unchanged with Passive was increased (P<0.05) with Exercise and Combined training. Thus, the exercise in the Exercise and Combined training Phases resulted in greater maximal loads and endurance without effect on maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. There was a 4% to 6% increase (P<0.05) in all four quadriceps muscle volumes (right and left) after post-Combined training. Resting pre-tilt heart rate was elevated by 12.9% (P<0.05) only after Passive training suggesting that the exercise training attenuated the HR response. Plasma volume (% Delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P<0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training indicating essentially no effect of training on the level of hypovolemia. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and heart rate were increased (P<0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus

  12. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. PMID:27101291

  13. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise.

  14. Sudden death due to recreational exercise in physicians.

    PubMed

    Duraković, Z; Misigoj-Duraković, M; Skavić, J

    2002-12-01

    In a period from 1982-2002 we noticed five dead among Croatian male physicians aged 34 to 67, during or after recreational physical exercise: swimming, soccer, tennis and jogging. Three of them who were autopsied, have been non-smokers and without previous symptoms. In all coronary heart disease was found. The left descending anterior artery was stenotic in one and occluded in two, with myocardial scars in one. An acute myocardial infarction was found in none of them, and in two-left ventricular hypertrophy 15 and 18 mm. We could not find a recent medical record in those physicians including a clinical finding and other findings. Two physicians who were not been autopsied, had possible an alcohol cardiomyopathy. Both of them were smokers. In Croatia about 7% of the whole population are engaged in recreational physical exercise. In a period of twenty years (1982-2002) we noticed 43 sudden and unexpected deaths during or immediately after physical exercise: it reached 43/6,300,000 sudden death in Croatia in twenty years or 2.15/315,000 yearly among persons engaged in physical exercise. In Croatia there are 4,957 male physicians-specialists, and a rate of sudden cardiac death during or immediately after physical exercise in this group reached 5/99,140 in 20 years or 1/19,828 every four years. A medical check up before recreational physical exercise is essential including a clinical examination, a serum concentration of risk factors and other risk factors, an electrocardiogram at rest, a stress test and echocardiography in clinical indication, as are medical controls over persons taking exercise. This study shows that medical evaluation is important because of the underlying problems such as sudden death during exercise. In non-trained persons and in the elderly a physical exercise should be recommended of a gradually intensity, which could not exceed 6 METs. PMID:12528274

  15. The New York City Subways: The First Ten Years. A Library Research Exercise Using a Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machalow, Robert

    This document presents a library research exercise developed at York College which uses the Apple IIe microcomputer and word processing software--the Applewriter--to teach library research skills. Unlike some other library research exercises on disk, this program allows the student to decide on alternative approaches to solving the given problem:…

  16. A Role-Playing Exercise for Development and International Economics Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Yana van der Meulen

    1996-01-01

    Describes an exercise where students play the roles of various ministers advising the president in the resolution of macroeconomic problems that arise with a natural resource boon. Provides a framework for role playing that has applications beyond this issue. Includes results of students' evaluation of the exercise. (MJP)

  17. An Exercise on Structure Elucidation Based on a Tricky Aldol Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Manuel Gonzalez; Pellegrinet, Silvina C.; Colombo, Maria I.; Ruveda, Edmundo A.

    2008-01-01

    An exercise on structure elucidation for advanced undergraduate students is described. To determine the structure of an unknown product, students are required to use spectra together with an organic chemistry mechanism. This exercise exemplifies the procedure commonly used in research, thus helping students develop problem-solving skills. In…

  18. BAC and Beer: Operationalizing Drunk Driving Laws in a Research Methods Course Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ralph B.; McConnell, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on an exercise utilized in a research methods class and based on social problems that invites student interest. Explains the exercise has students determine their blood alcohol level (BAC) by asking them to estimate the number of beers it would take to have them just reach driving under the influence (DUI) status. (CMK)

  19. An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 2: Preliminary evaluation and analysis of CSEPP exercise database

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.; Lerner, K.

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the quality and usefulness of the information in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) exercise database. It incorporates the results of two separate analytical efforts. The first effort investigated the process of assigning standardized codes to issues identified in CSEPP exercise reports. A small group of issues was coded independently by each of several individuals, and the results of the individual codings were compared. Considerable differences were found among the individuals` codings. The second effort consisted of a statistical multivariate analysis, to investigate whether exercise issues are evenly distributed among exercise tabs, sites, and objectives. It was found that certain tabs, sites, and objectives were disproportionately associated with problem areas in exercises. In some cases, these problem areas have persisted over time, but in other cases they have undergone significant shifts over the time span of the investigation. The study concludes that the database can be a useful resource for analyzing problem areas and setting priorities for CSEPP program resources. However, some further analyses should be performed in order to more fully explore the data and increase confidence in the results.

  20. Exercise and pregnancy: a review.

    PubMed

    Bell, R; O'Neill, M

    1994-06-01

    The effects of pregnancy on the maternal cardiorespiratory system include increases in oxygen consumption, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and plasma volume. The increase in oxygen reserve seen in early pregnancy is reduced later, suggesting that maternal exercise may present a greater physiologic stress in the third trimester. Evidence suggests that weight-bearing exercise produces a greater decrease in oxygen reserve than nonweight-bearing exercise. Furthermore, to maintain a heart rate below 140 beats per minute during pregnancy, the intensity of weight-bearing exercise must be reduced. Nonweight-bearing, water-based exercise results in smaller fetal heart rate changes and a lower maternal heart rate than the same exercise performed on land. Exercising in the supine position in late pregnancy has raised concerns because cardiac output in the supine position is lower than in the lateral position at rest, presumably because the gravid uterus partially obstructs the inferior vena cava. Sustained exercise produces a training effect on the mother, although reported associations between this effect and the experience of labor are not consistent. Short-term changes in fetal heart rate provide circumstantial evidence that physical activity can influence the fetus. Acute effects of exercise that can potentially affect the fetus include hyperthermia, changes in uteroplacental flow, reduced levels of maternal glucose, and increased uterine contractions. Moderate to high levels of sustained maternal exercise have been associated with reduced birthweight. Much research remains to be done on the effects of specific exercise regimens during pregnancy, the effects on previously sedentary women, and the long-term health consequences to the offspring of women who perform vigorous exercise during pregnancy.

  1. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  2. Core Stabilization Exercise Prescription, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Brumitt, Jason; Matheson, J. W.; Meira, Erik P.

    2013-01-01

    Context Therapeutic exercises are frequently prescribed to patients with low back pain. Numerous exercise programs for patients with low back pain have been described. Many of these treatment programs are based on 1 of 2 popular rehabilitation strategies: a motor control exercise approach or a general exercise approach. Data Sources PubMed clinical queries from 1966 to March 2013 for keyword combinations including motor control exercise, core stability exercise, therapeutic exercise, general exercise, global exercise, local exercise, transversus abdominis, segmental stabilization, and low back pain. Study Selection Randomized controlled trials that assessed the effects of a motor control exercise approach, a general exercise approach, or both for patients with low back pain that were published in scientific peer-reviewed journals. Data Extraction Included studies underwent appraisal for exercise intervention and outcomes. Results Fifteen studies were identified (8, motor control exercise approach without general exercise comparison; 7, general exercise approach with or without motor control exercise approach comparison). Current evidence suggests that exercise interventions may be effective at reducing pain or disability in patients with low back pain. Conclusion: Stabilization exercises for patients with low back pain may help to decrease pain and disability. It may not be necessary to prescribe exercises purported to restore motor control of specific muscles. PMID:24427425

  3. Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

  4. From exercise to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Speck, Barbara J

    2002-10-01

    Recommendations for regular exercise have been evident in the nursing literature since the early 1900s. Health professionals and popular media have promoted vigorous exercise for positive health benefits since the 1960s. The concept of exercise as it appeared in the nursing literature during the early part of the 20th century is closer to the concept of physical activity of today--regular, moderate-intensity activities that become part of one's lifestyle. Nurses are in a unique position to counsel individuals, families, and communities on the importance of regular physical activity and to correct misconceptions that only vigorous exercise has health benefits. PMID:12465215

  5. Travels towards Problem Based Learning in Medical Education (VPBL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowdish, Bruce E.; Chauvin, Sheila W.; Kreisman, Norman; Britt, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Reports results of an investigation of the effectiveness of a prototype virtual problem-based learning (VPBL) exercise delivered via the World Wide Web to first year medical students. Compares the VPBL and a text-based version of the same exercise on students' achievement and examines instructional design issues including learner control and…

  6. Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the success…

  7. Exercise and Fatigue in Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Hooke, Mary C; Friedman, Debra L; Campbell, Kristin; Withycombe, Janice; Schwartz, Cindy L; Kelly, Kara; Meza, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Fatigue is a significant problem for adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. The relationship between exercise and fatigue is complex. This study explored the trajectory of and the relationship between exercise and fatigue over 36 months post-therapy in a cohort of 103 AYA-aged HL survivors treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) study AHOD0031. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were used in this secondary data analysis. Exercise and fatigue improved over time but were unrelated; amount of exercise at end of therapy predicted amount of exercise at 12 (p = 0.02) and 36 (p = 0.0008) months post-therapy.

  8. Learning to Like Exercising: Evaluative Conditioning Changes Automatic Evaluations of Exercising and Influences Subsequent Exercising Behavior.

    PubMed

    Antoniewicz, Franziska; Brand, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    This multistudy report used an experimental approach to alter automatic evaluations of exercise (AEE). First, we investigated the plasticity of AEE (study 1). A computerized evaluative conditioning task was developed that altered the AEE of participants in two experimental groups (acquisition of positive/negative associations involving exercising) and a control group (η2 part. = .11). Second, we examined connections between changes in AEE and subsequent exercise behavior (chosen intensity on a bike ergometer; study 2) in individuals that were placed in groups according to their baseline AEE. Group differences in exercise behavior were detected (η2 part. = .29). The effect was driven by the performance of the group with preexisting negative AEE that acquired more positive associations. This illustrates the effect of altered AEE on subsequent exercise behavior and the potential of AEE as a target for exercise intervention.

  9. Microgravity strategic planning exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Richard; Downey, Jim; Harvey, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space and Advanced Technology supported a planning exercise for the Microgravity Program management at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The effort focused on the status of microgravity work at MSFC and elsewhere with the objective of preparing a goal-oriented strategic planning document which could be used for informational/brochure purposes. The effort entailed numerous interactions and presentations with Field Center programmatic components and Headquarters personnel. Appropriate material was consolidated in a draft format for a MSFC Strategic Plan.

  10. Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Damon C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An exercise device 10 is particularly well suited for use in low gravity environments, and includes a frame 12 with plurality of resistance elements 30,82 supported in parallel on the frame. A load transfer member 20 is moveable relative to the frame for transferring the applied force to the free end of each captured resistance element. Load selection template 14 is removably secured both to the load transfer member, and a plurality of capture mechanisms engage the free end of corresponding resistance elements. The force applying mechanism 53 may be a handle, harness or other user interface for applying a force to move the load transfer member.

  11. Spill exercise 1980: an LLNL emergency training exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, J.L.; Gibson, T.A.; Vance, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    An emergency training exercise at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) demonstrated that off-hours emergency personnel can respond promptly and effecively to an emergency situation involving radiation, hazardous chemicals, and injured persons. The exercise simulated an explosion in a chemistry laboratory and a subsequent toxic-gas release.

  12. Exercise Motivation and Exercise Attribution of Recreational Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaurigue, Jerson Jalandoni

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study determined the exercise motivation and exercise attribution of recreational athletes in one of the major cities in Panay Island. A total of 75 purposively selected respondents who are regular members in a particular club for at least a year and have finished at least a college degree participated in the study. To gather data…

  13. Overtraining and exercise motivation: A research prospectus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, Anthony C.

    1989-01-01

    The problems of exercise overtraining has recently become one of great interest to professionals in the field of human performance assessment. Quite obviously, the ultimate goal of the training process is to improve physical performance. However, excessive training can result in the opposite effect, that is, a performance decline and an impairment in the functional work capacity of the body. Research indicates that both psychological as well as physiological disturbances are quite common in overtrained individuals. For example, psychological changes include increased levels of depression, fatigue, and a lack of motivation. Similarly, impairment of the physiological function of the cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine systems also have been found. Some similarities may be found in the psychological and physiological states of crew members exposed to extended space flight and overtrained individuals. Therefore, the possibility exists that the crew members subjected to extended missions in space may develop overstressed or overtrained or both states during their flights. If such states do develop within the crew members, mission performance may be impaired. With these points as a background, the intent is to address potential research directions that NASA may consider viable and of a mutual interest to the researcher. A clear framework by which to begin discussion of research topics is needed; therefore, working definitions of overtraining and exercise motivation are presented. Subsequently, a proposed conceptional model of how exercise overtraining and motivation interact is presented. In support of the proposed model is a brief literature review of relevant areas. Potential research projects are presented and discussed.

  14. [Exercise therapy in E.N.T].

    PubMed

    Leduc, A; Decloedt, V

    1989-01-01

    A non exhaustive survey of physiotherapy methods and techniques in "soft E.N.T. treatment" is briefly described. Without using "strength or brutality" which might retard the patient's recovery, the physiotherapist should focus his efforts to regain optimal functioning of the affected structure. So, physiotherapy techniques such as relaxation, bio-feedback, massage, exercise and electrotherapy, are used for a successful treatment of headache, migraine, vertigo, peripheral facial palsy, neck, cervico-facial (awkward positioning) and temporo-mandibular joint problems. Manual lymphatic drainage in post-surgical regeneration of skin and underlying structures, an example of very soft technique suits perfectly in the context of "soft E.N.T."

  15. Exercise, energy balance and the shift worker.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don

    2008-01-01

    Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst 'white collar' occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality in shift workers have not been confirmed. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. 'Normal' eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of physical

  16. Using Dynamic Solution Exercises to Achieve Vertical Course Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Elliot; Flesch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper justifies the need for, and offers some suggestions on, the selection and implementation of mathematical problems known as dynamic solution exercises (DSEs). The intent of this article is to help provide insight into how mathematics teachers can go about making "vertical articulation" a cooperative and tangible part of the mathematics…

  17. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 19: County Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  18. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 4: City Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  19. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 18: City Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  20. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 5: County Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

  1. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 1: Game Director's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Game Director's Manual is the first in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The participants, which may range in number from 18 to…

  2. Annelid Aminotransferase Activity--An Exercise in Basic Biochemical Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teal, A. R.; Alcock, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A practical exercise is described that allows students to investigate a specific problem using a variety of biochemical techniques. The need for a thorough understanding of the theoretical principles underlying these processes is emphasized. A program of private study and assessment is suggested to enable the progress of students to be followed.…

  3. Medicine and the Silent Oracle: An Exercise in Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belling, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a simple in-class exercise in reading and writing that, by asking participants to write their own endings for a short narrative taken from the "Journal of the American Medical Association," prompts them to reflect on the problem of uncertainty in medicine and to apply the literary-critical techniques of close…

  4. A Set of Hands-On Exercises on Conformational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrinet, Silvina C.; Mata, Ernesto G.

    2005-01-01

    Conformational analysis is one of the first topics in the organic chemistry curriculum that deals with the crucial problem of viewing and drawing organic molecules. A set of comprehensive exercises is devised that facilitates the students understanding of elementary concepts of conformational analysis with the use of a hands-on approach.

  5. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 12: Developer's Manual No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Developer's Manual No. 2 is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  6. From Metalloproteins to Coordination Chemistry: A Learning Exercise to Teach Transition Metal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reglinski, John; Graham, Duncan; Kennedy, Alan R.; Gibson, Lorraine T.

    2004-01-01

    An exercise is organized to reinforce the fundamental rules of coordination chemistry through a biological study of metalloproteins. The work, which is divided into four well-defined activities, involves a major application of computer databases to address chemical problems.

  7. Exploring exercise as an avenue for the treatment of anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Lindsey B; Powers, Mark B; Utschig, Angela C; Otto, Michael W; Smits, Jasper AJ

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute a significant public health problem. Current gold standard treatments are limited in their effectiveness, prompting the consideration of alternative approaches. In this review, we examine the evidence for exercise as an intervention for anxiety disorders. This evidence comes from population studies, studies of nonclinical anxiety reduction, as well as a limited number of studies of clinically anxious individuals. All of these studies provide converging evidence for consistent beneficial effects of exercise on anxiety, and are consistent with a variety of accounts of the mechanism of anxiety reduction with exercise. Further study of clinical populations is encouraged, as are studies of the mechanism of change of exercise interventions, which have the potential to help refine exercise intervention strategies. Likewise, studies that identify moderators of treatment efficacy will assist clinicians in deciding how and for whom to prescribe exercise. PMID:23002943

  8. Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment | View Video Back About Video Struggling with Low Back Pain? Many people are surprised to learn that carefully selected exercise can actually reduce back pain. Some exercises can ...

  9. Exercise Pills: At the Starting Line.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunchang; Laher, Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, limited physical exercise, and prolonged inactivity undoubtedly increase chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. It is widely acknowledged that exercise induces a number of physiological adaptations that have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of these chronic metabolic diseases. Unfortunately, exercise compliance is extremely low and often not possible. The development of exercise science and molecular techniques has increased our understanding of the molecular pathways responsive to exercise. Knowledge of these molecular targets has led to the development of chemical interventions that can mimic the beneficial effects of exercise without requiring actual muscle activity. This review focuses on the concept of 'exercise pills' and how they mimic the effects produced by physical exercise including oxidative fiber-type transformation, mitochondrial biogenesis, increased fat oxidation, angiogenesis, and improvement of exercise capacity. We also review candidate exercise pills, and contrast the beneficial effects and molecular mechanisms between physical exercise and exercise pills.

  10. Upper Body Exercise: 'Jarming' Instead of Jogging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cindy Christian

    1986-01-01

    The virtues of "armchair exercise" and "jarming" (jogging with the arms) are being extolled far and wide. The relative merits of arm and leg exercise are discussed. People who could benefit from arm exercise are described. (MT)

  11. Exercise by prescription.

    PubMed

    Browne, D

    1997-02-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) see over 90% of their practice population in three years. Over 50% of the adult population is below the perceived level of physical activity as recognised by the Allied Dunbar Physical Activity score (Allied Dunbar, Health Education Authority and Sports Council, 1992). Physical fitness levels in adolescents and children are declining, while the incidence of obesity is increasing. GPs, with their Primary Health Care Team, are in a unique position to be able to discuss the health benefits of regular physical activity with their patients during the consultation and offer, if appropriate, a prescription for a course of physical activity to a local leisure centre or community activity centre. Many communities have facilities for physical activity. These include leisure centres, schools, village and church halls, the home and the general practice surgery. A directory of resources for physical activity for all age groups should be available in the surgery waiting room area. A community co-ordinator can network community facilities and resources to meet individual need. The co-ordinator can be funded by the general practice surgery, Health Authority, Local Authority, Parish or District Council. An agreed protocol for exercise prescription referrals to suitable community facilities can benefit patient health care for a variety of medical, surgical, social and mental conditions. Auditing exercise prescriptions shows a health benefit, with improved quality of living and reduced prescription medicines.

  12. Metabolic response to exercise.

    PubMed

    De Feo, P; Di Loreto, C; Lucidi, P; Murdolo, G; Parlanti, N; De Cicco, A; Piccioni, F; Santeusanio, F

    2003-09-01

    At the beginning, the survival of humans was strictly related to their physical capacity. There was the need to resist predators and to provide food and water for life. Achieving these goals required a prompt and efficient energy system capable of sustaining either high intensity or maintaining prolonged physical activity. Energy for skeletal muscle contraction is supplied by anaerobic and aerobic metabolic pathways. The former can allow short bursts of intense physical activity (60-90 sec) and utilizes as energetic source the phosphocreatine shuttle and anaerobic glycolysis. The aerobic system is the most efficient ATP source for skeletal muscle. The oxidative phosporylation of carbohydrates, fats and, to a minor extent, proteins, can sustain physical activity for many hours. Carbohydrates are the most efficient fuel for working muscle and their contribution to total fuel oxidation is positively related to the intensity of exercise. The first metabolic pathways of carbohydrate metabolism to be involved are skeletal muscle glycogenolysis and glycolysis. Later circulating glucose, formed through activated gluconeogenesis, becomes an important energetic source. Among glucose metabolites, lactate plays a primary role as either direct or indirect (gluconeogenesis) energy source for contracting skeletal muscle. Fat oxidation plays a primary role during either low-moderate intensity exercise or protracted physical activity (over 90-120 min). Severe muscle glycogen depletion results in increased rates of muscle proteolysis and branched chain amino acid oxidation. Endurance training ameliorates physical performance by improving cardiopulmonary efficiency and optimizing skeletal muscle supply and oxidation of substrates.

  13. Joint Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...

  14. Effects of exercise on brain functions in diabetic animal models

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sun Shin

    2015-01-01

    Human life span has dramatically increased over several decades, and the quality of life has been considered to be equally important. However, diabetes mellitus (DM) characterized by problems related to insulin secretion and recognition has become a serious health problem in recent years that threatens human health by causing decline in brain functions and finally leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Exercise is recognized as an effective therapy for DM without medication administration. Exercise studies using experimental animals are a suitable option to overcome this drawback, and animal studies have improved continuously according to the needs of the experimenters. Since brain health is the most significant factor in human life, it is very important to assess brain functions according to the different exercise conditions using experimental animal models. Generally, there are two types of DM; insulin-dependent type 1 DM and an insulin-independent type 2 DM (T2DM); however, the author will mostly discuss brain functions in T2DM animal models in this review. Additionally, many physiopathologic alterations are caused in the brain by DM such as increased adiposity, inflammation, hormonal dysregulation, uncontrolled hyperphagia, insulin and leptin resistance, and dysregulation of neurotransmitters and declined neurogenesis in the hippocampus and we describe how exercise corrects these alterations in animal models. The results of changes in the brain environment differ according to voluntary, involuntary running exercises and resistance exercise, and gender in the animal studies. These factors have been mentioned in this review, and this review will be a good reference for studying how exercise can be used with therapy for treating DM. PMID:25987956

  15. Effects of exercise on brain functions in diabetic animal models.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sun Shin

    2015-05-15

    Human life span has dramatically increased over several decades, and the quality of life has been considered to be equally important. However, diabetes mellitus (DM) characterized by problems related to insulin secretion and recognition has become a serious health problem in recent years that threatens human health by causing decline in brain functions and finally leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Exercise is recognized as an effective therapy for DM without medication administration. Exercise studies using experimental animals are a suitable option to overcome this drawback, and animal studies have improved continuously according to the needs of the experimenters. Since brain health is the most significant factor in human life, it is very important to assess brain functions according to the different exercise conditions using experimental animal models. Generally, there are two types of DM; insulin-dependent type 1 DM and an insulin-independent type 2 DM (T2DM); however, the author will mostly discuss brain functions in T2DM animal models in this review. Additionally, many physiopathologic alterations are caused in the brain by DM such as increased adiposity, inflammation, hormonal dysregulation, uncontrolled hyperphagia, insulin and leptin resistance, and dysregulation of neurotransmitters and declined neurogenesis in the hippocampus and we describe how exercise corrects these alterations in animal models. The results of changes in the brain environment differ according to voluntary, involuntary running exercises and resistance exercise, and gender in the animal studies. These factors have been mentioned in this review, and this review will be a good reference for studying how exercise can be used with therapy for treating DM.

  16. Exercise hypertension: an adverse prognosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan G; Rubin, Stanley A; Ellestad, Myrvin H

    2009-01-01

    We sought to clarify the prognostic importance of an "exaggerated" or "hypertensive" systolic blood pressure response to exercise during an exercise test. Studies evaluating the prognosis for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in those with hypertension during exercise testing were systematically reviewed. Fourteen studies were identified. Six studies were of healthy volunteers or hypertensives. Eight studies were in subjects with known or suspected heart disease. Without established heart disease, exercise hypertension predicted cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. However, two of the six studies included a multivariate analysis; both demonstrated no independent association. Studies in subjects with known or suspected heart disease demonstrated that exercise hypertension predicted fewer cardiac events and lesser mortality or, after multivariate adjustment, no associated risk. In a healthy population, a higher exercise blood pressure may indicate hypertension or prehypertension, instead of normal vascular function, and an associated long-term adverse prognosis. In a population with a high burden of heart disease, the highest risk subjects with the most extensive cardiac disease may not be capable of generating pressure or workload to allow the manifestation of exercise systolic hypertension. By comparison, therefore, those with exercise hypertension have a better prognosis. PMID:20409979

  17. Biologic Influences on Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic profiles of 362 male participants in an exercise program were analyzed to determine the biological variables between exercise adherence and symptoms of coronary disease. Findings indicated that individuals with lower metabolic capacity tended to adhere longer, to be less fit, were leaner, and began with more symptoms related to coronary…

  18. An Elementary Organic Review Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Darrell H.

    1980-01-01

    An elementary organic review exercise is described which can be given to a secondary school student who has completed an elementary unit on the chemistry of carbon. This is recommended as an exercise, not a test, but can be utilized for evaluative purposes. The format includes both multiple-choice and essay questions. (DS)

  19. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    PubMed

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  20. Exercise: Is More Always Better?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Diana M; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2016-02-01

    Do greater levels of exercise always promote relatively higher levels of daily energy expenditure and health? Recent studies challenge the traditional assumption that 'more exercise is better' by suggesting daily energy expenditure and health plateaus are reached beyond which incremental gains are minimal. PMID:26859262

  1. Nutrition, Weight Control, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; McArdle, William D.

    This book contains information on nutrition, weight control, and exercise. Some basic information from the biological sciences is included but a specialized background is not necessary to understand the text. The content is appropriate for nutrition, weight control, exercise, and physical fitness courses at the university level, for the various…

  2. The Caltech Political Military Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, E. S.; And Others

    The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

  3. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  4. Program development for exercise countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. C.; Stewart, D. F.; Harris, B. A.; Siconolfi, S. F.; Greenisen, M. C.; Larochelle, F. T.

    1992-01-01

    The concern of NASA's Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) is to ensure crew physical effectiveness for flight- or mission-related tasks, and encompasses postflight as well as preflight and inflight exercise components. Attention is given to the implementation of ECP via the Space Shuttle Orbiter's treadmill, rower, cycle ergometer, and lower body negative pressure apparatus.

  5. Mind Maps as Classroom Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A Mind Map is an outline in which the major categories radiate from a central image and lesser categories are portrayed as branches of larger branches. The author describes an in-class exercise in which small groups of students each create a Mind Map for a specific topic. This exercise is another example of an active and collaborative learning…

  6. Effects of Exercise on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rarick, G. Lawrence

    Exercise is generally held to be a significant factor in the growth, development, and health of children and adolescents. The effects of physical activity regimens on general growth, as well as quantitative and qualitative changes, in animal muscle and bone tissue have been clearly demonstrated. Less is known about the role of exercise and related…

  7. Exercise and the stress system.

    PubMed

    Mastorakos, George; Pavlatou, Maria; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Chrousos, George P

    2005-01-01

    Exercise represents a physical stress that challenges homeostasis. In response to this stressor, autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are known to react and to participate in the maintenance of homeostasis. This includes elevation of cortisol and cathecholamines in plasma. However, sustained physical conditioning in highly trained athletes is associated with a decreased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to exercise. On the other hand, highly trained athletes exhibit a chronic mild hypercortisolism at baseline that may be an adaptive change to chronic exercise. In addition the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 is also activated. Moreover, exercise stimulates the secretion of GH and prolactin, and may influence the type of immunity by stimulating TH2 response profile. Besides, the stress of exercise inhibits the gonadal function, through the production of glucocorticoids and cathecholamines, as well as through activation of the CRH neurons. Nowadays, apart from the beneficial effects of exercise, there is increasing incidence of exercise-related short- and long- term consequences, especially concerning the female athlete that many authors describe as the so-called "exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction". These consequences include amenorrhea, infertility, eating disorders, osteoporosis, coronary heart disease and euthyroid "sick" syndrome. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the above disorders are discussed in this review.

  8. Laboratory Exercise on Active Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…

  9. Prolactinemia in exercising male athletes.

    PubMed

    Brisson, G R; Ledoux, M; Péronnet, F; Dulac, S; DeCarufel, D; Volle, M A; Rainville, J; Audet, A

    1981-01-01

    8 male collegial athletes were submitted at random to three (55, 70 and 85% of VO2 max) ergocycle exercises of 20-min duration. Venous blood samples were obtained before, during and after ergocycling sessions by antecubital catheterization. Serum prolactin was measured by RIA using specific antiserum. The exercise treatments induced a blood prolactin response proportional to the intensity of the work loads.

  10. Stochastic optimization for the calculation of the time dependency of the physiological demand during exercise and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakynthinaki, M. S.; Stirling, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    The stochastic optimization method ALOPEX IV is successfully applied to the problem of estimating the time dependency of the physiological demand in response to exercise. This is a fundamental and unsolved problem in the area of exercise physiology, where the lack of appropriate tools and techniques forces the assumption and the use of a constant demand during exercise. By the use of an appropriate partition of the physiological time series and by means of stochastic optimization, the time dependency of the physiological demand during heavy intensity exercise and its subsequent recovery is, for the first time, revealed.

  11. Solving Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Norman; Lindelow, John

    Chapter 12 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter cites the work of several authorities concerning problem-solving or decision-making techniques based on the belief that group problem-solving effort is preferable to individual effort. The first technique, force-field analysis, is described as a means of dissecting complex problems into…

  12. Respiratory weight losses during exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract was determined over a wide range of exercise. The absolute humidity of the expired air was the same at all levels of exercise and equal to that measured at rest. The rate of respiratory water loss during exercise was found to be 0.019 of the oxygen uptake times (44 minus water vapor pressure). The rate of weight loss during exercise due to CO2-O2 exchange was calculated. For exercise at oxygen consumption rates exceeding 1.5 L/min in a dry environment with a water vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg, the total rate of weight loss via the respiratory tract is on the order of 2-5 g/min.

  13. Do early quadriceps exercises affect the outcome of ACL reconstruction? A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Triston; Williams, Marie T; Chipchase, Lucy S

    2005-01-01

    A prospective, blinded, randomised controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of quadriceps exercises following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A treatment group (Quadriceps exercise group) performed straight leg raises and isometric quadriceps contractions throughout the first two postoperative weeks, and a second group (No quadriceps exercise group) did not. A battery of outcome measures assessed subjects postoperatively at day one, two weeks, and one, three and six months. A total of 103 patients (Quadriceps exercise n = 48, No quadriceps exercise n = 55) commenced the study with 91 subjects available at final follow up (Quadriceps exercise n = 47, No quadriceps exercise n = 44). Performance of quadriceps exercises significantly improved a number of knee flexion and extension range of motion measurements (p = 0.01 to 0.04). No significant differences were found between the two groups at any postoperative period for quadriceps lag (p = 0.36), functional hop testing (p = 0.49 to 0.51), isokinetic quadriceps strength (p = 0.70 to 0.72), the majority of numerical analogue scores (p = 0.1 to 0.94) and Cincinnati scores (p = 0.10 to 0.84). Subjects performing quadriceps exercises reported significantly higher pain scores with exercise on the first postoperative day (p = 0.02). At six months postoperatively, the Quadriceps exercise subjects reported significantly more favourable Cincinnati scores for symptoms (p = 0.005) and problems with sport (p = 0.05). While average knee laxity was not significantly different between treatment groups over time (p = 0.27 to 0.94), quadriceps exercise performance was associated with a significantly lower incidence of abnormal knee laxity. Isometric quadriceps exercises and straight leg raises can be safely prescribed during the first two postoperative weeks and confer advantages for faster recovery of knee range of motion and stability. It remains to be proven whether the magnitude of differences between groups is

  14. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  15. [Magnesium and exercise].

    PubMed

    Bielinski, R W

    2006-07-26

    The determination of the magnesium status is difficult, since a cheep, sensitive and usable test remains to be found. Serum magnesium only signals severe deficiencies, which are in athletes. Blood cell magnesium may detect a subclinical deficiency, the significance of which is however very controversial. The "magnesium loading test" is the standard method, but it is too complex for the practice. A mixed diet with sufficient energy covers the needs of athletes of all levels. When the plasma magnesium levels are in normal range, supplements offer no significant benefits in terms of performance. The usefulness of magnesium in the treatment of exercise related muscle cramps is most probably widely exaggerated. Various other electrolyte dysbalances as well as venous insufficiency are certainly more important factors.

  16. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering. PMID:27648057

  17. Effect of aerobic exercises on stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Illays; Nawaz, Irum; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering. Methods: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group –group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders. Results: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups. Conclusion: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering.

  18. Golden Ratio in a Coupled-Oscillator Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Goff, John Eric

    2007-01-01

    The golden ratio appears in a classical mechanics coupled-oscillator problem that many undergraduates may not solve. Once the symmetry is broken in a more standard problem, the golden ratio appears. Several student exercises arise from the problem considered in this paper.

  19. Carbohydrate-dependent, exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Burini, Roberto C

    2014-10-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, a high intake of carbohydrate and hyperosmolar solutions increases GI problems. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates. This type of CHO intake increases the oxidation rates and can prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. Glucose (6%) or glucose plus fructose (8%-10%) beverages are recommended in order to increase CHO intake while avoiding the gastric emptying delay. Training the gut with high intake of CHO may increase absorption capacity and probably prevent GI distress. CHO mouth rinse may be a good strategy to enhance performance without using GI tract in exercises lasting less than an hour. Future strategies should be investigated comparing different CHO types, doses, and concentration in exercises with the same characteristics. PMID:25314645

  20. Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Burini, Roberto C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, a high intake of carbohydrate and hyperosmolar solutions increases GI problems. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates. This type of CHO intake increases the oxidation rates and can prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. Glucose (6%) or glucose plus fructose (8%–10%) beverages are recommended in order to increase CHO intake while avoiding the gastric emptying delay. Training the gut with high intake of CHO may increase absorption capacity and probably prevent GI distress. CHO mouth rinse may be a good strategy to enhance performance without using GI tract in exercises lasting less than an hour. Future strategies should be investigated comparing different CHO types, doses, and concentration in exercises with the same characteristics. PMID:25314645

  1. Youth Exercise Intention and Past Exercise Behavior: Examining the Moderating Influences of Sex and Meeting Exercise Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Danielle Symons; Graham, George M.; Yang, Stephen; Bargainnier, Sandra; Vasil, Jay

    2006-01-01

    The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures of…

  2. Fluid balance and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2003-03-01

    Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it has major implications for competitors as well as for spectators and officials. Prolonged exercise leads to progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and increases in proportion to work rate and environmental temperature and humidity. Sweat rates are highly variable and can exceed 2L.h-1 for prolonged periods in high heat. Since dehydration will impair exercise capacity and can pose a risk to health, the intake of fluid during exercise to offset sweat losses is important. Carbohydrate-electrolyte fluid ingestion during exercise has the dual role of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. The composition of the drinks to be taken will be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water which, in turn depends on the intensity and duration of exercise activity, the ambient temperature, and humidity. Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. There is no advantage to fluid intake during exercise of less than 30-minute duration. Complete restoration of fluid balance after exercise is an important part of the recovery process and becomes even more important in hot, humid conditions. If a second bout of exercise has to be performed after a relatively short interval, the speed of rehydration becomes of crucial importance. Rehydration after exercise requires not only replacement of volume losses, but also replacement of some electrolytes, primarily sodium

  3. The problem of choice

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Hassan R; Mathur, Shawn; Covarrubias, David; Curcio, Josephine A; Schmidt, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Convictions are a driving force for actions. Considering that every individual has a different set of convictions and larger groups act once a consensus decision is reached, one can see that debate is an inherent exercise in decision-making. This requires a sustainably generated surplus to allow time for intellectual exchange, gathering of information and dissemination of findings. It is essential that the full spectrum of options remain treated equally. At the end of this process, a choice has to be made. Looking back at a later time point, a retrospective analysis sometimes reveals that the choice was neither completely free nor a truly conscious one. Leaving the issue of consequences of a once made decision aside, we wish to contribute to the debate of the problem of choice. PMID:19025607

  4. Barriers and motivations to exercise in older adults.

    PubMed

    Schutzer, Karen A; Graves, B Sue

    2004-11-01

    Although exercise is an established component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age. Given the growing proportion of older adults, these suboptimal levels of physical activity represent an increasing public health problem. The predicators of adherence elucidated in younger adults are unreliable in elderly populations. Age-specific barriers and motivators unique to this cohort are relevant and must be acknowledged. The identification of reliable predictors of exercise adherence will allow healthcare providers to effectively intervene and change patterns of physical activity in sedentary elderly. In particular, because older patients respect their physician's advice and have regular contact with their family doctor, physicians can play a key and pivotal role in the initiation and maintenance of exercise behavior among the older population.

  5. Relation Between Obligatory Exercise and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, Bonnie J.; Steffen, John J.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers (those for whom exercise is the central focus of their lives). Surveys of 250 male and female adolescents indicated that obligatory exercisers had more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers, sharing…

  6. Hypertension. Part 1: How Exercise Helps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanji, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews possible mechanisms by which exercise lowers blood pressure and discusses research which indicates exercise is an effective therapy for hypertension. The article presents information to help physicians counsel hypertensive patients wanting to start an exercise program and examines the use of exercise testing to predict the onset of…

  7. Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal step…

  8. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  9. Questionable Exercises--Some Safer Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Ruth; Corbin, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Some commonly misused or abused exercises which are potentially harmful are identified. Each questionable exercise is illustrated, its potential for harm discussed, and an alternative suggested. Ten general rules are offered to help teachers, coaches, exercise leaders, and individuals avoid exercise-related injuries. (IAH)

  10. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  11. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  12. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  13. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  14. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  15. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  16. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  17. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  18. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  19. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  20. Enhancing Adherence in Clinical Exercise Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Heather A.; Blair, Steven N.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses exercise adherence from the perspective of adhering to an exercise treatment in a controlled trial, focusing on: adherence (to intervention and measurement); the development of randomized clinical trials; exemplary randomized clinical trials in exercise science (exercise training studies and physical activity interventions); and study…

  1. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  2. Effects of Three Bridging Exercises on Local and Global Muscles of Middle Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ji Kyeng; Lim, Hee Sung; Shin, Sung Rae; Kim, Bo Hyun; Lee, Suk Min

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the muscle activity differences of three different lumbar stabilization exercises in a comparison of middle-aged and young women. [Subjects] Seventeen middle-aged women and fifteen young women were enrolled in this study. Patients with a history of any neurologic disorders, orthopedic disorders, or cardiopulmonary problems that would have affected their lumbar stabilization exercise performance were excluded. [Methods] All subjects performed 3 exercises while the surface electromographic activity was recorded of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, multifidus, and iliocostalis lumbolum. The mean electromyographic amplitudes obtained during the exercise were normalized to the amplitude of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) to produce an inter-individually comparable muscle activity index. [Results] The highest muscle activity of middle-aged women was observed in the ring bridging exercise. The middle-aged women had higher levels of all muscle activaties than the young women, particularly in the multifidus muscle and iliocostalis lumborum. No significant difference in muscle activity ratio was observed between the local muscles and global muscles in the three different exercises, though the muscle activity ratio was the highest in the ring bridging exercise. The young women group showed a higher ratio of the internal oblique/rectus abdominus than the middle aged women in the bridging exercise. [Conclusion] The ring bridging exercise should be used for stabilizing the lumbar area because the young women showed a higher ratio than the middle aged women. PMID:24259869

  3. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  4. Parking Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This is the story of a real problem, not a problem that is contrived, or invented for the convenience of the appropriate planning tool. This activity by a group of students, defined simply as "8FN", might be likened to an "end of term concert". If you just happened to be a delegate at the ATM Conference 2003 you might remember the analogy. Social…

  5. Pelvic Support Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... special pelvic muscle exercises called Kegel exercises. A mechanical support device called a pessary helps some women. Surgery and medicines are other treatments. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human ...

  6. Exercise Training During +Gz Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Chou, J. L.; Simonson, S. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose is to study the effect of passive (without exercise) and active (with exercise) +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration training, using a short-arm (1.9m radius) centrifuge, on post- training maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max, work capacity) and 70 deg head-up tilt (orthostatic) tolerance in ambulatory subjects to test the hypothesis that (a) both passive and active acceleration training will improve post-training tilt-tolerance, and (b) there will be no difference in tilt-tolerance between passive and active exercise acceleration training because increased hydrostatic and blood pressures, rather than increased muscular metabolism, will provide the major adaptive stimulus. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the metabolic responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  7. Herbs in exercise and sports

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size. PMID:22738233

  8. The Exercise of Effective Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Robert R.; Mouton, Jane Srygley

    1981-01-01

    Describes an exercise that provides a basis for resolving the controversy over which leadership theory is better, the Situational Contingency approach or the one-best-style approach. Thirty-two references are listed. (Author/LLS)

  9. Exercising and asthma at school

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma attack, modify PE activities. For example, a running program might be set up this way: Walk ... whole distance Run part of the distance Alternate running and walking Some exercises may be less likely ...

  10. Exercises to help prevent falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... D, Dempster DW, Luckey M, Cauley J, eds. Osteoporosis . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 70. Donath L, van Dieen J, Faude O. Exercise-based fall prevention in the elderly: what about ...

  11. NASA Now: Exercise Physiology: Countermeasures

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aaron Weaver is a biomedical engineer responsible for setting up and running experiments and recruiting test subjects in the Exercise Countermeasures Laboratory at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in...

  12. Exercise Science: A New Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Benjamin

    1982-01-01

    Exercise science represents an integrated approach to the study of the physiological, biochemical, and mechanical adaptations of humans to stresses imposed by a variety of physical performances as well as ambient conditions such as temperature and humidity. (MLW)

  13. How Are Diet & Exercise Affected?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Pain Management Nutrition and Exercise Holistic Care Pathology Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Islet Cell Tumors & Endocrine ... 410-933-7262 Site Map Policies & Credits News Pathology Home Goldman Center © 2016 Johns Hopkins University

  14. Our World: Exercise in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out why exercise is so important to the astronauts who travel into space. Learn how gravity affects our bodies and what astronauts must do in reduced gravity environments to keep their bodies ...

  15. The role of exercise in the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Edward R

    2012-11-01

    The United States is in the midst of a significant public health problem that relates to obesity and inactivity. This epidemic has far-ranging consequences for our workforce and our children and shows no signs of slowing in the near future. Significant research has been performed on the effects of exercise for the reduction of body weight; results of most studies indicate that exercise alone has a small effect on body-weight reduction independent of caloric restriction. However, when combined with dietary restriction, exercise has a synergistic effect and enhances weight loss beyond the effect of diet alone. In addition, exercise has been shown to have significant beneficial effects on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors independent of actual weight loss, and losing just a small amount of weight can have a significant beneficial effect on these parameters. Genetic factors related to obesity have been found to be positively modified when persons incorporate physical activity into their lifestyle. Sitting time appears to be an independent risk factor for the development of metabolic risk factors; persons who spend more time sitting and watching television have worse metabolic profiles, even if they achieve the recommended amount of physical activity per week, than do those who move about throughout the day. Exercise also is essential for the prevention of weight gain over a life span, although the amount required to prevent weight gain may be closer to twice the amount of exercise recommended by the current Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (www.health.gov/paguidelines). In many ways, the physiatrist is the most well prepared of all the specialists to address the complex, multidimensional problems of obesity and inactivity. PMID:23174547

  16. The Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Oocyte Quality in a Diet-Induced Obese Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Boudoures, Anna L.; Chi, Maggie; Thompson, Alysha; Zhang, Wendy; Moley, Kelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity negatively affects many aspects of the human body, including reproductive function. In females, the root of the decline in fertility is linked to problems in the oocyte. Problems seen in oocytes that positively correlate with increasing BMI include changes to the metabolism, lipid accumulation, meiosis, and metaphase II (MII) spindle structure. Studies in mice indicate dietary interventions fail to reverse these problems [4]. How exercise affects the oocytes has not been addressed. Therefore, we hypothesized an exercise intervention would improve oocyte quality. Here we show in a mouse model of an exercise intervention can improve lipid metabolism in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes. Oocytes significantly increased activity and transcription of the β-oxidation enzyme Hadha (Hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase) in response to exercise training only if the mice had been fed a high fat diet (HFD). An exercise intervention also reversed the lipid accumulation seen in GV stage oocytes of HFD females. However, delays in meiosis and disorganized MII spindles remained present. Therefore, exercise is able to improve, but not reverse, damage imparted on oocytes as a result of a high fat diet and obesity. By utilizing an exercise intervention on a HFD, we determined only lipid content and lipid metabolism is changed in GV oocytes. Moving forward, interventions to improve oocyte quality may need to be more targeted to the oocyte specifically. Because of the HFD induced deficiency in β-oxidation, dietary supplementation with substrates to improve lipid utilization may be more beneficial. PMID:26700938

  17. Modeling heat exchange characteristics of long term space operations: Role of skin wettedness and exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of heat exchange during rest and exercise during long term space operations are covered in this report. Particular attention is given to the modeling and description of the consequences of requirement to exercise in a zero-g atmosphere during Space Shuttle flights, especially long term ones. In space environments, there exists no free convection therefore only forced convection occurring by movement, such as pedalling on a cycle ergometer, augments required heat dissipation necessary to regulate body temperature. The requirement to exercise at discrete periods of the day is good practice in order to resist the deleterious consequences of zero-gravity problems and improve distribution of body fluids. However, during exercise (ca. 180 to 250W), in zero-g environments, the mass of eccrine sweating rests as sheets on the skin surface and the sweat cannot evaporate readily. The use of exercise suits with fabrics that have hydrophobic or outwicking properties somewhat distributes the mass of sweat to a larger surface from which to evaporate. However, with no free convection, increased skin wettedness throughout the body surface induces increasing thermal discomfort, particularly during continuous exercise. This report presents several alternatives to aid in this problem: use of intermittent exercise, methods to quantify local skin wettedness, and introduction of a new effective temperature that integrates thermal stress and heat exchange avenues in a zero-g atmosphere.

  18. Problem-Based Learning in Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockter, DuWayne L.

    2012-01-01

    Seasoned educators use an assortment of student-centered methods and tools to enhance their student's learning environment. In respects to methodologies used in accounting, educators have utilized and created new forms of problem-based learning exercises, including case studies, simulations, and other projects, to help students become more active…

  19. The Biomechanics of Exercise Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Arnold, Steven; Derr, Janice; Sharkey, Neil; Wu, Ge

    1999-01-01

    The Penn State Zero-gravity Simulator (PSZS) is a device developed by the Center for Locomotion Studies (CELOS) to enable ground studies of exercise countermeasures for the bone loss that has been shown to occur during long-term exposure to zero gravity (0G). The PSZS simulates 0G exercise by providing a suspension system that holds an individual in a horizontal (supine) position above the floor in order to enable exercise on a wall-mounted treadmill. Due to this orientation, exercise performed in the PSZS is free of the force of -ravity in the direction that would normally contribute to ground reaction forces. In order for movements to be more similar to those in 0G, a constant force suspension of each segment (equal to the segment weight) is provided regardless of limb position. During the preliminary development of the PSZS, CELOS researchers also designed an optional gravity-replacement simulation feature for the PSZS. This feature was a prototype tethering system that consisted of a spring tension system to pull an exercising individual toward the treadmill. The immediate application of the tethering system was to be the provision of gravity-replacement loading so that exercise in 0G- and 1G-loading conditions could be compared, and the PSZS could then be used to evaluate exercise countermeasures for bone loss during space flight. This tethering system would also be a model for the further refinement of gravity-replacement systems provided for astronaut usage while performing prescribed exercise countermeasures for bone loss during long-term space flights.

  20. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  1. Obesity, growth hormone and exercise.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is regulated, suppressed and stimulated by numerous physiological stimuli. However, it is believed that obesity disrupts the physiological and pathological factors that regulate, suppress or stimulate GH release. Pulsatile GH has been potently stimulated in healthy subjects by both aerobic and resistance exercise of the right intensity and duration. GH modulates fuel metabolism, reduces total fat mass and abdominal fat mass, and could be a potent stimulus of lipolysis when administered to obese individuals exogenously. Only pulsatile GH has been shown to augment adipose tissue lipolysis and, therefore, increasing pulsatile GH response may be a therapeutic target. This review discusses the factors that cause secretion of GH, how obesity may alter GH secretion and how both aerobic and resistance exercise stimulates GH, as well as how exercise of a specific intensity may be used as a stimulus for GH release in individuals who are obese. Only five prior studies have investigated exercise as a stimulus of endogenous GH in individuals who are obese. Based on prior literature, resistance exercise may provide a therapeutic target for releasing endogenous GH in individuals who are obese if specific exercise programme variables are utilized. Biological activity of GH indicates that this may be an important precursor to beneficial changes in body fat and lean tissue mass in obese individuals. However, additional research is needed including what molecular GH variants are acutely released and involved at target tissues as a result of different exercise stimuli and what specific exercise programme variables may serve to stimulate GH in individuals who are obese.

  2. SnapShot: Exercise Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brendan; Hawley, John A; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-08-01

    Exercise represents a major challenge to whole-body homeostasis. To meet this challenge, myriad acute and adaptive responses take place at multiple cellular and systemic levels. The molecular bases of skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise are mediated by an array of signaling events, pre- and post-transcriptional processes, regulation of translation, and ultimately the increased abundance and/or maximal activity of key proteins with roles in energy provision. PMID:27508878

  3. Exercise interventions: defusing the world's osteoporosis time bomb.

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Ming Chan; Anderson, Mary; Lau, Edith M. C.

    2003-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, affecting millions of people worldwide. The associated health care costs are growing in parallel with increases in elderly populations, and it is expected that the number of osteoporotic fractures will double over the next 50 years. The best way to address osteoporosis is prevention. Some interventions to maximize and preserve bone mass have multiple health benefits and are cost-effective. For example, modifications to diet and lifestyle can help to prevent osteoporosis, and could potentially lead to a significant decrease in fracture rates; and exercise is a valuable adjunct to programmes aimed at alleviating the risks and symptoms of osteoporosis. Practising exercise at a young age helps maximize the mineral density of bones while they are still growing and maturing, and continuing to excercise minimizes bone loss later in life. Not only does exercise improve bone health, it also increases muscle strength, coordination, balance, flexibility and leads to better overall health. Walking, aerobic exercise, and t'ai chi are the best forms of exercise to stimulate bone formation and strengthen the muscles that help support bones. Encouraging physical activity at all ages is therefore a top priority to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:14758410

  4. Exercise training in hypertension: Role of microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Vander José das; Fernandes, Tiago; Roque, Fernanda Roberta; Soci, Ursula Paula Renó; Melo, Stéphano Freitas Soares; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex disease that constitutes an important public health problem and demands many studies in order to understand the molecular mechanisms involving his pathophysiology. Therefore, an increasing number of studies have been conducted and new therapies are continually being discovered. In this context, exercise training has emerged as an important non-pharmacological therapy to treat hypertensive patients, minimizing the side effects of pharmacological therapies and frequently contributing to allow pharmacotherapy to be suspended. Several mechanisms have been associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension, such as hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, impaired endothelial nitric oxide production, increased oxygen-reactive species, vascular thickening and stiffening, cardiac hypertrophy, impaired angiogenesis, and sometimes genetic predisposition. With the advent of microRNAs (miRNAs), new insights have been added to the perspectives for the treatment of this disease, and exercise training has been shown to be able to modulate the miRNAs associated with it. Elucidation of the relationship between exercise training and miRNAs in the pathogenesis of hypertension is fundamental in order to understand how exercise modulates the cardiovascular system at genetic level. This can be promising even for the development of new drugs. This article is a review of how exercise training acts on hypertension by means of specific miRNAs in the heart, vascular system, and skeletal muscle. PMID:25228951

  5. Andrological aspects of physical exercise and sport medicine.

    PubMed

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Romanelli, Francesco; Sgrò, Paolo; Lenzi, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Appropriate physical activity is one of the bases of healthy lifestyle. In fact, physical exercise and playing sport may be associated with both improvements and injury to both general and reproductive health. A biologically normal testosterone secretion appears fundamental in males to guarantee both a physiological exercise adaptation and safe sport participation. The reproductive system is highly sensitive to the effects of exercise-related stress and the reproductive hormones may both increase and decrease after different acute or chronic exercises. Exercise and sport participation may positively or negatively influence andrological health status depending on the type, intensity and duration of performed physical activity and on individual health status. In addition, prohibited substances administration (e.g. androgenic-anabolic steroids, and so forth) in competitive and non-competitive athletes represents the main cause of iatrogenic andrological diseases. Preventing and treating andrological problems in active healthy and unhealthy individuals is as important as promoting a correct lifestyle. Physicians need to be educated on the relationships between the male reproductive system and sport participation and on the great role of the pre-participation physical examination in the prevention of andrological diseases.

  6. AN EVALUATION OF ANTECEDENT EXERCISE ON BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY AUTOMATIC REINFORCEMENT USING A THREE-COMPONENT MULTIPLE SCHEDULE

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Heather; Roscoe, Eileen M; Atwell, Amy

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated antecedent exercise for treating the automatically reinforced problem behavior of 4 individuals with autism. We conducted preference assessments to identify leisure and exercise items that were associated with high levels of engagement and low levels of problem behavior. Next, we conducted three 3-component multiple-schedule sequences: an antecedent-exercise test sequence, a noncontingent leisure-item control sequence, and a social-interaction control sequence. Within each sequence, we used a 3-component multiple schedule to evaluate preintervention, intervention, and postintervention effects. Problem behavior decreased during the postintervention component relative to the preintervention component for 3 of the 4 participants during the exercise-item assessment; however, the effects could not be attributed solely to exercise for 1 of these participants. PMID:21941383

  7. Bioenergetics of exercising humans.

    PubMed

    Brooks, George A

    2012-01-01

    Human muscles, limbs and supporting ventilatory, cardiovascular, and metabolic systems are well adapted for walking, and there is reasonable transfer of efficiency of movement to bicycling. Our efficiency and economy of movement of bipedal walking (≈30%) are far superior to those of apes. This overall body efficiency during walking and bicycling represents the multiplicative interaction of a phosphorylative coupling efficiency of ≈60%, and a mechanical coupling efficiency of ≈50%. These coupling efficiencies compare well with those of other species adapted for locomotion. We are capable runners, but our speed and power are inferior to carnivorous and omnivorous terrestrial mammalian quadrupeds because of biomechanical and physiological constraints. But, because of our metabolic plasticity (i.e., the ability to switch among carbohydrate (CHO)- and lipid-derived energy sources) our endurance capacity is very good by comparison to most mammals, but inferior to highly adapted species such as wolves and migratory birds. Our ancestral ability for hunting and gathering depends on strategy and capabilities in the areas of thermoregulation, and metabolic plasticity. Clearly, our competitive advantage of survival in the biosphere depends in intelligence and behavior. Today, those abilities that served early hunter-gatherers make for interesting athletic competitions due to wide variations in human phenotypes. In contemporary society, the stresses of regular physical exercise serve to minimize morbidities and mortality associated with physical inactivity, overnutrition, and aging.

  8. Clinical exercises in empathy.

    PubMed

    Muslin, H L

    1974-08-01

    These exercises have demonstrated the psychological work necessary in becoming familiar with the use of empathy as an observation mode. As can be seen the residents easily learn to make the important cognitive observations and soon become familiar with and articulate their subjective responses. To get the stage of empathic observation requires the awareness of the distinction between one's subjective reaction and empathy. Metapsychologically speaking, the learning required is centered on expanding the self-observing functions of the ego, so as to be aware of previous reactions and self-experiences. Thus the observer can apprehend in himself these several and separate reactions and distinguish the idiosyncratic, subjective reactions to the patient data from the seeking out of self-states closely identified with the patient's experience. The analogous experience is that of the patient in intensive psychotherapy whose task is to attempt to make a split in the ego into the experiencing part and the observing part of the psychic apparatus. As observers of another's psyche, we are to become aware of the patient's impact on us and to value this data as important to understand how the patient influences people's reactions to him or her; but then this set of observations must be split away from the attempt to introspect to a self-state closer to where the patient is, psychologically speaking.

  9. Compact, Controlled Resistance Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulus, David C.; DeWitt, John K.; Reich, Alton J.; Shaw, James E.; Deaconu, Stelu S.

    2011-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to muscle and bone atrophy. Isoinertial (free-weight) exercises provide a sufficient stimulus to elicit increases in both muscle strength and bone mineral density in Earth-based studies. While exercise equipment is in use on the International Space Station for crewmember health maintenance, current devices are too large to place in a transport vehicle or small spacecraft. Therefore, a portable computer controlled resistance exercise device is being developed that is able to simulate the inertial loading experienced when lifting a mass on Earth. This portable device weighs less than 50 lb and can simulate the resistance of lifting and lowering up to 600 lb of free-weights. The objective is to allow crewmembers to perform resistance exercise with loads capable of maintaining muscle and bone health. The device is reconfigurable and allows for the performance of typical Earth-based free-weight exercises. Forces exerted, volume of work, range of motion, time-under-tension, and speed/ acceleration of movement are recorded and can be remotely monitored to track progress and modify individual protocols based on exercise session data. A performance evaluation will be completed and data will be presented that include ground-reaction force comparisons between the device and free-weight dead-lifts over a spectrum of resistance levels. Movement biomechanics will also be presented.

  10. Immune responses to resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Freidenreich, Daniel J; Volek, Jeff S

    2012-01-01

    Resistance exercise induces changes in leukocyte redistribution, phenotypical surface expression and leukocyte functionality. Several factors have been shown to alter the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of response including manipulation of acute program variables, the aging process, and nutritional supplementation. Rest period length and load can modify the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of leukocytosis post exercise. Aging diminishes both the duration and magnitude of the post exercise leukocytosis and reduces leukocyte functionality. The few studies that assessed the effects of nutritional supplements (e.g., carbohydrate, whey protein, caffeine) peri-resistance exercise showed minimal effects on leukocyte responses. Sex differences exist in the timing and magnitude of leukocyte infiltration into skeletal muscle. The immune response to resistance exercise is only a small part of the recovery paradigm. A better understanding of how acute program variables and other factors such as aging, sex and nutritional supplementation affect the immune response to resistance exercise is important in the context of improving recovery, performance and health.

  11. Representing Numbers in the Computer: A Laboratory Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, Leslie

    1998-06-01

    The finite memory of a computer creates problems in the representation and manipulation of non-integer ("floating point") quantities; it is explained how such problems can be magnified by inappropriate numerical procedures or ameliorated by careful data treatment. In order to clarify the issues involved, the methods by which characters, integers and floating point quantities are stored and handled in the computer are outlined. Then, a number of exercises is presented, for operation on both computers and calculators, by which the accuracy of number representation may be judged and which illustrate some of the problems which might arise in naive computational procedures.

  12. The pathological status of exercise dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bamber, D.; Cockerill, I.; Carroll, D.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—This study was concerned with the concept of exercise dependence. Levels of psychological morbidity, personality profiles, and exercise beliefs were compared among subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Method—Adult female exercisers were allocated on the basis of questionnaire screening to one of the following groups: primary exercise dependence (n = 43); secondary exercise dependence, where there was the coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder (n = 27); eating disorder (n =14); control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder (n = 110). Questionnaire assessment was undertaken of psychological morbidity, self esteem, weight and body shape dissatisfaction, personality, and exercise beliefs. Results—Aside from a higher incidence of reported menstrual abnormalities, the primary exercise dependence group was largely indistinguishable from the controls. In stark contrast, the secondary exercise dependence group reported higher levels of psychological morbidity, neuroticism, dispositional addictiveness, and impulsiveness, lower self esteem, greater concern with body shape and weight, as well as with the social, psychological, and aesthetic costs of not exercising than the controls, but differed little from the eating disorder group. Conclusions—In the absence of an eating disorder, women identified as being exercise dependent do not exhibit the sorts of personality characteristics and levels of psychological distress that warrant the construction of primary exercise dependence as a widespread pathology. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; personality; self esteem; neuroticism; psychological morbidity PMID:10786869

  13. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max). Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  14. Hearing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a family ... may damage the inner ear. This kind of hearing loss is called OCCUPATIONAL. Prevent occupational hearing loss by ...

  15. Thyroid Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

  16. Kidney Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  17. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  18. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech Disorders Stuttering is a problem that interferes with fluent ... is a language disorder, while stuttering is a speech disorder. A person who stutters has trouble getting out ...

  19. Nipple problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inverted nipple; Nipple problems Images Female breast Intraductal papilloma Mammary gland Abnormal discharge from the nipple Normal ... 8. Read More Breast cancer Endocrine glands Intraductal papilloma Update Date 11/16/2014 Updated by: Cynthia ...

  20. The Impact of Social Structure on Mate Selection: An Empirical Evaluation of an Active-Learning Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipp, John F.

    2002-01-01

    States that individualistic orientation of most U.S. college students presents a persistent problem for teaching sociology. Provides an empirical evaluation using an active-learning exercise. Focuses on whether mate selection increases student understanding of social structure's impact on marital choice. Indicates that the exercise participants…

  1. Changing Students' Perceptions of Inequality?: Combining Traditional Methods and a Budget Exercise to Facilitate a Sociological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garoutte, Lisa; Bobbitt-Zeher, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Budget exercises are frequently used in introductory and social problems courses to facilitate student understanding of income inequality. But do these exercises actually lead to greater sociological understanding? To explore this issue, the authors studied undergraduate students enrolled in introductory sociology courses during the 2008-2009…

  2. Promoting community preparedness: lessons learned from the implementation of a chemical disaster tabletop exercise.

    PubMed

    High, Erika H; Lovelace, Kay A; Gansneder, Bruce M; Strack, Robert W; Callahan, Barbara; Benson, Phillip

    2010-05-01

    Health educators are frequently called on to facilitate community preparedness planning. One planning tool is community-wide tabletop exercises. Tabletop exercises can improve the preparedness of public health system agencies to address disaster by bringing together individuals representing organizations with different roles and perspectives in specific disasters. Thus, they have the opportunity to identify each other's roles, capabilities, and limitations and to problem-solve about how to address the gaps and overlaps in a low-threat collaborative setting. In 2005, the North Carolina Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response developed a series of exercises to test the preparedness for chemical disasters in a metropolitan region in the southeastern United States. A tabletop exercise allowed agency heads to meet in an environment promoting inter- and intraagency public-private coordination and cooperation. The evaluation results reported here suggest ways in which any tabletop exercise can be enhanced through recruitment, planning, and implementation.

  3. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants' exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants. PMID:27336015

  4. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M.; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants’ exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants. PMID:27336015

  5. A disaster relief exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quagliotti, Fulvia; Novaro Mascarello, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) is an effective tool for military applications, both for properly military operations, such as research missions and road surveillance, and for civilian support after natural disasters, like landslides, floods, and earthquakes, when reaching victims is often hard or it would take too much time for their survival. Information are needed without hazarding the life of the military troops. When roads, bridges and other communication ways are usually not available, the unmanned platform is the only easy and fast way to contact people. It can be launched directly from the operation site and it could take crucial information or carry medication, necessaries and everything that could help rescue teams. The unmanned platform can also be used for the first aid in an emergency situation when the use of a helicopter is too dangerous and other troops could be involved in heavy fighting. The RPAS has some advantages. First is the reduced cost, compared to traditional aircraft, that could enable the user to have several operating units. Secondly, pilots are not on board and therefore, if needed, the crew' rotation and rest do not imply the need to stop operations. The third fact is that, depending on the type of delivery that is used, the operations may take place on a twenty-four hours' base. The main benefit achieved with these three facts is that continuous operation may take place and eventually make up the capacity difference. To sum up, the main motivation behind this employment of UAS is to replace human lives on the cockpits and to assure the execution of Dangerous, Dull and Dirty missions. In May 2015, the ERIDANO Exercise was performed in Moncalieri city, near Turin (Italy) and it was a joint exercise between the Italian Army, National Emergency Service and Politecnico of Turin. The aim was the control and management of emergency situations due to natural disasters. In particular, a flood was simulated. A multicopter was used

  6. Oscillation of tissue oxygen index in non-exercising muscle during exercise.

    PubMed

    Yano, T; Afroundeh, R; Shirakawa, K; Lian, C-S; Shibata, K; Xiao, Z; Yunoki, T

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how oscillation of tissue oxygen index (TOI) in non-exercising exercise is affected during high-intensity and low-intensity exercises. Three exercises were performed with exercise intensities of 30% and 70% peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2)peak) for 12 min and with exercise intensity of 70% Vo(2)peak for 30 s. TOI in non-exercising muscle (biceps brachii) during the exercises for 12 min was determined by nearinfrared spectroscopy. TOI in the non-exercising muscle during the exercises was analyzed by fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtain power spectra density (PSD). The frequency at which maximal PSD appeared (Fmax) during the exercise with 70% Vo(2)peak for 12 min (0.00477 ± 0.00172 Hz) was significantly lower than that during the exercise with 30% Vo2peak for 12 min (0.00781 ± 0.00338 Hz). There were significant differences in blood pH and blood lactate between the exercise with 70% Vo(2)peak and the exercise with 30% Vo(2)peak. It is concluded that TOI in nonexercising muscle oscillates during low-intensity exercise as well as during high-intensity exercise and that the difference in Fmax between the two exercises is associated with the difference in increase in blood lactate derived from the exercise.

  7. Humanized animal exercise model for clinical implication.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

    2014-09-01

    Exercise and physical activity function as a patho-physiological process that can prevent, manage, and regulate numerous chronic conditions, including metabolic syndrome and age-related sarcopenia. Because of research ethics and technical difficulties in humans, exercise models using animals are requisite for the future development of exercise mimetics to treat such abnormalities. Moreover, the beneficial or adverse outcomes of a new regime or exercise intervention in the treatment of a specific condition should be tested prior to implementation in a clinical setting. In rodents, treadmill running (or swimming) and ladder climbing are widely used as aerobic and anaerobic exercise models, respectively. However, exercise models are not limited to these types. Indeed, there are no golden standard exercise modes or protocols for managing or improving health status since the types (aerobic vs. anaerobic), time (morning vs. evening), and duration (continuous vs. acute bouts) of exercise are the critical determinants for achieving expected beneficial effects. To provide insight into the understanding of exercise and exercise physiology, we have summarized current animal exercise models largely based on aerobic and anaerobic criteria. Additionally, specialized exercise models that have been developed for testing the effect of exercise on specific physiological conditions are presented. Finally, we provide suggestions and/or considerations for developing a new regime for an exercise model.

  8. The Importance of Exercise in the Well-Rounded Physician: Dialogue for the Inclusion of a Physical Fitness Program in Neurosurgery Resident Training.

    PubMed

    Fargen, Kyle M; Spiotta, Alejandro M; Turner, Raymond D; Patel, Sunil

    2016-06-01

    Exercise, diet, and personal fitness programs are essentially lacking in modern graduate medical education. In the context of long hours and alternating shift and sleep cycles, the lack of exercise and poor dietary choices may have negative consequences on physician physical and mental health. This opinion piece aims to generate important dialogue regarding the scope of the problem, the literature supporting the health benefits of exercise, potential solutions to enhancing diet and exercise among resident trainees, and possible pitfalls to the adoption of exercise programs within graduate medical education.

  9. MEDICAL PROBLEMS OF AMPUTEES

    PubMed Central

    Inman, Verne T.; Barnes, Gilbert H.; Levy, S. William; Loon, Henry E.; Ralston, H. J.

    1961-01-01

    The initial trauma of a major amputation and the medical disorders secondary to it are being studied at the Biomechanics Laboratory. Problems that arise from amputation and from the replacement of the limb by a prosthetic device are complex but interrelated, and approaches to study on basic, applied and clinical levels must be integrated. Three studies carried on at the Biomechanics Laboratory are described in this paper. In the field of amputation operations, it is believed that certain osteoplastic and myoplastic techniques, along with protection for nerve stumps and measures to provide optimum circulatory conditions, may restore biological and mechanical function to a greater degree than is possible with present procedures. From studies of the expenditure of energy during locomotion with and without assistive devices and during therapeutic exercise, it was found that crutch-walking is metabolically much more costly in energy for the amputee than walking with the suction-socket prosthesis; through these studies, it will be possible to define criteria for maximum work loads for disabled persons. In dermatological studies, although there are still unsolved problems, successful methods of treatment have been developed for certain bacterial and fungus infections, contact dermatitides and disorders resulting from edema. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:13717754

  10. Exercise, nutrition and immune function.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Nieman, David C; Pedersen, Bente K

    2004-01-01

    Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. Furthermore, inadequate or inappropriate nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important for the maintenance of immune function, but excess intakes of some micronutrients can also impair immune function and have other adverse effects on health. Immune system depression has also been associated with an excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming 30-60 g carbohydrate x h(-1) during sustained intensive exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking. PMID:14971437

  11. Psychobiological mechanisms of exercise dependence.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Mark; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise dependence (ED) is characterised by an obsessive and unhealthy preoccupation with exercise. Previous research has focused largely on identifying behavioural aspects of ED, although the biological mechanisms remain unknown and are under researched. We review various ED hypotheses including affect regulation, anorexia analogue, sympathetic arousal and beta-endorphin. We also present a novel hypothesis pertaining to ED and interleukin (IL)-6, which combines previous hypotheses with literature from the field of psycho-neuroimmunology. We explore the notion that IL-6 provides a link from the periphery to the brain, which may mediate the underlying features of ED. We propose a conceptual model indicating that, in individuals prone to ED, exercise results in a transient reduction in negative affect, but concurrently results in excessive production of IL-6 and the activation of neuroendocrine pathways, which are associated with behavioural and psychological disturbances of exercise withdrawal. Our intention is for this model to serve as a basis for further research in the area of ED, which may eventually lead to the development of successful treatment strategies. Recent developments in methods to reliably assess these biological markers from blood and saliva samples should encourage such research to be undertaken in exercise settings. PMID:17503874

  12. Exercise, nutrition and immune function.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Nieman, David C; Pedersen, Bente K

    2004-01-01

    Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. Furthermore, inadequate or inappropriate nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important for the maintenance of immune function, but excess intakes of some micronutrients can also impair immune function and have other adverse effects on health. Immune system depression has also been associated with an excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming 30-60 g carbohydrate x h(-1) during sustained intensive exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking.

  13. Human exercise capabilities in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Maintenance of rest and exercise performance are prime requirements for all astronauts during flight, not only for maintaining day-to-day productivity, but also for coping with unlikely emergencies. Indirect estimates of submaximal work capacity (oxygen uptake) made from changes in the heart rates of 27 Apollo astronauts (less than 15-day flights) indicated a reduction in work capacity (maximal oxygen uptake) of 17 to 21 percent. This percentage decrease was similar to that measured in middle-aged men after 21 to 30 days of -6 deg head-down bed-rest deconditioning without exercise training. Heart-rate changes during submaximal exercise in the nine Skylab astronauts suggested that they were better able to maintain their work capacity because of longer and more intensive in-flight exercise training. The strength of the flexor and extensor muscle groups decreased by 2 to 9 percent in the elbow and by 6 to 20 percent in the knee in the Skylab astronauts, also similar to the decreases in men undergoing 30 days of bed-rest deconditioning. Exercise protocols have been devised that result in maintenance of work capacity and muscular strength during 30 to 49 days of bed-rest deconditioning.

  14. The effects of regular aerobic exercise on renal functions in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kurdak, Hatice; Sandikci, Sunay; Ergen, Nilay; Dogan, Ayşe; Kurdak, Sanli Sadi

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a feared complication of diabetes since it can lead to end-stage renal failure and also it is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The important clinical problems caused by diabetic nephropathy are proteinuria and decreased renal function. Exercise is a cornerstone of diabetes management, along with diet and medication. Since acute exercise causes proteinuria and decreases glomerular filtration rate, the effect of exercise on diabetic nephropathy is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of regular aerobic exercise on microalbuminuria and glomerular filtration rate in diabetic rats. Moderate diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg IV) in rats and an aerobic exercise- training program on a treadmill was carried out for 8 weeks. Four groups of rats; control sedentary (CS), control exercise (CE), diabetic sedentary (DS) and diabetic exercise (DE) were included in the study. Blood glucose levels were determined from the plasma samples taken at the end of 4 weeks of stabilization period and 8 weeks of training program. Creatinine clearance (CCr) and microalbuminuria (MA) levels were determined to evaluate renal functions. The analyzed data revealed that regular aerobic exercise: 1) significantly decreased the plasma glucose level of the DE group compared to the DS group (p < 0.05), 2) significantly decreased the microalbuminuria level of the DE group compared to those of DS group (p < 0.01), 3) significantly decreased the creatinine clearance levels of the DE and CE groups compared to those of CS group (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that despite of decreasing creatinine clearance, regular submaximal aerobic exercise has a preventive effect on development of microalbuminuria and thus may retard nephropathy in diabetic rats. Key pointsRegular submaximal aerobic exercise can facilitate the control of blood glucose level in diabetic rats.Streptozotocin induced diabetes may cause microalbuminuria

  15. Low-income African American women's beliefs regarding exercise during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Krans, Elizabeth E; Chang, Judy C

    2012-08-01

    Exercise may decrease the incidence of obesity and obesity related complications during pregnancy including gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. African American women are at higher risk for obesity and physical inactivity during pregnancy when compared to other patient groups. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe in detail the unique beliefs and perspectives regarding exercise during pregnancy of African American women. A series of 6 focus groups discussions with pregnant African American women were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Focus group transcripts were qualitatively analyzed for major themes and independently coded for beliefs regarding exercise during pregnancy. A total of 34 pregnant, African American women participated in 6 focus group discussions. The majority of women were single (94%), had only a high school education (67%), received Medicaid (100%) and had a mean BMI of 33 kg/m(2). Three major themes emerged regarding our subjects' beliefs about exercise during pregnancy: (1) women had a broad definition of what types of activities constituted exercise, (2) women believed exercise was generally beneficial during pregnancy and (3) women believed certain types of activities or movements could cause problems with pregnancy. African American women overwhelmingly believe that exercise positively impacts pregnancy. A lack of knowledge concerning the benefits of exercise during pregnancy was not found to be a major contributor to inactivity in African American women. However, health care providers should be aware of cultural myths that prevent many African American women from performing certain activities during pregnancy.

  16. a Mathematical Model for Training Impulse and Lactate Influx and Outflux during Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxnes, John F.; Hausken, Kjell

    This paper provides a mathematical description based on the theory of differential equations, for the dynamics of lactate production and removal. Analytical and numerical results for training/exercise of endurance of athletes are presented based on the common concept of training impulse (Trimp). The relationships between activity, production rate, and removal strategies of lactate are studied. Parameters are estimated from published data. A model for optimum removal of lactate after exercise is developed. The model provides realistic predictions when compared with experimental results. We show some specific examples for the usefulness of the mathematical model by studying some recent problems discussed in the literature. (a) Is interval exercise more beneficial than steady-state exercise? (b) What is the optimum aerobic power during recovery? We discuss whether steady-state exercise gives higher Trimp than interval exercise, when imposing an upper boundary for the lactate concentration as a constraint. The model allows for testing all imaginable kinds of steady-state and interval exercises in search of the optimal exercise regime for individuals with various kinds of characteristics. In general, the dynamic model constitute a powerful tool describing the processes by which the concentration of lactate can be studied and controlled to decrease fatigue and increase endurance.

  17. The history of “Exercise Is Medicine” in ancient civilizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine, with endorsement from the American Medical Association and the Office of the Surgeon General, launched a global initiative to mobilize physicians, healthcare professionals and providers, and educators to promote exercise in their practice or activities to prevent, reduce, manage, or treat diseases that impact health and the quality of life in humans. Emerging from this initiative, termed Exercise Is Medicine, has been an extensively documented position stand by the American College of Sports Medicine that recommended healthy adults perform 150 min of moderate dynamic exercise per week. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the foundation for this global initiative and its exercise prescription for health and disease prevention has roots that began in antiquity more than two millennia ago. Individuals and concepts to remember are that Susruta of India was the first “recorded” physician to prescribe moderate daily exercise, Hippocrates of Greece was the first “recorded” physician to provide a written exercise prescription for a patient suffering from consumption, and the global influence of Galen from Rome combined with his recommendation on the use of exercise for patients in the management of disease prevailed until the 16th century. Historically intertwined with these concepts was exercise being advocated by select physicians to minimize the health problems associated with obesity, diabetes, and inactivity. PMID:25039081

  18. Chronic Exercise-Induced Leg Pain in Active People.

    PubMed

    Schon, L C; Baxter, D E; Clanton, T O; Sammarco, G J

    1992-01-01

    In brief "Shin splints" is a catchall term for any kind persistent exercise-related lower leg pain with no obvious cause. Such pain can originate from a number of conditions, such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, compartment syndrome, vascular pathology, nerve entrapment, and others. A methodical work-up designed to detect problems in all anatomic structures from bone to skin will narrow the possibilities and lay the basis for appropriate treatment.

  19. Exercise response to simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, C. F.; Rummel, J. A.; Buderer, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Two bed rest analog studies of space flight were performed; one 14 d and the other 28 d in duration. Exercise response was studied in detail during the 28 d study and following both the 14 d and 28 d studies. This paper relates the results of these studies to physiologic changes noted during and following space flight. The most consistent change noted after both bed rest and space flight is an elevated heart rate during exercise. A second consistent finding is a postflight or postbed rest reduction in cardiac stroke volume. Cardiac output changes were variable. The inability to simulate inflight activity levels and personal exercise makes a direct comparison between bed rest and the results from specific space flights difficult.

  20. Puzzles & Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Pat, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception, produced by Exploratorium in collaboration with other participating museums. This issue focuses on puzzles and problem solving. Brain teasers, puzzles, and the strategies for solving them are included. Features include: (1) "Homework Assignment #3" (Paul Doherty); (2) "The Case of…

  1. Heat Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

  2. Exercise load index and changes in body weight during long-duration confinement in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Lyons, Terence J.; Binder, Heidi; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objectives of this project were to investigate exercise load and body weight related to long-duration confinement in a closed environment simulating ISS flight conditions, and to evaluate subjects' motivation to continue the experiment and their adaptation to isolation. METHODS: Four Russian male subjects participated in a 240-d experiment (Group I), and four subjects (three male subjects and one female subject) from Austria, Canada, Japan, and Russia participated in a 110-d experiment (Group II). Exercise load was estimated during confinement using a modified Rating of Perceived Exertion scale. Free reports were used to determine subjects' motivation. Body weight was measured before, during, and after confinement. RESULTS: Group I achieved their lowest exercise loads during their first month of isolation; problems with adaptation to the isolation environment were also reported during this first month. Group II exercise load was significantly lower in the second month due to crewmember problems; loss of motivation could be noted from their free reports. The subject with the lowest exercise load retired from the isolation experiment earlier than scheduled. Exercise load was not correlated with prior exercise habits. Significant differences in body weight was observed between group I and II and between Russian and non-Russian subjects. One subject in Group I experienced a significant increase in his body weight. CONCLUSION: Exercise load may be a good indicator for adaptation problems and motivation changes in closed environments. Immobility, lack of space, and smoking cessation in general did not induce significant body weight changes.

  3. The World Climate Exercise: Is (Simulated) Experience Our Best Teacher?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, K.; Rooney-varga, J. N.; Jones, A.; Johnston, E.; Sterman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Meeting the challenge of climate change will clearly require 'deep learning' - learning that motivates a search for underlying meaning, a willingness to exert the sustained effort needed to understand complex problems, and innovative problem-solving. This type of learning is dependent on the level of the learner's engagement with the material, their intrinsic motivation to learn, intention to understand, and relevance of the material to the learner. Here, we present evidence for deep learning about climate change through a simulation-based role-playing exercise, World Climate. The exercise puts participants into the roles of delegates to the United Nations climate negotiations and asks them to create an international climate deal. They find out the implications of their decisions, according to the best available science, through the same decision-support computer simulation used to provide feedback for the real-world negotiations, C-ROADS. World Climate provides an opportunity for participants have an immersive, social experience in which they learn first-hand about both the social dynamics of climate change decision-making, through role-play, and the dynamics of the climate system, through an interactive computer simulation. Evaluation results so far have shown that the exercise is highly engaging and memorable and that it motivates large majorities of participants (>70%) to take action on climate change. In addition, we have found that it leads to substantial gains in understanding key systems thinking concepts (e.g., the stock-flow behavior of atmospheric CO2), as well as improvements in understanding of climate change causes and impacts. While research is still needed to better understand the impacts of simulation-based role-playing exercises like World Climate on behavior change, long-term understanding, transfer of systems thinking skills across topics, and the importance of social learning during the exercise, our results to date indicate that it is a

  4. Development of the EEG measurement method under exercising.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Noriyuki; Magatani, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    It is said that the result of the game of sports is controlled by player's mental state. Especially, player's concentration greatly controls the result of the game. Therefore, we think that if player's mental state under exercising can be evaluated, it becomes possible to guide the player appropriately. Our mental state can be understood from analyzing EEG (Electroencephalogram). Especially, it is said that the change of alpha and beta rhythm of EEG will indicate the change of human's mental state. Therefore, we think that if EEG of the athlete can be measured under exercising, it becomes possible to evaluate mental state of the athlete. However, EEG is measured in the state of the rest usually, and measuring EEG under exercising is difficult. Because, the amplitude of EEG is very small and high amplification is necessary to obtain observable EEG. A movement of the body causes vibration of electrodes, and these vibration cause artifact of EEG. So, our objective of this study is a development of the new measuring method of EEG under exercising. In this paper, we will talk about our developed EEG measuring system for athletes. This system measures EEG and acceleration of the athlete's body. These measured data are sent to the receiver by a FM transmitter. Received data are analyzed with the personal computer, and the EEG and the noise are separated. Some normal subjects were tested with our developed system. From these experiments, it was clarified that our system had some problems. However, EEG with little noise was able to be obtained in all cases. Therefore, we think that if these problems are improved, our developed system will become useful for the measurement of EEG under exercising.

  5. Development of the EEG measurement method under exercising.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Noriyuki; Magatani, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    It is said that the result of the game of sports is controlled by player's mental state. Especially, player's concentration greatly controls the result of the game. Therefore, we think that if player's mental state under exercising can be evaluated, it becomes possible to guide the player appropriately. Our mental state can be understood from analyzing EEG (Electroencephalogram). Especially, it is said that the change of alpha and beta rhythm of EEG will indicate the change of human's mental state. Therefore, we think that if EEG of the athlete can be measured under exercising, it becomes possible to evaluate mental state of the athlete. However, EEG is measured in the state of the rest usually, and measuring EEG under exercising is difficult. Because, the amplitude of EEG is very small and high amplification is necessary to obtain observable EEG. A movement of the body causes vibration of electrodes, and these vibration cause artifact of EEG. So, our objective of this study is a development of the new measuring method of EEG under exercising. In this paper, we will talk about our developed EEG measuring system for athletes. This system measures EEG and acceleration of the athlete's body. These measured data are sent to the receiver by a FM transmitter. Received data are analyzed with the personal computer, and the EEG and the noise are separated. Some normal subjects were tested with our developed system. From these experiments, it was clarified that our system had some problems. However, EEG with little noise was able to be obtained in all cases. Therefore, we think that if these problems are improved, our developed system will become useful for the measurement of EEG under exercising. PMID:19964931

  6. Astronauts Exercising in Space Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    To minimize the effects of weightlessness and partial gravity, astronauts use several counter measures to maintain health and fitness. One counter measure is exercise to help reduce or eliminate muscle atrophy and bone loss, and to improve altered cardiovascular function. This video shows astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) using the stationary Cycle/ Ergometer Vibration Isolation System (CVIS), the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), and the resistance exercise device. These technologies and activities will be crucial to keeping astronauts healthy and productive during the long missions to the Moon. Mars, and beyond.

  7. Exercise During the Childbearing Year

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Roger L.; Perkins, Jan; Parr, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Many women wish to continue to pursue an active lifestyle during pregnancy, while the pregnancy itself may provide the motivation for other more sedentary women to begin an exercise program for the sake of improved health/fitness. Also, female competitive athletes, upon becoming pregnant, may wish to continue sports performance and require careful monitoring to assure maternal-fetal safety. This review is designed to assist the perinatal educator who is in the position to advise the pregnant patient on the risks and benefits of physical activity during the childbearing year and provide suggestions for developing individualized exercise programs. PMID:17273187

  8. Skeletal muscle cramps during exercise.

    PubMed

    Schwellnus, M P

    1999-11-01

    Cramps are painful, involuntary contractions of skeletal muscle that occur during or immediately after exercise and are common in endurance athletes. Although cramps can occur in many rare medical conditions, most athletes who have exercise-associated muscle cramping do not have congenital or acquired medical disorders. The cause of cramping is not well understood but may have to do with abnormal spinal control of motor neuron activity, particularly when a muscle contracts in a shortened position. Important risk factors include muscle fatigue and poor stretching habits. Treatment consists mainly of passive stretching, with supportive measures as needed. Special diagnostic studies and conditioning programs may be necessary for recurrent episodes.

  9. Exercising QS: Quantitative Skills in an Exercise Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to bring the discipline of exercise science into the discussion of Quantitative Skills (QS) in science. The author's experiences of providing learning support to students and working with educators in the field are described, demonstrating the difficulty of encouraging students to address their skills deficit. A survey of…

  10. Online Help for Problem Gambling among Chinese Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang Boon Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the perceptions and accessibility of online help for problem gambling among Chinese youths. A group of undergraduates participated in a survey cum laboratory exercise to search for help for problem gambling in Macao, Hong Kong, and China. Online search engines were used. During the search process,…

  11. Crewmember exercising on the mid deck ergometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mission Specialist Ellen Baker exercising on an excercise bike attached to the Isolated/Stabilized Exercise Platform (ISEP) on the shuttle middeck. The ISEP is intended to insulate sensitive micregravity experiments from vibration caused by crew excercise.

  12. Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

  13. Improving Writing with Sentence Combining Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, Norma; Safran, Joan

    1984-01-01

    Sentence-combining exercises, which require students to combine simple sentences in any way they wish, have helped learning disabled elementary children improve skills in writing, reading, and spelling. The exercises are flexible, motivating, and simple to design. (CL)

  14. Regular Exercise: Antidote for Deadly Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160326.html Regular Exercise: Antidote for Deadly Diseases? High levels of physical ... Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Getting lots of exercise may reduce your risk for five common diseases, ...

  15. A Modeling Exercise for the Organic Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    An in-class molecular modeling exercise is described. Groups of students are given molecular models to investigate and questions about the models to answer. This exercise is a quick and effective way to review nomenclature, stereochemistry, and conformational analysis.

  16. Can Exercise Offset Alcohol's Damaging Effects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160853.html Can Exercise Offset Alcohol's Damaging Effects? Even gardening, brisk walking may reduce ... study says moderate exercise may offset some of alcohol's harmful effects. Normally, drinking raises the risk of ...

  17. Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last

    MedlinePlus

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Exercise Brings Bone Benefits that Last Building bone as ... lose bone. Studies of animals have shown that exercise during periods of rapid growth can lead to ...

  18. Aging May Blunt Some of Exercise's Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159438.html Aging May Blunt Some of Exercise's Benefits But, that's no excuse for seniors to ... News) -- Aging may dampen some beneficial effects of exercise, a new study suggests. But, that's no reason ...

  19. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2014 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  20. Exercise May Help Thwart Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159486.html Exercise May Help Thwart Ovarian Cancer Chronic inactivity linked ... TUESDAY, June 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lack of exercise is associated with an increased risk of ovarian ...

  1. Sleep and exercise: a reciprocal issue?

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Léger, Damien

    2015-04-01

    Sleep and exercise influence each other through complex, bilateral interactions that involve multiple physiological and psychological pathways. Physical activity is usually considered as beneficial in aiding sleep although this link may be subject to multiple moderating factors such as sex, age, fitness level, sleep quality and the characteristics of the exercise (intensity, duration, time of day, environment). It is therefore vital to improve knowledge in fundamental physiology in order to understand the benefits of exercise on the quantity and quality of sleep in healthy subjects and patients. Conversely, sleep disturbances could also impair a person's cognitive performance or their capacity for exercise and increase the risk of exercise-induced injuries either during extreme and/or prolonged exercise or during team sports. This review aims to describe the reciprocal fundamental physiological effects linking sleep and exercise in order to improve the pertinent use of exercise in sleep medicine and prevent sleep disorders in sportsmen.

  2. Are You Getting Too Much Exercise?

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods (women). Compulsive exercise may be associated with eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia . It can cause ... see a counselor who treats compulsive exercise or eating disorders. Your provider or counselor may use one or ...

  3. The influence of exercise identity and social physique anxiety on exercise dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Brian; Karr, Trisha M.; Zunker, Christie; Mitchell, James E.; Thompson, Ron; Sherman, Roberta; Erickson, Ann; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research has identified exercise identity and social physique anxiety as two independent factors that are associated with exercise dependence. Aims The purpose of our study was to investigate the unique and interactive effect of these two known correlates of exercise dependence in a sample of 1,766 female runners. Methods Regression analyses tested the main effects of exercise identity and social physique anxiety on exercise dependence. An interaction term was calculated to examine the potential moderating effect of social physique anxiety on the exercise identity and exercise dependence relationship. Results Results indicate a main effect for exercise identity and social physique anxiety on exercise dependence; and the interaction of these factors explained exercise dependence scores beyond the independent effects. Thus, social physique anxiety acted as a moderator in the exercise identity and exercise dependence relationship. Discussion Our results indicate that individuals who strongly identify themselves as an exerciser and also endorse a high degree of social physique anxiety may be at risk for developing exercise dependence. Conclusions Our study supports previous research which has examined factors that may contribute to the development of exercise dependence and also suggests a previously unknown moderating relationship for social physique anxiety on exercise dependence. PMID:26551910

  4. Healthier lifestyles series: 1. Exercise for children.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Statistics indicate that 39% of boys and 58% of girls aged 7-18 do not achieve the recommended levels of exercise, eg spending at least one hour each day in a physical activity of at least moderate intensity. This paper summarises the physical and psychological health benefits of exercise for children and young people and emphasises that the promotion of exercise and healthy food choices should go hand in hand. Practical tips for young people on exercise and nutrition are included.

  5. Helicopter problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G

    1937-01-01

    The present report deals with a number of the main problems requiring solution in the development of helicopters and concerning the lift, flying performance, stability, and drive. A complete solution is given for the stability of the helicopter with rigid blades and control surfaces. With a view to making a direct-lift propeller sufficient without the addition of auxiliary propellers, the "flapping drive" is assessed and its efficiency calculated.

  6. [Exercise guidelines for health-oriented recreational sports].

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2015-05-01

    Physical inactivity is one the biggest Public Health problems of the 21th century. Regular physical activity and sports can contribute to a reduction of overall mortality and morbidity and, thus, can have a considerable health impact for individuals as well as for the society as a whole. The beneficial health effects of exercise are convincingly evaluated yet and there is further evidence that physical activity can result in improvements in specific cardiorespiratory and metabolic diseases similar to pharmacological treatments. It is the aim of this review article to outline evidence-based guidelines for exercise to improve physical fitness and health in primary prevention in healthy adults. Based on the current scientific evidence a dose-response-relationship between physical activity and health markers as well as physical fitness is likely. Health-oriented exercise training should allow for an exercise-induced energy expenditure of at least 1000 kcal per week. This should be approached by an appropriate combination of exercises targeting on an improvement in cardiorespiratory and metabolic functioning as well as muscular fitness. It is recommended to supplement such a training regimen by appropriate amounts of functional and flexibility exercises. Usually, sports targeting on these particular fitness areas are recommended, for instance, typical endurance sports like cycling, jogging, (Nordic) walking or swimming for the cardiorespiratory and metabolic domains and strength training for muscular fitness. In recent years, scientific studies have evaluated potentially more attractive sports like football, dancing and Tai Chi and reported promising results. Such sports may contribute to an increased long-term compliance to health-oriented exercise programmes. Although regular physical activity is associated with considerable health benefits, risks and side effects should be taken into account. The most frequent side effects are injuries, and the most severe are fatal

  7. Introducing Earth Sciences Students to Modeling Using MATLAB Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    While we subject our students to math and physics and chemistry courses to complement their geological studies, we rarely allow them to experience the joys of modeling earth systems. Given the degree to which modern earth sciences relies upon models of complex systems, it seems appropriate to allow our students to develop some experience with this activity. In addition, as modeling is an unforgivingly logical exercise, it demands the student absorb the fundamental concepts, the assumptions behind them, and the means of constraining the relevant parameters in a problem. These concepts commonly include conservation of some quantity, the fluxes of that quantity, and careful prescription of the boundary and initial conditions. I have used MATLAB as an entrance to this world, and will illustrate the products of the exercises we have worked. This software is platform-independent, and has a wonderful graphics package (including movies) that is embedded intimately as one-to-several line calls. The exercises should follow a progression from simple to complex, and serve to introduce the many discrete tasks within modeling. I advocate full immersion in the first exercise. Example exercises include: growth of spatter cones (summation of parabolic trajectories of lava bombs); response of thermal profiles in the earth to varying surface temperature (thermal conduction); hillslope or fault scarp evolution (topographic diffusion); growth and subsidence of volcanoes (flexure); and coral growth on a subsiding platform in the face of sealevel fluctuations (coral biology and light extinction). These exercises can be motivated by reading a piece in the classical or modern literature that either describes a model, or better yet serves to describe the system well, but does not present a model. I have found that the generation of movies from even the early simulation exercises serves as an additional motivator for students. We discuss the models in each class meeting, and learn that there

  8. [Exercise guidelines for health-oriented recreational sports].

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2015-05-01

    Physical inactivity is one the biggest Public Health problems of the 21th century. Regular physical activity and sports can contribute to a reduction of overall mortality and morbidity and, thus, can have a considerable health impact for individuals as well as for the society as a whole. The beneficial health effects of exercise are convincingly evaluated yet and there is further evidence that physical activity can result in improvements in specific cardiorespiratory and metabolic diseases similar to pharmacological treatments. It is the aim of this review article to outline evidence-based guidelines for exercise to improve physical fitness and health in primary prevention in healthy adults. Based on the current scientific evidence a dose-response-relationship between physical activity and health markers as well as physical fitness is likely. Health-oriented exercise training should allow for an exercise-induced energy expenditure of at least 1000 kcal per week. This should be approached by an appropriate combination of exercises targeting on an improvement in cardiorespiratory and metabolic functioning as well as muscular fitness. It is recommended to supplement such a training regimen by appropriate amounts of functional and flexibility exercises. Usually, sports targeting on these particular fitness areas are recommended, for instance, typical endurance sports like cycling, jogging, (Nordic) walking or swimming for the cardiorespiratory and metabolic domains and strength training for muscular fitness. In recent years, scientific studies have evaluated potentially more attractive sports like football, dancing and Tai Chi and reported promising results. Such sports may contribute to an increased long-term compliance to health-oriented exercise programmes. Although regular physical activity is associated with considerable health benefits, risks and side effects should be taken into account. The most frequent side effects are injuries, and the most severe are fatal

  9. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  10. Optimizing Exercise Programs for Arthritis Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulware, Dennis W.; Byrd, Shannon L.

    1993-01-01

    Exercise can help decrease pain and improve function in people with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Physicians must provide individualized, realistic, enjoyable exercise programs that help affected joints, build fitness, and maximize patient compliance. Physicians must also provide appropriate follow-up care, adjusting the exercise program…

  11. Coping with Cancer. Can Exercise Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courneya, Kerry S.; Mackey, John R.; Jones, Lee W.

    2000-01-01

    Exercise can positively affect a broad range of quality of life parameters in people with cancer. The general exercise prescription is moderate-intensity exercise 3-5 days per week. Conditions that warrant prescription modification include fatigue during treatment, acute or chronic physical impairments, and presence of bone cancer. Research…

  12. Exercise: An Alternative Therapy for Gestational Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artal, Raul

    1996-01-01

    Exercise is encouraged in the management of pregnant women with gestational diabetes or women with Type II diabetes who become pregnant. Although non-weight-bearing exercises may be best for sedentary women, moderate workouts appear to be safe for most women with gestational diabetes. The role of exercise, risk factors, warning signs, and examples…

  13. Working the Continuum between Therapy and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Because of the relative weightlessness factor, water exercise is an excellent low-impact aerobic activity for people with physical difficulties. Participants should inform their physicians of intentions to begin aquatic exercise, and physicians should advise participants that water exercise is exertive. Program instructors must be prepared to…

  14. Physical Exercise as a Counseling Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baird, M. Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Provides an integrative review of the literature on the relationship between physical exercise and three psychological variables (depression, anxiety, and self-esteem). Proposes guidelines for using exercise as a counseling intervention, and makes suggestions for evaluating exercise interventions. (Author/GCP)

  15. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  16. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  17. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  18. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  19. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance...

  20. Utilizing Tornado Data for Classroom Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    Exercises were developed using tornado statistics to provide students with a better understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these phenomena in the United States. Four categories of exercises were considered beginning with the simplest and progressing to the more complex. The first set of exercises required students to…

  1. Psychological Changes in Exercising COPD Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayle, Richard C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were divided into treatment subjects who participated in a 28-week exercise regime and control subjects who participated in a 14-week exercise program. Analyses showed the aerobic exercise to have little impact on state-trait anxiety or depression scores. (Author/JDD)

  2. A Design Exercise on Temperature Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    A design exercise in chemical engineering is described which is concerned with thermocouples. Physics is the relevant discipline, a point that was made to the students doing the exercise, and accordingly an account of the exercise for the guidance of teachers and lecturers is presented as a contribution to "Physics Education."

  3. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  4. Attentional Bias for Exercise-Related Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Stolp, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined attentional bias toward exercise-related images using a visual probe task. It was hypothesized that more-active participants would display attentional bias toward the exercise-related images. The results showed that men displayed attentional bias for the exercise images. There was a significant interaction of activity level…

  5. Chronic Eccentric Exercise and the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Harris, Nigel; Dulson, Deborah; Cronin, John

    2015-10-01

    Eccentric exercise has gained increasing attention as a suitable and promising intervention to delay or mitigate the known physical and physiological declines associated with aging. Determining the relative efficacy of eccentric exercise when compared with the more conventionally prescribed traditional resistance exercise will support evidence-based prescribing for the aging population. Thus, original research studies incorporating chronic eccentric exercise interventions in the older adult population were included in this review. The effects of a range of eccentric exercise modalities on muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition, muscle architecture, markers of muscle damage, the immune system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and rating of perceived exertion were all reviewed as outcomes of particular interest in the older adult. Muscular strength was found to increase most consistently compared with results from traditional resistance exercise. Functional capacity and body composition showed significant improvements with eccentric endurance protocols, especially in older, frail or sedentary cohorts. Muscle damage was avoided with the gradual progression of novel eccentric exercise, while muscle damage from intense acute bouts was significantly attenuated with repeated sessions. Eccentric exercise causes little cardiovascular stress; thus, it may not generate the overload required to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. An anabolic state may be achievable following eccentric exercise, while improvements to insulin sensitivity have not been found. Finally, rating of perceived exertion during eccentric exercise was often significantly lower than during traditional resistance exercise. Overall, evidence supports the prescription of eccentric exercise for the majority of outcomes of interest in the diverse cohorts of the older adult population.

  6. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating healthy foods, is the best way to lose weight. ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...

  7. 33 CFR 155.1060 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercises. 155.1060 Section 155... Oil § 155.1060 Exercises. (a) A vessel owner or operator required by §§ 155.1035 and 155.1040 to have a response plan shall conduct exercise as necessary to ensure that the plan will function in...

  8. 44 CFR 350.9 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercises. 350.9 Section 350... § 350.9 Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy... local governments, must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1...

  9. 44 CFR 350.9 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercises. 350.9 Section 350... § 350.9 Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy... local governments, must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1...

  10. An Experiential Exercise in Service Environment Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Kendra; Bridges, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    A new experiential exercise affords marketing students the opportunity to learn to design service environments. The exercise is appropriate for a variety of marketing courses and is especially beneficial in teaching services marketing because the proposed activity complements two other exercises widely used in this course. Service journal and…

  11. 44 CFR 350.9 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exercises. 350.9 Section 350... § 350.9 Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy... local governments, must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1...

  12. 33 CFR 155.5060 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VRP exercise requirements of 33 CFR 155.1060. (b) For nontank vessels with an oil capacity of less... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 155.5060 Section 155... § 155.5060 Exercises. (a) For nontank vessels with an oil capacity of 250 barrels or greater— (1)...

  13. 44 CFR 350.9 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exercises. 350.9 Section 350... § 350.9 Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy... local governments, must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1...

  14. 33 CFR 155.1060 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercises. 155.1060 Section 155... Oil § 155.1060 Exercises. (a) A vessel owner or operator required by §§ 155.1035 and 155.1040 to have a response plan shall conduct exercise as necessary to ensure that the plan will function in...

  15. 33 CFR 155.1060 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercises. 155.1060 Section 155... Oil § 155.1060 Exercises. (a) A vessel owner or operator required by §§ 155.1035 and 155.1040 to have a response plan shall conduct exercise as necessary to ensure that the plan will function in...

  16. 33 CFR 155.1060 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercises. 155.1060 Section 155... Oil § 155.1060 Exercises. (a) A vessel owner or operator required by §§ 155.1035 and 155.1040 to have a response plan shall conduct exercise as necessary to ensure that the plan will function in...

  17. 44 CFR 350.9 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Exercises. 350.9 Section 350.9... Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy Administrator for the..., must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1 of appropriate...

  18. 33 CFR 155.1060 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 155.1060 Section 155... Oil § 155.1060 Exercises. (a) A vessel owner or operator required by § 155.1035, § 155.1040, or § 155.5035 to have a response plan shall conduct exercise as necessary to ensure that the plan will...

  19. Beneficial role of exercise on scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Dujic, Zelijko; Valic, Zoran; Brubakk, Alf O

    2008-01-01

    Exercising before, during, or after diving is proscribed because of the assumption that it would increase incidence of decompression sickness. Our findings show that exercise performed in a timely fashion before diving or during decompression will reduce the number of venous gas bubbles formed. Exercise after diving did not increase the number of bubbles. Nitric oxide seems to play a protective role.

  20. Assessment of factors associated with exercise enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Wininger, Steven R; Pargman, David

    2003-01-01

    Participating in regular physical activity results in many positive physical and psychological effects. Even though this is widely known, the majority of Americans do not engage in regular physical activity and many persons who start an exercise program drop out shortly thereafter. A question of central importance is "What motivates a person to adhere to an exercise program?" A collection of quantitative and qualitative studies has shown enjoyment of exercise to be an important factor in determining adherence to exercise. Despite these findings, very little research has been conducted on factors contributing to exercise enjoyment. The purpose of this study was to examine variables believed to make such a contribution. Variables were selected based upon results of past research and theory. These were: satisfaction with the music used in the exercise environment, satisfaction with the exercise instructor, and salience of exercise role-identity (EIS). Subjects for this study were 282 female volunteers from not-for-credit aerobic dance classes at 2 university activity centers. Results revealed significant positive correlations between all 3 variables and exercise enjoyment, ranging from .34 to .45. Stepwise regression indicated that satisfaction with music (21%) accounted for the most variance in exercise enjoyment followed by satisfaction with the instructor (8%), and finally salience of exercise role identity (4%). Follow-up analyses to examine specific components of satisfaction with music and the exercise instructor were also conducted. PMID:17590968

  1. Osteoporosis. The Effects of Exercise Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodigan, Diane E.

    1992-01-01

    Reports a study of postmenopausal women's practice of exercise after age 30. Subjects (n=111) were studied with regard to their practice of weight-bearing, aerobic, regular, and area specific exercise. Findings indicated that regular practice (at least 90 minutes weekly) of weight-bearing, aerobic, and regular exercise affected the development of…

  2. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  3. Blood flow-restricted exercise in space

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in chronic physiological adaptations including skeletal muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, and bone demineralization. To attenuate the negative consequences of weightlessness during spaceflight missions, crewmembers perform moderate- to high-load resistance exercise in conjunction with aerobic (cycle and treadmill) exercise. Recent evidence from ground-based studies suggests that low-load blood flow-restricted (BFR) resistance exercise training can increase skeletal muscle size, strength, and endurance when performed in a variety of ambulatory populations. This training methodology couples a remarkably low exercise training load (approximately 20%–50% one repetition maximum (1RM)) with an inflated external cuff (width, ranging between approximately 30–90 mm; pressure, ranging between approximately 100–250 mmHg) that is placed around the exercising limb. BFR aerobic (walking and cycling) exercise training methods have also recently emerged in an attempt to enhance cardiovascular endurance and functional task performance while incorporating minimal exercise intensity. Although both forms of BFR exercise training have direct implications for individuals with sarcopenia and dynapenia, the application of BFR exercise training during exposure to microgravity to prevent deconditioning remains controversial. The aim of this review is to present an overview of BFR exercise training and discuss the potential usefulness of this method as an adjunct exercise countermeasure during prolonged spaceflight. The work will specifically emphasize ambulatory BFR exercise training adaptations, mechanisms, and safety and will provide directions for future research. PMID:23849078

  4. Should I Exercise During My Pregnancy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... swimming, yoga, or using a stationary bike. Stop exercising when you start to feel tired and never exercise until you are exhausted or overheated. Drink plenty of water. Wear comfortable ... your breasts. Stop exercising if you feel dizzy, become short of breath, ...

  5. Can Exercise Help Women with PMS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1989-01-01

    Various treatments for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are described, focusing on the role of exercise. Some physicians prefer to try exercise and others, lifestyle changes before turning to such treatment as psychoactive drugs, vitamin B complex, dopamine agonists, and immunotherapy. Regular exercise has been shown to relieve symptoms of PMS. (SM)

  6. Toward a Theory of Exercise Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E.; St. Clair, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Examines motivational foundations of exercise behavior, presenting a theoretical model in which motivation is the proximal precursor of exercise, which is determined by perceived constraints and situational facilitators. The paper explores the role of cognition versus automaticity in exercise behavior and examines habit versus routine, presenting…

  7. Therapeutic exercise for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Semble, E L; Loeser, R F; Wise, C M

    1990-08-01

    Therapeutic exercise in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis may be useful in improving aerobic capacity, strengthening muscles, improving endurance and increasing flexibility. This article reviews the major studies of exercise in these conditions and summarizes the authors recommendations regarding the use of therapeutic exercise in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis osteoarthritis.

  8. Diagnostic criteria for exercise dependence in women

    PubMed Central

    Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To formulate diagnostic criteria for exercise dependence. Method: Fifty six adult female exercisers were interviewed about their exercise behaviour and attitudes. The eating disorders examination, a semistructured clinical interview, was used to diagnose eating disorders. Interviews were taped, transcribed verbatim, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Participants also completed the exercise dependence questionnaire. Results: Two diagnostic criteria emerged from analysis of the interview data: impaired functioning and withdrawal. Impaired functioning was manifest in four areas: psychological, social and occupational, physical, and behavioural. Impairment in at least two areas was considered necessary for diagnosis. Withdrawal was evident as either an adverse reaction to the interruption of exercise or unsuccessful attempts at exercise control. Either sufficed for diagnosis. The absence or presence of an eating disorder was used to distinguish between primary and secondary exercise dependence. Ten women met these criteria for exercise dependence. All 10 also exhibited eating disorders and, accordingly, should be regarded as showing secondary, rather than primary, exercise dependence. Exercise dependent women had significantly higher scores on the exercise dependence questionnaire than non-dependent women. Conclusion: These new diagnostic criteria should now be adopted and explored further, particularly among men and individuals with possible primary exercise dependence. PMID:14514528

  9. Moderators of the association between exercise identity and obligatory exercise among participants of an athletic event.

    PubMed

    Karr, Trisha M; Zunker, Christie; Thompson, Ron A; Sherman, Roberta T; Erickson, Ann; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has connected exercise identity with obligatory exercise, yet to date no empirical studies have identified moderator variables of this association. The current study included participants of an athletic event (full marathon, n=582; half marathon, n=1,106; shorter distance, n=733) who completed questionnaires about exercise behaviors, obligatory exercise, and internalization of both the thin-ideal and athletic-ideal body shapes. General linear model analyses were conducted to examine the exercise identity-obligatory exercise relationship; moderator variables included gender, internalization of the thin-ideal body shape, and internalization of the athletic-ideal body shape. After controlling for the effects of body mass index, age, and distance group, the three-way interaction of exercise identity, gender, and internalization of the athletic-ideal body shape predicted obligatory exercise. Findings suggest that women who report high identification with exercise and high value on having an athletic physique may be vulnerable to obligatory exercise.

  10. Three Microstructural Exercises for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Winthrop D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes laboratory exercises which demonstrate a new simplified technique for deforming thin samples of crystalline materials on the stage of a petrographic microscope. Discusses how this process allows students to see the development of microstructures resulting from cracking, slipping, thinning, and recrystallization. References and sources of…

  11. Combating Stagefright: Selected Vocal Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Noting that stagefright has been the subject of intensive analysis and subjected to almost every conceivable test or measurement without revealing either its "cause" or its "cure," this paper presents vocal exercises to help combat the performance malady. After listing four principles concerning the nature of stagefright (it is not a pathological…

  12. An Exercise to Introduce Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Edith; Liu, Yali

    2013-01-01

    In introductory statistics courses, the concept of power is usually presented in the context of testing hypotheses about the population mean. We instead propose an exercise that uses a binomial probability table to introduce the idea of power in the context of testing a population proportion. (Contains 2 tables, and 2 figures.)

  13. Contraction-Only Exercise Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, Donald F.; Maples, Arthur B.; Campbell, Craig M.

    1992-01-01

    Standard knee-extension machine modified so subject experiences force only when lifting leg against stack of weights. Exerts little force on leg while being lowered. Hydraulic cylinder and reservoir mounted on frame of exercise machine. Fluid flows freely from cylinder to reservoir during contraction (lifting) but in constricted fashion from reservoir to cylinder during extension (lowering).

  14. Japanese: Katakana Reading Exercise Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This exercise book has been designed to give beginning students an opportunity to practice the reading Katakana. Sixteen readings, each transcribed in Katakanese calligraphy, are presented. The selections are compositions by students of Katakana and assure familiarity with vocabulary and sentence patterns. (RL)

  15. Reading Exercises on Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almaraz, Felix D., Jr.; Almaraz, Maria O.

    Short biographical sketches and drawings of 30 prominent Mexican Americans are presented in this book of reading exercises. Written on a fourth or fifth grade level, the book includes figures representing a variety of occupations and fields of achievement: the arts, sports, business, journalism, education, entertainment, literature, medicine, law,…

  16. Exercises for Better Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburg, Thomas A.

    1980-01-01

    Managerial expertise is composed of seven skills: communicating, working with the team, leading, planning, organizing, directing and controlling, and managing personnel. The author describes several practical, hands-on exercises to develop and reinforce management trainees' potential in each of these areas of competence. (CT)

  17. Evaluating the Effects of Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosentswieg, Joel

    When attempts are made to utilize the procedures generally accepted in evaluation to look at something as vague as the term "exercise", confusion becomes compounded exponentially. It is important that the fundamental elements of movement, the laws of motion, and the basic movement of skills be taught to everyone. If there is a need to know what…

  18. An Exercise in Biological Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John; Duke, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history of the use of pesticides and biological control. Introduces the concept of biological control as illustrated in the use of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and highlights laboratory demonstrations of Koch's postulates. Includes an exercise that offers the student and teacher several integrated learning…

  19. Classroom Exercises Utilizing Precipitation Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    Precipitation data for Macomb (Illinois) for the period 1912-1981 were the bases for developing classroom exercises that offered college students experience in collecting such data. After students collected the data, they reduced them to manageable proportions, and then examined average long-term relations which may have emerged among yearly,…

  20. Exercising Attention within the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Liam; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Milne, June; Thomson, Jenny; Greig, Jessie; Munro, Val; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether increased physical exercise during the school day influenced subsequent cognitive performance in the classroom. Method: A randomized, crossover-design trial (two weeks in duration) was conducted in six mainstream primary schools (1224 children aged 8-11y). No data on sex was available. Children received a…