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Sample records for problem exercise spe-3

  1. Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angseesing, J. P. A.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)

  2. Resolvent-Techniques for Multiple Exercise Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Sören; Lempa, Jukka

    2015-02-15

    We study optimal multiple stopping of strong Markov processes with random refraction periods. The refraction periods are assumed to be exponentially distributed with a common rate and independent of the underlying dynamics. Our main tool is using the resolvent operator. In the first part, we reduce infinite stopping problems to ordinary ones in a general strong Markov setting. This leads to explicit solutions for wide classes of such problems. Starting from this result, we analyze problems with finitely many exercise rights and explain solution methods for some classes of problems with underlying Lévy and diffusion processes, where the optimal characteristics of the problems can be identified more explicitly. We illustrate the main results with explicit examples.

  3. Recent improvements in SPE3D: a VR-based surgery planning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Verdonschot, Nico

    2014-02-01

    SPE3D is a surgery planning environment developed within TLEMsafe project [1] (funded by the European Commission FP7). It enables the operator to plan a surgical procedure on the customized musculoskeletal (MS) model of the patient's lower limbs, send the modified model to the biomechanical analysis module, and export the scenario's parameters to the surgical navigation system. The personalized patient-specific three-dimensional (3-D) MS model is registered with 3-D MRI dataset of lower limbs and the two modalities may be visualized simultaneously. Apart from main planes, any arbitrary MRI cross-section can be rendered on the 3-D MS model in real time. The interface provides tools for: bone cutting, manipulating and removal, repositioning muscle insertion points, modifying muscle force, removing muscles and placing implants stored in the implant library. SPE3D supports stereoscopic viewing as well as natural inspection/manipulation with use of haptic devices. Alternatively, it may be controlled with use of a standard computer keyboard, mouse and 2D display or a touch screen (e.g. in an operating room). The interface may be utilized in two main fields. Experienced surgeons may use it to simulate their operative plans and prepare input data for a surgical navigation system while student or novice surgeons can use it for training.

  4. View box exercises for teaching problem solving in radiology.

    PubMed

    Miller, R E; Andrew, B J

    1977-02-01

    An organized radiologic problem-solving system is presented for developing improved view box exercises for students and residents. It is based on six components: (1) problem sensing, (2) problem hypothesizing, (3) problem searching and definition, (4) problem identification, (5) resolution, and (6) verification. Since all examinations by the practicing radiologist involve these components, worthwhile simulated clinical management games should also incorporate them. A simulated radiologic exercise should be a valid measurement of the resident's ability to manage a wide range of clinical situations and techniques and should improve problem-solving strategies. Use of simulated clinical cases eliminates risk to patients during the educational process.

  5. Adventures in Exercise Physiology: Enhancing Problem Solving and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A.

    2004-01-01

    I altered the format of an exercise physiology course from traditional lecture to emphasizing daily reading quizzes and group problem-solving activities. I used the SALGains evaluation to compare the two approaches and saw significant improvements in the evaluation ratings of students who were taught using the new format. Narrative responses…

  6. Exercises are problems too: implications for teaching problem-solving in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, Kristina; Garmendia, Mikel; Barragués, José-Ignacio; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2016-09-01

    Frequently, in university-level general physics courses, after explaining the theory, exercises are set based on examples that illustrate the application of concepts and laws. Traditionally formulated numerical exercises are usually solved by the teacher and students through direct replacement of data in formulae. It is our contention that such strategies can lead to the superficial and erroneous resolution of such exercises. In this paper, we provide an example that illustrates that students tend to solve problems in a superficial manner, without applying fundamental problem-solving strategies such as qualitative analysis, hypothesis-forming and analysis of results, which prevents them from arriving at a correct solution. We provide evidence of the complexity of an a priori simple exercise in physics, although the theory involved may seem elementary at first sight. Our aim is to stimulate reflection among instructors to follow these results when using examples and solving exercises with students.

  7. Clinical Reasoning Terms Included in Clinical Problem Solving Exercises?

    PubMed

    Musgrove, John L; Morris, Jason; Estrada, Carlos A; Kraemer, Ryan R

    2016-05-01

    Background Published clinical problem solving exercises have emerged as a common tool to illustrate aspects of the clinical reasoning process. The specific clinical reasoning terms mentioned in such exercises is unknown. Objective We identified which clinical reasoning terms are mentioned in published clinical problem solving exercises and compared them to clinical reasoning terms given high priority by clinician educators. Methods A convenience sample of clinician educators prioritized a list of clinical reasoning terms (whether to include, weight percentage of top 20 terms). The authors then electronically searched the terms in the text of published reports of 4 internal medicine journals between January 2010 and May 2013. Results The top 5 clinical reasoning terms ranked by educators were dual-process thinking (weight percentage = 24%), problem representation (12%), illness scripts (9%), hypothesis generation (7%), and problem categorization (7%). The top clinical reasoning terms mentioned in the text of 79 published reports were context specificity (n = 20, 25%), bias (n = 13, 17%), dual-process thinking (n = 11, 14%), illness scripts (n = 11, 14%), and problem representation (n = 10, 13%). Context specificity and bias were not ranked highly by educators. Conclusions Some core concepts of modern clinical reasoning theory ranked highly by educators are mentioned explicitly in published clinical problem solving exercises. However, some highly ranked terms were not used, and some terms used were not ranked by the clinician educators. Effort to teach clinical reasoning to trainees may benefit from a common nomenclature of clinical reasoning terms.

  8. Complex Problem Exercises in Developing Engineering Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Electromagnetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.

    2011-01-01

    Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…

  9. CATHARE2 calculation of SPE-3 test small break loca on PMK facility

    SciTech Connect

    Laugier, E.; Radet, J.

    1995-09-01

    Bind and post test calculations with CATHARE2 have been performed concerning the SPE-4 exercise organized under the auspices of IAEA on the hungarian PMK-2 facility, a one loop scaled model of VVER 440/213 Nuclear Power Plant. The SPE-4 test is a cold leg SBLOCA associated to a {open_quotes}bleed and feed{close_quotes} procedure applied in the secondary circuit. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the post test calculation. For the first part of the transient (until the end of the SIT activations), the primary and secondary pressures are rather well predicted, leading to a good agreement with the experimental trips, as scram, flow coast down, SIT beginning and end of activation. Nevertheless, some discrepancy with the experiment may be due to an over prediction of the thermal exchanges from the primary to the secondary circuits. For the second part of the transient, the predicted primary circuit repressurization is shifted after the SITs are off, while in the experiment this event immediately follows the end of SIT activation. The delay in the calculation leads to underpredict primary and secondary pressures, thus anticipating the timing of events, such as LPIS and emergency feedwater activation.

  10. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Margaret; Obi, Curtis

    2015-04-30

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and farfield data that are available.This revised document includes reports on baseline shift corrections for the SPE-2 and SPE-3 shots that were missing from the original January 2015 version.

  11. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Margaret; Obi, Curtis

    2015-01-26

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  12. Regular exercise, subjective wellbeing, and internalizing problems in adolescence: causality or genetic pleiotropy?

    PubMed

    Bartels, Meike; de Moor, Marleen H M; van der Aa, Niels; Boomsma, Dorret I; de Geus, Eco J C

    2012-01-01

    This study tests in a genetically informative design whether exercise behavior causally influences subjective wellbeing (SWB) and internalizing problems (INT). If exercise causally influences SWB and INT, genetic and environmental factors influencing exercise behavior will also influence SWB and INT. Furthermore, within genetically identical (MZ) twin pairs, the twin who exercises more should also show higher levels of SWB and lower levels of INT, than the co-twin who exercises less, because genetic confounding is excluded. Data on these phenotypes were available in a sample of 6317 adolescent twins and 1180 non-twin-siblings. Most participants had longitudinal data with 2-year follow-up. Exercise behavior was cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with fewer internalizing problems and increased SWB (correlations ranged from 0.12 to 0.16). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were mainly accounted for by genetic factors, whereas the contribution of environmental factors was negligible. Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who exercised more did not show fewer internalizing problems and increased SWB. This was found cross-sectionally and longitudinally. We conclude that exercise behavior is associated with fewer internalizing problems and higher levels of SWB. The association largely reflects the effects of common genetic factors on these traits.

  13. A Cochlear Implant Signal Processing Lab: Exploration of a Problem-Based Learning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, P. T.; McClellan, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an introductory signal processing laboratory and examines this laboratory exercise in the context of problem-based learning (PBL). Centered in a real-world application, a cochlear implant, the exercise challenged students to demonstrate a working software-based signal processor. Partnering in groups of two or three, second-year…

  14. Clinical Problem Solving Exercises for Pre-Clinical Medical Education: A Design, Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordage, Georges

    Clinical problem solving exercises for preclinical medical education that were developed at Michigan State University School of Osteopathic Medicine are described. Two types of outcomes were set as priorities in the design and implementation of the problem solving sessions: small group peer interactions as instructional and evaluative resources;…

  15. Problem-Based Teaching in International Management: A Political/Economic Risk Assessment Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Paula S.; White, Marion M.; Zisk, Daniel S.; Cavazos, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This article draws from the current literature to examine problem-based learning (PBL) as a management education tool, and provides an example of how to incorporate PBL into an undergraduate international management course. Also included are an explanation of, and specific guidelines for, a PBL exercise focused on the analysis of "country risk"…

  16. Keeping Fit with Asta O'Donnell. An Exercise Program for Problem Backs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Asta

    An estimated 75 million people in the United States suffer from some type of back problem. Most are caused by muscle strain and improper posture. This book describes an exercise program designed to relieve muscle strain, improve and correct posture, and reduce stress and tension. The book is divided into four sections: "Warm…

  17. Useful Material Efficiency Green Metrics Problem Set Exercises for Lecture and Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andraos, John

    2015-01-01

    A series of pedagogical problem set exercises are posed that illustrate the principles behind material efficiency green metrics and their application in developing a deeper understanding of reaction and synthesis plan analysis and strategies to optimize them. Rigorous, yet simple, mathematical proofs are given for some of the fundamental concepts,…

  18. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living with Chronic Lung Disease Common Feelings Anxiety Depression Sleep Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  19. Incorporating a Modified Problem-Based Learning Exercise in a Traditional Lecture and Lab-Based Dairy Products Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liceaga, Andrea M.; Ballard, Tameshia S.; Skura, Brent J.

    2011-01-01

    A modified problem-based learning (PBL) exercise was implemented in a food science Dairy Products course, which had previously been taught in the traditional lecture and laboratory format only. The first 10 wk of the course consisted of weekly lectures and laboratory exercises. During the remaining 3 wk, students were presented with a case study…

  20. Simulating Results of Experiments on Gene Regulation of the Lactose Operon in Escherichia coli; a Problem-Solving Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchen, Trevor; Metcalfe, Judith

    1987-01-01

    Describes a simulation of the results of real experiments which use different strains of Escherichia coli. Provides an inexpensive practical problem-solving exercise to aid the teaching and understanding of the Jacob and Monod model of gene regulation. (Author/CW)

  1. The Value of Removing Daily Obstacles via Everyday Problem-Solving Theory: Developing an Applied Novel Procedure to Increase Self-Efficacy for Exercise.

    PubMed

    Artistico, Daniele; Pinto, Angela Marinilli; Douek, Jill; Black, Justin; Pezzuti, Lina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a novel procedure to increase self-efficacy for exercise. Gains in one's ability to resolve day-to-day obstacles for entering an exercise routine were expected to cause an increase in self-efficacy for exercise. Fifty-five sedentary participants (did not exercise regularly for at least 4 months prior to the study) who expressed an intention to exercise in the near future were selected for the study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) an Experimental Group in which they received a problem-solving training session to learn new strategies for solving day-to-day obstacles that interfere with exercise, (2) a Control Group with Problem-Solving Training which received a problem-solving training session focused on a typical day-to-day problem unrelated to exercise, or (3) a Control Group which did not receive any problem-solving training. Assessment of obstacles to exercise and perceived self-efficacy for exercise were conducted at baseline; perceived self-efficacy for exercise was reassessed post-intervention (1 week later). No differences in perceived challenges posed by obstacles to exercise or self-efficacy for exercise were observed across groups at baseline. The Experimental Group reported greater improvement in self-efficacy for exercise compared to the Control Group with Training and the Control Group. Results of this study suggest that a novel procedure that focuses on removing obstacles to intended planned fitness activities is effective in increasing self-efficacy to engage in exercise among sedentary adults. Implications of these findings for use in applied settings and treatment studies are discussed.

  2. The Value of Removing Daily Obstacles via Everyday Problem-Solving Theory: Developing an Applied Novel Procedure to Increase Self-Efficacy for Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Artistico, Daniele; Pinto, Angela Marinilli; Douek, Jill; Black, Justin; Pezzuti, Lina

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a novel procedure to increase self-efficacy for exercise. Gains in one’s ability to resolve day-to-day obstacles for entering an exercise routine were expected to cause an increase in self-efficacy for exercise. Fifty-five sedentary participants (did not exercise regularly for at least 4 months prior to the study) who expressed an intention to exercise in the near future were selected for the study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) an Experimental Group in which they received a problem-solving training session to learn new strategies for solving day-to-day obstacles that interfere with exercise, (2) a Control Group with Problem-Solving Training which received a problem-solving training session focused on a typical day-to-day problem unrelated to exercise, or (3) a Control Group which did not receive any problem-solving training. Assessment of obstacles to exercise and perceived self-efficacy for exercise were conducted at baseline; perceived self-efficacy for exercise was reassessed post-intervention (1 week later). No differences in perceived challenges posed by obstacles to exercise or self-efficacy for exercise were observed across groups at baseline. The Experimental Group reported greater improvement in self-efficacy for exercise compared to the Control Group with Training and the Control Group. Results of this study suggest that a novel procedure that focuses on removing obstacles to intended planned fitness activities is effective in increasing self-efficacy to engage in exercise among sedentary adults. Implications of these findings for use in applied settings and treatment studies are discussed. PMID:23372560

  3. Does exercise stimulate protein breakdown in humans. Isotopic approaches to the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    Protein metabolism in exercise has been investigated for 100 yr, yet it is still unclear if exercise induces an increased rate of protein breakdown. We have recently addressed this general question in a series of experiments in human subjects using stable isotopic tracers. In this paper, the results of those studies are reviewed. We have found that in light exercise the de-carboxylation of leucine is increased. However, urea production is not increased correspondingly, nor is the rate of incorporation into urea of nitrogen from either leucine or lysine. Further complicating the picture is the fact that lysine de-carboxylation is not markedly elevated in exercise. From these studies, we must conclude that isotopic techniques which have achieved general acceptance in other circumstances cannot reliably be used to answer the question of whether exercise stimulates protein breakdown in humans. However, these methods do provide results which enable a better understanding of the metabolism of the individual amino acids in exercise.

  4. "Exercise Dependence"--A Problem or Natural Result of High Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Bond, Dale S.; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence (ED) in 267 weight-loss maintainers (WLM) and 213 normal-weight (NW) controls. Methods: PA and ED assessed via accelerometery and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire. Results: WLM had higher PA levels and ED scores than those of NW (P less than 0.0001). WLM status (P = 0.006)…

  5. The Problem of Exercise Adherence: Fighting Sloth in Nations with Market Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses physical activity and exercise adherence, describing five conundrums that retard advances in knowledge about causal determinants of physical activity and successful interventions that increase physical activity and exercise adherence: adoption versus maintenance; social marketing versus product marketing; mediators of physical activity;…

  6. Reasoning Exercises in Assisted Living: a cluster randomized trial to improve reasoning and everyday problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine; Herman, Ruth; Bontempo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the study Assisted living (AL) residents are at risk for cognitive and functional declines that eventually reduce their ability to care for themselves, thereby triggering nursing home placement. In developing a method to slow this decline, the efficacy of Reasoning Exercises in Assisted Living (REAL), a cognitive training intervention that teaches everyday reasoning and problem-solving skills to AL residents, was tested. Design and methods At thirteen randomized Midwestern facilities, AL residents whose Mini Mental State Examination scores ranged from 19–29 either were trained in REAL or a vitamin education attention control program or received no treatment at all. For 3 weeks, treated groups received personal training in their respective programs. Results Scores on the Every Day Problems Test for Cognitively Challenged Elders (EPCCE) and on the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS) showed significant increases only for the REAL group. For EPCCE, change from baseline immediately postintervention was +3.10 (P<0.01), and there was significant retention at the 3-month follow-up (d=2.71; P<0.01). For DAFS, change from baseline immediately postintervention was +3.52 (P<0.001), although retention was not as strong. Neither the attention nor the no-treatment control groups had significant gains immediately postintervention or at follow-up assessments. Post hoc across-group comparison of baseline change also highlights the benefits of REAL training. For EPCCE, the magnitude of gain was significantly larger in the REAL group versus the no-treatment control group immediately postintervention (d=3.82; P<0.01) and at the 3-month follow-up (d=3.80; P<0.01). For DAFS, gain magnitude immediately postintervention for REAL was significantly greater compared with in the attention control group (d=4.73; P<0.01). Implications REAL improves skills in everyday problem solving, which may allow AL residents to maintain self-care and extend AL residency. This benefit

  7. Exercise intolerance in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: more than a heart problem

    PubMed Central

    Upadhya, Bharathi; Haykowsky, Mark J; Eggebeen, Joel; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of HF in older adults, and is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. Furthermore, HFpEF is increasing out of proportion to HF with reduced EF (HFrEF), and its prognosis is worsening while that of HFrEF is improving. Despite the importance of HFpEF, our understanding of its pathophysiology is incomplete, and optimal treatment remains largely undefined. A cardinal feature of HFpEF is reduced exercise tolerance, which correlates with symptoms as well as reduced quality of life. The traditional concepts of exercise limitations have focused on central dysfunction related to poor cardiac pump function. However, the mechanisms are not exclusive to the heart and lungs, and the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease has evolved. Substantial attention has focused on defining the central versus peripheral mechanisms underlying the reduced functional capacity and exercise tolerance among patients with HF. In fact, physical training can improve exercise tolerance via peripheral adaptive mechanisms even in the absence of favorable central hemodynamic function. In addition, the drug trials performed to date in HFpEF that have focused on influencing cardiovascular function have not improved exercise capacity. This suggests that peripheral limitations may play a significant role in HF limiting exercise tolerance, a hallmark feature of HFpEF. PMID:26089855

  8. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: new prescription for an old problem.

    PubMed

    Bird, Stephen R; Hawley, John A

    2012-08-01

    During the past 50 years, the prevalence of a cluster of chronic, inactivity-related diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), collectively referred to as 'metabolic syndrome' (MetS) has reached global epidemic proportions. Appropriate exercise training is a clinically proven, cost-effective, primary intervention that delays and in many cases prevents the health burdens associated with MetS. Indeed, there is no single intervention with greater efficacy than physical exercise to reduce the risk of virtually all chronic diseases simultaneously. However compliance to National guidelines for physical activity remains low, with "a lack of time" the most frequently cited barrier to exercise participation by adults, irrespective of age, sex and ethnic background. Part of the growing apathy to modify lifestyle habits is that current public health recommendations may be unrealistic and unattainable for the majority of the populace. Hence, there is an urgent need for innovations in exercise prescription that can be incorporated into daily living and induce clinically beneficial health outcomes. Here we focus attention on a novel form of exercise prescription, high-intensity interval training (HIT), and provide evidence that HIT is a time-efficient and well-tolerated therapeutic intervention to improve cardio-metabolic health in a number of pre-clinical and clinical populations.

  9. Why Is That Dog Paralyzed? A Problem-Based Case & Laboratory Exercise about Neuromuscular Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanick, Mark; Graham, Kerri; Wessel, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Students are provided with a mystery concerning dogs that are paralyzed. This motivates a laboratory exercise to measure parameters from the dog's "blood" to determine whether the paralysis is due to pesticide poisoning or an autoimmune attack on nerve myelin. Most of the materials are available from the grocery store. The real-world nature of the…

  10. The Eyes Have It: A Problem-Based Learning Exercise in Molecular Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harold B.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular evolution provides an interesting context in which to use problem-based learning because it integrates a variety of topics in biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. This three-stage problem for advanced students deals with the structure, multiple functions, and properties of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes, and the related…

  11. Problem-Based Learning: An Exercise on Vermont's Legalization of Civil Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Susan M.; Hurlbert, Janet McNeil

    2004-01-01

    The majority of literature regarding problem-based learning demonstrates its usefulness as a teaching technique in the natural sciences curriculum. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the broad purpose is to illustrate the application of problem-based learning for instructing students about controversial issues in sociology. Within the…

  12. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... diets, and for some, this may develop into eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. And some people ... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and ...

  13. The propagation of radio waves and antenna-feeder arrangements: Problems and exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, V. P.

    This book is intended for students of technical schools. The examples and problems presented in the book correspond to the requirements encountered in practical applications of radio communication and broadcasting technology. General aspects of radio wave propagation are examined, and examples are provided regarding the calculation of the field intensity of radio waves for various frequency bands, taking into account centimetric, decimetric, metric, decametric, hectometric, kilometric, and myriametric wavelengths. Attention is given to computational examples related to general problems concerning the design of antenna-feeder arrangements. Antenna design problems for radio communication and broadcasting application are also discussed along with the determination of the operational parameters for antenna-feeder systems and appropriate research projects for graduating students. Symmetric and coaxial feeders and waveguides are also considered.

  14. Exercise for the Overweight Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1990-01-01

    Exercise can help patients maintain lean body mass during weight loss. Although exercise is not extremely useful in shedding excess pounds, it helps keep off weight lost through calorie restriction. This article discusses the specifics of exercise prescription, types of exercise, motivation to exercise, and special problems such as diabetes. (SM)

  15. Orthostasis: exercise and exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geelen, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    There are two major problems here that are not independent. One is the more practically oriented problem of determining the effect of various modes of exercise training on gravitational tolerances, i.e., the point of syncope (unconsciousness) usually estimated from the time of appearance of presyncopal signs and symptoms. The other is more theoretical and concerns the mechanism of blood pressure failure that results in syncope. In many experimental designs these two problems or purposes have been intermingled, with equivocal results.

  16. Exercise and Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... to make sure that the asthma unrelated to exercise is well controlled. For many children this means the regular ... for using an inhaler. If the asthma is well controlled but your child still has problems during or after exercise, let your child’s doctor know. The following are ...

  17. A Problem-Based Learning Approach to Civics Education: Exploring the Free Exercise Clause with Supreme Court Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnotti, John; Russell, William B., III

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to empower those interested in teaching students powerful and engaging social studies. Through the lens of Supreme Court simulations, this article provides educators with a viable, classroom-tested lesson plan to bring Problem-Based Learning into their classrooms. The specific aim of the lesson is to provide students…

  18. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  19. Exercise Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  20. What Type of Computer-Assisted Exercise Supports Young Less Skilled Spellers in Resolving Problems in Open and Closed Syllable Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilte, Maartje; Reitsma, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Dutch bisyllabic words containing open and closed syllables are particularly difficult to spell for children. What kind of support in spelling exercises improves the spelling of these words the most? Two extensions of a commonly used dictation exercise were tested: less skilled spellers in grade 2 (n = 50; 7 years and 10 months) either received…

  1. A laboratory exercise in experimental bioimmuration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankiewicz, C.

    1998-01-01

    A paleobiologic laboratory exercise using lunch meat, cheeses, and condiments provides a means for studying a method of fossil preservation called "bioimmuration." The exercise also has students deal with problems associated with other aspects of taphonomy, taxonomy, and paleoecology.

  2. Exercise & Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... helps kids. Photo: iStock 6 "Bests" About Kids' Exercise At least one hour of physical activity a ...

  3. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... overdoing it for almost anyone. Much like with eating disorders, many people who engage in compulsive exercise do ... compulsive exercising doesn't have to accompany an eating disorder, the two often go hand in hand. In ...

  4. Kegel Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your pelvic floor muscles. The part of your body including your ... bone. Kegel exercises are designed to make your pelvic floor muscles stronger. These are the muscles that hold ...

  5. Exercise Headaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... also can help prevent exercise headaches. References Cutrer FM, et al. Cough, exercise, and sex headaches. Neurology ... aspx?bookid=690. Accessed Jan. 19, 2015. Cutrer FM. Exertional headaches. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ...

  6. Exercise Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... minutes at a time throughout your day. Remember: exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none.How ... The cost might give you an incentive to exercise on a regular basis.Benefits of regular exerciseReduces your risk of heart disease, ...

  7. Morning Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Natalie Schmitt recalls her teaching experiences with morning exercise programs, beginning with her first teaching job as assistant Morning Exercise teacher at the Francis W. Parker School in Chicago. In the Morning Exercises, students were encouraged to employ all means of expression: speaking, drawing, dancing, singing, acting.…

  8. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you ... to tie your shoes Alternative Names Age and exercise Images Benefit of regular exercise Flexibility exercise Exercise and age ...

  9. Prescriptive Exercise for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscopo, John

    1985-01-01

    In addition to physical benefits, exercise also provides a natural way to sustain mental alertness in the aging individual by supplying oxygen to the brain. A table focuses on 10 specific health-fitness problems with suggested prescriptive exercises designed to ameliorate the condition. (MT)

  10. Exercise Physiologists

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAAHEP). High school students interested in postsecondary exercise physiology programs should take courses in anatomy, physiology, and physics. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations Louisiana is ...

  11. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  12. Exercise, Heart and Health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity provides a variety of health benefits, including improvement in cardiopulmonary or metabolic status, reduction of the risk of coronary artery disease or stroke, prevention of cancer, and decrease in total mortality. Exercise-related cardiac events are occasionally reported during highly competitive sports activity or vigorous exercises. However, the risk of sudden death is extremely low during vigorous exercise, and habitual vigorous exercise actually decreases the risk of sudden death during exercise. The cause of sudden death is ischemic in older subjects (≥35 years old), while cardiomyopathies or genetic ion channel diseases are important underlying pathology in younger (<35 years old) victims. The subgroup of patients who are particularly at higher risk of exercise-related sudden death may be identified in different ways, such as pre-participation history taking, physical examination and/or supplementary cardiac evaluation. Limitations exist because current diagnostic tools are not sufficient to predict a coronary artery plaque with potential risk of disruption and/or an acute thrombotic occlusion. Proper and cost-effective methods for identification of younger subjects with cardiac structural problems or genetic ion channel diseases are still controversial. PMID:21519508

  13. Exercise, heart and health.

    PubMed

    Nam, Gi-Byoung

    2011-03-01

    Regular physical activity provides a variety of health benefits, including improvement in cardiopulmonary or metabolic status, reduction of the risk of coronary artery disease or stroke, prevention of cancer, and decrease in total mortality. Exercise-related cardiac events are occasionally reported during highly competitive sports activity or vigorous exercises. However, the risk of sudden death is extremely low during vigorous exercise, and habitual vigorous exercise actually decreases the risk of sudden death during exercise. The cause of sudden death is ischemic in older subjects (≥35 years old), while cardiomyopathies or genetic ion channel diseases are important underlying pathology in younger (<35 years old) victims. The subgroup of patients who are particularly at higher risk of exercise-related sudden death may be identified in different ways, such as pre-participation history taking, physical examination and/or supplementary cardiac evaluation. Limitations exist because current diagnostic tools are not sufficient to predict a coronary artery plaque with potential risk of disruption and/or an acute thrombotic occlusion. Proper and cost-effective methods for identification of younger subjects with cardiac structural problems or genetic ion channel diseases are still controversial.

  14. Special Medical Problems of Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Joan M.

    1987-01-01

    This article addresses the situations in which athletes with special needs and considerations participate in sports. The health problems discussed are diabetes mellitus, exercise-induced asthma, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and epilepsy. (MT)

  15. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a Good Thing? We all know the benefits of exercise, and it seems that everywhere we turn, we ... stress. So how can something with so many benefits have the potential to cause ... out because it's fun or it makes them feel good, but exercise can become a compulsive habit when it is ...

  16. Compulsive Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating . Compulsive exercise behavior can grow out of student athletes' demanding practice schedules and their quest to ... negative image of themselves and feel worthless. Their social and academic lives may suffer as they ... and abandons responsibilities to make more time for exercise seems to ...

  17. Writing Exercises from "Exercise Exchange."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Littleton, Ed.

    This collection focuses on writing exercises, both expository and creative, as well as areas of adjacent concern. The book is divided into nine major sections: prewriting; diction; theme, thesis, and paragraph; style; ideas for whole papers and special topics; description; research; the short story; and rewriting. The exercises deal with such…

  18. Exercise London: a disaster exercise involving numerous casualties

    PubMed Central

    Theoret, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A large-scale disaster exercise was conducted to assess how one large community would handle such a situation — particularly, how it would deal with 150 casualties. The planning, undertaken by a subcommittee composed of representatives of all resource groups in the city, took more than a year. The deficiencies of the disaster plan detected during the exercise, which included a lack of trained personnel and various problems of communication, are now being corrected. PMID:1260617

  19. Warm-Up Exercises--Positive Mood Setters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Jo Ann

    1978-01-01

    Four exercises to help students get ready for class activities are presented. The exercises are designed to develop skills in listening and following directions, awareness and retention, giving directions, and office problem solving. The exercises involve paper and pencil, newspaper articles, and office problem situations. (MF)

  20. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  1. Diabetes and Exercise: When to Monitor Your Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... plan. To avoid potential problems, check your blood sugar before, during and after exercise. By Mayo Clinic ... diabetes. Exercise can help you improve your blood sugar control, boost your overall fitness, and reduce your ...

  2. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  3. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Why Exercise Is Wise KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Exercise Is ... exercise, strength training, and flexibility training. continue Aerobic Exercise Like other muscles, the heart enjoys a good ...

  4. Kids and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Kids and Exercise KidsHealth > For Parents > Kids and Exercise A A ... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who ...

  5. Exercise-Induced Urticaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ...

  6. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation ...

  7. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training Home Health Insights Exercise Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Ask a Question Find a Doctor ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  8. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  9. Diabetes and exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000083.htm Diabetes and exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... not exercising at all. Your Blood Sugar and Exercise Check your blood sugar before you exercise. Also, ...

  10. Exercise-induced asthma

    MedlinePlus

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  11. Exercise apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant (Inventor); Bentley, Jason R. (Inventor); Loehr, James A. (Inventor); Gundo, Daniel P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus and method for exercising whereby the user is supported by various mechanisms in such as way that the user's shoulder area is free to translate and rotate; the user's pelvic area is free to translate and rotate; or in any combination.

  12. Medical Students' Satisfaction and Academic Performance with Problem-Based Learning in Practice-Based Exercises for Epidemiology and Health Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez-Mejías, E.; Amezcua-Prieto, C.; Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Olvera-Porcel, M. C.; Jiménez-Moleón, J. J.; Lardelli Claret, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of problem-based learning (PBL) on university students' satisfaction with and academic performance in a course on epidemiology and social and demographic health. The participants in this interventional study were 529 students (272 in the intervention group and 257 in the control group) enrolled in a…

  13. NEACRP standard problem exercise on criticality codes for dissolving fissile oxides in acids: A reference method for treating the fuel double heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Santamarina, A.; Smith, H.J. . Div. d'Etudes et de Developpement des Reacteurs); Whitesides, G.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The value of international comparison studies by the OECD-NEA Criticality Working Group has again been demonstrated by this study. Computational methods that had been commonly used for criticality safety calculations and which were shown to be valid for systems for which experimental data existed, were demonstrated to be inadequate when extrapolated to some simulated actual situations. The major source of dispersion in the results in international criticality benchmark calculations on problems treating a fuel double heterogeneity is shown to be the incorrect evaluation of effective resonance cross sections for 238U. A reference calculational method is proposed and used to evaluate theoretically the errors created by various standard methods of calculating the effects of self-shielding of resonance cross sections. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Work, exercise, and space flight. 3: Exercise devices and protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William

    1989-01-01

    Preservation of locomotor capacity by earth equivalent, exercise in space is the crucial component of inflight exercise. At this time the treadmill appears to be the only way possible to do this. Work is underway on appropriate hardware but this and a proposed protocol to reduce exercise time must be tested. Such exercise will preserve muscle, bone Ca(++) and cardiovascular-respiratory capacity. In addition, reasonable upper body exercise can be supplied by a new force generator/measurement system-optional exercise might include a rowing machine and bicycle ergometer. A subject centered monitoring-evaluation program will allow real time adjustments as required. Absolute protection for any astronaut will not be possible and those with hypertrophied capacities such as marathoners or weight lifters will suffer significant loss. However, the program described should return the crew to earth with adequate capacity of typical activity on earth including immediate ambulation and minimal recovery time and without permanent change. An understanding of the practical mechanics and biomechanics involved is essential to a solution of the problem.

  15. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term…

  16. Simulated International Politics: Classroom Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert M.; And Others

    The manual consists of six easy to use simulation exercises for foreign relation classes at the secondary level. The games are designed to teach decision making skills, to sensitize students to the manner in which Americans have come to view the world, to help students understand the need to manage problems before they become too severe, and to…

  17. Hypercapnic ventilation during exercise: effects of exercise methods and inhalation techniques.

    PubMed

    Kelley, M A; Owens, G R; Fishman, A P

    1982-10-01

    The effect of exercise on the ventilatory response to inhaled CO2 is uncertain because previous studies using different techniques have come to different conclusions. We undertook to resolve this problem by using multiple techniques and confining our study to a uniform level of mild exercise (VO2 = 10 ml/kg min). One group of subjects exercised on a treadmill and was tested with both rebreathing and steady-state CO2 methods. A second group exercised on a bicycle while using the rebreathing method. We found that the ventilatory response to CO2 was unchanged by mild exercise, regardless of the method used for CO2 inhalation or the technique used for exercise. These results indicate that under controlled conditions mild exercise does not produce any change in ventilatory sensitivity to CO2.

  18. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  19. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma ... they choose. previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with ...

  20. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Why Exercise Is Cool KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Exercise Is ... day and your body will thank you later! Exercise Makes Your Heart Happy You may know that ...

  1. Learn to love exercise

    MedlinePlus

    Prevention - learn to love exercise; Wellness - learn to love exercise ... With so many options for exercise, there is no need to suffer through a workout you do not like. Be true to yourself. Look for activities that ...

  2. Exercise and immunity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...

  3. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  4. Exercise Versus +Gz Acceleration Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, J. M.; Knapp, C. F.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Decreased working capacity and "orthostatic" intolerance are two major problems for astronauts during and after landing from spaceflight in a return vehicle. The purpose was to test the hypotheses that (1) supine-passive-acceleration training, supine-interval-exercise plus acceleration training, and supine exercise plus acceleration training will improve orthostatic tolerance (OT) in ambulatory men; and that (2) addition of aerobic exercise conditioning will not influence this enhanced OT from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven untrained men (24-38 yr) underwent 3 training regimens (30 min/d x 5d/wk x 3wk on the human-powered centrifuge - HPC): (a) Passive acceleration (alternating +1.0 Gz to 50% Gzmax); (b) Exercise acceleration (alternating 40% - 90% V02max leg cycle exercise plus 50% of HPCmax acceleration); and (c) Combined intermittent exercise-acceleration at 40% to 90% HPCmax. Maximal supine exercise workloads increased (P < 0.05) by 8.3% with Passive, by 12.6% with Exercise, and by 15.4% with Combined; but maximal V02 and HR were unchanged in all groups. Maximal endurance (time to cessation) was unchanged with Passive, but increased (P < 0.05) with Exercise and Combined. Resting pre-tilt HR was elevated by 12.9% (P < 0.05) only after Passive training, suggesting that exercise training attenuated this HR response. All resting pre-tilt blood pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP) were not different pre- vs. post-training. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and HR were increased (P < 0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus, addition of exercise training attenuated the increased Passive tilt tolerance. Resting (pre-tilt) and post-tilt cardiac R-R interval, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, and cardiac output were all uniformly reduced (P < 0.05) while peripheral resistance was uniformly increased (P < 0.05) pre-and post-training for the three regimens indicating no effect of any training regimen on those cardiovascular

  5. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    MedlinePlus

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... To build up bone density, the exercise must make your muscles pull on your bones. These are called weight-bearing exercises. Some of them are: ...

  6. GREECE--SELECTED PROBLEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTONFFY, ANDREA PONTECORVO; AND OTHERS

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE IS PRESENTED FOR A 10-WEEK STUDY OF ANCIENT GREEK CIVILIZATION AT THE 10TH-GRADE LEVEL. TEACHING MATERIALS FOR THE UNIT INCLUDE (1) PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES DEALING WITH THE PERIOD FROM THE BRONZE AGE THROUGH THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD, (2) GEOGRAPHY PROBLEMS, AND (3) CULTURAL MODEL PROBLEM EXERCISES. THOSE CONCEPTS WITH WHICH…

  7. Learning While Exercising for Science Education in Augmented Reality among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Kuei-Fang; Chen, Nian-Shing; Huang, Shih-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Because of a shortage of physical exercise, concerns about adolescents have recently been raised in Taiwan. In educational environments where student exercise has been limited by scheduling constraints and the lack of physical exercise has become a vital problem, "learning while exercising" may be part of a possible solution. This study…

  8. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Easy Exercises for Teens KidsHealth > For Teens > Easy Exercises for Teens A A A en español Ejercicios ... all the running around we do counts as exercise. (It does. But if it's the only exercise ...

  9. Exercise After Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... moderate-intensity exercise. Remember, even 10 minutes of exercise benefits your body. If you exercised vigorously before pregnancy ... want to join a gym but want the benefits of having someone to exercise with, ask a friend to be your workout ...

  10. Eccentric exercise testing and training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarkson, Priscilla M.

    1994-01-01

    Some researchers and practitioners have touted the benefits of including eccentric exercise in strength training programs. However, others have challenged its use because they believe that eccentric actions are dangerous and lead to injuries. Much of the controversy may be based on a lack of understanding of the physiology of eccentric actions. This review will present data concerning eccentric exercise in strength training, the physiological characteristics of eccentric exercise, and the possible stimulus for strength development. Also a discussion of strength needs for extended exposure to microgravity will be presented. Not only is the use of eccentric exercise controversial, but the name itself is fraught with problems. The correct pronunciation is with a hard 'c' so that the word sounds like ekscentric. The confusion in pronunciation may have been prevented if the spelling that Asmussen used in 1953, excentric, had been adopted. Another problem concerns the expressions used to describe eccentric exercise. Commonly used expressions are negatives, eccentric contractions, lengthening contractions, resisted muscle lengthenings, muscle lengthening actions, and eccentric actions. Some of these terms are cumbersome (i.e., resisted muscle lengthenings), one is slang (negatives), and another is an oxymoron (lengthening contractions). Only eccentric action is appropriate and adoption of this term has been recommended by Cavanagh. Despite the controversy that surrounds eccentric exercise, it is important to note that these types of actions play an integral role in normal daily activities. Eccentric actions are used during most forms of movement, for example, in walking when the foot touches the ground and the center of mass is decelerated and in lowering objects, such as placing a bag of groceries in the car.

  11. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-12-31

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.

  12. Exercise Compliance: A New View for Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1986-01-01

    The author argues that exercise may be a unique health behavior, leaving researchers with problems in understanding exercise compliance. New definitions, new methods, and broader perspectives are needed. Four theories of compliance are described, and problems of research methodology are discussed. (Author/MT)

  13. Considerations for an exercise prescription

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1989-01-01

    than conventional exercise for maintaining size and strength of muscles and bones needs great consideration for further research. These approaches represent a potential solution to the problem of compromising valuable time for exercise that is needed for daily operations.

  14. Airflow obstruction and exercise.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher B

    2009-03-01

    The primary abnormality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic airway inflammation which results in airflow limitation. Disease progression is usually depicted as an accelerated decline in FEV(1) over time. However, COPD patients also manifest progressive static hyperinflation due to the combined effects of reduced lung elastic recoil and increased airway resistance. Superimposed on static hyperinflation are further increases in operational lung volumes (dynamic hyperinflation) brought on during exercise, exacerbations or tachypnea. An important consequence of exertional dyspnea is activity limitation. COPD patients have been shown to spend only a third of the day walking or standing compared with age-matched healthy individuals who spend more than half of their time in these activities. Furthermore, the degree of activity limitation measured by an accelerometer worsens with disease progression. COPD patients have been shown to have an accelerated loss of aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) and this correlates with mortality just as is seen with hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Thus physical inactivity is an important therapeutic target in COPD. Summarizing; airflow obstruction leads to progressive hyperinflation, activity limitation, physical deconditioning and other comorbidities that characterize the COPD phenotype. Targeting the airflow obstruction with long-acting bronchodilator therapy in conjunction with a supervised exercise prescription is currently the most effective therapeutic intervention in earlier COPD. Other important manifestations of skeletal muscle dysfunction include muscle atrophy and weakness. These specific problems are best addressed with resistance training with consideration of anabolic supplementation.

  15. Myasthenia gravis and endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Bernd Volker; Valero-Burgos, Encarna; Costa, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of a runner with myasthenia gravis who completed an ultra endurance event. Myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disease that usually results in skeletal muscle weakness, which worsens with exercise and strenuous aerobic exercise, is generally contraindicated. Our runner completed a 220-km, 5-day ultramarathon and presented with various symptoms including muscular skeletal weakness, cramps, generalized fatigue, unintelligible speech, involuntary eye and mouth movements, problems swallowing, food lodging in his throat, and problems breathing. Risk factors identified for exacerbations are running in extreme temperatures, prolonged runs (especially a distance of 30 km or more), running uphill, lack of sleep, and stress. The medical team was in the novel situation to look after a runner with myasthenia gravis and needed to be aware of the patient's condition, symptoms, and risk factors to safely care for him.

  16. Problem Analysis: Challenging All Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Katie; Davis, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Garcia and Davis describe problem analysis as the process of examining a given mathematics exercise to find ways in which the problem can be modified and extended to create a richer learning opportunity for students. Students are often reluctant to attempt what they perceive to be higher-order thinking problems, but problem…

  17. Isometric exercise (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because ...

  18. Easy Exercises for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... third component of well-rounded exercise. Check out yoga as one way to stay flexible. You can ... Sports and Exercise Safety Stretching Dynamic Stretching (Video) Yoga Welcome Home Yoga (Video) Study Break Yoga (Video) ...

  19. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  20. Diet and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...

  1. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... underlying chronic asthma as the cause of symptoms. Exercise challenge tests An additional test that enables your ... to take daily for long-term control. Pre-exercise medications Your doctor may prescribe a drug that ...

  2. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  3. Strength and Balance Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If you have medical ... if you have been inactive and want to exercise vigorously, check with your doctor before beginning a ...

  4. Why Exercise Is Wise

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... the reasons: Exercise benefits every part of the body, including the mind. Exercising causes the body to produce endorphins, chemicals ...

  5. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  6. Assessing Exercise Limitation Using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    PubMed Central

    Stickland, Michael K.; Butcher, Scott J.; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Bhutani, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference). In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance. PMID:23213518

  7. Writing Exercises from "Exercise Exchange." Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Charles R., Ed.

    Reflecting current practices in the teaching of writing, the exercises in this compilation were drawn from the journal "Exercise Exchange." The articles are arranged into six sections: sources for writing; prewriting; modes for writing; writing and reading; language, mechanics, and style; and revising, responding, and evaluating. Among the topics…

  8. The medically underserved: who is likely to exercise and why?

    PubMed

    Schrop, Susan Labuda; Pendleton, Brian F; McCord, Gary; Gil, Karen M; Stockton, LuAnne; McNatt, Joshua; Gilchrist, Valerie J

    2006-05-01

    Adults who exercise regularly have better health, but only 15% of U.S. adults engage in regular exercise, with some social groups, such as people with lower incomes and women, having even lower rates. This study investigates the rate at which medically underserved patients receive exercise counseling from health care providers, characteristics of those who exercise, and barriers and motivations to exercise. The convenience sample was predominantly female and White and exclusively low-income and uninsured or underinsured. On average, participants were obese, by Federal Obesity Guidelines; 43% smoked. Although 60% of 126 patients reported that providers discussed exercise with them, the discussions had no relationship with patients' engagement in exercise. Women and those with lung problems, diabetes, or children in the home were less likely than others surveyed to exercise. The highest rated motivations included body image and health issues. The most important barriers were time, cost, and access to exercise facilities and equipment. In order for exercise counseling to be more effective, health care providers' interventions must consider patients' personal characteristics, health status, readiness to engage in an exercise program, and motivations and barriers to exercise.

  9. Cyber Exercise Playbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    all parties benefit from the exercise experience. Exercises are not performed to make an organization look bad; instead, they help to train and...techniques it utilized to attack a security posture. All parties benefit from an exercise that underscores the RT motto: ”we win, we lose. 23 Appendix...Jason Kick November 2014 Cyber Exercise Playbook The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of The

  10. Advanced resistive exercise device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Niebuhr, Jason (Inventor); Cruz, Santana F. (Inventor); Lamoreaux, Christopher D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an exercise device, which includes a vacuum cylinder and a flywheel. The flywheel provides an inertial component to the load, which is particularly well suited for use in space as it simulates exercising under normal gravity conditions. Also, the present invention relates to an exercise device, which has a vacuum cylinder and a load adjusting armbase assembly.

  11. Eating and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... hand. When and what you eat can be important to how you feel when you exercise, whether it's a casual workout or training for a competition. Consider these eating and exercise tips. If you exercise in the morning, get up early enough to finish breakfast at least one hour before your workout. Be ...

  12. Getting Exercise in College

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Getting Exercise in College KidsHealth > For Teens > Getting Exercise in College A A A What's in this ... energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. But with high ...

  13. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  14. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  15. Prenatal exercise research.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  16. Kids and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... or when playing tag. The Many Benefits of Exercise Everyone can benefit from regular exercise. Kids who are active will: have stronger muscles ... better outlook on life Besides enjoying the health benefits of regular exercise, kids who are physically fit sleep better. They' ...

  17. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  18. Sexual Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... own) body. Physical therapy can include Kegel exercises, biofeedback therapy, and pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. Kegel exercises ... the pelvic floor to increase strength and tone. Biofeedback therapy involves the placement of biofeedback sensors that ...

  19. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Carlisle, A; Sharp, N

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To establish by literature survey: (a) levels at which air pollutants are considered damaging to human health and to exercisers in particular; (b) the current ambient levels experienced in the United Kingdom; (c) whether athletes are especially at risk. Methods—Six major urban air pollutants were examined: carbon monoxide (CO); nitrogen oxides (NOX); ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM10); sulphur dioxide (SO2); volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results—CO is detrimental to athletic performance. NO2 is of concern to human health, but outdoor levels are low. O3 poses a potentially serious risk to exercising athletes. Decrements in lung function result from exposure, and there is evidence that athletic performance may be affected. Detrimental effects may occur at low ambient levels, but there is no scientific consensus on this matter. PM10 is causing concern in the scientific community. Blood lead accumulation during exercise indicates that personal exposure to toxic compounds associated with PM10 may be magnified. Generally, outdoor ambient levels of SO2 are too low to cause a problem to the athlete, except the asthmatic athlete. The few studies on exposure of exercisers to VOCs are reviewed. Conclusions—Athletes and exercisers should avoid exercising by the road side even though levels of the more noxious air pollutants have been controlled in the United Kingdom. O3 is particularly damaging to athletes; it reaches its highest concentrations on hot bright days in rural areas. Key Words: exercise; air pollution PMID:11477012

  20. Exercise in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vigorous exercise pregnancy were used. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: With proper attention to risk stratification and surveillance, exercise is safe for the mother and fetus. Benefits of exercise in pregnancy include reduction in Cesarean section rates, appropriate maternal and fetal weight gain, and managing gestational diabetes. Exercise as a means of preventing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or perinatal depression cannot be reliably supported. Overall, the current evidence suffers from a lack of rigorous study design and compliance with physical activity interventions. Conclusion: Research thus far has been unable to consistently demonstrate proposed benefits of exercise in pregnancy, such as preventing gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or perinatal depression. However, moderate- and high-intensity exercise in normal pregnancies is safe for the developing fetus and clearly has several important benefits. Thus, exercise should be encouraged according to the woman’s preconception physical activity level. PMID:26502446

  1. Exercise and disease progression in multiple sclerosis: can exercise slow down the progression of multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Stenager, Egon

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that exercise (or physical activity) might have the potential to have an impact on multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology and thereby slow down the disease process in MS patients. The objective of this literature review was to identify the literature linking physical exercise (or activity) and MS disease progression. A systematic literature search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, SweMed+, Embase, Cochrane Library, PEDro, SPORTDiscus and ISI Web of Science. Different methodological approaches to the problem have been applied including (1) longitudinal exercise studies evaluating the effects on clinical outcome measures, (2) cross-sectional studies evaluating the relationship between fitness status and MRI findings, (3) cross-sectional and longitudinal studies evaluating the relationship between exercise/physical activity and disability/relapse rate and, finally, (4) longitudinal exercise studies applying the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model of MS. Data from intervention studies evaluating disease progression by clinical measures (1) do not support a disease-modifying effect of exercise; however, MRI data (2), patient-reported data (3) and data from the EAE model (4) indicate a possible disease-modifying effect of exercise, but the strength of the evidence limits definite conclusions. It was concluded that some evidence supports the possibility of a disease-modifying potential of exercise (or physical activity) in MS patients, but future studies using better methodologies are needed to confirm this. PMID:22435073

  2. Exercise and disease progression in multiple sclerosis: can exercise slow down the progression of multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Dalgas, Ulrik; Stenager, Egon

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that exercise (or physical activity) might have the potential to have an impact on multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology and thereby slow down the disease process in MS patients. The objective of this literature review was to identify the literature linking physical exercise (or activity) and MS disease progression. A systematic literature search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, SweMed+, Embase, Cochrane Library, PEDro, SPORTDiscus and ISI Web of Science. Different methodological approaches to the problem have been applied including (1) longitudinal exercise studies evaluating the effects on clinical outcome measures, (2) cross-sectional studies evaluating the relationship between fitness status and MRI findings, (3) cross-sectional and longitudinal studies evaluating the relationship between exercise/physical activity and disability/relapse rate and, finally, (4) longitudinal exercise studies applying the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model of MS. Data from intervention studies evaluating disease progression by clinical measures (1) do not support a disease-modifying effect of exercise; however, MRI data (2), patient-reported data (3) and data from the EAE model (4) indicate a possible disease-modifying effect of exercise, but the strength of the evidence limits definite conclusions. It was concluded that some evidence supports the possibility of a disease-modifying potential of exercise (or physical activity) in MS patients, but future studies using better methodologies are needed to confirm this.

  3. Exercise and knee osteoarthritis: benefit or hazard?

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, Neil J.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine whether physical exercise constitutes a benefit or a risk in the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, ACP Journal Club, and Cochrane databases were searched from registry inception to January 2009 using MeSH headings or text words, including osteoarthritis, arthritis and knee and exercise, physical training, and run. Reference lists from retrieved articles, citation listings when available, and related articles suggested in PubMed were also evaluated. For individuals without osteoarthritis, strong level II evidence was found (limited by problems with blinding and randomization); for those with pre-existing knee osteoarthritis, robust level I evidence was available. MAIN MESSAGE Knee osteoarthritis is a major contributor to disability in seniors, and patients have expressed concern that continued exercise might lead to knee symptoms in later years. Studies done on subjects self-selected for exercise and followed for substantial periods of time show no evidence of accelerated development of osteoarthritis, provided injury is avoided. Further, there is good evidence for reduced pain and disability with exercise in this cohort compared with controls. Patients with established osteoarthritis are shown to derive uniform benefit to physical functioning, with reduction of pain and disability, using aerobic, muscle strengthening, aquatic, or physiotherapy-based exercise modalities. CONCLUSION Provided trauma is avoided, moderate exercise does not lead to acceleration of knee osteoarthritis, whether or not there is evidence of pre-existing disease. In either case there appears to be improved physical functioning and reduction of pain and disability in those who exercise. It is likely that exercise interventions are underused in the management of established knee osteoarthritis symptoms. PMID:19752252

  4. Exercises to Accompany Mathematics 301. Curriculum Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    These sample problems, exercises, questions, and projects were compiled to supplement the guide for the Manitoba course Mathematics 301 in order to assist teachers in implementing the program. Arranged according to the modules of the course guide, they are coded to the objectives of the program. Review exercises follow either the subtopics within…

  5. The Team Boat Exercise: Enhancing Team Communication Midsemester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Pamela L.; Friedman, Barry A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the Team Boat Exercise, which was developed to provide students with a mechanism for addressing team problems and enhancing team communication midsemester. The inspiration for the exercise came from a video by Prentice Hall, Inc. (2001). Part III of the video, entitled "Corporate Coaching," shows senior staff members from the…

  6. Product Bundling and Shared Information Goods: A Pricing Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, William G.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an exercise in which two pricing problems (product bundling and the sharing of digital information goods) can be understood using the same analytical approach. The exercise allows students to calculate the correct numerical answers with relative ease, while the teaching plan demonstrates the importance of the…

  7. Exercise therapy for fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Brachaniec, Mary; Bidonde, Julia; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Danyliw, Adrienne D; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Sawant, Anuradha; Schachter, Candice L

    2011-10-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic condition typically characterized by widespread pain, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and other somatic symptoms, negatively impacts physical and emotional function and reduces quality of life. Exercise is commonly recommended in the management of people with fibromyalgia, and interest in examining exercise benefits for those with the syndrome has grown substantially over the past 25 years. Research supports aerobic and strength training to improve physical fitness and function, reduce fibromyalgia symptoms, and improve quality of life. However, other forms of exercise (e.g., tai chi, yoga, Nordic walking, vibration techniques) and lifestyle physical activity also have been investigated to determine their effects. This paper highlights findings from recent randomized controlled trials and reviews of exercise for people with fibromyalgia, and includes information regarding factors that influence response and adherence to exercise to assist clinicians with exercise and physical activity prescription decision-making to optimize health and well-being.

  8. Diabetes and exercise.

    PubMed

    Lumb, Alistair

    2014-12-01

    Exercise has a beneficial effect on metabolic parameters affecting cardiovascular risk, such as lipids and blood glucose, and is a key component in both the prevention and the management of type 2 diabetes. Glycaemic control improves with both aerobic and resistance exercise in type 2 diabetes, but no glycaemic benefit is seen in type 1 diabetes. This probably results from glucose fluctuations commonly seen with exercise. Low and moderate intensity exercise are generally associated with a fall in blood glucose, and high intensity exercise can be associated with a rise in blood glucose. Trial evidence is suggestive of a reduction in cardiovascular risk with exercise, although evidence from prospective, randomised controlled trials is certainly not conclusive.

  9. Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

  10. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris

    2007-01-01

    The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

  11. Analysis of Human Relations Problem Situations: The Group Process Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, Paul G.

    Human relations problem situations for Army senior non-commissioned officers (NCOs) were identified and analyzed using group problem solving methods. Then, using an analysis summary prepared for each case study problem situation as the basis, candidate performance exercises were developed. (These exercises specify terminal performance objectives…

  12. Estimated Muscle Loads During Squat Exercise in Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Christopher D.; Kim, Brandon T.; Li, Zhao; DeWitt, John K.; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass in microgravity is one of the primary factors limiting long-term space flight. NASA researchers have developed a number of exercise devices to address this problem. The most recent is the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), which is currently used by astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) to emulate typical free-weight exercises in microgravity. ARED exercise on the ISS is intended to reproduce Earth-level muscle loads, but the actual muscle loads produced remain unknown as they cannot currently be measured directly. In this study we estimated muscle loads experienced during squat exercise on ARED in microgravity conditions representative of Mars, the moon, and the ISS. The estimates were generated using a subject-specific musculoskeletal computer model and ARED exercise data collected on Earth. The results provide insight into the capabilities and limitations of the ARED machine.

  13. Adapted PBL Practical Exercises: Benefits for Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Use was made of adapted problem-based learning (PBL) practical exercises to address the disengagement of apprentices with the existing assembly-style electronic laboratory programme. Apprentices perceived the traditional routines as having little real-world relevance. This detracted from the value and benefit to them of the practical component of…

  14. GREMEX update (Goddard research engineering management exercise)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaccaro, M. J.; Denault, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Management simulation techniques offer training in management problems. Exercise was developed to provide experience in research and development project decision making from management rather than technological perspective. Program and documentation have been revised innumerable times in past. Described report is revised version as it exists to date.

  15. An Exercise in Vehicle Kinematics and Energetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Solomon; Gluck, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We physics teachers are forever in search of real-life applications of the theoretical concepts we teach. In mechanics we often utilize vehicle motion exercises, yet most textbook problems involving these are rather tame and deal with constant acceleration. What often captures the imagination of students is the actual performance of cars they…

  16. Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…

  17. Effects of exercise intensity and duration on the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    LaForgia, J; Withers, R T; Gore, C J

    2006-12-01

    Recovery from a bout of exercise is associated with an elevation in metabolism referred to as the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). A number of investigators in the first half of the last century reported prolonged EPOC durations and that the EPOC was a major component of the thermic effect of activity. It was therefore thought that the EPOC was a major contributor to total daily energy expenditure and hence the maintenance of body mass. Investigations conducted over the last two or three decades have improved the experimental protocols used in the pioneering studies and therefore have more accurately characterized the EPOC. Evidence has accumulated to suggest an exponential relationship between exercise intensity and the magnitude of the EPOC for specific exercise durations. Furthermore, work at exercise intensities >or=50-60% VO2max stimulate a linear increase in EPOC as exercise duration increases. The existence of these relationships with resistance exercise at this stage remains unclear because of the limited number of studies and problems with quantification of work intensity for this type of exercise. Although the more recent studies do not support the extended EPOC durations reported by some of the pioneering investigators, it is now apparent that a prolonged EPOC (3-24 h) may result from an appropriate exercise stimulus (submaximal: >or=50 min at >or=70% VO2max; supramaximal: >or=6 min at >or=105% VO2max). However, even those studies incorporating exercise stimuli resulting in prolonged EPOC durations have identified that the EPOC comprises only 6-15% of the net total oxygen cost of the exercise. But this figure may need to be increased when studies utilizing intermittent work bouts are designed to allow the determination of rest interval EPOCs, which should logically contribute to the EPOC determined following the cessation of the last work bout. Notwithstanding the aforementioned, the earlier research optimism regarding an important role

  18. How to avoid exercise injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000859.htm How to avoid exercise injuries To use the sharing features on this ... injury and stay safe during exercise. What Causes Exercise Injuries? Some of the most common causes of ...

  19. Exercises to help prevent falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing ... and easily. DO NOT hold your breath. Balance Exercises You can do some balance exercises during everyday ...

  20. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  1. Stay active and exercise - arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your overall health and sense of well-being. Exercise keeps your muscles strong and increases your range ... Water exercises may be the best exercise for your arthritis. Swimming laps, water aerobics, or even just walking in ...

  2. Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool (ESPRIT) - A Compact Stereo-based Motion Capture Solution For Exercise Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mun Wai

    2015-01-01

    Crew exercise is important during long-duration space flight not only for maintaining health and fitness but also for preventing adverse health problems, such as losses in muscle strength and bone density. Monitoring crew exercise via motion capture and kinematic analysis aids understanding of the effects of microgravity on exercise and helps ensure that exercise prescriptions are effective. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed ESPRIT to monitor exercise activities, detect body markers, extract image features, and recover three-dimensional (3D) kinematic body poses. The system relies on prior knowledge and modeling of the human body and on advanced statistical inference techniques to achieve robust and accurate motion capture. In Phase I, the company demonstrated motion capture of several exercises, including walking, curling, and dead lifting. Phase II efforts focused on enhancing algorithms and delivering an ESPRIT prototype for testing and demonstration.

  3. Exercise and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Thomas W.

    This book paints a broad picture of the role of exercise in children's health and provides information for the physician and other health care providers on healthful forms of physical activity for children. The book is divided into three parts: (1) "Developmental Exercise Physiology: The Physiological Basis of Physical Fitness in Children"; (2)…

  4. Exercise through Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  5. Exercise: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Dangardt, Frida J; McKenna, William J; Lüscher, Thomas F; Deanfield, John E

    2013-09-01

    Physical activity and exercise have been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, morbidity, and mortality, as well as all-cause mortality, both in the general population and in patients with various forms of cardiovascular disease. Increasing amounts of exercise are associated with incremental reductions in mortality, but considerable benefits have been found even with a low level of exercise. Exercise is beneficial for most individuals, but risks exist. Exercise is associated with reduced long-term morbidity and mortality, but acute exercise can transiently increase the risk of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events. Although tragic, these events are very rare, and even to some extent preventable with screening programmes. Low-intensity physical activity is important and beneficial to all individuals, including those with a high risk of adverse cardiovascular events. In individuals who are physically fit and who do not have genetic predisposition to, or signs of, cardiovascular disease, the greater the intensity and amount of exercise, the greater the health benefits. Nevertheless, effective strategies to encourage exercise in the population are lacking. A sustained increase in physical activity is likely to require more than individual advice, and needs to include urban planning and possibly even legislation.

  6. Exercising after Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... before beginning a new exercise program. Benefits of Exercise for Post-Menopausal Women Helps prevent osteoporosis by keeping bone and cartilage tissue strong and healthy. Reduces the risk of heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases by increasing heart and respiratory rates. Keeps your ...

  7. Saliva composition and exercise.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, J L; Lucía, A; Pérez, M; Vaquero, A F; Ureña, R

    1998-07-01

    Little attention has been directed toward identifying the changes which occur in salivary composition in response to exercise. To address this, our article first refers to the main aspects of salivary gland physiology. A knowledge of the neural control of salivary secretion is especially important for the understanding of the effects of exertion on salivary secretion. Both salivary output and composition depend on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and any modification of this activity can be observed indirectly by alternations in the salivary excretion. The effects of physical activity (with reference to factors such as exercise intensity and duration, or type of exercise protocol) on salivary composition are then considered. Exercise might indeed induce changes in several salivary components such as immunoglobulins, hormones, lactate, proteins and electrolytes. Saliva composition might therefore be used as an alternative noninvasive indicator of the response of the different body tissues and systems to physical exertion. In this respect, the response of salivary amylase and salivary electrolytes to incremental levels of exercise is of particular interest. Beyond a certain intensity of exercise, and coinciding with the accumulation of blood lactate (anaerobic threshold or AT), a 'saliva threshold' (Tsa) does indeed exist. Tsa is the point during exercise at which the levels of salivary alpha-amylase and electrolytes (especially Na+) also begin to rise above baseline levels. The occurrence of the 2 thresholds (AT and Tsa) might, in turn, be attributable to the same underlying mechanism, that of increased adrenal sympathetic activity at high exercise intensities.

  8. Lab Exercises for Kinesiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Brett D.; And Others

    This monograph presents descriptions of various exercises and athletic activities with a kinesiological and biomechanical analysis of the muscle systems involved. It is intended as examples of laboratory activities and projects in a college course in kinesiology. A listing of the required laboratory exercises precedes the examples. Specific…

  9. Exercise Against Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl

    1998-01-01

    Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…

  10. Using implicit attitudes of exercise importance to predict explicit exercise dependence symptoms and exercise behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Lauren N.; Smith, April R.; Fussner, Lauren M.; Dodd, Dorian R.; Clerkin, Elise M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives ”Fast” (i.e., implicit) processing is relatively automatic; “slow” (i.e., explicit) processing is relatively controlled and can override automatic processing. These different processing types often produce different responses that uniquely predict behaviors. In the present study, we tested if explicit, self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence and an implicit association of exercise as important predicted exercise behaviors and change in problematic exercise attitudes. Design We assessed implicit attitudes of exercise importance and self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence at Time 1. Participants reported daily exercise behaviors for approximately one month, and then completed a Time 2 assessment of self-reported exercise dependence symptoms. Method Undergraduate males and females (Time 1, N = 93; Time 2, N = 74) tracked daily exercise behaviors for one month and completed an Implicit Association Test assessing implicit exercise importance and subscales of the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) assessing exercise dependence symptoms. Results Implicit attitudes of exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted Time 2 EDQ scores. Further, implicit exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted daily exercise intensity while Time 1 EDQ scores predicted the amount of days exercised. Conclusion Implicit and explicit processing appear to uniquely predict exercise behaviors and attitudes. Given that different implicit and explicit processes may drive certain exercise factors (e.g., intensity and frequency, respectively), these behaviors may contribute to different aspects of exercise dependence. PMID:26195916

  11. Physical exercise and health.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Alberto; Masiá, M Dolores; Galve, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is an established recommendation for preventing and treating the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Performing physical activity of moderate intensity for a minimum of 30 min 5 days a week or of high intensity for a minimum of 20 min 3 days a week improves functional capacity and is associated with reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Physical exercise induces physiological cardiovascular adaptations that improve physical performance, and only in extreme cases can these adaptations lead to an increased risk of physical exercise-associated complications. The incidence of sudden death or serious complications during physical exercise is very low and is concentrated in people with heart diseases or with pathological cardiac adaptation to exercise. Most of these cases can be detected by cardiology units or well-trained professionals.

  12. Integrative biology of exercise.

    PubMed

    Hawley, John A; Hargreaves, Mark; Joyner, Michael J; Zierath, Juleen R

    2014-11-06

    Exercise represents a major challenge to whole-body homeostasis provoking widespread perturbations in numerous cells, tissues, and organs that are caused by or are a response to the increased metabolic activity of contracting skeletal muscles. To meet this challenge, multiple integrated and often redundant responses operate to blunt the homeostatic threats generated by exercise-induced increases in muscle energy and oxygen demand. The application of molecular techniques to exercise biology has provided greater understanding of the multiplicity and complexity of cellular networks involved in exercise responses, and recent discoveries offer perspectives on the mechanisms by which muscle "communicates" with other organs and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on health and performance.

  13. "It's exercise or nothing": a qualitative analysis of exercise dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Methods—Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Results—Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Conclusions—Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this co-morbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; psychological distress; anorexia; bulimia PMID:11131229

  14. [Exercise tests in spirometry].

    PubMed

    Löllgen, H; Dirschedl, P; Fahrenkrog, U

    1994-01-01

    Actual situation: There is a great variety of exercise programs (formerly called protocols) used in daily routine and general practice. Exercise programs vary with increments, step-duration, speed and grade, although standard recommendations have been published recently. In the USA, the Bruce program is widely accepted, although some criticism has been published. Comparing different exercise programs it is obvious, that maximal values (VO2, heart rate etc.) are only moderately affected by the program, but submaximal values are strongly influenced by the methodological procedure. Advantages and disadvantages of the different exercise testing procedures will be presented. As we need some standardized exercise programs to avoid "free-style ergometry", recommendations may be based on the following assumptions: Exercise testing should not be too short nor too long (10-12 min total test time), work rate increments should be intermediate (adapted to physical fitness), work rate steps should be about 2 min or an individualized ramp test should be used. Exercise test programs have to be selected according to the patient's fitness, to the disease or function to be studied, and to the laboratory setting. Standardization is strongly recommended.

  15. Exercise and osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, David J; Eckstein, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Exercise remains an extremely popular leisure time activity in many countries throughout the western world. It is widely promoted in the lay press as having salutory benefits for weight control, disease management advantages for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to improving psychological well-being amongst an array of other benefits. In contrast, however, the lay press and community perception is also that exercise is potentially deleterious to one's joints. The purpose of this review is to consider what osteoarthritis (OA) is and provide an overview of the epidemiology of OA focusing on validated risk factors for its development. In particular the role of both exercise and occupational activity in OA will be described as well as the role of exercise to the joints’ tissues (particularly cartilage) and the role of exercise in disease management. Despite the common misconception that exercise is deleterious to one's joints, in the absence of joint injury there is no evidence to support this notion. Rather it would appear that exercise has positive salutory benefits for joint tissues in addition to its other health benefits. PMID:19207981

  16. National Survey of Water Exercise Participants. D.C., July 5-8, 1988). Papers by U.S.S.R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midtlyng, Joanna; Nelson, C. Van Cleave

    This survey generated a profile of a typical water exercise participant. Data include: (1) subject's medical clearance for water exercise, swimming ability, physical and related problems, reasons for participation and perceived psycho-physical benefits of water exercise; (2) techniques of monitoring water exercise intensity: kinds of flotation…

  17. Exercise and Inherited Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Christopher C; Laksman, Zachary W M; Mellor, Gregory; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Krahn, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in an apparently healthy individual is a tragedy that prompts a series of investigations to identify the cause of death and to prevent SCD in potentially at-risk family members. Several inherited channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, including long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular cardiomyopathy (CPVT), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are associated with exercise-related SCD. Exercise restriction has been a historical mainstay of therapy for these conditions. Syncope and cardiac arrest occur during exercise in LQTS and CPVT because of ventricular arrhythmias, which are managed with β-blockade and exercise restriction. Exercise may provoke hemodynamic or ischemic changes in HCM, leading to ventricular arrhythmias. ARVC is a disease of the desmosome, whose underlying disease process is accelerated by exercise. On this basis, expert consensus has erred on the side of caution, recommending rigorous exercise restriction for all inherited arrhythmias. With time, as familiarity with inherited arrhythmia conditions has increased and patients with milder forms of disease are diagnosed, practitioners have questioned the historical rigorous restrictions advocated for all. This change has been driven by the fact that these are often children and young adults who wish to lead active lives. Recent evidence suggests a lower risk of exercise-related arrhythmias in treated patients than was previously assumed, including those with previous symptoms managed with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. In this review, we emphasize shared decision making, monitored medical therapy, individual and team awareness of precautions and emergency response measures, and a more permissive approach to recreational and competitive exercise.

  18. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences.

  19. Menstrual Cycle Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury ...

  20. Aquatic Exercise for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael; And Others

    The development and implementation of aquatic exercise programs for the aged are discussed in this paper. Program development includes a discussion of training principles, exercise leadership and the setting up of safe water exercise programs for the participants. The advantages of developing water exercise programs and not swimming programs are…

  1. Emerging Relationships between Exercise, Sensory Nerves, and Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Michael A.; Kluding, Patricia M.; Wright, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of physical activity as a therapeutic tool is rapidly growing in the medical community and the role exercise may offer in the alleviation of painful disease states is an emerging research area. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex mechanism, which clinicians and researchers are continually working to better understand. The limited therapies available for alleviation of these pain states are still focused on pain abatement and as opposed to treating underlying mechanisms. The continued research into exercise and pain may address these underlying mechanisms, but the mechanisms which exercise acts through are still poorly understood. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of how the peripheral nervous system responds to exercise, the relationship of inflammation and exercise, and experimental and clinical use of exercise to treat pain. Although pain is associated with many conditions, this review highlights pain associated with diabetes as well as experimental studies on nerve damages-associated pain. Because of the global effects of exercise across multiple organ systems, exercise intervention can address multiple problems across the entire nervous system through a single intervention. This is a double-edged sword however, as the global interactions of exercise also require in depth investigations to include and identify the many changes that can occur after physical activity. A continued investment into research is necessary to advance the adoption of physical activity as a beneficial remedy for neuropathic pain. The following highlights our current understanding of how exercise alters pain, the varied pain models used to explore exercise intervention, and the molecular pathways leading to the physiological and pathological changes following exercise intervention. PMID:27601974

  2. Does vigorous exercise have a neuroprotective effect in Parkinson disease?

    PubMed

    Ahlskog, J Eric

    2011-07-19

    Parkinson disease (PD) is progressive, with dementia and medication-refractory motor problems common reasons for late-stage nursing-home placement. Increasing evidence suggests that ongoing vigorous exercise/physical fitness may favorably influence this progression. Parkinsonian animal models reveal exercise-related protection from dopaminergic neurotoxins, apparently mediated by brain neurotrophic factors and neuroplasticity (predicted from in vitro studies). Similarly, exercise consistently improves cognition in animals, also linked to enhanced neuroplasticity and increased neurotrophic factor expression. In these animal models, immobilization has the opposite effect. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may mediate at least some of this exercise benefit. In humans, exercise increases serum BDNF, and this is known to cross the blood-brain barrier. PD risk in humans is significantly reduced by midlife exercise, documented in large prospective studies. No studies have addressed whether exercise influences dementia risk in PD, but exercised patients with PD improve cognitive scores. Among seniors in general, exercise or physical fitness has not only been associated with better cognitive scores, but midlife exercise significantly reduces the later risk of both dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Finally, numerous studies in seniors with and without dementia have reported increased cerebral gray matter volumes associated with physical fitness or exercise. These findings have several implications for PD clinicians. (1) Ongoing vigorous exercise and physical fitness should be highly encouraged. (2) PD physical therapy programs should include structured, graduated fitness instruction and guidance for deconditioned patients with PD. (3) Levodopa and other forms of dopamine replenishment therapy should be utilized to achieve the maximum capability and motivation for patients to maintain fitness.

  3. Home-Based Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Vestibular Disorder Family Support Network Desorden Vestibular/Vértigo - En Español הפרעות ... What is a Home VRT program? During vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT), home exercises ...

  4. Exercise Metabolism: Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hawley, John A; Maughan, Ronald J; Hargreaves, Mark

    2015-07-07

    The past 25 years have witnessed major advances in our knowledge of how exercise activates cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways with regulatory roles in training response adaptation, and how muscle "cross-talk" with other organs is a mechanism by which physical activity exerts its beneficial effects on "whole-body" health. However, during the late 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries, scientific debate in the field of exercise metabolism centered on questions related to the sources of energy for muscular activity, diet-exercise manipulations to alter patterns of fuel utilization, as well as the factors limiting physical work capacity. Posing novel scientific questions and utilizing cutting-edge techniques, the contributions made by the great pioneers of the 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries laid the foundation on which much of our present knowledge of exercise metabolism is based and paved the way for future discoveries in the field.

  5. Parkinson's Disease: Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... many types of exercise. Biking, running, tai chi, yoga , Pilates, dance , weight training, non-contact boxing, qi gong and more all have been shown to have positive effects on symptoms for people with Parkinson’s. Researchers in ...

  6. Exercise stress test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart disease - treadmill References Balady GJ, Morise AP. Exercise testing. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ...

  7. Why Exercise Is Cool

    MedlinePlus

    ... do a push-up or swing across the monkey bars at the playground? Those are exercises that ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  8. Getting Exercise in College

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... hours of studying burn mental energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. ...

  9. Hand and Finger Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Hand and Finger Exercises  Place your palm flat on a table. Raise and lower your fingers one ... times for ____ seconds.  Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

  10. Realism in Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    me expand on this thesis just a bit. My contention is that in every exercise, even the ones like Wintex- Cimex which are supposed to test the logistics...Wintex- Cimex and Gallant Eagle, occur every other year and in the off-year there is a complimentary FTX. Addit-ionally, there is usually one big CPX...spares calculations, and other logistics concerns. 3-2 Observation and Participation The researcher observed the winter exercise known as Wintex- Cimex

  11. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    NAEIJE, R; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40–50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:23105961

  12. Respiratory factors limiting exercise.

    PubMed

    Bye, P T; Farkas, G A; Roussos, C

    1983-01-01

    The question of respiratory factors limiting exercise has been examined in terms of possible limitations arising from the function of gas exchange, the respiratory mechanics, the energetics of the respiratory muscles, or the development of respiratory muscle fatigue. Exercise capacity is curtailed in the presence of marked hypoxia, and this is readily observed in patients with chronic airflow limitation and interstitial lung disease and in some athletes at high intensities of exercise. In patients with interstitial lung disease, gas exchange abnormality--partly the result of diffusion disequilibrium for oxygen transfer--occurs during exercise despite abnormally high ventilations. In contrast, in certain athletes arterial hypoxemia has been documented during heavy exercise, apparently as a result of relative hypoventilation. During strenuous exercise the maximum expiratory flow volume curves are attained both by patients with chronic airflow limitation and by normal subjects, in particular when they breathe dense gas, so that a mechanical constraint is imposed on further increases in ventilation. Similarly, the force velocity characteristics of the inspiratory muscles may also impose a constraint to further increases in inspiratory flows that affects the ability to increase ventilation. In addition, the oxygen cost of maintaining high ventilations is large. Analysis of results from blood flow experiments reveal a substantial increase in blood flow to the respiratory muscles during exercise, with the result that oxygen supply to the rest of the body may be lessened. Alternatively, high exercise ventilations may not be sustained indefinitely owing to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue that results in hypoventilation and reduced arterial oxygen tension.

  13. Pulmonary circulation at exercise.

    PubMed

    Naeije, Robert; Chesler, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high-flow and low-pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg/min/L in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg/min/L over four to six decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20 to 25 mmHg threshold associated with interstitial lung edema and altered ventilation/perfusion relationships. Pulmonary artery pressures of 40 to 50 mmHg, which can be achieved at maximal exercise, may correspond to the extreme of tolerable right ventricular afterload. Distension of capillaries that decrease resistance may be of adaptative value during exercise, but this is limited by hypoxemia from altered diffusion/perfusion relationships. Exercise in hypoxia is associated with higher pulmonary vascular pressures and lower maximal cardiac output, with increased likelihood of right ventricular function limitation and altered gas exchange by interstitial lung edema. Pharmacological interventions aimed at the reduction of pulmonary vascular tone have little effect on pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships in normoxia, but may decrease resistance in hypoxia, unloading the right ventricle and thereby improving exercise capacity. Exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension is associated with sharp increases in pulmonary artery pressure and a right ventricular limitation of aerobic capacity. Exercise stress testing to determine multipoint pulmonary vascular pressures-flow relationships may uncover early stage pulmonary vascular disease.

  14. Graphing as a Problem-Solving Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Donald

    1984-01-01

    The focus is on how line graphs can be used to approximate solutions to rate problems and to suggest equations that offer exact algebraic solutions to the problem. Four problems requiring progressively greater graphing sophistication are presented plus four exercises. (MNS)

  15. Parkinson disease and exercise.

    PubMed

    Earhart, Gammon M; Falvo, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative movement disorder. PD was originally attributed to neuronal loss within the substantia nigra pars compacta, and a concomitant loss of dopamine. PD is now thought to be a multisystem disorder that involves not only the dopaminergic system, but other neurotransmitter systems whose role may become more prominent as the disease progresses (189). PD is characterized by four cardinal symptoms, resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability, all of which are motor. However, PD also may include any combination of a myriad of nonmotor symptoms (195). Both motor and nonmotor symptoms may impact the ability of those with PD to participate in exercise and/or impact the effects of that exercise on those with PD. This article provides a comprehensive overview of PD, its symptoms and progression, and current treatments for PD. Among these treatments, exercise is currently at the forefront. People with PD retain the ability to participate in many forms of exercise and generally respond to exercise interventions similarly to age-matched subjects without PD. As such, exercise is currently an area receiving substantial research attention as investigators seek interventions that may modify the progression of the disease, perhaps through neuroprotective mechanisms.

  16. Analysis of the Argonne distance tabletop exercise method.

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E. A.; Nieves, L. A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-14

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and evaluate the Argonne Distance Tabletop Exercise (DISTEX) method. DISTEX is intended to facilitate multi-organization, multi-objective tabletop emergency response exercises that permit players to participate from their own facility's incident command center. This report is based on experience during its first use during the FluNami 2007 exercise, which took place from September 19-October 17, 2007. FluNami 2007 exercised the response of local public health officials and hospitals to a hypothetical pandemic flu outbreak. The underlying purpose of the DISTEX method is to make tabletop exercising more effective and more convenient for playing organizations. It combines elements of traditional tabletop exercising, such as scenario discussions and scenario injects, with distance learning technologies. This distance-learning approach also allows playing organizations to include a broader range of staff in the exercise. An average of 81.25 persons participated in each weekly webcast session from all playing organizations combined. The DISTEX method required development of several components. The exercise objectives were based on the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Target Capabilities List. The ten playing organizations included four public health departments and six hospitals in the Chicago area. An extent-of-play agreement identified the objectives applicable to each organization. A scenario was developed to drive the exercise over its five-week life. Weekly problem-solving task sets were designed to address objectives that could not be addressed fully during webcast sessions, as well as to involve additional playing organization staff. Injects were developed to drive play between webcast sessions, and, in some cases, featured mock media stories based in part on player actions as identified from the problem-solving tasks. The weekly 90-minute webcast sessions were discussions among the playing organizations that were

  17. Exercise, intestinal barrier dysfunction and probiotic supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Frauwallner, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Athletes exposed to high-intensity exercise show an increased occurrence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms like cramps, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, and bleeding. These problems have been associated with alterations in intestinal permeability and decreased gut barrier function. The increased GI permeability, a so-called 'leaky gut', also leads to endotoxemia, and results in increased susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases, due to absorption of pathogens/toxins into tissue and the bloodstream. Key components that determine intestinal barrier function and GI permeability are tight junctions, protein structures located in the paracellular channels between epithelial cells of the intestinal wall. The integrity of tight junctions depends on sophisticated interactions between the gut residents and their expressed substances, the intestinal epithelial cell metabolism and the activities of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Probiotic supplements are an upcoming group of nutraceuticals that could offer positive effects on athlete's gut and entire health. Some results demonstrate promising benefits for probiotic use on the athlete's immune system. There is also evidence that probiotic supplementation can beneficially influence intestinal barrier integrity in acute diseases. With regard to exercise-induced GI permeability problems, there is still a lack of studies with appropriate data and a gap to understand the underlying mechanisms to support such health beneficial statements implicitly. This article refers (i) to exercise-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction, (ii) provides suggestions to estimate increased gut barrier permeability in athletes, and (iii) discusses the potential of probiotic supplementation to counteract an exercise-induced leaky gut.

  18. Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsella, John J.

    1970-01-01

    Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)

  19. Role of exercise in the treatment of alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    MANTHOU, EIRINI; GEORGAKOULI, KALLIOPI; FATOUROS, IOANNIS G.; GIANOULAKIS, CHRISTINA; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS; JAMURTAS, ATHANASIOS Z.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use can cause harmful effects on the human body, which are associated with serious health problems, and it can also lead to the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). There is certain evidence that physical exercise positively affects excessive alcohol use and the associated problems by leading to reduced alcohol intake. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, Medline and Web of Science. The search terms used as keywords were: Addiction, abuse, alcohol use disorders, exercise training, β-endorphin, opioids, brain, ethanol and alcohol. The current study presents the studies that reported on the use of exercise in the treatment of AUDs between 1970 and 2015. The potential psychological and physiological mechanisms that contribute to the action of exercise were also reviewed, highlighting the role of β-endorphin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in AUDs and the possible association among physical activity, the endogenous opioid system and the desire for alcohol. Only 11 studies were identified that refer to the effect of exercise on alcohol consumption and/or the associated outcomes. Six of those studies concluded that exercise may have a positive impact towards alcohol consumption, abstinence rates or the urge to drink. One of those studies also indicated that a bout of exercise affects the endogenous opioids, which may be associated with the urge to drink. Another 3 studies indicated that responses to acute exercise in individuals with AUDs are different compared to those in healthy ones. Generally, despite limited research data and often contradictory results, there is certain early promising evidence for the role of exercise as an adjunctive tool in the treatment of AUDs. Physiological and biochemical parameters that would confirm that exercise is safe for individuals with AUDs should be examined in future studies. PMID:27123244

  20. The Intermediate School Principal: An In-Basket Simulation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musella, Donald F.; Joyce, H. Donald

    The materials in this booklet simulate some of the problems that intermediate (junior high, middle, and senior elementary) school principals could face under actual working conditions. Taken from the real-life problems of some intermediate school principals, the exercises are presented in the form of in-basket items -- letters, memos, phone…

  1. Breathing Problems: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for children (prekindergarten through high school) with breathing problems. An introductory…

  2. The history of "Exercise Is Medicine" in ancient civilizations.

    PubMed

    Tipton, Charles M

    2014-06-01

    In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine, with endorsement from the American Medical Association and the Office of the Surgeon General, launched a global initiative to mobilize physicians, healthcare professionals and providers, and educators to promote exercise in their practice or activities to prevent, reduce, manage, or treat diseases that impact health and the quality of life in humans. Emerging from this initiative, termed Exercise Is Medicine, has been an extensively documented position stand by the American College of Sports Medicine that recommended healthy adults perform 150 min of moderate dynamic exercise per week. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the foundation for this global initiative and its exercise prescription for health and disease prevention has roots that began in antiquity more than two millennia ago. Individuals and concepts to remember are that Susruta of India was the first “recorded” physician to prescribe moderate daily exercise, Hippocrates of Greece was the first “recorded” physician to provide a written exercise prescription for a patient suffering from consumption, and the global influence of Galen from Rome combined with his recommendation on the use of exercise for patients in the management of disease prevailed until the 16th century. Historically intertwined with these concepts was exercise being advocated by select physicians to minimize the health problems associated with obesity, diabetes, and inactivity.

  3. Effects of exercise on mobility in people with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, Nicolien M; King, Laurie A

    2013-09-15

    Parkinson's disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatment exists. Gait and balance disturbance is common in Parkinson's disease and is a major contributor to increased disability and decreased health-related quality of life and survival. Balance and gait deficits in Parkinson's disease are notoriously difficult to treat and are not significantly helped by pharmacological or surgical treatment. The last two decades have seen a dramatic increase in the research and clinical interest in using exercise as a treatment for mobility problems in people with Parkinson's disease. With exciting advances in basic science research suggesting neurochemical and neuroplastic changes after exercise, an increasing number of high-quality studies are documenting particular aspects of mobility improving after exercise. Exercise has the potential to help both motor (gait, balance, strength) and nonmotor (depression, apathy, fatigue, constipation) aspects of Parkinson's disease as well as secondary complications of immobility (cardiovascular, osteoporosis). This perspective article focuses primarily on recent evidence on the effects of exercise in improving mobility while highlighting the importance of targeted exercise intervention for maximizing the benefits of exercise. Suggestions for exercise guidelines, adherence issues, and directions for future research are provided.

  4. Kegel's exercises with biofeedback therapy for treatment of stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Burns, P A; Marecki, M A; Dittmar, S S; Bullough, B

    1985-02-01

    True stress incontinence due to a weakened pelvic floor is one of the most frequently cited urologic complaints of multiparous women past age 40. One treatment modality currently used to treat stress incontinence is exercising the pubococcygeus muscle. Combining biofeedback therapy with a vaginal probe (perineometer) helps patients identify the muscle, provides immediate feedback and assists the nurse and patient in assessing problem resolution. This article describes an intervention program using biofeedback, and measured Kegel's exercises on a small number of women with symptoms of stress incontinence. The lessening of symptoms became a major factor in continued compliance with the exercise program.

  5. The cooperative monitoring of military forces: An exercise in strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This exercise examines a hypothetical security problem associated with conventional military forces and border security: a surprise attack. The goal of the exercise is to provide an opportunity to think about how cooperative monitoring can be part of regional security. Two hypothetical countries, VOLCANOES and MOUNTAINS, have been created for this exercise based on the US states of Arizona and New Mexico. They were selected for their size and variety of terrain. Hypothetical background information and characteristics of the two countries are provided. An outline of activities is given, including prioritization of security concerns and monitoring of objectives for security concerns. 6 tabs.

  6. Workshop on Countering Space Adaptation with Exercise: Current Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Bernard A. (Editor); Siconolfi, Steven F. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings represent an update to the problems associated with living and working in space and the possible impact exercise would have on helping reduce risk. The meeting provided a forum for discussions and debates on contemporary issues in exercise science and medicine as they relate to manned space flight with outside investigators. This meeting also afforded an opportunity to introduce the current status of the Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) science investigations and inflight hardware and software development. In addition, techniques for physiological monitoring and the development of various microgravity countermeasures were discussed.

  7. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities.

  8. Exercise and Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Phu, Steven; Boersma, Derek; Duque, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a major component of the frailty syndrome and is also a strong predictor of disability, morbidity, and mortality in older persons. Without any available pharmacological intervention to sarcopenia, non-pharmacological interventions are the only option to prevent these poor outcomes in sarcopenic patients. Among those interventions, physical activity with or without protein supplementation has demonstrated to be effective in improving muscle mass and function and in preventing disability and frailty in older persons. Additionally, to the beneficial effect of physical activity on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, a regular exercise program (3 times/wk) that includes resistance and endurance exercise training would have a major positive effect on sarcopenic muscle through improving muscle mass, strength, and function. In this review, we looked at the effect of exercise on sarcopenic frail older persons from the biological aspects of the response of the muscle to exercise to some practical aspects of exercise prescription in this high-risk population. We conclude that, although challenging, older persons should be encouraged to participate in this type of programs, which would improve not only their function and independence but also their quality of life.

  9. Fish under exercise.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish.

  10. Exercise for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Baker, K; McAlindon, T

    2000-09-01

    Adverse outcomes in knee osteoarthritis include pain, loss of function, and disability. These outcomes can have devastating effects on the quality of life of those suffering from the disease. Treatments have generally targeted pain, assuming that disability would improve as a direct result of improvements in pain. However, there is evidence to suggest that determinants of pain and disability differ. In general, treatments have been more successful at decreasing pain rather than disability. Many of the factors that lead to disability can be improved with exercise. Exercise, both aerobic and strength training, have been examined as treatments for knee osteoarthritis, with considerable variability in the results. The variability between studies may be due to differences in study design, exercise protocols, and participants in the studies. Although there is variability among studies, it is notable that a majority of the studies had a positive effect on pain and or disability. The mechanism of exercise remains unclear and merits future studies to better define a concise, clear exercise protocol that may have the potential for a public health intervention.

  11. Diabetes and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Peirce, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, in particular in those at higher risk, and has an important role in reducing the significant worldwide burden of this type of diabetes. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the acute and long term physiological benefits of physical activity, although the precise duration, intensity, and type of exercise have yet to be fully elucidated. However, in type 1 diabetes, the expected improvements in glycaemic control with exercise have not been clearly established. Instead significant physical and psychological benefits of exercise can be achieved while careful education, screening, and planning allow the metabolic, microvascular, and macrovascular risks to be predicted and diminished. 


 PMID:10378067

  12. Locomotor exercise in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W.; Whitmore, H.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements for exercise in space by means of locomotion are established and addressed with prototype treadmills for use during long-duration spaceflight. The adaptation of the human body to microgravity is described in terms of 1-G locomotor biomechanics, the effects of reduced activity, and effective activity-replacement techniques. The treadmill is introduced as a complement to other techniques of force replacement with reference given to the angle required for exercise. A motor-driven unit is proposed that can operate at a variety of controlled speeds and equivalent grades. The treadmills permit locomotor exercise as required for long-duration space travel to sustain locomotor and cardiorespiratory capacity at a level consistent with postflight needs.

  13. Resveratrol and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Baltaci, Saltuk Bugra; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2016-01-01

    Although it is recommended for a healthy lifestyle, moderate exercise is known to lead to oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle injury. Hence there are efforts to develop dietary strategies to counter the oxidative stress caused by physical activity. Recently, there has been an interest in the capability of resveratrol (RES) to modulate physical performance and prevent oxidative stress. Despite the inconsistency among reports regarding the topic, it has been suggested that RES delays fatigue by hindering lipid peroxidation. It is hypothesized that RES administration produces favorable effects on hepatic cell rejuvenation, exerts a regulatory effect on glucose metabolism, and preserves liver glycogen reserves that are diminished during physical activity. Consequently, there is a growing interest in the association between RES and exercise. The aim of the current review is to interpret the association between RES and exercise. PMID:27882212

  14. Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, M C

    2012-09-01

    The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients.

  15. Exercise acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Vina, J; Sanchis-Gomar, F; Martinez-Bello, V; Gomez-Cabrera, MC

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of regular exercise for the promotion of health and cure of diseases have been clearly shown. In this review, we would like to postulate the idea that exercise can be considered as a drug. Exercise causes a myriad of beneficial effects for health, including the promotion of health and lifespan, and these are reviewed in the first section of this paper. Then we deal with the dosing of exercise. As with many drugs, dosing is extremely important to get the beneficial effects of exercise. To this end, the organism adapts to exercise. We review the molecular signalling pathways involved in these adaptations because understanding them is of great importance to be able to prescribe exercise in an appropriate manner. Special attention must be paid to the psychological effects of exercise. These are so powerful that we would like to propose that exercise may be considered as a psychoactive drug. In moderate doses, it causes very pronounced relaxing effects on the majority of the population, but some persons may even become addicted to exercise. Finally, there may be some contraindications to exercise that arise when people are severely ill, and these are described in the final section of the review. Our general conclusion is that exercise is so effective that it should be considered as a drug, but that more attention should be paid to the dosing and to individual variations between patients. PMID:22486393

  16. Exercise boosts immune response.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ruth

    2012-06-29

    Ageing is associated with a decline in normal functioning of the immune system described as 'immunosenescence'. This contributes to poorer vaccine response and increased incidence of infection and malignancy seen in older people. Regular exercise can enhance vaccination response, increase T-cells and boost the function of the natural killer cells in the immune system. Exercise also lowers levels of the inflammatory cytokines that cause the 'inflamm-ageing' that is thought to play a role in conditions including cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes; Alzheimer's disease; osteoporosis and some cancers.

  17. The endocrinology of exercise.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Donald

    2013-04-01

    Some obese individuals do not get cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or certain cancers associated with obesity. These healthy obese individuals exercise regularly and reduce circulating levels of inflammatory mediators which are associated with the complications of obesity. Bloated white adipocytes located in ectopic locations such as the liver, produce these inflammatory mediators. Exercise, by reducing the excess storage of fat in these bloated fat cells, reduces the levels of circulating inflammatory mediators. The processes of gathering and creating new energy-rich substances, storing energy, and consuming energy-rich substances, and the specific contribution of several hormones to this process, are reviewed.

  18. Exercise following burn injury.

    PubMed

    de Lateur, Barbara J; Shore, Wendy S

    2011-05-01

    Fatigue is a major barrier to recovery for burned individuals. Studies indicate that a slow return to normal or near-normal muscle strength is the natural course of recovery. With no special interventions, other than the "usual care" tailored to the needs of the individual, postburn patients will make gradual improvement in strength and aerobic capacity. Using the principle of initial condition (the worse the initial condition, the greater the response to exercise intervention) the authors outline an augmented exercise program that should result in a robust improvement in aerobic capacity.

  19. Exercising Your Finger After an Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury ...

  20. Exercise: the Cellular 'Fountain of Youth'

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Exercise for Seniors Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Exercise for Seniors About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  1. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  2. ISS Update: SPRINT Exercise Program

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Lori Ploutz-Snyder, Ph.D., NASA Lead Exercise Physiology Scientist, about the SPRINT exercise program used by the crew members aboard the Inter...

  3. Eye Exercises and Reading Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Earl J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Evaluated with a total of 60 primary-grade children was the effectiveness in improving ocular motor control of three training programs: the Bender proprioceptive facilitative feedback exercises, the Marsden ball program, and perceptual exercises. (DB)

  4. Kegel exercises - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000141.htm Kegel exercises - self-care To use the sharing features on ... move up and down. How to do Kegel Exercises Once you know what the movement feels like, ...

  5. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Exercise for Your Bone Health Publication available in: PDF ( ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  6. Exercise, the Brain, and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone in the prevention and management of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension often to the range that raises the safety concern, which may prohibit patients from regular exercise. This augmented pressor response is shown to be related to excessive sympathetic stimulation caused by overactive muscle reflex. Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction further contributes to the rise in BP during exercise in hypertension. Exercise training has been shown to reduce both exercise pressor reflex and attenuate the abnormal vasoconstriction. Hypertension also contributes to cognitive impairment, and exercise training has been shown to improve cognitive function through both BP-dependent and BP-independent pathways. Additional studies are still needed to determine if newer modes of exercise training such as high-intensity interval training may offer advantages over traditional continuous moderate training in improving BP and brain health in hypertensive patients.

  7. Exercise SHERWOOD FOREST. General Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-05-28

    guide the play of the exercise so as to obtain maximum training benefit for all participants. b. Control and monitor aggressor guerrilla activities , c...loaders, CW radio communication with deployed detachment. (2) Brief Exercise Director on guerrilla activities , (3) Advise Exercise Director on...Maneuver, Field Exercises , Simulated War Games, Training Encampments and other similar activities . c. AR 37-20, Administrative Control of Appropriations

  8. Effect of Submaximal Warm-up Exercise on Exercise-induced Asthma in African School Children

    PubMed Central

    Mtshali, BF; Mokwena, K; Oguntibeju, OO

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Regular physical activity has long been regarded as an important component of a healthy lifestyle. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is one of the major problems interfering with the performance of exercise. A warm-up exercise programme has been cited as a non-pharmacologic means of reducing EIA, but its effect has not been fully elucidated. Objective: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of unrecognized EIA in Pretoria primary school children, determine the effect of a warm-up exercise programme on EIA and to establish the relationship between history of allergy, family history of asthma and EIA. Methods: A random sample of 640 school children was selected. The study was divided into three phases. In phase one, a descriptive cross-sectional study was done using the standardized European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire. In phase two, non-asthmatic participants that returned a completed questionnaire were included in the field study. Pre-test and post-test experimental designs were used, where peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured at baseline and within ten minutes after exercise. A total of 340 subjects completed the Free Running Asthma Screening Test (FRAST); EIA was defined as a decrease in baseline PEFR ≥ 10% after exercise and 75 children (22%) had EIA. In phase three, 29 of the 75 subjects participated in the warm-up programme which was performed in the laboratory and subjects acted as their own controls. Predefined protocols for the study were followed. Results: Seventy-five (22%) of the 340 participants had EIA. The mean age, height and weight were 10.51 years, 139.26 cm and 33.45 kg, respectively. Exercise-induced asthma symptoms were cough (25%), chest pain (16%), wheeze (12%) and chest tightness (12%). The history of allergy was 75%, family history of allergy 40% and positive history of allergy when near animals, feathers or in dusty areas 38%. Wheezing during or after exercise

  9. Exercise and Fluid Balance Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlicht, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    One common piece of advice that exercise professionals give their clients is to drink water before, during, and after exercise. During exercise people can lose as much as three liters of water per hour (about 100 ounces) through sweat. Dehydration alters normal sweat patterns, which can lead to an increased core body temperature. Since most of the…

  10. VOCATIONAL TALENT EXERCISES, PART D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. School of Education.

    THIS WORKBOOK WAS DEVELOPED IN A CURRICULUM PROJECT, DESCRIBED IN VT 004 454, TO HELP YOUNG PEOPLE LEARN BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF MECHANICS AND TECHNOLOGY BY MEANS OF A SERIES OF APTITUDE TRAINING EXERCISES. IT IS THE LAST OF FOUR BOOKS WHICH PRESENT 30 EXERCISES DESIGNED FOR 30 CLASS PERIODS. THE EXERCISES ARE SIMILAR TO APTITUDE TEST…

  11. Exercising Control Over Memory Consolidation.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Edwin M; Takacs, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Exercise can improve human cognition. A mechanistic connection between exercise and cognition has been revealed in several recent studies. Exercise increases cortical excitability and this in turn leads to enhanced memory consolidation. Together these studies dovetail with our growing understanding of memory consolidation and how it is regulated through changes in motor cortical excitability.

  12. Exercise behaviors after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jennifer; Li, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate exercise behaviors in adult burn survivors and to identify barriers to exercise in this population. A two-page questionnaire developed by the authors was administered on a single occasion to adults attending the ambulatory burns clinic at a metropolitan hospital. Data from 68 adult burn survivors were analyzed. Within this cohort, 59% of subjects reported exercising several times per week or more and the remaining 41% exercised once per week or less. There was no correlation among exercise frequency and age, TBSA, or hospital length of stay. Walking was the most common type of exercise, and subjects reported lower compliance with stretching and strengthening exercises. Physical condition and motivation were identified as the main barriers to exercise. Although this preliminary study reveals that a higher proportion of burn survivors engage in exercise compared with their healthy counterparts, a substantial number are exercising just once per week or less, below the recommended guidelines to improve physical fitness. Physical and occupational therapists play an important role in providing exercise prescription and education, as well as addressing barriers to exercise in burn survivors. The potential for further research into physical activity across all domains of life using a validated questionnaire is identified.

  13. The Role of Macronutrients in Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Christopher M.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the role of macronutrients in exercise, examining research pertaining to exercise intensity, exercise duration, macronutrient intake, and mode of exercise as they pertain to both athletes and recreational exercisers. The paper explains that coaches and trainers must interpret and apply research findings to individual exercisers,…

  14. Exercise for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... an hour of physical activity every day. Regular exercise helps children Feel less stressed Feel better about themselves Feel more ready to learn in school Keep a healthy weight Build and keep healthy bones, muscles and joints Sleep better at night As kids spend more time ...

  15. Exercise and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this presentation on exercise and aging, the following explanations are made: the nature of physical fitness, physical fitness values, the importance of recognizing individual differences, physiological changes occurring with age through the adult years, physical fitness studies pertaining to middle-aged persons, the trainability of older…

  16. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  17. Exercise for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    Exercise and physical activity are good for just about everyone, including older adults. There are four main types and each type is different. Doing them all will give you more benefits. Endurance, or aerobic, activities increase your breathing and heart rate. Brisk walking or jogging, dancing, swimming, ...

  18. Exercise Prescription for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.

    1995-01-01

    Data on the dose-response gradient for the relation of physical activity or physical fitness to health and function are reviewed, refuting the idea that physical activity programs are either exercise for health or for fitness and suggesting that the key factor is the total energy expenditure of the activity. (SM)

  19. [Exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    PubMed

    Gani, Federica; Selvaggi, Lucia; Roagna, Davide

    2008-01-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) was defined for the first time in 1980. EIA is associated with different kind of exercise, although jogging is the most frequently reported. The clinical manifestations progress from itching, erythema and urticaria to some combination of cutaneous angioedema, gastrointestinal and laryngeal symptoms and signs of angioedema and vascular collapse. Mast cell participation in the pathogenesis of this syndrome has been proved by the finding of an elevated serum histamine level during experimentally-induced attacks and by cutaneous degranulation of mast cells with elevated serum tryptase after attacks. As predisposing factors of EIA, a specific or even aspecific sensitivity to food has been reported and such cases are called "food-dependent EIA". Many foods are implicated but particularly wheat, vegetables, crustacean. Another precipitating factor includes drugs intake (non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), climate variations and menstrual cycle factors. Treatment of an attack should include all the manoeuvres efficacious in the management of conventional anaphylactic syndrome, including the administration of epinephrine and antihistamines. Prevention of the attacks may be achieved with the interruption of the exercise at the appearance of the first premonitory symptoms. To prevent the onset of EIA it is also suitable to delay the exercise practice after at least 4-6 hours from the swallowing of food.

  20. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  1. Life Chances Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a life chances exercise that helps students identify the life chances that they and society value. Explains that students learn that the attainment of important life chances is related to the family into which one is born. Discusses John Rawls' social theory. Suggests that participants may need to consider alternative systems of economic…

  2. Exercises in Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck-Hamlin, William J.; And Others

    The 35 exercises presented in this paper have been designed to simulate real-life experiences involving the process of persuasion and to enhance understanding of the persuasive process. Among the aspects of the persuasive process dealt with are the identification of persuasive events, emotive language, language intensity, source credibility,…

  3. The effects of exercise on bone. Basic concepts and implications for the prevention of fractures

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cosimo Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Osteogenic dynamic loads delivered to the skeleton during exercise prevent aging-associated bone fragility. Moreover, because of its pleiotropic favourable effects on health, exercise improves quality of life, and specific types of exercise increase muscle strength, a known predictor of bone strength, and coordination and balance, and so reduce the risk of fallrelated fractures. Exercise should definitely be the mainstay of the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis; often however, physicians don’t have enough know-how for evidencebased prescription of exercise. Moreover, the lack of facilities for safe implementation of the exercise programs compound the problem. Scientific societies and health authorities should invest in patient and physicians education about exercise and in promoting facilities (Gyms) devoted to training of persons with, or at risk of, metabolic diseases (osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes), like Metagym in Florence, Italy. PMID:22461250

  4. Affective response to exercise and preferred exercise intensity among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Margaret; Schmalbach, Priel

    2015-01-01

    Background Little information exists as to the exercise intensity that adolescents enjoy and whether identifiable subgroups of adolescents will choose higher-intensity exercise. Methods Healthy adolescents (N = 74; mean age = 11.09) completed a cardiorespiratory fitness test, a moderate-intensity exercise task, and an exercise task at an intensity that felt “good”. Heart rate (HR), work rate (WR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed every 3 minutes. Results During the “feels good” task, adolescents exercised at a HR recognized as beneficial for cardiovascular health (Mean HR = 66-72% of HR at VO2peak). Adolescents who experienced a positive affective shift during the moderate-intensity task engaged in higher-intensity exercise during the “feels-good” task as compared to those whose affective response to moderate-intensity exercise was neutral or negative (76% of peak HR vs. 70% of peak HR, p < .01).There was no difference between groups in RPE. Conclusions Adolescents tend to select an exercise intensity associated with fitness benefits when afforded the opportunity to choose an intensity that feels good. An identified subgroup engaged in higher-intensity exercise without a commensurate perception of working harder. Encouraging adolescents to exercise at an intensity that feels “good” may increase future exercise without sacrificing fitness. PMID:24770461

  5. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed

    Dimmock, James A; Guelfi, Kym J; West, Jessica S; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-15

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  6. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Dimmock, James A.; Guelfi, Kym J.; West, Jessica S.; Masih, Tasmiah; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods. PMID:26083114

  7. Nutritional benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1989-03-01

    Specific nutritional benefits of regular exercise include the control of obesity and its complications, the improvement of blood lipid profile, the optimization of micro-nutrient intake and the assurance of a maximum quality-adjusted life-expectancy. While epidemiologists interpret various weight for height ratios in terms of obesity, such data can be misleading, particularly in older people (where an accumulation of fat is masked by lean tissue loss). Skinfold calipers provide a more unequivocal index of the amount and distribution of subcutaneous fat. Arguments against the treatment of obesity by exercise include the large energy yield of fat, the potential for compensating changes of resting metabolism, and an inherently high "set-point" of fat stores in the obese. Exercise cannot achieve rapid fat loss, but it has several advantages over other types of treatment, including the positive nature of the prescription, the associated elevation of mood and suppression of appetite, the conservation of lean tissue, and the establishment of an improved lifestyle. Moreover, blood pressure is reduced, insulin needs are decreased in the diabetic, and favourable changes of lipid profile are observed. Total cholesterol levels are not affected by exercise if body mass is held constant, but (provided a weekly threshold of exercise is exceeded) there is an increase of HDL cholesterol, particularly HDL-2 cholesterol. The intake of vitamins and most other micronutrients is increased by a high daily energy expenditure. Frank anaemia is not common in athletes, but a low iron saturation may be an indication for dietary supplements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Carnitine and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, O J

    1996-08-01

    Carnitine plays a central role in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. It transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for beta-oxidation. Carnitine also modulates the metabolism of coenzyme-A (CoA). It is not surprising that the use of supplementary carnitine to improve physical performance has become widespread in recent years, although there is no unequivocal support to this practice. However, critical reflections and current scientific-based knowledge are important because the implications of reduced or increased carnitine concentrations in vivo are not thoroughly understood. Several rationales have been forwarded in support of the potential ergogenic effects of oral carnitine supplementation. However, the following arguments derived from established scientific observations may be forwarded: (i) carnitine supplementation neither enhances FA oxidation in vivo or spares glycogen or postpones fatigue during exercise. Carnitine supplementation does not unequivocally improve performance of athletes; (ii) carnitine supplementation does not reduce body fat or help to lose weight; (iii) in vivo pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is fully active already after a few seconds of intense exercise. Carnitine supplementation induces no further activation of PDC in vivo; (iv) despite an increased acetyl-CoA/free CoA ratio, PDC is not depressed during exercise in vivo and therefore supplementary carnitine has no effect on lactate accumulation; (v) carnitine supplementation per se does not affect the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); (vi) during exercise there is a redistribution of free carnitine and acylcarnitines in the muscle but there is no loss of total carnitine. Athletes are not at risk for carnitine deficiency and do not have an increased need for carnitine. Although there are some theoretical points favouring potential ergogenic effects of carnitine supplementation, there is currently no scientific basis for healthy individuals or athletes to use carnitine

  9. Upright exercise or supine lower body negative pressure exercise maintains exercise responses after bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. M.; Bennett, B. S.; Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Ford, S. R.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Adaptation to bed rest or space flight is accompanied by an impaired ability to exercise in an upright position. We hypothesized that a daily, 30-min bout of intense, interval exercise in upright posture or supine against lower body negative pressure (LBNP) would maintain upright exercise heart rate and respiratory responses after bed rest. Twenty-four men (31 +/- 3 yr) underwent 5 d of 6 degree head-down tilt: eight performed no exercise (CON), eight performed upright treadmill exercise (UPex), and eight performed supine treadmill exercise against LBNP at -51.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg (LBNPex). Submaximal treadmill exercise responses (56, 74, and 85% of VO2peak) were measured pre- and post-bed rest. In CON, submaximal heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, and ventilation were significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) after bed rest. In UPex and LBNPex, submaximal exercise responses were similar pre- and post-bed rest. Our results indicate that a daily 30-min bout of intense, interval upright exercise training or supine exercise training against LBNP is sufficient to maintain upright exercise responses after 5 d of bed rest. These results may have important implications for the development of exercise countermeasures during space flight.

  10. Personality, emotional intelligence and exercise.

    PubMed

    Saklofske, Donald H; Austin, Elizabeth J; Rohr, Betty A; Andrews, Jac J W

    2007-11-01

    The associations of personality and self-report emotional intelligence (EI) with attitudes to exercise and self-reported exercise behaviour were investigated in a sample of 497 Canadian undergraduates. A positive attitude to exercise was negatively associated with Neuroticism and uncorrelated with other personality traits and EI. Exercise behaviour was positively associated with Extraversion and EI and negatively associated with Neuroticism. Structural equation modelling indicated that EI mediated the relationship between personality and exercise behaviour. The interpretation of this result in terms of EI having some properties of a coping style is discussed.

  11. Experimental heart rate regulation in cycle-ergometer exercises.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michele; Pietrosanti, Stefano; Scalzi, Stefano; Tomei, Patrizio; Verrelli, Cristiano Maria

    2013-01-01

    The heart rate can be effectively used as a measure of the exercise intensity during long duration cycle-ergometer exercises: precisely controlling the heart rate (HR) becomes crucial especially for athletes or patients with cardiovascular/obesity problems. The aim of this letter is to experimentally show how the nonlocal and nonswitching nonlinear control that has been recently proposed in the literature for the HR regulation in treadmill exercises can be effectively applied to cycle-ergometer exercises at constant cycling speed. The structure of the involved nonlinear model for the HR dynamics in cycle-ergometer exercises is mathematically inspired by the structure of a recently identified and experimentally validated nonlinear model for the HR dynamics in treadmill exercises: the role played by the treadmill speed is played here by the work load while the zero speed case for the treadmill exercise is here translated into the cycling operation under zero work load. Experimental results not only validate the aforementioned nonlinear model but also demonstrate the effectiveness--in terms of precise HR regulation--of an approach which simply generalizes to the nonlinear framework the classical proportional-integral control design. The possibility of online modifying the HR reference on the basis of the heart rate variability (HRV) is also suggested and experimentally motivated.

  12. Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?

    PubMed

    Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-01-01

    As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function.

  13. Exercise among commercial truck drivers.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lisa M; Reed, Deborah B

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the exercise habits and perceived barriers to exercise of a convenience sample of 300 commercial truck drivers. Participants reported minimal amounts of exercise, with nearly 20% not exercising in the past week. A high prevalence of obesity was found in this sample: 93.3% of study participants had a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or higher. Drivers with BMIs of greater than 30 were significantly more likely to rate the exercise environment as terrible/bad. Drivers who had at least one health condition engaged in significantly less aerobic exercise, used fewer strengthening exercises, did not exercise for 30 minutes continuously, and had a higher BMI. Drivers who spent most of their off-duty time in their truck while their partner drove were also significantly more likely to not exercise regularly. Most drivers cited lack of time and place as the primary barriers to exercising. This study adds to the limited knowledge about exercise behaviors among commercial truck drivers.

  14. A Mathematical Optimization Problem in Bioinformatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyer, Laurie J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the sequence alignment problem in bioinformatics. Through examples, we formulate sequence alignment as an optimization problem and show how to compute the optimal alignment with dynamic programming. The examples and sample exercises have been used by the author in a specialized course in bioinformatics, but could be adapted…

  15. Problem Solving Interactions on Electronic Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Michael; And Others

    Arguing that electronic networking provides a medium which is qualitatively superior to the traditional classroom for conducting certain types of problem solving exercises, this paper details the Water Problem Solving Project, which was conducted on the InterCultural Learning Network in 1985 and 1986 with students from the United States, Mexico,…

  16. Problems Encountered by Novice Pair Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Brian

    2008-01-01

    In a study of the types of problems encountered by students that led them to seek assistance, Robins et al. [2006] found that the most common problems were related to trivial mechanics. The students in this study worked by themselves on their programming exercises. This article discusses a replication of the Robins et al. study in which the…

  17. Exercise and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss recent clinical trials related to the benefits of exercise. We also discuss the roles of boosting antioxidant levels, consequences of epicardial fat reduction, increases in expression of heat shock proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, mitochondrial adaptation, and the role of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial potassium channels in the contributing to the cardioprotection offered by exercise. In terms of vascular benefits, the main effects discussed are changes in exercise-induced vascular remodeling and endothelial function. Exercise-induced fibrinolytic and rheological changes also underlie the hematological benefits of exercise.

  18. Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the best ways to exercise and keep fit. Structure of the Foot Each of your feet contains 26 bones, 33 joints, and more than 120 muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. These all work together to support the weight of your body, act as shock ...

  19. Exercise, appetite and weight management: understanding the compensatory responses in eating behaviour and how they contribute to variability in exercise-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    King, N A; Horner, K; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M; Wood, R E; Bryant, E; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Hopkins, M; Martins, C; Blundell, J E

    2012-04-01

    Does exercise promote weight loss? One of the key problems with studies assessing the efficacy of exercise as a method of weight management and obesity is that mean data are presented and the individual variability in response is overlooked. Recent data have highlighted the need to demonstrate and characterise the individual variability in response to exercise. Do people who exercise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake? The authors address the physiological, psychological and behavioural factors potentially involved in the relationship between exercise and appetite, and identify the research questions that remain unanswered. A negative consequence of the phenomena of individual variability and compensatory responses has been the focus on those who lose little weight in response to exercise; this has been used unreasonably as evidence to suggest that exercise is a futile method of controlling weight and managing obesity. Most of the evidence suggests that exercise is useful for improving body composition and health. For example, when exercise-induced mean weight loss is <1.0 kg, significant improvements in aerobic capacity (+6.3 ml/kg/min), systolic (-6.00 mm Hg) and diastolic (-3.9 mm Hg) blood pressure, waist circumference (-3.7 cm) and positive mood still occur. However, people will vary in their responses to exercise; understanding and characterising this variability will help tailor weight loss strategies to suit individuals.

  20. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  1. Benefits of physical exercise in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Nicolás; De Teresa, Carlos; Cano, Antonio; Godoy, Débora; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Lapotka, Maryna; Llaneza, Placido; Manonelles, Pedro; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Ocón, Olga; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Laura; Vélez, Mercedes; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity not only places women's health at risk during menopause, but also increases menopausal problems. Abundant evidence links habitual physical exercise (PE) to a better status on numerous health indicators and better quality of life and to the prevention and treatment of the ailments that typically occur from mid-life onwards. We can infer that PE is something more than a lifestyle: it constitutes a form of therapy in itself. A panel of experts from various Spanish scientific societies related to PE and menopause (Spanish Menopause Society, Spanish Cardiology Society, Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine) met to reach a consensus on these issues and to decide the optimal timing of and methods of exercise, based on the best evidence available.

  2. The effects of exercise on the storage and oxidation of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kent; Shriver, Tim; Schoeller, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide problem of pandemic proportions. By definition, obesity is the accumulation of excess body fat and it represents the long-term results of positive energy and fat balance. The failures in the regulatory mechanisms leading to the development of obesity are still not well understood, but there is growing evidence that exercise is an important element in obesity prevention. Exercise promotes energy/fat balance while providing beneficial alterations to obesity/overweight-related comorbidities and mortality. Also, exercise, in large part, influences whether the fate of dietary fat is storage or oxidation. Many factors including intensity, duration and type (aerobic vs anaerobic) of exercise, energy expended during exercise and individual fitness level impact the amounts of fat oxidised at any given time. Evidence suggests that moderate-intensity exercise yields the most cumulative (during and post-exercise) fat grams used for substrate in the average individual. All intensities of exercise, however, promote fat oxidation during the post-exercise period. We suggest that it is the effects of exercise on 24-hour fat balance that are most important in understanding the role of exercise in the prevention of fat accumulation and obesity.

  3. Effect of Exercise Training and +Gz Acceleration Training on Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, Joyce; Knapp, Charles F.; Cowell, Stephenie A.; Pemberton, Kendra N.; Wilson, Heather W.; Vener, Jamie M.; Evetts, Simon N.

    2001-01-01

    Countermeasures for reduction in work capacity (maximal oxygen uptake and strength) during spaceflight and enhanced orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing and egress from the return vehicle are continuing problems. The purpose for this study was to test the hypothesis that passive-acceleration training; supine, interval, exercise plus acceleration training and exercise combined with acceleration training would improve orthostatic tolerance in ambulatory men; and that addition of the aerobic exercise conditioning would not alter this improved tolerance from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven men (24-38 yr) underwent "Passive" training on the Ames human-powered centrifuge (HPC) for 30 min, "Exercise" training on the cycle ergometer with constant +Gz acceleration; and "Combined" exercise training at 40% to 90% of the HPC +Gz(max) exercise level. Maximal supine exercise loads increased significant (P<0.05) by 8.3% (Passive), 12.6% (Exercise), and by 15.4% (Combined) after training, but their post-training maximal oxygen uptakes and maximal heart rates were unchanged. Maximal time to fatigue (endurance) was unchanged with Passive was increased (P<0.05) with Exercise and Combined training. Thus, the exercise in the Exercise and Combined training Phases resulted in greater maximal loads and endurance without effect on maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. There was a 4% to 6% increase (P<0.05) in all four quadriceps muscle volumes (right and left) after post-Combined training. Resting pre-tilt heart rate was elevated by 12.9% (P<0.05) only after Passive training suggesting that the exercise training attenuated the HR response. Plasma volume (% Delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P<0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training indicating essentially no effect of training on the level of hypovolemia. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and heart rate were increased (P<0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus

  4. Exercise for tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Tendinopathies are one of the most common sports/musculoskeletal injury in modern western societies. Many physiotherapy approaches have been recommended in the literature for the management of tendinopathy. The most effective treatment in the management of tendinopathy is the eccentric training. Load, speed and frequency of contractions are the three principles of eccentric exercises, discussed in this report. However, eccentric training is not effective for all patients with tendinopathy and the effectiveness of this approach when applied as monotherapy is lower than it is applied as part of the rehabilitation process. For this reason, clinicians combine eccentric training with other physiotherapy techniques such as stretching, isometric and lumbar stability exercises, electrotherapy, manual therapy, soft tissue manipulation techniques, taping and acupuncture in the management of tendinopathies. Further research is needed to find out which treatment strategy combined with eccentric training will provide the best results in the rehabilitation of tendinopathy. PMID:26140271

  5. Caffeine and exercise.

    PubMed

    Paluska, Scott A

    2003-08-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, and athletes frequently use it as an ergogenic aid. It improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. To a lesser degree it also enhances short-term, high-intensity athletic performance. Caffeine improves concentration, reduces fatigue, and enhances alertness. Habitual intake does not diminish caffeine's ergogenic properties. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the physiologic effects of caffeine, but adenosine receptor antagonism most likely accounts for the primary mode of action. It is relatively safe and has no known negative performance effects, nor does it cause significant dehydration or electrolyte imbalance during exercise. Routine caffeine consumption may cause tolerance or dependence, and abrupt discontinuation produces irritability, mood shifts, headache, drowsiness, or fatigue. Major sport governing bodies ban excessive use of caffeine, but current monitoring techniques are inadequate, and ethical dilemmas persist regarding caffeine intake by athletes.

  6. An Evaluation of Antecedent Exercise on Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement Using a Three-Component Multiple Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Heather; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Atwell, Amy

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated antecedent exercise for treating the automatically reinforced problem behavior of 4 individuals with autism. We conducted preference assessments to identify leisure and exercise items that were associated with high levels of engagement and low levels of problem behavior. Next, we conducted three 3-component multiple-schedule…

  7. Exercise and obesity.

    PubMed

    McInnis, K J

    2000-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically during the past decade in the USA. This is despite an estimated 50 million Americans who try to lose weight each year. The increasing prevalence of obesity is particularly alarming due to the numerous health implications associated with this condition, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cancer, and various musculoskeletal conditions. The economic impact of treating illnesses associated with obesity has been estimated to be US$40 billion in the USA. Dieting is largely ineffective in maintaining initial weight loss as numerous studies suggest the majority of dieters regain all lost weight with 3-5 years. On, the other hand, regular exercise has been shown to be one of the best predictors of successful weight maintenance. Moreover, studies indicate that improved fitness through regular physical activity reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality for overweight individuals even if they remain overweight. Providing advice about exercise to overweight or obese individuals requires explicit information about the frequency, intensity, duration, and type of physical activity that should be performed. The ultimate goal for the exercising obese patient is to make a life-long commitment to achieving reasonable energy expenditure through routine physical activity.

  8. Neurobiology of exercise.

    PubMed

    Dishman, Rod K; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Booth, Frank W; Cotman, Carl W; Edgerton, V Reggie; Fleshner, Monika R; Gandevia, Simon C; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F; Levin, Barry E; Moran, Timothy H; Russo-Neustadt, Amelia A; Salamone, John D; Van Hoomissen, Jacqueline D; Wade, Charles E; York, David A; Zigmond, Michael J

    2006-03-01

    Voluntary physical activity and exercise training can favorably influence brain plasticity by facilitating neurogenerative, neuroadaptive, and neuroprotective processes. At least some of the processes are mediated by neurotrophic factors. Motor skill training and regular exercise enhance executive functions of cognition and some types of learning, including motor learning in the spinal cord. These adaptations in the central nervous system have implications for the prevention and treatment of obesity, cancer, depression, the decline in cognition associated with aging, and neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, ischemic stroke, and head and spinal cord injury. Chronic voluntary physical activity also attenuates neural responses to stress in brain circuits responsible for regulating peripheral sympathetic activity, suggesting constraint on sympathetic responses to stress that could plausibly contribute to reductions in clinical disorders such as hypertension, heart failure, oxidative stress, and suppression of immunity. Mechanisms explaining these adaptations are not as yet known, but metabolic and neurochemical pathways among skeletal muscle, the spinal cord, and the brain offer plausible, testable mechanisms that might help explain effects of physical activity and exercise on the central nervous system.

  9. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  10. Postprandial exercise: prioritization or additivity of the metabolic responses?

    PubMed

    Bennett, A F; Hicks, J W

    2001-06-01

    Monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus) were used to examine the prioritization or additivity of the metabolic responses associated with exercise and digestion, either of which can elevate metabolic rate independently. Rates of oxygen consumption (V(O2)) and ventilation (V(E)) were measured in lizards during fasting exercise, postprandial rest and postprandial exercise. In fasting animals, V(O2) increased with walking speed to a maximal value of 15.9 ml O(2)kg(-1)min(-1) at 1.25 km h(-1). Postprandial resting metabolic rate was elevated significantly above fasting levels (4.1 versus 2.0 ml O(2)kg(-1)min(-1)). During postprandial exercise, V(O2) increased to a maximal value of 18.8 ml O(2)kg(-1)min(-1) at 1.25 km h(-1). At every level of exercise, V(O2) was significantly higher in postprandial animals by a similar increment; the maximal rate of oxygen consumption was significantly increased by 18% in postprandial individuals. Maximal V(E) did not differ in fasting and postprandial animals and, therefore, the greater V(O2)(max) of postprandial animals cannot be attributed to a higher ventilation rate. Air convection requirement (V(E)/V(O2)) is significantly lower in postprandial animals at rest and at all levels of exercise, indicating a relative hypoventilation and increased pulmonary oxygen extraction efficiency. We suggest that this increased oxygen extraction may be due to decreased cardiopulmonary shunts and/or to lower mixed venous oxygen content. The data unequivocally support an additivity model rather than prioritization models for the allocation of elevated metabolic rate: the postprandial metabolic increment is not suspended during exercise, but rather is added onto the cost of exercise. It is clear that fasting exercise did not elicit truly maximal levels of cardiopulmonary oxygen transport in these animals, indicating problems for design models that make this assumption.

  11. Omics and Exercise: Global Approaches for Mapping Exercise Biological Networks.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Nolan J

    2017-03-27

    The application of global "-omics" technologies to exercise has introduced new opportunities to map the complexity and interconnectedness of biological networks underlying the tissue-specific responses and systemic health benefits of exercise. This review will introduce major research tracks and recent advancements in this emerging field, as well as critical gaps in understanding the orchestration of molecular exercise dynamics that will benefit from unbiased omics investigations. Furthermore, significant research hurdles that need to be overcome to effectively fill these gaps related to data collection, computation, interpretation, and integration across omics applications will be discussed. Collectively, a cross-disciplinary physiological and omics-based systems approach will lead to discovery of a wealth of novel exercise-regulated targets for future mechanistic validation. This frontier in exercise biology will aid the development of personalized therapeutic strategies to improve athletic performance and human health through precision exercise medicine.

  12. [Exercise training in heart failure].

    PubMed

    Edelmann, F; Grabs, V; Halle, M

    2014-06-01

    Exercise training in patients with chronic stable heart failure (HF) is a recommended and broadly accepted treatment strategy that is an integral part of an evidence-based management involving pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. There is ample scientific evidence that exercise training in HF with reduced (HFrEF) and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) improves exercise capacity, HF symptoms and quality of life. This is due to an improvement of central hemodynamics, endothelial function, neurohumoral activation, skeletal muscle structure and function as well as a decrease in inflammatory markers. The largest randomized, controlled HF-ACTION study (Heart Failure-A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of exercise TraiNing) demonstrated that exercise training results in a modest improvement of all-cause mortality and hospitalizations in HFrEF, depending on adequate compliance. Outcome data in HFpEF are lacking. Besides compliance, efficacy of exercise training is dependent on the intensity and type of exercise. Resistance and high intensity endurance training in addition to a standard aerobic exercise seem to be superior in improving the clinical status of HF patients. In the future, individualized exercise programs will help to improve long-term adherence to exercise training.

  13. BAC and Beer: Operationalizing Drunk Driving Laws in a Research Methods Course Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ralph B.; McConnell, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on an exercise utilized in a research methods class and based on social problems that invites student interest. Explains the exercise has students determine their blood alcohol level (BAC) by asking them to estimate the number of beers it would take to have them just reach driving under the influence (DUI) status. (CMK)

  14. Student Perceptions of Group-Based Competitive Exercises in the Chemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Kevin C.; Mody, Tina; Breen, Maureen P.

    2008-01-01

    A non-traditional teaching method that can operate as a vehicle for engaging students is group-based competitive exercises. These exercises combine cooperative learning with a competitive environment and may be employed to promote subject- and problem-based learning. Survey responses of college-level organic chemistry and biochemistry students…

  15. An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 2: Preliminary evaluation and analysis of CSEPP exercise database

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.; Lerner, K.

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the quality and usefulness of the information in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) exercise database. It incorporates the results of two separate analytical efforts. The first effort investigated the process of assigning standardized codes to issues identified in CSEPP exercise reports. A small group of issues was coded independently by each of several individuals, and the results of the individual codings were compared. Considerable differences were found among the individuals` codings. The second effort consisted of a statistical multivariate analysis, to investigate whether exercise issues are evenly distributed among exercise tabs, sites, and objectives. It was found that certain tabs, sites, and objectives were disproportionately associated with problem areas in exercises. In some cases, these problem areas have persisted over time, but in other cases they have undergone significant shifts over the time span of the investigation. The study concludes that the database can be a useful resource for analyzing problem areas and setting priorities for CSEPP program resources. However, some further analyses should be performed in order to more fully explore the data and increase confidence in the results.

  16. Exercise order in resistance training.

    PubMed

    Simão, Roberto; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Figueiredo, Tiago; Dias, Ingrid; Willardson, Jeffrey M

    2012-03-01

    Resistance training (RT) is now an integral component of a well rounded exercise programme. For a correct training prescription, it is of the utmost importance to understand the interaction among training variables, such as the load, volume, rest interval between sets and exercises, frequency of sessions, exercise modality, repetition velocity and, finally, exercise order. Sports medicine research has indicated that exercise order is an important variable that affects both acute responses and chronic adaptations to RT programmes. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to analyse and discuss exercise order with relevance to acute responses (e.g. repetition performance) and also the expression of chronic adaptable characteristics (e.g. maximal strength and hypertrophy). To accomplish this purpose, the Scielo, Science Citation Index, National Library of Medicine, MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus™ and CINAHL® databases were accessed to locate previously conducted original scientific investigations. The studies reviewed examined both acute responses and chronic adaptations with exercise order as the experimental variable. Generally, with relevance to acute responses, a key finding was that exercise order affects repetition performance over multiple sets, indicating that the total repetitions, and thus the volume, is greater when an exercise is placed at the beginning of an RT session, regardless of the relative amount of muscle mass involved. The pre-exhaustion method might not be an effective technique to increase the extent of neuromuscular recruitment for larger muscle groups (e.g. pectoralis major for the bench press) when preceded by a single-joint movement (e.g. pec-deck fly). With relevance to localized muscular endurance performance, oxygen consumption and ratings of perceived exertion, the limited amount of research conducted thus far indicates that exercise order does not appear to impact the acute expression of these variables. In terms of chronic

  17. Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the success…

  18. [Physical exercise and intraocular pressure].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuan-bo; Wu, Yue; Li, Si-zhen; Sun, Lan-ping; Wang, Ning-li

    2011-09-01

    In the 1960s, it had been observed that physical exercises could reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma. However, the effect of IOP reduction varied with exercise type and intensity, as well as the duration after exercise. Difference of lowering the IOP in glaucoma patients and healthy people were also observed. The mechanisms of reducing the IOP by exercise were very complicated and believed to be associated with the lower concentration of norepinephrine, the rising of colloid osmotic pressure, the co-action of nitric oxide and endothelin after exercise, and also related to the gene polymorphism of β2-adrenergic receptor. Physical exercise, such as jogging, walking and bicycle riding, could be suggested as a complimentary therapy in addition to the pharmaceutical and surgical therapies available for glaucoma patients, even though the mechanism for lowering IOP is not clear enough.

  19. The roles of exercise in bone remodeling and in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yu; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Lingli; Wu, Juanni; Guo, Jianming; Zou, Dongchen; Chen, Binglin; Sun, Zhongguang; Shen, Chao; Zou, Jun

    2016-11-01

    With a rapid increase in the aging population, osteoporosis has become a global health problem. Although anti-resorption and anabolic drugs are available, osteoporosis cannot be completely cured. Exercise is an economical, efficacious, and safe way to prevent the development of osteoporosis. Recent studies have investigated the mechanisms by which exercise affects bone remodeling. Here we update the progress made on the effects of exercise on bone cells, including bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts, as well as on bone mass, bone strength, and geometry, hoping to provide a theoretical basis to improve osteoporosis prevention and treatment with exercise.

  20. Exercise and Fatigue in Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Hooke, Mary C; Friedman, Debra L; Campbell, Kristin; Withycombe, Janice; Schwartz, Cindy L; Kelly, Kara; Meza, Jane

    2015-09-01

    Fatigue is a significant problem for adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. The relationship between exercise and fatigue is complex. This study explored the trajectory of and the relationship between exercise and fatigue over 36 months post-therapy in a cohort of 103 AYA-aged HL survivors treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) study AHOD0031. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were used in this secondary data analysis. Exercise and fatigue improved over time but were unrelated; amount of exercise at end of therapy predicted amount of exercise at 12 (p = 0.02) and 36 (p = 0.0008) months post-therapy.

  1. Automatic Activation of Exercise and Sedentary Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya; Spence, John C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the automatic activation of "sedentary" and "exerciser" stereotypes using a social prime Stroop task. Results showed significantly slower response times between the exercise words and the exercise control words and between the sedentary words and the exercise control words when preceded by an attractive exerciser prime. Words preceded…

  2. Individualizing Exercise: Some Biomechanical and Physiological Reminders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,…

  3. Family Physicians and Exercise Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Douglas M.C.; Ciliska, Donna; Singer, Joel; Williams, Kimberly; Alleyne, Julia; Lindsay, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    This trial took 22 volunteer family physicians and randomly exposed some to training intervention and some to no training to study the effect on frequency and quality of exercise prescription to ambulatory adults. During the 6 weeks after training, the trained physicians addressed the issue of exercise with 35.3% of patients. The untrained physicians discussed exercise with only 8.6% of their patients. PMID:21221270

  4. Smoking, Exercise, and Physical Fitness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    activity , smoking behavior, and physical fitness were examined in 3,045 Navy personnel. Exercise and smoking behaviors were measured using a "life-style... physical endurance-both cardiorespiratory (1.5-mile run) and muscular (sit-ups). After controlling for the effects of exercise activity , smoking was...although smoking has been associated with lower physical activity in supervised exercise programs (Dishman, Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985). There has also

  5. Systemic lupus erythematosus and exercise.

    PubMed

    Ayán, C; Martín, V

    2007-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rheumatic disease characterized by a variety of symptoms, especially fatigue, pain and reduced quality of life. Physical exercise is a useful tool for improving cardiovascular fitness, reducing metabolic abnormalities and fatigue and improving quality of life. However, very few studies have focused on the relationship between SLE and physical exercise. This paper reviews the main SLE symptoms that can be alleviated by exercising, as well as the results of studies seeking to analyse the exercise capacity and physical training possibilities of SLE patients. Considerations for future research are also discussed.

  6. Exercise, muscle, and CHO metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, M

    2015-12-01

    Carbohydrates (CHO) are a key source of energy for contracting skeletal muscle during strenuous exercise and fatigue during such exercise often coincides with CHO depletion. Our current understanding of the importance of CHO for exercise metabolism has its foundations in classic studies in the early 20th century by Scandinavian physiologists and Bengt Saltin contributed significantly to that tradition. This brief review summarizes our contemporary understanding of key aspects of muscle glycogen and glucose metabolism during exercise, through the lens of seminal studies by Bengt Saltin.

  7. Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

  8. Ingestion of TRP channel agonists attenuates exercise-induced muscle cramps.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Daniel H; Shank, Sean W; Gottschall, Jinger S; Passe, Dennis H; Murray, Bob; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2017-02-13

    Exercise associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is a poorly understood problem that is neuromuscular in origin. Ingestion of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel agonists has been efficacious in attenuating electrically-induced muscle cramps.

  9. From Metalloproteins to Coordination Chemistry: A Learning Exercise to Teach Transition Metal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reglinski, John; Graham, Duncan; Kennedy, Alan R.; Gibson, Lorraine T.

    2004-01-01

    An exercise is organized to reinforce the fundamental rules of coordination chemistry through a biological study of metalloproteins. The work, which is divided into four well-defined activities, involves a major application of computer databases to address chemical problems.

  10. Exploring exercise as an avenue for the treatment of anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Lindsey B; Powers, Mark B; Utschig, Angela C; Otto, Michael W; Smits, Jasper AJ

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute a significant public health problem. Current gold standard treatments are limited in their effectiveness, prompting the consideration of alternative approaches. In this review, we examine the evidence for exercise as an intervention for anxiety disorders. This evidence comes from population studies, studies of nonclinical anxiety reduction, as well as a limited number of studies of clinically anxious individuals. All of these studies provide converging evidence for consistent beneficial effects of exercise on anxiety, and are consistent with a variety of accounts of the mechanism of anxiety reduction with exercise. Further study of clinical populations is encouraged, as are studies of the mechanism of change of exercise interventions, which have the potential to help refine exercise intervention strategies. Likewise, studies that identify moderators of treatment efficacy will assist clinicians in deciding how and for whom to prescribe exercise. PMID:23002943

  11. Medicine and the Silent Oracle: An Exercise in Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belling, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a simple in-class exercise in reading and writing that, by asking participants to write their own endings for a short narrative taken from the "Journal of the American Medical Association," prompts them to reflect on the problem of uncertainty in medicine and to apply the literary-critical techniques of close…

  12. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 19: County Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  13. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 4: City Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  14. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 18: City Planner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The City Planner's Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each of…

  15. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 1: Game Director's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Game Director's Manual is the first in a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The participants, which may range in number from 18 to…

  16. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 5: County Politicians' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The County Politicians' Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections, which are the same in each…

  17. Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Damon C. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An exercise device 10 is particularly well suited for use in low gravity environments, and includes a frame 12 with plurality of resistance elements 30,82 supported in parallel on the frame. A load transfer member 20 is moveable relative to the frame for transferring the applied force to the free end of each captured resistance element. Load selection template 14 is removably secured both to the load transfer member, and a plurality of capture mechanisms engage the free end of corresponding resistance elements. The force applying mechanism 53 may be a handle, harness or other user interface for applying a force to move the load transfer member.

  18. Microgravity strategic planning exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Richard; Downey, Jim; Harvey, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space and Advanced Technology supported a planning exercise for the Microgravity Program management at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The effort focused on the status of microgravity work at MSFC and elsewhere with the objective of preparing a goal-oriented strategic planning document which could be used for informational/brochure purposes. The effort entailed numerous interactions and presentations with Field Center programmatic components and Headquarters personnel. Appropriate material was consolidated in a draft format for a MSFC Strategic Plan.

  19. Overtraining and exercise motivation: A research prospectus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, Anthony C.

    1989-01-01

    The problems of exercise overtraining has recently become one of great interest to professionals in the field of human performance assessment. Quite obviously, the ultimate goal of the training process is to improve physical performance. However, excessive training can result in the opposite effect, that is, a performance decline and an impairment in the functional work capacity of the body. Research indicates that both psychological as well as physiological disturbances are quite common in overtrained individuals. For example, psychological changes include increased levels of depression, fatigue, and a lack of motivation. Similarly, impairment of the physiological function of the cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine systems also have been found. Some similarities may be found in the psychological and physiological states of crew members exposed to extended space flight and overtrained individuals. Therefore, the possibility exists that the crew members subjected to extended missions in space may develop overstressed or overtrained or both states during their flights. If such states do develop within the crew members, mission performance may be impaired. With these points as a background, the intent is to address potential research directions that NASA may consider viable and of a mutual interest to the researcher. A clear framework by which to begin discussion of research topics is needed; therefore, working definitions of overtraining and exercise motivation are presented. Subsequently, a proposed conceptional model of how exercise overtraining and motivation interact is presented. In support of the proposed model is a brief literature review of relevant areas. Potential research projects are presented and discussed.

  20. Exercise therapy for osteoporosis: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Preisinger, E; Alacamlioglu, Y; Pils, K; Bosina, E; Metka, M; Schneider, B; Ernst, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the effects of therapeutic exercise on bone density and back complaints. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial with parallel groups was conducted in an outpatient clinic, Medical School, University of Vienna. Ninety two sedentary post-menopausal women with back problems were randomly allocated to either exercise (groups 1 and 2) or control (group 3, no exercise, n = 31); the exercise group was retrospectively subdivided into compliant (group 1, n = 27) and not fully compliant patients (group 2, n = 34). Regular, initially supervised therapeutic exercise aimed at restoring biomechanical function was performed for four years. Bone density in the forearm was measured by single photon absorptiometry at entry and after four years; subjective back complaints were documented. RESULTS: A significant decrease in bone density was observed in groups 2 and 3; no change was noted in group 1; back complaints decreased in group 1 only. CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary postmenopausal women may benefit from regular long term therapeutic exercise in terms of subjective back complaints and slowed loss of bone mass. PMID:8889112

  1. The Exercise: An Exercise Generator Tool for the SOURCe Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakoyianni-Doa, Fryni; Tziafa, Eleni; Naskos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    The Exercise, an Exercise generator in the SOURCe project, is a tool that complements the properties and functionalities of the SOURCe project, which includes the search engine for the Searchable Online French-Greek parallel corpus for the UniveRsity of Cyprus (SOURCe) (Kakoyianni-Doa & Tziafa, 2013), the PENCIL (an alignment tool)…

  2. Exercise testing in cardiac rehabilitation. Exercise prescription and beyond.

    PubMed

    Williams, M A

    2001-08-01

    The prescription of exercise, either as a part of a formal exercise training program or as a means to increase physical activity in general, has been and will remain a primary component of cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention programming. Wherever possible, this prescription should be based on a recent exercise test that documents the cardiac patient's functional capacity, cardiac and hemodynamic responses to exercise, and signs and symptoms associated with exertion. Clearly the prescription of exercise and suggestions for increasing levels of physical activity must be based on accepted principles of exercise physiology and expected training responses. Nonetheless, the art of exercise prescription should guarantee flexible methodologies to meet the specific needs of each individual patient. Although the patient must accept ultimate responsibility for participation, the clinician bears the burden of continually attempting to reinforce the importance of increasing caloric expenditure and motivating patients to initiate and commit to long-term participation in a safe and appropriately designed program of exercise and increasing physical activity.

  3. Exercise Motivation and Exercise Attribution of Recreational Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaurigue, Jerson Jalandoni

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study determined the exercise motivation and exercise attribution of recreational athletes in one of the major cities in Panay Island. A total of 75 purposively selected respondents who are regular members in a particular club for at least a year and have finished at least a college degree participated in the study. To gather data…

  4. Exercise, energy balance and the shift worker.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Fullick, Sarah; Grindey, Charlotte; Maclaren, Don

    2008-01-01

    Shift work is now common in society and is not restricted to heavy industry or emergency services, but is increasingly found amongst 'white collar' occupations and the growing number of service industries. Participation in shift work is associated with increased body mass index, prevalence of obesity and other health problems. We review the behavioural and biological disturbances that occur during shift work and discuss their impact on leisure-time physical activity and energy balance. Shift work generally decreases opportunities for physical activity and participation in sports. For those shift workers who are able to exercise, subjective and biological responses can be altered if the exercise is taken at unusual times of day and/or if the shift worker is sleep deprived. These altered responses may in turn impact on the longer-term adherence to an exercise programme. The favourable effects of exercise on body mass control and sleep quality in shift workers have not been confirmed. Similarly, recent reports of relationships between sleep duration and obesity have not been examined in a shift work context. There is no evidence that exercise can mediate certain circadian rhythm characteristics (e.g. amplitude or timing) for improved tolerance to shift work. Total energy intake and meal composition do not seem to be affected by participation in shift work. Meal frequency is generally reduced but snacking is increased on the night shift. Unavailability of preferred foods in the workplace, a lack of time, and a reduced desire to eat at night explain these findings. 'Normal' eating habits with the family are also disrupted. The metabolic responses to food are also altered by shift work-mediated disruptions to sleep and circadian rhythms. Whether any interactions on human metabolism exist between timing or content of food intake and physical activity during shift work is not known at present. There are very few randomized controlled studies on the efficacy of physical

  5. An adjunct exercise program for serious mental illness: who chooses to participate and is it feasible?

    PubMed

    Sylvia, Louisa G; Kopeski, Lynne; Brown, Carrie; Bolton, Paula; Laudate, Corina; DiGangi, Gina; Martin, Paula; Reid, James A; Martowski, Jules C; Meade, Amy; Sarmiento, Ingrid A; Wang, Jianping; Utschig, Angela C; Siegel, Arthur; Neuhaus, Edmund C

    2013-04-01

    Despite evidence that exercise is beneficial for serious mental illness, it continues to be an under utilized adjunct treatment strategy. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine if self-selected or volunteer exercise programs are feasible in a structured outpatient program and who might choose to participate in such a program. Individuals with serious mental illness admitted to a partial hospital program were offered an adjunct exercise group or a control, psychoeducation group. The exercise group (N = 38) met three times a week for 50 min. Individuals who chose not to exercise (N = 28), attended a psychoeducational control group. Those who self-selected the exercise group tended to have a higher level of education, employment rate and to be Caucasian. The control group had more medical problems, a higher body mass index and alcohol intake. The groups did not differ on age, sex, or use of cigarettes and caffeine. The exercise group was regularly attended. Both groups improved equally on all outcomes symptom and psychological well-being outcomes. These data highlight that certain individuals with serious mental illness may be more likely to exercise based on demographic opposed to clinical features, or illness characteristics. Thus, adjunct exercise programs for individuals with serious mental illness seem to be feasible, but certain groups of individuals (i.e., ethnic minorities, unemployed) should be targeted for recruitment as they are less likely to volunteer for such adjunct exercise programs.

  6. Exercise limitation, exercise testing and exercise recommendations in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Connes, Philippe; Machado, Roberto; Hue, Olivier; Reid, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA or SS homozygous sickle cell disease) is an inherited blood disorder caused by single nucleotide substitution in the β-globin gene that renders their hemoglobin (HbS) much less soluble than normal hemoglobin (HbA) when deoxygenated. The polymerization of HbS upon deoxygenation is the basic pathophysiologic event leading to RBC sickling, hemolysis, vasoocclusion and ultimately to chronic organ damage. The metabolic changes imposed by exercise may initiate sickling and vaso-occlusive episodes. Further, in patients with SCA, exercise limitation may be related to anemia or chronic complications such as pulmonary vascular disease, congestive heart failure and chronic parenchymal lung disease. Few studies have investigated the cardiorespiratory responses of patients with SCA during either symptom-limited maximal exercise test on cyclo-ergometer or during a six minute walk test. Therefore, patients are advised to start exercise slowly and progressively, to maintain adequate hydration during and after exercise, to avoid cold exposure or sudden change in temperature, and to avoid sports associated with mechanical trauma. There are, however, lack of evidence to allow practitioners to prescribe an exercise program for patients with SCA, and individuals are usually encouraged to exercise on a symptom-limited basis. Finally, this review will also highlight the basic principles that are often used for exercise practice and could be used for exercise prescription and rehabilitation in patients with sickle cell anemia.

  7. Stochastic optimization for the calculation of the time dependency of the physiological demand during exercise and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakynthinaki, M. S.; Stirling, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    The stochastic optimization method ALOPEX IV is successfully applied to the problem of estimating the time dependency of the physiological demand in response to exercise. This is a fundamental and unsolved problem in the area of exercise physiology, where the lack of appropriate tools and techniques forces the assumption and the use of a constant demand during exercise. By the use of an appropriate partition of the physiological time series and by means of stochastic optimization, the time dependency of the physiological demand during heavy intensity exercise and its subsequent recovery is, for the first time, revealed.

  8. Depression and Anxiety: Exercise Eases Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... and exercise shows that the psychological and physical benefits of exercise can also help reduce anxiety and improve mood. ... such as running or bicycling. The mental health benefits of exercise and physical activity may last only if you ...

  9. Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Research Great Expectations Post navigation ← Previous Next → Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia Posted on November ... related duties? 3. Do you have questions about exercise? Do you exercise regularly? Are you involved in ...

  10. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss - activity; Weight loss - exercise; Obesity - activity ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...

  11. Exercise Pills: At the Starting Line.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunchang; Laher, Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, limited physical exercise, and prolonged inactivity undoubtedly increase chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. It is widely acknowledged that exercise induces a number of physiological adaptations that have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of these chronic metabolic diseases. Unfortunately, exercise compliance is extremely low and often not possible. The development of exercise science and molecular techniques has increased our understanding of the molecular pathways responsive to exercise. Knowledge of these molecular targets has led to the development of chemical interventions that can mimic the beneficial effects of exercise without requiring actual muscle activity. This review focuses on the concept of 'exercise pills' and how they mimic the effects produced by physical exercise including oxidative fiber-type transformation, mitochondrial biogenesis, increased fat oxidation, angiogenesis, and improvement of exercise capacity. We also review candidate exercise pills, and contrast the beneficial effects and molecular mechanisms between physical exercise and exercise pills.

  12. Walking Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

  13. Effects of exercise on brain functions in diabetic animal models.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sun Shin

    2015-05-15

    Human life span has dramatically increased over several decades, and the quality of life has been considered to be equally important. However, diabetes mellitus (DM) characterized by problems related to insulin secretion and recognition has become a serious health problem in recent years that threatens human health by causing decline in brain functions and finally leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Exercise is recognized as an effective therapy for DM without medication administration. Exercise studies using experimental animals are a suitable option to overcome this drawback, and animal studies have improved continuously according to the needs of the experimenters. Since brain health is the most significant factor in human life, it is very important to assess brain functions according to the different exercise conditions using experimental animal models. Generally, there are two types of DM; insulin-dependent type 1 DM and an insulin-independent type 2 DM (T2DM); however, the author will mostly discuss brain functions in T2DM animal models in this review. Additionally, many physiopathologic alterations are caused in the brain by DM such as increased adiposity, inflammation, hormonal dysregulation, uncontrolled hyperphagia, insulin and leptin resistance, and dysregulation of neurotransmitters and declined neurogenesis in the hippocampus and we describe how exercise corrects these alterations in animal models. The results of changes in the brain environment differ according to voluntary, involuntary running exercises and resistance exercise, and gender in the animal studies. These factors have been mentioned in this review, and this review will be a good reference for studying how exercise can be used with therapy for treating DM.

  14. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and hypoxic exercise recovery.

    PubMed

    Ballmann, Christopher; McGinnis, Graham; Peters, Bridget; Slivka, Dustin; Cuddy, John; Hailes, Walter; Dumke, Charles; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia due to altitude diminishes performance and alters exercise oxidative stress responses. While oxidative stress and exercise are well studied, the independent impact of hypoxia on exercise recovery remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated hypoxic recovery effects on post-exercise oxidative stress. Physically active males (n = 12) performed normoxic cycle ergometer exercise consisting of ten high:low intensity intervals, 20 min at moderate intensity, and 6 h recovery at 975 m (normoxic) or simulated 5,000 m (hypoxic chamber) in a randomized counter-balanced cross-over design. Oxygen saturation was monitored via finger pulse oximetry. Blood plasma obtained pre- (Pre), post- (Post), 2 h post- (2Hr), 4 h post- (4Hr), and 6 h (6Hr) post-exercise was assayed for Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Lipid Hydroperoxides (LOOH), and Protein Carbonyls (PC). Biopsies from the vastus lateralis obtained Pre and 6Hr were analyzed by real-time PCR quantify expression of Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2), and Nuclear factor (euthyroid-derived2)-like factor (NFE2L2). PCs were not altered between trials, but a time effect (13 % Post-2Hr increase, p = 0.044) indicated exercise-induced blood oxidative stress. Plasma LOOH revealed only a time effect (p = 0.041), including a 120 % Post-4Hr increase. TEAC values were elevated in normoxic recovery versus hypoxic recovery. FRAP values were higher 6Hr (p = 0.045) in normoxic versus hypoxic recovery. Exercise elevated gene expression of NFE2L2 (20 % increase, p = 0.001) and SOD2 (42 % increase, p = 0.003), but hypoxic recovery abolished this response. Data indicate that recovery in a hypoxic environment, independent of exercise, may alter exercise adaptations to oxidative stress and metabolism.

  15. Exercise and Cognition-2016.

    PubMed

    Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2017-02-01

    Physical activity is purported to promote children's brain health and enhance mental development (1). Three studies were selected for review because of their focus on issues that challenge translational research applications in exercise pediatric science. While some disagreement exists concerning the definition of translational research, most suggest that translational interventions focus on the uptake, implementation, and sustainability of research findings within standard care (2). Translational researchers typically highlight differences that exist between efficacy experiments, which provide evidence that a specific intervention works, and effectiveness experiments, which show that the intervention will reap benefits under real-world conditions. Results obtained from laboratory-based efficacy studies that have examined the relation between exercise and cognition led researchers (3,4) and policy makers to consider the importance of physical activity in school settings. Large-scale studies that assess the impact of various types of school based physical activity intervention on children's cognitive and academic performance have begun. The initial results have been uneven and suggestive of a lack of benefit for children in authentic school settings. Before drawing such conclusions, however, it will be important for researchers and practitioners to recognize the methodological and measurement issues that challenge attempts to employ laboratory methodologies to academic settings.

  16. Biologic Influences on Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic profiles of 362 male participants in an exercise program were analyzed to determine the biological variables between exercise adherence and symptoms of coronary disease. Findings indicated that individuals with lower metabolic capacity tended to adhere longer, to be less fit, were leaner, and began with more symptoms related to coronary…

  17. Laboratory Exercise on Active Transport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalheim-Smith, Ann; Fitch, Greg K.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which demonstrates qualitatively the specificity of the transport mechanism, including a consideration of the competitive inhibition, and the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in active transport. The exercise, which can be completed in two to three hours by groups of four students, consistently produces reliable…

  18. The Caltech Political Military Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, E. S.; And Others

    The Caltech political military exercise (PME) is a game in which players assume roles of leaders of various countries and attempt to act as they think these leaders would in a time of international crises. The main purposes of the exercise are (1) to provide students with an experience in crisis diplomacy and policy formation, and (2) to provide a…

  19. Effects of Exercise on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rarick, G. Lawrence

    Exercise is generally held to be a significant factor in the growth, development, and health of children and adolescents. The effects of physical activity regimens on general growth, as well as quantitative and qualitative changes, in animal muscle and bone tissue have been clearly demonstrated. Less is known about the role of exercise and related…

  20. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  1. Exercise at 65 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Batt, Mark E; Tanji, Jeffrey; Börjesson, Mats

    2013-07-01

    Aging is characterized by increasing muscle loss, physical inactivity and frailty. Physical inactivity is known to be associated with increased incidence of obesity and many life-threatening chronic conditions. We know that exercise, through many factors including antiinflammatory effects and enhanced fitness, can help prevent and treat many chronic diseases as well as help maintain independent living. We set out to demonstrate the utility of regular exercise in this potentially vulnerable age group in both the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases. The benefits, risks and recommendations for physical activity are discussed with an emphasis on practical advice for safe exercise in the context of established international guidelines. These guidelines typically state that 150 min per week of moderate aerobic intensity exercise should be achieved with some additional whole-body strength training and balance work. Individual risk assessment should be undertaken in a way to enable safe exercise participation to achieve maximum benefit with minimum risk. The risk assessment, subsequent advice and prescription for exercise should be personalized to reflect individual fitness and functional levels as well as patient safety. Newer and potentially exciting benefits of exercise are discussed in the areas of neuroscience and inflammation where data are suggesting positive effects of exercise in maintaining memory and cognition as well as having beneficial antiinflammatory effects.

  2. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    PubMed

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  3. Comparison of anterior gluteus medius fiber activation during general exercises and PNF exercises

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Sung-kwang; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed during the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises compared with the general hip abductor strengthening exercises. The anterior gluteus medius fibers exhibited greater activity during pattern 2 exercises compared with any other type of exercise. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pattern 2 exercises can selectively activate anterior gluteus medius fibers. PMID:28356634

  4. Comparison of anterior gluteus medius fiber activation during general exercises and PNF exercises.

    PubMed

    Ju, Sung-Kwang; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed during the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises compared with the general hip abductor strengthening exercises. The anterior gluteus medius fibers exhibited greater activity during pattern 2 exercises compared with any other type of exercise. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pattern 2 exercises can selectively activate anterior gluteus medius fibers.

  5. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND SKILLED WORK AFTER EXERCISE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    EXERCISE (PHYSIOLOGY), *PERFORMANCE(HUMAN)), (* PHYSICAL FITNESS, EXERCISE (PHYSIOLOGY)), MEASUREMENT, MOTOR REACTIONS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, REACTION(PSYCHOLOGY), GREAT BRITAIN

  6. Exercise Dose in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Wasfy, Meagan M; Baggish, Aaron L

    2016-06-07

    There is wide variability in the physical activity patterns of the patients in contemporary clinical cardiovascular practice. This review is designed to address the impact of exercise dose on key cardiovascular risk factors and on mortality. We begin by examining the body of literature that supports a dose-response relationship between exercise and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including plasma lipids, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. We next explore the relationship between exercise dose and mortality by reviewing the relevant epidemiological literature underlying current physical activity guideline recommendations. We then expand this discussion to critically examine recent data pertaining to the impact of exercise dose at the lowest and highest ends of the spectrum. Finally, we provide a framework for how the key concepts of exercise dose can be integrated into clinical practice.

  7. Respiratory weight losses during exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract was determined over a wide range of exercise. The absolute humidity of the expired air was the same at all levels of exercise and equal to that measured at rest. The rate of respiratory water loss during exercise was found to be 0.019 of the oxygen uptake times (44 minus water vapor pressure). The rate of weight loss during exercise due to CO2-O2 exchange was calculated. For exercise at oxygen consumption rates exceeding 1.5 L/min in a dry environment with a water vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg, the total rate of weight loss via the respiratory tract is on the order of 2-5 g/min.

  8. Effects of exercise on sleep.

    PubMed

    Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2005-04-01

    Historically, perhaps no daytime behavior has been more closely associated with better sleep than exercise. The assumption that exercise promotes sleep has also been central to various hypotheses about the functions of sleep. Hypotheses that sleep serves an energy conservation function, a body tissue restitution function, or a temperature down-regulation function all have predicted a uniquely potent effect of exercise on sleep because no other stimulus elicits greater depletion of energy stores, tissue breakdown, or elevation of body temperature, respectively. Exercise offers a potentially attractive alternative or adjuvant treatment for insomnia. Sleeping pills have a number of adverse side effects and are not recommended for long-term use, partly on the basis of a significant epidemiologic association of chronic hypnotic use with mortality. Other behavioral/cognitive treatments are more effective for chronic insomnia treatment, but difficult and costly to deliver. By contrast, exercise could be a healthy, safe, inexpensive, and simple means of improving sleep.

  9. Self-efficacy strategies to improve exercise in patients with heart failure: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rajati, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Feizi, Awat; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hasandokht, Tolu; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite exercise is recommended as an adjunct to medication therapy in patients with heart failure (HF), non-adherence to exercise is a major problem. While improving self-efficacy is an effective way to increase physical activity, the evidence concerning the relationship between strategies to enhance self-efficacy and exercise among HF has not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effect of interventions to change the self-efficacy on exercise in patients with HF. METHODS A systematic database search was conducted for articles reporting exercise self-efficacy interventions. Databases such as PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL, Scopus, and PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched with restrictions to the years 2000-June 2014. A search of relevant databases identified 10 studies. Published randomized controlled intervention studies focusing strategies to change self-efficacy to exercise adherence in HF were eligible for inclusion. In addition, studies that have applied self-efficacy-based interventions to improve exercise are discussed. RESULTS Limited published data exist evaluating the self-efficacy strategies to improve exercise in HF. Dominant strategies to improve patients’ self-efficacy were performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, emotional arousal. CONCLUSION Evidence from some trials supports the view that incorporating the theory of self-efficacy into the design of an exercise intervention is beneficial. Moreover, exercise interventions aimed at integrating the four strategies of exercise self-efficacy can have positive effects on confidence and the ability to initiate exercise and recover HF symptoms. Findings of this study suggest that a positive relationship exists between self-efficacy and initiating and maintaining exercise in HF, especially in the short-term period. PMID:25815022

  10. The Problems of Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Charles E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses some common pitfalls in problem-solving and outlines three basic approaches to successfully identifying problems and their causes. (Available from Business Horizons, School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401; $2.50, single copy) (Author/JG)

  11. Golden Ratio in a Coupled-Oscillator Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Goff, John Eric

    2007-01-01

    The golden ratio appears in a classical mechanics coupled-oscillator problem that many undergraduates may not solve. Once the symmetry is broken in a more standard problem, the golden ratio appears. Several student exercises arise from the problem considered in this paper.

  12. Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Burini, Roberto C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, a high intake of carbohydrate and hyperosmolar solutions increases GI problems. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates. This type of CHO intake increases the oxidation rates and can prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. Glucose (6%) or glucose plus fructose (8%–10%) beverages are recommended in order to increase CHO intake while avoiding the gastric emptying delay. Training the gut with high intake of CHO may increase absorption capacity and probably prevent GI distress. CHO mouth rinse may be a good strategy to enhance performance without using GI tract in exercises lasting less than an hour. Future strategies should be investigated comparing different CHO types, doses, and concentration in exercises with the same characteristics. PMID:25314645

  13. Sample Proficiency Test exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C

    2006-02-05

    The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.

  14. [Nutrition and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Palacios Gil-Antuñano, N

    2000-01-01

    The principles of a good diet and proper nutrition are the same for people practising sports and for non-athletes. The main difference lies in the amount of energy that sportsmen and women need to carry out a more intense physical activity and to keep an appropriate weight to allow greater performance. The relationship between nutrition and physical exercise has often been shrouded in confusion and conjecture, so certain products or supplements turn into real myths through attempts to achieve better athletic results, despite the fact the information available on the true effect of a particular substance or food on athletic performance is, quite limited and disputed. This paper attempts to clarify the scientific information available on this subject.

  15. Youth Exercise Intention and Past Exercise Behavior: Examining the Moderating Influences of Sex and Meeting Exercise Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Danielle Symons; Graham, George M.; Yang, Stephen; Bargainnier, Sandra; Vasil, Jay

    2006-01-01

    The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures of…

  16. Exercise-induced pulmonary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kyle, J M

    1994-03-01

    When respiratory distress occurs in the exercise arena, the clinician must differentiate between a potential serious bout of EIA or the commoner EIB. The physician's game day medical kit should include epinephrine for initial treatment in suspected EIA. Sports medicine personnel need to maintain a high index of suspicion for EIB in athletes at risk and confirm the diagnosis with a treadmill exercise challenge test. Initial pharmacologic management should consist of a trial of albuterol inhaler use 15 minutes before exercise. Early identification and treatment of EIB may enhance sports performance as well as enjoyment.

  17. Proprioception exercises in medical rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Stryła, Wanda; Pogorzała, Adam M; Stępień, Justyna

    2013-01-03

    Proprioception, or kinesthesia, is the sense of orientation responsible for perception of body and relative position of its parts. Kinaesthesia is received by receptors located in muscles and tendons. In this study a set of proprioception developing exercises was presented. Proprioception should be restored in case of musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. Proprioception training can also be used as a prophylaxis before starting various sporting activities. Proprioception developing exercises have significant meaning for the elderly, who are at risk of balance disorders. These exercises help developing motor memory and at the same time protect from falls.

  18. Childbirth Problems

    MedlinePlus

    While childbirth usually goes well, complications can happen. They can cause a risk to the mother, baby, or both. Possible complications include Preterm (premature) labor, when labor starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy Problems with the umbilical cord Problems with ...

  19. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the respiratory system . The ability to understand language and produce speech is coordinated by the brain. So a person with brain damage from an accident, stroke, or birth defect may have speech and language problems. Some people with speech problems, particularly articulation ...

  20. Popular Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the "What's the problem represented to be" (WPR) approach. Forty-nine…

  1. Parking Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This is the story of a real problem, not a problem that is contrived, or invented for the convenience of the appropriate planning tool. This activity by a group of students, defined simply as "8FN", might be likened to an "end of term concert". If you just happened to be a delegate at the ATM Conference 2003 you might remember…

  2. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  3. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  4. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  5. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  6. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  7. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  8. Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal step…

  9. Enhancing Adherence in Clinical Exercise Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Heather A.; Blair, Steven N.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses exercise adherence from the perspective of adhering to an exercise treatment in a controlled trial, focusing on: adherence (to intervention and measurement); the development of randomized clinical trials; exemplary randomized clinical trials in exercise science (exercise training studies and physical activity interventions); and study…

  10. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  11. 33 CFR 103.515 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercises. 103.515 Section 103... MARITIME SECURITY: AREA MARITIME SECURITY Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan § 103.515 Exercises. (a) The... exercise at least once each calendar year, with no more than 18 months between exercises, to test...

  12. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  13. Hypertension. Part 1: How Exercise Helps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanji, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews possible mechanisms by which exercise lowers blood pressure and discusses research which indicates exercise is an effective therapy for hypertension. The article presents information to help physicians counsel hypertensive patients wanting to start an exercise program and examines the use of exercise testing to predict the onset of…

  14. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  15. Problem-Based Learning in Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockter, DuWayne L.

    2012-01-01

    Seasoned educators use an assortment of student-centered methods and tools to enhance their student's learning environment. In respects to methodologies used in accounting, educators have utilized and created new forms of problem-based learning exercises, including case studies, simulations, and other projects, to help students become more active…

  16. Teaching Production: A Problem Solving Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litle, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Details an approach which involves taking students through the problems of film production while teaching (1) theory; (2) actual tools of production; and (3) practical methods of organizing work. Contends that precise, challenging, technical exercises performed in an interactive social framework maximize skill development. (PD)

  17. Modeling heat exchange characteristics of long term space operations: Role of skin wettedness and exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of heat exchange during rest and exercise during long term space operations are covered in this report. Particular attention is given to the modeling and description of the consequences of requirement to exercise in a zero-g atmosphere during Space Shuttle flights, especially long term ones. In space environments, there exists no free convection therefore only forced convection occurring by movement, such as pedalling on a cycle ergometer, augments required heat dissipation necessary to regulate body temperature. The requirement to exercise at discrete periods of the day is good practice in order to resist the deleterious consequences of zero-gravity problems and improve distribution of body fluids. However, during exercise (ca. 180 to 250W), in zero-g environments, the mass of eccrine sweating rests as sheets on the skin surface and the sweat cannot evaporate readily. The use of exercise suits with fabrics that have hydrophobic or outwicking properties somewhat distributes the mass of sweat to a larger surface from which to evaporate. However, with no free convection, increased skin wettedness throughout the body surface induces increasing thermal discomfort, particularly during continuous exercise. This report presents several alternatives to aid in this problem: use of intermittent exercise, methods to quantify local skin wettedness, and introduction of a new effective temperature that integrates thermal stress and heat exchange avenues in a zero-g atmosphere.

  18. The Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Oocyte Quality in a Diet-Induced Obese Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Boudoures, Anna L.; Chi, Maggie; Thompson, Alysha; Zhang, Wendy; Moley, Kelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity negatively affects many aspects of the human body, including reproductive function. In females, the root of the decline in fertility is linked to problems in the oocyte. Problems seen in oocytes that positively correlate with increasing BMI include changes to the metabolism, lipid accumulation, meiosis, and metaphase II (MII) spindle structure. Studies in mice indicate dietary interventions fail to reverse these problems [4]. How exercise affects the oocytes has not been addressed. Therefore, we hypothesized an exercise intervention would improve oocyte quality. Here we show in a mouse model of an exercise intervention can improve lipid metabolism in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes. Oocytes significantly increased activity and transcription of the β-oxidation enzyme Hadha (Hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase) in response to exercise training only if the mice had been fed a high fat diet (HFD). An exercise intervention also reversed the lipid accumulation seen in GV stage oocytes of HFD females. However, delays in meiosis and disorganized MII spindles remained present. Therefore, exercise is able to improve, but not reverse, damage imparted on oocytes as a result of a high fat diet and obesity. By utilizing an exercise intervention on a HFD, we determined only lipid content and lipid metabolism is changed in GV oocytes. Moving forward, interventions to improve oocyte quality may need to be more targeted to the oocyte specifically. Because of the HFD induced deficiency in β-oxidation, dietary supplementation with substrates to improve lipid utilization may be more beneficial. PMID:26700938

  19. Abolition of exercise induced ST depression after exercise training and its recurrence after beta blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, I C; McGuinness, J B; Ballantyne, D

    1988-01-01

    Exercise training can improve angina. A patient whose exercise tolerance test became normal after a year on an exercise programme nevertheless had a positive exercise test when he was taking a beta blocker. These results suggest that it may be undesirable to use beta blockers in patients with angina who are on exercise programmes. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3342165

  20. An evaluation of antecedent exercise on behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement using a three-component multiple schedule.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Heather; Roscoe, Eileen M; Atwell, Amy

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated antecedent exercise for treating the automatically reinforced problem behavior of 4 individuals with autism. We conducted preference assessments to identify leisure and exercise items that were associated with high levels of engagement and low levels of problem behavior. Next, we conducted three 3-component multiple-schedule sequences: an antecedent-exercise test sequence, a noncontingent leisure-item control sequence, and a social-interaction control sequence. Within each sequence, we used a 3-component multiple schedule to evaluate preintervention, intervention, and postintervention effects. Problem behavior decreased during the postintervention component relative to the preintervention component for 3 of the 4 participants during the exercise-item assessment; however, the effects could not be attributed solely to exercise for 1 of these participants.

  1. Exercise training in hypertension: Role of microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Vander José das; Fernandes, Tiago; Roque, Fernanda Roberta; Soci, Ursula Paula Renó; Melo, Stéphano Freitas Soares; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex disease that constitutes an important public health problem and demands many studies in order to understand the molecular mechanisms involving his pathophysiology. Therefore, an increasing number of studies have been conducted and new therapies are continually being discovered. In this context, exercise training has emerged as an important non-pharmacological therapy to treat hypertensive patients, minimizing the side effects of pharmacological therapies and frequently contributing to allow pharmacotherapy to be suspended. Several mechanisms have been associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension, such as hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin aldosterone system, impaired endothelial nitric oxide production, increased oxygen-reactive species, vascular thickening and stiffening, cardiac hypertrophy, impaired angiogenesis, and sometimes genetic predisposition. With the advent of microRNAs (miRNAs), new insights have been added to the perspectives for the treatment of this disease, and exercise training has been shown to be able to modulate the miRNAs associated with it. Elucidation of the relationship between exercise training and miRNAs in the pathogenesis of hypertension is fundamental in order to understand how exercise modulates the cardiovascular system at genetic level. This can be promising even for the development of new drugs. This article is a review of how exercise training acts on hypertension by means of specific miRNAs in the heart, vascular system, and skeletal muscle. PMID:25228951

  2. Exercise interventions: defusing the world's osteoporosis time bomb.

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Ming Chan; Anderson, Mary; Lau, Edith M. C.

    2003-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, affecting millions of people worldwide. The associated health care costs are growing in parallel with increases in elderly populations, and it is expected that the number of osteoporotic fractures will double over the next 50 years. The best way to address osteoporosis is prevention. Some interventions to maximize and preserve bone mass have multiple health benefits and are cost-effective. For example, modifications to diet and lifestyle can help to prevent osteoporosis, and could potentially lead to a significant decrease in fracture rates; and exercise is a valuable adjunct to programmes aimed at alleviating the risks and symptoms of osteoporosis. Practising exercise at a young age helps maximize the mineral density of bones while they are still growing and maturing, and continuing to excercise minimizes bone loss later in life. Not only does exercise improve bone health, it also increases muscle strength, coordination, balance, flexibility and leads to better overall health. Walking, aerobic exercise, and t'ai chi are the best forms of exercise to stimulate bone formation and strengthen the muscles that help support bones. Encouraging physical activity at all ages is therefore a top priority to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:14758410

  3. A Pharmacy Practice Laboratory Exercise to Apply Biochemistry Concepts

    PubMed Central

    McFalls, Marsha A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To develop exercises that allow pharmacy students to apply foundational knowledge discussed in a first-professional year (P1) biochemistry course to specific disease states and patient scenarios. Design A pharmacy practice laboratory exercise was developed to accompany a lecture sequence pertaining to purine biosynthesis and degradation. The assignment required students to fill a prescription, provide patient counseling tips, and answer questions pertaining to the disease state, the underlying biochemical problem, and the prescribed medication. Assessment Students were graded on the accuracy with which they filled the prescription, provided patient counseling, and answered the questions provided. Overall, students displayed mastery in all of these areas. Additionally, students completed a course survey on which they rated this exercise favorably, noting that it helped them to integrate basic science concepts and pharmacy practice. Conclusion A laboratory exercise provided an opportunity for P1 students to apply foundational pharmacy knowledge to a patient case and can serve as a template for the design of additional exercises. PMID:21179255

  4. Exercise Training During +Gz Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Chou, J. L.; Simonson, S. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose is to study the effect of passive (without exercise) and active (with exercise) +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration training, using a short-arm (1.9m radius) centrifuge, on post- training maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max, work capacity) and 70 deg head-up tilt (orthostatic) tolerance in ambulatory subjects to test the hypothesis that (a) both passive and active acceleration training will improve post-training tilt-tolerance, and (b) there will be no difference in tilt-tolerance between passive and active exercise acceleration training because increased hydrostatic and blood pressures, rather than increased muscular metabolism, will provide the major adaptive stimulus. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the metabolic responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  5. Exercise Science: A New Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Benjamin

    1982-01-01

    Exercise science represents an integrated approach to the study of the physiological, biochemical, and mechanical adaptations of humans to stresses imposed by a variety of physical performances as well as ambient conditions such as temperature and humidity. (MLW)

  6. Exercising and asthma at school

    MedlinePlus

    ... fields or lawns. A student with asthma should warm up before exercising and cool down afterward. ... For example, a running program might be set up this way: Walk the ... The warm, moist air may keep symptoms away. Football, baseball, ...

  7. Health Psychology and Exercise Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1981-01-01

    Although the association between vigorous exercise and certain aspects of mental health is well documented, explanations for this relationship are not well understood. Research in this area is reviewed, and recommendations for more study are presented. (CJ)

  8. NASA Now: Exercise Physiology: Countermeasures

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aaron Weaver is a biomedical engineer responsible for setting up and running experiments and recruiting test subjects in the Exercise Countermeasures Laboratory at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in...

  9. Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Rory B; Baggish, Aaron L

    2012-01-01

    Early investigations in the late 1890s and early 1900s documented cardiac enlargement in athletes with above-normal exercise capacity and no evidence of cardiovascular disease. Such findings have been reported for more than a century and continue to intrigue scientists and clinicians. It is well recognized that repetitive participation in vigorous physical exercise results in significant changes in myocardial structure and function. This process, termed exercise-induced cardiac remodeling (EICR), is characterized by structural cardiac changes including left ventricular hypertrophy with sport-specific geometry (eccentric vs concentric). Associated alterations in both systolic and diastolic functions are emerging as recognized components of EICR. The increasing popularity of recreational exercise and competitive athletics has led to a growing number of individuals exhibiting these findings in routine clinical practice. This review will provide an overview of EICR in athletes.

  10. Cognitive Benefits of Exercise Intervention.

    PubMed

    Archer, T; Ricci, S; Massoni, F; Ricci, L; Rapp-Ricciardi, M

    2016-01-01

    Exercise, as a potent epigenetic regulator, implies the potential to counteract pathophysiological processes and alterations in most cardiovascular/respiratory cells and tissues not withstanding a paucity of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and doseresponse relationships. In the present account, the assets accruing from physical exercise and its influence upon executive functioning are examined. Under conditions of neuropsychiatric and neurologic ill-health, age-related deterioration of functional and biomarker indicators during healthy and disordered trajectories, neuroimmune and affective unbalance, and epigenetic pressures, exercise offers a large harvest of augmentations in health and well-being. Both animal models and human studies support the premise of manifest gains from regular exercise within several domains, besides cognitive function and mood, notably as the agency of a noninvasive, readily available therapeutic intervention.

  11. Benefits of exercise during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Prather, Heidi; Spitznagle, Tracy; Hunt, Devyani

    2012-11-01

    There is a direct link between healthy mothers and healthy infants. Exercise and appropriate nutrition are important contributors to maternal physical and psychological health. The benefits and potential risks of exercise during pregnancy have gained even more attention, with a number of studies having been published after the 2002 American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists guidelines. A review of the literature was conducted by using PubMed, Scopus, and Embase to assess the literature regarding the benefits of exercise during pregnancy. The search revealed 219 publications, which the authors then narrowed to 125 publications. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the known benefits of exercise to the mother, fetus, and newborn.

  12. Our World: Exercise in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out why exercise is so important to the astronauts who travel into space. Learn how gravity affects our bodies and what astronauts must do in reduced gravity environments to keep their bodies ...

  13. Herbs in exercise and sports.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chee Keong; Muhamad, Ayu Suzailiana; Ooi, Foong Kiew

    2012-03-08

    The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.

  14. The Biomechanics of Exercise Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Arnold, Steven; Derr, Janice; Sharkey, Neil; Wu, Ge

    1999-01-01

    The Penn State Zero-gravity Simulator (PSZS) is a device developed by the Center for Locomotion Studies (CELOS) to enable ground studies of exercise countermeasures for the bone loss that has been shown to occur during long-term exposure to zero gravity (0G). The PSZS simulates 0G exercise by providing a suspension system that holds an individual in a horizontal (supine) position above the floor in order to enable exercise on a wall-mounted treadmill. Due to this orientation, exercise performed in the PSZS is free of the force of -ravity in the direction that would normally contribute to ground reaction forces. In order for movements to be more similar to those in 0G, a constant force suspension of each segment (equal to the segment weight) is provided regardless of limb position. During the preliminary development of the PSZS, CELOS researchers also designed an optional gravity-replacement simulation feature for the PSZS. This feature was a prototype tethering system that consisted of a spring tension system to pull an exercising individual toward the treadmill. The immediate application of the tethering system was to be the provision of gravity-replacement loading so that exercise in 0G- and 1G-loading conditions could be compared, and the PSZS could then be used to evaluate exercise countermeasures for bone loss during space flight. This tethering system would also be a model for the further refinement of gravity-replacement systems provided for astronaut usage while performing prescribed exercise countermeasures for bone loss during long-term space flights.

  15. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  16. Exercise Testing in Hypertension Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Chinese Version) before the exercise testing. According to the daily mobility, existing symptoms and physiological adaptability, physical function of the...completed the WHOQOL-BREF and the physical function questionnaire, and the form of general information, includ- ing age, sex and etc. All...sys- tem. During the exercising testing the function of symp a- thetic nerve and parasympathetic nerve will be more active than that in the resting

  17. When exercise causes exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Furman, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a clinical condition caused by intense, repetitive exercise or a sudden increase in exercise in an untrained person, although rhabdomyolysis can occur in trained athletes. In many cases, the presentation of early, uncomplicated rhabdomyolysis is subtle, but serious complications such as renal failure, compartment syndrome, and dysrhythmias may arise if severe exertional rhabdomyolysis is undiagnosed or untreated. Management is further complicated by the lack of concrete management guidelines for treating rhabdomyolysis and returning patients to activity.

  18. Exercise and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, J P Lopes; Silvestre, R; Pinto, A C; de Carvalho, M

    2012-02-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease in which much burden is geared towards end-of-life care. Particularly in the earlier stages of ALS, many people have found both physiological and psychological boosts from various types of physical exercise for disused muscles. Proper exercise is important for preventing atrophy of muscles from disuse-a key for remaining mobile for as long as possible-and as long as it is possible to exercise comfortably and safely, for preserving cardiovascular fitness. However, the typical neuromuscular patient features a great physical inactivity and disuse weakness, and for that reason many controversial authors have contested exercise in these patients during years, especially in ALS which is rapidly progressive. There is an urgent need for dissecting in detail the real risks or benefits of exercise in controlled clinical trials to demystify this ancient paradigm. Yet, recent research studies document significant benefits in terms of survival and quality of life in ALS, poor cooperation, small sample size, uncontrolled and short-duration trials, remain the main handicaps. Sedentary barriers such as early fatigue and inherent muscle misuse should be overcome, for instance with body-weight supporting systems or non-invasive ventilation, and exercise should be faced as a potential non-monotonous way for contributing to better health-related quality of life.

  19. Compact, Controlled Resistance Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulus, David C.; DeWitt, John K.; Reich, Alton J.; Shaw, James E.; Deaconu, Stelu S.

    2011-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to muscle and bone atrophy. Isoinertial (free-weight) exercises provide a sufficient stimulus to elicit increases in both muscle strength and bone mineral density in Earth-based studies. While exercise equipment is in use on the International Space Station for crewmember health maintenance, current devices are too large to place in a transport vehicle or small spacecraft. Therefore, a portable computer controlled resistance exercise device is being developed that is able to simulate the inertial loading experienced when lifting a mass on Earth. This portable device weighs less than 50 lb and can simulate the resistance of lifting and lowering up to 600 lb of free-weights. The objective is to allow crewmembers to perform resistance exercise with loads capable of maintaining muscle and bone health. The device is reconfigurable and allows for the performance of typical Earth-based free-weight exercises. Forces exerted, volume of work, range of motion, time-under-tension, and speed/ acceleration of movement are recorded and can be remotely monitored to track progress and modify individual protocols based on exercise session data. A performance evaluation will be completed and data will be presented that include ground-reaction force comparisons between the device and free-weight dead-lifts over a spectrum of resistance levels. Movement biomechanics will also be presented.

  20. Metabolic responses during postprandial exercise.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jie; Raines, Emily; Rosenberg, Joseph; Ratamess, Nicholas; Naclerio, Fernando; Faigenbaum, Avery

    2013-01-01

    To examine metabolic interaction between meal and exercise, 10 men and 10 women completed three trials: (1) exercise (E), (2) consumption of a meal (M), and (3) consumption of a meal followed by exercise (M+E). All trials commenced after an overnight fast and were preceded by a rest period in which resting metabolic rate (RMR) was determined. The meal contained 721 kilocalories composed of 41%, 36%, and 23% of carbohydrate, lipids, and protein, respectively. Exercise protocol consisted of three continuous 10-minute cycling at 50%, 60%, and 70% VO2peak. Measurement began 60 min after the start of the meal and included VO2 that was used to determine meal-induced thermogenesis (MIT). VO2 was greater (p < .05) in M+E than in E at 50% and 60% VO2peak. MIT was higher (p < .05) during exercise at 50% VO2peak than at rest. It appears that postprandial exercise of mild intensities can potentiate MIT, thereby provoking a greater increase in energy expenditure.

  1. Post-exercise heart rate variability of endurance athletes after different high-intensity exercise interventions.

    PubMed

    Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H; Martinmäki, K

    2008-08-01

    Methodological problems have limited the number of studies on heart rate variability (HRV) dynamics immediately after exercise. We used the short-time Fourier transform method to study immediate (5 min) and slow (30 min) recovery of HRV after different high-intensity exercise interventions. Eight male athletes performed two interval interventions at 85% and 93% (IV(85) and IV(93)) and two continuous interventions at 80% and 85% (CO(80) and CO(85)) of the velocity at VO2max (vVO2max). We found no increase in high frequency power (HFP), but low frequency (LFP) and total power (TP) increased (P<0.05) during the first 5 min of the recovery after each intervention. During the 30-min recovery, HFP, LFP and TP (1) increased slowly toward resting values, but HFP remained lower (P<0.01) than at rest, (2) were lower (P<0.05) after IV(93) and CO(85) when compared with IV(85) and CO(80), respectively and (3) were lower (P<0.01) after CO(85) when compared with IV(85). HRV recovery was detected during the immediate recovery after interventions. Increased exercise intensity resulted in lower HRV both in interval and in continuous interventions. In addition, when interval and continuous interventions were performed at a similar workload, HRV was lower after continuous intervention.

  2. Conceptual and Laboratory Exercise to Apply Newton’s Second Law to a System of Many Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    laboratory. Figure 1. Sketch of the setup for the classroom exercise. Classroom exercise Begin with the following problem that groups of 2–3 students...getting closer to the extramural interests of many students, the free rolling (coasting) of vehicles (such as bicycles [14] or cars [15]) can be measured

  3. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  4. Thyroid Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

  5. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  6. Kidney Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  7. Sexual Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a healthy life Mental health for men Sexual health for men Male infertility Prostate health Sexual problems ... updates. Enter email address Submit Home > Men's Health > Sexual health for men Men's Health This information in Spanish ( ...

  8. Nipple problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... nipple; Nipple problems Images Female breast Intraductal papilloma Mammary gland Abnormal discharge from the nipple Normal female breast ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 8. Read More Breast cancer Endocrine glands Intraductal papilloma Review Date 11/16/2014 Updated ...

  9. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... thinking, but it becomes disorganized as they're speaking. So, someone who clutters may speak in bursts ... refuse to wait patiently for them to finish speaking. If you have a speech problem, it's fine ...

  10. Swimming exercise: impact of aquatic exercise on cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2009-01-01

    Swimming is an exercise modality that is highly suitable for health promotion and disease prevention, and is one of the most popular, most practiced and most recommended forms of physical activity. Yet little information is available concerning the influence of regular swimming on coronary heart disease (CHD). Exercise recommendations involving swimming have been generated primarily from unjustified extrapolation of the data from other modes of exercise (e.g. walking and cycling). Available evidence indicates that, similarly to other physically active adults, the CHD risk profile is more favourable in swimmers than in sedentary counterparts and that swim training results in the lowering of some CHD risk factors. However, the beneficial impact of regular swimming may be smaller than land-based exercises. In some cases, regular swimming does not appear to confer beneficial effects on some CHD risk factors. Moreover, swimming has not been associated with the reduced risks of developing CHD. Thus, extrapolation of research findings using land-based exercises into swimming cannot be justified, based on the available research. Clearly, more research is required to properly assess the effects of regular swimming on CHD risks in humans.

  11. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M.; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants’ exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants. PMID:27336015

  12. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants' exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants.

  13. A disaster relief exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quagliotti, Fulvia; Novaro Mascarello, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) is an effective tool for military applications, both for properly military operations, such as research missions and road surveillance, and for civilian support after natural disasters, like landslides, floods, and earthquakes, when reaching victims is often hard or it would take too much time for their survival. Information are needed without hazarding the life of the military troops. When roads, bridges and other communication ways are usually not available, the unmanned platform is the only easy and fast way to contact people. It can be launched directly from the operation site and it could take crucial information or carry medication, necessaries and everything that could help rescue teams. The unmanned platform can also be used for the first aid in an emergency situation when the use of a helicopter is too dangerous and other troops could be involved in heavy fighting. The RPAS has some advantages. First is the reduced cost, compared to traditional aircraft, that could enable the user to have several operating units. Secondly, pilots are not on board and therefore, if needed, the crew' rotation and rest do not imply the need to stop operations. The third fact is that, depending on the type of delivery that is used, the operations may take place on a twenty-four hours' base. The main benefit achieved with these three facts is that continuous operation may take place and eventually make up the capacity difference. To sum up, the main motivation behind this employment of UAS is to replace human lives on the cockpits and to assure the execution of Dangerous, Dull and Dirty missions. In May 2015, the ERIDANO Exercise was performed in Moncalieri city, near Turin (Italy) and it was a joint exercise between the Italian Army, National Emergency Service and Politecnico of Turin. The aim was the control and management of emergency situations due to natural disasters. In particular, a flood was simulated. A multicopter was used

  14. The Importance of Exercise in the Well-Rounded Physician: Dialogue for the Inclusion of a Physical Fitness Program in Neurosurgery Resident Training.

    PubMed

    Fargen, Kyle M; Spiotta, Alejandro M; Turner, Raymond D; Patel, Sunil

    2016-06-01

    Exercise, diet, and personal fitness programs are essentially lacking in modern graduate medical education. In the context of long hours and alternating shift and sleep cycles, the lack of exercise and poor dietary choices may have negative consequences on physician physical and mental health. This opinion piece aims to generate important dialogue regarding the scope of the problem, the literature supporting the health benefits of exercise, potential solutions to enhancing diet and exercise among resident trainees, and possible pitfalls to the adoption of exercise programs within graduate medical education.

  15. VOLUNTARY EXERCISE INCREASES OLIGODENDROGENESIS IN SPINAL CORD

    PubMed Central

    Krityakiarana, W.; Espinosa-Jeffrey, A.; Ghiani, C.A.; Zhao, P. M.; Gomez-Pinilla, F.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kotchabhakdi, N.; de Vellis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis, but the effects of exercise on oligodendrocyte generation have not yet been reported. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that voluntary exercise may affect neurogenesis, and more in particular, oligodendrogenesis, in the thoracic segment of the intact spinal cord of adult nestin-GFP transgenic mice. Voluntary exercise for 7 and 14 days increased nestin-GFP expression around the ependymal area. In addition, voluntary exercise for 7 days significantly increased nestin-GFP expression in both the white and gray matter of the thoracic segment of the intact spinal cord, whereas, 14 days-exercise decreased nestin-GFP expression. Markers for immature oligodendrocytes (Transferrin and CNPase) were significantly increased after 7 days of voluntary exercise. These results suggest that voluntary exercise positively influences oligodendrogenesis in the intact spinal cord, emphasizing the beneficial effect of voluntary exercise as a possible co-treatment for spinal cord injury. PMID:20374076

  16. Pressure-Volume Work Exercises Illustrating the First and Second Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, William G.; Moran, Bill

    1979-01-01

    Presented are two problem exercises involving rapid compression and expansion of ideal gases which illustrate the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The first problem involves the conversion of gravitational energy into heat through mechanical work. The second involves the mutual interaction of two gases through an adiabatic piston. (BT)

  17. The history of “Exercise Is Medicine” in ancient civilizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine, with endorsement from the American Medical Association and the Office of the Surgeon General, launched a global initiative to mobilize physicians, healthcare professionals and providers, and educators to promote exercise in their practice or activities to prevent, reduce, manage, or treat diseases that impact health and the quality of life in humans. Emerging from this initiative, termed Exercise Is Medicine, has been an extensively documented position stand by the American College of Sports Medicine that recommended healthy adults perform 150 min of moderate dynamic exercise per week. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the foundation for this global initiative and its exercise prescription for health and disease prevention has roots that began in antiquity more than two millennia ago. Individuals and concepts to remember are that Susruta of India was the first “recorded” physician to prescribe moderate daily exercise, Hippocrates of Greece was the first “recorded” physician to provide a written exercise prescription for a patient suffering from consumption, and the global influence of Galen from Rome combined with his recommendation on the use of exercise for patients in the management of disease prevailed until the 16th century. Historically intertwined with these concepts was exercise being advocated by select physicians to minimize the health problems associated with obesity, diabetes, and inactivity. PMID:25039081

  18. a Mathematical Model for Training Impulse and Lactate Influx and Outflux during Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxnes, John F.; Hausken, Kjell

    This paper provides a mathematical description based on the theory of differential equations, for the dynamics of lactate production and removal. Analytical and numerical results for training/exercise of endurance of athletes are presented based on the common concept of training impulse (Trimp). The relationships between activity, production rate, and removal strategies of lactate are studied. Parameters are estimated from published data. A model for optimum removal of lactate after exercise is developed. The model provides realistic predictions when compared with experimental results. We show some specific examples for the usefulness of the mathematical model by studying some recent problems discussed in the literature. (a) Is interval exercise more beneficial than steady-state exercise? (b) What is the optimum aerobic power during recovery? We discuss whether steady-state exercise gives higher Trimp than interval exercise, when imposing an upper boundary for the lactate concentration as a constraint. The model allows for testing all imaginable kinds of steady-state and interval exercises in search of the optimal exercise regime for individuals with various kinds of characteristics. In general, the dynamic model constitute a powerful tool describing the processes by which the concentration of lactate can be studied and controlled to decrease fatigue and increase endurance.

  19. Clothing and thermoregulation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Timothy P

    2003-01-01

    Exercise increases heat production. During exercise in both warm and cold conditions, the major dilemma is the dissipation of the heat produced from muscular activity. The use of clothing generally represents a layer of insulation and as such imposes a barrier to heat transfer and evaporation from the skin surface. In warm environments, additional clothing increases thermal insulation causing more rapid increases in temperature during exercise and imposes a barrier to sweat evaporation. However, clothing can serve a protective function by reducing radiant heat gain and thermal stress. Recent research suggests that neither the inclusion of modest amounts of clothing nor the clothing fabric alter thermoregulation or thermal comfort during exercise in warm conditions. In the cold, most reports do not support an effect of clothing fabric on thermoregulation; however, there are reports demonstrating an effect. Clothing construction does alter thermoregulation during and following exercise in the cold, where fishnet construction offers greater heat dissipation. Future research should include conditions that more closely mimic outdoor conditions, where high work rates, large airflow and high relative humidity can significantly impact thermoregulation.

  20. Exercise, nutrition and immune function.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Michael; Nieman, David C; Pedersen, Bente K

    2004-01-01

    Strenuous bouts of prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. Furthermore, inadequate or inappropriate nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and vitamins A, E, B6 and B12 is particularly important for the maintenance of immune function, but excess intakes of some micronutrients can also impair immune function and have other adverse effects on health. Immune system depression has also been associated with an excess intake of fat. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy requirements. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. Conversely, consuming 30-60 g carbohydrate x h(-1) during sustained intensive exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Convincing evidence that so-called 'immune-boosting' supplements, including high doses of antioxidant vitamins, glutamine, zinc, probiotics and Echinacea, prevent exercise-induced immune impairment is currently lacking.

  1. DHEA, physical exercise and doping.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K; Buisson, C; Lasne, F; Collomp, R

    2015-01-01

    The dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentrations during acute and chronic exercise (training) have been investigated only fairly recently. DHEA is generally preferred to DHEA-S for exploring the acute exercise repercussions in laboratory or field tests because of its shorter elimination half-life. Conversely, DHEA-S is preferred to estimate chronic adaptations. Both can be measured noninvasively in saliva, and it is therefore possible to follow these hormone responses in elite athletes during competitive events and in healthy and pathological populations, without imposing additional stress. Indeed, the correlation between saliva and serum concentrations is high for steroid hormones, both at rest and during exercise. In this review, we will first summarize the current knowledge on the DHEA/DHEA-S responses to exercise and examine the potential modulating factors: exercise intensity, gender, age, and training. We will then discuss the ergogenic effects that athletes expect from the exogenous administration of DHEA and the antidoping methods of analysis currently used to detect this abuse.

  2. Human exercise capabilities in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Maintenance of rest and exercise performance are prime requirements for all astronauts during flight, not only for maintaining day-to-day productivity, but also for coping with unlikely emergencies. Indirect estimates of submaximal work capacity (oxygen uptake) made from changes in the heart rates of 27 Apollo astronauts (less than 15-day flights) indicated a reduction in work capacity (maximal oxygen uptake) of 17 to 21 percent. This percentage decrease was similar to that measured in middle-aged men after 21 to 30 days of -6 deg head-down bed-rest deconditioning without exercise training. Heart-rate changes during submaximal exercise in the nine Skylab astronauts suggested that they were better able to maintain their work capacity because of longer and more intensive in-flight exercise training. The strength of the flexor and extensor muscle groups decreased by 2 to 9 percent in the elbow and by 6 to 20 percent in the knee in the Skylab astronauts, also similar to the decreases in men undergoing 30 days of bed-rest deconditioning. Exercise protocols have been devised that result in maintenance of work capacity and muscular strength during 30 to 49 days of bed-rest deconditioning.

  3. Exercise for older patients with chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Petrella, R J

    1999-10-01

    Coronary artery disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and cognitive disorders become more prevalent as people age. Besides delaying the onset of many of these conditions, regular exercise may improve function and delay disability and morbidity in those who have them. Further, exercise may work synergistically with medication to combat the effects of some chronic diseases. Special adaptations for older patients include lower-intensity exercise (eg, fewer repetitions), low-impact exercise (cycling, exercise while sitting), and modified equipment (smaller weights, special shoes, loose clothing). Unresolved issues include development of optimal strategies for motivating older patients to begin and maintain exercise programs.

  4. Functional plyometric exercises for the throwing athlete.

    PubMed

    Pezzullo, D J; Karas, S; Irrgang, J J

    1995-03-01

    In this article we provide athletic health care professionals with a variety of functional strengthening exercises to use in improving the muscular strength of the throwing athlete's shoulder. Upper extremity functional plyometric exercise in sport-specific patterns can be an important component of a throwing athlete's rehabilitation. We discuss several plyometric exercises, using the Inertial Exercise System, the Plyo-ball, and the Theraband. Proper use of these exercises can facilitate a safe and progressive rehabilitation program for the injured, throwing athlete. After the athlete has successfully completed the functional plyometric exercises, a throwing progression can be initiated.

  5. Exercise load index and changes in body weight during long-duration confinement in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Lyons, Terence J.; Binder, Heidi; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objectives of this project were to investigate exercise load and body weight related to long-duration confinement in a closed environment simulating ISS flight conditions, and to evaluate subjects' motivation to continue the experiment and their adaptation to isolation. METHODS: Four Russian male subjects participated in a 240-d experiment (Group I), and four subjects (three male subjects and one female subject) from Austria, Canada, Japan, and Russia participated in a 110-d experiment (Group II). Exercise load was estimated during confinement using a modified Rating of Perceived Exertion scale. Free reports were used to determine subjects' motivation. Body weight was measured before, during, and after confinement. RESULTS: Group I achieved their lowest exercise loads during their first month of isolation; problems with adaptation to the isolation environment were also reported during this first month. Group II exercise load was significantly lower in the second month due to crewmember problems; loss of motivation could be noted from their free reports. The subject with the lowest exercise load retired from the isolation experiment earlier than scheduled. Exercise load was not correlated with prior exercise habits. Significant differences in body weight was observed between group I and II and between Russian and non-Russian subjects. One subject in Group I experienced a significant increase in his body weight. CONCLUSION: Exercise load may be a good indicator for adaptation problems and motivation changes in closed environments. Immobility, lack of space, and smoking cessation in general did not induce significant body weight changes.

  6. Heat Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

  7. Puzzles & Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Pat, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception, produced by Exploratorium in collaboration with other participating museums. This issue focuses on puzzles and problem solving. Brain teasers, puzzles, and the strategies for solving them are included. Features include: (1) "Homework Assignment #3" (Paul Doherty);…

  8. Online Help for Problem Gambling among Chinese Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang Boon Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the perceptions and accessibility of online help for problem gambling among Chinese youths. A group of undergraduates participated in a survey cum laboratory exercise to search for help for problem gambling in Macao, Hong Kong, and China. Online search engines were used. During the search process,…

  9. Physical Problems Associated with Computer Use and Implemented Ergonomic Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melody A.

    1994-01-01

    Survey responses from 404 (of 523) office support personnel showed that most used computers 3-6 hours per day and had experienced vision or musculoskeletal problems, but most did not see a doctor, take regular breaks, do stretching exercises, or discuss problems with their supervisors. Many were not aware of ergonomic features that could help, and…

  10. Exhaustive Exercise Alters Thinking Times in a Tower of London Task in a Time-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Philipp; Binnebößel, Stephan; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T; Schenk, Alexander; Predel, Hans-Georg; Wright, Peter; Stritt, Christian; Oberste, Max

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to other aspects of executive functions, acute exercise-induced alterations in planning are poorly investigated. While only few studies report improved planning performances after exercise, even less is known about their time course after exhaustive exercise. Methods: One hundred and nineteen healthy adults performed the Tower of London (ToL) task at baseline, followed by a graded exercise test (GXT). Participants were subsequently randomized into one of four groups (immediately, 30, 60, and 90 min after the GXT) to repeat the ToL. Main outcomes of the ToL were planning (number of tasks completed in the minimum number of moves), solutions (correct responses independent of the given number of moves) as well as thinking times (time between presentation of each problem and first action) for tasks with varying difficulty (four-, five,- and six-move problems). Blood lactate levels were analyzed as a potential mediator. Results: No effect of exercise on planning could be detected. In contrast to complex problem conditions, median thinking times deteriorated significantly in the immediately after GXT tested group in less challenging problem conditions (four-move problems: p = 0.001, F = 5.933, df = 3; five-move problems: p = 0.005, F = 4.548, df = 3). Decreased lactate elimination rates were associated with impaired median thinking times across all groups ΔMTT4-6 (p = 0.001, r = -0.309), ΔMTT4 (p < 0.001, r = -0.367), and ΔMTT5 (p = 0.001, r = -0.290). Conclusion: These results suggest that planning does not improve within 90 min after exhaustive exercise. In line with previous research, revealing a negative impact of exhaustive exercise on memory and attention, our study extends this knowledge of exercise-induced alterations in cognitive functioning as thinking times as subcomponents of planning are negatively affected immediately after exercise. This is further associated with peripheral lactate levels.

  11. Exercise response to simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, C. F.; Rummel, J. A.; Buderer, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    Two bed rest analog studies of space flight were performed; one 14 d and the other 28 d in duration. Exercise response was studied in detail during the 28 d study and following both the 14 d and 28 d studies. This paper relates the results of these studies to physiologic changes noted during and following space flight. The most consistent change noted after both bed rest and space flight is an elevated heart rate during exercise. A second consistent finding is a postflight or postbed rest reduction in cardiac stroke volume. Cardiac output changes were variable. The inability to simulate inflight activity levels and personal exercise makes a direct comparison between bed rest and the results from specific space flights difficult.

  12. The World Climate Exercise: Is (Simulated) Experience Our Best Teacher?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, K.; Rooney-varga, J. N.; Jones, A.; Johnston, E.; Sterman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Meeting the challenge of climate change will clearly require 'deep learning' - learning that motivates a search for underlying meaning, a willingness to exert the sustained effort needed to understand complex problems, and innovative problem-solving. This type of learning is dependent on the level of the learner's engagement with the material, their intrinsic motivation to learn, intention to understand, and relevance of the material to the learner. Here, we present evidence for deep learning about climate change through a simulation-based role-playing exercise, World Climate. The exercise puts participants into the roles of delegates to the United Nations climate negotiations and asks them to create an international climate deal. They find out the implications of their decisions, according to the best available science, through the same decision-support computer simulation used to provide feedback for the real-world negotiations, C-ROADS. World Climate provides an opportunity for participants have an immersive, social experience in which they learn first-hand about both the social dynamics of climate change decision-making, through role-play, and the dynamics of the climate system, through an interactive computer simulation. Evaluation results so far have shown that the exercise is highly engaging and memorable and that it motivates large majorities of participants (>70%) to take action on climate change. In addition, we have found that it leads to substantial gains in understanding key systems thinking concepts (e.g., the stock-flow behavior of atmospheric CO2), as well as improvements in understanding of climate change causes and impacts. While research is still needed to better understand the impacts of simulation-based role-playing exercises like World Climate on behavior change, long-term understanding, transfer of systems thinking skills across topics, and the importance of social learning during the exercise, our results to date indicate that it is a

  13. Astronauts Exercising in Space Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    To minimize the effects of weightlessness and partial gravity, astronauts use several counter measures to maintain health and fitness. One counter measure is exercise to help reduce or eliminate muscle atrophy and bone loss, and to improve altered cardiovascular function. This video shows astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) using the stationary Cycle/ Ergometer Vibration Isolation System (CVIS), the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), and the resistance exercise device. These technologies and activities will be crucial to keeping astronauts healthy and productive during the long missions to the Moon. Mars, and beyond.

  14. Prescribing exercise as preventive therapy

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, Darren E.R.; Nicol, Crystal Whitney; Bredin, Shannon S.D.

    2006-01-01

    Energy expenditure of about 1000 kcal (4200 kJ) per week (equivalent to walking 1 hour 5 days a week) is associated with significant health benefits. Health benefits can be achieved through structured or nonstructured physical activity, accumulated throughout the day (even through short 10-minute bouts) on most days of the week. In this article we outline the means of evaluating cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness, the methods of evaluating physical activity levels, the current recommendations for exercise (including intensity, type, time and frequency) and the resources available for patients and physicians interested in learning more about the evaluation of physical activity and fitness levels and the prescription of exercise. PMID:16567757

  15. Ramp exercise protocols for clinical and cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Myers, J; Bellin, D

    2000-07-01

    Historically, the protocol used for exercise testing has been based on tradition, convenience or both. In the 1990s, a considerable amount of research has focused on the effect of the exercise protocol on test performance, including exercise tolerance, diagnostic accuracy, gas exchange patterns and the accuracy with which oxygen uptake (VO2) is predicted from the work rate. Studies have suggested that protocols which contain large and/or unequal increments in work cause a disruption in the normal linear relation between VO2 and work rate, leading to an overprediction of metabolic equivalents. Other studies have demonstrated that such protocols can mask the salutary effects of an intervention, and some have suggested that the protocol design can influence the diagnostic performance of the test. Guidelines published by major organisations have therefore suggested that the protocol be individualised based on the patient being tested and the purpose of the test. The ramp approach to exercise testing has recently been advocated because it facilitates recommendations made in these guidelines. This article reviews these issues and discusses the evolution of ramp testing which has occurred in the 1990s.

  16. Improving Writing with Sentence Combining Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, Norma; Safran, Joan

    1984-01-01

    Sentence-combining exercises, which require students to combine simple sentences in any way they wish, have helped learning disabled elementary children improve skills in writing, reading, and spelling. The exercises are flexible, motivating, and simple to design. (CL)

  17. Counseling through Physical Fitness and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jon

    1990-01-01

    Discusses health, emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral benefits of physical exercise. Discusses applications of physical exercise and diet in counseling children. Concludes counselors need to develop physical fitness levels and diets for their clients to model. (ABL)

  18. Exercise and Depression: Swapping Sweat for Serenity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Terry

    1986-01-01

    Individuals who engage in regular exercise of varying intensity report significant reduction in anxiety and depression. While most evidence is anecdotal, research has provided support for exercise in depression therapy. (Author/MT)

  19. Exercise Helps Counter Cancer-Linked Fatigue

    MedlinePlus

    ... and physical activity for the ACS. She said exercise has many benefits, not just helping to ease fatigue. "But because ... fatigue and gain some of the many other benefits of exercise [both during and after treatment]: reduced stress, less ...

  20. Exercise and melatonin in humans: reciprocal benefits.

    PubMed

    Escames, Germaine; Ozturk, Guler; Baño-Otálora, Beatriz; Pozo, María J; Madrid, Juan A; Reiter, Russel J; Serrano, Eric; Concepción, Melquiades; Acuña-Castroviejo, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to update the reader as to the association between physical exercise and melatonin, and to clarify how the melatonin rhythm may be affected by different types of exercise. Exercise may act as a zeitgeber, although the effects of exercise on the human circadian system are only now being explored. Depending on the time of the day, on the intensity of light, and on the proximity of the exercise to the onset or decline of the circadian production of melatonin, the consequence of exercise on the melatonin rhythm varies. Moreover, especially strenuous exercise per se induces an increased oxidative stress that in turn may affect melatonin levels in the peripheral circulation because indole is rapidly used to combat free radical damage. On the other hand, melatonin also may influence physical performance, and thus, there are mutually interactions between exercise and melatonin production which may be beneficial.

  1. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2012 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  2. Are you getting too much exercise?

    MedlinePlus

    ... patientinstructions/000807.htm Are you getting too much exercise? To use the sharing features on this page, ... competitive edge without overdoing it. How too Much Exercise can Hurt To get stronger and faster, you ...

  3. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More How do beta blocker drugs affect exercise? Updated:Aug 5,2015 Beta blockers are a ... about them: Do they affect your ability to exercise? The answer can vary a great deal, depending ...

  4. Post-Menopausal? Give Exercise a Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163625.html Post-Menopausal? Give Exercise a Try Study participants were fitter, felt better -- ... Feb. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- After menopause, moderate exercise can help women manage hot flashes, become more ...

  5. Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Video Back About Video Struggling with Low Back Pain? Many people are surprised to learn that carefully selected exercise can actually reduce back pain. Some exercises can even provide quick and significant ...

  6. Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

  7. Sleep and exercise: a reciprocal issue?

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Léger, Damien

    2015-04-01

    Sleep and exercise influence each other through complex, bilateral interactions that involve multiple physiological and psychological pathways. Physical activity is usually considered as beneficial in aiding sleep although this link may be subject to multiple moderating factors such as sex, age, fitness level, sleep quality and the characteristics of the exercise (intensity, duration, time of day, environment). It is therefore vital to improve knowledge in fundamental physiology in order to understand the benefits of exercise on the quantity and quality of sleep in healthy subjects and patients. Conversely, sleep disturbances could also impair a person's cognitive performance or their capacity for exercise and increase the risk of exercise-induced injuries either during extreme and/or prolonged exercise or during team sports. This review aims to describe the reciprocal fundamental physiological effects linking sleep and exercise in order to improve the pertinent use of exercise in sleep medicine and prevent sleep disorders in sportsmen.

  8. Kegel Exercises for Men: Understand the Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Men's health Kegel exercises for men can help improve bladder control and possibly improve sexual performance. ... 13, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/mens-health/in-depth/kegel-exercises-for-men/ ...

  9. A Modeling Exercise for the Organic Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    An in-class molecular modeling exercise is described. Groups of students are given molecular models to investigate and questions about the models to answer. This exercise is a quick and effective way to review nomenclature, stereochemistry, and conformational analysis.

  10. Helicopter problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G

    1937-01-01

    The present report deals with a number of the main problems requiring solution in the development of helicopters and concerning the lift, flying performance, stability, and drive. A complete solution is given for the stability of the helicopter with rigid blades and control surfaces. With a view to making a direct-lift propeller sufficient without the addition of auxiliary propellers, the "flapping drive" is assessed and its efficiency calculated.

  11. Hierarchi problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Sergey G.

    2016-02-01

    The way to solve the hierarchy problem based on multidimensional gravity is discussed. Various metrics of deformed extra space are produced at the Planck scale. It is shown that the Higgs vacuum value depends on a metric of extra space and hence their different numerical values are realized in various universes. An interval of the Higgs vacuum values is proved include zero value. Our universe belongs to a set of universes the vacuum values of which are close to zero

  12. The influence of exercise identity and social physique anxiety on exercise dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Brian; Karr, Trisha M.; Zunker, Christie; Mitchell, James E.; Thompson, Ron; Sherman, Roberta; Erickson, Ann; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research has identified exercise identity and social physique anxiety as two independent factors that are associated with exercise dependence. Aims The purpose of our study was to investigate the unique and interactive effect of these two known correlates of exercise dependence in a sample of 1,766 female runners. Methods Regression analyses tested the main effects of exercise identity and social physique anxiety on exercise dependence. An interaction term was calculated to examine the potential moderating effect of social physique anxiety on the exercise identity and exercise dependence relationship. Results Results indicate a main effect for exercise identity and social physique anxiety on exercise dependence; and the interaction of these factors explained exercise dependence scores beyond the independent effects. Thus, social physique anxiety acted as a moderator in the exercise identity and exercise dependence relationship. Discussion Our results indicate that individuals who strongly identify themselves as an exerciser and also endorse a high degree of social physique anxiety may be at risk for developing exercise dependence. Conclusions Our study supports previous research which has examined factors that may contribute to the development of exercise dependence and also suggests a previously unknown moderating relationship for social physique anxiety on exercise dependence. PMID:26551910

  13. Core Stability Exercise Versus General Exercise for Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, Brian J; Games, Kenneth E; Neil, Elizabeth R; Eberman, Lindsey E

    2017-01-01

    Reference: Wang XQ, Zheng JJ, Yu ZW, et al. A meta-analysis of core stability exercise versus general exercise for chronic low back pain. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e52082. Clinical Questions: Is core stability exercise more effective than general exercise in the treatment of patients with nonspecific low back pain (LBP)?

  14. [Exercise guidelines for health-oriented recreational sports].

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2015-05-01

    Physical inactivity is one the biggest Public Health problems of the 21th century. Regular physical activity and sports can contribute to a reduction of overall mortality and morbidity and, thus, can have a considerable health impact for individuals as well as for the society as a whole. The beneficial health effects of exercise are convincingly evaluated yet and there is further evidence that physical activity can result in improvements in specific cardiorespiratory and metabolic diseases similar to pharmacological treatments. It is the aim of this review article to outline evidence-based guidelines for exercise to improve physical fitness and health in primary prevention in healthy adults. Based on the current scientific evidence a dose-response-relationship between physical activity and health markers as well as physical fitness is likely. Health-oriented exercise training should allow for an exercise-induced energy expenditure of at least 1000 kcal per week. This should be approached by an appropriate combination of exercises targeting on an improvement in cardiorespiratory and metabolic functioning as well as muscular fitness. It is recommended to supplement such a training regimen by appropriate amounts of functional and flexibility exercises. Usually, sports targeting on these particular fitness areas are recommended, for instance, typical endurance sports like cycling, jogging, (Nordic) walking or swimming for the cardiorespiratory and metabolic domains and strength training for muscular fitness. In recent years, scientific studies have evaluated potentially more attractive sports like football, dancing and Tai Chi and reported promising results. Such sports may contribute to an increased long-term compliance to health-oriented exercise programmes. Although regular physical activity is associated with considerable health benefits, risks and side effects should be taken into account. The most frequent side effects are injuries, and the most severe are fatal

  15. Interaction between alcohol and exercise: physiological and haematological implications.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mahmoud S; Ali, Nagia; El-Sayed Ali, Zeinab

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol use, particularly excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most serious health risks in the world. A relationship between sport, exercise and alcohol consumption is clear and long-standing. Alcohol continues to be the most frequently consumed drug among athletes and habitual exercisers and alcohol-related problems appear to be more common in these individuals. Alcohol use is directly linked to the rate of injury sustained in sport events and appears to evoke detrimental effects on exercise performance capacity. The model of alcohol consumption in human experimental studies has either been acute (single dose) or chronic (repeated doses over a period). These studies suggested that alcohol consumption decreases the use of glucose and amino acids by skeletal muscles, adversely affects energy supply and impairs the metabolic process during exercise. In addition, chronic alcohol use is associated with increased citrate synthase activity and decreased cross-sectional area of type I, IIa and IIb fibres. There is evidence to suggest that exercise may attenuate the ethanol-induced decline in hepatic mitochondria and accelerates ethanol metabolism by the liver. Exercise training seems to reduce the extent of the oxidative damage caused by ethanol. Evidence generated from in vitro experiments and animal studies have also suggested that ethanol administration decreased skeletal muscle capillarity and increased pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Substantial epidemiological evidence has been accrued showing that moderate ingestion of alcohol may reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Although the existing evidence is often confusing and disparate, one of the mechanisms by which alcohol may reduce the incidence of mortality of cardiovascular diseases is through raising levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Available evidence suggests that exercise and moderate alcohol consumption may have favourable effects on blood coagulation and

  16. Introducing Earth Sciences Students to Modeling Using MATLAB Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    While we subject our students to math and physics and chemistry courses to complement their geological studies, we rarely allow them to experience the joys of modeling earth systems. Given the degree to which modern earth sciences relies upon models of complex systems, it seems appropriate to allow our students to develop some experience with this activity. In addition, as modeling is an unforgivingly logical exercise, it demands the student absorb the fundamental concepts, the assumptions behind them, and the means of constraining the relevant parameters in a problem. These concepts commonly include conservation of some quantity, the fluxes of that quantity, and careful prescription of the boundary and initial conditions. I have used MATLAB as an entrance to this world, and will illustrate the products of the exercises we have worked. This software is platform-independent, and has a wonderful graphics package (including movies) that is embedded intimately as one-to-several line calls. The exercises should follow a progression from simple to complex, and serve to introduce the many discrete tasks within modeling. I advocate full immersion in the first exercise. Example exercises include: growth of spatter cones (summation of parabolic trajectories of lava bombs); response of thermal profiles in the earth to varying surface temperature (thermal conduction); hillslope or fault scarp evolution (topographic diffusion); growth and subsidence of volcanoes (flexure); and coral growth on a subsiding platform in the face of sealevel fluctuations (coral biology and light extinction). These exercises can be motivated by reading a piece in the classical or modern literature that either describes a model, or better yet serves to describe the system well, but does not present a model. I have found that the generation of movies from even the early simulation exercises serves as an additional motivator for students. We discuss the models in each class meeting, and learn that there

  17. How to make overweight children exercise and follow the recommendations.

    PubMed

    Deforche, Benedicte; Haerens, Leen; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-09-01

    As regular physical activity of high enough intensity is essential in the management of overweight, efforts should be made to increase physical activity adherence in overweight children. To make overweight children exercise and follow the recommendations, it is essential to have insight into determinants of exercise initiation and adherence. According to the Self-determination Theory, creating opportunities to satisfy the need for autonomy (i.e., having choices), competence (i.e., feeling effective) and relatedness (i.e., being socially connected) might increase autonomous motivation for physical activity in overweight children and promote a long-lasting active lifestyle. To increase feelings of autonomy in overweight children, exercise programs could be delivered in an autonomy-supportive manner by providing choices, supporting the child's initiatives, avoiding use of external rewards, offering relevant information and rationale for changing behaviour, making a decisional balance and using autonomy supportive language, while minimizing pressure and control. Perceived competence in physical activities could be increased by offering activities tailored to the capabilities of the overweight child, helping the children set realistic goals, learning the children self-management skills, providing the children with appropriate feedback and organizing separate exercise sessions for overweight children. Feelings of relatedness in overweight children might increase by adopting an empathic approach, showing interest in the child's well-being and problems, showing enjoyment and enthusiasm, knowing the names of the children, talking to the children as equals, offering group sessions and talks, encouraging club participation and having a sports partner and encouraging parental support.

  18. Regular Exercise Enhances Task-Based Industriousness in Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Laurence, Nicholas C.; Labuschagne, Lisa G.; Lura, Brent G.; Hillman, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals vary greatly in their willingness to select and persist in effortful tasks, even when high-effort will knowingly result in high-reward. Individuals who select and successively complete effortful, goal-directed tasks can be described as industrious. Trying to increase one’s industriousness is desirable from a productivity standpoint, yet intrinsically challenging given that effort expenditure is generally aversive. Here we show that in laboratory rats, a basic physical exercise regimen (20 min/day, five days/week) is sufficient to increase industriousness across a battery of subsequent testing tasks. Exercised rats outperformed their non-exercised counterparts in tasks designed to tax effort expenditure, strategic decision-making, problem solving and persistence. These increases in performance led to quicker reward obtainment and greater reward gain over time, and could not be accounted for simply by increased locomotor activity. Our results suggest that a basic exercise regimen can enhance effortful goal-directed behaviour in goal-directed tasks, which highlights a potential productivity benefit of staying physically active. PMID:26083255

  19. Mechanotherapy: how physical therapists' prescription of exercise promotes tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Khan, K M; Scott, A

    2009-04-01

    Mechanotransduction is the physiological process where cells sense and respond to mechanical loads. This paper reclaims the term "mechanotherapy" and presents the current scientific knowledge underpinning how load may be used therapeutically to stimulate tissue repair and remodelling in tendon, muscle, cartilage and bone. The purpose of this short article is to answer a frequently asked question "How precisely does exercise promote tissue healing?" This is a fundamental question for clinicians who prescribe exercise for tendinopathies, muscle tears, non-inflammatory arthropathies and even controlled loading after fractures. High-quality randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews show that various forms of exercise or movement prescription benefit patients with a wide range of musculoskeletal problems.1(-)4 But what happens at the tissue level to promote repair and remodelling of tendon, muscle, articular cartilage and bone? The one-word answer is "mechanotransduction", but rather than finishing there and limiting this paper to 95 words, we provide a short illustrated introduction to this remarkable, ubiquitous, non-neural, physiological process. We also re-introduce the term "mechanotherapy" to distinguish therapeutics (exercise prescription specifically to treat injuries) from the homeostatic role of mechanotransduction. Strictly speaking, mechanotransduction maintains normal musculoskeletal structures in the absence of injury. After first outlining the process of mechanotransduction, we provide well-known clinical therapeutic examples of mechanotherapy-turning movement into tissue healing.

  20. Optimizing Exercise Programs for Arthritis Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulware, Dennis W.; Byrd, Shannon L.

    1993-01-01

    Exercise can help decrease pain and improve function in people with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Physicians must provide individualized, realistic, enjoyable exercise programs that help affected joints, build fitness, and maximize patient compliance. Physicians must also provide appropriate follow-up care, adjusting the exercise program…

  1. 33 CFR 155.1060 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercises. 155.1060 Section 155... Oil § 155.1060 Exercises. (a) A vessel owner or operator required by §§ 155.1035 and 155.1040 to have a response plan shall conduct exercise as necessary to ensure that the plan will function in...

  2. 44 CFR 350.9 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exercises. 350.9 Section 350... § 350.9 Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy... local governments, must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1...

  3. 44 CFR 350.9 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exercises. 350.9 Section 350... § 350.9 Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy... local governments, must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1...

  4. 33 CFR 155.1060 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 155.1060 Section 155... Oil § 155.1060 Exercises. (a) A vessel owner or operator required by § 155.1035, § 155.1040, or § 155.5035 to have a response plan shall conduct exercise as necessary to ensure that the plan will...

  5. 44 CFR 350.9 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Exercises. 350.9 Section 350.9... Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy Administrator for the..., must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1 of appropriate...

  6. 33 CFR 155.5060 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 155.5060 Section 155... § 155.5060 Exercises. (a) For nontank vessels with an oil capacity of 250 barrels or greater— (1) A... exercises as necessary to ensure that the VRP will function in an emergency. Vessel owners or operators...

  7. 33 CFR 155.1060 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercises. 155.1060 Section 155... Oil § 155.1060 Exercises. (a) A vessel owner or operator required by §§ 155.1035 and 155.1040 to have a response plan shall conduct exercise as necessary to ensure that the plan will function in...

  8. Examining Exercise Addiction: A Depth Interview Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Michael L.; Pargman, David

    Exercise addiction may be defined as psychological and/or physiological dependence upon a regular regimen of physical activity. Additionally, exercise addiction is characterized by recognizable withdrawal symptoms when the need to exercise remains unfulfilled after 24 to 36 hours. These withdrawal symptoms may encompass both psychological and…

  9. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  10. Working the Continuum between Therapy and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Because of the relative weightlessness factor, water exercise is an excellent low-impact aerobic activity for people with physical difficulties. Participants should inform their physicians of intentions to begin aquatic exercise, and physicians should advise participants that water exercise is exertive. Program instructors must be prepared to…

  11. A Design Exercise on Temperature Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    A design exercise in chemical engineering is described which is concerned with thermocouples. Physics is the relevant discipline, a point that was made to the students doing the exercise, and accordingly an account of the exercise for the guidance of teachers and lecturers is presented as a contribution to "Physics Education."

  12. Psychological Changes in Exercising COPD Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayle, Richard C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were divided into treatment subjects who participated in a 28-week exercise regime and control subjects who participated in a 14-week exercise program. Analyses showed the aerobic exercise to have little impact on state-trait anxiety or depression scores. (Author/JDD)

  13. 44 CFR 350.9 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercises. 350.9 Section 350... § 350.9 Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy... local governments, must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1...

  14. 33 CFR 155.1060 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercises. 155.1060 Section 155... Oil § 155.1060 Exercises. (a) A vessel owner or operator required by §§ 155.1035 and 155.1040 to have a response plan shall conduct exercise as necessary to ensure that the plan will function in...

  15. Chronic Eccentric Exercise and the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Harris, Nigel; Dulson, Deborah; Cronin, John

    2015-10-01

    Eccentric exercise has gained increasing attention as a suitable and promising intervention to delay or mitigate the known physical and physiological declines associated with aging. Determining the relative efficacy of eccentric exercise when compared with the more conventionally prescribed traditional resistance exercise will support evidence-based prescribing for the aging population. Thus, original research studies incorporating chronic eccentric exercise interventions in the older adult population were included in this review. The effects of a range of eccentric exercise modalities on muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition, muscle architecture, markers of muscle damage, the immune system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and rating of perceived exertion were all reviewed as outcomes of particular interest in the older adult. Muscular strength was found to increase most consistently compared with results from traditional resistance exercise. Functional capacity and body composition showed significant improvements with eccentric endurance protocols, especially in older, frail or sedentary cohorts. Muscle damage was avoided with the gradual progression of novel eccentric exercise, while muscle damage from intense acute bouts was significantly attenuated with repeated sessions. Eccentric exercise causes little cardiovascular stress; thus, it may not generate the overload required to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. An anabolic state may be achievable following eccentric exercise, while improvements to insulin sensitivity have not been found. Finally, rating of perceived exertion during eccentric exercise was often significantly lower than during traditional resistance exercise. Overall, evidence supports the prescription of eccentric exercise for the majority of outcomes of interest in the diverse cohorts of the older adult population.

  16. Can Exercise Help Women with PMS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1989-01-01

    Various treatments for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are described, focusing on the role of exercise. Some physicians prefer to try exercise and others, lifestyle changes before turning to such treatment as psychoactive drugs, vitamin B complex, dopamine agonists, and immunotherapy. Regular exercise has been shown to relieve symptoms of PMS. (SM)

  17. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  18. 44 CFR 350.9 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercises. 350.9 Section 350... § 350.9 Exercises. (a) Before a Regional Administrator can forward a State plan to the Deputy... local governments, must conduct a joint exercise of that State plan, involving full participation 1...

  19. 33 CFR 155.1060 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercises. 155.1060 Section 155... Oil § 155.1060 Exercises. (a) A vessel owner or operator required by §§ 155.1035 and 155.1040 to have a response plan shall conduct exercise as necessary to ensure that the plan will function in...

  20. Assessment of factors associated with exercise enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Wininger, Steven R; Pargman, David

    2003-01-01

    Participating in regular physical activity results in many positive physical and psychological effects. Even though this is widely known, the majority of Americans do not engage in regular physical activity and many persons who start an exercise program drop out shortly thereafter. A question of central importance is "What motivates a person to adhere to an exercise program?" A collection of quantitative and qualitative studies has shown enjoyment of exercise to be an important factor in determining adherence to exercise. Despite these findings, very little research has been conducted on factors contributing to exercise enjoyment. The purpose of this study was to examine variables believed to make such a contribution. Variables were selected based upon results of past research and theory. These were: satisfaction with the music used in the exercise environment, satisfaction with the exercise instructor, and salience of exercise role-identity (EIS). Subjects for this study were 282 female volunteers from not-for-credit aerobic dance classes at 2 university activity centers. Results revealed significant positive correlations between all 3 variables and exercise enjoyment, ranging from .34 to .45. Stepwise regression indicated that satisfaction with music (21%) accounted for the most variance in exercise enjoyment followed by satisfaction with the instructor (8%), and finally salience of exercise role identity (4%). Follow-up analyses to examine specific components of satisfaction with music and the exercise instructor were also conducted.

  1. An Experiential Exercise in Service Environment Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Kendra; Bridges, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    A new experiential exercise affords marketing students the opportunity to learn to design service environments. The exercise is appropriate for a variety of marketing courses and is especially beneficial in teaching services marketing because the proposed activity complements two other exercises widely used in this course. Service journal and…

  2. Attentional Bias for Exercise-Related Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Stolp, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined attentional bias toward exercise-related images using a visual probe task. It was hypothesized that more-active participants would display attentional bias toward the exercise-related images. The results showed that men displayed attentional bias for the exercise images. There was a significant interaction of activity level…

  3. Exercise: An Alternative Therapy for Gestational Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artal, Raul

    1996-01-01

    Exercise is encouraged in the management of pregnant women with gestational diabetes or women with Type II diabetes who become pregnant. Although non-weight-bearing exercises may be best for sedentary women, moderate workouts appear to be safe for most women with gestational diabetes. The role of exercise, risk factors, warning signs, and examples…

  4. Exercise is medicine in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Courtney M; Wilkins, Brad W; Snyder, Eric M

    2011-07-01

    Exercise activates adrenergic and purinergic pathways that regulate activity of ion channels on airway epithelia cells and sweat glands. Therefore, we hypothesize that exercise is not only an important therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients by facilitating systemic improvements but, more importantly, that exercise can improve the pathophysiological ion dysregulation at a cellular level, thereby enhancing quality of life in CF.

  5. Osteoporosis. The Effects of Exercise Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodigan, Diane E.

    1992-01-01

    Reports a study of postmenopausal women's practice of exercise after age 30. Subjects (n=111) were studied with regard to their practice of weight-bearing, aerobic, regular, and area specific exercise. Findings indicated that regular practice (at least 90 minutes weekly) of weight-bearing, aerobic, and regular exercise affected the development of…

  6. Utilizing Tornado Data for Classroom Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    Exercises were developed using tornado statistics to provide students with a better understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these phenomena in the United States. Four categories of exercises were considered beginning with the simplest and progressing to the more complex. The first set of exercises required students to…

  7. Blood flow-restricted exercise in space

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in chronic physiological adaptations including skeletal muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning, and bone demineralization. To attenuate the negative consequences of weightlessness during spaceflight missions, crewmembers perform moderate- to high-load resistance exercise in conjunction with aerobic (cycle and treadmill) exercise. Recent evidence from ground-based studies suggests that low-load blood flow-restricted (BFR) resistance exercise training can increase skeletal muscle size, strength, and endurance when performed in a variety of ambulatory populations. This training methodology couples a remarkably low exercise training load (approximately 20%–50% one repetition maximum (1RM)) with an inflated external cuff (width, ranging between approximately 30–90 mm; pressure, ranging between approximately 100–250 mmHg) that is placed around the exercising limb. BFR aerobic (walking and cycling) exercise training methods have also recently emerged in an attempt to enhance cardiovascular endurance and functional task performance while incorporating minimal exercise intensity. Although both forms of BFR exercise training have direct implications for individuals with sarcopenia and dynapenia, the application of BFR exercise training during exposure to microgravity to prevent deconditioning remains controversial. The aim of this review is to present an overview of BFR exercise training and discuss the potential usefulness of this method as an adjunct exercise countermeasure during prolonged spaceflight. The work will specifically emphasize ambulatory BFR exercise training adaptations, mechanisms, and safety and will provide directions for future research. PMID:23849078

  8. Physical Exercise as a Counseling Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baird, M. Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Provides an integrative review of the literature on the relationship between physical exercise and three psychological variables (depression, anxiety, and self-esteem). Proposes guidelines for using exercise as a counseling intervention, and makes suggestions for evaluating exercise interventions. (Author/GCP)

  9. Using Exercise to Ward Off Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoloff, George; Schwenk, Thomas L.

    1995-01-01

    Exercise can be as effective as psychotherapy and antidepressant therapy in treating mild-to-moderate depression, and even more effective when used in conjunction with them. Exercise can also be preventive therapy for those not clinically depressed. The paper explains how best to work exercise into a depressed patient's therapy. (Author/SM)

  10. Diagnostic criteria for exercise dependence in women

    PubMed Central

    Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To formulate diagnostic criteria for exercise dependence. Method: Fifty six adult female exercisers were interviewed about their exercise behaviour and attitudes. The eating disorders examination, a semistructured clinical interview, was used to diagnose eating disorders. Interviews were taped, transcribed verbatim, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Participants also completed the exercise dependence questionnaire. Results: Two diagnostic criteria emerged from analysis of the interview data: impaired functioning and withdrawal. Impaired functioning was manifest in four areas: psychological, social and occupational, physical, and behavioural. Impairment in at least two areas was considered necessary for diagnosis. Withdrawal was evident as either an adverse reaction to the interruption of exercise or unsuccessful attempts at exercise control. Either sufficed for diagnosis. The absence or presence of an eating disorder was used to distinguish between primary and secondary exercise dependence. Ten women met these criteria for exercise dependence. All 10 also exhibited eating disorders and, accordingly, should be regarded as showing secondary, rather than primary, exercise dependence. Exercise dependent women had significantly higher scores on the exercise dependence questionnaire than non-dependent women. Conclusion: These new diagnostic criteria should now be adopted and explored further, particularly among men and individuals with possible primary exercise dependence. PMID:14514528

  11. Exercise prescription to reverse frailty.

    PubMed

    Bray, Nick W; Smart, Rowan R; Jakobi, Jennifer M; Jones, Gareth R

    2016-10-01

    Frailty is a clinical geriatric syndrome caused by physiological deficits across multiple systems. These deficits make it challenging to sustain homeostasis required for the demands of everyday life. Exercise is likely the best therapy to reverse frailty status. Literature to date suggests that pre-frail older adults, those with 1-2 deficits on the Cardiovascular Health Study-Frailty Phenotype (CHS-frailty phenotype), should exercise 2-3 times a week, for 45-60 min. Aerobic, resistance, flexibility, and balance training components should be incorporated but resistance and balance activities should be emphasized. On the other hand, frail (CHS-frailty phenotype ≥ 3 physical deficits) older adults should exercise 3 times per week, for 30-45 min for each session with an emphasis on aerobic training. During aerobic, balance, and flexibility training, both frail and pre-frail older adults should work at an intensity equivalent to a rating of perceived exertion of 3-4 ("somewhat hard") on the Borg CR10 scale. Resistance-training intensity should be based on a percentage of 1-repetition estimated maximum (1RM). Program onset should occur at 55% of 1RM (endurance) and progress to higher intensities of 80% of 1RM (strength) to maximize functional gains. Exercise is the medicine to reverse or mitigate frailty, preserve quality of life, and restore independent functioning in older adults at risk of frailty.

  12. Combating Stagefright: Selected Vocal Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Noting that stagefright has been the subject of intensive analysis and subjected to almost every conceivable test or measurement without revealing either its "cause" or its "cure," this paper presents vocal exercises to help combat the performance malady. After listing four principles concerning the nature of stagefright (it is…

  13. An Exercise to Introduce Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Edith; Liu, Yali

    2013-01-01

    In introductory statistics courses, the concept of power is usually presented in the context of testing hypotheses about the population mean. We instead propose an exercise that uses a binomial probability table to introduce the idea of power in the context of testing a population proportion. (Contains 2 tables, and 2 figures.)

  14. An Exercise in Biological Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John; Duke, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history of the use of pesticides and biological control. Introduces the concept of biological control as illustrated in the use of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and highlights laboratory demonstrations of Koch's postulates. Includes an exercise that offers the student and teacher several integrated learning…

  15. Sleep Deprivation and Exercise Tolerance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    thermoneutral environment) is alike unchanged by loss of sleep. 5) Seven subjects were allowed to exercise to thermal comfort in a very cold (OC, 2.5...Subjects selected identical work loads for thermal comfort , and became exhausted/miserable after similar period of exposure. Physiologi- cal response and

  16. Emergency Exercise Participation and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie; Black, Lynette; Williams, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Extension is uniquely positioned to participate in emergency exercises, formally or informally, with the goal of engaging community members in emergency and disaster preparedness. With their knowledge of community needs, Extension personnel are valuable resources and can assist emergency managers in the process of identifying local risks and…

  17. BIological Psychology, Exercise, and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…

  18. Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-30

    jo- Rfe 681 ENDOCRINE RESPONSES TO RESISTANCE EXERCISE(U) RIRMY RESERRCH INST OF ENYIRWUIENTAL MEDICINE NATICK M N J KRRENER 30 RUG 87 USARIEN-R59-B...factors have been shown to influence GH release including gonadal. thyroid and adrenal hormones (32). Whether it is via a direct or indirect mechanism

  19. Three Microstructural Exercises for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Winthrop D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes laboratory exercises which demonstrate a new simplified technique for deforming thin samples of crystalline materials on the stage of a petrographic microscope. Discusses how this process allows students to see the development of microstructures resulting from cracking, slipping, thinning, and recrystallization. References and sources of…

  20. Reading Exercises on Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almaraz, Felix D., Jr.; Almaraz, Maria O.

    Short biographical sketches and drawings of 30 prominent Mexican Americans are presented in this book of reading exercises. Written on a fourth or fifth grade level, the book includes figures representing a variety of occupations and fields of achievement: the arts, sports, business, journalism, education, entertainment, literature, medicine, law,…

  1. Using Social Media in Exercises

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, Jeff

    2014-04-28

    This presentation discusses the use of social media as a tool during the full-scale exercise Tremor-14 in Las Vegas, and examines Lessons Learned as a path forward in using social media to disseminate Emergency Public Information (EPI) on a regular basis.

  2. Classroom Exercises Utilizing Precipitation Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    Precipitation data for Macomb (Illinois) for the period 1912-1981 were the bases for developing classroom exercises that offered college students experience in collecting such data. After students collected the data, they reduced them to manageable proportions, and then examined average long-term relations which may have emerged among yearly,…

  3. Exercising Attention within the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Liam; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Milne, June; Thomson, Jenny; Greig, Jessie; Munro, Val; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether increased physical exercise during the school day influenced subsequent cognitive performance in the classroom. Method: A randomized, crossover-design trial (two weeks in duration) was conducted in six mainstream primary schools (1224 children aged 8-11y). No data on sex was available. Children received a…

  4. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  5. Competitive Phylogenetics: A Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Declan J.

    2014-01-01

    This exercise demonstrates the principle of parsimony in constructing cladograms. Although it is designed using mammalian cranial characters, the activity could be adapted for characters from any group of organisms. Students score categorical traits on skulls and record the data in a spreadsheet. Using the Mesquite software package, students…

  6. Ice & Exercise for Injury Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suspenski, Thomas J.

    Utilization of ice and exercise conjunctively decreases recovery time of muscle tendon injury considerably. In the healing process, collagen (a major element of scar formation) is laid down. If heat and rest are used as treatment, healing takes place; however, collagen is laid down in a haphazard arrangement increasing the likelihood of reinjury.…

  7. Exercise and the Knee Joint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This report by the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports examines the effects of various forms of physical exercise on the knee joint which, because of its vulnerability, is especially subject to injury. Discussion centers around the physical characteristics of the joint, commonly used measurements for determining knee stability,…

  8. Chronic Pain and Exercise Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raithel, Kathryn Simmons

    1989-01-01

    Aerobic and resistance exercise are currently prescribed by physicians to treat chronic pain. However, patient fitness level must improve before he/she feels better. Pain management programs help patients become more active so they can function at work and home. (SM)

  9. Exercise detraining: Applicability to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Edward F.

    1994-01-01

    Physical training exposes the various systems of the body to potent physiologic stimuli. These stimuli induce specific adaptations that enhance an individual's tolerance for the type of exercise encountered in training. The level of adaptation and the magnitude of improvement in exercise tolerance is proportional to the potency of the physical training stimuli. Likewise, our bodies are stimulated by gravity, which promotes adaptations of both the cardiovascular and skeletal muscles. Exposure to microgravity removes normal stimuli to these systems, and the body adapts to these reduced demands. In many respects the cessation of physical training in athletes and the transition from normal gravity to microgravity represent similar paradigms. Inherent to these situations is the concept of the reversibility of the adaptations induced by training or by exposure to normal gravity. The reversibility concept holds that when physical training is stopped (i.e., detraining) or reduced, or a person goes from normal gravity to microgravity, the bodily systems readjust in accordance with the diminished physiologic stimuli. The focus of this chapter is on the time course of loss of the adaptations to endurance training as well as on the possibility that certain adaptations persist, to some extent, when training is stopped. Because endurance exercise training generally improves cardiovascular function and promotes metabolic adaptations within the exercising skeletal musculature, the reversibility of these specific adaptations is considered. These observations have some applicability to the transition from normal to microgravity.

  10. [Effects of exercise on joints.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Hideki

    Joints are composed of several different tissues(cartilage, capsule, meniscus, and ligament), and articular cartilage plays an important role in maintaining mechanical competence during exercise. Weight-bearing exercise has several benefit, including improved blood and synovial fluid circulation in a given joint. Consistent moderate activities facilitate cycles of anabolism and catabolism. Mechanical stresses are crucial for the maintenance of the morphologic and functional integrity of articular cartilage. Healthy cartilage is exposed by hydrostatic pressure and tensile strain, when cartilage degeneration develops, abnormal cartilage is exposed by shear stress. Moderate(physiological)exercise is characterized by a range of equilibrium between matrix anabolic and catabolic processes, or anabolism beyond catabolism. Joints are susceptible to insufficient or excessive activities, leading to joint degeneration. Lack of exercise is known to induce joint contracture seen clinically as a consequence of disuse changes, and excess mechanical stresses induce joint destruction such as osteoarthritis. Joint diseases resulting from insufficient or excessive activities are new and major challenging issues with our aging population. Thus, it is highly desirable to have an effective and efficient treatment to improve and protect against these joint diseases, and thereby to solve these clearly unanswered issues.

  11. Menopause. How Exercise Mitigates Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargarten, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    During menopause and the climacteric, women experience many changes that can affect nearly every organ system and cause psychological symptoms. This article reviews the specific changes and explains how exercise can address each symptom; outlines a practical approach physicians can use to help menopausal patients improve their quality of life. (SM)

  12. Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Bermon, Stephane; Castell, Lindy M; Calder, Philip C; Bishop, Nicolette C; Blomstrand, Eva; Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten; Kavazis, Andreas N; Quindry, John C; Senchina, David S; Nieman, David C; Gleeson, Michael; Pyne, David B; Kitic, Cecilia M; Close, Graeme L; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Marcos, Ascension; Meydani, Simin N; Walsh, Neil P; Nagatomi, Ryochi

    2017-01-01

    In this consensus statement on immunonutrition and exercise, a panel of knowledgeable contributors from across the globe provides a consensus of updated science, including the background, the aspects for which a consensus actually exists, the controversies and, when possible, suggested directions for future research.

  13. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  14. Pattern Identification Exercise. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norm

    Career exploration typically involves the investigation of personal factors: interests, aptitudes, values, and personal style. This digest outlines one counseling method, pattern identification exercise (PIE). PIE starts with past experiences and identifies personal patterns which are relevant to career decisions. A premise of PIE is that…

  15. Contraction-Only Exercise Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, Donald F.; Maples, Arthur B.; Campbell, Craig M.

    1992-01-01

    Standard knee-extension machine modified so subject experiences force only when lifting leg against stack of weights. Exerts little force on leg while being lowered. Hydraulic cylinder and reservoir mounted on frame of exercise machine. Fluid flows freely from cylinder to reservoir during contraction (lifting) but in constricted fashion from reservoir to cylinder during extension (lowering).

  16. Effect of forced exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, serum and hippocampal corticosterone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-10-01

    Evidence suggests that there are positive effects of exercise on learning and memory. Moreover, some studies have demonstrated that forced exercise plays the role of a stressor. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of different timing of exercise and exercise withdrawal on memory, and serum and hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels. Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, sham, exercise-rest (exercise withdrawal), rest-exercise (exercised group), and exercise-exercise (continuous exercise). Rats were forced to run on a treadmill for 1 h/day at a speed 20-21-m/min. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test in different intervals (1, 7 and 21 days) after foot shock. Findings showed that after the exercise withdrawal, short-term and mid-term memories, had significant enhancement compared to the control group, while the long-term memory did not present this result. In addition, the serum and hippocampal CORT levels were at the basal levels after the rest period in the exercise-rest group. In the rest-exercise group, exercise improved mid- and long-term memories, whereas continuous exercise improved all types short-, mid- and long-term memories, particularly the mid-term memory. Twenty-one and forty-two days of exercise significantly decreased the serum and hippocampal CORT levels. It seems that exercise for at least 21 days with no rest could affect biochemical factors in the brain. Also, regular continuous exercise plays an important role in memory function. Hence, the duration and withdraw of exercise are important factors for the neurobiological aspects of the memory responses.

  17. Teaching Molecular Phylogenetics through Investigating a Real-World Phylogenetic Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    A phylogenetics exercise is incorporated into the "Introduction to biocomputing" course, a junior-level course at Savannah State University. This exercise is designed to help students learn important concepts and practical skills in molecular phylogenetics through solving a real-world problem. In this application, students are required to identify…

  18. Human Resource Management: A Problem-Solving Approach Linked to ISLLC Standards. Revised Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jerry R.; Doran, Madeleine S.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that adult learners prefer a problem-solving approach to learning, rather than a subject-centered approach. This book provides a non-traditional approach to teaching and learning the basics of human resource management through a series of 125 in-basket exercises and guided questions. These exercises focus on real-life problems…

  19. Swinging into thought: directed movement guides insight in problem solving.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Laura E; Lleras, Alejandro

    2009-08-01

    Can directed actions unconsciously influence higher order cognitive processing? We investigated how movement interventions affected participants' ability to solve a classic insight problem. The participants attempted to solve Maier's two-string problem while occasionally taking exercise breaks during which they moved their arms either in a manner related to the problem's solution (swing group) or in a manner inconsistent with the solution (stretch group). Although most of the participants were unaware of the relationship between their arm movement exercises and the problem-solving task, the participants who moved their arms in a manner that suggested the problem's solution were more likely to solve the problem than were those who moved their arms in other ways. Consistent with embodied theories of cognition, these findings show that actions influence thought and, furthermore, that we can implicitly guide people toward insight by directing their actions.

  20. Role of exercise on the brain

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The functions of adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been extensively investigated during the past decade. Numerous studies have shown that adult neurogenesis may play an important role in the hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. This study evaluated the influence of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis, neural plasticity, neurotrophic factors, and cognition. Areas of research focused on enhancing effect of exercise for adult hippocampal neurogenesis and protective role of exercise against brain diseases. The present study suggests that exercise improves brain functions and prevents decline of cognition across the lifespan. Understanding of neurobiological mechanisms of exercise on brain functions may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27807514

  1. Aquatic exercise for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michelle; Darrah, Johanna

    2005-12-01

    Exercise for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is gaining popularity among pediatric physical therapists as an intervention choice. Exercise in water appeals to children with CP because of the unique quality of buoyancy of water that reduces joint loading and impact, and decreases the negative influences of poor balance and poor postural control. In this paper, research of land-based exercise and aquatic exercise for children with CP is reviewed. Clinically relevant considerations for aquatic exercise programming for children with CP are discussed.

  2. [Psychophysiology of sports addiction (exercises addiction)].

    PubMed

    Krivoshchekov, S G; Lushnikov, O N

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is a prevalent and growing concern in all aspects of our modern society. There are considerable concerns for the growing frequency of addictions to drugs, alcohol, gambling, eating, and even sex. Though exercise is generally accepted as a positive behaviour that has many benefits associated with enhanced physical and psychological wellbeing, there is an increasing awareness that exercise addiction is becoming a common phenomenon. Theories regarding how exercise can become addictive, and studies of withdrawal from exercise are reviewed. Several physiological mechanisms, including endogenous opioids, catecholamines, functional asymmetry of brain activity and thermoregulation have been implicated in exercise dependence.

  3. Is exercise ignored in palliative cancer patients?

    PubMed Central

    Eyigor, Sibel; Akdeniz, Sedef

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and rehabilitation approaches in palliative care programs for cancer patients affect patients’ symptoms, physical functioning, muscle strength, emotional wellbeing, psychological symptoms, functional capacities, quality of life, mortality and morbidity positively. Based on scientific data, palliative cancer patients should be recommended to participate in exercise programs. There is no standard approach to recipe an exercise regimen for a palliative cancer survivor. Studies for demonstrating the positive effects of exercising in palliative care patients are increasing in number day by day. At this point, increasing awareness about exercising in the entire team monitoring the patient and our efforts in this matter seems to be very important. PMID:25114869

  4. Exercise addiction: symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology, and etiology.

    PubMed

    Berczik, Krisztina; Szabó, Attila; Griffiths, Mark D; Kurimay, Tamás; Kun, Bernadette; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-03-01

    Regular physical activity plays a crucial role in health maintenance and disease prevention. However, excessive exercise has the potential to have adverse effects on both physical and mental health. The scholastic and empirical discussion of excessive physical activity focuses on obsessive and compulsive exercising, and uses several labels. However, in this review, we argue that the most appropriate term for this phenomenon is exercise addiction, emphasizing that excessive physical exercise fits the typical and most common characteristics of behavioral addictions. The aim of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on symptomology, diagnosis, epidemiology, and etiology of exercise addiction.

  5. Group vs. individual exercise interventions for women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Both during and after treatment, cancer survivors experience declines in physical and psychosocial quality of life (QoL). Prior research indicates that exercise interventions alleviate problems in physical functioning and some aspects of psychological functioning. For survivors seeking social support, exercise programs that are conducted in group settings may foster optimal QoL improvement (by addressing additional issues related to isolation, social support) over individually-based exercise programs. Methods We reviewed literature on group cohesion in exercise studies, and conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that group as compared to individual exercise interventions for breast cancer survivors would show greater improvement in QoL. Results As currently implemented, group exercise interventions showed no advantage. However, they typically did not provide any evidence that they capitalized upon potentially beneficial group processes. Conclusions Future exercise intervention studies could investigate the effect on QoL of deliberately using group dynamics processes, such as team building experiences and group goal setting to foster group cohesion. PMID:20607139

  6. Exercise Intervention for Anti-Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling Older People

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Ryo; Takeshima, Taro; Kotani, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is an age-related health problem in general communities. Effective exercise programs against sarcopenia remain necessary for community-dwelling older people. In order to summarize the available knowledge on this subject, we collected English articles from a MEDLINE/Pubmed database examining the effects of exercise interventions on sarcopenia-related outcome measures in community-dwelling older people. When nine articles, including eight randomized controlled trials, were reviewed, most studies demonstrated significant improvements in some outcome measures. Indeed, a significant improvement in the muscle mass in one study, muscle strength in two studies and physical performance in two studies was reported among five studies using exercise (E) alone. A significant improvement in the muscle mass in two studies, muscle strength in one study and physical performance in two studies was also reported among four studies using exercise plus nutritional supplementation (EN). Notably, the EN studies appeared to have less extensive exercise interventions than the E studies. One EN study further exhibited significant improvements in all outcome measures. Collectively, exercise could be used as anti-sarcopenic strategies and nutritional interventions when combined with exercise might play a compensated or perhaps a comprehensive role among community-dwelling older people. Limited studies exist and more studies are required for the optimum programs in the community settings. PMID:27829949

  7. Quantifying Biomechanical Characteristics of Jumping Exercises in 1G and in Simulated and True Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, B. L.; DAndrea, S. E.; Perusek, G.; Orlando, T.

    1999-01-01

    Exercise in microgravity is one of the most promising countermeasures to the dual problems of space flight-induced bone loss and muscle atrophy. Although exercise in microgravity has been studied extensively from a metabolic standpoint, little research has focused on the efficacy of different forms of exercise for maintaining musculoskeletal integrity. Exercise protocols have not been effective in preventing muscle atrophy and bone loss during space flight, especially in the lower extremities. In 1-G, however, animal experiments have clearly indicated that: (1) certain bone strains and strain rates do stimulate bone deposition, and (2) repetitive loading of the lower extremity can increase osteonal bone formation even as proximally as the vertebral column. Such studies have also indicated that a relatively small number of appropriate loading cycles may lead to bone deposition. This suggests that an optimal exercise regimen might be able to maintain bone and muscle integrity during space flight. Since there is evidence that the bones and muscles of the lower limbs are particularly affected by space flight, the present study addressed two major aims: (1) quantify externally applied impact loads and rates of loading under the feet during tethered jumping exercises, and (2) determine the amount of eccentric and concentric whole-muscle activity during these jumping exercises in true and in simulated zero-gravity.

  8. Residual effects of prior exercise and recovery on subsequent exercise-induced metabolic responses.

    PubMed

    Ronsen, Ola; Haugen, Oystein; Hallén, Jostein; Bahr, Roald

    2004-08-01

    Data on the metabolic responses to repeated endurance exercise sessions are limited. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine (1) the impact of prior exercise on metabolic responses to a subsequent exercise session and (2) the effect of different recovery periods between two daily exercise sessions on metabolic responses to the second bout of exercise. Nine male elite athletes participated in four 25-h trials: one bout of exercise (ONE), two bouts of exercise separated by 3 h of rest and one meal (SHORT), two bouts of exercise separated by 6 h of rest and two meals (LONG), and a trial with no exercise (REST). All exercise bouts consisted of 10 min cycling at 50% followed by 65 min at 75% of maximal O2 uptake. Compared to no prior exercise (ONE), a previous bout of exercise (SHORT) was followed by higher mean O2 uptake, heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (TR), excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and lower respiratory exchange ratio (R) during and after a similar exercise session 3 h later. A longer rest interval between the two exercise bouts (6 h versus 3 h) and an additional meal resulted in a decrease in O2 uptake, HR, TR and an increase in R during the second bout of exercise, but no effects on post-exercise metabolism were found. Thus, augmented metabolic stress was observed when strenuous exercise was repeated after only 3 h of recovery, but this was attenuated when a longer recovery period including an additional meal was provided between the exercise sessions.

  9. Supine exercise during lower body negative pressure effectively simulates upright exercise in normal gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Exercise within a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber in supine posture was compared with similar exercise against Earth's gravity (without LBNP) in upright posture in nine healthy male volunteers. We measured footward force with a force plate, pressure in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of the leg with transducer-tipped catheters, calf volume by strain gauge plethysmography, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during two conditions: 1) exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber during 100-mmHg LBNP (exercise-LBNP) and 2) exercise in upright posture against Earth's gravity without LBNP (exercise-1 G). Subjects exercised their ankle joints (dorsi- and plantarflexions) for 5 min during exercise-LBNP and for 5 min during exercise-1 G. Mean footward force produced during exercise-LBNP (743 +/- 37 N) was similar to that produced during exercise-1 G (701 +/- 24 N). Peak contraction pressure in the antigravity soleus muscle during exercise-LBNP (115 +/- 10 mmHg) was also similar to that during exercise-1 G (103 +/- 13 mmHg). Calf volume increased significantly by 3.3 +/- 0.5% during exercise-LBNP compared with baseline values. Calf volume did not increase significantly during exercise-1 G. Heart rate was significantly higher during exercise-LBNP (99 +/- 5 beats/min) than during exercise-1 G (81 +/- 3 beats/min). These results indicate that exercise in supine posture within an LBNP chamber can produce similar musculoskeletal stress in the legs and greater systemic cardiovascular stress than exercise in the upright posture against Earth's gravity.

  10. Exercise guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Padayachee, Cliantha; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. This disease has many detrimental consequences for the woman, the unborn foetus and child. The management of GDM aims to mediate the effects of hyperglycaemia by controlling blood glucose levels. Along with pharmacology and dietary interventions, exercise has a powerful potential to assist with blood glucose control. Due to the uncertainty of risks and benefits of exercise during pregnancy, women tend to avoid exercise. However, under adequate supervision exercise is both safe and beneficial in the treatment of GDM. Therefore it is vital that exercise is incorporated into the continuum of care for women with GDM. Medical doctors should be able to refer to competently informed exercise professionals to aid in GDM treatment. It is important that exercise treatment is informed by research. Hence, the development of evidence-based guidelines is important to inform practice. Currently there are no guidelines for exercise in GDM. This review aims to assess the efficacy of exercise for the management of GDM in order to establish an exercise prescription guideline specific to the condition. It is recommended that women with GDM should do both aerobic and resistance exercise at a moderate intensity, a minimum of three times a week for 30-60 min each time. PMID:26240700

  11. Exercise training before and after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Sunita; Hornblower, Elizabeth; Levy, Robert D

    2009-10-01

    The benefits of exercise training in individuals with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and interstitial lung disease have been well documented. Although there is limited research available, it appears that exercise is safe and beneficial for people with severe end-stage chronic lung disease who are awaiting lung transplantation in addition to recipients of lung transplants. Evidence-based guidelines for exercise training in the pre- and post-lung transplantation phases have not yet been developed. However, by considering exercise guidelines for people with chronic lung disease and in older adults in light of the physiological changes that can occur either pre- or post-lung transplantation, a safe and appropriate exercise training program can be developed. Depending on the individual's exercise capacity and goals, the training program may include aerobic and resistance exercise, and flexibility and balance training. In the pre-transplant and acute post-transplant phases, the intensity of exercise is dictated primarily by symptom limitation and adequate rest, which is required between exercise bouts to allow for recovery. In the post-transplant phase, it is possible for lung transplant recipients to increase their exercise capacity and even participate in sports. Further research needs to be conducted to determine the optimal training guidelines and the long-term benefits of exercise, both in lung transplant candidates and recipients.

  12. Effectiveness of a balance training home exercise programme for adults with haemophilia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; Fearn, M; Williams, S; Mudge, L; Walsh, C; McCarthy, P; Walsh, M; Street, A

    2010-01-01

    Adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders often develop lower limb musculoskeletal problems associated with bleeds into joints and muscles, which may affect balance performance and increase likelihood of falling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an individualized balance and strength home exercise programme on improving balance and related outcomes for adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders. Twenty male adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders (mean age 39.4 years, 95% CI = 33.7-45.1) were recruited to participate. They underwent a comprehensive clinical and force platform assessment of balance and related measures. Based on assessment findings, the assessing physiotherapist provided an individualized home exercise programme of balance, strengthening and walking exercises. Re-assessment occurred after the 4-month exercise programme. Twelve participants (60%) completed the programme and were re-assessed. There were no safety problems or dropouts associated with the exercise programme aggravating joint status. Although there were no statistically significant changes in any of the measures (adjusted for multiple comparisons), there were improvements of between 5% and 22% on 10 of the 16 measures, with the Neurocom modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (P = 0.036) and Timed Sit to Stand (P = 0.064) approaching significance. A tailored home exercise programme targeting balance, strengthening and walking is feasible for adults with haemophilia and other bleeding disorders. These results suggest that positive physical outcomes including improved balance and mobility may be achieved with this type of programme.

  13. Electromyographic analysis of four popular abdominal exercises.

    PubMed

    Piering, A W; Janowski, A P; Wehrenberg, W B; Moore, M T; Snyder, A C

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of four specific sit-up exercises on muscular activity of the rectus abdominis. Pairs of surface electrodes were placed unilaterally on four quadrants of the rectus abdominis, delimited by tendinous inscriptions, in four male subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were taken while the subjects performed four different abdominal exercises. Each abdominal exercise was hypothesized to have a specific effect on one of the four quadrants of the rectus abdominis. The four exercises analyzed were: 1) long lying crunch, 2) bent knee crunch, 3) leg raise, and 4) vertical leg crunch. Analysis of the standardized EMG recordings demonstrated no significant differences in the mean muscle activity between the four different quadrants, in the mean muscle activity between the four different exercises, and in interactions between the exercises and the quadrants of the rectus abdominis. We conclude that none of the four abdominal exercises studied are specific for strengthening individual muscle quadrants of the rectus abdominis.

  14. Cystic fibrosis and physiological responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Williams, Craig A; Saynor, Zoe L; Tomlinson, Owen W; Barker, Alan R

    2014-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is underutilized within the clinical management of patients with cystic fibrosis. But within the last 5 years, there has been considerable interest in its implementation, which has included deliberations by the European Cystic Fibrosis Society about incorporating this method within the clinical assessment of patients. This review examines the current use of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in assessing the extent and cause(s) of exercise limitation from a pediatric perspective. Examples of the measured parameters and their interpretation are provided. Critical synthesis of recent work in the oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics response to and following exercise is also discussed, and although identified more as a research tool, its utilization advances researchers understanding of the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular limitations to exercise tolerance. Finally, exercise and its application in therapeutic interventions are highlighted and a number of recommendations made about the utility of exercise prescription.

  15. Biomechanical Analysis of T2 Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Everett, Meghan; Newby, Nathaniel; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Guilliams, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Crewmembers regularly perform treadmill exercise on the ISS. With the implementation of T2 on ISS, there is now the capacity to obtain ground reaction force (GRF) data GRF data combined with video motion data allows biomechanical analyses to occur that generate joint torque estimates from exercise conditions. Knowledge of how speed and load influence joint torque will provide quantitative information on which exercise prescriptions can be based. The objective is to determine the joint kinematics, ground reaction forces, and joint kinetics associated with treadmill exercise on the ISS. This study will: 1) Determine if specific exercise speed and harness load combinations are superior to others in exercise benefit; and 2) Aid in the design of exercise prescriptions that will be most beneficial in maintaining crewmember health.

  16. Brain glycogen supercompensation following exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takashi; Ishikawa, Taro; Ito, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Koshiro; Lee, Min-Chul; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-02-01

    Brain glycogen localized in astrocytes, a critical energy source for neurons, decreases during prolonged exhaustive exercise with hypoglycaemia. However, it is uncertain whether exhaustive exercise induces glycogen supercompensation in the brain as in skeletal muscle. To explore this question, we exercised adult male rats to exhaustion at moderate intensity (20 m min(-1)) by treadmill, and quantified glycogen levels in several brain loci and skeletal muscles using a high-power (10 kW) microwave irradiation method as a gold standard. Skeletal muscle glycogen was depleted by 82-90% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 43-46% at 24 h after exercise. Brain glycogen levels decreased by 50-64% with exhaustive exercise, and supercompensated by 29-63% (whole brain 46%, cortex 60%, hippocampus 33%, hypothalamus 29%, cerebellum 63% and brainstem 49%) at 6 h after exercise. The brain glycogen supercompensation rates after exercise positively correlated with their decrease rates during exercise. We also observed that cortical and hippocampal glycogen supercompensation were sustained until 24 h after exercise (long-lasting supercompensation), and their basal glycogen levels increased with 4 weeks of exercise training (60 min day(-1) at 20 m min(-1)). These results support the hypothesis that, like the effect in skeletal muscles, glycogen supercompensation also occurs in the brain following exhaustive exercise, and the extent of supercompensation is dependent on that of glycogen decrease during exercise across brain regions. However, supercompensation in the brain preceded that of skeletal muscles. Further, the long-lasting supercompensation of the cortex and hippocampus is probably a prerequisite for their training adaptation (increased basal levels), probably to meet the increased energy demands of the brain in exercising animals.

  17. Eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea and exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Turmel, Julie; Gagnon, Simon; Bernier, Mélanie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common condition in endurance athletes. Exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction (EIVCD) is a frequent confounder of EIB. The diagnosis of EIVCD may be challenging and can be missed as the problem is often intermittent and may only occur during intense exercise. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) is the best test to detect EIB. This pilot study aimed to assess if EVH could be helpful in the diagnosis of EIVCD associated or not to EIB in athletes. Methods A nasolaryngoscopy was performed during a 6 min EVH test, in 13 female athletes suspected to have VCD, aged 21±7 years. Image analysis was conducted by two Ear Nose and Throat surgeons in random order. Results During the EVH, three athletes showed incomplete paradoxical vocal cords movement, without inspiratory stridor. However, 12 athletes showed marked supraglottic movement without inspiratory stridor. In two athletes, this supraglottic movement was severe, one showing a marked collapse of the epiglottis with an almost complete obstruction of the larynx by the arytenoid cartilage mucosa. In 3 of the 12 athletes with supraglottic movement, severe vibration of the mucosa covering the arytenoid cartilages was also observed. Conclusions EVH challenge in athletes can provide information on various types of glottic and supraglottic obstruction in reproducing laryngeal movements during hyperventilation. Our findings make us suggest that exercise induced upper airway obstructions should be named: Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). Then, EILO should be divided in three categories: supraglottic, glottic (EIVCD) and mixed (glottic and supraglottic) obstruction. PMID:27900141

  18. Does post-exercise massage treatment reduce delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, E.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a frequent problem after unaccustomed exercise. No universally accepted treatment exists. Massage therapy is often recommended for this condition but uncertainty exists about its effectiveness. AIM: To determine whether post-exercise massage alleviates the symptoms of DOMS after a bout of strenuous exercise. METHOD: Various computerised literature searches were carried out and located seven controlled trials. RESULTS: Most of the trials were burdened with serious methodological flaws, and their results are far from uniform. However, most suggest that post-exercise massage may alleviate symptoms of DOMS. CONCLUSIONS: Massage therapy may be a promising treatment for DOMS. Definitive studies are warranted. 


 PMID:9773168

  19. [The effects of exercise and sports activities on bone and joint morbidities.

    PubMed

    Yoshiya, Shinichi

    Exercise and sports activities can afford mechanical stimuli to the bone and joint tissues which are required to maintain the tissue properties. Moreover, physical exercise is an important part of the management of bone and joint morbidities such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and low back pain. On the other hand, excessive mechanical load involved in exercise and sports activities can be harmful potentially causing overuse injuries of the musculoskeletal tissues. Especially, safety margin for the amount of acceptable mechanical stress is narrow in the elderly due to preexisting musculoskeletal problems. Preparticipation medical checkup and construction of appropriate exercise program based on the physical assessment are mandatory to prevent overload applied to the bone and joint tissues.

  20. Effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on pulmonary function in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Hae-Yong; Lee, Yun-Seob

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the feedback breathing exercise group and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group. The feedback breathing exercise group was asked to breathe with feedback breathing device, and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group was asked to perform diaphragm respiration. Respiratory function was evaluated when a subject sat on a chair comfortably. [Results] There was a significant difference in the functional vital capacity and slow vital capacity before and after all breathing exercises. There was a significant between-group difference in functional vital capacity. However, no between-group difference was found in slow vital capacity. [Conclusion] Diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise can affect respiratory function.