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Sample records for procera allceram crown

  1. Precision of marginal adaptation of the incisor and molar Procera allceram crown copings.

    PubMed

    Pilathadka, S; Slezák, R; Srinivasan, V; Ivancáková, R

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this in vitro study was to compare the absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) of CAD/CAM produced Procera AllCeram crown copings, fabricated on die stone master models of two different tooth groups, incisor and molar. Two maxillary central incisors and two first molars typodont teeth were prepared with 0.8 mm of circumferential chamfer, duplicated 9 times to obtain 36 die stone models and allotted into three groups of 12 models (incisors = 6 & molars = 6). Procera AllCeram 0.6 mm copings were fixed with zinc phosphate (AZ), glass ionomer (AG) and resin (AR) cement accordingly under 50 N static finger force. The AMDs were measured using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) on four axial walls with 4 measurements on each wall to obtain 16 readings for one tooth. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. The analysis did not find any significant differences in the mean AMD of incisor and molar crown copings, and in different axial surfaces too (p < or = 0.05). Recorded mean AMD of incisor copings were AZ group 59 microm, AG 37.9 microm, and AR 44.4 microm and molar copings were AZ 48.8 microm, AG 27 microm, and AR 50.2 microm. It can be concluded that AMD of Procera AllCeram copings were within accepted level of 100 microm. Incisors showed higher AMD than molars. Molars demonstrated the higher AMD on mid-distal and mid-lingual surfaces whereas for incisor it was mid-buccal and mid-lingual surface.

  2. All-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Lehner, C R; Schärer, P

    1992-06-01

    Despite the good appearance and biocompatibility of dental porcelains, failures are still of considerable concern because of some limited properties common to all-ceramic crown systems. As in the years before, pertinent scientific articles published between November 1990 and December 1991 focused on strengthening mechanisms and compared fracture toughness for different ceramic systems by using various test methods. Some evaluated the clinical implications thereon for seating and loading crowns and measured wear against different ceramic surface conditions. Recently introduced with pleasing aesthetic qualities, IPS-Empress (Ivoclar, Schaan, Liechtenstein), a new European leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic, has finally drawn attention in some journals and has been reviewed with promising in vitro test results. Using a simple press-molding technique, well-fitting crowns, inlays, and veneers can be fabricated without an additional ceramming procedure. Again, only long-term clinical trials will validate achievements compared with other all-ceramic systems and with well-established metal ceramics.

  3. Influence of thermomechanical fatigue loading on the fracture resistance of all-ceramic posterior crowns.

    PubMed

    Senyilmaz, Dilek Pinar; Canay, Senay; Heydecke, Guido; Strub, Joerg Rudolf

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated the fracture resistance and the survival rate of different all-ceramic crowns in-vitro after thermomechanical fatigue loading in comparison to porcelain-fused-to-metal posterior crowns. Sixteen crowns for human mandibular first molars were made of each of the following: Cercon, IPS-Empress 2 In-Ceram Zirconia, Procera AllZircon and porcelain-fused-to-metal. Half of the specimens of each group was thermocycled and dynamically loaded using a chewing simulator All samples were thereafter tested for the maximum fracture resistance. The survival rates after 1-2 million cycles in the artificial mouth were 100% in all the tested crown systems. The chewing simulation and thermocycling did not significantly decrease the fracture strength of the ceramic crowns (P>0.005). The median fracture load of Cercon, Procera AllZircon, In-Ceram Zirconia and PFM was significantly higher than IPS-Empress 2 both for loaded and non loaded groups (P<0.005) while the difference between Cercon, Procera AllZircon, In-Ceram Zirconia and PFM was not significant (P>0.005). All-ceramic systems showed fracture load values similar to those of porcelain-fused-to-metal molar crowns and therefore may be considered for use in clinical studies.

  4. Marginal and internal fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated with two different CAD/CAM systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Bok; Park, Charn-Woon; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2008-05-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of marginal and internal fit between the all-ceramic crowns manufactured by a conventional double-layer computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system and a single-layer system. Ten standardized crowns were fabricated from each of these two systems: conventional double-layer CAD/CAM system (Procera) and a single-layer system (Cerec 3D). The copings and completed crowns were seated on the abutments by a special device that facilitated uniform loading, and the marginal discrepancies were measured. Internal gaps were also measured using a low-viscosity silicone material. Marginal discrepancies of Procera copings were significantly smaller than those of Procera crowns and Cerec 3D crowns (p < 0.05), but Procera crowns and Cerec 3D crowns did not differ significantly from each other (p > 0.05). On internal gaps, Cerec 3D crowns showed significantly larger internal gaps than Procera copings and crowns (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, the single-layer system demonstrated acceptable marginal and internal fit.

  5. All-ceramic crowns over single implant zircon abutment. Influence of young's modulus on mechanics.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Amilcar Chagas; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different Young moduli of the ceramic crown on the distribution of tensions in the region of the abutment-crown interface by making use of 2D finite element analysis. Two representative models of a sagittally sectioned maxilla were built through AutoCad program showing an implant in the region of the upper central incisor and were restored by means of IPS e.max Press or Procera AllCeram on zircon abutment. Numerical analysis (Ansys 10.0) was performed under 2 loading conditions (50 N): on the lingual face, at 45 degrees with the implant's long axis (L1) and perpendicular to the incisal edge (L2). The von Mises equivalent stress (σvM) and maximum principal stress (σmax) were obtained. It was noticed that, independent of the restoring system, the maximum σvM values were in the incisal region of the cementation interface for both loading conditions. The IPS e.max Press system showed higher σvM on the adhesive interface with higher L1 influence. The same behavior was also observed as regards the σmax variation. It was concluded that a restoring system with a lower Young modulus shows higher stress concentration on the abutment-crown interface when cemented on an abutment with a high Young modulus. Thus, IPS e.max Press system provides higher stress concentration in the resin cement layer than Procera AllCeram system, suggesting that the resin cement layer shows lower failure risk when the Procera crown is used.

  6. [The study of the colorimetric characteristics of the cobalt-chrome alloys abutments covered by four different all-ceramic crowns by using dental spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Liu, Hongchun; Meng, Yukun; Chao, Yonglie; Liu, Changhong

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the optical data of the different sites of the cobalt-chrome (Co-Cr) alloy abutments covered by four different all-ceramic crowns and the color difference between the crowns and target tab using a digital dental spectrophotometer. Ten Co-Cr alloy abutments were made and tried in four different groups of all-ceramic crowns, namely, Procera aluminia, Procera zirconia, Lava zirconia (Lava-Zir), and IPS E.max glass-ceramic lithium disilicate-reinforced monolithic. The color data of the cervical, body, and incisal sites of the samples were recorded and analyzed by dental spectrophotometer. The CIE L*, a*, b* values were again measured after veneering. The color difference between the abutments covered by all-ceramic crowns and A2 dentine shade tab was evaluated. The L* and b* values of the abutments can be increased by all of the four groups of all-ceramic copings, but a* values were decreased in most groups. A statistical difference was observed among four groups. After being veneered, the L* values of all the copings declined slightly, and the values of a*, b* increased significantly. When compared with A2 dentine shade tab, the ΔE of the crowns was below 4. Four ceramic copings were demonstrated to promote the lightness and hue of the alloy abutments effecttively. Though the colorimetric baseline of these copings was uneven, veneer porcelain can efficiently decrease the color difference between the samples and thee target.

  7. The influence of veneering porcelain thickness of all-ceramic and metal ceramic crowns on failure resistance after cyclic loading.

    PubMed

    Shirakura, Akihiko; Lee, Heeje; Geminiani, Alessandro; Ercoli, Carlo; Feng, Changyong

    2009-02-01

    In some clinical situations, the length of either a prepared tooth or an implant abutment is shorter than ideal, and the thickness of a porcelain crown must be increased. Thickness of the coping and the veneering porcelain should be considered to prevent mechanical failure of the crown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of veneering porcelain thickness for all-ceramic and metal ceramic crowns on failure resistance after cyclic loading. All-ceramic and metal ceramic crowns (n=20) were fabricated on an implant abutment (RN Solid Abutment) for the study. Two different framework designs with 2 different incisal thicknesses of veneering porcelain (2 mm and 4 mm) were used for each all-ceramic and metal ceramic crown system, resulting in 4 experimental groups (n=10) with identically shaped crowns. The all-ceramic crown consisted of alumina (Procera AllCeram) frameworks and veneering porcelain (Cerabien), while metal ceramic crowns were made of high noble metal (Leo) frameworks and veneering porcelain (IPS Classic). All crowns were cemented on the corresponding abutments using a resin cement (Panavia 21). They were subjected to 1000 cycles of thermal cycling (5 degrees C and 55 degrees C; 5-second dwell time). The crowns were tested with a custom-designed cyclic loading apparatus which delivered simultaneous unidirectional cyclic loading at 135 degrees, vertically, at an rpm of 250, with a load of 49 N. Each specimen was loaded for 1.2 x 106 cycles or until it failed. The specimens were thoroughly evaluated for cracks and/or bulk fracture with an optical stereomicroscope (x10) and assigned a score of success, survival, or failure. The specimens without bulk fracture after cyclic loading were loaded along the long axis of the tooth, on the incisal edge, in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.5 mm/min, until fracture. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the success and survival rate between the 2 different materials (alpha=.05

  8. The Comparative Evaluation of the Translucency of Crowns Fabricated with Three Different All-Ceramic Materials: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Y.V.; Rathod, Asha M.; Ram, Sabita M.; Turakhia, Hetal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: All-ceramic crowns with different core materials of different strength and aesthetics are available in recent years. The aesthetics of the crown depends mainly on the shade and translucency. Clinician should be aware of the quality and characteristics of these materials so that they will be able to opt for good material for successful clinical use. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the translucency of crowns fabricated with three different commercially available all-ceramic materials viz. Alumina - CAD-CAM Procera, Lithium disilicate - Pressable IPS e.max Press, Zirconia - CAD-CAM Lava. Materials and Methods: All-ceramic crowns (5 per each group and total of 15 samples) were made of Alumina – CAD-CAM Procera (Group I), Lithium disilicate – Pressable IPS e.max Press (Group II), Zirconia – CAD-CAM Lava (Group III) and veneered with their respective layering ceramic. Evaluation for the Translucency (CR=Yb/Yw) over the White (Yw) and Black (Yb) backgrounds at the Incisal, Middle, Cervical, Mesial and Distal thirds of each crown were done using the Spectrophotometer. The results obtained were statistically analyzed by Paired t-test (p<0.05) and Analysis of Variance (p<0.05) for the test of significance among the groups. Results: Significant differences in the contrast ratios were obtained among the three Groups (p<0.001). In this study, Group II Lithium disilicate–Pressable IPS e.max Press showed higher translucency (0.54). Group III Zirconia – CAD-CAM Lava showed the least translucency (0.75) and the translucency of Group I Alumina – CAD-CAM Procera (0.7) was in between both the groups. Conclusion: Translucency of material gives fair idea to clinician for the choice of material in different zones during replacement and suitability for restoration in aesthetic zone. Selection of all ceramic system depends on the translucency needed for successful prosthesis of artificial tooth so that it mimics patient

  9. The comparative evaluation of the translucency of crowns fabricated with three different all-ceramic materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Sravanthi, Y; Ramani, Y V; Rathod, Asha M; Ram, Sabita M; Turakhia, Hetal

    2015-02-01

    All-ceramic crowns with different core materials of different strength and aesthetics are available in recent years. The aesthetics of the crown depends mainly on the shade and translucency. Clinician should be aware of the quality and characteristics of these materials so that they will be able to opt for good material for successful clinical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the translucency of crowns fabricated with three different commercially available all-ceramic materials viz. Alumina - CAD-CAM Procera, Lithium disilicate - Pressable IPS e.max Press, Zirconia - CAD-CAM Lava. All-ceramic crowns (5 per each group and total of 15 samples) were made of Alumina - CAD-CAM Procera (Group I), Lithium disilicate - Pressable IPS e.max Press (Group II), Zirconia - CAD-CAM Lava (Group III) and veneered with their respective layering ceramic. Evaluation for the Translucency (CR=Yb/Yw) over the White (Yw) and Black (Yb) backgrounds at the Incisal, Middle, Cervical, Mesial and Distal thirds of each crown were done using the Spectrophotometer. The results obtained were statistically analyzed by Paired t-test (p<0.05) and Analysis of Variance (p<0.05) for the test of significance among the groups. Significant differences in the contrast ratios were obtained among the three Groups (p<0.001). In this study, Group II Lithium disilicate-Pressable IPS e.max Press showed higher translucency (0.54). Group III Zirconia - CAD-CAM Lava showed the least translucency (0.75) and the translucency of Group I Alumina - CAD-CAM Procera (0.7) was in between both the groups. Translucency of material gives fair idea to clinician for the choice of material in different zones during replacement and suitability for restoration in aesthetic zone. Selection of all ceramic system depends on the translucency needed for successful prosthesis of artificial tooth so that it mimics patient's natural dentition. The qualitative measurement of translucency will give the evidence for the

  10. Influence of cementation technique on fracture strength and leakage of alumina all-ceramic crowns after cyclic loading.

    PubMed

    Blatz, Markus B; Oppes, Steven; Chiche, Gerard; Holst, Stefan; Sadan, Avishai

    2008-01-01

    To compare in vitro the influence of 3 cementation techniques on leakage and fracture strength of alumina all-ceramic crowns after cyclic loading in an artificial chewing simulator. Forty-eight extracted molars were mounted in a way that simulates natural tooth mobility. Crowns (Procera Alumina, Nobel Biocare) were fabricated and inserted with either conventional cementation with zinc phosphate cement without pretreatment (group ZOP); cementation with a universal adhesive resin cement without pretreatment (group HYB); or adhesive bonding with composite resin after pretreatment of the tooth (dentin bonding agent) and the crown (airborne-particle abrasion and a special ceramic priming agent containing adhesive monomers that bond to metal-oxide ceramics) (group ADH). All specimens were stored in artificial saliva and subjected to 1.2 million load cycles in a dual-axis chewing simulator (Willytec). Eight specimens per group were subjected to compressive load until failure, while the remaining 8 specimens were stained and sectioned for measuring of dye penetration. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD were used for statistical analyses (alpha = .05). Cementation techniques were significantly different (P = .009) in regard to mean load at failure. Fracture strength was significantly greater for ADH (mean load at fracture, 2,782 +/- 419 N) as compared to HYB (1,980 +/- 270 N) or ZOP (1,788 +/- 242 N). All groups differed significantly for leakage values (P < .001), with ADH showing the lowest mean leakage (0.04 +/- 0.07 mm), followed by HYB (0.96 +/- 0.16 mm) and ZOP (2.44 +/- 0.19 mm). Cementation technique affects fracture strength and leakage of all-ceramic molar crowns. Fracture strengths were well above natural chewing forces for all cementation methods. However, adhesive bonding significantly increased fracture strength and improved marginal seal of alumina crowns.

  11. Simulation of clinical fractures for three different all-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Øilo, Marit; Kvam, Ketil; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of fracture strength and fracture modes of different all-ceramic crown systems is not straightforward. Established methods for reliable testing of all-ceramic crowns are not currently available. Published in-vitro tests rarely simulate clinical failure modes and are therefore unsuited to distinguish between the materials. The in-vivo trials usually lack assessment of failure modes. Fractographic analyses show that clinical crowns usually fail from cracks initiating in the cervical margins, whereas in-vitro specimens fail from contact damage at the occlusal loading point. The aim of this study was to compare three all-ceramic systems using a clinically relevant test method that is able to simulate clinical failure modes. Ten incisor crowns of three types of all-ceramic systems were exposed to soft loading until fracture. The initiation and propagation of cracks in these crowns were compared with those of a reference group of crowns that failed during clinical use. All crowns fractured in a manner similar to fracture of the clinical reference crowns. The zirconia crowns fractured at statistically significantly higher loads than alumina and glass-ceramic crowns. Fracture initiation was in the core material, cervically in the approximal areas. PMID:24698209

  12. Simulation of clinical fractures for three different all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Oilo, Marit; Kvam, Ketil; Gjerdet, Nils R

    2014-06-01

    Comparison of fracture strength and fracture modes of different all-ceramic crown systems is not straightforward. Established methods for reliable testing of all-ceramic crowns are not currently available. Published in-vitro tests rarely simulate clinical failure modes and are therefore unsuited to distinguish between the materials. The in-vivo trials usually lack assessment of failure modes. Fractographic analyses show that clinical crowns usually fail from cracks initiating in the cervical margins, whereas in-vitro specimens fail from contact damage at the occlusal loading point. The aim of this study was to compare three all-ceramic systems using a clinically relevant test method that is able to simulate clinical failure modes. Ten incisor crowns of three types of all-ceramic systems were exposed to soft loading until fracture. The initiation and propagation of cracks in these crowns were compared with those of a reference group of crowns that failed during clinical use. All crowns fractured in a manner similar to fracture of the clinical reference crowns. The zirconia crowns fractured at statistically significantly higher loads than alumina and glass-ceramic crowns. Fracture initiation was in the core material, cervically in the approximal areas. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  13. Influence of firing cycles on the margin distortion of 3 all-ceramic crown systems.

    PubMed

    Balkaya, Mehmet Cudi; Cinar, Aynur; Pamuk, Selim

    2005-04-01

    Although all-ceramic restorations are widely used, there is a lack of information about how the fit is affected by fabrication procedures. The adequacy of the fit of all-ceramic restorations has been questioned. This study examined the effect of porcelain and glaze firing cycles on the fit of 3 types of all-ceramic crowns. Ten standardized all-ceramic crowns were fabricated on a metal die from each of 3 systems: conventional In-Ceram, copy-milled In-Ceram, and copy-milled feldspathic crowns. Copings of the conventional and copy-milled In-Ceram crowns and nonglazed copy-milled feldspathic crowns served as the control. A device was used to apply a uniform load on specimens during measurement and to reposition the specimens on the measurement device after each manufacturing process. The specimens were not cemented and were measured on the metal die using a profile projector. Measurements were recorded at 18 points selected along horizontal and vertical planes. The crown systems were compared by use of the Student t test and 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Data of measurements repeated at identical locations were analyzed with a multivariate repeated-measures ANOVA. The Bonferroni post hoc test was used for multiple comparisons (alpha=.05). The conventional In-Ceram (57 +/- 24 microm) and copy-milled In-Ceram (57 +/- 32 microm) crowns demonstrated nearly identical marginal discrepancy values, followed by the copy-milled feldspathic crowns with a mean of 17 +/- 12 microm in the vertical plane. The copy-milled In-Ceram crowns had a mean horizontal discrepancy value of -12 +/- 4 microm, followed by the copy-milled feldspathic crowns with a mean of -4 +/- 5 microm and the conventional In-Ceram crowns with a mean of -6 +/- 4 microm. Statistical analyses demonstrated no significant differences in the marginal discrepancy values among the 3 all-ceramic crown systems, except for the horizontal discrepancy values between the conventional and copy-milled In-Ceram crowns

  14. Reduction of load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic crowns due to cement aging.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenglin; Wang, Raorao; Mao, Shuangshuang; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how water aging of the resin cement influences the stress distribution in all-ceramic crowns and if there is an increase in the propensity for crown failure. The failure of all-ceramic crowns attributed to cement degradation was explored using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Sectioned all-ceramic crown specimens were fabricated of IPS e.max Ceram/e.max Press (CP) and Vita VM9/Cercon zirconia (VZ), and then stored in either air or distilled water for 30 days. Monotonic contact loads were applied to fracture near the buccal cusp ridge of each sample. Deformation within the crown layers during loading was analyzed by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC). A 3D finite element model of the restoration including veneer, core, cement and tooth substrate was developed to evaluate the stress distribution in the crowns before and after cement degradation. There was a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the critical fracture load and a change in the fracture mode after cement water absorption in the CP crowns. In contrast, there was no significant influence of cement aging on fracture modes and fracture loads (p>0.05) in the VZ crowns. Finite element analysis showed that regardless of the crown types, the stress distribution is identical by degradation in Young's modulus of the cement. However, core/substrate debonding results in a change of the stress distribution and a significant increase in the magnitude. Water aging causes reduction of stiffness and bonding strength of cement agents. Degradation in bonding strength and stiffness could potentially lead to stress redistribution in the restored crown and reduce the load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic restorations after years of service. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fracture strength of all-ceramic crowns luted using two bonding methods.

    PubMed

    Attia, Ahmed; Kern, Matthias

    2004-03-01

    Excellent esthetic quality is one of the major advantages of all-ceramic restorations; however, catastrophic fracture of such restorations is still a disadvantage. Ceramic bonding systems using ceramic primers without the use of hydrofluoric acid have been introduced, but data about the efficiency of these systems are lacking. This study investigated the influence of 2 bonding procedures on the fracture resistance of low-fusing ceramic and computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) all-ceramic crowns. Forty-two standardized all-ceramic crowns were fabricated on human maxillary premolars. Seven unprepared maxillary premolars were used as control. Three all-ceramic crown systems were used: 1 low-fusing ceramic (Duceram) and 2 machineable ceramics (Vita Mark II and ProCAD) using the Cerec 3 CAD-CAM system. The intaglio surfaces of fabricated crowns (n=7) were subjected to 2 different conditioning techniques: etching, using 4.9% hydrofluoric acid followed by application of Mirage ABC silane, or cleaning, using 65% phosphoric acid and application of primer (Porcelain Liner-M). The crowns were luted to the teeth using Superbond C&B luting agent. After 24 hours storage in water, specimens were loaded in a universal testing machine with the compressive load applied along the long axis of the specimen at a crosshead speed 1 mm/min until fracture. Fracture loads (N) were recorded. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey HSD test (alpha=.05) were used for statistical analysis of the data. The mean fracture load of control specimens (738.3+/-195.3 N) was not significantly different from that of the 2 CAD-CAM crowns (667.7+/-72.3 N, 715.9+/-105.2 N). However, fracture load of natural teeth and the 2 CAD-CAM crowns was significantly higher than the fracture load of the low-fusing ceramic crowns treated with HF acid and silane (465.5+/-101.1 N) and, when cleaned, using phosphoric acid and an application of primer (447.5+/-63.4 N) (P<.05). There was no

  16. Comparison of marginal fit between all-porcelain margin versus alumina-supported margin on Procera Alumina crowns.

    PubMed

    Limkangwalmongkol, Penwadee; Kee, Edwin; Chiche, Gerard J; Blatz, Markus B

    2009-02-01

    Procera Alumina crowns are widely used; however, the effect of crown margin design on marginal fit is unknown. This study measured and compared the precision of fit of Procera Alumina crowns with two crown margin designs: all-porcelain versus alumina-supported margins. Sixteen noncarious extracted human premolars were prepared for Procera((R)) Alumina crowns with an internally rounded shoulder preparation. Impressions were made from all teeth, and master dies were poured with type IV dental stone. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups. Procera Alumina crowns were fabricated: eight crowns with circumferential porcelain-butt (all-porcelain) margins and eight crowns with coping (alumina-supported) margins (control). Precision of fit was measured at six points on each crown with a profilometer (profile projector). The data were statistically analyzed with an independent-samples t-test (alpha < 0.05). The mean marginal gap size (microm) of coping margins was 68.07 +/- 16.08 and of porcelain-butt margins was 101.29 +/- 43.71. There was no statistically significant difference (p= 0.065) of the marginal gap size between coping margins and porcelain-butt margins. The results of this study demonstrate that there was no statistically significant difference in the marginal fit of coping and porcelain-butt margins. Both margin designs are within clinically acceptable ranges. Therefore, clinicians may choose to use a coping margin, as it is less labor intensive and requires less time for fabrication, unless there is a specific high esthetic need for a porcelain-butt margin.

  17. Color effects of gingiva on cervical regions of all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Jin; Seliger, Alison; Gil, Mindy; da Silva, John D; Ishhikawa-Nagai, Shigemi

    2013-08-01

    The final color of all-ceramic crowns is influenced by the color of both the remaining tooth structure and the surrounding gingival tissue. The optical effects of gingival tissue on an all-ceramic crown have never been fully studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of gingival color on ceramic crowns in the cervical region. materials and methods: Thirty-one all-ceramic crowns of differing shades were included in this study. Using a spectrophotometer, the color values of each crown were measured on a typodont in the absence of an artificial gingiva (control group) and in the presence of an artificial gingiva (test group). CIELAB color coordinates (L*, a*, b*) were collected from three regions of the cervical area in descending order from the gingival margin (upper region, middle region, and lower region). Color difference values (ΔE*) were calculated for each cervical region between the test and control groups. ΔE* between the test and control groups from the upper to lower cervical regions was also compared with each other. The statistical analysis was performed using the student t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The mean ΔE* values between the test group and control group at the upper, middle, and lower cervical regions were 5.8, 2.8, and 1.8, respectively. Significant color differences between the test and control group were detected in all three incremental regions (p < 0.001 at ΔE* = 1.6 threshold), with all color coordinates (L*, a*, and b*) contributing significantly to the color differences in these regions (p < 0.001). The color variations in the cervical area also varied significantly from the upper region to the lower region, with L* and a* contributing most to the differences. The presence of artificial gingiva is a critical factor in precise color matching and color reproduction for all-ceramic crowns. Gingival tissue has significant optical effects on the color of all-ceramic crowns at the

  18. CAD/CAM fabricated single-unit all-ceramic post–core–crown restoration

    PubMed Central

    Vinothkumar, Thilla Sekar; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Chanana, Pallavi

    2011-01-01

    This case report explains about an innovative treatment strategy for the management of damaged anterior teeth with reduced incisal clearance by means of a single-unit all-ceramic post–core–crown zirconia ceramic restoration fabricated by Computer-aided designing and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. The reinforced zirconia ceramics allow fabrication of durable esthetic restorations in cases with high functional loading and the unification of the post, core, and crown in a single unit decreases the frequency of failure by creating a monobloc effect. In addition, the use of CAD/CAM technology for designing and fabricating ceramic restorations offers the option of expeditiously preparing these high-strength all-ceramic restorations. PMID:21691515

  19. Materials design in the performance of all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Brian R; Pajares, Antonia; Zhang, Yu; Deng, Yan; Polack, Mariano A; Lloyd, Isabel K; Rekow, E Dianne; Thompson, Van P

    2004-06-01

    Results from a systematic study of damage in material structures representing the basic elements of dental crowns are reported. Tests are made on model flat-layer specimens fabricated from various dental ceramic combinations bonded to dentin-like polymer substrates, in bilayer (ceramic/polymer) and trilayer (ceramic/ceramic/polymer) configurations. The specimens are loaded at their top surfaces with spherical indenters, in simulation of occlusal function. The onset of fracture is observed in situ using a video camera system mounted beneath the transparent polymer substrate. Critical loads to induce fracture and deformation at the ceramic top and bottom surfaces are measured as functions of layer thickness and contact duration. Radial cracking at the ceramic undersurface occurs at relatively low loads, especially in thinner layers. Fracture mechanics relations are used to confirm the experimental data trends, and to provide explicit dependencies of critical loads in terms of key variables: material-elastic modulus, hardness, strength and toughness; geometric-layer thicknesses and contact radius. Tougher, harder and (especially) stronger materials show superior damage resistance. Critical loads depend strongly (quadratically) on crown net thickness. The analytic relations provide a sound basis for the materials design of next-generation dental crowns.

  20. Fracture load of implant-supported zirconia all-ceramic crowns luted with various cements.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yoo, Jeong-Min; Park, Sang-Won; Yang, Hong-So

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the fracture load and failure types of implant-supported zirconia all-ceramic crowns cemented with various luting agents. The ceramic frameworks were fabricated from a presintered yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide block using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing technology, and were then veneered with feldspathic porcelain. Three luting agents were used. Composite resin cement (1,560.78 +/- 39.43 N) showed the highest mean fracture load, followed by acrylic/urethane cement (1,116.20 +/- 77.32 N) and zinc oxide eugenol cement (741.21 +/- 41.95 N) (P < .05). The types of failure varied between groups.

  1. The effect of finish line curvature on marginal fit of all-ceramic CAD/CAM crowns and metal-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianxiang; Han, Dongwei

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effect of abutment finish line curvature on the fit of all-ceramic CAD/CAM crowns and metal-ceramic crowns. Three types of finish line curvature abutments (1-, 3-, and 5-mm curvature) were prepared on typodont maxillary central incisors. For each type of abutment, 5 all-ceramic crowns (Cercon system, DeguDent) and 5 metal-ceramic crowns were fabricated. The marginal gaps of copings and veneered crowns were measured on a profile projector. The data were calculated and analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (alpha = .05). The mean labial, lingual, mesial, and distal marginal gaps (SD) of all-ceramic crowns were similar: respectively, 54 (10), 51 (11), 47 (13), and 49 (9) microm for 1-mm curvature; 49 (12), 53 (11), 54 (10), and 55 (12) microm for 3-mm curvature; and 57 (12), 54 (11), 53 (10), and 52 (9) microm for 5-mm curvature. The mean labial, lingual, mesial, and distal marginal gaps (SD) of metal-ceramic crowns were 36 (7), 41 (9), 26 (8), and 28 (10) microm, respectively, for 1-mm curvature. The mean labial and lingual marginal gaps (SD) of metal-ceramic crowns for 3-mm curvature were 45 (8) and 48 (9) microm, respectively-significantly larger than mesial (P = .01 and .007) and distal (P = .03 and .02) gaps. The mean labial and lingual marginal gaps (SD) of metal-ceramic crowns for 5-mm curvature were 76 (10) and 74 (15) microm, respectively-significantly larger than mesial (P = .001 and .001) and distal (P = .001 and .001) gaps. The abutment finish line curvature had no significant effect on the marginal fit of all-ceramic crowns, but had a significant effect on the marginal fit of metal-ceramic crowns.

  2. Effect of the shades of background substructures on the overall color of zirconia-based all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Suputtamongkol, Kallaya; Tulapornchai, Chantana; Mamani, Jatuphol; Kamchatphai, Wannaporn; Thongpun, Noparat

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the color of a background substructure on the overall color of a zirconia-based all-ceramic crown. Twenty one posterior zirconia crowns were made for twenty subjects. Seven premolar crowns and six molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with metal post and core in the first and second group. In the third group, eight molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with a prefabricated post and composite core build-up. The color measurements of all-ceramic crowns were made before try-in, before and after cementation. A repeated measure ANOVA was used for a statistical analysis of a color change of all-ceramic crowns at α=.05. Twenty four zirconia specimens, with different core thicknesses (0.4-1 mm) were also prepared to obtain the contrast ratio of zirconia materials after veneering. L(*) , a(*) , and b(*) values of all-ceramic crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or on a prefabricated post did not show significant changes (P>.05). However, the slight color changes of zirconia crowns were detected and represented by ΔE(*) ab values, ranging from 1.2 to 3.1. The contrast ratios of zirconia specimens were 0.92-0.95 after veneering. No significant differences were observed between the L(*) , a(*) , and b(*) values of zirconia crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or a prefabricated post and composite core. However, the color of a background substructure could affect the overall color of posterior zirconia restorations with clinically recommended core thickness according to ΔE(*) ab values.

  3. Effect of the shades of background substructures on the overall color of zirconia-based all-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Tulapornchai, Chantana; Mamani, Jatuphol; Kamchatphai, Wannaporn; Thongpun, Noparat

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the color of a background substructure on the overall color of a zirconia-based all-ceramic crown. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty one posterior zirconia crowns were made for twenty subjects. Seven premolar crowns and six molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with metal post and core in the first and second group. In the third group, eight molar crowns were cemented onto abutments with a prefabricated post and composite core build-up. The color measurements of all-ceramic crowns were made before try-in, before and after cementation. A repeated measure ANOVA was used for a statistical analysis of a color change of all-ceramic crowns at α=.05. Twenty four zirconia specimens, with different core thicknesses (0.4-1 mm) were also prepared to obtain the contrast ratio of zirconia materials after veneering. RESULTS L*, a*, and b* values of all-ceramic crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or on a prefabricated post did not show significant changes (P>.05). However, the slight color changes of zirconia crowns were detected and represented by ΔE*ab values, ranging from 1.2 to 3.1. The contrast ratios of zirconia specimens were 0.92-0.95 after veneering. CONCLUSION No significant differences were observed between the L*, a*, and b* values of zirconia crowns cemented either on a metal cast post and core or a prefabricated post and composite core. However, the color of a background substructure could affect the overall color of posterior zirconia restorations with clinically recommended core thickness according to ΔE*ab values. PMID:24049574

  4. Effect of esthetic core shades on the final color of IPS Empress all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Azer, Shereen S; Ayash, Ghada M; Johnston, William M; Khalil, Moustafa F; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2006-12-01

    Clinically relevant assessment of all-ceramic crowns supported by esthetic composite resin foundations has not been evaluated with regard to color reproducibility. This in vitro study quantitatively evaluated the influence of different shades of composite resin foundations and resin cement on the final color of a leucite-reinforced all-ceramic material. A total of 128 disks were fabricated; 64 (20 x 1 mm) were made of all-ceramic material (IPS Empress) and 64 (20 x 4 mm) of 4 different shades composite resin (Tetric Ceram). The ceramic and composite resin disks were luted using 2 shades (A3 and Transparent) of resin cement (Variolink II). Color was measured using a colorimeter configured with a diffuse illumination/0-degree viewing geometry, and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) L( *)a( *)b( *) values were directly calculated. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, and color differences (DeltaE) for the average L( *), a( *) and b( *) color parameters were calculated. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare mean values and SDs between the different color combinations (alpha=.05). The CIE L( *)a( *)b( *) color coordinate values showed no significant differences for variation in color parameters due to the effect of the different composite resin shades (P=.24) or cement shades (P=.12). The mean color difference (DeltaE) value between the groups was 0.8. Within the limitations of this study, the use of different shades for composite resin cores and resin cements presented no statistically significant effect on the final color of IPS Empress all-ceramic material.

  5. Veneer vs. core failure in adhesively bonded all-ceramic crown layers.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J-W; Kwon, J-Y; Bhowmick, S; Lloyd, I K; Rekow, E D; Lawn, B R

    2008-04-01

    Joining a brittle veneer to a strong ceramic core with an adhesive offers potential benefits over current fabrication methods for all-ceramic crowns. We tested the hypothesis that such joining can withstand subsurface radial cracking in the veneer, from enhanced flexure in occlusal loading, as well as in the core. Critical conditions to initiate fractures were investigated in model crown-like layer structures consisting of glass veneers epoxy-joined onto alumina or zirconia cores, all bonded to a dentin-like polymer base. The results showed a competition between critical loads for radial crack initiation in the veneers and cores. Core radial cracking was relatively independent of adhesive thickness. Zirconia cores were much less susceptible to fracture than alumina, attributable to a relatively high strength and low modulus. Veneer cracking did depend on adhesive thickness. However, no significant differences in critical loads for veneer cracking were observed for specimens containing alumina or zirconia cores.

  6. Computer-assisted generation of all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Besimo, C E; Spielmann, H P; Rohner, H P

    2001-10-01

    The successful application of the concept of computer-assisted manufacturing in restorative dentistry requires that computer-assisted design (CAD) and computer-assisted machining (CAM) not only meet but actually exceed currently accepted standards for the material and clinical quality of dental restorations. In addition, the continued development of systems for polyvalent processing of disparate materials and objects must be assured. With these critical requirements in mind, the Precident system is a clinically proven and competitive system. The resolving power of the CCD chip is much improved compared to conventional cameras or charge-coupled devices. The scanner is able to scan entire casts in a fully automated process. In principle, this facilitates the production of frameworks for fixed prosthetic devices (FPD) of any size. It is also possible to create at least partial frameworks for removable prosthetic devices (RPD). A factor of great clinical and economic importance is the polyvalence of the process in materials processing: the numeric control (NC) machine can be programmed for metal alloys and ceramic materials as well as fiber-reinforced resins. At Aeskulap Klinik, the Precident System is routinely used for producing all single crowns and FPDs with up to four units. CAD/CAM all-ceramic crowns and FPDs currently cost about the same as metallo-ceramic or conventional all-ceramic restorations.

  7. The effect of multicolored machinable ceramics on the esthetics of all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Reich, Sven; Hornberger, Helga

    2002-07-01

    Computer-aided design/computer-assisted machining systems offer the possibility of fabricating restorations from one machinable ceramic block. Whether multishaded blocks improve esthetic results and are a viable alternative to individually stained ceramics has not been fully determined. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of multishaded blocks on the esthetic appearance of all-ceramic CEREC crowns and compare these crowns with single-shade and stained restorations. Ten subjects were included in this study. For each subject, 6 different crowns were milled with the use of a CEREC machine. One crown was milled from each of the following machinable ceramic materials: CEREC Vitablocs Mark II in classic colors; Vitablocs Mark II in 3D-Master colors; Vitablocs Mark II in either classic or 3D-Master colors, with additional staining; Megadenta Bloxx multishaded; Mark II experimental multilayer; and an experimental multilayer leucite ceramic. Three independent examiners assessed the esthetic appearance of crowns fabricated to match each subject's anterior tooth shade. A scale of 1 to 6 was used to score the shade match and esthetic adaptation of each crown, with 1 representing excellent characteristics and 3.5 serving as the threshold for clinical acceptability. The examiners' scores were averaged, and the mean values were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test (Pcrowns made from single-shaded Mark II 3D-Master blocks: 6 out of 10 restorations were scored below 3.5. Two of the layered materials (Mark II experimental and Bloxx) followed with 5 acceptable restorations out of 10. Within the limitations of this study, the

  8. Fracture Strength of Monolithic All-Ceramic Crowns on Titanium Implant Abutments.

    PubMed

    Weyhrauch, Michael; Igiel, Christopher; Scheller, Herbert; Weibrich, Gernot; Lehmann, Karl Martin

    2016-01-01

    The fracture strengths of all-ceramic crowns cemented on titanium implant abutments may vary depending on crown materials and luting agents. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in fracture strength among crowns cemented on implant abutments using crowns made of seven different monolithic ceramic materials and five different luting agents. In total, 525 crowns (75 each of Vita Mark II, feldspathic ceramic [FSC]; Ivoclar Empress CAD, leucite-reinforced glass ceramic [LrGC]; Ivoclar e.max CAD, lithium disilicate [LiDS]; Vita Suprinity, presintered zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic [PSZirLS]; Vita Enamic, polymer-reinforced fine-structure feldspathic ceramic [PolyFSP], Lava Ultimate; resin nanoceramic [ResNC], Celtra Duo; fully crystallized zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate [FcZirLS]) were milled using a CAD/CAM system. The inner surfaces of the crowns were etched and silanized. Titanium implant abutments were fixed on implant analogs, and airborne-particle abrasion was used on their exterior specific adhesion surfaces (Al2O3, 50 μm). Then, the abutments were degreased and silanized. The crowns were cemented on the implant abutments using five luting agents (Multilink Implant, Variolink II, RelyX Unicem, GC FujiCEM, Panavia 2.0). After thermocycling for 5,000 cycles (5 to 55°C, 30 seconds dwell time), the crowns were subjected to fracture strength testing under static load using a universal testing machine. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance (α = .0002) and the Bonferroni correction. No significant difference among the luting agents was found using the different all-ceramic materials. Ceramic materials LiDS, PSZirLS, PolyFSP, and ResNC showed significantly higher fracture strength values compared with FSC, FcZirLS, and LrGC. The PSZirLS especially showed significantly better results. Within the limitations of this study, fracture strength was not differentially affected by the various luting agents. However

  9. The effect of endodontic access on all-ceramic crowns: A systematic review of in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Catherine M; Ray, Noel J; Burke, Francis M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify from in vitro studies the effect of endodontic access on the fracture resistance and damage around the access cavity of all-ceramic crowns. The articles identified were screened by two reviewers according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The reference lists of articles advanced to second round screening were hand searched to identify additional potential articles. The risk of bias for the articles was independently performed by two reviewers. An electronic search was conducted on PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Scopus and Embase databases with no limitations. 383 articles were identified, of which, eight met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of this systematic review. Factors investigated in the selected articles included the, presence of microcracks at the access cavity, repair protocol, ceramic type, crown fabrication method, luting agent and grit size of the diamond bur. The risk of bias was deemed to be high for three, medium for two and low for three of the reviewed studies. The high level of heterogeneity across the studies precluded meta-analyses. Based on the currently available scientific evidence, a 'best practice' protocol with regard to improving the fracture resistance of endodontically accessed and repaired all-ceramic crowns cannot be conclusively identified. However, some key factors which potentially impact on the fracture resistance of endodontically accessed and repaired all-ceramic crowns have been isolated. Cautious clinical interpretation of these factors is concluded for the maintenance of the crown as a permanent restoration. Key factors which impact on the fracture resistance of endodontically accessed and repaired all-ceramic crowns have been isolated from in vitro studies. Cautious clinical interpretation of these factors is advised for the maintenance of the crown as a permanent restoration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro marginal fit of three all-ceramic crown systems before and after cementation.

    PubMed

    Borges, G A; Faria, J S; Agarwal, P; Spohr, A M; Correr-Sobrinho, L; Miranzi, B A S

    2012-01-01

    Full-coverage all-ceramic restorations are widely used. The impact of various classifications of luting agent on marginal discrepancies is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cervical fit of all ceramic crowns (IPS e.maxPress, Cergogold, and In Ceram) on bovine teeth with two luting agents before and after cementation. Ninety bovine incisors were embedded in resin. The coronal portions of the teeth were prepared to receive full-coverage crowns. Thirty crowns of 7.0 ± 0.5 mm height, 8.0 mm cervical diameter, and 4.2 mm incisal diameter were fabricated for each ceramic system. The crowns were seated on the teeth, and the marginal discrepancy was measured using a measuring microscope. Then, 15 crowns of each ceramic system were luted on the teeth with resin cement (Variolink II) or resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Rely X luting), and the marginal discrepancy was measured. The results were submitted to analysis of variance, t test and Tukey's test (p<0.05). The three ceramic systems showed cervical fits after cementation statistically inferior to cervical fits before cementation for the two cements. The IPS e.maxPress showed values for cervical fit statistically superior to Cergogold before cementation. No statistically significant difference was found between IPS e.maxPress and In Ceram and In Ceram and Cergogold. After cementation, no statistically significant difference was found for the three ceramics systems when luted with resin or resin-modified glass ionomer luting agents. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that both cements studied increase the marginal discrepancy between the crown and the preparation for the three ceramic systems evaluated.

  11. Two-year clinical evaluation of lithia-disilicate-based all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Taskonak, Burak; Sertgöz, Atilla

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs) made with the Empress 2 system over a 2-year period. Twenty anterior or posterior all-ceramic (Empress 2) crowns and 20 anterior or posterior, three-unit fixed partial dentures were fabricated for 15 patients. Evaluations of the restorations were performed at baseline and once a year during the 2-year follow-up period. U.S. Public Health Service criteria were used to examine the marginal adaptation, color match, secondary caries and visible fractures in the restorations. Survival rate of the restorations were determined using Kaplan-Meier statistical analysis. U.S. Public Health Service criteria showed 100% Alpha scores concerning recurrent caries for both crowns and FPDs. No crown fractures were observed during the 2-year follow-up, however, 10 (50%) catastrophic failures of FPDs occurred. Five (25%) failures occurred within the 1-year clinical period and the others (25%) within the second year. Single unit Empress 2 all-ceramic crowns exhibited a satisfactory clinical performance over 2-year period. Furthermore, the high fracture rate of Empress 2 FPDs limits the usage of Empress 2 for the fabrication of all-ceramic FPD.

  12. Comparison of chairside and laboratory CAD/CAM to conventional produced all-ceramic crowns regarding morphology, occlusion, and aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Kollmuss, Maximilian; Kist, Stefan; Goeke, Julia Eliette; Hickel, Reinhard; Huth, Karin Christine

    2016-05-01

    There are many ways to produce all-ceramic crowns. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) procedures compete against conventional fabricated restorations. As different methods of production may produce variable results, this study aims to compare chairside and laboratory-based CAD/CAM systems to conventional crowns regarding their similarity to original tooth morphology, number of occlusal contacts, occlusal adjustment time, and subjective aesthetic perception. Impressions of caries-free jaws were taken, and the resulting gypsum casts were scanned with a laboratory scanner. Preparations for all-ceramic full crowns were performed on first molars, and three different restorations were made: CEREC restorations (CER), laboratory-produced CAD/CAM crowns (LABCAD), and conventional waxed-up/pressed ceramic crowns (CONV). Time for occlusal adaptation and the number of occlusal contacts were noted. Two dentists performed aesthetic gradings of restorations. Statistical analysis included one-way ANOVA with least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test, t test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Metrical deviations of the re-scanned crowns to the original, unprepared tooth surface were 220.55 ± 54.31 μm for CER, 265.94 ± 61.39 for LABCAD, and 252.44 ± 68.77 μm for CONV group. One-way ANOVA showed significant lower deviations for the CER group. LABCAD crowns showed significantly more occlusal contacts, whereas CONV crowns required the least time for occlusal adaptation and showed excellent aesthetic gradings. All three methods had pros and cons regarding different parameters. Further improvements of CAD/CAM software shall lead to restorations comparable to conventional restorations in all aspects, especially in aesthetics. All tested methods of production for all-ceramic crowns produced clinically acceptable results. Thus, in an individual case, the method chosen can be determined by the dentist's preference.

  13. Effects of Finger Pressure Applied By Dentists during Cementation of All-Ceramic Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Bolpaca, Pınar; Kilic, Kerem; Ozdemir, Eylem; Aguloglu, Suleyman

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the finger pressure applied by dentists during cementation and to examine the effect of gender and time of day on finger pressure. Methods: Fifteen dentists (9 males, 6 females) formed a study group and 10 master dies in premolar shape and Turcom Cera all-ceramic crowns were prepared to measure the maximum finger pressure applied by dentists during cementation. The dentists performed a total of 300 cementation processes. One-way analysis of variance and independent t tests were used to evaluate the results. Results: A statistically significant difference was found in the amount of pressure applied during cementation (P<.005). However, there was no significant difference for time of day or gender according to one-way analysis of variance. Conclusions: Our results show that finger pressure varies by dentist. For this reason, the optimum pressure should be determined exactly. Special equipment or an apparatus could be developed to apply that pressure. PMID:20922157

  14. Tissue management and retraction technique combined with all-ceramic crowns: case reports.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M; Nathanson, D

    1995-04-01

    The need to preserve the gingival health during impression making for laboratory fabricated prostheses has been emphasized in literature and clinical practice. This article presents the placement of all-ceramic crowns utilizing a relatively new soft tissue retraction material, a polymer, cut into 2 mm wide strips. The sponge-like texture of the material expands with moisture and exerts gentle pressure on the gingival tissue, effecting a retraction for impressions. The gingival tissue returns to its original position within 24 hours. The learning objective of this article is to share the experience and observations of this procedure and the materials utilized. Several case reports are presented to illustrate the clinical procedure and the results obtained.

  15. Two-piece zirconia implants supporting all-ceramic crowns: A prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Cionca, Norbert; Müller, Nada; Mombelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this prospective clinical study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new all-ceramic implant system to replace missing teeth in partially edentulous patients. Material and methods Thirty-two partially edentulous, systemically healthy patients were treated with 49 two-piece zirconia implants (ZERAMEX® T Implant System). Zirconia abutments were connected with adhesive resin cement. Single-unit full-ceramic crowns were cemented. The cases have been followed for 588±174 days after loading (range 369–889 days). All patients have been re-evaluated 1 year after loading. Results The cumulative survival rate 1 year after loading was 87% implants. All failures were the result of aseptic loosening, and no implants were lost after the first year. The results of the other cases were good, and the patients were very satisfied. The cumulative soft tissue complication rate was 0%, the cumulative technical complication rate was 4% implants, the cumulative complication rate for bone loss >2 mm was 0%, and the cumulative esthetic complication rate was 0%. Including the data from 20 patients treated with an earlier version of the system, an over-all 2-year cumulative survival rate of 86% was calculated for a total of 76 two-piece zirconia implants supporting all-ceramic crowns in 52 patients. Conclusions Replacement of single teeth in the posterior area was possible with this new full-ceramic implant system. Failures were due to aseptic loosening. PMID:24666352

  16. [Finite element stress analysis of all-ceramic continuous crowns of the lower anterior teeth in differential shoulder thickness].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Shao-bo; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Hong-bin; Liao, Lan; Zhu, Hong-shui

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the stress distributions under load in 3 types of all-ceramic continuous crowns of the lower anterior teeth with differential shoulder thickness. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) was used to scan the in vitro mandibular central incisors, and achieve three-dimensional finite element model of all-ceramic continuous crowns with different shoulder width by using Mimics, Abaqus software. Different load conditions were simulated based on this model to study the effect of shoulder width variation on finite element analysis of 3 kinds of different all-ceramic materials of incisors fixed continuous crowns of the mandibular. Using CBCT, Mimics10.01 software and Abaqus 6.11 software, three-dimensional finite element model of all-ceramic continuous crowns of the mandibular incisor, abutment, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone was established. Different ceramic materials and various shoulder width had minor no impact on the equivalent stress peak of periodontal membrane, as well as alveolar bone. With the same shoulder width and large area of vertical loading of 120 N, the tensile stress was the largest in In-Ceram Alumina, followed by In-Ceram Zirconia and the minimum was IPS.Empress II. Under large area loading of 120 N 45° labially, when the material was IPS.Empress II, with the shoulder width increased, the porcelain plate edge of the maximum tensile stress value increased, while the other 2 materials had no obvious change. Finite element model has good geometric similarity. In the setting range of this study, when the elastic modulus of ceramic materials is bigger, the tensile stress of the continuous crown is larger. Supported by Research Project of Department of Education, Jiangxi Province (GJJ09130).

  17. A method for fabricating a cast post and core that is esthetic when used under an all-ceramic crown.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Yehia A

    2002-11-01

    This article presents a technique to enhance the optic qualities of all-ceramic crowns when placed over a cast post and core. An opaque layer is necessary over a metal structure, such as a cast core, to reduce light absorption and increase the reflectance of the metal. The desired effect is to raise the value of the core in order to approach the optic qualities of dentin. However, the problem of reflectance is fully eliminated by the use of an opaque layer of ceramic. The translucence of a ceramic crown may not be limited by the use of opaque material under the crown. This procedure requires the placement of an opaque layer of ceramic on the core, thereby moving such a layer 0.3 to 0.5 mm more deeply from the surface of the restoration. This allows more depth and translucence to the crown, as light penetrates further into the crown.

  18. Modified Y-TZP core design improves all-ceramic crown reliability.

    PubMed

    Silva, N R F A; Bonfante, E A; Rafferty, B T; Zavanelli, R A; Rekow, E D; Thompson, V P; Coelho, P G

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that all-ceramic core-veneer system crown reliability is improved by modification of the core design. We modeled a tooth preparation by reducing the height of proximal walls by 1.5 mm and the occlusal surface by 2.0 mm. The CAD-based tooth preparation was replicated and positioned in a dental articulator for core and veneer fabrication. Standard (0.5 mm uniform thickness) and modified (2.5 mm height lingual and proximal cervical areas) core designs were produced, followed by the application of veneer porcelain for a total thickness of 1.5 mm. The crowns were cemented to 30-day-aged composite dies and were either single-load-to-failure or step-stress-accelerated fatigue-tested. Use of level probability plots showed significantly higher reliability for the modified core design group. The fatigue fracture modes were veneer chipping not exposing the core for the standard group, and exposing the veneer core interface for the modified group.

  19. Fit of zirconia all-ceramic crowns with different cervical margin designs, before and after porcelain firing and glazing.

    PubMed

    Miura, Shoko; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Kasahara, Shin; Yoda, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the fit of zirconia cores and all-ceramic crowns prepared with different cervical margin designs. The radius of curvature between the axial wall and the occlusal surface was set to 1 mm in an abutment using the cervical shoulder marginal design (S) and to 0.2 and 0.5 mm in abutments with round shoulders (0.2RS and 0.5RS, respectively). The internal gaps of the cores were 45-138 μm (S), 41-141 μm (0.2RS), and 43-133 μm (0.5RS). The internal gaps of the all-ceramic crowns were 40-115 μm (S), 45-113 μm (0.2RS), and 42-126 μm (0.5RS). There were no significant differences in one-way ANOVA for any region in any marginal design before and after firing the porcelain. The marginal gaps between the all-ceramic crowns and dies were 27 ± 25 (S), 30 ± 29 (0.2RS), and 24 ± 27 μm (0.5RS), again with no significant differences in one-way ANOVA.

  20. Internal fit of two all-ceramic systems and metal-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    MARTINS, Leandro Moura; LORENZONI, Fabio Cesar; de MELO, Alcides Oliveira; da SILVA, Luciana Mendonça; de OLIVEIRA, José Luiz G.; de OLIVEIRA, Pedro Cesar Garcia; BONFANTE, Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the internal fit (IF) of glass-infiltrated alumina (ICA - In-Ceram Alumina), yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP - IPS e.max ZirCAD), and metal-ceramic (MC - Ni-Cr alloy) crowns. Material and Methods Sixty standardized resin-tooth replicas of a maxillary first molar were produced for crown placement and divided into 3 groups (n=20 each) according to the core material used (metal, ICA or Y-TZP). The IF of the crowns was measured using the replica technique, which employs a light body polyvinyl siloxane impression material to simulate the cement layer thickness. The data were analyzed according to the surfaces obtained for the occlusal space (OS), axial space (AS) and total mean (TM) using two-way ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparison test (p<0.05). Results No differences among the different areas were detected in the MC group. For the Y-TZP and ICA groups, AS was statistically lower than both OS and TM. No differences in AS were observed among the groups. However, OS and TM showed significantly higher values for ICA and Y-TZP groups than MC group. Comparisons of ICA and Y-TZP revealed that OS was significantly lower for Y-TZP group, whereas no differences were observed for TM. Conclusions The total mean achieved by all groups was within the range of clinical acceptability. However, the metal-ceramic group demonstrated significantly lower values than the all-ceramic groups, especially in OS. PMID:22666843

  1. Wear of primary teeth caused by opposed all-ceramic or stainless steel crowns

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ik-Hyun; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Ju, Sung-Won; Lee, Tae-Kyoung; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Jeong, Tae-Sung

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of full-coverage all-ceramic zirconia, lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, leucite glass-ceramic, or stainless steel crowns on antagonistic primary tooth wear. MATERIALS AND METHODS There were four study groups: the stainless steel (Steel) group, the leucite glass-ceramic (Leucite) group, the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (Lithium) group, and the monolithic zirconia (Zirconia) group. Ten flat crown specimens were prepared per group; opposing teeth were prepared using primary canines. A wear test was conducted over 100,000 chewing cycles using a dual-axis chewing simulator and a 50 N masticating force, and wear losses of antagonistic teeth and restorative materials were calculated using a three-dimensional profiling system and an electronic scale, respectively. Statistical significance was determined using One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P<.05). RESULTS The Leucite group (2.670±1.471 mm3) showed the greatest amount of antagonist tooth wear, followed by in decreasing order by the Lithium (2.042±0.696 mm3), Zirconia (1.426±0.477 mm3), and Steel groups (0.397±0.192 mm3). Mean volume losses in the Leucite and Lithium groups were significantly greater than in the Steel group (P<.05). No significant difference was observed between mean volume losses in the Zirconia and Steel groups (P>.05). CONCLUSION Leucite glass-ceramic and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic cause more primary tooth wear than stainless steel or zirconia. PMID:26949487

  2. Influence of surface treatment on the in-vitro fracture resistance of zirconia-based all-ceramic anterior crowns.

    PubMed

    Schmitter, M; Lotze, G; Bömicke, W; Rues, S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of surface treatment on the fracture resistance of zirconia-based all-ceramic anterior crowns. Sixty-four zirconia-based all-ceramic anterior crowns, veneered by use of a press-on technique, were produced. For 48 crowns intraoral adjustment was simulated (A-group), 16 crowns remained unadjusted (WA-group). The adjusted area was then treated in three ways: 1. no further surface treatment; 2. polishing, with irrigation, using polishers interspersed with diamond grit for ceramics; and 3. polishing and glaze firing. Half of the specimens were loaded until fracture in an universal testing device without artificial ageing; the other crowns underwent thermocycling and chewing simulation before ultimate-load testing. Explorative statistical analysis was performed by use of non-parametric and parametric tests. In addition, fracture-strength tests according to ISO 6872 were performed for veneer ceramic subjected to the different surface treatments. Finite element analysis was also conducted for the crowns, and surface roughness was measured. Crowns in the A-group were more sensitive to aging than crowns in the WA-group (p=0.038). Although both polishing and glaze firing slightly improved the fracture resistance of the specimens, the fracture resistance in the WA-group (initial fracture resistance (IFR): 652.0 ± 107.7N, remaining fracture resistance after aging (RFR): 560.6 ± 233.3N) was higher than the fracture resistance in the A-group (polished: IFR: 477.9 ± 108.8N, RFR: 386.0 ± 218.5N; glaze firing: IFR: 535.5 ± 128.0N, RFR: 388.6 ± 202.2N). Surface roughness without adjustment was Ra=0.1 μm; for adjustment but without further treatment it was Ra=1.4 μm; for adjustment and polishing it was Ra=0.3 μm; and for adjustment, polishing, and glazing it was Ra=0.6 μm. Stress distributions obtained by finite element analysis in combination with fracture strength tests showed that fractures most probably originated from

  3. Esthetic restoration of infra-occluded retained primary mandibular incisors with all-ceramic crowns in adult dentition.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kuang-Wei; Shen, Yu-Fu

    2004-12-01

    The prevalence of hypodontia is reported to be between 1.5% to 10% in the permanent dentition. In the anterior teeth, maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular central incisors are the most frequently involved teeth. This causes esthetic problems for the patient. Several reports have focused on restoration of retained maxillary primary anterior teeth, but none have described restoration of retained mandibular primary incisors. This clinical report describes the restoration of infra-occluded retained primary mandibular central incisors of a 17 year-old girl diagnosed with hypodontia. All-ceramic crowns made with computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing technology were used to restore the teeth incisally and interproximally. Due to a relatively short root length and inadequate crown-root ratio, the primary mandibular central incisors were splinted and adjusted to distribute the protrusive force evenly across the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Functional and esthetic results were achieved.

  4. Marginal integrity of turkom-cera compared to other all-ceramic materials: effect of finish line.

    PubMed

    Al-Makramani, Bandar M A; Razak, Abdul A A; Abu-Hassan, Mohamed I; Sulaiman, Eshamsul; Loon, Lui Joo; Yahya, Noor Azlin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of Turkom-Cera all-ceramic crowns compared to In-Ceram and Procera AllCeram systems. The influence of finish line design (chamfer or shoulder) on the marginal adaptation of Turkom-Cera all-ceramic crowns was also investigated. Thirty human premolars were prepared with chamfer margins and assigned to either the Turkom-Cera, In-Ceram, or Procera system group. In addition, 10 premolars were prepared with rounded shoulder finish lines and assigned to an additional Turkom-Cera group. Ceramic copings (0.6-mm thick) were fabricated for each group following the manufacturers' instructions. The copings were seated on abutments using a special holding device that facilitated uniform loading, and marginal adaptation was assessed using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, the Tukey HSD post hoc test, and an independent samples t test. There was a statistically significant difference regarding marginal adaptation among the three all-ceramic systems (P < .05). There were no significant differences in the mean marginal discrepancies of Turkom-Cera crowns among chamfer and shoulder finish line groups (P > .05). Within the limitations of this study, the marginal discrepancies were all within the clinically acceptable standard. Int J Prosthodont 2011;24:379-381.

  5. The effect of translucency of Y-TZP based all-ceramic crowns fabricated with difference substructure designs.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Naota; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Finkelman, Matthew D; Ishikawa-Nagai, Shigemi

    2013-08-01

    To analyse the effect of translucency of Y-TZP based all-ceramic crowns fabricated with different substructure thicknesses and extensions. The effect of restoration shading is also investigated. A maxillary right central incisal typodont tooth was prepared and a die was fabricated with Type IV stone after making impression. Horizontally and vertically reduced substructure extensions were designed at the facial cervical part with 0.3 mm and 0.5mm thick Lava Y-TZP. Each substructure was fabricated with two different shades, FS1 and FS7. A1 shade veneering porcelain was applied on FS1 shade Y-TZP substructures and D3 shade veneering porcelain was applied on FS7 shade Y-TZP substructures with lost wax and press ceramic technique. Ten specimens were fabricated for a total of 8 groups. The cervical and body colour of specimens were analysed with a spectrophotometer, after placing specimens on the two different coloured abutment teeth using translucent try-in cement. The data were obtained in CIELAB colour coordinates L*a*b*, and DE* through the test specimens over ND1 and ND8 shade abutments were calculated. At the cervical area, there was a significant difference on substructure extension (P < 0.001). At the body area, results were borderline on substructure thickness (P = 0.05) and there was a significant difference on restoration shade (P = 0.001). Vertical reduction design of Y-TZP substructure could increase DE* at the cervical area. Decreasing thickness of Y-TZP substructure may increase DE* at the body area. Increasing the value of Y-TZP based-all ceramic crown shade could increase DE* at the body area. The translucency of a Y-TZP based all-ceramic crowns may influence its esthetic outcome when it is used on a discoloured abutment tooth. Clinicians should be aware of the effect of substructure design on the translucency of YTZP based all-ceramic crowns. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantification of all-ceramic crown margin surface profile from try-in to 1-week post-cementation.

    PubMed

    Good, Melissa-L; Mitchell, Christina A; Pintado, Maria R; Douglas, William H

    2009-01-01

    To use profilometry to assess the margin surface profile of all-ceramic crowns (ACC's) at try-in and 1-week after cementation with dual-cured resin (DC, RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), self-adhesive dual-cured resin (SADC, RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE), light-cured resin (LC, RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE) or chemically cured resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI, RelyX Luting Plus, 3M ESPE) luting cement. Forty, sound, extracted, human, premolar teeth underwent a standardised preparation for ACC's. IPS Empress (Ivoclar-Vivadent, Liechtenstein) crowns of standard dimensions were fabricated and 10 luted with each cement and stored in water for 7 days. Three groups of serial profiles were taken, the first of the tooth preparation, the second of the crown margins at try-in and lastly of the crown margins after cementation and 7 days water storage. There were no significant differences in the crown margin surface profile between the four cement groups at try-in. The change in crown margin position between try-in and post-cementation was significantly greater for DC than for LC and RMGI. SADC was not significantly different to the other cements. There were no significant differences in the crown margin extensions between the four cement groups, however most of the IPS Empress ACC's in this study were underextended but this was not statistically significant. IPS Empress ACC's seated more fully with LC and RMGI than with DC cement.

  7. Thickness of immediate dentin sealing materials and its effect on the fracture load of a reinforced all-ceramic crown

    PubMed Central

    Spohr, Ana Maria; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Platt, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate, in vitro, the thickness of immediate dentin sealing (IDS) materials on full crown preparations and its effect on the fracture load of a reinforced all-ceramic crown. Materials and Methods: Sixty premolars received full crown preparation and were divided into the following groups according to the IDS technique: G1-control; G2-Clearfil SE Bond; and G3-Clearfil SE Bond and Protect Liner F. After the impressions were taken, the preparations were temporized with acrylic resin crowns. IPS empress 2 restorations were fabricated and later cemented on the preparations with Panavia F. 10 specimens from each group were submitted to fracture load testing. The other 10 specimens were sectioned buccolingually before the thicknesses of Panavia F, Clearfil SE Bond and Protect Liner F were measured in 10 different positions using a microscope. Results: According to analysis of variance and Tukey's test, the fracture load of Group 3 (1300 N) was significantly higher than that of Group 1 (1001 N) (P < 0.01). Group 2 (1189 N) was not significantly different from Groups 1 and 3. The higher thickness of Clearfil SE Bond was obtained in the concave part of the preparation. Protect Liner F presented a more uniform range of values at different positions. The thickness of Panavia F was higher in the occlusal portion of the preparation. Conclusions: The film thickness formed by the IDS materials is influenced by the position under the crown, suggesting its potential to increase the fracture load of the IPS empress 2 ceramic crowns. PMID:24932124

  8. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated canines restored with different sizes of fiber post and all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Turker, Sebnem Begum; Alkumru, Hasan Necdet; Akalin, Buket

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fracture resistance and the mode of fracture of endodontically treated teeth restored with different fiber posts and all-ceramic crowns. Two glass fiber reinforced post systems in two different sizes and polyethylene fiber ribbon in two different thicknesses (n=10) were used. The specimens, restored with all-ceramic crowns, were subjected to a compressive load (in N) delivered at a 130-degree angle to the long axis until a fracture could be noted. The results were analyzed statistically with a One-Way ANOVA test (P<.05). Statistically significant differences were observed between the mean fracture resistance values of Postec, Snowlight, and Kerr Connect thin specimens (P<.0095). The Postec results (395.70 N) were found to be significantly higher than the others. No statistical difference was observed among the thick specimens (P<.2657). The mean fracture resistance values of the Snowlight thick samples were found to be higher than those of the Snowlight thin samples. The specimens were always fractured around the cemento-enamel junction at the palatinal side. No post fracture was observed for the thin Snowlight and Kerr Connect specimens or for the thick Postec and Kerr Connect specimens. Among the common failure types of the specimens, the worst was observed to be the root fracture failure. The highest post dislodgement failure result (80%) was obtained from the thin Kerr Connect specimen. In terms of optimizing fracture resistance, the fiber post size selection should be done according to the forces applied to the restored teeth.

  9. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated canines restored with different sizes of fiber post and all-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Alkumru, Hasan Necdet; Akalin, Buket

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine the fracture resistance and the mode of fracture of endodontically treated teeth restored with different fiber posts and all-ceramic crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two glass fiber reinforced post systems in two different sizes and polyethylene fiber ribbon in two different thicknesses (n=10) were used. The specimens, restored with all-ceramic crowns, were subjected to a compressive load (in N) delivered at a 130-degree angle to the long axis until a fracture could be noted. The results were analyzed statistically with a One-Way ANOVA test (P<.05). RESULTS Statistically significant differences were observed between the mean fracture resistance values of Postec, Snowlight, and Kerr Connect thin specimens (P<.0095). The Postec results (395.70 N) were found to be significantly higher than the others. No statistical difference was observed among the thick specimens (P<.2657). The mean fracture resistance values of the Snowlight thick samples were found to be higher than those of the Snowlight thin samples. The specimens were always fractured around the cemento-enamel junction at the palatinal side. No post fracture was observed for the thin Snowlight and Kerr Connect specimens or for the thick Postec and Kerr Connect specimens. Among the common failure types of the specimens, the worst was observed to be the root fracture failure. The highest post dislodgement failure result (80%) was obtained from the thin Kerr Connect specimen. CONCLUSION In terms of optimizing fracture resistance, the fiber post size selection should be done according to the forces applied to the restored teeth. PMID:27141261

  10. Influence of cyclic loading on the fracture toughness and load bearing capacities of all-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rao-Rao; Lu, Cheng-Lin; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Dong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how cyclic loading influenced the fracture toughness of hot-press lithium disilicate and zirconia core materials and whether there was an increase in the propensity for crown failure. Two types of all-ceramic crowns including the IPS e.max Press system (n=24) and the Lava zirconia system (n=24), were selected. Sectioned specimens were subjected to cyclic loading with the maximum magnitude of 200 N (R=0.1) until two million cycles. The material properties including Young's modulus (E) and hardness (H) and the fracture toughness (KIC) of the core materials were evaluated using indentation methods (n=12 each). The load-bearing capacities of the specimens were examined by means of monotonic load to fracture (n=12 each). It was found that the material properties, including E, H and KIC, of the two types of dental ceramics, were reduced. Statistical analysis indicated that there were no significant influences of fatigue loading on material properties E and H for both types of dental ceramics or KIC for zirconia, while for the IPS e.max Press core, KIC, which was parallel to the direction of the lithium disilicate crystals, was significantly reduced (P=0.001). A conclusion was drawn that zirconia possesses high mechanical reliability and sustainable capacity to resist fatigue loading, while fatigue loading remarkably degraded the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of hot-press lithium disilicate ceramics. PMID:24335786

  11. All-ceramic or metal-ceramic tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs)? A systematic review of the survival and complication rates. Part I: Single crowns (SCs).

    PubMed

    Sailer, Irena; Makarov, Nikolay Alexandrovich; Thoma, Daniel Stefan; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pjetursson, Bjarni Elvar

    2015-06-01

    To assess the 5-year survival of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic tooth-supported single crowns (SCs) and to describe the incidence of biological, technical and esthetic complications. Medline (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) searches (2006-2013) were performed for clinical studies focusing on tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a mean follow-up of at least 3 years. This was complimented by an additional hand search and the inclusion of 34 studies from a previous systematic review [1,2]. Survival and complication rates were analyzed using robust Poisson's regression models to obtain summary estimates of 5-year proportions. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 4663 metal-ceramic and 9434 all-ceramic SCs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seventeen studies reported on metal-ceramic crowns, and 54 studies reported on all-ceramic crowns. Meta-analysis of the included studies indicated an estimated survival rate of metal-ceramic SCs of 94.7% (95% CI: 94.1-96.9%) after 5 years. This was similar to the estimated 5-year survival rate of leucit or lithium-disilicate reinforced glass ceramic SCs (96.6%; 95% CI: 94.9-96.7%), of glass infiltrated alumina SCs (94.6%; 95% CI: 92.7-96%) and densely sintered alumina and zirconia SCs (96%; 95% CI: 93.8-97.5%; 92.1%; 95% CI: 82.8-95.6%). In contrast, the 5-year survival rates of feldspathic/silica-based ceramic crowns were lower (p<0.001). When the outcomes in anterior and posterior regions were compared feldspathic/silica-based ceramic and zirconia crowns exhibited significantly lower survival rates in the posterior region (p<0.0001), the other crown types performed similarly. Densely sintered zirconia SCs were more frequently lost due to veneering ceramic fractures than metal-ceramic SCs (p<0.001), and had significantly more loss of retention (p<0.001). In total higher 5 year rates of framework fracture were reported for the all-ceramic SCs than for metal-ceramic SCs. Survival

  12. Fracture strength of monolithic all-ceramic crowns made of high translucent yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconium dioxide compared to porcelain-veneered crowns and lithium disilicate crowns.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Camilla; Kmet, Gratiela; Rivera, Johnny; Larsson, Christel; Vult Von Steyern, Per

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to provide data on the fracture strength of monolithic high translucent Y-TZP crowns and porcelain-veneered high translucent Y-TZP crown cores and to compare that data with the fracture strength of porcelain-veneered Y-TZP crown cores and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. Sixty standardized crowns divided into six groups (n = 10) were fabricated: monolithic high translucent Y-TZP crowns, brand A, monolithic high translucent Y-TZP crowns, brand B, veneered high translucent Y-TZP crown cores, brand A, veneered high translucent Y-TZP crown cores, brand B, heat-pressed monolithic lithium disilicate crowns and veneered Y-TZP crown cores. All crowns were thermocycled, cemented onto dies, cyclically pre-loaded and finally loaded to fracture. The monolithic Y-TZP groups showed significantly higher fracture strength (2795 N and 3038 N) compared to all other groups. The fracture strength in the veneered Y-TZP group (2229 N) was significantly higher than the monolithic lithium disilicate group (1856 N) and the veneered high translucent Y-TZP groups (1480 N and 1808 N). The fracture strength of monolithic high translucent Y-TZP crowns is considerably higher than that of porcelain-veneered Y-TZP crown cores, porcelain-veneered high translucent Y-TZP crown cores and monolithic lithium disilicate crowns. The fracture strength of a crown made of monolithic high translucent Y-TZP is, with a large safety margin, sufficient for clinical use for the majority of patients. Porcelain-veneered Y-TZP crown cores show higher fracture resistance than monolithic lithium disilicate crowns.

  13. Clinical evaluation comparing the fit of all-ceramic crowns obtained from silicone and digital intraoral impressions based on wavefront sampling technology.

    PubMed

    Pradíes, Guillermo; Zarauz, Cristina; Valverde, Arelhys; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Martínez-Rus, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fit of ceramic crowns fabricated from conventional silicone impressions with the fit of ceramic crowns fabricated from intraoral digital impressions. Twenty-five participants with 30 posterior teeth with a prosthetic demand were selected for the study. Two crowns were made for each preparation. One crown was fabricated from an intraoral digital impression system (IDI group) and the other crown was fabricated from a conventional two-step silicone impression (CI group). To replicate the interface between the crown and the preparation, each crown was cemented on its corresponding clinical preparation with ultra-flow silicone. Each crown was embedded in acrylic resin to stabilise the registered interface and then cut in 2mm thick slices in a buco-lingual orientation. The internal gap was determined as the vertical distance from the internal surface of the crown to the prepared tooth surface at four points (marginal gap, axial gap, crest gap, and occlusal fossa gap) using stereomicroscopy with a magnification of 40×. Data was analysed by using Wilcoxon signed rank test (α=0.05). Internal adaptation values were significantly affected by the impression technique (p=0.001). Mean marginal gap was 76.33 ± 65.32 μm for the crowns of the IDI group and 91.46 ± 72.17 μm for the CI group. All-ceramic crowns fabricated from intraoral digital impressions with wavefront sampling technology demonstrated better internal fit than crowns manufactured from silicone impressions. Impressions obtained from an intraoral digital scanner based on wavefront sampling technology can be used for manufacturing ceramic crowns in the normal clinical practice with better results than conventional impressions with elastomers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Load capability of excessively flared teeth restored with fiber-reinforced composite posts and all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Michael; Preuss, Anja; Frankenberger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the stabilizing effect of glass fiber reinforced posts (FRP) luted with self-adhesive universal cement on the fracture resistance of excessively flared endodontically treated teeth (ETT). Values were compared to teeth with no ferrule, 2 mm ferrule and resin cement for luting with 2 mm ferrule. Thirty-two caries-free maxillary central incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=8) and endodontically treated. Two groups were flattened 2 mm above and 2 groups at the cemen-to-enamel junction (CEJ). The teeth received FRPs as follows: 1) post was cemented with self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE) (U), no ferrule (F) was prepared, root canal entrance was excessively flared with a remaining wall thickness of 0.5 - 0.75 mm (UNF/flared); 2) post was cemented with U, no F was prepared; 3) post was luted with U, F was prepared; 4) post was cemented with a resin cement (Panavia F, Kuraray, Japan), F was prepared. All specimens were built-up using a resin composite (Clearfil Core, Kuraray). All-ceramic crowns were adhesively luted (U). Specimens were exposed to thermo-mechanical loading and statically loaded until failure. The mean fracture load values [N](SD) were: UNF/flared=68 (126); UNF=315 (136); UF=488 (72); PF=860 (190). All groups exhibited statistically significant differences regarding maximum fracture load (p<0.05).

  15. Standards of teeth preparations for anterior resin bonded all-ceramic crowns in private dental practice in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    AL-DWAIRI, Ziad Nawaf; AL-HIYASAT, Ahmad Saleh; ABOUD, Haitham

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate if general dental practitioners (GDPs) in private practice in Jordan follow universal guidelines for preparation of anterior teeth for resin bonded all-ceramic crowns (RBCs). Material and Methods A sample (n=100) of laboratory models containing 208 tooth preparations for IPS Empress and In Ceram, featuring work from different GDPs, was obtained from 8 commercial dental laboratories. Aspects of preparations were quantified and compared with accepted criteria defined following a review of the literature and recommendations of the manufactures' guidelines. Results Subgingival margins on the buccal aspect were noticed in 36% of the preparations, 54% demonstrated overpreparation with a tendency to overprepare the teeth on the mesiodistal plane more than buccolingual plane. Twenty percent of samples presented a shoulder finish line while a chamfer margin design was noticed in 39%. Twenty-nine percent and 12% of samples had either a feathered or no clear margin design respectively. Incisal under preparation was observed in 18% of dies of each type. Only 17% of all preparations were found to follow the recommended anatomical labial preparations while 29% of the RBC preparations were found to have the recommended axial convergence angle. In total, 43% of preparations were found to have the recommended depth of the finish line. Conclusions It was found that relevant guidelines for RBC preparations were not being fully adhered to in private practice in Jordan. PMID:21710098

  16. All-ceramic restorative system for esthetic implant-supported crowns: in vitro evaluations and clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Castellon, Paulino; Potiket, Narong; Soltys, James L; Johnson, James; Zavala, Julio

    2003-09-01

    Patient demands for improved esthetics have prompted the development of all-ceramic restorative systems for dental implants, but material strength and restorative costs have presented clinical challenges. Therefore, a new restorative system with tooth-shaped ceramic copings for the anterior and premolar jaw regions has been introduced to address these problems. Fatigue and 17o. compression tests were conducted in vitro to assess the mechanical strength of the 6 tooth-shaped copings and several luting agents of the system. A case report on the clinical use of the components is presented. All 6 tooth-shaped copings significantly exceeded the range of forces associated with restoration in the anterior jaw. Crown-endurance limits for fatigue and 17o. compression were 70% higher and 46% higher, respectively, than the established minimum-fatigue-endurance limits in those categories. In clinical evaluation, the ceramic restorative system performed well and produced excellent results; it has potential for implant restorations in the anterior and premolar regions of the jaw.

  17. Standards of teeth preparations for anterior resin bonded all-ceramic crowns in private dental practice in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Dwairi, Ziad Nawaf; Al-Hiyasat, Ahmad Saleh; Aboud, Haitham

    2011-08-01

    To investigate if general dental practitioners (GDPs) in private practice in Jordan follow universal guidelines for preparation of anterior teeth for resin bonded all-ceramic crowns (RBCs). A sample (n=100) of laboratory models containing 208 tooth preparations for IPS Empress and In Ceram, featuring work from different GDPs, was obtained from 8 commercial dental laboratories. Aspects of preparations were quantified and compared with accepted criteria defined following a review of the literature and recommendations of the manufactures' guidelines. Subgingival margins on the buccal aspect were noticed in 36% of the preparations, 54% demonstrated overpreparation with a tendency to overprepare the teeth on the mesiodistal plane more than buccolingual plane. Twenty percent of samples presented a shoulder finish line while a chamfer margin design was noticed in 39%. Twenty-nine percent and 12% of samples had either a feathered or no clear margin design respectively. Incisal underpreparation was observed in 18% of dies of each type. Only 17% of all preparations were found to follow the recommended anatomical labial preparations while 29% of the RBC preparations were found to have the recommended axial convergence angle. In total, 43% of preparations were found to have the recommended depth of the finish line. It was found that relevant guidelines for RBC preparations were not being fully adhered to in private practice in Jordan.

  18. All-Ceramic Single Crown Restauration of Zirconia Oral Implants and Its Influence on Fracture Resistance: An Investigation in the Artificial Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Kohal, Ralf-Joachim; Kilian, Jolanta Bernadette; Stampf, Susanne; Spies, Benedikt Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the fracture resistance of one-piece zirconia oral implants with and without all-ceramic incisor crowns after long-term thermomechanical cycling. A total of 48 implants were evaluated. The groups with crowns (C, 24 samples) and without crowns (N, 24 samples) were subdivided according to the loading protocol, resulting in three groups of 8 samples each: Group “0” was not exposed to cyclic loading, whereas groups “5” and “10” were loaded with 5 and 10 million chewing cycles, respectively. This resulted in 6 different groups: C0/N0, C5/N5 and C10/N10. Subsequently, all 48 implants were statically loaded to fracture and bending moments were calculated. All implants survived the artificial aging. For the static loading the following average bending moments were calculated: C0: 326 Ncm; C5: 339 Ncm; C10: 369 Ncm; N0: 339 Ncm; N5: 398 Ncm and N10: 355 Ncm. To a certain extent, thermomechanical cycling resulted in an increase of fracture resistance which did not prove to be statistically significant. Regarding its fracture resistance, the evaluated ceramic implant system made of Y-TZP seems to be able to resist physiological chewing forces long-term. Restauration with all-ceramic single crowns showed no negative influence on fracture resistance. PMID:28788018

  19. Personal Factors Determining Patient Satisfaction with All-Ceramic Crown Treatment for Single Anterior Teeth.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yun; Zhan, DeSong

    2016-01-01

    The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire's (EPQ) N value (neuroticism) was used to evaluate information from 158 patients before ceramic crown treatment. Patient satisfaction was also evaluated using a satisfaction questionnaire 2 weeks post treatment. Patient expectations were not correlated with sex, age, or N value, and sex was not correlated with patient satisfaction other than in relation to crown shape. Total esthetic satisfaction and feature improvement were positively correlated with age, while satisfaction for five specific criteria was negatively correlated with N value and overall expectation. These observations underscore the importance of considering the physical and psychologic aspects of patient care when planning dental treatment.

  20. Fracture resistance of crowns cemented on titanium and zirconia implant abutments: a comparison of monolithic versus manually veneered all-ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rus, Francisco; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Özcan, Mutlu; Bartolomé, José F; Pradíes, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns cemented on titanium and zirconia implant abutments. Customized implant abutments for maxillary right central incisors made of titanium (Ti) and zirconia (Zr) (n=60, n=30 per group) were fabricated for an internal connection implant system. All-ceramic crowns were fabricated for their corresponding implant abutments using the following systems (n=10 per group): (1) monolithic computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate (MLD); (2) pressed lithium disilicate (PLD); (3) yttrium stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (YTZP). The frameworks of both PLD and YTZP systems were manually veneered with a fluorapatite-based ceramic. The crowns were adhesively cemented to their implant abutments and loaded to fracture in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/minute). Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Both the abutment material (P=.0001) and the ceramic crown system (P=.028) significantly affected the results. Interaction terms were not significant (P=.598). Ti-MLD (558.5±35 N) showed the highest mean fracture resistance among all abutment-crown combinations (340.3±62-495.9±53 N) (P<.05). Both MLD and veneered ceramic systems in combination with Ti abutments (558.5±35-495.9±53 N) presented significantly higher values than with Zr abutments (392.9±55-340.3±62 N) (P<.05). MLD crown system showed significantly higher mean fracture resistance compared to manually veneered ones on both Ti and Zr abutments (P<.05). While Ti-MLD and Ti-PLD abutment-crown combinations failed only in the crowns without abutment fractures, Zr-YTZP combination failed exclusively in the abutment without crown fracture. Zr-MLD and Zr-PLD failed predominantly in both the abutment and the crown. Ti-YTZP showed only implant neck distortion. The highest fracture resistance was obtained with titanium abutments restored with MLD crowns, but the failure type

  1. Marginal discrepancy of monolithic and veneered all-ceramic crowns on titanium and zirconia implant abutments before and after adhesive cementation: a scanning electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Rus, Francisco; Ferreiroa, Alberto; Ozcan, Mutlu; Pradies, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the marginal discrepancy of monolithic and veneered all-ceramic crown systems cemented on titanium (Ti) and zirconia implant abutments. Sixty customized implant abutments for a maxillary right central incisor were fabricated of Ti and zirconia (n = 30 of each) for an internal-connection implant system. All-ceramic crowns were fabricated using the following systems (n = 10 per group): monolithic with computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate (MLD), pressed lithium disilicate (PLD), or CAD yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP). The frameworks of the PLD and Y-TZP systems were manually veneered with a fluorapatite-based ceramic. The crowns were cemented to their implant abutments, and the absolute marginal discrepancy of the gap was measured before and after cementation. Data were analyzed statistically. Marginal discrepancies were significantly influenced by the crown system and by cementation, but the material did not significantly affect the results. Interaction terms were not significant. Y-TZP crowns on both Ti and zirconia abutments presented the smallest mean marginal discrepancies before (52.1 ± 17 μm and 56.2 ± 11 μm, respectively) and after cementation (98.7 ± 17 μm and 101.8 ± 16 μm, respectively). Before cementation, MLD crowns showed significantly larger mean marginal openings than PLD crowns on both Ti and zirconia abutments (75.2 ± 12 and 77.5 ± 13 μm for MLD, 52.1 ± 17 μm and 69.7 ± 8 μm for PLD, respectively). After cementation, both Ti and zirconia abutments with MLD crowns (113.5 ± 12 μm and 118.3 ± 14 μm, respectively) showed significantly larger values than with PLD crowns (98.7 ± 17 μm and 109.4 ± 9 μm, respectively). Manually veneered Y-TZP crowns demonstrated more favorable marginal fit on both Ti and zirconia implant abutments before and after cementation compared to those of MLD and PLD.

  2. [Three-dimensional finite element analysis on half of the structure defect with post core and all-ceramic crown restoration of mandibular first molar].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Geng, Haixia; Rong, Qiguo; Liu, Jianzhang

    2015-09-01

    To make a mechanical analysis on three-dimensional finite element models of the mandibular first molar defect restored with post core and all-ceramic crown, and to provide a guideline for planning restoration for such kind of tooth structure defect. Cone-beam CT based three dimensional finite element models of post and core restored first mandibular molars were established, with 6 different ferrule designs (the ferrule with only 180 axial wall on different locations). The von Misses criterion was applied for comparing the maximum von Misses stress value of dentin and stress concentration areas in six models which restored with fiber post or cast NiGr alloy post core or Au alloy post core under the maximum, vertical, inclined and horizontal direct loads. The restoration effects in six models were compared, and the maximum von Misses stress concentration areas were not obviously different. The maximum von Misses stress value of NiCr alloy post core and crown was 62.81 MPa. Under horizontal load, the maximum von Misses stress value of dentin increased remarkably. The location of residual dentin has little influence on the stress distribution, when restored by post core and crown. Au alloy post core and crown or fiber post core and crown are superior to NiCr alloy post core and crown.

  3. Marginal fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems in comparison with the conventional technique

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two extraoral computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, in comparison with conventional techniques, on the marginal fit of monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic crowns. Study design This is an in vitro interventional study. Place and duration of study The study was carried out at the Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, from December 2015 to April 2016. Methodology A marginal gap of 60 lithium disilicate crowns was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. In total, 20 pressable lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press [Ivoclar Vivadent]) ceramic crowns were fabricated using the conventional lost-wax technique as a control group. The experimental all-ceramic crowns were produced based on a scan stone model and milled using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems: the Cerec group was fabricated using the Cerec CAD/CAM system, and the Trios group was fabricated using Trios CAD and milled using Wieland Zenotec CAM. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Scheffe post hoc test were used for statistical comparison of the groups (α=0.05). Results The mean (±standard deviation) of the marginal gap of each group was as follows: the Control group was 91.15 (±15.35) µm, the Cerec group was 111.07 (±6.33) µm, and the Trios group was 60.17 (±11.09) µm. One-way ANOVA and the Scheffe post hoc test showed a statistically significant difference in the marginal gap between all groups. Conclusion It can be concluded from the current study that all-ceramic crowns, fabricated using the CAD/CAM system, show a marginal accuracy that is acceptable in clinical environments. The Trios CAD group displayed the smallest marginal gap. PMID:28352204

  4. CAD/CAM Zirconia vs. slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia all-ceramic crowns: 2-year results of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, Murat Cavit; Kökat, Ali Murat; Akça, Kivanç

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the early clinical outcome of slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia and CAD/CAM Zirconia all-ceramic crowns. A total of 30 InCeram Zirconia and Cercon Zirconia crowns were fabricated and cemented with a glass ionomer cement in 20 patients. At baseline, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year recall appointments, Californian Dental Association (CDA) quality evaluation system was used to evaluate the prosthetic replacements, and plaque and gingival index scores were used to explore the periodontal outcome of the treatments. No clinical sign of marginal discoloration, persistent pain and secondary caries was detected in any of the restorations. All InCeram Zirconia crowns survived during the 2-year period, although one nonvital tooth experienced root fracture coupled with the fracture of the veneering porcelain of the restoration. One Cercon Zirconia restoration fractured and was replaced. According to the CDA criteria, marginal integrity was rated excellent for InCeram Zirconia (73%) and Cercon Zirconia (80%) restorations, respectively. Slight color mismatch rate was higher for InCeram Zirconia restorations (66%) than Cercon Zirconia (26%) restorations. Plaque and gingival index scores were mostly zero and almost constant over time. Time-dependent changes in plaque and gingival index scores within and between groups were statistically similar (p>0.05). This clinical study demonstrates that single-tooth InCeram Zirconia and Cercon Zirconia crowns have comparable early clinical outcome, both seem as acceptable treatment modalities, and most importantly, all-ceramic alumina crowns strengthened by 25% zirconia can sufficiently withstand functional load in the posterior zone.

  5. CAD/CAM ZIRCONIA VS. SLIP-CAST GLASS-INFILTRATED ALUMINA/ZIRCONIA ALL-CERAMIC CROWNS: 2-YEAR RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Çehreli, Murat Cavit; Kökat, Ali Murat; Akça, Kivanç

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the early clinical outcome of slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia and CAD/CAM Zirconia all-ceramic crowns. A total of 30 InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns were fabricated and cemented with a glass ionomer cement in 20 patients. At baseline, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year recall appointments, Californian Dental Association (CDA) quality evaluation system was used to evaluate the prosthetic replacements, and plaque and gingival index scores were used to explore the periodontal outcome of the treatments. No clinical sign of marginal discoloration, persistent pain and secondary caries was detected in any of the restorations. All InCeram® Zirconia crowns survived during the 2-year period, although one nonvital tooth experienced root fracture coupled with the fracture of the veneering porcelain of the restoration. One Cercon® Zirconia restoration fractured and was replaced. According to the CDA criteria, marginal integrity was rated excellent for InCeram® Zirconia (73%) and Cercon® Zirconia (80%) restorations, respectively. Slight color mismatch rate was higher for InCeram® Zirconia restorations (66%) than Cercon® Zirconia (26%) restorations. Plaque and gingival index scores were mostly zero and almost constant over time. Time-dependent changes in plaque and gingival index scores within and between groups were statistically similar (p>0.05). This clinical study demonstrates that single-tooth InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns have comparable early clinical outcome, both seem as acceptable treatment modalities, and most importantly, all-ceramic alumina crowns strengthened by 25% zirconia can sufficiently withstand functional load in the posterior zone. PMID:19148406

  6. Marginal fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems in comparison with the conventional technique.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two extraoral computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems, in comparison with conventional techniques, on the marginal fit of monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate ceramic crowns. This is an in vitro interventional study. The study was carried out at the Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, from December 2015 to April 2016. A marginal gap of 60 lithium disilicate crowns was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. In total, 20 pressable lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press [Ivoclar Vivadent]) ceramic crowns were fabricated using the conventional lost-wax technique as a control group. The experimental all-ceramic crowns were produced based on a scan stone model and milled using two extraoral CAD/CAM systems: the Cerec group was fabricated using the Cerec CAD/CAM system, and the Trios group was fabricated using Trios CAD and milled using Wieland Zenotec CAM. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Scheffe post hoc test were used for statistical comparison of the groups (α=0.05). The mean (±standard deviation) of the marginal gap of each group was as follows: the Control group was 91.15 (±15.35) µm, the Cerec group was 111.07 (±6.33) µm, and the Trios group was 60.17 (±11.09) µm. One-way ANOVA and the Scheffe post hoc test showed a statistically significant difference in the marginal gap between all groups. It can be concluded from the current study that all-ceramic crowns, fabricated using the CAD/CAM system, show a marginal accuracy that is acceptable in clinical environments. The Trios CAD group displayed the smallest marginal gap.

  7. Effect of resin coating on adhesion and microleakage of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing fabricated all-ceramic crowns after occlusal loading: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shuzo; Pilecki, Peter; Nasser, Nasser A; Bravis, Theodora; Wilson, Ron F; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji; Watson, Timothy F; Foxton, Richard M

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of resin coating and occlusal loading on adhesion and microleakage of all-ceramic crowns. Molars were prepared for an all-ceramic crown and were divided into two groups: non-coated (control) and resin-coated with Clearfil Tri-S Bond. Crowns were fabricated using CEREC 3 and cemented using Clearfil Esthetic Cement. After 24 h of storage in water, the restored teeth in each group were divided into two subgroups: unloaded, or loaded while stored in water. Mechanical loading was achieved with an axial force of 80 N at 2.5 cycles s(-1) for 250,000 cycles. After immersion in Rhodamine B, the specimens were sectioned and processed for microleakage evaluation by confocal microscopy, which was followed by further sectioning for microtensile bond testing. Loading had no significant effect on microleakage in either the resin-coated or non-resin-coated groups. Resin coating did not reduce the microleakage at the dentine interface but increased the microleakage at the enamel interface. All the beams fractured during slicing when non-coated and loaded. The bond strengths of non-coated and unloaded, resin-coated and unloaded, and resin-coated and loaded groups were 15.82 +/- 4.22, 15.17 +/- 5.24, and 12.97 +/- 5.82 MPa, respectively. Resin coating with Clearfil Tri-S Bond improved the bonding of resin cement to dentine for loaded specimens. However, it was not effective in reducing the microleakage, regardless of whether it was loaded or unloaded.

  8. Fracture resistances of zirconia, cast Ni-Cr, and fiber-glass composite posts under all-ceramic crowns in endodontically treated premolars.

    PubMed

    Habibzadeh, Sareh; Rajati, Hamid Reza; Hajmiragha, Habib; Esmailzadeh, Shima; Kharazifard, Mohamadjavad

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fracture resistances of zirconia, cast nickel-chromium alloy (Ni-Cr), and fiber-composite post systems under all-ceramic crowns in endodontically treated mandibular first premolars. A total of 36 extracted human mandibular premolars were selected, subjected to standard endodontic treatment, and divided into three groups (n=12) as follows: cast Ni-Cr post-and-core, one-piece custom-milled zirconia post-and-core, and prefabricated fiber-glass post with composite resin core. Each specimen had an all-ceramic crown with zirconia coping and was then loaded to failure using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min, at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the roots. Fracture resistance and modes of failure were analyzed. The significance of the results was assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honest significance difference (HSD) tests (α=.05). Fiber-glass posts with composite cores showed the highest fracture resistance values (915.70±323 N), and the zirconia post system showed the lowest resistance (435.34±220 N). The corresponding mean value for the Ni-Cr casting post and cores was reported as 780.59±270 N. The differences among the groups were statistically significant (P<.05) for the zirconia group, as tested by ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. The fracture resistance of zirconia post-and-core systems was found to be significantly lower than those of fiberglass and cast Ni-Cr post systems. Moreover, catastrophic and non-restorable fractures were more prevalent in teeth restored by zirconia posts.

  9. Fracture resistances of zirconia, cast Ni-Cr, and fiber-glass composite posts under all-ceramic crowns in endodontically treated premolars

    PubMed Central

    Rajati, Hamid Reza; Hajmiragha, Habib; Esmailzadeh, Shima; Kharazifard, Mohamadjavad

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fracture resistances of zirconia, cast nickel-chromium alloy (Ni-Cr), and fiber-composite post systems under all-ceramic crowns in endodontically treated mandibular first premolars. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 36 extracted human mandibular premolars were selected, subjected to standard endodontic treatment, and divided into three groups (n=12) as follows: cast Ni-Cr post-and-core, one-piece custom-milled zirconia post-and-core, and prefabricated fiber-glass post with composite resin core. Each specimen had an all-ceramic crown with zirconia coping and was then loaded to failure using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min, at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the roots. Fracture resistance and modes of failure were analyzed. The significance of the results was assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honest significance difference (HSD) tests (α=.05). RESULTS Fiber-glass posts with composite cores showed the highest fracture resistance values (915.70±323 N), and the zirconia post system showed the lowest resistance (435.34±220 N). The corresponding mean value for the Ni-Cr casting post and cores was reported as 780.59±270 N. The differences among the groups were statistically significant (P<.05) for the zirconia group, as tested by ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. CONCLUSION The fracture resistance of zirconia post-and-core systems was found to be significantly lower than those of fiberglass and cast Ni-Cr post systems. Moreover, catastrophic and non-restorable fractures were more prevalent in teeth restored by zirconia posts. PMID:28680547

  10. Effect of different ferrule designs on the fracture resistance and failure pattern of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber posts and allceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    SHERFUDHIN, Haneef; HOBEICH, Joseph; CARVALHO, Carlos Augusto; N. ABOUSHELIB, Moustafa; SADIG, Walid; SALAMEH, Ziad

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of different ferrule heights on endodontically treated premolars. Materials and Methods Fifty sound mandibular first premolars were endodontically treated and then restored with 7-mm fiber post (FRC Postec Plus #1 Ivoclar-Vivadent) luted with self-polymerized resin cement (Multilink, Ivoclar Vivadent) while the coronal section was restored with hybrid composite core build-up material (Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar-Vivadent), which received all-ceramic crown. Different ferrule heights were investigated: 1-mm circumferential ferrule without post and core (group 1 used as control), a circumferential 1-mm ferrule (group 2), non-uniform ferrule 2-mm buccally and 1-mm lingually (group 3), non-uniform ferrule 3-mm buccally and 2-mm lingually (group 4), and finally no ferrule preparation (group 5). The fracture load and failure pattern of the tested groups were investigated by applying axial load to the ceramic crowns (n=10). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test was used for pair-wise comparisons (α=0.05). Results There were no significant differences among the failure load of all tested groups (P<0.780). The control group had the lowest fracture resistance (891.43±202.22 N) and the highest catastrophic failure rate (P<0.05). Compared to the control group, the use of fiber post reduced the percentage of catastrophic failure while increasing the ferrule height did not influence the fracture resistance of the restored specimens. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, increasing the ferrule length did not influence the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with glass ceramic crowns. Insertion of a fiber post could reduce the percentage of catastrophic failure of these restorations under function. PMID:21437466

  11. Chairside Fabrication of an All-Ceramic Partial Crown Using a Zirconia-Reinforced Lithium Silicate Ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Pabel, Anne-Kathrin; Rödiger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The chairside fabrication of a monolithic partial crown using a zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) ceramic is described. The fully digitized model-free workflow in a dental practice is possible due to the use of a powder-free intraoral scanner and the computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of the restorations. The innovative ZLS material offers a singular combination of fracture strength (>370 Mpa), optimum polishing characteristics, and excellent optical properties. Therefore, this ceramic is an interesting alternative material for monolithic restorations produced in a digital workflow. PMID:27042362

  12. Chairside Fabrication of an All-Ceramic Partial Crown Using a Zirconia-Reinforced Lithium Silicate Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Rinke, Sven; Pabel, Anne-Kathrin; Rödiger, Matthias; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The chairside fabrication of a monolithic partial crown using a zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) ceramic is described. The fully digitized model-free workflow in a dental practice is possible due to the use of a powder-free intraoral scanner and the computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of the restorations. The innovative ZLS material offers a singular combination of fracture strength (>370 Mpa), optimum polishing characteristics, and excellent optical properties. Therefore, this ceramic is an interesting alternative material for monolithic restorations produced in a digital workflow.

  13. Esthetic and Clinical Performance of Implant-Supported All-Ceramic Crowns Made with Prefabricated or CAD/CAM Zirconia Abutments.

    PubMed

    Wittneben, J G; Gavric, J; Belser, U C; Bornstein, M M; Joda, T; Chappuis, V; Sailer, I; Brägger, U

    2017-02-01

    Patients' esthetic expectations are increasing, and the options of the prosthetic pathways are currently evolving. The objective of this randomized multicenter clinical trial was to assess and compare the esthetic outcome and clinical performance of anterior maxillary all-ceramic implant crowns (ICs) based either on prefabricated zirconia abutments veneered with pressed ceramics or on CAD/CAM zirconia abutments veneered with hand buildup technique. The null hypothesis was that there is no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. Forty implants were inserted in sites 14 to 24 (FDI) in 40 patients in 2 centers, the Universities of Bern and Geneva, Switzerland. After final impression, 20 patients were randomized into group A, restored with a 1-piece screw-retained single crown made of a prefabricated zirconia abutment with pressed ceramic as the veneering material using the cut-back technique, or group B using an individualized CAD/CAM zirconia abutment (CARES abutment; Institut Straumann AG) with a hand buildup technique. At baseline, 6 mo, and 1 y clinical, esthetic and radiographic parameters were assessed. Group A exhibited 1 dropout patient and 1 failure, resulting in a survival rate of 94.7% after 1 y, in comparison to 100% for group B. No other complications occurred. Clinical parameters presented stable and healthy peri-implant soft tissues. Overall, no or only minimal crestal bone changes were observed with a mean DIB (distance from the implant shoulder to the first bone-to-implant contact) of -0.15 mm (group A) and 0.12 mm (group B) at 1 y. There were no significant differences at baseline, 6 mo, and 1 y for DIB values between the 2 groups. Pink esthetic score (PES) and white esthetic score (WES) values at all 3 examinations indicated stability over time for both groups and pleasing esthetic outcomes. Both implant-supported prosthetic pathways represent a valuable treatment option for the restoration of single ICs in the anterior maxilla

  14. Calotropis procera -induced keratitis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nidhi; Chandrakar, A K; Garg, M L; Patel, Santosh Singh

    2009-01-01

    Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera -induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops.

  15. Retention of CAD/CAM all-ceramic crowns on prefabricated implant abutments: an in vitro comparative study of luting agents and abutment surface area.

    PubMed

    Carnaggio, Thomas V; Conrad, Robert; Engelmeier, Robert L; Gerngross, Peter; Paravina, Rade; Perezous, Leticia; Powers, John M

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies considering retention of cast metal restorations to implant abutments incorporated some degree of frictional fit due to internal surface nodules and roughness of the restoration. In comparison, CAD/CAM restorations have minimal surface irregularities, possibly impacting retention. There is insufficient knowledge of retentive force of CAD/CAM restorations to titanium abutments, and therefore the topic warrants further investigation. This in vitro study investigated the retention of all-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations to three different prefabricated implant abutments using five different cements. A total of 150 Astra Tech dental implant abutments were used, with each group of 50 being subdivided into five groups of 10. An optical impression of each size of abutment was made with the CEREC 3D intraoral camera. A full-coverage restoration was designed and milled with an enlarged, conical-shaped occlusal surface, which served to secure the restoration into a brass jig used with a universal testing machine. Five different cements were used with three different-sized abutments. Following cementation, the implant/abutment/restoration assemblies were stored for 24 hours at 37°C in 100% humidity. A pull-out test using a universal testing machine, set at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed, was used to evaluate retention of the individual restorations. The load required to remove each all-ceramic restoration was recorded. Retention values were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD multiple comparisons test at the 0.05 level of significance. Peak loads for two provisional cements and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement ranged from 56 N to 127 N. Peak loads for two resin cements ranged from 184 N to 318 N. Two-way ANOVA showed significant effects upon retentive forces for both the cement and abutment design. Post hoc Fisher's PLSD multiple comparisons test found significant differences in retention for 7 of the 10 pairings of cements at a 0.05 level of significance

  16. A 3-year follow-up study of all-ceramic single and multiple crowns performed in a private practice: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M.; Sidoti, Ernesto; Sforza, Chiarella

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Zirconia-based prostheses are commonly used for aesthetic crown and fixed restorations, although follow-up data are limited, especially for implant-supported crowns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the three-year clinical results of the installation of 463 zirconia core crowns by a general dental private practice. METHODS: This study followed 142 patients (69 men and 73 women; aged 28-82 years) who had received 248 single crowns (202 tooth-supported, 36 implant-supported) and 225 multiple units of up to six elements (81 tooth-supported, 144 implant-supported). Clinical events, including fracture and loss of retention, secondary caries, and marginal integrity, were recorded. The overall failure rate was computed for the fractured and lost prostheses. Aesthetic, functional, and biological properties were rated, and patient satisfaction was investigated. RESULTS: During the three-year follow-up period, four patients were lost from the study (18 crowns, 4% of the total crowns). Three of the zirconia prostheses suffered fractures in more than three units (11 crowns; one- vs. three-year follow-up, p<0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), and the cumulative prosthesis survival rate was 98.2%. Twelve units lost retention and were re-cemented, and no secondary caries of the abutment teeth were reported. The aesthetic, functional, and biological properties were generally well-rated, and there were no differences between tooth- and implant-supported crowns. The lowest scores were given regarding the anatomical form of the crowns, as some minor chipping was reported. Relatively low scores were also given for the periodontal response and the adjacent mucosa. Overall, patient satisfaction was high. CONCLUSIONS: At the three-year follow-up, the zirconia-core crowns appeared to be an effective clinical solution as they had favorable aesthetic and functional properties. Only the marginal fit of the prostheses should be improved upon. PMID:22189731

  17. A 3-year follow-up study of all-ceramic single and multiple crowns performed in a private practice: a prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Sidoti, Ernesto; Sforza, Chiarella

    2011-01-01

    Zirconia-based prostheses are commonly used for aesthetic crown and fixed restorations, although follow-up data are limited, especially for implant-supported crowns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the three-year clinical results of the installation of 463 zirconia core crowns by a general dental private practice. This study followed 142 patients (69 men and 73 women; aged 28-82 years) who had received 248 single crowns (202 tooth-supported, 36 implant-supported) and 225 multiple units of up to six elements (81 tooth-supported, 144 implant-supported). Clinical events, including fracture and loss of retention, secondary caries, and marginal integrity, were recorded. The overall failure rate was computed for the fractured and lost prostheses. Aesthetic, functional, and biological properties were rated, and patient satisfaction was investigated. During the three-year follow-up period, four patients were lost from the study (18 crowns, 4% of the total crowns). Three of the zirconia prostheses suffered fractures in more than three units (11 crowns; one- vs. three-year follow-up, p<0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), and the cumulative prosthesis survival rate was 98.2%. Twelve units lost retention and were re-cemented, and no secondary caries of the abutment teeth were reported. The aesthetic, functional, and biological properties were generally well-rated, and there were no differences between tooth- and implant-supported crowns. The lowest scores were given regarding the anatomical form of the crowns, as some minor chipping was reported. Relatively low scores were also given for the periodontal response and the adjacent mucosa. Overall, patient satisfaction was high. At the three-year follow-up, the zirconia-core crowns appeared to be an effective clinical solution as they had favorable aesthetic and functional properties. Only the marginal fit of the prostheses should be improved upon.

  18. Fracture Resistance of Molar Crowns Fabricated with Monolithic All-Ceramic CAD/CAM Materials Cemented on Titanium Abutments: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Derya Ozdemir; Gorler, Oguzhan; Mutaf, Burcu; Ozcan, Mutlu; Eyuboglu, Gunes Bulut; Ulgey, Melih

    2017-06-01

    To assess the fracture resistance of single-tooth implant-supported crown restorations made with different CAD/CAM blocks. Thirty-six titanium abutments were put on dental implant analogs (Mis Implant). For each of three test groups (n = 12/group), implant-supported, cement-retained mandibular molar single crowns were produced. Crowns were made of lithium disilicate glass (LD) IPS e.max CAD, feldspathic glass ceramic (FEL) Vita Mark II, and resin nano-ceramic (RNC) Lava Ultimate. The crowns were cemented with self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem 2. After chewing cycling, crowns were tested to failure in a universal testing machine. Fracture values were calculated as initial (F-initial) and maximum fracture (F-max). The study groups were ranked, in order of having highest value, (LD > FEL) > RNC for F-initial load value and (LD > RNC) > FEL for F-max load value. This demonstrated that there was no parallel change in the F-initial and F-max values presenting the fracture resistance of specimens. There was no accordance between the F-initial and F-max values of the LD, RNC, and FEL after chewing simulation with thermocycling resembling 5 years of clinical functional use. LD had the highest fracture resistance during the fracture test. RNC had low fracture resistance; however, it had considerably high fracture resistance during the fracture test. FEL had considerably low fracture resistance values. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. In vitro chipping behaviour of all-ceramic crowns with a zirconia framework and feldspathic veneering: comparison of CAD/CAM-produced veneer with manually layered veneer.

    PubMed

    Schmitter, M; Mueller, D; Rues, S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the breaking load of zirconia-based crowns veneered with either CAD/CAM-produced or manually layered feldspathic ceramic. Thirty-two identical zirconia frameworks (Sirona inCoris ZI, mono L F1), 0·6 mm thick with an anatomically shaped occlusal area, were constructed (Sirona inLab 3.80). Sixteen of the crowns were then veneered by the use of CAD/CAM-fabricated feldspathic ceramic (CEREC Bloc, Sirona) and 16 by the use of hand-layered ceramic. The CAD/CAM-manufactured veneer was attached to the frameworks by the use of Panavia 2.0 (Kuraray). Half of the specimens were loaded until failure without artificial ageing; the other half of the specimens underwent thermal cycling and cyclic loading (1·2 million chewing cycles, force magnitude F(max) = 108 N) before the assessment of the ultimate load. To investigate the new technique further, finite element (FE) computations were conducted on the basis of the original geometry. Statistical assessment was made by the use of non-parametric tests. Initial breaking load was significantly higher in the hand-layered group than in the CAD/CAM group (mean: 1165·86 N versus 395·45 N). During chewing simulation, however, 87·5% (7/8) of the crowns in the hand-layered group failed, whereas no crown in the CAD/CAM group failed. The CAD/CAM-produced veneer was significantly less sensitive to ageing than the hand-layered veneer.

  20. Thermal/mechanical simulation and laboratory fatigue testing of an alternative yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal core-veneer all-ceramic layered crown design.

    PubMed

    Bonfante, Estevam A; Rafferty, Brian; Zavanelli, Ricardo A; Silva, Nelson R F A; Rekow, Elizabeth D; Thompson, Van P; Coelho, Paulo G

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the stress levels at the core layer and the veneer layer of zirconia crowns (comprising an alternative core design vs. a standard core design) under mechanical/thermal simulation, and subjected simulated models to laboratory mouth-motion fatigue. The dimensions of a mandibular first molar were imported into computer-aided design (CAD) software and a tooth preparation was modeled. A crown was designed using the space between the original tooth and the prepared tooth. The alternative core presented an additional lingual shoulder that lowered the veneer bulk of the cusps. Finite element analyses evaluated the residual maximum principal stresses fields at the core and veneer of both designs under loading and when cooled from 900 degrees C to 25 degrees C. Crowns were fabricated and mouth-motion fatigued, generating master Weibull curves and reliability data. Thermal modeling showed low residual stress fields throughout the bulk of the cusps for both groups. Mechanical simulation depicted a shift in stress levels to the core of the alternative design compared with the standard design. Significantly higher reliability was found for the alternative core. Regardless of the alternative configuration, thermal and mechanical computer simulations showed stress in the alternative core design comparable and higher to that of the standard configuration, respectively. Such a mechanical scenario probably led to the higher reliability of the alternative design under fatigue.

  1. Calotropis procera-induced keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Nidhi; Chandrakar, A K; Garg, M L; Patel, Santosh Singh

    2009-01-01

    Calotropis procera produces copious amounts of latex, which has been shown to possess several pharmacological properities. Its local application produces intense inflammatory response. In the 10 cases of Calotropis procera-induced keratitis reported here, the clinical picture showed corneal edema with striate keratopathy without any evidence of intraocular inflammation. The inflammation was reversed by the local application of steroid drops. PMID:19075415

  2. Calotropis procera (ushaar) keratitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S; Al-Rajhi, Ali A; Al-Assiri, Abdullah; Wagoner, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    To report a case of permanent endothelial cell injury after intracorneal penetration of milky latex from Calotropis procera (ushaar). Interventional case report. A 40-year-old patient developed painless corneal edema despite minimal epithelial injury after exposure to ushaar latex. Confocal and specular microscopy confirmed permanent endothelial cell loss with morphologic alteration after intracorneal penetration of ushaar latex. Corneal edema resolved completely after 2 weeks, although reduced endothelial cell count and abnormal morphology persisted. Ushaar latex is capable of penetrating the corneal stroma and inducing permanent loss of endothelial cells. Corneal edema resolves if sufficient endothelial cell viability is still present after resolution of ushaar keratitis.

  3. CAD/CAM generated all-ceramic primary telescopic prostheses.

    PubMed

    Kurbad, A; Ganz, S; Kurbad, S

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have proven effective not only for the manufacture of crown and bridge frameworks, inlays, onlays and veneers, but also for the generation of all-ceramic primary telescopic prostheses in more than 10 years of use in dental technology. The new InLab 4.0 software generation makes it possible to design and mill primary telescopic prostheses with CAD/CAM technology. The computer-generated raw crowns for these restorations require very little manual adaptation. The secondary crowns are manufactured by electroforming and bonded onto the tertiary structure or framework.

  4. Factors to achieve aesthetics in all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Gennari-Filho, Humberto; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves

    2010-11-01

    The demand for aesthetic restorations has increased during the last years. Dental ceramics are a successful alternative for some cases because of aesthetics and biocompatibility. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to present the factors necessary to fabricate all-ceramic restorations with aesthetics similar to natural dentition. A search of English-language peer-review literature was completed using MEDLINE database from 1975 to 2009 including the keywords "aesthetic," "metal-free crown," "all-ceramic," and "color." It was observed that several factors influence aesthetics of all-ceramic restorations. Color scale, light source during color evaluation, characteristic of core material, color of supporting tooth, presence of root post, and type of cement are clinical factors that may influence color of the restorations. Laboratorial factors as technique for ceramic condensation, thickness, temperature, and number of firing cycles also influence the result of these crowns. Although several clinical and laboratorial factors influence aesthetics of all-ceramic restorations, the aesthetic success and longevity of these restorations depend on the integration with surrounding periodontal tissue.

  5. Restoration of maxillary anterior esthetics using lava all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Madan, N; Pannu, K

    2011-01-01

    The success of all-ceramic crowns and increased patient demand for metal-free, tooth-colored restorations has led to the development of many different restorative systems for all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). The most recent core materials for all-ceramic FDPs are the yttrium-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP)-based materials. Yttrium oxide is a stabilizing oxide added to pure zirconia to stabilize it at room temperature and to generate a multiphase material known as partially stabilized zirconia. This exhibits very high flexural strength and fracture toughness along with good biocompatibility and excellent esthetics. This clinical report describes the use of the Lava All-ceramic system, based on Y-TZP, for the fabrication of two fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) in the maxillary anterior region of the patient, restoring both esthetics and function.

  6. Relative translucency of six all-ceramic systems. Part I: core materials.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Michael J; Aquilino, Steven A; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Haselton, Debra R; Stanford, Clark M; Vargas, Marcos A

    2002-07-01

    All-ceramic restorations have been advocated for superior esthetics. Various materials have been used to improve ceramic core strength, but it is unclear whether they affect the opacity of all-ceramic systems. This study compared the translucency of 6 all-ceramic system core materials at clinically appropriate thicknesses. Disc specimens 13 mm in diameter and 0.49 +/- 0.01 mm in thickness were fabricated from the following materials (n = 5 per group): IPS Empress dentin, IPS Empress 2 dentin, In-Ceram Alumina core, In-Ceram Spinell core, In-Ceram Zirconia core, and Procera AllCeram core. Empress and Empress 2 dentin specimens also were fabricated and tested at a thickness of 0.77 +/- 0.02 mm (the manufacturer's recommended core thickness is 0.8 mm). A high-noble metal-ceramic alloy (Porc. 52 SF) served as the control, and Vitadur Alpha opaque dentin was used as a standard. Sample reflectance (ratio of the intensity of reflected light to that of the incident light) was measured with an integrating sphere attached to a spectrophotometer across the visible spectrum (380 to 700 nm); 0-degree illumination and diffuse viewing geometry were used. Contrast ratios were calculated from the luminous reflectance (Y) of the specimens with a black (Yb) and a white (Yw) backing to give Yb/Yw with CIE illuminant D65 and a 2-degree observer function (0.0 = transparent, 1.0 = opaque). One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple-comparison test were used to analyze the data (P<.05). Contrast ratios in order of most translucent to most opaque were as follows: Vitadur Alpha 0.60 +/- 0.03, Empress (0.5 mm) 0.64 +/- 0.01, In-Ceram Spinell 0.67 +/- 0.02, Empress 2 (0.5 mm) 0.68 +/- 0.02, Empress (0.8 mm) 0.72 +/- 0.01, Procera 0.72 +/- 0.01, Empress 2 (0.8 mm) 0.74 +/- 0.01, In-Ceram Alumina 0.87 +/- 0.01, In-Ceram Zirconia 1.00 +/- 0.01, and 52 SF alloy 1.00 +/- 0.00. Within the limitations of this study, there was a range of ceramic core translucency at clinically relevant core

  7. Anticonvulsant action of Calotropis procera latex proteins.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raquel Cristina de Sousa; Silva, Márcia Calheiros Chaves; Aguiar, Carlos Clayton Torres; Chaves, Edna Maria Camelo; Dias, Kátia Cilene Ferreira; Macêdo, Danielle Silveira; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço; Carvalho, Krishnamurti de Morais; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2012-02-01

    Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. is a laticiferous plant belonging to the Apocynaceae family. C. procera latex proteins were evaluated with respect to anticonvulsant and sedative activity in mouse models of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-, pilocarpine-, and strychnine-induced convulsions or turning behavior and pentobarbital-induced sleep. In the strychnine- and pilocarpine-induced seizure models, C. procera latex proteins caused no significant alterations in latencies to convulsions and death, as compared with controls. In the PTZ-induced seizure model, administration of C. procera latex proteins in high doses (50 or 100mg/kg) and diazepam caused significant increases in latencies to convulsions and death. C. procera latex proteins (50 or 100mg/kg) and 2mg/kg diazepam caused a decrease in sleep latency and an increase in sleep time compared with the control group and groups treated with 5 or 10mg/kg. Our results suggest that C. procera latex proteins have a central nervous system-depressant activity as reflected in their potentiation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and their anticonvulsant action in the PTZ-induced seizure model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Full-Mouth Rehabilitation Using All-Ceramic Restorations.

    PubMed

    Luvizuto, Eloá R; Queiroz, Thallita P; Betoni-Júnior, Walter; Sonoda, Celso K; Panzarini, Sônia R; de Castro, José Carlos Monteiro; Boeck, Eloisa M

    2015-09-01

    The scientific and technological advancement of cosmetic dentistry has improved metal-free ceramic systems for fixed prosthodontics as well as porcelain veneers, making them an excellent treatment option for delivering superior cosmetic results. The authors present a clinical case of full-mouth rehabilitation using all-ceramic restorations with porcelain metal-free unit crowns in the maxilla, and porcelain veneers from the left inferior premolar to the right inferior premolar. Using this approach, they were able to achieve an excellent esthetic and functional result for the patient.

  9. Recent Advances in Materials for All-Ceramic Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Jason A.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The past three years of research on materials for all-ceramic veneers, inlays, onlays, single-unit crowns, and multi-unit restorations are reviewed. The primary changes in the field were the proliferation of zirconia-based frameworks and computer-aided fabrication of prostheses, as well as, a trend toward more clinically relevant in vitro test methods. This report includes an overview of ceramic fabrication methods, suggestions for critical assessment of material property data, and a summary of clinical longevity for prostheses constructed of various materials. PMID:17586152

  10. Recent advances in materials for all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Jason A

    2007-07-01

    The past 3 years of research on materials for all-ceramic veneers, inlays, onlays, single-unit crowns, and multi-unit restorations are reviewed in this article. The primary changes in the field were the proliferation of zirconia-based frameworks and computer-aided fabrication of prostheses, and a trend toward more clinically relevant in vitro test methods. This article includes an overview of ceramic fabrication methods, suggestions for critical assessment of material property data, and a summary of clinical longevity for prostheses constructed of various materials.

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Crown Therapy in Young Individuals with Amelogenesis Imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Pousette Lundgren, G; Morling Vestlund, G I; Trulsson, M; Dahllöf, G

    2015-08-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a rare, genetically determined defect in enamel mineralization. Existing treatment recommendations suggest resin-composite restorations until adulthood, although such restorations have a limited longevity. New crown materials allow for minimal preparation techniques. The aim of this study was to compare the quality and longevity of 2 crown types-Procera and IPS e.max Press-in adolescents and young adults with AI. A secondary aim was to document adverse events. We included 27 patients (11 to 22 y of age) with AI in need of crown therapy in a randomized controlled trial using a split-mouth technique. After placing 119 Procera crowns and 108 IPS e.max Press crowns following randomization, we recorded longevity, quality, adverse events, and tooth sensitivity. After 2 y, 97% of the crowns in both crown groups had excellent or acceptable quality. We found no significant differences in quality between Procera and IPS e.max Press crowns. Tooth sensitivity was significantly reduced after crown therapy (P < 0.001). Endodontic complications occurred in 3% of crowns. The results show that it is possible to perform crown therapy with excellent results and without severe complications in young patients with AI. The study is registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN70438627).

  12. A comparison of all-ceramic restorative systems: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Giordano, R

    2000-01-01

    Overall, any of these systems can provide well-fitting, natural looking restorations as long as care is taken during the preparation and fabrication procedures. A key to successful use of all-ceramic materials is proper selection based on the clinical conditions involved in specific restorative procedures (see table). All systems have limitations on their use and when we try to stretch those limits, success rates may fall drastically. High stress areas should shift selection to high strength, clinically documented materials. Low stress areas requiring high translucency may be restored successfully using the lower strength castable glasses. Intermediate areas may shift selection to higher strength yet still translucent materials such as In-Ceram Spinell or Empress 2. Posterior regions might best be addressed with the use of In-Ceram Alumina or Procera. The case of posterior bridges would lock the selection into In-Ceram Zirconia. Finally, it is important for each of us to continually educate ourselves and to examine the evidence in order to make an informed decision and maximize clinical success.

  13. A 3-year prospective study of implant-supported, single-tooth restorations of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic materials in patients with tooth agenesis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mandana; Worsaae, Nils; Schiødt, Morten; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to describe outcome variables of all-ceramic and metal-ceramic implant-supported, single-tooth restorations. A total of 59 patients (mean age: 27.9 years) with tooth agenesis and treated with 98 implant-supported single-tooth restorations were included in this study. Two patients did not attend baseline examination, but all patients were followed for 3 years. The implants supported 52 zirconia, 21 titanium and 25 gold alloy abutments, which retained 64 all-ceramic and 34 metal-ceramic crowns. At baseline and 3-year follow-up examinations, the biological outcome variables such as survival rate of implants, marginal bone level, modified Plaque Index (mPlI), modified Sulcus Bleeding Index (mBI) and biological complications were registered. The technical outcome variables included abutment and crown survival rate, marginal adaptation of crowns, cement excess and technical complications. The aesthetic outcome was assessed by using the Copenhagen Index Score, and the patient-reported outcomes were recorded using the OHIP-49 questionnaire. The statistical analyses were mainly performed by using mixed model of ANOVA for quantitative data and PROC NLMIXED for ordinal categorical data. The 3-year survival rate was 100% for implants and 97% for abutments and crowns. Significantly more marginal bone loss was registered at gold-alloy compared to zirconia abutments (P = 0.040). The mPlI and mBI were not significantly different at three abutment materials. The frequency of biological complications was higher at restorations with all-ceramic restorations than metal-ceramic crowns. Loss of retention, which was only observed at metal-ceramic crowns, was the most frequent technical complication, and the marginal adaptations of all-ceramic crowns were significantly less optimal than metal-ceramic crowns (P = 0.020). The professional-reported aesthetic outcome demonstrated significantly superior colour match of all-ceramic over metal

  14. Measurement of the rotational misfit and implant-abutment gap of all-ceramic abutments.

    PubMed

    Garine, Wael N; Funkenbusch, Paul D; Ercoli, Carlo; Wodenscheck, Joseph; Murphy, William C

    2007-01-01

    The specific aims of this study were to measure the implant and abutment hexagonal dimensions, to measure the rotational misfit between implant and abutments, and to correlate the dimension of the gap present between the abutment and implant hexagons with the rotational misfit of 5 abutment-implant combinations from 2 manufacturers. Twenty new externally hexed implants (n = 10 for Nobel Biocare; n = 10 for Biomet/3i) and 50 new abutments were used (n = 10; Procera Zirconia; Procera Alumina; Esthetic Ceramic Abutment; ZiReal; and GingiHue post ZR Zero Rotation abutments). The mating surfaces of all implants and abutments were imaged with a scanning electron microscope before and after rotational misfit measurements. The distances between the corners and center of the implant and abutment hexagon were calculated by entering their x and y coordinates, measured on a measuring microscope, into Pythagoras' theorem. The dimensional difference between abutment and implant hexagons was calculated and correlated with the rotational misfit, which was recorded using a precision optical encoder. Each abutment was rotated (3 times/session) clockwise and counterclockwise until binding. Analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls tests were used to compare rotational misfit among groups (alpha = .05). With respect to rotational misfit, the abutment groups were significantly different from one another (P < .001), with the exception of the Procera Zirconia and Esthetic Ceramic groups (P = .4). The mean rotational misfits in degrees were 4.13 +/- 0.68 for the Procera Zirconia group, 3.92 +/- 0.62 for the Procera Alumina group, 4.10 +/- 0.67 for the Esthetic Ceramic group, 3.48 +/- 0.40 for the ZiReal group, and 1.61 +/- 0.24 for the GingiHue post ZR group. There was no correlation between the mean implant-abutment gap and rotational misfit. Within the limits of this study, machining inconsistencies of the hexagons were found for all implants and abutments tested. The GingiHue Post

  15. The all-ceramic, inlay supported fixed partial denture. Part 2. Fixed partial denture design: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M C; Field, C J; Swain, M V

    2011-09-01

    The clinical use of all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures has seen widespread adoption over the past few years due to their increasing durability and longevity. However, the application of inlays as an abutment design has not been as readily embraced because of their relatively high failure rates. With the use of an idealized inlay preparation design and prosthesis form which better distributes the tensile stresses, it is possible to utilize the inlay as support for an all-ceramic fixed partial denture. Utilizing a three-dimensional finite element analysis, a direct comparison of the inlay supported all-ceramic bridge against the traditional full crown supported all-ceramic bridge is made. The results demonstrate that peak stresses in the inlay bridge are around 20% higher than in the full crown supported bridge with von Mises peaking at about 730 MPa when subjected to theoretical average maximum bite force in the molar region of 700 N, which is similar to the ultimate tensile strengths of current zirconia based ceramics.

  16. Dental crowns

    MedlinePlus

    ... off when the child loses the baby tooth. Metal crowns: Hold up to chewing and teeth grinding ... porcelain crowns: Wear down opposing teeth more than metal crowns Match the color of other teeth May ...

  17. Cerec anterior crowns: restorative options with monolithic ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Reich, Sven; Fiedlar, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the different types of monolithic ceramic crowns that can be placed on anterior teeth with existing shoulder preparations. Anterior crowns were indicated for the teeth 12 to 22 in the present case. The patient, a 65-year-old male, had received all-ceramic crowns 20 years earlier, which had started to develop cracks and palatal fractures over the last few years. The patient's teeth were prepared and four sets of crowns were fabricated using different monolithic ceramic materials: IPS e.max CAD, Cerec Blocs C In, VITABLOCS Real Life, and ENAMIC. Both shade characterization and crystallization firing were performed on the monolithic lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns. The silicate ceramic crowns received glaze firing alone. The crowns made of hybrid ceramic (ENAMIC) were treated with a polymer sealant.

  18. Fracture Rates and Lifetime Estimations of CAD/CAM All-ceramic Restorations.

    PubMed

    Belli, R; Petschelt, A; Hofner, B; Hajtó, J; Scherrer, S S; Lohbauer, U

    2016-01-01

    The gathering of clinical data on fractures of dental restorations through prospective clinical trials is a labor- and time-consuming enterprise. Here, we propose an unconventional approach for collecting large datasets, from which clinical information on indirect restorations can be retrospectively analyzed. The authors accessed the database of an industry-scale machining center in Germany and obtained information on 34,911 computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) all-ceramic posterior restorations. The fractures of bridges, crowns, onlays, and inlays fabricated from different all-ceramic systems over a period of 3.5 y were reported by dentists and entered in the database. Survival analyses and estimations of future life revealed differences in performance among ZrO2-based restorations and lithium disilicate and leucite-reinforced glass-ceramics.

  19. Zirconia Abutment Supporting All Ceramic Crowns in the Esthetic Zone: Interim Results of a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Thais Camargo; Ribeiro, Cleide Gisele; Devito, Karina Lopes; Ferreira, Cimara Fortes; Cagna, David Richard; Picorelli, Neuza Maria Souza

    2016-03-01

    This prospective study evaluated peri-implant tissues around all-ceramic crowns fabricated using CAD/CAM technology. Twenty-five patients received pre-fabricated zirconia implant abutments with CAD/CAM zirconia copings in the esthetic zone. Implants were evaluated at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months in function. Radiographic analyzes showed stable bone crest around the implants. Esthetics were more favorable as time lapsed (p > 0.05). Bleeding Index was constant in all time intervals. Plaque index reduced from 3 to 6 months. The all-ceramic CAD/CAM crowns were clinically, radiographically and esthetically stable during the study period.

  20. Contemporary all-ceramic materials, part-1.

    PubMed

    Pilathadka, Shriharsha; Vahalova, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 35 years, multiple types of all-ceramic materials have been introduced as an ideal alternative for metal-fused to ceramic. This review covers state-of-the-art development of all-ceramic systems in terms of history, material composition, fabrication technologies, and structural and strength properties. These materials are proved to be ideal in terms of mechanical properties and biocompatibility, making metal-free ceramic restorations a realistic clinical alternative for conventional metal-fused-to ceramic.

  1. [Influence of all-ceramic and porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations on peri-implant gingival discoloration:a spectrophotometric comparison].

    PubMed

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Mandana, Hosseini; Klaus, Gotfredsen

    2013-04-01

    To compare the gingival discoloration of implant supported all-ceramic and porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restorations in anterior maxillary region by spectrophotometric evaluation. Eighteen patients with 29 implant-supported single crowns (11 all-ceramic restorations, 9 PFM restorations with titanium abutment and 9 PFM restorations with golden alloy abutment) in anterior maxillary area were recruited. The color difference between peri-implant gingiva and contra-lateral/neighboring mucosa was assessed using a spectrophotometer in CIELab coordinates. Subjective gingival discoloration scores were evaluated by clinician. SPSS17.0 software package was used to analyze the data. There was no significant difference between all-ceramic group (3.4±1.8) and PFM group (4.9±3.4) spectrophotometrically. No significant difference was found between all-ceramic restorations and PFM restorations with titanium abutment (3.5±2.5), and no significant difference was found between PFM restorations with titanium abutment and PFM restorations with gold alloy abutment (6.3±3.8) either. There was, however, significant difference between all-ceramic restorations and PFM restorations with gold alloy abutment (P=0.037). There was no significant difference between all-ceramic group and PFM group regarding the clinical gingival discoloration score (GDS), and this gingival discoloration score was found to have significant correlation with the spectrophotometric evaluation (rs=0.426, P=0.021). There is no significant difference between all-ceramic group and PFM group as regard to both spectrophotometric and clinical evaluation of gingival discoloration, but the PFM restorations with gold alloy abutment induce significantly higher discoloration than all-ceramic restorations.

  2. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Yang, Jae-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yeo, In-Sung

    2013-05-01

    All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. THE MEAN FRACTURE STRENGTHS WERE AS FOLLOWS: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain.

  3. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE All-ceramic crowns are subject to fracture during function. To minimize this common clinical complication, zirconium oxide has been used as the framework for all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture strengths of two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia crown systems: Lava and Digident. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and twenty Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns were fabricated. A metal die was also duplicated from the original prepared tooth for fracture testing. A universal testing machine was used to determine the fracture strength of the crowns. RESULTS The mean fracture strengths were as follows: 54.9 ± 15.6 N for the Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns and 87.0 ± 16.0 N for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns. The difference between the mean fracture strengths of the Lava and Digident crowns was statistically significant (P<.001). Lava CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed a complete fracture of both the veneering porcelain and the core whereas the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia crowns showed fracture only of the veneering porcelain. CONCLUSION The fracture strengths of CAD/CAM zirconia crowns differ depending on the compatibility of the core material and the veneering porcelain. PMID:23755332

  4. Physicochemical properties and tenderness of meat samples using proteolytic extract from Calotropis procera latex.

    PubMed

    Rawdkuen, Saroat; Jaimakreu, Manon; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2013-01-15

    This study was conducted in order to tenderise muscle foods (pork, beef and chicken) by using crude enzyme extract from Calotropis procera latex. Chunks of knuckle muscle from pork and beef as well as of breast muscle from chicken were marinated with distiled water (control) and 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.5% (w/w) of crude enzyme extract powder for 60 min at 4°C. The marinated samples were then subjected to various physical and chemical property determinations. A decrease in moisture content was observed when the crude enzyme extract was added. Firmness and toughness of the muscle samples significantly decreased with the increased addition of crude enzyme extract (p<0.05). The water holding capacity and cooking yield of the treated samples showed no significant difference throughout the crude enzyme extract addition (p>0.05). Crude enzyme extract had no effect on the pH of the pork sample, but it slightly increased the pH in the beef and chicken. An increase in protein solubility and TCA-soluble peptides content was observed in all of the treated samples. The electrophoresis pattern of the muscle treated samples also revealed extensive proteolysis occurring in each muscle type. From the results, it is determined that latex from Calotropis procera can be used as an alternative source of proteolytic enzymes for the effective tenderising of meat. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Telescopically retained removable partial dentures on CAD/CAM generated all-ceramic primary telescopes.

    PubMed

    Bär, C; Reich, S

    2008-01-01

    The provision of patients with removable partial dentures on all-ceramic primary crowns with electroplated gold secondary parts is described as an alternative worthy of consideration in dental journals, lectures and in further training courses. The mode of operation is based on a precise, frictionless, passive fit between female and male components. To guarantee this even over large spans, intraoral joining of the individual components is necessary. However, this requires a different sequence of the treatment steps. The different procedures (conventional, procedure by Weigl, modified concept) are described in the following article. Clinical considerations, design principles, and special characteristics involved in producing the partial denture are explained.

  6. [Clinical application of optimal designed Upcera super transparent zirconia all-ceramic restorations].

    PubMed

    Ding, Chen; Yu, Qing; Jing, Jian-long; Liu, Zheng-ming

    2013-10-01

    To summarize the clinical application of special designed Upcera ST zirconia all-ceramic restorations in cases with limited occlusal space. Twenty-one patients with 23-unit restorations were enrolled in this study. First, the shape of abutment teeth and diagnostic wax-up were captured and digitized by Sirona inEos system. Then, each individually shaped framework to grant a defined ST zirconia base core was created by the reduced program of inLab software. Finally, all restorations were veneered with VITA VM9 and evaluated at placement using modified U.S.Public Health Service Criteria 6 to 12 months after restoration. Patients were inquired with satisfaction questionnaire at the same time. During 6 to 12 months of follow-up visit, except for one of 23 restorations was rated as failure by fractured root, none was replaced due to framework fracture or unrestorable delamination of the ceramic veneer. The shape and colour of all restorations were satisfactory. To ensure optimum long-term clinical results of all-ceramic crown restorations, one important key is to overcome the fragmentation of dental prosthesis through modifying the shape of restoration. Based on the results of this study, the specially designed processing technology shows sufficient stability for ST zirconia all-ceramic restorations within a short term, which is deserved to be used in selected cases.

  7. Clinical experience with In-Ceram Spinell crowns: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fradeani, Mauro; Aquilano, Augusto; Corrado, Marcantonio

    2002-12-01

    Prompted by increased patient requests for esthetic treatment, restorative clinicians have evaluated a variety of new materials and procedures. This study reports on 5 years' experience with In-Ceram Spinell all-ceramic crowns. A total of 40 anterior crowns were positioned in 13 patients from October 1995 to December 1998. The clinical examination was made following modified California Dental Association/Ryge criteria. Final evaluation was carried out in October 2000, for an observation period of 22 to 60 months (mean 50 months). Only one failure was recorded, and the fractured crown needed to be replaced; according to Kaplan-Meier analysis, the estimated success rate was 97.5%. A thorough description of the clinical procedures through which anterior teeth can be successfully treated with all-ceramic Spinell crowns is described.

  8. In vitro evaluation of the fracture strength of all-ceramic core materials on zirconium posts

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Nihal; Sahin, Erdal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: For most endodontically treated teeth, tooth-colored post-core systems are preferable for esthetic reasons. Therefore, improvements in material strength must also consider tooth colored post-core complexes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the difference in tooth colored post–core complex strengths. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 human maxillary central incisor teeth were used for this study, with three groups of 11 teeth. Three different methods were used to fabricate all-ceramic post-core restorations: zirconia blanks, Cerec 3D-milled to one-piece post-core restorations (Test Group 1); feldspathic cores (from feldspathic prefabricated CAD/CAM blocks) adhesively luted to CosmoPost zirconia posts (Test Group 2); and IPS Empress cores directly pressed to CosmoPost zirconia posts (Test Group 3). All-ceramic crowns from feldspathic ceramic were constructed using a CAD/CAM system (Cerec 3D) for all specimens. The post-core complexes were tested to failure with the load applied at 45° angled relative to the tooth long axis. The load at fracture was recorded. Results: The maximum fracture strength of the milled zirconia cores (Test Group 1) was 577 N; corresponding values for the milled feldspathic cores (Test Group 2) and the pressed cores (Test Group 3) were 586 and 585 N, respectively. Differences were not statistically significant at P < 0.05 (P = 0.669). Conclusions: All-ceramic cores adhesively luted on zirconia posts and one-piece all-ceramic zirconium post–core structures offer a viable alternative to conventional pressing. PMID:24932121

  9. In vitro evaluation of the fracture strength of all-ceramic core materials on zirconium posts.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Nihal; Sahin, Erdal

    2013-10-01

    For most endodontically treated teeth, tooth-colored post-core systems are preferable for esthetic reasons. Therefore, improvements in material strength must also consider tooth colored post-core complexes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the difference in tooth colored post-core complex strengths. A total of 33 human maxillary central incisor teeth were used for this study, with three groups of 11 teeth. Three different methods were used to fabricate all-ceramic post-core restorations: zirconia blanks, Cerec 3D-milled to one-piece post-core restorations (Test Group 1); feldspathic cores (from feldspathic prefabricated CAD/CAM blocks) adhesively luted to CosmoPost zirconia posts (Test Group 2); and IPS Empress cores directly pressed to CosmoPost zirconia posts (Test Group 3). All-ceramic crowns from feldspathic ceramic were constructed using a CAD/CAM system (Cerec 3D) for all specimens. The post-core complexes were tested to failure with the load applied at 45° angled relative to the tooth long axis. The load at fracture was recorded. The maximum fracture strength of the milled zirconia cores (Test Group 1) was 577 N; corresponding values for the milled feldspathic cores (Test Group 2) and the pressed cores (Test Group 3) were 586 and 585 N, respectively. Differences were not statistically significant at P < 0.05 (P = 0.669). All-ceramic cores adhesively luted on zirconia posts and one-piece all-ceramic zirconium post-core structures offer a viable alternative to conventional pressing.

  10. Terpenoids from Juniperus procera with hepatoprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Alqasoumi, Saleh Ibrahim; Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad

    2012-04-01

    The petroleum ether fraction of Juniperus procera showed significant activity as hepatoprotective when investigated against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through the quantification of biochemical parameters and confirmed using histopathology analysis. Phytochemical investigation of the petroleum ether fraction utilizing different chromatographic techniques resulted in the isolation of six known diterpenoids namely: 4-epi-abietol (1), ferruginol (2), hinokiol (3), sugiol (4), Z-communic acid (5) and hinokiol-1-one 3β,12-dihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene-1-one) (6), in addition to the sesquiterpene 8α-acetoxyelemol (7). Both physical and spectral data were used for structure determination and all isolates were evaluated for their hepatoprotective activity. Compounds 1 and 4 were the most effective in reducing the elevated liver enzymes as indication for liver protection.

  11. Influence of the supporting die structures on the fracture strength of all-ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Munir Tolga; Yondem, Isa; Aykent, Filiz; Eraslan, Oğuz

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of the elastic modulus of supporting dies on the fracture strengths of all-ceramic materials used in dental crowns. Four different types of supporting die materials (dentin, epoxy resin, brass, and stainless steel) (24 per group) were prepared using a milling machine to simulate a mandibular molar all-ceramic core preparation. A total number of 96 zirconia cores were fabricated using a CAD/CAM system. The specimens were divided into two groups. In the first group, cores were cemented to substructures using a dual-cure resin cement. In the second group, cores were not cemented to the supporting dies. The specimens were loaded using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture occurred. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests (α = 0.05). The geometric models of cores and supporting die materials were developed using finite element method to obtain the stress distribution of the forces. Cemented groups showed statistically higher fracture strength values than non-cemented groups. While ceramic cores on stainless steel dies showed the highest fracture strength values, ceramic cores on dentin dies showed the lowest fracture strength values among the groups. The elastic modulus of the supporting die structure is a significant factor in determining the fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns. Using supporting die structures that have a low elastic modulus may be suitable for fracture strength tests, in order to accurately reflect clinical conditions.

  12. Esthetic rehabilitation of anterior discolored teeth with lithium disilicate all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Prevedello, Gustavo Costa; Vieira, Marcelo; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Correr, Gisele Maria; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2012-01-01

    The esthetic treatment of darkened anterior teeth represents a great challenge to dentists, because dental materials ideally should match the natural teeth. The optical behavior of the final restoration is determined by the color of the underlying tooth structure, the color of the luting agent, and the thickness and opacity of the ceramic material used. This article reports a case in which veneers and full crowns made of heat-pressed, lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were used for the esthetic rehabilitation of anterior discolored teeth. The patient was referred for treatment with defective anterior composite resin restorations, provisional acrylic resin crowns, darkening of the gingival margins, and uneven gingival contours. The multidisciplinary treatment plan included dental bleaching, periodontal plastic surgery to create gingival symmetry, and indirect all-ceramic restorations using high-opacity lithium disilicate glass-ceramic ingots. The treatment was successful and an excellent esthetic result was achieved.

  13. Defective dental restorations: to repair or not to repair? Part 2: All-ceramics and porcelain fused to metal systems.

    PubMed

    Blum, Igor R; Jagger, Daryll C; Wilson, Nairn H F

    2011-04-01

    With the increasing use of ceramics in restorative dentistry, and trends to extend restoration longevity through the use of minimal interventive techniques, dental practitioners should be familiar with the factors that may influence the decision either to repair or replace fractured metal-ceramic and all-ceramic restorations and, also, the materials and techniques available to repair these restorations. This second of two papers addresses the possible modes of failure of ceramic restorations and outlines indications and techniques in this developing aspect of restoration repair in clinical practice. The repair of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic restorations is a reliable low-cost, low-risk technique that may be of value for the management of loss or fracture of porcelain from a crown or bridge in clinical practice.

  14. Crown Gall

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crown gall disease occurs on diverse dicotyledonous and gymnospermous plant species worldwide. Reports of crown gall on hop date back to at least 1929, and the disease has been reported from most countries where hop is or has been grown commercially. The epidemiology of the causal bacterium, Agrob...

  15. Some mineral constituents of Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera).

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Kunito, T; Kubota, R; Gucia, M; Mazur, A; Falandysz, Jaromir J; Tanabe, S

    2008-02-01

    This article reports background concentrations of Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, Hg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Se, Tl, V and Zn in caps and stalks of M. procera collected from four spatially distant sites across Poland. The elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) or a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). Copper, zinc, rubidium, selenium, chromium and cobalt were the most abundant amongst elements determined in this mushroom. Some elements (Cu, Zn, Rb, Se, Pb, Hg, Cd, Mo) occurred at greater concentrations in the caps than stalks of M. procera and some (Ag, Ba, Sr, V, Tl) dominated in the stalks, while for some other this proportion was similar or varied (Mn, Cr, Co, Ga, Sb, Cs) depending on the sampling site. For elements such as copper, zinc, rubidium as well as selenium some spatial similarity in distribution and/or concentration values both in caps and stalks was noted. Cadmium and lead content in caps of M. procera was usually below the European Union tolerance limit value of 2.0 and 3.0 microg/g dw set for cultivated mushrooms, respectively. These two toxic metals have been found in elevated concentration in M. procera from unpolluted stands outside of Poland as reported by some authors, which implies the possibility of relatively high background levels in this species.

  16. Complex all-ceramic rehabilitation of a young patient with a severely compromised dentition: a case report.

    PubMed

    Groten, Martin

    2009-01-01

    A young patient with dentinogenesisimperfecta and a dentition severely compromised by discolorations,abrasion, and breakage of enamel on several teeth was prosthodontically treated with CAD/CAM-manufactured all-ceramic restorations. To reduce treatment risk, preparations were limited paragingivally. Maxillary anterior teeth and premolars were restored with adhesively luted ceramic crowns. All other teeth were treated with zirconia-based restorations luted with a self-etching resin-based material. Considering the deficient pretreatment situation, the use of tooth-colored restoration and luting materials yielded a satisfying functional and good esthetic result. The patient is highly satisfied, even though 3 minor chippings occurred shortly after the completion of treatment

  17. Clinical long-term evaluation and failure characteristics of 1,335 all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Beier, Ulrike S; Kapferer, Ines; Dumfahrt, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this clinical retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical quality, estimated survival rate, and failure analysis of different all-ceramic restorations in a long-term analysis of up to 20 years. Different all-ceramic restorations (crowns [n = 470], veneers [n = 318], onlays [n = 213], and inlays ]n = 334[) were placed in 302 patients (120 men, 182 women) between 1987 and 2009 at Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Clinical examination was performed during patients' regularly scheduled maintenance appointments. Esthetic match, porcelain surface, marginal discoloration, and integrity were evaluated following modified California Dental Association/Ryge criteria. Number of restoration failures and reasons for failure were recorded. The study population included 106 (35.1%) individuals diagnosed with bruxism. The success rate was determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The mean observation time was 102 ± 60 months. Ninety-five failures were recorded. The main reason for failure was fracture of the ceramic (33.68%). The estimated survival rate was 97.3% after 5 years, 93.5% at 10 years, and 78.5% at 20 years. Nonvital teeth showed a significantly higher risk of failure (P < .0001). There was a 2.3-times greater risk of failure associated with existing parafunction (bruxism, P = .0045). Cementation using Variolink showed significantly fewer failures than Optec Cement (P = .0217) and Dual Cement (P = .0099). No significant differences were found for type of restoration and distribution in the mouth. All-ceramic restorations offer a predictable and successful restoration with an estimated survival probability of 93.5% over 10 years. Significantly increased failure rates are associated with bruxism, nonvital teeth, and specific cementation agents.

  18. Alternative crown systems. Is the metal-ceramic crown always the restoration of choice?

    PubMed

    Wall, J G; Cipra, D L

    1992-07-01

    The metal-ceramic crown system still is selected the most frequently because of its strength and versatility. The ability to select metals for color or strength for single units or fixed partial dentures gives great flexibility, but when esthetics of the anterior region are a prime concern, the all-ceramic crown is still an excellent choice. Choice of which all-ceramic system to use is dependent on the strength demands, esthetic needs, amount of tooth structure that can be preserved, and laboratory support available. Where good tooth structure remains but some color, contour, or incisal length changes are desired, the porcelain laminate veneer is an outstanding esthetic and restorative choice. When good labial tooth structure remains but lingual structure is inadequate, a partial veneer gold crown can be an excellent esthetic choice. If moderate tooth structure is lost or moderate staining is present, the Dicor crown is a superb choice. In those instances in which heavy staining is present, a foil or core system should be considered to completely block out the background colors. As the occlusal forces become more of a factor, selection of a restorative system will depend more on strength than esthetic demands. The aluminous porcelain jacket crown still offers great strength and esthetics at a reasonable price. When most of the color is on the surface of the teeth, or when there is a high translucency to the teeth, Dicor can provide very esthetic results, and the Dicor Plus crown offers the opportunity to develop intrinsic shading. When greater strength is required, selection of a foil and core system is suggested, as might be a system that provides a stronger core material, like Alceram or Inceram. These stronger core materials will render improved flexural and compressive strengths, but some increases in brightness may occur with the increased alumina content of the cores. The future in ceramic restorative dentistry may be in the computer-generated crown if ways

  19. Interfacial characterization of ceramic core materials with veneering porcelain for all-ceramic bi-layered restorative systems.

    PubMed

    Tagmatarchis, Alexander; Tripodakis, Aris-Petros; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Zinelis, Spiros; Eliades, George

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the elemental distribution at the interface between all-ceramic core and veneering porcelain materials. Three groups of all-ceramic cores were selected: A) Glass-ceramics (Cergo, IPS Empress, IPS Empress 2, e-max Press, Finesse); B) Glass-infiltrated ceramics (Celay Alumina, Celay Zirconia) and C) Densely sintered ceramics (Cercon, Procera Alumina, ZirCAD, Noritake Zirconia). The cores were combined with compatible veneering porcelains and three flat square test specimens were produced for each system. The core-veneer interfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis. The glass-ceramic systems showed interfacial zones reach in Si and O, with the presence of K, Ca, Al in core and Ca, Ce, Na, Mg or Al in veneer material, depending on the system tested. IPS Empress and IPS Empress 2 demonstrated distinct transitional phases at the core-veneer interface. In the glassinfiltrated systems, intermixing of core (Ce, La) with veneer (Na, Si) elements occurred, whereas an abrupt drop of the core-veneer elemental concentration was documented at the interfaces of all densely sintered ceramics. The results of the study provided no evidence of elemental interdiffusion at the core-veneer interfaces in densely sintered ceramics, which implies lack of primary chemical bonding. For the glass-containing systems (glassceramics and glass-infiltrated ceramics) interdiffusion of the glass-phase seems to play a critical role in establishing a primary bonding condition between ceramic core and veneering porcelain.

  20. Use of molecular indicators of inflammation to assess the biocompatibility of all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Ariaans, Kirsten; Heussen, Nicole; Schiffer, Hanna; Wienert, Anna-Lena; Plümäkers, Birgit; Rink, Lothar; Wolfart, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this in vivo study was quantification of inflammatory reaction to ceramic restorations made from lithium disilicate and zirconia by measurement of the concentration of indicators of inflammation in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Patients out of three prospective cohort-studies investigating three different all-ceramic restoration materials for crowns and fixed dental prostheses were included. Patients needed an associated, unrestored tooth to serve as control. GCF samples were taken from the sulcus of the restored teeth and the related controls (n = 59 pairs) and the concentrations of IL1-beta, IL-1ra and aMMP-8, as indicators of inflammation, were determined by use of ELISA tests. Periodontal status was also assessed clinically by measurement of pocket depth (PD), plaque index (PI) and bleeding on probing (BOP). The concentrations of the inflammation indicators were not significantly different between restored teeth and controls or between lithium disilicate and zirconia restorations (p > 0.05). Furthermore, no significant difference between PD of restored teeth and controls or between groups could be shown. Within the limitation of the study, treatment with all-ceramic restorations did not induce inflammatory reactions in a group of periodontal healthy patients. No differences between the gingiva reactions of lithium disilicate and zirconia restorations could be shown. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The importance of the lifelike esthetic appearance of all-ceramic restorations on anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Moreno, Amália; Vechiato-Filho, Aljomar José; Bonatto, Liliane da Rocha; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Laurindo Júnior, Murilo César Bento; de Medeiros, Rodrigo Antonio; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2015-01-01

    The success of rehabilitation will not depend on just clinical procedures. A proper dental technique (ceramist) is required as well as the respect for some biomimetic principles to obtain the desired final result. This study has the purpose of describing a prosthetic rehabilitation with laminate veneers and all-ceramic crowns of a patient unsatisfied with a previous esthetic treatment because of the negligence of some biomimetic principles. A 45-year-old female patient was admitted to the dental clinic complaining about the lifelike appearance of her all-ceramic restorations. Before the fabrication of new restorations, a mock-up was conducted to verify the patient's satisfaction. A ceramist conducted all the fabrication process so that surface characterizations could be visually verified and the lifelike appearance of natural tooth could be reproduced. After the cementation procedure, the patient reported being satisfied with the lifelike appearance of the new restorations. Based on the clinical findings of the present case report, it can be concluded that the reproduction of the lifelike esthetic appearance of natural teeth and the visualization of the final results before definitive procedures are essential to obtain the clinical success.

  2. The Importance of the Lifelike Esthetic Appearance of All-Ceramic Restorations on Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Moreno, Amália; Vechiato-Filho, Aljomar José; Bonatto, Liliane da Rocha; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Laurindo Júnior, Murilo César Bento; de Medeiros, Rodrigo Antonio; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2015-01-01

    The success of rehabilitation will not depend on just clinical procedures. A proper dental technique (ceramist) is required as well as the respect for some biomimetic principles to obtain the desired final result. This study has the purpose of describing a prosthetic rehabilitation with laminate veneers and all-ceramic crowns of a patient unsatisfied with a previous esthetic treatment because of the negligence of some biomimetic principles. A 45-year-old female patient was admitted to the dental clinic complaining about the lifelike appearance of her all-ceramic restorations. Before the fabrication of new restorations, a mock-up was conducted to verify the patient's satisfaction. A ceramist conducted all the fabrication process so that surface characterizations could be visually verified and the lifelike appearance of natural tooth could be reproduced. After the cementation procedure, the patient reported being satisfied with the lifelike appearance of the new restorations. Based on the clinical findings of the present case report, it can be concluded that the reproduction of the lifelike esthetic appearance of natural teeth and the visualization of the final results before definitive procedures are essential to obtain the clinical success. PMID:25705525

  3. Fitting accuracy and fracture resistance of crowns using a hybrid zirconia frame made of both porous and dense zirconia.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Sugano, Tsuyoshi; Usami, Hirofumi; Wakabayashi, Kazumichi; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Sekino, Tohru; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the fitting accuracy and fracture resistance of crowns using a hybrid zirconia frame made of both porous and dense zirconia. Commercial semi-sintered zirconia, sintered dense zirconia and sintered hybrid zirconia were used. Sintered zirconia was milled using the CAD/CAM system, and semi-sintered zirconia was milled and sintered to fabricate molar crown frames. Completed frames were veneered with tooth-colored porcelain. The marginal and internal gaps between frames/crowns and abutments were measured. Each crown specimen was subjected to a fracture test. There were no significant differences in marginal and internal gap among all the frames and crowns. The crown with the hybrid zirconia frame had a 31-35% greater fracture load than that with the commercial or dense zirconia frame (p<0.01). This suggests that the all-ceramic crowns with a hybrid zirconia frame have a high fracture resistance.

  4. Prestresses in bilayered all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Feilzer, Albert J; de Jager, Niek; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J

    2008-10-01

    A general trend in all ceramic systems is to use veneering ceramics of slightly lower thermal expansion coefficients compared with that of the framework resulting in a positive mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient (+DeltaTEC). The concept behind this TEC mismatch is to generate compressive stresses in the weaker veneering ceramic and thus enhance the overall strength of the restoration. This technique had excellent results with porcelain fused to metal restorations (PFM). However, there are concerns to apply this concept to all-ceramic restorations. The aim of this research was to determine the stresses in bilayered all-ceramic restorations due to the mismatch in TEC. Two commercial veneering ceramics with a TEC lower than that of zirconia (+DeltaTEC); NobelRondo zirconiatrade mark and Lava Ceramtrade mark, plus one experimental veneering ceramic with an identical TEC that matches that of zirconia (DeltaTEC = 0) were used to veneer zirconia discs. The specimens were loaded in biaxial flexure test setup with the veneer ceramic in tension. The stresses due to load application and TEC mismatch were calculated using fractography, engineering mathematics, and finite element analysis (FEA). In this study, the highest load at failure (64 N) was obtained with the experimental veneer where the thermal mismatch between zirconia and veneering ceramic was minimal. For the two commercial veneer ceramics the magnitude of the thermal mismatch localized at the zirconia veneer interface (42 MPa) exceeded the bond strength between the two materials and resulted in delamination failure during testing (ca. 50 MPa). For all-ceramic zirconia veneered restorations it is recommended to minimize the thermal mismatch as much as possible. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Crown wart

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crown wart has been found widely distributed in Australia, New Zealand, and European countries. It has been recorded sporadically in India (Punjab), South Africa, South America (Ecuador, Chile, Peru), Panama, Mexico, and Canada (British Columbia). In the United States, it has been found more frequ...

  6. Rare earth elements in parasol mushroom Macrolepiota procera.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Sapkota, Atindra; Mędyk, Małgorzata; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate occurrence and distribution of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in edible saprobic mushroom Macrolepiota procera, and to estimate possible intake and risk to human consumer. Mushrooms samples were collected from sixteen geographically diverse sites in the northern regions of Poland. The results showed that for Ce as the most abundant among the RREs in edible caps, the mean concentration was at 0.18±0.29mgkg(-1)dry biomass. The mean concentration for Σ16 REEs determined in caps of fungus was 0.50mgkg(-1)dry biomass and in whole fruiting bodies was 0.75mgkg(-1)dry biomass. From a point of view by consumer, the amounts of REEs contained in edible caps of M. procera could be considered small. Hence, eating a tasty caps of this fungus would not result in a health risk for consumer because of exposure to the REEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocular toxicity by latex of Calotropis procera (Sodom apple).

    PubMed

    Basak, Samar K; Bhaumik, Arup; Mohanta, Ayan; Singhal, Prashant

    2009-01-01

    We report the spectrum of ocular toxicity following accidental inoculation of latex of Calotropis procera (Sodom apple) in 29 eyes between January 2003 and December 2006. All patients presented with sudden painless dimness of vision with photophobia. Twenty-five (86%) patients had initial visual acuity of less than 20/60. All eyes had conjunctival congestion and mild to severe corneal edema with Descemet's folds. Three (10%) eyes had an epithelial defect, nine (31%) had iridocyclitis, and seven (24%) had associated secondary glaucoma. After treatment with topical corticosteroids, antiglaucoma agents, cycloplegics, hypertonic saline and tears supplements, 27 (93%) eyes recovered completely within 3-14 days. After three months, 17 (74%) out of 23 eyes showed a significant low endothelial cell count compared to the normal fellow eye ( P 0.001). The latex of Calotropis procera causes significant ocular morbidity which may be preventable by simple health education. The long-term effect on corneal endothelium has to be studied further.

  8. Graded Structures for All-ceramic Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Chai, H.; Lawn, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    One failure mode of all-ceramic restorations is radial cracking at the cementation surface, from occlusally induced flexure of the stiffer ceramic layer(s) on the softer dentin underlayer. We hypothesize that such failure may be substantially mitigated by an appropriate grading of elastic modulus through the ceramic thickness. In this study, we fabricated graded structures by infiltrating glass into zirconia plates, with resulting diminished modulus in the outer surfaces. The plates were then bonded to a polymeric base and subjected to flexure by contact loading until fracture. Comparison of infiltrated specimens with non-infiltrated controls showed a significant increase in the fracture loads, by a factor of nearly 2. Finite element analysis revealed the cause of increase in the load-bearing capacity to be diminished tensile stresses within the lower-modulus graded zone, corresponding to an increase in material strength. The results confirmed that suitably graded structures can be highly beneficial in the design of next-generation all-ceramic restorations. PMID:20200413

  9. Bonding All-Ceramic Restorations with Two Resins Cement Techniques: A Clinical Report of Three-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Junior, Amilcar Chagas Freitas; Martini, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Ceramics have been widely used for esthetic and functional improvements. The resin cement is the material of choice for bonding ceramics to dental substrate and it can also dictate the final esthetic appearance and strength of the restoration. The correct use of the wide spectrum of resin luting agents available depends on the dental tooth substrate. This article presents three-year clinical results of a 41 years old female patient B.H.C complaining about her unattractive smile. Two all-ceramic crowns and two laminates veneers were placed in the maxillary incisors and cemented with a self-adhesive resin luting cement and conventional resin luting cement, respectively. After a three-year follow-up, the restorations and cement/teeth interface were clinically perfect with no chipping, fractures or discoloration. Proper use of different resin luting cements shows clinical appropriate behavior after a three-year follow-up. Self-adhesive resin luting cement may be used for cementing all-ceramic crowns with high predictability of success, mainly if there is a large dentin surface available for bonding and no enamel at the finish line. Otherwise, conventional resin luting agent should be used for achieving an adequate bonding strength to enamel. PMID:21912505

  10. Bonding all-ceramic restorations with two resins cement techniques: a clinical report of three-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Junior, Amilcar Chagas Freitas; Martini, Ana Paula

    2011-08-01

    Ceramics have been widely used for esthetic and functional improvements. The resin cement is the material of choice for bonding ceramics to dental substrate and it can also dictate the final esthetic appearance and strength of the restoration. The correct use of the wide spectrum of resin luting agents available depends on the dental tooth substrate. This article presents three-year clinical results of a 41 years old female patient B.H.C complaining about her unattractive smile. Two all-ceramic crowns and two laminates veneers were placed in the maxillary incisors and cemented with a self-adhesive resin luting cement and conventional resin luting cement, respectively. After a three-year follow-up, the restorations and cement/teeth interface were clinically perfect with no chipping, fractures or discoloration. Proper use of different resin luting cements shows clinical appropriate behavior after a three-year follow-up. Self-adhesive resin luting cement may be used for cementing all-ceramic crowns with high predictability of success, mainly if there is a large dentin surface available for bonding and no enamel at the finish line. Otherwise, conventional resin luting agent should be used for achieving an adequate bonding strength to enamel.

  11. Enzymatic activities and protein profile of latex from Calotropis procera.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cleverson Diniz T; Oliveira, Jefferson Soares; Miranda, Maria Raquel A; Macedo, Nívea Maria R; Sales, Maurício Pereira; Villas-Boas, Laurival A; Ramos, Márcio Viana

    2007-01-01

    The laticifer fluid of Calotropis procera is rich in proteins and there is evidence that they are involved in the pharmacological properties of the latex. However, not much is known about how the latex-containing proteins are produced or their functions. In this study, laticifer proteins of C. procera were pooled and examined by 1D and 2D electrophoresis, masses spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and characterized in respect of proteolytic activity and oxidative enzymes. Soluble laticifer proteins were predominantly composed of basic proteins (PI>6.0) with molecular masses varying between 5 and 95 kDa. Proteins with a molecular mass of approximately 26,000 Da were more evident. Strong anti-oxidative activity of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) (1007.74+/-91.89 Ug(-1)DM) and, to a lesser extent ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.1) (0.117(d)+/-0.013 microMol H(2)O(2)g(-1)min(-1)), were detected. However, catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) was absent. The strong proteolytic activities of laticifer proteins from C. procera were shown to be shared by at least four distinct cysteine proteinases (EC 3.4.22.16) that were isolated by gel filtration chromatography. Serine and metaloproteinases were not detected and aspartic proteinase activities were barely visible. Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) were also isolated in a chitin column and their activities quantified. The presence of these enzymatic activities in latex from C. procera may confirm their involvement in resistance to phytopathogens and insects, mainly in its leaves where the latex circulates abundantly.

  12. BIOPESTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF Calotropis procera L. AGAINST Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Nidra; Jabeen, Khajista; Iqbal, Sumera; Javaid, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] is an important pulse crop globally. This imperative crop is severely affected by charcoal rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. In the present study, the leaves of Calotropis procera L. were tested for their antifungal potential against M. phaseolina. Various concentrations i.e. 1%, 2.5%, 4%, 5.5% and 7% of methanolic extract of C. procera leaves were prepared and their in vitro bioactivity was examined against the test fungus. Methnolic leaf extract was partitioned using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol and antifungal activity of each fraction was evaluated. n-Hexane fraction was subjected to GC-MS analysis. The higher concentration of methanolic leaf extract (7%) caused maximum inhibition in the diameter of M. phaseolina i.e. 38%. The n-hexane fraction of methanolic leaf extract was found to be the most effective against M. phaseolina. Seven compounds belonging to classes of chlorocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, azocompounds, aromatic carboxylic acids and fatty acids were identified in GC-MS analysis of n-hexane fraction. Antifungal activity of the methanolic leaf extract of C. procera might be due to the presence of the identified compounds in n-hexane fraction of methanolic leaf extract.

  13. Extract from Calotropis procera latex activates murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Seddek, Abdel latif Shaker; Mahmoud, Motamed Elsayed; Shiina, Takahiko; Hirayama, Haruko; Iwami, Momoe; Miyazawa, Seiji; Nikami, Hideki; Takewaki, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2009-07-01

    Calotropis procera latex has long been used in traditional medicines. Extracts from C. procera latex have been reported to have various pharmacological actions, including protection from myocardial infarction, hepatoprotective action, antitumor activity, antinociceptive, and pro- and anti-inflammatory actions. To evaluate the immunomodulatory functions of the water-soluble C. procera extract (CPE), we investigated its ability to activate macrophages-effector cells in inflammatory and immune responses. Intraperitoneal injection of CPE in mice (2 mg/mouse) induced migration of macrophages to the intraperitoneal cavity, confirming the proinflammatory effects of water-soluble CPE. The direct effects of CPE on macrophages were then assessed by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO) as an indicator for macrophage activation. Addition of CPE (1-10 microg/ml) to the culture medium of the murine monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 caused an increase in NO production in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CPE-elicited NO production was blocked by application of an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Expression of iNOS mRNA was induced by treatment of cultured macrophages with CPE. Injection of CPE in mice also resulted in an increase in plasma NO level. The results suggest that CPE activates macrophages and facilitates NO production via up-regulation of iNOS gene expression.

  14. Comparison of immediately loaded flapless-placed one-piece implants and flapped-placed conventionally loaded two-piece implants, both fitted with all-ceramic single crowns, 
in the posterior mandible: 3-year results from 
a randomised controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Bömicke, Wolfgang; Gabbert, Olaf; Koob, Andreas; Krisam, Johannes; Rammelsberg, Peter

    To compare outcomes for immediately loaded one-piece implants (OPI), placed flapless, and conventionally loaded two-piece implants (TPI), placed after two-stage flapped surgery. Thirty-eight participants were randomised to receive either one OPI (19 participants, OPI group) or one TPI (19 participants, TPI group) inserted in the posterior mandible with a torque of at least 35 Ncm according to a parallel group design. OPI were immediately loaded with non-occluding temporary crowns. After 3 months, TPI were exposed and implants in both groups were occlusally loaded with zirconia crowns. Outcome measures were implant failure, prosthesis failure, any complication and changes of probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque index (PI), gingiva index (GI), and peri-implant marginal bone level, recorded by unblinded assessors. Three years after occlusal loading, three participants dropped out from the TPI group. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to participants with implant failure (OPI group 1/19; TPI group 0/16; difference in proportions (DIP), -5.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) -15.3 to 4.8; P = 1.000), prosthesis failure (OPI group 3/19, TPI group 5/16; DIP, 15.5%; 95% CI -12.6 to 43.5; P = 0.424), any complication (OPI group 6/19, TPI group 5/16; DIP, -0.3%; 95% CI -31.2 to 30.5; P = 1.000), or changes of PPD (P =0.174), PI (P = 0.222), or GI (P = 0.415). Veneer chipping accounted for most prosthesis failures and complications. On average OPI and TPI lost 1.34 mm and 0.67 mm of marginal bone, respectively, the difference between groups being statistically significant (mean difference, 0.66 mm; 95% CI -0.02 to 1.34; P = 0.024) in favour of TPI implants. Both implant procedures might be viable in the short term, but statistically significantly more bone loss might be indicative of future problems with OPI. Because of the high incidence of chipping, veneered zirconia crowns cannot be recommended

  15. Optical effects of different colors of artificial gingiva on ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Jin; Gil, Mindy; Da Silva, John D; Wright, Robert; Ishikawa-Nagai, Shigemi

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between gingival color and the shade of ceramic restorations has never been fully studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optical effects of altering artificial gingival color on the ceramic crown shade in the cervical area. Thirty-one all-ceramic crowns of different shades were used in this study with six different artificial gingival colors. Using a spectrophotometer (Crystaleye(®) Olympus, Japan), we measured the shade of crowns in cervical areas with each of six different artificial gingiva. The crown color measured in the presence of pink artificial gingiva (control) was compared with the crown color with five other artificial gingiva. color difference values ΔE* were calculated and compared between the control group and test groups and the correlation of the artificial gingival color with the crown color was also assessed. Significant differences were found in the mean L* and a* values of all-ceramic crowns at the cervical regions in all six gingival color groups (p<0.001) and significant Pearson correlations were also found for the mean L* (r=0.987, p<0.001) and a* (r=0.856, p=0.03) values between the artificial gingiva and the ceramic crowns. The mean ΔE* values between the control group and each of the five other gingival groups were all significantly larger than the clinical perceptual threshold of ΔE* 1.6 (p<0.001). Different colors of artificial gingiva generated clinically detectable shade differences in the cervical region of ceramic crowns. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Latex proteins from Calotropis procera: Toxicity and immunological tolerance revisited.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Camila F; Mota, Érika F; Silva, Ana Claudia M; Tomé, Adriana R; Silva, Maria Z R; de Brito, Daniel; Porfírio, Camila T M N; Oliveira, Ariclécio C; Lima-Filho, José V; Ramos, Márcio V

    2017-08-25

    Many thousands of plants are disseminated worldwide in traditional and folk medicines based on the belief that their leaves, roots, seeds, bark or secretions, when adequately handled, can treat, alleviate or ameliorate numerous disease symptoms. Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) is a popular medicinal plant and the claims of this shrub's phytomedicinal properties have been scientifically validated. In this study, further prospects towards the in vivo toxicity and oral immunological tolerance of phytomodulatory proteins isolated from the latex of C. procera are reported. Acute toxicity was determined in mice by oral and intraperitoneal administration of latex proteins (LP) and was followed behavioral, hematological and histological analyses. Oral immunological tolerance to LP was assessed by intraperitoneal immunization in mice that had received LP orally before. Animals given 5000 mg/kg orally exhibited only discrete behavioral alterations and augmentation of monocytes. Death was not notified 14 days after exposure. However, all animals receiving LP 150 mg/kg by i.p. died in 1 h. Death (20%) was documented when LP (75 mg/kg) was given in the peritoneum and signs of harmful effects were observed in the survivors (80%). Oral immunological tolerance was observed in animals previously given LP orally, when they were further immunized/challenged with peritoneal exposure to different doses of LP. This was confirmed by the lowering of IgE and IgG in the serum, IL-4 and IFN-γ in spleen homogenates and the absence of anaphylaxis signs. It is therefore concluded that LP exhibited quite discrete adverse effects when orally administrated at higher concentrations and this route of administration did not stimulate adverse immunological reactions. Instead it was observed immunological tolerance. The present study contributes very important information concerning the safe use of C. procera as a phytotherapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Corneal endothelial cytotoxicity of the Calotropis procera (ushaar) plant.

    PubMed

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S; Al-Amry, Mohammed A; Al-Assiri, Abdullah; Fadel, Talal S; Tabbara, Khalid F; Al-Rajhi, Ali A

    2008-05-01

    To report 6 eyes of 5 patients with transient corneal edema after exposure to the milky latex of Calotropis procera (ushaar). Interventional case series. Intracorneal penetration of ushaar latex can lead to permanent endothelial cell loss with morphologic alteration. Corneal edema resolved completely in approximately 2 weeks in all cases, despite reduced endothelial cell count and abnormal morphology. Corneal endothelial toxicity of ushaar latex is caused by its ability to penetrate the corneal stroma and induce permanent loss of endothelial cells. Corneal edema resolves if sufficient endothelial cell viability is still present after resolution of ushaar keratitis.

  18. Fracture strength of all-ceramic (Y-TZP) three- and four-unit fixed dental prostheses with different connector design and production history.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Deyar Jallal Hadi; Linderoth, Ewa H; Von Steyern, Per Vult; Wennerberg, Ann

    2013-01-01

    To investigate how different default settings for connector design of two different CAD/CAM systems, i.e. to compare how different radii of curvature in the embrasure area of the connector affect the fracture strength and the fracture mode of 3-unit and 4-unit all-ceramic FDPs made from Y-TZP and to investigate how the number of pontics affect the fracture strength of Y-TZP. 32 all-ceramic three (3Z) and four (4Z)-unit, Y-TZP, FDP cores were made and divided in 4 groups, with 8 FDP in each group. The groups 3Z:1 and 4Z:1 were generated with a mechanical scanner, Procera Forte and the FDPs in group 3Z:2 and 4Z:2 were generated with an optical scanner, NobelProcera Scanner. The connector dimensions were set to 3 mm x 3 mm and core was set to 0.7 mm. The design of radius of the gingival and occlusal embrasures in the connector areas was set according to default settings and the manufacturer's recommendations. All the FDP cores were subjected to heat treatment, thermocycled for 5,000 cycles, preloaded for 10,000 cycles to simulate ageing and finally loaded to fracture. Regarding connector design a significant difference was found between group 3Z:1 and 3Z:2 (P<0.05), and group 4Z:1 (50% of the FDPs fractured during preloading 30-300N) and 4Z:2 (P<0.05). An extra pontic decreased the fracture strength up to 45%. The default settings of the two different CAD/CAM systems had a great impact on the fracture strength. It is important that a CAD/CAM system is equipped with possibilities to design a connector that fulfils the clinical demands of mechanical function and longevity. The most crucial factor for the load-bearing capacity isthe design of the radius of the gingival embrasures. Increasing the number of pontics from three to four decreases the load-bearing capacity nearly twice.

  19. On form and function in all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Owen, C P

    2012-08-01

    All-ceramic restorations are achieving increasing popularity, partly because of the aesthetic demands of patients, but also because their increasing ease of fabrication and longevity compare favourably with the traditional plastic restorations in posterior teeth. The parallel development of cementation materials and bonding techniques has also improved longevity, although current evidence shows that posterior all-ceramic restorations have a slightly lower success rate than in anteriors, and the success rate falls with time. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the evidence for the use of all-ceramic restorations particularly for posterior restorations on teeth, as well as to suggest that preparation form may need to change to take into account the properties of dental ceramics. In addition, a different approach to occlusal form is proposed, based on the evolution of form and function in dentitions, to suggest that the perfect reproduction of cusps and fissures may not be appropriate.

  20. Antinociceptive activity of Calotropis procera latex in mice.

    PubMed

    Soares, Paula Matias; Lima, Silvane R; Matos, Samara G; Andrade, Marcelo M; Patrocínio, Manoel C A; de Freitas, Cleverson D T; Ramos, Márcio V; Criddle, David N; Cardi, Bruno A; Carvalho, Krishnamurti M; Assreuy, Ana Maria S; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M M

    2005-05-13

    This work evaluated the antinociceptive effect of proteins from the Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) latex using three different experimental models of nociception in mice. The latex protein fraction administered intraperitoneally in male mice at the doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg showed the antinociceptive effect in a dose dependent manner compared to the respective controls in all assays. Inhibitions of the acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions were observed at the doses of 12.5 (67.9%), 25 (85%) and 50 (99.5%) mg/kg compared to controls. Latex protein at the doses of 25 (39.8%; 42%) and 50 mg/kg (66.6%; 99.3%) reduced the nociception produced by formalin in the 1st and 2nd phases, respectively, and this effect was not reversed by pretreatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg). In the hot plate test, an increase of the reaction time was observed only at 60 min after the treatment with latex at the doses of 25 (79.5%) and 50 (76.9%) mg/kg, compared to controls and naloxone was ineffective to reverse the effect. It was concluded that the protein fraction derived from the whole latex of Calotropis procera possesses antinociceptive activity, which is independent of the opioid system.

  1. Ocular toxicity by latex of Calotropis procera (Sodom apple)

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Samar K; Bhaumik, Arup; Mohanta, Ayan; Singhal, Prashant

    2009-01-01

    We report the spectrum of ocular toxicity following accidental inoculation of latex of Calotropis procera (Sodom apple) in 29 eyes between January 2003 and December 2006. All patients presented with sudden painless dimness of vision with photophobia. Twenty-five (86%) patients had initial visual acuity of less than 20/60. All eyes had conjunctival congestion and mild to severe corneal edema with Descemet's folds. Three (10%) eyes had an epithelial defect, nine (31%) had iridocyclitis, and seven (24%) had associated secondary glaucoma. After treatment with topical corticosteroids, antiglaucoma agents, cycloplegics, hypertonic saline and tears supplements, 27 (93%) eyes recovered completely within 3–14 days. After three months, 17 (74%) out of 23 eyes showed a significant low endothelial cell count compared to the normal fellow eye (P < 0.001). The latex of Calotropis procera causes significant ocular morbidity which may be preventable by simple health education. The long-term effect on corneal endothelium has to be studied further. PMID:19384022

  2. All-ceramic prosthetic rehabilitation of a worn dentition: Use of a distal cantilever. Two-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Chekhani, Usama N.; Mikeli, Aikaterini A.; Huettig, Fabian K.P.

    2013-01-01

    The rehabilitation of heavily abraded occlusion in patients with parafunctional habits is a restorative challenge to the dentist. Use of all-ceramic systems in such cases is widely considered, but uncertainty over their resistance hinders their broad use. The authors would like to illustrate a possible approach by mixing two all-ceramic systems based on zirconium dioxide and lithium disilicate. A 48-year-old female patient attended with reduced vertical dimension in a full dentition. She suffered from craniomandibular (CMD) pain and desired an esthetic rehabilitation. Prosthodontic treatment was started in a pain-free condition, after correction of the vertical dimension with an occlusal splint, over four months. Determination of the treatment was based on the clinical findings: IPS e.max® ZirCAD frameworks veneered with IPS e.max® Ceram were used for discolored retainers or subgingival finishing lines. All the rest received IPS e.max® Press crowns. A zirconia-based, single-tooth-retained distal cantilever reconstruction was used to replace a missing second molar. No technical or biological complication was observed 24 months after treatment. The patient was highly satisfied and pain-free. PMID:23878577

  3. Optimizing the design of bio-inspired functionally graded material (FGM) layer in all-ceramic dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chang; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Due to elastic modulus mismatch between the different layers in all-ceramic dental restorations, high tensile stress concentrates at the interface between the ceramic core and cement. In natural tooth structure, stress concentration is reduced by the functionally graded structure of dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) which interconnects enamel and dentin. Inspired by DEJ, the aim of this study was to explore the optimum design of a bio-inspired functionally graded material (FGM) layer in all-ceramic dental restorations to achieve excellent stress reduction and distribution. Three-dimensional finite element model of a multi-layer structure was developed, which comprised bilayered ceramic, bio-inspired FGM layer, cement, and dentin. Finite element method and first-order optimization technique were used to realize the optimal bio-inspired FGM layer design. The bio-inspired FGM layer significantly reduced stress concentration at the interface between the crown and cement, and stresses were evenly distributed in FGM layer. With the optimal design, an elastic modulus distribution similar to that in DEJ occurred in the FGM layer.

  4. A new design for all-ceramic inlay-retained fixed partial dentures: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Wolfart, Stefan; Kern, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    In a previous clinical study, all-ceramic resin-bonded 3-unit inlay-retained fixed partial dentures (IRFPDs) had a significantly worse outcome in the posterior region than did crown-retained 3-unit FPDs made from the same material. Debonding or fractures were causes of failure. To improve the clinical outcome of IRFPDs, a new framework design was developed: (1) The inlay retainers were made out of CAD/CAM-manufactured zirconia ceramic to improve fracture resistance, and additional veneering of the inlays was omitted. (2) The inlay retainers were completed with a shallow occlusal inlay (1-mm minimum thickness) and an oral retainer wing (0.6-mm minimum thickness). The wings were designed to reduce stress on the inlay retainer caused by torsion forces when the FPD is loaded nonaxially and to increase the enamel adhesive surface area. The pontic was circumferentially veneered with feldspathic porcelain. The clinical and laboratory procedures of this new treatment modality are described, and 2 exemplary clinical cases are presented. This new preparation and framework design might improve the clinical outcome of all-ceramic resin-bonded IRFPDs. However, adequate evidence of long-term safety and efficacy is required before this new design can be recommended for general clinical practice.

  5. Albizia procera gum as an excipient for oral controlled release matrix tablet.

    PubMed

    Pachuau, Lalduhsanga; Mazumder, Bhaskar

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate controlled release matrix tablets of paracetamol based on natural gum exudates of Albizia procera. Procera gum was characterized of its properties like compressibility index, angle of repose, viscosity and moisture content. The interaction between the gum and paracetamol was also studied through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and FTIR spectroscopy. Matrix tablets were then prepared by wet granulation method with different concentrations of procera gum and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and evaluated for their physical properties like weight variation, hardness, friability and content uniformity. Dissolution study was conducted to characterize release mechanism from the matrix system and data were fitted to various kinetic models. The mechanism of drug release from both types of matrix tablets was found to be anomalous type. Results from various evaluations suggested that A. procera gum could be used as drug release retardant in controlled release matrix systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fracture strength of copy-milled and conventional In-Ceram crowns.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J W; Yang, J H

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of copy-milled and conventional In-Ceram crowns. Four groups of 10 uniform sized all-ceramic anterior crowns were fabricated for this test: (1) In-Ceram Spinell (2) In-Ceram Alumina (3) Celay In-Ceram Spinell, and (4) Celay In-Ceram Alumina crowns. All specimens were cemented on stainless steel master die with resin cement and stored in 37 degrees C water for one day prior to loading into a universal testing machine. Using a steel ball at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min-1, the crowns were loaded at 30 degrees C angle until catastrophic failure occurred. Mean fracture strength was analysed and compared. Under the conditions of this study and the materials used, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. The strength of Celay In-Ceram anterior crowns had a slightly higher fracture strength than conventional In-Ceram crowns. 2. In-Ceram Alumina crowns had a significantly higher fracture strength than In-Ceram Spinell crowns in both conventional and copy milling methods.

  7. The all-ceramic, inlay supported fixed partial denture. Part 3. Experimental approach for validating the finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M C; Field, C J; Swain, M V

    2012-03-01

    In a previous study, the authors used a finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate the stresses developed during the loading of an all-ceramic, inlay supported fixed partial denture and compared it with the more traditional full crown supported prosthesis. To date there has been little research into correlating the responses of the numerical model against physical mechanical tests; such validation analysis is crucial if the results from the FEA are to be confidently relied upon. This study reports on the experimental methods used to compare with the FEA and thereby to validate the predictive fracture behaviour of the numerical model. This study also outlines the methods for manufacture and testing of the ceramic structure along with observations of the fracture tests. In addition the procedure used for developing the FEA model for the test system is outlined.

  8. CAD/CAM systems available for the fabrication of crown and bridge restorations.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, T; Hotta, Y

    2011-06-01

    Dental biomaterials are widely used in all areas of routine dental practice. There are mainly two methods for their application. Firstly, dental biomaterials are placed into living tissues, such as teeth, to fill the space. Secondly, dental devices such as crown and bridge restorations and dentures are fabricated using various materials to restore the morphology and function of the dentition. Crown and bridge restorations are one of the main treatment methods used by general practitioners to achieve lifelike restoration of form and function. The recent introduction of osseointegrated implants has expanded the application of crown and bridge restorations for partially edentulous patients. Mechanical durability and precision fit are mandatory requirements for crowns and bridges. The development of various casting alloys and precise casting systems has contributed to the successful use of metal-based restorations. However, patient requests for more aesthetic and biologically 'safe' materials has led to an increased demand for metal-free restorations. There is also a growing demand to provide all-ceramic restorations more routinely. New materials such as highly sintered glass, polycrystalline alumina, zirconia based materials and adhesive monomers, will assist dentists to meet this demand. In addition, new fabrication systems combined with computer-assisted fabrication systems (dental CAD/CAM) and various networks are now available. Dental technology was centred on lost-wax casting technology but we now face a revolution in crown and bridge fabrication. This article reviews the history and recent status of dental CAD/CAM, the application of CAD/CAM fabricated tooth-coloured glass ceramic crowns, and the application of all-ceramic crowns and bridges using CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia based frameworks. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Cementing all-ceramic restorations: recommendations for success.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Marcos A; Bergeron, Cathia; Diaz-Arnold, Ana

    2011-04-01

    Several all-ceramic restorative systems of various compositions, properties and indications are available to the dental practitioner. Because of the large number of systems, the dental team faces questions and decisions when choosing the appropriate system and the appropriate means of cementation. The authors present a brief overview of the cementation options for various types of all-ceramic restorations. In this article, they discuss the cementation of current all-ceramic restorations and make clinical recommendations tailored to each type of ceramic. The clinician must have a good understanding of the ceramic type to determine whether a restoration should be cemented adhesively or nonadhesively. Other variables, such as isolation and preparation design, also influence the cementation choice. Various ceramic types demand different surface treatments before cementation. Choosing and applying the appropriate surface treatment and cementation procedure will contribute to long-lasting restorations. The literature is lacking in clinical trial results that validate current in vitro data regarding cementation of all-ceramic restorations.

  10. Lipoxygenase inhibitors from the latex of Calotropis Procera.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Mohamed, Nadia H; Liu, Miaomiao; El-Gamal, Ali A; Basudan, Omer A; Ismail, Mady Ahmed; Quinn, Ronald J; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Lixin; Shoreit, Ahmed A M

    2016-03-09

    A radical-scavenging, guided phytochemical study of the latex of Calotropis Procera afforded five lignans (1-5), including a new one (4). The structural determination was accomplished using 1D- and 2D-NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), and correlation with known compounds. Among the isolated compounds, acylated lignans (3-5) showed stronger antioxidant activity than non-acylated derivatives (1,2). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by determining the inhibitory potential against 5- and 15-lipoxygenase enzymes. The highest anti-inflammatory activity was observed in compound 4, with IC50s values of 7.6 µM and 2.7 µM against 5-LOX and 15-LOX, respectively.

  11. Anti-diarrhoeal activity of the latex of Calotropis procera.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Dewan, S; Sangraula, H; Kumar, V L

    2001-06-01

    The dry latex (DL) of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae), a potent anti-inflammatory agent has been evaluated for anti-diarrhoeal activity. Like atropine and phenylbutazone (PBZ), a single oral dose of DL (500 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease in frequency of defecation, severity of diarrhoea and afforded protection from diarrhoea in 80% rats treated with castor oil. To understand the mechanism of its anti-diarrhoeal activity, we further evaluated its effect on intestinal transit, castor oil induced intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling) and electrolyte concentration in the intestinal fluid. DL produced a decrease in intestinal transit (27-37%) as compared to both normal and castor oil treated animals. Unlike atropine, DL significantly inhibited castor oil induced enteropooling. However, it did not alter the electrolyte concentration in the intestinal fluid as compared to castor oil treated rats.

  12. Monolithic zirconia dental crowns. Internal fit, margin quality, fracture mode and load at fracture.

    PubMed

    Schriwer, Christian; Skjold, Anneli; Gjerdet, Nils Roar; Øilo, Marit

    2017-09-01

    Dental all-ceramic restorations of zirconia, with and without an aesthetic veneering layer, have become a viable alternative to conventional metal-ceramic restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether factors of the production methods or the material compositions affect load at fracture, fracture modes, internal fit or crown margins of monolithic zirconia crowns. Sixty crowns made from six different commercially available dental zirconias were produced to a model tooth with a shallow circumferential chamfer preparation. Internal fit was assessed by the replica method. The crown margin quality was assessed by light microscopy on an ordinal scale. The cemented crowns were loaded centrally in the occlusal fossa with a horizontal steel cylinder with a diameter of 13mm at 0.5mm/min until fracture. Fractographic analysis was performed on the fractured crowns. There were statistically significant differences among the groups regarding crown margins, internal fit and load at fracture (p<0.05, Kruskall Wallis). Fracture analyses revealed that all fractures started cervically and propagated to the occlusal surface similar to clinically observed fractures. There was statistically significant correlation between margin quality and load at fracture (Spearman's rank correlation, p<0,05). Production method and material composition of monolithic zirconia crowns affect internal fit, crown margin quality and the load at fracture. The hard-machined Y-TZP zirconia crowns had the best margin quality and the highest load at fracture. Reduction of margin flaws will improve fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns and thereby increase clinical success. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An interdisciplinary noninvasive all-ceramic treatment concept for nonsyndromic oligodontia in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Selz, Christian F; Jung, Britta A; Guess, Petra C

    2015-02-01

    Oligodontia has a substantial oral functional and psychosocial impact on the quality of life of children. The treatment of oligodontia in adolescence is an interdisciplinary approach which can include extraction of the primary teeth with orthodontic space closure, or prosthodontic rehabilitation. This case report describes a conservative approach for the rehabilitation of a 12-year-old patient with 19 ageneses (excluding third molars) of permanent teeth, infraocclusion of the persisting primary teeth, deep overbite, and reduced mesiodistal dimension of the maxillary incisors with a central diastema. The treatment plan to restore esthetics and function included an initial noninvasive prosthetic rehabilitation for deep bite correction with additive leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic onlays/veneers until definitive orthodontic and implant therapy are reevaluated and determined in adulthood. Esthetics, functional occlusion, and crown-to-root ratio remained stable over a follow-up period of 3 years. No signs of fractures within the all-ceramic restorations or symptoms of a temporomandibular disorder were evident.

  14. Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ahmed; Sabir, Jamal S M; Alakilli, Saleha Y M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Gadalla, Nour O; Edris, Sherif; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Bahieldin, Ahmed; Baker, Neil R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Irgang, Susann

    2014-01-01

    Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols) and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.

  15. Physico-chemical characterization of dairy gel obtained by a proteolytic extract from Calotropis procera - A comparison with chymosin.

    PubMed

    Rayanatou, Issa Ado; Mahamadou, ElHadji Gounga; Garric, Gilles; Harel-Oger, Marielle; Leduc, Arlette; Jardin, Julien; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Cauty, Chantal; Adakal, Hassane; Grongnet, Jean François; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2017-10-01

    Chymosin is the major enzyme used in cheesemaking but latex enzymes are also used. The aim of this work was to characterize the composition and the structure of dairy gel obtained by an extract of Calotropis procera leaves in comparison with those obtained by chymosin. The biochemical and mineral compositions of the curds and the cheese yields obtained by using Calotropis procera extract or chymosin were relatively similar. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of proteolysis after milk coagulation, determined by the non-protein nitrogen content and chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, indicated that Calotropis procera extract was more proteolytic than chymosin and that κ-casein was proteolyzed. The main consequence of proteolysis by Calotropis procera extract or chymosin was the formation of a similar and regular network with the presence of aggregates of casein micelles. These results support that Calotropis procera extract can be used as effective coagulant in cheesemaking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. All-ceramic fixed partial dentures. Studies on aluminum oxide- and zirconium dioxide-based ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Vult von Steyern, Per

    2005-01-01

    The development of refined, tougher, and stronger ceramic core materials in recent years has led to the wider use of new, strong all-ceramic systems based on oxide ceramics. Results from in-vitro studies investigating the use of oxide ceramics in shorter all-ceramic fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have been positive, but clinical studies and additional in-vitro studies are needed to confirm the advisability of such procedures. One aim of this thesis was to investigate whether alumina-based and zirconia-based material systems are adequate for use in shorter (< or = five-unit) FPDs and to evaluate the clinical results. Additional aims were to investigate how to achieve optimal fracture strength in an all-ceramic FPD by varying the try-in procedure, the cervical shape of the abutments, and the support of the FPD (abutment teeth or dental implants). The final aim was to compare the strength of a zirconia material system with that of an alumina equivalent with known long-term clinical performance. Two clinical studies investigating one alumina-based and one zirconia-based material system were performed. Twenty posterior, three-unit FPDs (glass-infiltrated alumina) were followed for 5 years and 20 three-five-unit FPDs (HIP zirconia) for 2 years. Long-term follow-ups were made after 11 +/-1 (glass-infiltrated alumina) and 3 years (HIP zirconia). In three in-vitro studies, the following variables were investigated: (1a) the flexural strength of porcelain specimens depending on whether they were exposed to saliva before the glaze firing (n=20) or first after the glaze firing (n=20), (1b) the fracture strength of three-unit all-ceramic FPDs (glass-infiltrated alumina) supported by abutments prepared with cervical shoulder preparations (n=9) and abutments with cervical chamfer preparations (n=9), (2) the fracture strength of crowns (n=30) made of a zirconia material system (densely sintered zirconia) and of crowns (n=30) of an alumina material system (densely sintered alumina

  17. Molecular and biochemical evaluation of genetic effect of Calotropis procera (Ait.) latex on Aspergillus terreus (Thom).

    PubMed

    Qari, Sameer H

    2008-10-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the genotoxic effect of latex of Calotropis procera. Dense conidial suspensions of Aspergillus terreus Thorn were treated with different concentrations of Calotropis latex and assayed for percentage survival, auxotrophic mutants, DNA and total protein contents and further subjected to RAPD and SDS-PAGE tests. It was found that latex of Calotropis procera had potent lethal and mutagenic activities. Percentage survival decreased as concentration or time of exposure increased. Frequency of auxotrophic mutants increased with increase in concentration or exposure time. Most auxotrophic mutants were amino acid requiring mutants. DNA and total protein contents of each mutant was significantly lower than wild type of Aspergillus terreus. RAPD demonstrated polymorphic genetic bands which were the electrophoretic products of PCR for all mutants compared with the wild type strain. SDS-PAGE results expressed a polymorphism of protein bands as well. All these results indicated the mutagenicity of latex of Calotropis procera.

  18. The Characteristics of Cultural Conditions for the Mycelial Growth of Macrolepiota procera

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sung Mi; Oh, Yun Hee; Lee, Kyung Rim; Kim, Seong Hwan; Im, Kyung Hoan; Kim, Jung Wan; Lee, U Youn; Shim, Jae Ouk; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong; Ro, Hyeon Su; Lee, Hyun Sook

    2005-01-01

    Macrolepiota procera, one of edible mushrooms belongs to Agaricaceae of Basidiomycota, has a good taste and good medicinal value. As a preliminary study for the development of artificial cultivation method of edible mushroom, cultural characteristics of M. procera was investigated on various culture media under different environmental conditions. Mycelial growth was compared on culture media composed of various carbon and nitrogen sources, and C/N ratios. The optimal conditions for the mycelial growth were 30℃ and pH 7. M. procera showed the rapid mycelial growth in the PDA media. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were maltose and glycine, respectively. The optimum C/N ratio was about 10 : 1 in case that 1% glucose was supplemented to the basal media as carbon source. PMID:24049468

  19. Cytotoxic cardenolides from the latex of Calotropis procera.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Nadia H; Liu, Miaomiao; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Alwahibi, Lamya H; Dai, Huanqin; Ismail, Mady Ahmed; Badr, Gamal; Quinn, Ronald J; Liu, Xueting; Zhang, Lixin; Shoreit, Ahmed A M

    2015-10-15

    Three new cardenolides (3, 9 and 10), along with eight known ones, were isolated from the latex of Calotropis procera. The structural determination was accomplished by the 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra as well as HRESIMS analysis. The growth inhibitory activity of the latex and its sub-fractions as well as isolated compounds was evaluated against human A549 and Hela cell lines. The results exhibited that latex had strong growth inhibitory activity with IC50s of (3.37 μM, A-549) and (6.45 μM, Hela). Among the four extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous), chloroform extract displayed the highest potential cytotoxic activity, with IC50s of (0.985 μM, A-549) and (1.471 μM, Hela). All the isolated compounds displayed various degrees of cytotoxic activity and the highest activity was observed by calactin (1) with IC50s values of (0.036 μM, A-549) and (0.083 μM, Hela). None of these isolated compounds exhibited good antimicrobial activity evaluated by determination of their MICs using the broth microdilution method against various infectious pathogens. The structure-activity relationships for cytotoxic activity were also discussed.

  20. Calotropis procera as a source of plant hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, M.D.; Erdman, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Hexane-Soxhlet extractions of oven-dried whole plants, stems, leaves and pods (less than or equal to 6 mo of age) yielded 4.35, 3.83, 5.13, and 9.37 weight % of hexane extract (HE), respectively The HE from whole plants had a density of 0.9299 g/cubic cm; 0.71% total ash; 9973.4 cal/g; and 78.03, 11.22, and 10.71% C, H, and O respectively. Similar values were obtained from stems, leaves, and pods when analyzed separately. MeOH-Soxhlet extractions of residues previously extracted with hexane yielded 16.14, 18.50, 12.15, and 20.98 weight % MeOH extract (ME) from whole plants, stems, leaves, and pods, respectively. The ME from whole-plant residues had a density of 1.2267 g/cubic cm; 12.05% total ash; 4647.4 cal/g; and 40.88, 6.86, and 30.05% C, H, and O respectively. Similar values were obtained from stems, leaves and pods when analyzed separately. Calotropis procera can be used as a renewable source of hydrocarbon fuels and intermediate energy resources.

  1. Calotropis procera: A potential cognition enhancer in scopolamine and electroconvulsive shock-induced amnesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malabade, Rohit; Taranalli, Ashok D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Present study evaluates the effect of Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) dry latex on cognitive function in rats using scopolamine and electroconvulsive shock (ECS) induced amnesia model. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of C. procera dry latex in scopolamine-induced amnesia model. Dose showing maximum effect in cognitive performance was selected and further evaluated using scopolamine and ECS-induced amnesia model for its effect on neurochemical enzymes and cognitive performance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, β amyloid1-42, and dopamine level were analyzed, while the cognitive performance was assessed by elevated plus maze, step-through passive avoidance test, and Morris water maze. Simultaneously, C. procera dry latex (25, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/mL) was screened for in vitro AChE inhibition assay. Results: Pretreatment with (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) C. procera dry latex shows dose dependent increase in cognitive performance in scopolamine-induced amnesia. Further, pretreatment with the selected dose (800 mg/kg) showed significant improvement in transfer latency (P < 0.001, P < 0.01), escape latency (P < 0.05), time spent in target quadrant (P < 0.001) also significant decrease in AChE activity (P < 0.05), β amyloid1-42 level (P < 0.001), and increase in dopamine level (P < 0.01) in rat brain homogenate when compared with scopolamine and ECS disease control groups. IC50 for C. procera dry latex was found to be <1000 μg/mL. Conclusions: Pretreatment with C. procera dry latex (800 mg/kg) produced significant cognition enhancement by improving cognitive performance and decreasing the marker neurochemical enzyme activity in scopolamine and ECS-induced amnesia model. PMID:26288476

  2. Calotropis procera: A potential cognition enhancer in scopolamine and electroconvulsive shock-induced amnesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Malabade, Rohit; Taranalli, Ashok D

    2015-01-01

    Present study evaluates the effect of Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) dry latex on cognitive function in rats using scopolamine and electroconvulsive shock (ECS) induced amnesia model. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of C. procera dry latex in scopolamine-induced amnesia model. Dose showing maximum effect in cognitive performance was selected and further evaluated using scopolamine and ECS-induced amnesia model for its effect on neurochemical enzymes and cognitive performance. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, β amyloid1-42, and dopamine level were analyzed, while the cognitive performance was assessed by elevated plus maze, step-through passive avoidance test, and Morris water maze. Simultaneously, C. procera dry latex (25, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/mL) was screened for in vitro AChE inhibition assay. Pretreatment with (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) C. procera dry latex shows dose dependent increase in cognitive performance in scopolamine-induced amnesia. Further, pretreatment with the selected dose (800 mg/kg) showed significant improvement in transfer latency (P < 0.001, P < 0.01), escape latency (P < 0.05), time spent in target quadrant (P < 0.001) also significant decrease in AChE activity (P < 0.05), β amyloid1-42 level (P < 0.001), and increase in dopamine level (P < 0.01) in rat brain homogenate when compared with scopolamine and ECS disease control groups. IC50 for C. procera dry latex was found to be <1000 μg/mL. Pretreatment with C. procera dry latex (800 mg/kg) produced significant cognition enhancement by improving cognitive performance and decreasing the marker neurochemical enzyme activity in scopolamine and ECS-induced amnesia model.

  3. Clinical and pathological effects of Calotropis procera exposure in sheep and rats.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Joseney Maia; de Freitas, Francisco Joelson Correia; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson Lima; Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; Batista, Jael Soares; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the toxic effects resulting from the administration of Calotropis procera (Aiton) W. T. Aiton latex to rats and C. procera leaves to sheep. We studied male sheep that received C. procera leaves by gavage. Twenty male rats were separated into 5 groups and were subjected to an intra-peritoneal injection of fresh C. procera latex (without carrier solvent) at 1.0, 0.6, 0.3 or 0.1 ml of latex/kg of body weight, and control animals were injected with 0.9% NaCl. All rats were treated with the highest dose, but none of the rats from the other groups, died. The histological lesions were restricted to rats dosed with 1.0 ml of latex/kg body weight and included multi-focal coagulation necrosis of cardiac fibers and vacuolized hepatocytes. Subsequently, three groups of two sheep were treated with (1) a single dose of 30 g/kg, (2) a single dose of 60 g/kg or (3) 60 g/kg per day for 10 consecutive days. Exposure to the C. procera leaves was responsible for tachycardia and transitory cardiac arrhythmias in sheep from all groups. Gross pathological analysis of sheep dosed with 60 g/kg per day for 10 days revealed mild ascites, exudates on the trachea, pulmonary edema, mild hemorrhage in the liver, hydropericardium, flaccid heart, ulcers on the abomasum and kidneys presenting pale juxtamedullary cortex. The histological findings of the rat and sheep studies were similar and included multi-focal coagulation necrosis of cardiac fibers and vacuolized hepatocytes. In conclusion, our findings indicate that C. procera is a cardiotoxic and hepatotoxic plant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of fit accuracy between Procera® custom abutments and three implant systems.

    PubMed

    de Morais Alves da Cunha, Tiago; de Araújo, Roberto Paulo Correia; da Rocha, Paulo Vicente Barbosa; Amoedo, Rosa Maria Pazos

    2012-12-01

    Although increase of misfit has been reported when associating implant and abutment from different manufacturers, Procera custom abutment has been universally used in clinical practice. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the vertical gap of zirconia Procera® abutment associated with implants from the same manufacturer (Procera manufacturer) and two other implant systems. Twenty-four zirconia Procera abutments were produced using computer-assisted design and manufacture and paired with (a) eight MK III, RP 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Nobel Biocare™, Göteborg, Sweden) - GNB group (Nobel Biocare group); (b) eight Try on, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Sistema de Implantes, São Paulo, Brazil) - ES group (SIN experimental group) ; and (c) eight Master screw, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Conexão® Sistema de Prótese, São Paulo, Brazil) - EC group (Conexão experimental group). A comparison of the vertical misfit at the implant-abutment interface was taken at six measuring sites on each sample using scanning electron microscopy with a magnification of 408×. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences, and Tukey's test was used for pair-wise comparison of groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences relative to average misfit were found when Procera abutments were associated with other implant manufacturers. The ES group and EC group did not differ significantly, but both demonstrated significantly larger average misfit than the GNB group (p = .001). The average misfit was 5.7 µm ± 0.39, 9.53 µm ± 0.52, and 10.62 µm ± 2.16, respectively, for groups GNB, ES, and EC. The association of Procera zirconia abutment with other implant systems different from its manufacturer demonstrated significant alteration of vertical misfit at implant-abutment interface. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. In vitro failure of crowns produced by two CAD/CAM systems.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Thomas J; Burke, F J Trevor

    2011-09-01

    Previous laboratory studies have demonstrated satisfactory fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns placed using a resin-composite luting material and a dentine bonding system. This study investigated the fracture resistance of teeth restored using CAD/CAM technology, namely, Zirconia Based crowns and Cerec produced feldspathic porcelain crowns, both luted with a self adhesive resin luting material (RelyX Unicem Clicker 3M ESPE). Standardized preparations were carried out on two groups often sound, unrestored, maxillary premolar teeth. Ceramic crowns were constructed to have a thickness of 2mm at their midline fissure. Compressive fracture resistance was determined for each group using a Universal Testing Machine. The failure modes were also examined visually and interpreted according to a chosen scale. Mean Compressive fracture resistance of 746 (147)N and 1630 (175)N were recorded for the Cerec and Lava groups respectively; differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The fracture resistance of teeth restored with Lava crowns is significantly greater than a similar group of teeth restored with Cerec crowns.

  6. Calotropis procera (Sodom apple)--a potential material for enzyme purification.

    PubMed

    Kareem, S O; Akpan, I; Osho, M B

    2003-03-01

    A simple method based on precipitation with Calotropis procera latex was developed for the purification of crude enzyme from fermentation broth. C. procera latex (10(-2) dilution) clarified and concentrated the crude amylase of Aspergillus oryzae 4-fold with 97% recovery of the initial amylase activity in the filtrate in a single step operation. The latex was stable at pH < or = 4.5 and there was no significant difference (P < or = 0.05) in the purification potential of the latex at 4 and 28 degrees C. This method could prove useful to developing economies of the tropics where ambient temperature is around 28 degrees C.

  7. Layered color of all-ceramic core and veneer ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Ahn, Jin-Soo

    2007-05-01

    Color of an all-ceramic restoration is the result of interaction between core and veneer ceramics. However, the influence on color of the different types of all-ceramic core and veneer combinations at clinically relevant thicknesses is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to measure the layered color of all-ceramic core and veneer combinations with the thickness of the core set as the clinically minimum thickness to mask the background, and the thickness of the veneer set as the remaining available thickness within a clinically allowable thickness. The A2-corresponding shade of 7 all-ceramic core materials, and 1 sintering ceramic and 1 alloy core as references, were prepared in clinically minimum thicknesses (0.4 to 0.8 mm) to mask the background (n=7). The A2 and A3 corresponding shades of each recommended veneer ceramic were used to fabricate specimens that were 1.5 mm thick. The color of the core, veneer, and layered specimens was measured with a reflection spectrophotometer. Two-way ANOVA with the independent variables of the types of core and veneer ceramics on the layered color was used to analyze the data (alpha=.05). The influence of the color coordinates in the core and veneering ceramics on the layered color was analyzed with multiple regression analysis. CIE L( *), a( *), b( *), and C( *)(ab) values of A2- or A3-veneer layered specimens were influenced significantly by the combination of core and veneer ceramics (P<.001). The CIE L( *) values of layered specimens were primarily influenced by the CIE L( *) values of the core ceramic (P<.001). The other 3 parameters were primarily influenced by each corresponding parameter of veneer ceramic, based on multiple regression analyses (P<.001). The layered color of all-ceramic core and veneer ceramics in the clinically allowable thickness was different even when the same shade, keyed to a VITA guide, of core and veneer ceramics were layered. The color difference between each pair of A2- or A3

  8. Calotropis procera seedlings could be used as a rapid cost effective bioindicator for measuring aluminum environmental pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosa, Kareem A.; El-Keblawy, Ali; Najar, Atyat

    2017-04-01

    Calotropis procera seedlings could be used as a rapid cost effective bioindicator for measuring aluminum environmental pollution Kareem A. Mosa, Ali El-Keblawy, Atyat Najar Department of Applied Biology, College of Sciences, University of Sharjah, UAE Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of different heavy metals in natural resources like soil, water and air thus affecting their quality. Aluminum (Al) is a dominant heavy metal pollutant that causes serious toxic effects to living systems including plants. Therefore, it is critical to regularly monitor the changes in Al levels in natural resources. Living organisms could be used as bioindicators for monitoring and measuring the levels of heavy metals in environmental samples. The aim of this study was to develop a cost effective bioindicator for monitoring aluminum (Al) and assess the damage caused by Al bioaccumulation using the root system of Calotropis Procera seedlings. A hydroponic system was developed for growing C. Procera in four different concentrations of Al (20, 40, 60 and 80 ppm). Root length and shoot fresh and dry weights were assessed after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days of Al treatment. The results showed remarkable sensitivity of C. Procera seedlings for the different concentrations of Al. There was gradual but significant decrease in C. Procera root length with the increase in the Al concentrations. X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRF) analysis indicated a significant increase in Al concentration in C. Procera roots with the increase of both Al concentration in the hydroponic solution and the growing period. Moreover, electrical conductivity analysis showed that Al induced damage to C. Procera root plasma membrane as indicated by the increase in electrolyte leakages. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR analysis confirmed the genotoxin effect of Al which induced C. Procera genomic DNA modification. Altogether, the result demonstrated that C. Procera could

  9. Crown ethers in graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; ...

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basicmore » structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.« less

  10. Crown ethers in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  11. Crown ethers in graphene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Pennycook, Stephen J; Moyer, Bruce A; Chisholm, Matthew F

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers are at their most basic level rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity. Here we present atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures should also extend to their selectivity towards specific metal cations. Crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be systematically tested and modelled. Thus, we expect that our finding will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  12. Predictable aesthetic replacement of a metal-ceramic crown using CAD/CAM technology: a case report.

    PubMed

    Poticny, Daniel; Conrad, Robert

    2005-08-01

    The currently available CAD/CAM technologies present clinicians with various clinical benefits that include durability, marginal adaptation, and precision aesthetics. The clinical and laboratory procedures associated with these CAD/CAM systems differ from one another, and practitioners must understand the indications for each. Office-based systems, as demonstrated in the following case presentation, allow excellent results to be achieved in a single patient visit and provide a viable alternative for today's practice. This case report describes the associated sequences for a posterior CAD/CAM restoration. Learning Objectives This article discusses a protocol for the use of CAD/CAM restorations in the aesthetic replacement of defective posterior crowns. Upon reading this article, the reader should have: * Greater understanding of the in-office CAD/CAM procedures used to fabricate single-visit crowns. * Improved awareness of the bonding protocol used for these all-ceramic crowns.

  13. Histamine mediates the pro-inflammatory effect of latex of Calotropis procera in rats.

    PubMed

    Shivkar, Yatin M; Kumar, Vijay L

    2003-10-01

    Calotropis procera is known to produce contact dermatitis and the latex of this plant produces intense inflammation when injected locally. However, the precise mode of its pro-inflammatory effect is not known. In present study we have pharmacologically characterized the inflammation induced by latex of C. procera in a rat paw edema model and determined the role of histamine in latex-induced inflammation. Inflammation was induced in the hind paw of rats by injecting different doses of dried latex (DL) of C. procera. The inhibitory effect of phenylbutazone, dexamethasone, celecoxib, cyproheptadine, chlorpheniramine and compound 48/80 on edema volume was evaluated and compared with that against carrageenan. The histamine content of DL was measured fluorometrically. DL produced dose-dependent inflammation of the rat paw. Cyproheptadine and chlorpheniramine effectively inhibited DL-induced inflammation (90%; p < 0.01), while anti-inflammatory drugs phenylbutazone, dexamethasone and celecoxib were more effective against carrageenan-induced inflammation. Depletion of mast cell histamine by compound 48/80 produced a significant decrease in DL-induced inflammation as compared with carrageenan (500% versus 25%). DL was also found to contain about 6 microg/g of histamine. Thus, our study shows that the biogenic amines play a significant role in C. procera latex-induced inflammation and antihistaminic drugs could be effectively used to inhibit inflammatory response elicited by exposure to latex.

  14. Anthelmintic activity of Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. F. flowers in sheep.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; Lateef, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Nisar

    2005-11-14

    The anthelmintic activity of Calotropis (C.) procera flowers in comparison with levamisole was evaluated through in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro studies revealed anthelmintic effects (P<0.05) of crude aqueous (CAE) and crude methanolic extracts (CME) of Calotropis procera flowers on live Haemonchus (H.) contortus as evident from their mortality or temporary paralysis. For in vivo studies, Calotropis procera flowers were administered as crude powder (CP), CAE and CME to sheep naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Egg count percent reduction (ECR) was recorded as 88.4 and 77.8% in sheep treated with CAE and CP at 3gkg(-1) body weight on day 7 and 10 post-treatment (PT), respectively. CME was least effective resulting in 20.9% reduction in ECR on day 7 PT. It was found that Calotropis procera flowers possess good anthelmintic activity against nematodes, yet it was lower than that exhibited by levamisole (97.8-100%). It is suggested that further research on large scale be carried out involving a large number of animals, doses higher than those used in the current study, identification of active principles, and standardization of dose and toxicity studies for drug development.

  15. Histamine mediates the pro-inflammatory effect of latex of Calotropis procera in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Shivkar, Yatin M; Kumar, Vijay L

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTiON: Calotropis procera is known to produce contact dermatitis and the latex of this plant produces intense inflammation when injected locally. However, the precise mode of its pro-inflammatory effect is not known. In present study we have pharmacologically characterized the inflammation induced by latex of C. procera in a rat paw edema model and determined the role of histamine in latex-induced inflammation. METHODS: Inflammation was induced in the hind paw of rats by injecting different doses of dried latex (DL) of C. procera. The inhibitory effect of phenylbutazone, dexamethasone, celecoxib, cyproheptadine, chlorpheniramine and compound 48/80 on edema volume was evaluated and compared with that against carrageenan. The histamine content of DL was measured fluorometrically. RESULTS: DL produced dose-dependent inflammation of the rat paw. Cyproheptadine and chlorpheniramine effectively inhibited DL-induced inflammation (90%; p < 0.01), while anti-inflammatory drugs phenylbutazone, dexamethasone and celecoxib were more effective against carrageenan-induced inflammation. Depletion of mast cell histamine by compound 48/80 produced a significant decrease in DL-induced inflammation as compared with carrageenan (500% versus 25%). DL was also found to contain about 6 microg/g of histamine. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, our study shows that the biogenic amines play a significant role in C. procera latex-induced inflammation and antihistaminic drugs could be effectively used to inhibit inflammatory response elicited by exposure to latex. PMID:14760937

  16. Insights on the phytochemical profile (cyclopeptides) and biological activities of Calotropis procera latex organic fractions.

    PubMed

    Jucá, Thiago Lustosa; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Viana de Matos, Mayara Patrícia; Marinho-Filho, José Delano Barreto; Moreira, Renato Azevedo; de Oliveira Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous). Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9  μ g/mL) and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7  μ g/mL). Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%), ethyl acetate (56%), and aqueous (72%) fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed.

  17. Effects of desiccation on the recalcitrant seeds of Carapa guianensis Aubl. and Carapa procera DC

    Treesearch

    Kristina F. Connor; I. D. Kossmann Ferraz; F.T. Bonner; John A. Vozzo

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if the seeds of Carapa guianensis Aubl. and Carapa procera DC. undergo physiological, biochemical, and ultrastructural changes when they are desiccated; and to find if these changes can be used to monitor viability in Carapa. Seeds were air-dried at room temperature for 7 to 11 days. Samples were taken at frequent intervals and...

  18. Insights on the Phytochemical Profile (Cyclopeptides) and Biological Activities of Calotropis procera Latex Organic Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Jucá, Thiago Lustosa; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Viana de Matos, Mayara Patrícia; Marinho-Filho, José Delano Barreto; Moreira, Renato Azevedo; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous). Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9 μg/mL) and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7 μg/mL). Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%), ethyl acetate (56%), and aqueous (72%) fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed. PMID:24348174

  19. Quantitative measurement of tooth and ceramic wear: in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Etman, Maged K; Woolford, Mark; Dunne, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively measure tooth and ceramic wear over a 2-year period using a novel superimposition technique. Three ceramic systems--experimental hot-pressed ceramic (EC), Procera AllCeram (PA), and metal-ceramic--were used. A total of 90 posterior crowns in 48 patients were randomized into 3 groups, and impressions were made at baseline and at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Clinical images were taken after using a dye to highlight surface changes. The impressions were digitized and modeled as superimposable 3-dimensional colored surface images. The depth of wear at the occlusal contact areas was quantitatively measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The quantitative evaluation showed more wear in Procera AllCeram at the occlusal contact areas, whereas the experimental and metal-ceramic systems showed less wear. There was a significant difference in the amount of enamel worn between all types of restorations (P < .05). There was a statistically significant difference (P < .05) in the mean depth of wear between all systems. The metal-ceramic and experimental systems showed less change, indicating improved wear resistance compared with Procera AllCeram. In addition, enamel opposing metal-ceramic and experimental crowns showed less wear compared to enamel opposed by Procera AIICeram crowns.

  20. Metabolomic Response of Calotropis procera Growing in the Desert to Changes in Water Availability

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Ahmed; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Alakilli, Saleha Y. M.; Shokry, Ahmed M.; Gadalla, Nour O.; Edris, Sherif; Al-Kordy, Magdy A.; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S.; El-Domyati, Fotouh M.; Bahieldin, Ahmed; Baker, Neil R.; Willmitzer, Lothar; Irgang, Susann

    2014-01-01

    Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols) and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses. PMID:24520340

  1. Comparison of fit accuracy between Procera custom abutments and three implant systems.

    PubMed

    Alves da Cunha, Tiago de Morais; Correia de Araújo, Roberto Paulo; Barbosa da Rocha, Paulo Vicente; Pazos Amoedo, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    Although increase of misfit has been reported when associating implant and abutment from different manufacturers, Procera® (Nobel Biocare™, Göteborg, Sweden) custom abutment has been universally used in clinical practice. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the vertical gap of zirconia Procera abutment associated with implants from the same manufacturer (Nobel Biocare) and two other implant systems. Twenty-four zirconia Procera abutments were produced using computer-assisted design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) and paired with (1) eight MK Iii RP 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Nobel Biocare) - GNB group; (2) eight Try on, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Sistema de Implantes, São Paulo, Brazil) - ES group; and (3) eight Master screw, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Conexão Sistema de Prótese, São Paulo, Brazil) - EC group. A comparison of the vertical misfit at the implant-abutment interface was taken at six measuring sites on each sample using scanning electron microscopy with a magnification of 408×. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences, and Tukey's test was used for pairwise comparison of groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences relative to average misfit were found when Procera abutments were associated with other implant manufacturers. The ES group and EC group did not differ significantly, but both demonstrated significantly larger average misfit than the GNB group (p = .001). The average misfit was 5.7 µm ± 0.39, 9.53 µm ± 0.52 and 10.62 µm ± 2.16, respectively, for groups GNB, ES, and EC. The association of Procera zirconia abutment with other implant systems different from its manufacturer demonstrated significant alteration of vertical misfit at implant-abutment interface. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Evaluation of the color reproducibility of all-ceramic restorations fabricated by the digital veneering method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Ki-Baek; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical acceptability of all-ceramic crowns fabricated by the digital veneering method vis-à-vis the traditional method. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia specimens manufactures by two different manufacturing method, conventional vs digital veneering, with three different thickness (0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.7 mm) were prepared for analysis. Color measurement was performed using a spectrophotometer for the prepared specimens. The differences in shade in relation to the build-up method were calculated by quantifying ΔE* (mean color difference), with the use of color difference equations representing the distance from the measured values L*, a*, and b*, to the three-dimensional space of two colors. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) combined with a Tukey multiple-range test was used to analyze the data (α=0.05). RESULTS In comparing means and standard deviations of L*, a*, and b* color values there was no significant difference by the manufacturing method and zirconia core thickness according to a two-way ANOVA. The color differences between two manufacturing methods were in a clinically acceptable range less than or equal to 3.7 in all the specimens. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this study, a carefully consideration is necessary while selecting upper porcelain materials, even if it is performed on a small scale. However, because the color reproducibility of the digital veneering system was within the clinically acceptable range when comparing with conventional layering system, it was possible to estimate the possibility of successful aesthetic prostheses in the latest technology. PMID:24843390

  3. Biaxial flexural strength of Turkom-Cera core compared to two other all-ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Makramani, Bandar Mohammed Abdullah; Razak, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Abu-Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2010-12-01

    Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures. The aim of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials. Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995) were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M) Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia)], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany), which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872. The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.8 ± 87.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.4 ± 28.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.7 ± 12.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA ) at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (P<0.001). There was statistically significant difference between the three core ceramics (P<0.05). Turkom-Cera showed the highest biaxial flexural strength, followed by In-Ceram and Vitadur-N. Turkom-Cera core had significantly higher flexural strength than In-Ceram and Vitadur-N ceramic core materials.

  4. Biaxial flexural strength of Turkom-Cera core compared to two other all-ceramic systems

    PubMed Central

    AL-MAKRAMANI, Bandar Mohammed Abdullah; RAZAK, Abdul Aziz Abdul; ABU-HASSAN, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials. Material and methods Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995) were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M) Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia)], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany), which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872. Results The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.8±87.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.4±28.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.7±12.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA ) at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (P<0.001). There was statistically significant difference between the three core ceramics (P<0.05). Turkom-Cera showed the highest biaxial flexural strength, followed by In-Ceram and Vitadur-N. Conclusions Turkom-Cera core had significantly higher flexural strength than In-Ceram and Vitadur-N ceramic core materials. PMID:21308292

  5. Tooth wear against ceramic crowns in posterior region: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hmaidouch, Rim; Weigl, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to assess tooth wear against ceramic crowns in posterior region in vitro and in vivo. An electronic PubMed search was conducted to identify studies on tooth wear against ceramic crowns in posterior region. The selected studies were analyzed in regard to type of crowns, natural antagonist, measuring protocol and outcome. From a yield of 1 000 titles, 43 articles were selected for full-text analysis; finally, no in vitro and only five in vivo studies met the inclusion criteria. As there is heterogeneity in design, used measuring method, ceramics and analysis-form, a meta-analysis was not possible. Results of these studies are very controversial which makes a scientifically valid comparison impossible. This review indicated that some all-ceramic crowns are as wear friendly as metal-ceramic crowns. Up to now, it has been impossible to associate tooth wear with any specific causal agent. The role of ceramic surface treatment that might be responsible for the changing in rate of tooth wear seems undetermined as yet through clinical trials. The literature reveals that studies on this topic are subject to a substantial amount of bias. Therefore, additional clinical studies, properly designed to diminish bias, are warranted. PMID:24136675

  6. Fracture strength of all-ceramic restorations after fatigue loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladhandayutham, Balasudha

    Fracture strength of monolithic and bilayered LAVA and e. max lower molar crowns after load cycling was measured and compared. The study included three groups (n = 8) from LAVA zirconia and three groups from e. max lithium disilicate to compare influences of different layers, thicknesses and manufacturing techniques. Prefabricated anatomically designed crowns were cemented to dies made from Z 100 composite resin using Rely X Luting Plus resin modified glass ionomer cement. Cemented crowns were stored at 37° C for 24 hours then cyclic loaded to test fatigue properties. The crowns were loaded to 200,000 cycles at 25N at a rate of 40 cycles / minute to simulate oral function. Subsequently, fracture properties for each group were measured using an Instron Universal Testing machine. Microscopic evaluation of the surface of fatigued samples did not reveal micro-cracks at the end of 50,000 cycles but minor wear facets were observed at the site of contact from the steatite ball antagonist. Crowns from LAVA bilayered groups showed step by step fractures while crowns from all other groups fractured as a single event as observed by the high speed camera. Zirconia bilayered crowns showed the highest loads to fracture while lithium disilicate monolithic crowns showed the lowest, within the limitations of the study. The study also showed that monolithic zirconia crowns of 0.6mm thickness resulted in relatively high magnitude for forces at fracture.

  7. Pilot Study with regard to the Wound Healing Activity of Protein from Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br.

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Chow, Vincent T. K.

    2012-01-01

    We provide the scientific basis for the use of Calotropis procera for treating skin and wound infections in traditional medicine. The aqueous extract of stem-bark of C. procera exhibited more pronounced potent antimicrobial activity. Calo-protein was purified and identified from the most-active aqueous extracts of C. procera and showed broad-spectrum activity. Calo-protein inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. aerogenes effectively at 25 μg/ml concentration. Mice topically treated with Calo-protein revealed significant wound healing after 14 days comparable to fusidic acid (FA) as positive control. This protein was devoid of cytolytic effect even at higher concentrations on skin cells after 24 h. Further investigation of this Calo-protein of C. procera on bacterial inhibition may provide a better understanding of the scientific basis and justification for its use in traditional medicine. PMID:22973400

  8. All-ceramic single-tooth implant reconstructions using modified zirconia abutments: a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial of the effect of pink veneering ceramic on the esthetic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Büchi, Dominik L E; Sailer, Irena; Fehmer, Vincent; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Thoma, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether veneering of the submucosal part of zirconia abutments using pink veneering ceramic positively influences the color of the peri-implant mucosa. Single-tooth implants were restored with either white zirconia abutments (control group) or pink-veneered zirconia abutments and all-ceramic crowns. Esthetic outcome measurements included a spectrophotometric evaluation of the peri-implant mucosal color. Test and control groups induced a visible discoloration of the peri-implant mucosa after the insertion of the abutments and following cementation of the crowns compared to natural teeth. The calculated color differences were above the clinically visible threshold value and were more favorable for the control group, although not statistically significant. It is concluded that veneering of zirconia abutments with pink veneering ceramic failed to positively influence the esthetic outcome, mostly due to a decrease of the brightness compared with the control group.

  9. Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of All-Ceramic Single Tooth Implant Reconstructions Using Modified Zirconia Abutments: Radiographic and Prosthetic Results at 1 Year of Loading.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Daniel S; Brandenberg, Francine; Fehmer, Vincent; Büchi, Dominik L E; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to test whether or not veneering of the submucosal part of zirconia abutments with pink dental ceramic affects radiographic and technical outcomes of implant-supported single crowns (ISSC). Single tooth implants were randomly restored with either pink-veneered zirconia abutments (test; n = 10) or non-veneered zirconia abutments (control group; n = 10) and all-ceramic crowns. At baseline (crown insertion), and 6- and 12-month radiographic and technical evaluations were performed including standardized x-rays and modified United States Public Health Service criteria (technical). Survival and complication rates were assessed for implants and restorations. Robust linear mixed model analysis was performed to investigate the effect of group and time-point on radiographic outcomes. At 1 year, the survival rate for implants was 100% and 95% for ISSC. Most of the implants were placed subcrestally. Therefore, mean marginal bone levels decreased in both groups between implant insertion and baseline (p < .05), but then remained stable up to 1 year (test: 0.15 mm ± 0.42 mm; control 0.23 mm ± 0.63 mm) (p > .005). At 6 months, one minor chipping occurred in the test group. At 1 year, three crowns (control) exhibited occlusal roughness. In addition, one abutment fracture occurred (test). The differences between test and control group were not statistically significantly different for any of the evaluated outcome measures (p > .05). Veneering of the submucosal part of zirconia abutments did not affect biological and technical outcomes of ISSCs. Technical complications of the reconstructions, however, were frequent, resulting in a rate of 75% of the crowns being complication free. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Marginal and Internal Discrepancies of Posterior Zirconia-Based Crowns Fabricated with Three Different CAD/CAM Systems Versus Metal-Ceramic.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rocio; Gonzalo, Esther; Gomez-Polo, Miguel; Suárez, María J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the marginal and internal fit of metalceramic and zirconia-based crowns. Forty standardized steel specimens were prepared to receive posterior crowns and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10): (1) metal-ceramic, (2) NobelProcera Zirconia, (3) Lava Zirconia, and (4) VITA In-Ceram YZ. All crowns were cemented with glass-ionomer agent and sectioned buccolingually. A scanning electron microscope was used for measurements. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon signed rank test (α = .05) statistical analyses were conducted. Significant differences (P < .0001) in marginal discrepancies were observed between metal-ceramic and zirconia groups. No differences were found for the axial wall fit (P = .057). Significant differences were shown among the groups in discrepancies at the occlusal cusp (P = .0012) and at the fossa (P = .0062). No differences were observed between surfaces. All zirconia groups showed better values of marginal discrepancies than the metal-ceramic group. Procera Zirconia showed the lowest gaps.

  11. Accuracy of CAD/CAM crown fit with infrared and LED cameras.

    PubMed

    Cook, K T; Fasbinder, D J

    2012-01-01

    The intraoral recording of digital images is a critical component of fabricating accurate Cerec restorations. This study evaluated the marginal fit and internal adaptation of Cerec ceramic crowns fabricated using different cameras, alternative powdering materials, and multiple image capture sequences. A master epoxy resin model was fabricated using a polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) impression of a typodont with an all-ceramic crown preparation on tooth 14. A titanium dioxide powder/mechanical sprayer and an aerosol contrast spray were used to create a uniformly reflective surface. An infrared laser Cerec 3/RedCam unit and LED Cerec AC/BlueCam unit were used to record images for crown fabrication. Three different image capture sequences were performed to record the data. Crowns were made for each test group using a Cerec AC unit with V3.80 software. The crowns were milled from blocks of IPS EmpressCAD. Marginal fit and internal adaptation of the crowns to the master model of the preparation was assessed with a measuring microscope at 20X. The data was analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. No significant differences were found in the marginal fit, axial wall adaptation, or occlusal wall adaptation between any of the test groups (p < 0.05). Within the confines of this in vitro study, there were no significant differences between the marginal fit and internal adaptation of Cerec CAD/CAM ceramic crowns fabricated with: 1) the infrared laser camera (RedCam) and the LED camera (BlueCam), 2) titanium dioxide powder or aerosol contrast spray, or 3) multiple imaging sequences for recording the preparation and adjacent teeth.

  12. Dental students' preferences and performance in crown design: conventional wax-added versus CAD.

    PubMed

    Douglas, R Duane; Hopp, Christa D; Augustin, Marcus A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental students' perceptions of traditional waxing vs. computer-aided crown design and to determine the effectiveness of either technique through comparative grading of the final products. On one of twoidentical tooth preparations, second-year students at one dental school fabricated a wax pattern for a full contour crown; on the second tooth preparation, the same students designed and fabricated an all-ceramic crown using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology. Projects were graded for occlusion and anatomic form by three faculty members. On completion of the projects, 100 percent of the students (n=50) completed an eight-question, five-point Likert scalesurvey, designed to assess their perceptions of and learning associated with the two design techniques. The average grades for the crown design projects were 78.3 (CAD) and 79.1 (wax design). The mean numbers of occlusal contacts were 3.8 (CAD) and 2.9(wax design), which was significantly higher for CAD (p=0.02). The survey results indicated that students enjoyed designing afull contour crown using CAD as compared to using conventional wax techniques and spent less time designing the crown using CAD. From a learning perspective, students felt that they learned more about position and the size/strength of occlusal contacts using CAD. However, students recognized that CAD technology has limits in terms of representing anatomic contours and excursive occlusion compared to conventional wax techniques. The results suggest that crown design using CAD could be considered as an adjunct to conventional wax-added techniques in preclinical fixed prosthodontic curricula.

  13. Effect of Calotropis procera latex on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, K K Mueen; Rana, A C; Dixit, V K

    2004-01-01

    The alcoholic extract of the latex obtained from Calotropis procera (Asclepidaceae) was evaluated for protection against isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g body wt., s.c.)-induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. The heart damage induced by isoproterenol was indicated by elevated levels of the marker enzymes such as Creatine Kinase-isoenzyme (CK-MB), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) in serum with increased lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione content in heart homogenates. Microscopical examination (histopathology) was also performed on the myocardial tissue. Pretreatment with an ethanolic latex extract of Calotropis procera at a dose of 300 mg/kg body wt., administered orally thrice a day for 30 days, reduced significantly (p < 0.01) the elevated marker enzyme levels in serum and heart homogenates in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Histopathological observation revealed a marked protection by the extract in myocardial necrotic damage.

  14. Involvement of prostaglandins in inflammation induced by latex of Calotropis procera.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay L; Shivkar, Yatin M

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:The aerial parts of the plant Calotropis procera produce milky white latex that causes inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes. Prostaglandins are one of the mediators released in an inflammatory response following induction of cyclooxygenase (COX). In the present study, we have evaluated the role of prostaglandins in inflammatory response elicited by the latex of C. procera. METHODS: Aqueous extract of dried latex of C. procera was injected into the 6-day air-pouch in the rat. The inflammatory response was evaluated by studying the air-pouch fluid for its volume, protein and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations, and leucocyte counts. The granulation tissue from the pouch was quantified and studied for COX-2 expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The inhibitory effect of celecoxib and dexamethasone was evaluated on the aforementioned parameters. RESULTS: Dried latex produced an inflammatory response that was maximum at 6 h. It was associated with the accumulation of protein-rich fluid, leucocytes and PGE2 production. It also resulted in granulation of the pouch cavity that was a maximum on day 3. COX-2 expression could be detected in the granulation tissue on day 1 and it increased progressively up to day 5. The anti-inflammatory drugs celecoxib and dexamethasone significantly attenuated the inflammatory response and inhibited COX-2 expression in granulation tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Latex of C. procera induces an inflammatory response characterized by an early exudative phase accompanied by PGE2 production and a late proliferative phase associated with COX-2 induction. Both the phases were effectively inhibited by COX-2 inhibitors. PMID:15223605

  15. Control of Musca domestica third instar larvae by the latex of Calotropis procera (Family: Asclepiadaceae).

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Rahem, M A; Allam, K A

    2001-04-01

    Calotropis procera (Family: Asclepiadaceae) is known to contain alkaloids, steroids and resinous substance. Different concentrations of its latex were topically applied to the 3rd stage larvae of Musca domestica. A dose of 3 ul (5% of the latex) killed and partially digested the larvae in three hours. The effect of this latex is most probably enzymatic in nature. No doubt, the shift to plant extracts in controlling insect-vectors or pests in general, pave the way to a health environment.

  16. Involvement of prostaglandins in inflammation induced by latex of Calotropis procera.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay L; Shivkar, Yatin M

    2004-06-01

    The aerial parts of the plant Calotropis procera produce milky white latex that causes inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes. Prostaglandins are one of the mediators released in an inflammatory response following induction of cyclooxygenase (COX). In the present study, we have evaluated the role of prostaglandins in inflammatory response elicited by the latex of C. procera. Aqueous extract of dried latex of C. procera was injected into the 6-day air-pouch in the rat. The inflammatory response was evaluated by studying the air-pouch fluid for its volume, protein and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations, and leucocyte counts. The granulation tissue from the pouch was quantified and studied for COX-2 expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The inhibitory effect of celecoxib and dexamethasone was evaluated on the aforementioned parameters. Dried latex produced an inflammatory response that was maximum at 6 h. It was associated with the accumulation of protein-rich fluid, leucocytes and PGE2 production. It also resulted in granulation of the pouch cavity that was a maximum on day 3. COX-2 expression could be detected in the granulation tissue on day 1 and it increased progressively up to day 5. The anti-inflammatory drugs celecoxib and dexamethasone significantly attenuated the inflammatory response and inhibited COX-2 expression in granulation tissue. Latex of C. procera induces an inflammatory response characterized by an early exudative phase accompanied by PGE2 production and a late proliferative phase associated with COX-2 induction. Both the phases were effectively inhibited by COX-2 inhibitors.

  17. Larvicidal efficacy of Ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant Juniperus procera essential oil against Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Girmay, Askual; Fekadu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen the essential oil of Juniperus procera (J. procera) (Cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis (An. arabiensis) Patton, the principle malaria vector in Ethiopia. Methods The essential oil of J. procera was evaluated against the larvae of An. arabiensis under the laboratory and semi-field conditions by adopting the World Health Organization standard protocols. The larval mortality was observed for 24 h of post exposure. Results The essential oil of J. procera has demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against An. arabiensis. The LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 14.42 and 24.65 mg/L, respectively under the laboratory conditions, and from this data, a Chi-square value 6.662 was observed to be significant at the P=0.05 level. However, under the semi-field conditions the LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 24.51 and 34.21 mg/L, respectively and a Chi-square value 4.615 was significant at the P=0.05 level. The observations clearly showed that larval mortality rate is completely time and dose-dependent as compared with the control. Conclusions This investigation indicates that J. procera could serve as a potential larvicidal agent against insect vector of diseases, particularly An. arabiensis. However further studies are strongly recommended for the identification of the chemical constituents and the mode of action towards the rational design of alternative promising insecticidal agents in the near future. PMID:25183156

  18. Use-value and importance of socio-cultural knowledge on Carapa procera trees in the Sudanian zone in Mali.

    PubMed

    Dembélé, Urbain; Lykke, Anne Mette; Koné, Yénizié; Témé, Bino; Kouyaté, Amadou Malé

    2015-03-02

    Carapa procera is a native oil tree species with multipurpose values traditionally exploited by the local population in Southern Mali. This study focused on the assessment of local knowledge about the use of Carapa procera. Semi-structured ethnobotanical questionnaires were conducted among the ethnic groups Senufo, Fulani and Bambara in two localities in the Sudanian zone in Mali. Use values among these ethnic groups and gender were evaluated. This study showed that Carapa procera is a species with multiple uses and high use values. According to the consensus value for plant parts (CPP), the nuts constituted 57% of exploited plant parts followed by bark and leaves (12%), wood and roots (7%), mistletoes (4%) and gum (1%). The use diversity (UD) values of Carapa procera showed a high proportion of cosmetic (UD = 0.49) and therapeutic (UD = 0.36) uses. The UD for therapeutic uses was higher for ethnic groups in Ziékorodougou than in Niankorobougou. In contrast, the UD for cosmetic uses was higher for ethnic groups in Niankorobougou than in Ziékorodougou. Comparative analysis between ethnic groups revealed that the highest UD for cosmetic uses (0.63) was observed in the Bambara ethnic group, whereas the highest UD for therapeutic uses (0.39) was obtained in the Senufo ethnic group. The UD showed that cosmetic uses were higher for women than for men in both locations. Men in Ziékorodougou had the highest level of knowledge regarding plant parts used, forms of use and the specific reasons for using Carapa procera. This study highlighted the sociocultural importance of Carapa procera. In the light of its multipurpose uses, the promotion and enhancement of Carapa procera can provide significant socio-economic benefits to local people. In this perspective, it is necessary to implement conservation strategies and sustainable management through domestication of the species.

  19. Inhibition of Calotropis procera latex-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia by oxytocin and melatonin.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Biswa M; Kumar, Vijay L

    2005-12-14

    The latex of the wild growing plant Calotropis procera produces inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes upon accidental exposure. On local administration it elicits an intense inflammatory response due to the release of histamine and prostaglandins that is associated with hyperalgesia. In the present study we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of oxytocin and melatonin against rat paw edema induced by dried latex (DL) of C procera and compared it with that against carrageenan-induced paw edema. Aqueous extract of DL of C procera or carrageenan (1%) was injected into the subplantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 24 hours. The associated hyperalgesic response and functional impairment were also evaluated concomitantly by dorsal flexion pain test, motility test, and stair climbing ability test. The inhibitory effect of oxytocin and melatonin on edema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with dexamethasone. DL-induced edema formation was maximum at 2 hours and was associated with decreased pain threshold and functional impairment. Treatment with melatonin significantly attenuated the edematous response while both oxytocin and melatonin increased the pain threshold and improved functional parameters. Both oxytocin and melatonin significantly inhibited the hyperalgesia associated with DL-induced paw edema. Oxytocin was found to be as effective as melatonin in ameliorating the hyperalgesic response. However, it was found to be less effective than melatonin in attenuating edema formation.

  20. Calotropis procera latex-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia--effect of antiinflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Raman; Kumar, Vijay L

    2005-08-31

    The milky white latex of plant Calotropis procera produces inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes on accidental exposure. It produces edema on local administration due to the release of histamine and prostaglandins and is associated with hyperalgesia. In the present study we have evaluated the antiedematous and analgesic activity of antiinflammatory drugs against inflammatory response induced by dried latex (DL) of C procera in rat paw edema model. An aqueous extract of DL of C procera was injected into the subplantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured by a plethysmometer at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Concomitantly the hyperalgesic response was also evaluated by motility test, stair climbing ability test, dorsal flexion pain test, compression test, and observing the grooming behavior. The inhibitory effect of diclofenac and rofecoxib on edema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with cyproheptadine (CPH). DL-induced edema formation was maximum at 2 hours that was associated with decreased pain threshold, functional impairment, and grooming. Treatment with antiinflammatory drugs and CPH significantly attenuated the edematous response and grooming, increased the pain threshold, and improved functional parameters. Both antiinflammatory and antiserotonergic drugs significantly inhibited the hyperalgesia associated with DL-induced paw edema. Rofecoxib was found to be superior than diclofenac and was as effective as CPH in ameliorating the hyperalgesia. However, it was found to be less effective than CPH in attenuating edema formation.

  1. In vivo growth inhibition of sarcoma 180 by latex proteins from Calotropis procera.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jefferson S; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Bezerra, Daniel P; Alencar, Nylane M N; Marinho-Filho, José Delano B; Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha T; Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Claudia; Alves, Ana Paula N N; Ramos, Márcio V

    2010-08-01

    Latex of Calotropis procera has been described as a relevant source of pharmacologically active proteins, including proteins with anticancer activity. A previous in vitro study of laticifer proteins (LP) from C. procera reported that they had selective cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of LP in vivo using mice transplanted with sarcoma 180. Biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and morphological analyses were performed in animals given LP by oral or intraperitoneal routes. LP significantly reduced tumor growth (51.83%) and augmented the survival time of animals for up to 4 days. Tumor growth inhibitory activity was lost when LP fraction was submitted to proteolysis, acidic treatment, or pretreated with iodoacetamide. However, LP retained its inhibitory activities on sarcoma 180 growth after heat treatment. Thus, it seems that heat-stable proteins are involved in tumor suppression. Biochemical parameters, such as the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and urea content in serum were not affected in treated mice. It is worth noting that LP completely eliminated the 5-FU-induced depletion of leukocytes in mice even when given orally. The active proteins were recovered in a single fraction by ion exchange chromatography and still exhibited anticancer activity. This study confirms the pharmacological potential of proteins from the latex of C. procera to control sarcoma cell proliferation.

  2. Calotropis procera Latex-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia—Effect of Antiinflammatory Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Raman; Kumar, Vijay L.

    2005-01-01

    The milky white latex of plant Calotropis procera produces inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes on accidental exposure. It produces edema on local administration due to the release of histamine and prostaglandins and is associated with hyperalgesia. In the present study we have evaluated the antiedematous and analgesic activity of antiinflammatory drugs against inflammatory response induced by dried latex (DL) of C procera in rat paw edema model. An aqueous extract of DL of C procera was injected into the subplantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured by a plethysmometer at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Concomitantly the hyperalgesic response was also evaluated by motility test, stair climbing ability test, dorsal flexion pain test, compression test, and observing the grooming behavior. The inhibitory effect of diclofenac and rofecoxib on edema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with cyproheptadine (CPH). DL-induced edema formation was maximum at 2 hours that was associated with decreased pain threshold, functional impairment, and grooming. Treatment with antiinflammatory drugs and CPH significantly attenuated the edematous response and grooming, increased the pain threshold, and improved functional parameters. Both antiinflammatory and antiserotonergic drugs significantly inhibited the hyperalgesia associated with DL-induced paw edema. Rofecoxib was found to be superior than diclofenac and was as effective as CPH in ameliorating the hyperalgesia. However, it was found to be less effective than CPH in attenuating edema formation. PMID:16192671

  3. Inhibition of Calotropis procera Latex-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia by Oxytocin and Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Padhy, Biswa M.; Kumar, Vijay L.

    2005-01-01

    The latex of the wild growing plant Calotropis procera produces inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes upon accidental exposure. On local administration it elicits an intense inflammatory response due to the release of histamine and prostaglandins that is associated with hyperalgesia. In the present study we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of oxytocin and melatonin against rat paw edema induced by dried latex (DL) of C procera and compared it with that against carrageenan-induced paw edema. Aqueous extract of DL of C procera or carrageenan (1%) was injected into the subplantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 24 hours. The associated hyperalgesic response and functional impairment were also evaluated concomitantly by dorsal flexion pain test, motility test, and stair climbing ability test. The inhibitory effect of oxytocin and melatonin on edema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with dexamethasone. DL-induced edema formation was maximum at 2 hours and was associated with decreased pain threshold and functional impairment. Treatment with melatonin significantly attenuated the edematous response while both oxytocin and melatonin increased the pain threshold and improved functional parameters. Both oxytocin and melatonin significantly inhibited the hyperalgesia associated with DL-induced paw edema. Oxytocin was found to be as effective as melatonin in ameliorating the hyperalgesic response. However, it was found to be less effective than melatonin in attenuating edema formation. PMID:16489256

  4. Analgesic, antibacterial and central nervous system depressant activities of Albizia procera leaves

    PubMed Central

    Khatoon, Mst. Mahfuza; Khatun, Mst. Hajera; Islam, Md. Ekramul; Parvin, Mst. Shahnaj

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain analgesic, antibacterial and central nervous system (CNS) depressant activities of ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride fractions of methanol extract of Albizia procera (A. procera) leaves. Methods Leaves extracts of A. procera were tested for analgesic activity by acetic acid induced and formalin test method in mice. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method. CNS depressant activity was evaluated by hole cross and open field tests. Results All the extracts at 200 mg/kg exhibited significant (P<0.01) analgesic activity in acetic acid induced and formalin tests method in mice. Analgesic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was almost same like as standard drug indomethacin in acetic acid induced method. The CNS depressant activity of the extracts at 500 mg/kg was comparable to the positive control diazepam as determined by hole cross and open field test method. The extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Esherichia coli, Shigella soneii, Shigella boydii) at concentration of 0.8 mg/disc. The measured diameter of zone of inhibition for the extracts was within the range of 7 to 12 mm which was less than the standard kanamycin (16-24 mm). Conclusions It is concluded that all the extracts possess potential analgesic and CNS depressants activity. This study also showed that different fractions of methanol extract could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents. PMID:25182551

  5. Cements and adhesives for all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Manso, Adriana P; Silva, Nelson R F A; Bonfante, Estevam A; Pegoraro, Thiago A; Dias, Renata A; Carvalho, Ricardo M

    2011-04-01

    Dental cements are designed to retain restorations, prefabricated or cast posts and cores, and appliances in a stable, and long-lasting position in the oral environment. Resin-based cements were developed to overcome drawbacks of nonresinous materials, including low strength, high solubility, and opacity. Successful cementation of esthetic restorations depends on appropriate treatment to the tooth substrate and intaglio surface of the restoration, which in turn, depends on the ceramic characteristics. A reliable resin cementation procedure can only be achieved if the operator is aware of the mechanisms involved to perform the cementation and material properties. This article addresses current knowledge of resin cementation concepts, exploring the bonding mechanisms that influence long-term clinical success of all-ceramic systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fracture Strength of Zirconia and Alumina Ceramic Crowns Supported by Implants.

    PubMed

    Traini, Tonino; Sorrentino, Roberto; Gherlone, Enrico; Perfetti, Federico; Bollero, Patrizio; Zarone, Ferdinando

    2015-07-01

    Due to the brittleness and limited tensile strength of the veneering glass-ceramic materials, the methods that combine strong core material (as zirconia or alumina) are still under debate. The present study aims to evaluate the fracture strength and the mechanism of failure through fractographic analysis of single all-ceramic crowns supported by implants. Forty premolar cores were fabricated with CAD/CAM technology using alumina (n = 20) and zirconia (n = 20). The specimens were veneered with glass-ceramic, cemented on titanium abutments, and subjected to loading test until fracture. SEM fractographic analysis was also performed. The fracture load was 1165 (±509) N for alumina and 1638 (±662) N for zirconia with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.026). Fractographic analysis of alumina-glass-ceramic crowns, showed the presence of catastrophic cracks through the entire thickness of the alumina core; for the zirconia-glass-ceramic crowns, the cracks involved mainly the thickness of the ceramic veneering layer. The sandblast procedure of the zirconia core influenced crack path deflection. Few samples (n = 3) showed limited microcracks of the zirconia core. Zirconia showed a significantly higher fracture strength value in implant-supported restorations, indicating the role played by the high resistant cores for premolar crowns.

  7. Influence of different post core materials on the color of Empress 2 full ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Wang, Xin-zhi; Feng, Hai-lan

    2006-10-20

    For esthetic consideration, dentin color post core materials were normally used for all-ceramic crown restorations. However, in some cases, clinicians have to consider combining a full ceramic crown with a metal post core. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to test the esthetical possibility of applying cast metal post core in a full ceramic crown restoration. The color of full ceramic crowns on gold and Nickel-Chrome post cores was compared with the color of the same crowns on tooth colored post cores. Different try-in pastes were used to imitate the influence of a composite cementation on the color of different restorative combinations. The majority of patients could not detect any color difference less than DeltaE 1.8 between the two ceramic samples. So, DeltaE 1.8 was taken as the objective evaluative criterion for the evaluation of color matching and patients' satisfaction. When the Empress 2 crown was combined with the gold alloy post core, the color of the resulting material was similar to that of a glass fiber reinforced resin post core (DeltaE = 0.3). The gold alloy post core and the try-in paste did not show a perceptible color change in the full ceramic crowns, which indicated that the color of the crowns might not be susceptible to change between lab and clinic as well as during the process of composite cementation. Without an opaque covering the Ni-Cr post core would cause an unacceptable color effect on the crown (DeltaE = 2.0), but with opaque covering, the color effect became more clinically satisfactory (DeltaE = 1.8). It may be possible to apply a gold alloy post core in the Empress 2 full ceramic crown restoration when necessary. If a non-extractible Ni-Cr post core exists in the root canal, it might be possible to restore the tooth with an Empress 2 crown after covering the labial surface of the core with one layer of opaque resin cement.

  8. Identification and characterization of plasma membrane aquaporins isolated from fiber cells of Calotropis procera

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Usman; Khatoon, Asia; Cheema, Hafiza Masooma Naseer; Bashir, Aftab

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera, commonly known as “milkweed”, possesses long seed trichomes for seed dispersal and has the ability to survive under harsh conditions such as drought and salinity. Aquaporins are water channel proteins expressed in all land plants, divided into five subfamilies plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), NOD26-like proteins (NIPs), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), and the unfamiliar X intrinsic proteins (XIPs). PIPs constitute the largest group of water channel proteins that are involved in different developmental and regulatory mechanisms including water permeability, cell elongation, and stomata opening. Aquaporins are also involved in abiotic stress tolerance and cell expansion mechanisms, but their role in seed trichomes (fiber cells) has never been investigated. A large number of clones isolated from C. procera fiber cDNA library showed sequence homology to PIPs. Both expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies revealed that the transcript abundance of this gene family in fiber cells of C. procera is greater than that of cotton. Full-length cDNAs of CpPIP1 and CpPIP2 were isolated from C. procera fiber cDNA library and used for constructing plant expression vectors under constitutive (2×35S) and trichome-specific (GhLTP3) promoters. Transgenic tobacco plants were developed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The phenotypic characteristics of the plants were observed after confirming the integration of transgene in plants. It was observed that CpPIP2 expression cassette under 2×35S and GhLTP3 promoter enhanced the numbers of stem and leave trichomes. However, 2×35S::CpPIP2 has a more amplified effect on trichome density and length than GhLTP3::CpPIP2 and other PIP constructs. These findings imply the role of C. procera PIP aquaporins in fiber cell elongation. The PIPs-derived cell expansion mechanism may be exploited through transgenic approaches

  9. Identification and characterization of plasma membrane aquaporins isolated from fiber cells of Calotropis procera.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Usman; Khatoon, Asia; Cheema, Hafiza Masooma Naseer; Bashir, Aftab

    2013-07-01

    Calotropis procera, commonly known as "milkweed", possesses long seed trichomes for seed dispersal and has the ability to survive under harsh conditions such as drought and salinity. Aquaporins are water channel proteins expressed in all land plants, divided into five subfamilies plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), NOD26-like proteins (NIPs), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs), and the unfamiliar X intrinsic proteins (XIPs). PIPs constitute the largest group of water channel proteins that are involved in different developmental and regulatory mechanisms including water permeability, cell elongation, and stomata opening. Aquaporins are also involved in abiotic stress tolerance and cell expansion mechanisms, but their role in seed trichomes (fiber cells) has never been investigated. A large number of clones isolated from C. procera fiber cDNA library showed sequence homology to PIPs. Both expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies revealed that the transcript abundance of this gene family in fiber cells of C. procera is greater than that of cotton. Full-length cDNAs of CpPIP1 and CpPIP2 were isolated from C. procera fiber cDNA library and used for constructing plant expression vectors under constitutive (2×35S) and trichome-specific (GhLTP3) promoters. Transgenic tobacco plants were developed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The phenotypic characteristics of the plants were observed after confirming the integration of transgene in plants. It was observed that CpPIP2 expression cassette under 2×35S and GhLTP3 promoter enhanced the numbers of stem and leave trichomes. However, 2×35S::CpPIP2 has a more amplified effect on trichome density and length than GhLTP3::CpPIP2 and other PIP constructs. These findings imply the role of C. procera PIP aquaporins in fiber cell elongation. The PIPs-derived cell expansion mechanism may be exploited through transgenic approaches for

  10. Aesthetic Surgical Crown Lengthening Procedure

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Pablo Santos; Chiarelli, Fabio; Rodrigues, José A.; Shibli, Jamil A.; Zizzari, Vincenzo Luca; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Perrotti, Vittoria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to describe the surgical sequence of crown lengthening to apically reposition the dentogingival complex, in addition to an esthetic restorative procedure. Many different causes can be responsible for short clinical crown. In these cases, the correct execution of a restorative or prosthetic rehabilitation requires an increasing of the crown length. According to the 2003 American Academy of Periodontology (Practice Profile Survey), crown lengthening is the most habitual surgical periodontal treatment. PMID:26609452

  11. In-vitro Studies on Calotropis procera Leaf Extracts as Inhibitors of Key Enzymes Linked to Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Mayaki, Ayuva Mercy; Ogungbe, Bimpe Folashade; Ojekale, Anthony Babajide

    2016-01-01

    The side effects associated with the usage of synthetic antidiabetic drugs make it imperative to search for alternative drugs from medicinal plants. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Calotropis procera leaf, as well as its possible mode of inhibiting these enzymes. Acetone, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. procera leaf was subjected to standard enzymes’ inhibitory assay in-vitro using porcine pancreatic α-amylase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase. Results obtained showed that out of all the extracts tested, ethanolic and aqueous extracts possessed the best inhibition of α-amylase (IC50 7.80 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (3.25 mg/mL) respectively. The kinetic analysis of the mode of inhibition of these enzymes by the leaf extracts of C. procera, revealed that these extracts inhibited both enzymes in a non-competitive manner. It is speculated that the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties of leaf extracts of C. procera may be due to the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannins and saponins in the plant. It can be concluded from this study that the Calotropis procera extracts could serve as source of antidiabetic agents which may act through the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. PMID:28228802

  12. Effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts on thioacetamide induced hepatic cirrhosis in male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Alrobai, Ali A.; Almalki, Daklallah A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts and their combination on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic cirrhosis were investigated in male albino mice. One hundred sixty mice were used in this study and were randomly distributed into eight groups of 20 each. Mice of group 1 served as controls. Mice of group 2 were treated with TAA. Mice of group 3 were exposed to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster leaves extracts. Mice of group 4 were treated with TAA and supplemented with J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of group 5 were subjected to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of groups 6, 7 and 8 were supplemented with O. oleaster, J. procera, and O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts respectively. Administration of TAA for six and twelve weeks resulted in a decline in body weight gain and increased the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Histopathological evaluations of hepatic sections from mice treated with TAA showed severe alterations including increase of fibrogenesis processes with structural damage. Treatment of mice with these extracts showed a pronounced attenuation in TAA induced hepatic cirrhosis associated with physiological and histopathological alterations. Finally, this study suggests that the supplementation of these extracts may act as antioxidant agents and could be an excellent adjuvant support in the therapy of hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:27081362

  13. Precision porcelain jacket crown technique.

    PubMed

    Riley, E J; Sozio, R B; Casthely, F; Wilcko, M T; Sotera, A J

    1975-09-01

    A simple technique for construction of an aluminous porcelain crown has been described. An aluminous core is fabricated without platinum foil on a ceramic refractory die and, when retrieved, serves as a coping on the master cast. The technique and accuracy of fit are illustrated with the fabrication of an aluminous porcelain crown on the Bureau of Standards' full-crown die.

  14. Comparison of Marginal Fit and Fracture Strength of a CAD/CAM Zirconia Crown with Two Preparation Designs

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Hamid; Sadighpour, Leyla; Miri, Ali; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the marginal adaptation and fracture resistance of a zirconia-based all-ceramic restoration with two preparation designs. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four mandibular premolars were randomly divided into two groups (n=12); the conventional group received a peripheral shoulder preparation and the modified group received a buccal shoulder and proximal/lingual chamfer preparation. The marginal fit of the zirconia crowns (Cercon) was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. After cementation, load was applied to the crowns. The mean fracture load and the mean marginal gap for each group were analyzed using t-test (P=0.05). Results: The mean marginal gap was 71±16μm in the conventional group and 80±10μm in the modified group, with no significant difference (P=0.161). The mean fracture strength was 830±153N for the conventional group and 775±125N for the modified group, with no significant difference (P=0.396). All but one fracture occurred in the veneering ceramic. Conclusion: Less aggressive preparation of proximal and lingual finish lines for the preservation of tooth structure in all-ceramic restorations does not adversely affect the marginal adaptation or fracture strength of the final restoration. PMID:27559346

  15. Influence of porcelain veneering on the marginal fit of Digident and Lava CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun; Yang, Jae-Ho

    2010-06-01

    Marginal fit is a very important factor considering the restoration's long-term success. However, adding porcelain to copings can cause distortion and lead to an inadequate fit which exposes more luting material to the oral environment and causes secondary caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit of 2 different all-ceramic crown systems before and after porcelain veneering. This study was also intended to verify the marginal fit of crowns originated from green machining of partially sintered blocks of zirconia (Lava CAD/CAM system) and that of crowns obtained through machining of fully sintered blocks of zirconia (Digident CAD/CAM system). 20 crowns were made per each system and the marginal fit was evaluated through a light microscope with image processing (Accura 2000) at 50 points that were randomly selected. Each crown was measured twice: the first measurement was done after obtaining a 0.5 mm coping and the second measurement was done after porcelain veneering. The means and standard deviations were calculated and statistical inferences among the 2 groups were made using independent t-test and within the same group through paired t-test. The means and standard deviations of the marginal fit were 61.52 ± 2.88 µm for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns before porcelain veneering and 83.15 ± 3.51 µm after porcelain veneering. Lava CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns showed means and standard deviations of 62.22 ± 1.78 µm before porcelain veneering and 82.03 ± 1.85 µm after porcelain veneering. Both groups showed significant differences when analyzing the marginal gaps before and after porcelain veneering within each group. However, no significant differences were found when comparing the marginal gaps of each group before porcelain veneering and after porcelain veneering as well. The 2 all-ceramic crown systems showed marginal gaps that were within a reported clinically acceptable range of marginal discrepancy.

  16. Influence of porcelain veneering on the marginal fit of Digident and Lava CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Hyun-Soon; Han, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Marginal fit is a very important factor considering the restoration's long-term success. However, adding porcelain to copings can cause distortion and lead to an inadequate fit which exposes more luting material to the oral environment and causes secondary caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal fit of 2 different all-ceramic crown systems before and after porcelain veneering. This study was also intended to verify the marginal fit of crowns originated from green machining of partially sintered blocks of zirconia (Lava CAD/CAM system) and that of crowns obtained through machining of fully sintered blocks of zirconia (Digident CAD/CAM system). MATERIALS AND METHODS 20 crowns were made per each system and the marginal fit was evaluated through a light microscope with image processing (Accura 2000) at 50 points that were randomly selected. Each crown was measured twice: the first measurement was done after obtaining a 0.5 mm coping and the second measurement was done after porcelain veneering. The means and standard deviations were calculated and statistical inferences among the 2 groups were made using independent t-test and within the same group through paired t-test. RESULTS The means and standard deviations of the marginal fit were 61.52 ± 2.88 µm for the Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns before porcelain veneering and 83.15 ± 3.51 µm after porcelain veneering. Lava CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns showed means and standard deviations of 62.22 ± 1.78 µm before porcelain veneering and 82.03 ± 1.85 µm after porcelain veneering. Both groups showed significant differences when analyzing the marginal gaps before and after porcelain veneering within each group. However, no significant differences were found when comparing the marginal gaps of each group before porcelain veneering and after porcelain veneering as well. CONCLUSION The 2 all-ceramic crown systems showed marginal gaps that were within a reported clinically

  17. OCT evaluation of single ceramic crowns: comparison between conventional and chair-side CAD/CAM technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, A.; Jivanescu, A.; Zaharia, C.; Hategan, S.; Topala, F. I.; Levai, C. M.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Sinescu, C.; Duma, V.-F.; Bradu, A.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2016-03-01

    Digital impressions were introduced to overcome some of the obstacles due to traditional impression materials and techniques. The aim of this in vitro study is to compare the accuracy of all ceramic crowns obtained with digital impression and CAD-CAM technology with the accuracy of those obtained with conventional impression techniques. Two groups of 10 crowns each have been considered. The digital data obtained from Group 1 have been processed and the all-ceramic crowns were milled with a CAD/CAM technology (CEREC MCX, Sirona). The all ceramic crowns in Group 2 were obtained with the classical technique of pressing (emax, Ivoclar, Vivadent). The evaluation of the marginal adaptation was performed with Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (TD OCT), working at a wavelength of 1300 nm. Tri-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the selected areas were obtained. Based on the findings in this study, one may conclude that the marginal accuracy of all ceramic crowns fabricated with digital impression and the CAD/CAM technique is superior to the conventional impression technique.

  18. Marginal discoloration of all-ceramic restorations cemented adhesively versus nonadhesively.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Haralampos P; Papathanasiou, Ioannis; Doukantzi, Maria; Koidis, Petros

    2012-11-01

    The authors conducted a systematic review to correlate the clinical incidence of marginal discoloration of all-ceramic restorations with the mode of cementation (adhesive versus nonadhesive). The authors conducted a literature search by using electronic databases, relevant references, database citations and journal hand searches for clinical studies of marginal discoloration of all-ceramic restorations with a mean follow-up time of at least five years. The search period spanned January 1990 through February 2011. The authors reported and compared summary estimates and five-year event rates. The authors selected 16 studies for final analysis from an initial yield of 346 articles. The mean observation time ranged between five and 10 years. The majority of studies used adhesive luting procedures for definitive cementation. In only one study did investigators report regarding the incidence of marginal discoloration of both adhesively and nonadhesively cemented all-ceramic restorations, and the difference between the luting types in terms of discoloration was not statistically significant (P = .5). The results of this systematic review showed that there is a lack of studies with findings regarding marginal discoloration rates of nonadhesively luted all-ceramic restorations. Unacceptable marginal discoloration rates of adhesively luted all-ceramic prostheses were relatively low even at 10 years of service.

  19. Addition of a pontic to all-ceramic Turkom-Cera fixed partial denture restorations.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Bulent; Tokar, Emre; Polat, Serdar

    2013-04-01

    High-strength all-ceramic materials are commonly used in dentistry. When complications occur in an all-ceramic restoration, the restoration is usually replaced. This article describes the time-saving ability and cost-effectiveness of this novel technique for the addition of a pontic in two complicated clinical cases. Turkom-Cera(™) [Turkom-Ceramic (M) Sdn. Bhd.] with aluminum oxide (99.98%) is an all-ceramic system that offers the option of addition of a new pontic to the sintered framework. The new pontic was cut off from an alumina blank [Turkom-Ceramic (M) Sdn. Bhd.], moistened, and attached to the framework using alumina gel [Turkom-Ceramic (M) Sdn. Bhd.]. The framework was veneered with veneering porcelain (Vita VM 7; VITA Zahnfabrik). The two cases presented here involving the addition of a pontic to sintered framework were followed up for at least 1 year. No complication was detected or reported by the patients. Alumina- and zirconia-based ceramics are particularly suitable for for all-ceramic restorations in high-stress bearing areas. However, replacement of a failed all-ceramic restoration is not the most practical solution, considering both cost and tooth-related factors. This attractive feature of the Turkom-Cera allows the repair of a fractured ceramic coping or the addition of a new pontic to restorations.

  20. Clinical long-term results of VITA In-Ceram Classic crowns and fixed partial dentures: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Avi; Kaiser, Michael; Strub, Jörg R

    2006-01-01

    VITA In-Ceram Classic is a system designed to fabricate all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs) with a glass-infiltrated aluminum oxide core material. This systematic literature review gives an overview of the clinical performance of the VITA In-Ceram Classic Alumina, Spinell, and Zirconia restorations. Based on a systematic literature review, an evidence-based selection and assessment of clinical studies of VITA In-Ceram Classic ceramics was carried out. A total of 299 publications were found, 21 of which met the inclusion criteria. Only a few meaningful studies of In-Ceram Alumina FPDs and In-Ceram Zirconia crowns and FPDs were found. The 5-year survival rate of In-Ceram Alumina crowns and In-Ceram Spinell crowns ranged from 91.7% to 100% and is similar to the survival rate of conventional metal-ceramic crowns. The 5-year survival rate of single-retainer In-Ceram Alumina resin-bonded FPDs (RBFPDs) was 92.3%, which is higher than that of 2-retainer RBFPDs. In-Ceram Classic Alumina can be recommended for anterior and posterior crowns as well as for anterior single-retainer RBFPDs. Further studies should be initiated to evaluate in detail the clinical performance of In-Ceram Classic Alumina FPDs. In-Ceram Classic Spinell can be recommended for anterior crowns, especially if highly esthetic results are requested. For In-Ceram Classic Zirconia crowns or FPDs no statement can be made presently because of insufficient data.

  1. Influence of preparation form, luting space setting and cement type on the marginal and internal fit of CAD/CAM crown copings.

    PubMed

    Hmaidouch, R; Neumann, P; Mueller, W-D

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of two different tooth preparation forms, two luting space settings and two cement types on the marginal and internal adaptation of all-ceramic crown copings produced using Cerec3 CAD/CAM system. Forty working stone dies were made from two metal master casts (1. Tooth 36: with anatomic occlusal reduction, 2. Tooth 36: with flat occlusal reduction). Forty crown copings were milled using Vita In-Ceram 2000 YZ: 20 with an luting space settings of 0 = 100 microm and 20 with -50 = 50 microm. Copings were cemented using two cements (zinc phosphate cement, P21: Panavia21), then embedded and sectioned bucco-lingually and mesio-distally. Widths of marginal and internal gaps were measured using a light microscope at magnification of 40X. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA, and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Copings with flat occlusal reduction and luting space settings of 100 pm had a better internal and marginal fit compared with copings with anatomic occlusal reduction and luting space settings of 50 microm, regardless of the cement used. P21 showed a significantly better fit compared with zinc phosphate cement. The presented Cerec3 CAD/CAM system can provide a marginal and internal adaptation which is comparable to that of conventional cast and conventional all-ceramic crowns.

  2. Potential effect of the medicinal plants Calotropis procera, Ficus elastica and Zingiber officinale against Schistosoma mansoni in mice.

    PubMed

    Seif el-Din, Sayed H; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M; Mohamed, Mona A; Hamed, Manal M; Sterner, Olov; Botros, Sanaa S

    2014-02-01

    Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae), Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae) and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) have been traditionally used to treat many diseases. The antischistosomal activity of these plant extracts was evaluated against Schistosoma mansoni. Male mice exposed to 80 ± 10 cercariae per mouse were divided into two batches. The first was divided into five groups: (I) infected untreated, while groups from (II-V) were treated orally (500 mg/kg for three consecutive days) by aqueous stem latex and flowers of C. procera, latex of F. elastica and ether extract of Z. officinale, respectively. The second batch was divided into four comparable groups (except Z. officinale-treated group) similarly treated as the first batch in addition to the antacid ranitidine (30 mg/kg) 1 h before extract administration. Safety, worm recovery, tissues egg load and oogram pattern were assessed. Calotropis procera latex and flower extracts are toxic (50-70% mortality) even in a small dose (250 mg/kg) before washing off their toxic rubber. Zingiber officinale extract insignificantly decrease (7.26%) S. mansoni worms. When toxic rubber was washed off and ranitidine was used, C. procera (stem latex and flowers) and F. elastica extracts revealed significant S. mansoni worm reductions by 45.31, 53.7 and 16.71%, respectively. Moreover, C. procera extracts produced significant reductions in tissue egg load (∼34-38.5%) and positively affected oogram pattern. The present study may be useful to supplement information with regard to C. procera and F. elastica antischistosomal activity and provide a basis for further experimental trials.

  3. Aurora Australis, Red Crown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Aurora Australis or Southern Lights (location unknown) shows a spiked band of red airglow called a 'Red Crown' above the Earth Limb. Calculated to be in the 80 - 120 km altitude region, auroral activity is due to exitation of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere by radiation from the van Allen Radiation Belts and is most common above the 65 degree north and south latitude range during the spring and fall of the year.

  4. An in vivo evaluation of fit of zirconium-oxide based ceramic single crowns, generated with two CAD/CAM systems, in comparison to metal ceramic single crowns.

    PubMed

    Biscaro, Leonello; Bonfiglioli, Roberto; Soattin, Massimo; Vigolo, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess in vivo the marginal fit of single crowns produced using two CAD/CAM all-ceramic systems, in comparison to more traditional metal ceramic crowns. Thirty vital, caries-free, and previously untreated teeth were chosen in five patients who needed extraction for implant placement and therefore were included in this study. In the control group (C), 10 regular metal ceramic crowns with porcelain occlusal surfaces were fabricated. In the other two groups (Z and E), CAD/CAM technology was used for the fabrication of 20 zirconium-oxide-based ceramic single crowns with two systems. All zirconia crowns were cemented with glass-ionomer cement, always following the manufacturer's instructions. The same dentist carried out all clinical phases. The teeth were extracted 1 month later. Marginal gaps along vertical planes were measured for each crown, using a total of four landmarks for each tooth by means of a microscope at a magnification of 50×. On completion of microscopic evaluation, representative specimens from each group were prepared for ESEM evaluation. Mean and standard deviations of the four landmarks (mesial, distal, buccal, palatal) at each single crown were calculated for each group. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed to determine whether the four landmarks, taken into consideration together, differed between groups. Two-way ANOVA was performed to study in detail, for each landmark, how the three systems used to produce the FPDs affected the gap measurements. Differences were considered to be significant at p < 0.05. MANOVA revealed no quantitative differences of the four landmarks, when taken into consideration together, between the three groups (p < 0.0001). Two-way ANOVA, performed at each landmark, revealed no quantitative differences between the three groups (p < 0.0001 for each landmark). Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the two zirconium-oxide-based ceramic CAD/CAM systems

  5. Protective effect of Calotropis procera latex extracts on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rat.

    PubMed

    Bharti, S; Wahane, V D; Kumar, V L

    2010-02-03

    Calotropis procera is a wild growing plant with multifarious medicinal properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dried latex (DL) of Calotropis procera and its methanol extract (MeDL) against gastric ulcers induced in rats. Aqueous suspension of DL (20 and 100mg/kg) and MeDL (10 and 50mg/kg) were given orally to 36h fasted rats and ulcers were induced by ethanol, pyloric ligation and aspirin. Parameters like ulcer score and levels of oxidative stress markers were measured in all the models. The effect on gastric hemorrhage and tissue histology was studied in ethanol model and on acidity, pH and volume of gastric secretion was evaluated in pyloric ligation model. The protective effect of DL and MeDL was compared with that of standard anti-ulcer drug famotidine (20 mg/kg). DL and MeDL produced 85-95% inhibition of gastric mucosal damage in ethanol model and 70-80% inhibition in aspirin model. The protective effect of these extracts was associated with marked reduction in gastric hemorrhage, maintenance of tissue integrity and normalization of levels of oxidative stress markers like glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and superoxide dismutase. Like famotidine, DL and MeDL decreased the gastric acidity from 376.17+/-21.47 mequiv./l to 163.88+/-6.86 and 201.48+/-8.86 mequiv./l respectively in pyloric ligation model. These extracts increased the gastric pH without affording any protection to gastric mucosa in this model. The latex of Calotropis procera has the therapeutic potential to relieve gastric hyperacidity and to prevent gastric ulceration induced by necrotizing agents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. STUDIES ON THE METHOD – ETHNOBOTANY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA AND C.PROCERA

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Malaya K.; Mohanty, Manoj K.; Das, Pradeep K

    1993-01-01

    The paper reviews the economic and traditional medicinal uses of the plants, Calotropis gigantean and C. procera from the published literature from various of India. The ethno-medicinal uses of the former species in Orissa are also incorporated. Their distribution in India, Botany, Physical and Chemical properties of the plant parts are provided. Uses of the traditional medicines and their authentication as evidence by the available clinical trials are discussed. Besides, uses and standardization of doses against various ailments are suggested. PMID:22556631

  7. Trypsin-specific Inhibitors from the Macrolepiota procera, Armillaria mellea and Amanita phalloides wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lukanc, Tjaša; Brzin, Jože; Kos, Janko; Sabotič, Jerica

    2017-01-01

    Wild growing mushrooms are a rich source of novel proteins with unique features. We have isolated and characterized trypsin inhibitors from two edible mushrooms, the honey fungus (Armillaria mellea) and the parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), and from the poisonous death cap (Amanita phalloides). The trypsin inhibitors isolated: armespin, macrospin and amphaspin, have similar molecular masses, acidic isoelectric points and are not N-glycosylated. They are very strong trypsin inhibitors and weak chymotrypsin inhibitors. They are resistant to exposure to high temperatures and withstand extreme pH values. These exceptional characteristics are advantageous for their potential use in biotechnology, agriculture and medicine.

  8. Evaluation of cytotoxic potential of latex of Calotropis procera and podophyllotoxin in Allium cepa root model.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, R; Roy, S; Kumar, V L

    2006-04-01

    In the present study we have utilized the Allium cepa root tip meristem model to evaluate the cytotoxic and anti-mitotic activities of latex of Calotropis procera (DL) and podophyllotoxin. Standard cytotoxic drug cyclophosphamide and non-cytotoxic drugs cyprohcptadine and aspirin served as controls. Like cyclophosphamide, both DL and podophyllotoxin significantly inhibited the growth of roots and mitotic activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, podophyllotoxin was more potent in this regard and produced root decay. Cyproheptadine and aspirin, on the other hand, showed a marginal effect on the root growth and mitotic activity at much higher concentrations.

  9. In vivo and in vitro effect of latex of Calotropis procera on gastrointestinal smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V L; Shivkar, Y M

    2004-08-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dry latex (DL) of Calotropis procera on smooth muscles of gastrointestinal tract. Oral administration of DL to rats (50-1000 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal transit along with a decrease in intestinal content as compared to control group. At lower doses DL produced dose-dependent contractions of gastrointestinal smooth muscles in vitro (rabbit ileum and fundus of rat stomach) that was followed by desensitization at higher doses.

  10. Randomized controlled clinical pilot study of all-ceramic single-tooth implant reconstructions: clinical and microbiological outcomes at one year of loading.

    PubMed

    Brandenberg, Francine D; Sailer, Irena; Fehmer, Vincent; Büchi, Dominik L E; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Thoma, Daniel S

    2017-04-01

    To test whether or not pink veneering of the submucosal part of zirconia abutments influences clinical, microbiological and histological outcomes of cemented implant-supported single crowns (ISSC). A total of 20 patients with one single-tooth implant in the esthetic zone were included. Implants were randomly restored with either pink-veneered zirconia abutments (test group; n = 10) or non-veneered white zirconia abutments (control group; n = 10) and with adhesively cemented all-ceramic crowns. At the 6-month follow-up, soft tissue biopsies were prepared for histological evaluation and microbiological samples were collected around abutments and the respective contra-lateral teeth (in 10 of 20 patients). One year after the initiation of loading, clinical parameters were assessed. Robust linear mixed model and cumulative linked mixed model analyses were performed to investigate the effect of group and time-point on clinical and biological outcomes. Clinical evaluations revealed stable peri-implant soft tissues in terms of probing pocket depth, but a high BOP index (87.5% control; 80.0% test). No statistically significant differences were observed between the test and control group for any outcome measure (P > 0.05). No major biological complications occurred during the observation period. Histological samples revealed a remarkable degree of inflammation in both groups without clear differences in qualitative histological features. Microbiological evaluation demonstrated a slightly higher bacterial count at implants compared to natural teeth at one year of loading without marked differences between groups. Limited by a small sample size and a relatively short observation period, pink-veneered zirconia abutments exhibited similar clinical, histological and microbiological outcomes as non-veneered zirconia abutments supporting cemented single crowns. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effectiveness of Crown Preparation Assessment Software As an Educational Tool in Simulation Clinic: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tiu, Janine; Cheng, Enxin; Hung, Tzu-Chiao; Yu, Chuan-Chia; Lin, Tony; Schwass, Don; Al-Amleh, Basil

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new tooth preparation assessment software, Preppr, as an educational tool for dental students in achieving optimal parameters for a crown preparation. In February 2015, 30 dental students in their fourth year in a five-year undergraduate dental curriculum in New Zealand were randomly selected from a pool of volunteers (N=40) out of the total class of 85. The participants were placed into one of three groups of ten students each: Group A, the control group, received only written and pictorial instructions; Group B received tutor evaluation and feedback; and Group C performed self-directed learning with the aid of Preppr. Each student was asked to prepare an all-ceramic crown on the lower first molar typodont within three hours and to repeat the exercise three times over the next four weeks. The exercise stipulated a 1 mm finish line dimension and total convergence angles (TOC) between 10 and 20 degrees. Fulfillment of these parameters was taken as an acceptable preparation. The results showed that Group C had the highest percentage of students who achieved minimum finish line dimensions and acceptable TOC angles. Those students also achieved the stipulated requirements earlier than the other groups. This study's findings provide promising data on the feasibility of using Preppr as a self-directed educational tool for students training to prepare dental crowns.

  12. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Zirconium Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Mehmeti, Blerim; Azizi, Bleron; Kelmendi, Jeta; Iljazi-Shahiqi, Donika; Alar, Željko

    2017-01-01

    Background An increasing demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of all-ceramic restorations, such as zirconium. However, one of the challenges the orthodontist must be willing to face is how to increase bond strength between the brackets and various ceramic restorations.Bond strength can beaffected bybracket type, by the material that bracketsaremade of, and their base surface design or retention mode. ​ Aim: of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets bonded to all-zirconium ceramic surfaces used for prosthetic restorations, and also to evaluate the fracture mode of these two types of orthodontic brackets. Material and methods Twenty samples/semi-crowns of all-zirconium ceramic, on which orthodontic brackets were bonded, 10 metallic and 10 ceramic polycrystalline brackets, were prepared for this research. SBS has been testedby Universal Testing Machine, with a load applied using a knife edged rod moving at a fixed rate of 1 mm/min, until failure occurred. The force required to debond the brackets was recorded in Newton, then SBS was calculated to MPa. In addition, the samples were analyzed using a digital camera magnifier to determine Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Statistical data were processed using t-test, and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Results Higher shear bond strength values were observed in metallic brackets bonded to zirconium crowns compared tothoseof ceramic brackets, with a significant difference. During the test, two of the ceramic brackets were partially or totally damaged. Conclusion Metallic brackets, compared to ceramic polycrystalline brackets, seemed tocreate stronger adhesion with all-zirconium surfaces due to their better retention mode. Also, ceramic brackets showed higher fragility during debonding. PMID:28827846

  13. Effectiveness and feasibility of methanol extracted latex of Calotropis procera as larvicide against dengue vectors of western Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Manju; Purohit, Anil; Chattopadhyay, Sushmita

    2015-06-01

    Identification of novel effective larvicide from natural resources is essential to combat developing resistances, environmental concerns, residue problems and high cost of synthetic insecticides. Results of earlier laboratory findings have shown that Calotropis procera extracts showed larvicidal, ovicidal and refractory properties towards ovipositioning of dengue vectors; further, latex extracted with methanol was found to be more effective compared to crude latex. For testing efficacy and feasibility of extracted latex in field, the present study was undertaken in different settings of Jodhpur City, India against dengue vectors. Study areas were selected based on surveillance design for the control of dengue vectors. During the study period domestic and peri-domestic breeding containers were treated with methanol extracted latex and mortality was observed after 24 h as per WHO guidelines. Latex was manually collected from internodes of Calotropis procera and extracted using methanol (AR) grade. Methanol extracted latex of C. procera was found effective and feasible larvicide against dengue vectors in the field conditions. Cement tanks, clay pots and coolers (breeding sites) were observed as key containers for the control of dengue transmission. Today environmental safety is considered to be very important. Herbal composition prepared by the extraction of latex of C. procera can be used as an alternative approach for the control of dengue vectors. This will reduce the dependence on expensive products and stimulate local efforts to enhance the public involvement.

  14. Antiedematogenic and antioxidant properties of high molecular weight protein sub-fraction of Calotropis procera latex in rat.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; de Araújo Viana, Carolina; Ramos, Marcio V; Kumar, Vijay L

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of high molecular weight protein fraction of Calotropis procera latex on edema formation and oxidative stress in carrageenan-induced paw inflammation. A sub-plantar injection of carrageenan was given to induce edema in the hind paw of the rat. The inhibitory effect of high molecular weight protein fraction of C. procera latex was evaluated following intravenous administration (5 and 25 mg/kg body weight) and was compared with that of diclofenac given orally (5 mg/kg). The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the inflamed paw tissue at the end of the study. The high molecular weight protein fraction obtained from the latex of C. procera produced a dose-dependent inhibition of edema formation that was accompanied by normalization of levels of oxidative stress markers (GSH and TBARS) and MPO, a marker for neutrophils in the paw tissue. The high molecular weight protein fraction of C. procera latex ameliorates acute inflammation in the paw through its antioxidant effect.

  15. Antiedematogenic and antioxidant properties of high molecular weight protein sub-fraction of Calotropis procera latex in rat

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; de Araújo Viana, Carolina; Ramos, Marcio V.; Kumar, Vijay L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of high molecular weight protein fraction of Calotropis procera latex on edema formation and oxidative stress in carrageenan-induced paw inflammation. Methods: A sub-plantar injection of carrageenan was given to induce edema in the hind paw of the rat. The inhibitory effect of high molecular weight protein fraction of C. procera latex was evaluated following intravenous administration (5 and 25 mg/kg body weight) and was compared with that of diclofenac given orally (5 mg/kg). The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the inflamed paw tissue at the end of the study. Results: The high molecular weight protein fraction obtained from the latex of C. procera produced a dose-dependent inhibition of edema formation that was accompanied by normalization of levels of oxidative stress markers (GSH and TBARS) and MPO, a marker for neutrophils in the paw tissue. Conclusions: The high molecular weight protein fraction of C. procera latex ameliorates acute inflammation in the paw through its antioxidant effect. PMID:25767367

  16. Calotropis procera Root Extract Has the Capability to Combat Free Radical Mediated Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shashank; Gupta, Ashutosh; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the antioxidant and membrane protective activities of Calotropis procera aqueous root extract using several in vitro assays along with the determination of phenolic as well as flavonoid contents. Total phenol and flavonoid contents in extract were 15.67 ± 1.52 mg propyl gallate equivalent/g and 1.62 ± 0.05 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. UV-visual spectroscopic scanning of the extract indicated the presence of glycoside-linked tannins or flavonoids. The extract exhibited appreciable reducing power signifying hydrogen donating potential. DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed substantial free radical scavenging activity (42–90%) in the extracts. Concentration dependent response was observed in the metal ion chelating activity (16–95%). Extracts also provided protection against iron induced lipid peroxidation in rat tissue (liver, brain, and kidney) homogenates. Comparatively better protective efficacy against peroxidative damage was observed in liver (71%) followed by kidney (65%) and brain (60%) tissues. Positive correlation (r2 = 0.756) was observed between DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of extract. Similarly strong positive correlation (r2 ≈ 0.756) was observed between metal ion chelating ability and percentage lipid peroxidation inhibition in different tissues. The study demonstrated considerable protective efficacy in C. procera root aqueous extracts against free radical and metal ion mediated oxidative damage. PMID:24222863

  17. Efficacy and phytochemical analysis of latex of Calotropis procera against selected dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Rabiu Muhammad; Abubakar, Mikaeel Bala; Kasarawa, Adamu Bello; Dabai, Yakubu Umar; Lawal, Nafiu; Bello, Muhammad Bashir; Fardami, Aminu Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since ancient time, increased interest has been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing, and the treatment of fungal diseases worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available antifungal drugs. It has been a known tradition practiced in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera to treat Tinea capitis in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to ascertain the above claim. Materials and Methods: Fresh latex of C. procera was screened for their antifungal activity against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp. and Epidermophyton spp. using the agar incorporation method. Results: The result shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these pathogenic fungi to varying extents with Trichophyton spp. being the most susceptible (P < 0.05) and thus highly inhibited by the latex followed by the Microsporum spp. and Epidermopyton spp. was least inhibited. These inhibitions followed a dose-dependent trend as undiluted latex (100%) gave the highest inhibitory impacts (P < 0.05) when compared to serially diluted latex. The phytochemical analysis of the fresh latex indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of T. capitis (ringworm) practiced in our society and therefore, its use topically in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged. PMID:26649237

  18. Saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera leaves elicit no antitrypanosomal activity in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Aliyu, Abubakar Babando; Meduteni, Kayode; Yunusa, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the in vitro and in vivo anti-Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi ) activity of saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera (cpsf) leaves as well as the effect of the fraction on the parasite-induced anemia. Methods A 60-minutes time course experiment was conducted with various concentrations of the fraction using a 96-well microtiter plate technique, and subsequently used to treat experimentally T. evansi infected rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Index of anemia was analyzed in all animals during the experiment. Results The cpsf did not demonstrate an in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Further, the cpsf treatments did not significantly (P>0.05) keep the parasites lower than the infected untreated groups. At the end of the experiment, all T. evansi infected rats developed anemia whose severity was not significantly (P>0.05) ameliorated by the cpsf treatment. Conclusions It was concluded that saponins derived from Calotropis procera leaves could not elicit in vitro and in vivo activities against T. evansi. PMID:23836496

  19. Saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera leaves elicit no antitrypanosomal activity in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Aliyu, Abubakar Babando; Meduteni, Kayode; Yunusa, Isa

    2013-07-01

    To examine the in vitro and in vivo anti-Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi ) activity of saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera (cpsf) leaves as well as the effect of the fraction on the parasite-induced anemia. A 60-minutes time course experiment was conducted with various concentrations of the fraction using a 96-well microtiter plate technique, and subsequently used to treat experimentally T. evansi infected rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Index of anemia was analyzed in all animals during the experiment. The cpsf did not demonstrate an in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Further, the cpsf treatments did not significantly (P>0.05) keep the parasites lower than the infected untreated groups. At the end of the experiment, all T. evansi infected rats developed anemia whose severity was not significantly (P>0.05) ameliorated by the cpsf treatment. It was concluded that saponins derived from Calotropis procera leaves could not elicit in vitro and in vivo activities against T. evansi.

  20. Effect of aqueous suspension of dried latex of Calotropis procera on hepatorenal functions in rat.

    PubMed

    Singhal, A; Kumar, V L

    2009-02-25

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dry latex (DL) of Calotropis procera, a plant of the family Asclepiadaceae, on the functions of liver and kidney in normal rats. Aqueous suspension of DL was orally administered to rats at doses of 10, 100 and 400 mg/kg for a period of 45 days and the effect on various parameters reflecting liver and kidney functions was compared with that of normal controls. Treatment with DL did not alter the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea and urinary levels of glucose and protein as compared to the normal rats. It exhibited a modulatory role in maintaining the levels of blood glucose and serum insulin. The liver and kidney of DL treated and normal rats were also comparable with regard to the tissue levels of oxidative stress markers and histology. Further, no signs of toxicity were observed in the DL treated rats over the study period. Our study reveals that aqueous suspension of Calotropis procera latex does not produce any toxicity and could be safely used for therapeutic purpose at the doses studied.

  1. New insights into the complex mixture of latex cysteine peptidases in Calotropis procera.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M V; Araújo, E S; Jucá, T L; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Vasconcelos, I M; Moreira, R A; Viana, C A; Beltramini, L M; Pereira, D A; Moreno, F B

    2013-07-01

    The latex of Calotropis procera is a rich source of proteolytic activity. This latex is known to contain two distinct cysteine peptidases: procerain and procerain B. In this study, new cysteine peptidases were purified from C. procera latex. The enzymes were purified by two sequential ion-exchange chromatography steps (CM-Sepharose plus Resource S(®)) at pH 5.0 and 6.0. The purified enzymes had molecular mass spectra corresponding to CpCP-1=26,213, CpCP-2=26,133 and CpCP-3=25,086 Da. These enzymes exhibited discrete differences in terms of enzymatic activity at a broad range of pH and temperature conditions and contained identical N-terminal amino acid sequences. In these respects, these three new proteins are distinct from those previously studied (procerain and procerain B). Circular dichroism analysis revealed that the new peptidases contain extensive secondary structures, α(15-20%) and β(26-30%), that were stabilized by disulfide bonds. The purified enzymes exhibited plasma-clotting activity mediated by a thrombin-like mechanism. The set of results suggest the three isolated polypeptides correspond to different post-translationally processed forms of the same protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interleukin-1beta inhibits paw oedema induced by local administration of latex of Calotropis procera extracts.

    PubMed

    Arya, Soneera; Kumar, Vijay L

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model. In the present study, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of IL-1beta against inflammation induced by local administration of the methanol extract of dried latex of Calotropis procera (MeDL) and compared it with that against carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard anti-inflammatory drugs, phenylbutazone (PBZ) and dexamethasone (DEX), was also evaluated against both inflammagens. Injection of an aqueous solution of dried latex and MeDL into the sub-plantar surface of the rat paw produced intense inflammation with a peak response occurring within 2 h, while the peak inflammatory response with carrageenan was obtained at 3 h. Subcutaneous injection of IL-1beta was found to be more effective against the inflammatory response elicited by carrageenan (70% inhibition) as compared to MeDL (50% inhibition) at 20microg/kg dose. On the other hand, PBZ effectively inhibited the inflammatory response elicited by both MeDL and carrageenan, while DEX was more effective against carrageenan. Thus, our study indicates that the difference in the anti-inflammatory effect of IL-1beta against latex of C. procera extract and carrageenan is due to the release of different mediators released by these inflammagens.

  3. Calotropis procera latex affords protection against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Padhy, B M; Srivastava, A; Kumar, V L

    2007-09-25

    In the present study, latex of Calotropis procera possessing potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties was evaluated for its hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl(4,) administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Histological analysis of the liver of these rats revealed marked necro-inflammatory changes that were associated with increase in the levels of TBARS, PGE(2) and catalase and decrease in the levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Daily oral administration of aqueous suspension of dried latex (DL) of Calotropis procera at 5, 50 and 100mg/kg doses produced a dose-dependent reduction in the serum levels of liver enzymes and inflammatory mediators and attenuated the necro-inflammatory changes in the liver. The DL treatment also normalized various biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Our study shows that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of DL and silymarin were comparable and suggests that DL could be used as a hepatoprotective agent.

  4. Antiinflammatory Efficacy of Extracts of Latex of Calotropis procera Against Different Mediators of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Soneera; Kumar, Vijay L

    2005-01-01

    The latex of the plant Calotropis procera has been reported to exhibit potent antiinflammatory activity against carrageenin and formalin that are known to release various mediators. In the present study, we have evaluated the efficacy of extracts prepared from the latex of C procera against inflammation induced by histamine, serotonin, compound 48/80, bradykinin (BK), and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) in the rat paw oedema model. The paw oedema was induced by the subplantar injection of various inflammagens and oedema volume was recorded using a plethysmometer. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the dried latex (DL) and standard antiinflammatory drugs were administered orally 1 hour before inducing inflammation. The inhibitory effect of the extracts was also evaluated against cellular influx induced by carrageenin. The antiinflammatory effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of DL was more pronounced than phenylbutazone (PBZ) against carrageenin while it was comparable to chlorpheniramine and PBZ against histamine and PGE2, respectively. Both extracts produced about 80%, 40%, and 30% inhibition of inflammation induced by BK, compound 48/80, and serotonin. The histological analysis revealed that the extracts were more potent than PBZ in inhibiting cellular infiltration and subcutaneous oedema induced by carrageenin. The extracts of DL exert their antiinflammatory effects mainly by inhibiting histamine and BK and partly by inhibiting PGE2. PMID:16192673

  5. Efficacy and phytochemical analysis of latex of Calotropis procera against selected dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Rabiu Muhammad; Abubakar, Mikaeel Bala; Kasarawa, Adamu Bello; Dabai, Yakubu Umar; Lawal, Nafiu; Bello, Muhammad Bashir; Fardami, Aminu Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient time, increased interest has been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing, and the treatment of fungal diseases worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available antifungal drugs. It has been a known tradition practiced in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera to treat Tinea capitis in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to ascertain the above claim. Fresh latex of C. procera was screened for their antifungal activity against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp. and Epidermophyton spp. using the agar incorporation method. The result shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these pathogenic fungi to varying extents with Trichophyton spp. being the most susceptible (P < 0.05) and thus highly inhibited by the latex followed by the Microsporum spp. and Epidermopyton spp. was least inhibited. These inhibitions followed a dose-dependent trend as undiluted latex (100%) gave the highest inhibitory impacts (P < 0.05) when compared to serially diluted latex. The phytochemical analysis of the fresh latex indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, and triterpenoids. The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of T. capitis (ringworm) practiced in our society and therefore, its use topically in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged.

  6. Antiinflammatory efficacy of extracts of latex of Calotropis procera against different mediators of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Arya, Soneera; Kumar, Vijay L

    2005-08-31

    The latex of the plant Calotropis procera has been reported to exhibit potent antiinflammatory activity against carrageenin and formalin that are known to release various mediators. In the present study, we have evaluated the efficacy of extracts prepared from the latex of C procera against inflammation induced by histamine, serotonin, compound 48/80, bradykinin (BK), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the rat paw oedema model. The paw oedema was induced by the subplantar injection of various inflammagens and oedema volume was recorded using a plethysmometer. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the dried latex (DL) and standard antiinflammatory drugs were administered orally 1 hour before inducing inflammation. The inhibitory effect of the extracts was also evaluated against cellular influx induced by carrageenin. The antiinflammatory effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts of DL was more pronounced than phenylbutazone (PBZ) against carrageenin while it was comparable to chlorpheniramine and PBZ against histamine and PGE2, respectively. Both extracts produced about 80%, 40%, and 30% inhibition of inflammation induced by BK, compound 48/80, and serotonin. The histological analysis revealed that the extracts were more potent than PBZ in inhibiting cellular infiltration and subcutaneous oedema induced by carrageenin. The extracts of DL exert their antiinflammatory effects mainly by inhibiting histamine and BK and partly by inhibiting PGE2.

  7. Protective effect of latex of Calotropis procera in Freund's Complete Adjuvant induced monoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V L; Roy, S

    2009-01-01

    The protective effect of latex of Calotropis procera in Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) induced monoarticular arthritis was evaluated in rats. Arthritis was induced by a single intra-articular injection of 0.1 mL of 0.1% FCA in the right ankle joint. The effect of dried latex (DL, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and its methanol extract (MeDL, 50 and 500 mg/kg) following oral administration was evaluated on joint inflammation, hyperalgesia, locomotor function and histology at the time of peak inflammation. The effects of DL and MeDL were compared with antiinflammatory drugs phenylbutazone (100 mg/kg), prednisolone (20 mg/kg), rofecoxib (20 and 100 mg/kg) and immuno-suppressant methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg). Daily oral administration of DL and its methanol extract (MeDL) produced a significant reduction in joint inflammation (about 50% and 80% inhibition) and associated hyperalgesia. The antihyperalgesic effect of MeDL was comparable to that of rofecoxib. Both DL and MeDL produced a marked improvement in the motility and stair climbing ability of the rats. The histological analysis of the arthritic joint also revealed significant reduction in oedema and cellular infiltration by MeDL that was comparable to that of rofecoxib. Thus, our study suggests that the latex of C. procera has the potential to be used as an antiarthritic agent. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. First insights into the diversity and functional properties of chitinases of the latex of Calotropis procera.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cleverson D T; Viana, Carolina A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Moreno, Frederico B B; Lima-Filho, José V; Oliveira, Hermogenes D; Moreira, Renato A; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Ramos, Márcio V

    2016-11-01

    Chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) found in the latex of Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br. were studied. The proteins were homogeneously obtained after two ion exchange chromatography steps. Most proteins were identified individually in 15 spots on 2-D gel electrophoresis with isoelectric points ranging from 4.6 to 6.0 and molecular masses extending from 27 to 30 kDa. Additionally, 66 kDa proteins were identified as chitinases in SDS-PAGE. Their identities were further confirmed by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the tryptic digests of each spot and MS analysis of the non-digested proteins. Positive reaction for Schiff's reagent suggested the proteins are glycosylated. The chitinases exhibited high catalytic activity toward to colloidal chitin at pH 5.0, and this activity underwent decay in the presence of increasing amounts of reducing agent dithiothreitol. Spore germination and hyphae growth of two phytopathogenic fungi were inhibited only marginally by the chitinases but were affected differently. This suggested a complex relationship might exist between the specificity of the proteins toward the fungal species. The chitinases showed potent insecticidal activity against the Bruchidae Callosobruchus maculatus, drastically reducing survival, larval weight and adult emergence. It is concluded that closely related chitinases are present in the latex of C. procera, and the first experimental evidence suggests these proteins are involved more efficiently in defence strategies against insects rather than fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Photosynthetic limitation and mechanisms of photoprotection under drought and recovery of Calotropis procera, an evergreen C3 from arid regions.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Rebeca; Frosi, Gabriella; Ramos, Diego G; Pereira, Silvia; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M; Santos, Mauro G

    2017-09-01

    Calotropis procera is a C3 plant native from arid environmental zones. It is an evergreen, shrubby, non-woody plant with intense photosynthetic metabolism during the dry season. We measured photosynthetic parameters and leaf biochemical traits, such as gas exchange, photochemical parameters, A/Ci analysis, organic solutes, and antioxidant enzymes under controlled conditions in potted plants during drought stress, and following recovery conditions to obtain a better insight in the drought stress responses of C. procera. Indeed, different processes contribute to the drought stress resilience of C. procera and to the fast recovery after rehydration. The parameters analyzed showed that C. procera has a high efficiency for energy dissipation. The photosynthetic machinery is protected by a robust antioxidant system and photoprotective mechanisms such as alternative pathways for electrons (photorespiration and day respiration). Under severe drought stress, increased stomatal limitation and decreased biochemical limitation permitted C. procera to maintain maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vc,max) and photosynthetic rate (Amax). On the other hand, limitation of stomatal or mesophyll CO2 diffusion did not impair fast recovery, maintaining Vc,max, chloroplast CO2 concentration (Cc) and mesophyll conductance (gm) unchanged while electron flow used for RuBP carboxylation (Jc) and Amax increased. The ability to tolerate drought stress and the fast recovery of this evergreen C3 species was also due to leaf anti-oxidative stress enzyme activity, and photosynthetic pigments. Thus, these different drought tolerance mechanisms allowed high performance of photosynthetic metabolism by drought stressed plants during the re-watering period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Replacement of Old Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal Crowns and Smile Rejuvenation Using All-Ceramic Restorations.

    PubMed

    Grytsenko, Kateryna; Calamia, John R

    2015-07-01

    This case report points out the previous restorative breakdown of tooth #8. An interdisciplinary approach had to be applied to prepare the final treatment plan. All factors were taken into account when choosing the type of restorations and materials in this case. The ultimate treatment is presented with the final result. The objectives were to clinically assess patient's current chief complaint, address her aesthetic needs, apply an interdisciplinary approach, deliver treatment of utmost quality, and maintain oral health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. SEM evaluation of the precision of fit of CAD/CAM zirconia and metal-ceramic posterior crowns.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rocio; Gonzalo, Esther; Gomez-Polo, Miguel; Lopez-Suarez, Carlos; Suarez, Maria J

    2017-07-26

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the precision of fit of posterior crowns made from three commercial CAD/CAM zirconia ceramics and conventional metal-ceramic technique. The external and internal marginal fit of the crowns was evaluated using direct SEM-based measurements. The data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis, multicomparison post hoc analysis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α=0.05). Significant differences were observed for the external (p<0.002) and the internal (p<0.0001) marginal evaluation among the groups. No differences were observed between the buccal and lingual surfaces for the external (p=0.34) and internal (p=0.55) evaluations. No differences were showed between the external and internal measurements (p=0.37). The accuracy of fit was within the range of clinical acceptance. The lowest discrepancies corresponded to the NobelProcera group for external (39.3±11.81 μm) and internal (41.09±7.54 µm) marginal fit. The results confirmed that destructive methods are not required to assess the marginal fit of dental prosthetic crowns.

  12. Evaluation of the medicinal properties of Cyrtocarpa procera Kunth fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Elizalde, Karla Stephanie; Jimenez-Estrada, Manuel; Flores, Cesar Mateo; Hernandez, Luis Barbo; Rosas-Lopez, Rocio; Duran-Diaz, Angel; Nieto-Yañez, Oscar J; Barbosa, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Monroy, Marco Aurelio; Canales-Martinez, Margarita

    2015-03-21

    The fruit of Cyrtocarpa procera is used to treat stomach diseases by people living in San Rafael, Coxcatlan, Puebla. This work investigated the antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities of the fruit produced by this species. Methanol extract was obtained by maceration. After obtaining the methanol extract (MeOH1), methanol subextract (MeOH2) and hexane (H) were obtained. The antibacterial activities of MeOH1, MeOH2 and H were evaluated through disc-diffusion. The quenching of free radicals was evaluated by decolorizing a methanolic DPPH solution. The cytotoxic activity of MeOH2 was evaluated by in vitro assay system of growth inhibition of human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi). The IL-1β and TNF-α were determined through ELISA in the supernatants of the macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). The MeOH2 subextract was separated by column chromatography, seventy-three fractions were collected. The Gram-positive and -negative bacteria examined were sensitive to MeOH1 and MeOH2; the MeOH2 was bactericidal toward Staphyloccocus aureus (MIC = 4 mg/mL) and Vibrio cholera (MIC = 4 mg/mL). The MeOH2 inhibited the DPPH radical (SC50 = 69.7 μg/mL), but a cytotoxicity assay revealed that the extract is not toxic according to the National Cancer Institute (LD50 = 22.03 μg/mL). The production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL- 1β and TNF- α) by LPS- stimulated macrophages was reduced after the treatments. The methanol extract contained various organic acids, such as citric acid, palmitic acid and α- linoleic acid. The fruits of Cyrtocarpa procera are employed to treat ailments such as diarrhea, in this study were demonstrated some biological activities involved in a bacterial infection. This is the first research about of the medicinal properties of C. procera fruit.

  13. Anthelmintic potential of Calotropis procera, Azadirachta indica and Punica granatum against Gastrothylax indicus.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rama; Kaur, Kiranjeet; Suri, Mansi; Bagai, Upma

    2016-12-01

    Anthelmintic activity of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera flowers, Azadirachta indica leaves and Punica granatum fruit peel in comparison with albendazole was evaluated through in vitro studies by the worm motility inhibition assay. Significant anthelmintic effects (p < 0.0005) were observed on live Gastrothylax indicus worm as evident from their mortality at 4 h post exposure to both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids. LC-50 values were determined to be 12.05 mg/ml ± 3.24 and 23.52 mg/ml ± 6.4 for C. procera, 24.37 mg/ml ± 4.11 and 21.02 mg/ml ± 4.6 for A. indica, 18.92 mg/ml ± 4.54 and 24.43 mg/ml ± 6.96 for P. granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively, whereas it was 29.23 μg/ml ± 4.51 for albendazole. The mean mortality index (MI) was 1.0 and 0.90 for C. procera, 0.90 for A. indica and 0.73 and 0.80 for P. granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively whereas for albendazole it was 1.0. Percent mean worm motility inhibition (%WMI) was observed to be between 70 and 100 % for different extracts.Various concentrations (5-5000 μg/ml) of all the plant extracts and albendazole were used to detect their cytotoxic effects against HeLa cell line to determine CC-50 by MTT assay. CC-50 values, of all the plant extracts were determined to be >1000 μg/ml and for albendazole it was found to be >10 μM. All the three plants can be potential sources for novel anthelmintics.

  14. Marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of 2 zirconia crown systems luted with glass ionomer and MDP-based cements.

    PubMed

    Sener, Isil; Turker, Begum; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and phosphate monomer-containing resin cement (MDP-RC) under 2 zirconia crown systems (Cercon and DC-Zirkon). Forty human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic zirconia crowns with a 1 mm circumferential finish line and a 1.5 mm occlusal reduction. The crowns (n = 10 per group) from each zirconia system were randomly divided into 2 groups and cemented either with GIC (Vivaglass CEM) or MDP-RC (Panavia F 2.0) cement. The cemented crowns were thermocycled 5000 times (5°-55°C). The crowns were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally. Specimens were examined under optical microscope (100X). Data were analyzed using Student t-test and chi-square tests (α = 0.05). Mean marginal gap values for Cercon (85 ± 11.4 μm) were significantly higher than for DC-Zircon (75.3 ± 13.2 μm) (P = 0.018). The mean cement thickness values of GIC (81.7 ± 13.9 μm) and MDP-RC (78.5 ± 12.5 μm) were not significantly different (P = 0.447). Microleakage scores did not demonstrate significant difference between GIC (P = 0.385) and MDP-RC (P = 0.631) under Cercon or DC-Zircon. Considering the cement thickness values and microleakage scores obtained, both zirconia crown systems could be cemented in combination with either GIC or MDP-RC.

  15. Development of laticifer cells in callus cultures of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br.

    PubMed

    Dhir, S K; Shekhawat, N S; Purohit, S D; Arya, H C

    1984-10-01

    Tissue cultures were established from stem explants of Calotropis procera, a hydrocarbon yielding desert shrub on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 1.5 mg. 1(-01) 2,4-D + 0.5 mg.1(-1) kinetin and polyvinylpyrrolidone. Laticifer cells were not present in young callus but were observed after 4 weeks of callus growth when examined histochemically. These young laticifers were detected in the 5th week of culture and were distinguished from surrounding cells by the presence of characteristic cytoplasm and thin walls. A group of cells with extensive branching was developed after 8 weeks of growth of the callus cultures. These cells were thick walled and contained latex particles in coagulated masses. Positive Liebermann-Burchard test proved the presence of terpenoids in these laticifers.

  16. Antioxidant and protective effect of latex of Calotropis procera against alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, S; Sehgal, R; Padhy, B M; Kumar, V L

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, dry latex (DL) of Calotropis procera possessing potent anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated for its antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic effects against alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Daily oral administration of DL at 100 and 400 mg/kg doses produced a dose-dependent decrease in the blood glucose and increase in the hepatic glycogen content. DL also prevented the loss of body weight in diabetic rats and brought down the daily water consumption to values comparable to normal rats. DL also produced an increase in the hepatic levels of the endogenous antioxidants, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione, while it brought down the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The efficacy of DL as an antioxidant and as an anti-diabetic agent was comparable to the standard anti-diabetic drug, glibenclamide.

  17. Effect of anti-inflammatory drugs on pleurisy induced by latex of Calotropis procera in rats.

    PubMed

    Shivkar, Yatin M; Kumar, Vijay L

    2004-09-01

    In present study, we have characterized the inflammation induced by latex of Calotropis procera in the rat pleurisy model and evaluated the effect of various inhibitors of inflammatory mediators. Injection of dried latex (DL) into the pleural cavity elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by protein rich fluid accumulation and leucocyte (polymorphonuclear cells, and mononuclear cells) infiltration in the pleural cavity. The peak inflammatory response was obtained at 6h when the fluid volume, protein concentration and cell infiltration were maximum. All these parameters were attenuated by phenylbutazone (PBZ), celecoxib, dexamethasone, cyproheptadine and chlorpheniramine. All these drugs were also effective in inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Of all the drugs tested, dexamethasone was most effective in inhibiting DL induced pleurisy. The results clearly indicate that prostaglandins (PGs) and biogenic amines play a key role in the development of pleurisy induced by DL and it serves as a model to evaluate drugs inhibiting cellular influx associated with inflammatory response.

  18. Triterpenoid saponins with N-acetyl sugar from the bark of Albizia procera.

    PubMed

    Melek, F R; Miyase, Toshio; Ghaly, N S; Nabil, Marian

    2007-05-01

    Three (1,2,4) and one known (3) triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the bark of Albizia procera. The saponins were characterized as 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] echinocystic acid (1), 3-O-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-fucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] echinocystic acid (2) and 3-O-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] acacic acid lactone (4). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, FABMS as well as chemical means. Saponins 1 and 3 exhibited cytotoxicity against HEPG2 cell line with IC50 9.13 microg/ml and 10 microg/ml, respectively.

  19. Evaluation of fit and efficiency of CAD/CAM fabricated all-ceramic restorations based on direct and indirect digitalization: a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ahrberg, Danush; Lauer, Hans Christoph; Ahrberg, Martin; Weigl, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia crowns and three-unit fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) resulting from direct versus indirect digitalization. The efficiency of both methods was analyzed. In 25 patients, 17 single crowns and eight three-unit FDPs were fabricated with all-ceramic zirconia using CAD/CAM technology. Each patient underwent two different impression methods; a computer-aided impression with Lava C.O.S. (CAI) and a conventional polyether impression with Impregum pent soft (CI). The working time for each group was recorded. Before insertion, the marginal and internal fit was recorded using silicone replicas of the frameworks. Each sample was cut into four sections and evaluated at four sites (marginal gap, mid-axial wall, axio-occlusal transition, centro-occlusal site) under ×64 magnification. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to detect significant differences between the two groups in terms of marginal and internal fit (α = 0.05). The mean for the marginal gap was 61.08 μm (±24.77 μm) for CAI compared with 70.40 μm (±28.87 μm) for CI, which was a statistically significant difference. The other mean values for CAI and CI, respectively, were as follows in micrometers (± standard deviation): 88.27 (±41.49) and 92.13 (±49.87) at the mid-axial wall; 144.78 (±46.23) and 155.60 (±55.77) at the axio-occlusal transition; and 155.57 (49.85) and 171.51 (±60.98) at the centro-occlusal site. The CAI group showed significantly lower values of internal fit at the centro-occlusal site. A quadrant scan with a computer-aided impression was 5 min 6 s more time efficient when compared with a conventional impression, and a full-arch scan was 1 min 34 s more efficient. Although both direct and indirect digitalization facilitate the fabrication of single crowns and three-unit FDPs with clinically acceptable marginal fit, a significantly better marginal fit was noted with direct

  20. Immunological and allergenic responses induced by latex fractions of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M V; Aguiar, V C; Melo, V M M; Mesquita, R O; Silvestre, P P; Oliveira, J S; Oliveira, R S B; Macedo, N M R; Alencar, N M N

    2007-04-20

    Immunological and allergenic responses against the latex of Calotropis procera were investigated in mice by oral and subcutaneous routes. The latex was fractionated according to water solubility and molecular size of its components. The fractions were named as non-dialyzable latex (NDL) corresponding to the major latex proteins, dialyzable latex (DL) corresponding to low molecular size substances and rubber latex (RL) which was highly insoluble in water. Anti-sera against these fractions were assayed for total IgG and IgA titration by ELISA and IgE and IgG(1) were quantified by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats and mice, respectively. None of the fractions induced antibodies level increases when mice received latex fractions by oral route and thus, did not develop allergy. Nonetheless, anti-sera of mice sensitized with NDL and RL by subcutaneous route displayed considerable immunological response while DL did not. IgG level augmented consistently against NDL and RL while IgA response was detected only to NDL. NDL and RL induced very strong PCA reactions suggesting that both fractions would contain latex substances involved in allergy. Furthermore, protein analysis of NDL and RL suggests that RL still retain residual proteins abundantly found in NDL that could explain its similar allergenic effect. No IgG(1) reaction was detected in any of the anti-sera tested. According to the results, the proteins of latex of Calotropis procera can provoke allergy by subcutaneous route. The NDL has previously shown to display anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by intraperitoneal injection. It should be relevant to determine whether NDL could induce such activities when assayed by oral route since it was ineffective to induce allergy by this way.

  1. Calotropis procera latex-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia - effect of bradyzide and morphine.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay L; Sehgal, Raman

    2007-07-01

    1 The milky white latex of the plant Calotropis procera induces inflammatory response upon accidental exposure and on local administration that could be effectively ameliorated by antihistaminic and standard anti-inflammatory drugs. 2 The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-oedematogenic and analgesic effect of the bradykinin antagonist, bradyzide (BDZ) and the opioidergic analgesic, morphine (Mor) against inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by the dried latex (DL) of C. procera in the rat paw oedema model. 3 An aqueous solution of DL (0.1 ml of 1% solution) was injected into the sub-plantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured at different time intervals. The inhibitory effect of bradyzide and morphine on oedema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with that of cyproheptadine (CPH), a potent inhibitor of DL-induced oedema formation. 4 The hyperalgesic response was evaluated by the dorsal flexion pain test, compression test and by observing motility, stair-climbing ability, and the grooming behaviour of the rats. 5 The effect of these drugs was also evaluated against DL-induced writhings in the mouse model. 6 Both bradyzide and morphine inhibited DL-induced oedema formation by 30-40% and CPH was more effective in this regard (81% inhibition). The antihyperalgesic effect of both the drugs was more pronounced than that of CPH. Both bradyzide and morphine markedly inhibited the grooming behaviour and the effect of morphine could be reversed by pretreatment with naloxone. 7 Thus, our study shows that DL-induced oedema formation is effectively inhibited by antihistaminic/antiserotonergic drug and associated hyperalgesia by analgesic drugs.

  2. ASTER Views California Crown Fire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-03

    NASA Terra spacecraft captured this image of the wildfire near Palmdale, Calif. on August 1, 2010 called the Crown fire. The burned areas appear in shades of gray in this simulated natural color image.

  3. Horizontal Roll Vortices and Crown Fires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Donald A.

    1982-06-01

    Observational evidence from nine crown fires suggests that horizontal roll vortices are a major mechanism in crown-fire spread. Post-burn aerial photography indicates that unburned tree-crown streets are common with crown fire. Investigation of the understory of these crown streets after two fires showed uncharred tree trunks along a center line. This evidence supports a hypothesis of vortex action causing strong downward motion of air along the streets. Additionally, photographs of two ongoing crown fires show apparent horizontal roll vortices. Discussion also includes laboratory and numerical studies in fluid dynamics that may apply to crown fires.

  4. Crown Position and Light Exposure Classification-An Alternative to Field-Assigned Crown Class

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold

    2003-01-01

    Crown class, an ordinal tree-level mensuration attribute used extensively by foresters, is difficult to assign in the field because definitions of individual classes are confounded by ambiguous references to the position the tree in the canopy and amount of light received by its crown. When crown class is decomposed into its two elements-crown position and crown light...

  5. A preliminary study on the anthelmintic activity of Calotropis procera latex against Haemonchus contortus infection in Najdi sheep.

    PubMed

    Al-Qarawi, A A; Mahmoud, O M; Sobaih; Haroun, E M; Adam, S E

    2001-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of Calotropis procera latex was investigated in sheep that had been infected with single oral doses of 12000 infective Haemonchus contortus larvae. Inappetence, dullness, erosive abomasitis, decreased haemoglobin concentration and increased eosinophils were the main features of haemonchosis in the sheep. In the sheep treated with single oral doses of 0.01 ml or 0.02 ml/kg body weight of C. procera latex, egg production was significantly reduced, but not completely suppressed, and fewer adult Haemonchus worms were found in the abomasum. Although the appetite improved, the haemoglobin concentration and serum copper, iron and zinc levels were still reduced after therapy with Calotropis latex. Calotropis latex showed a concentration-dependent larvicidal activity in vitro within 20 min of application.

  6. Extraction and phytochemical investigation of Calotropis procera: effect of plant extracts on the activity of diverse muscles.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, A M Y; Ahmed, S H; Nabil, Z I; Hussein, A A; Omran, M A

    2010-10-01

    Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is a shrub or small tree that grows wild in Egypt. Calotropis acts as a purgative, anthelmintic, anticoagulant, palliative (in problems with respiration, blood pressure), antipyretic, and analgesic, and induces neuromuscular blocking activity. Little research has been done to study the electrophysiological effects of this plant's extracts on cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle activities. The present study was conducted to determine the phytochemical composition and the effect of the total alcohol extract of the shoot of the plant, which contains almost all of C. procera's cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and saponins. Also, this study attempted to throw more light on the electrophysiological effects of the plant extracts on cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle activities and to clarify the mechanism(s) of their observed action(s). The aerial parts of the plant were air dried and their ethanol extracts partitioned with successive solvents. Cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscles were used in this study to investigate the physiological and pharmacological effects of the plant extracts from different solvents. The data were analyzed by paired t-test. The phytochemical investigation of Calotropis procera revealed the presence of cardenolides, flavonoids, and saponins. The effects of ethanol, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts were each evaluated on isolated toad heart and their mechanisms of action determined. Perfusion with 2 μg/mL ethanol, 0.2 μg/mL butanol, and 0.2 μg/mL EtOAc extracts caused a significant decrease in heart rate (bradycardia), significant increase in the force of ventricular contraction, and increase in T-wave amplitude. In addition, the effects of different extracts of the studied plant on smooth muscle and skeletal muscle were investigated in this study. The different extracts and latex of C. procera induced a negative chronotropic effect and decreased the heart rate (HR) of

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and antioxidant potential of processed samples of the wild mushroom Macrolepiota procera.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-04-15

    It was previously demonstrated that gamma irradiation was the processing technology with the highest capacity to maintain the chemical profile of fresh Macrolepiota procera wild mushroom, when compared to freeze-dried or oven-dried samples. Herein, it was aimed to evaluate gamma irradiation effects on processed samples. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of irradiated (0.5 and 1 kGy) fresh, frozen and dried samples were determined by chromatographic techniques and in vitro assays, respectively. M. procera irradiation attenuated the effects caused by oven-drying or freezing; combining freeze treatment with 0.5 kGy dose preserved total tocopherols. Rather than a conservation methodology, gamma irradiation might act as a useful adjuvant to other conservation techniques (e.g., freezing or oven-drying).

  8. Evaluation of an all-ceramic tubesheet assembly for a hot gas filter

    SciTech Connect

    Bitner, J.L.; Mallett, R.H.; Eggerstedt, P.M.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1997-12-01

    A 10-inch thick, all-ceramic tubesheet design is evaluated for differential pressure and thermal conditions. Primary stresses from differential pressure are well within a safe allowable. The calculated peak thermal stresses at local discontinuities approach the modules of rupture for the ceramic material. Kiln tests were performed to demonstrate differential temperatures between hot center and cooler rim do not cause failures or visible tensile cracks. There appear to be mitigating mechanisms and design features in the Industrial Filter and Pump (IF and P) Mfg. Co. all-ceramic tubesheet design concept that add forgiveness in accommodating differential pressure and thermal loading stresses. A material characterization program on the ceramic materials is recommended.

  9. Design for minimizing fracture risk of all-ceramic cantilever dental bridge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongpu; Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Eric; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael V; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Minimization of the peak stresses and fracture incidence induced by mastication function is considered critical in design of all-ceramic dental restorations, especially for cantilever fixed partial dentures (FPDs). The focus of this study is on developing a mechanically-sound optimal design for all-ceramic cantilever dental bridge in a posterior region. The topology optimization procedure in association with Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is implemented here to search for the best possible distribution of porcelain and zirconia materials in the bridge structure. The designs with different volume fractions of zirconia are considered. The results show that this new methodology is capable of improving FPD design by minimizing incidence of crack in comparison with the initial design. Potentially, it provides dental technicians with a new design tool to develop mechanically sound cantilever fixed partial dentures for more complicated clinical situation.

  10. [Influence of veneer application on failure behavior and reliability of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic molar crowns].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ya-ru; Pan, Yu; Cao, Shan-shan; Zhang, Xin-ping; Zhao, Ke

    2013-02-01

    all-ceramic crowns. Veneer application has some influence on fatigue failure of LDG crowns, but shows no effect on structure reliability. Accumulated damage combined with tensile stress concentration on the surface of veneer layer and defects within core-veneer interface lead to initiating of cracks. The mechanical property of veneering materials should be increased, and procedure of veneer application should be standardized and improved in order to reduce the failure rate of LDG molar crowns.

  11. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and the healing action of the ethanol extract of Calotropis procera bark against surgical wounds.

    PubMed

    Tsala, David Emery; Nga, Nnanga; Thiery, Bella Ndzana Martin; Bienvenue, Mballa Therese; Theophile, Dimo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential and the wound healing effect of the ethanolic extract of the bark of Calotropis procera. The antioxidant study was evaluated in vitro, using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and deoxyribose degradation assays. Wound healing was studied using excision and incision wound on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing rodent models. Alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins and phenols were screened in the extract used whereas saponins and true tannins were absent. The extract contains only 12.5 gallic acid equivalent and 399.54 rutin equivalent. It was found to inhibit DPPH and deoxyribose oxidation (IC50 = 24.24 and 5.40 respectively). In vivo study demonstrated a significant reduction in the epithelialization time (P < 0.001) to 17-18 days in normal and dexamethasone treated rats following the ethanolic extract of the bark of C. procera application. The same extract also significantly increased the breaking strength in dexamethasone treated rats. Histological examination of incision wounds of treated group showed matured extracellular matrix, numerous fibroblasts. This study illustrated an excellent potential of the bark of C. procera therapy on dermal wound healing, with a tentative mechanism of action related to improved collagen deposition and reduced inflammatory reaction.

  12. Study of silver, selenium and arsenic concentration in wild edible mushroom Macrolepiota procera, health benefit and risk.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Violeta; Trifković, Jelena; Djurdjić, Sladjana; Vukojević, Vesna; Tešić, Živoslav; Mutić, Jelena

    2016-11-01

    The content and bioaccumulation of trace (Ag, Se, As) and major elements (Ca, Mg, Na and K) in wild edible mushroom Macrolepiota procera and its corresponding soil substrates, collected from five sites in the Rasina region in central Serbia, were investigated. The content of Ag, As and Se was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) while the amount of Ca, Mg, Na and K was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The concentrations of major elements in the mushrooms were at typical levels. As far as trace elements are concerned, M. procera bioaccumulates silver although all samples were collected from unpolluted sites. It was found that the content of Ag depended on the geographical origin and the density of fruiting body on the certain site. Principal component analysis distinguished the mushroom samples from different geographical areas and revealed the influence of soil composition on metal content in fruiting bodies. Also, a linear regression correlation test was performed to investigate correlations between Ag, Cd, Se, Pb and As in caps and stipes at different geographic sites separately. In addition, our results indicated that M. procera could serve as a good dietary source of Mg, K and Se. The content of Ag and As was low, so it could not pose a health risk for consumers.

  13. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and the healing action of the ethanol extract of Calotropis procera bark against surgical wounds

    PubMed Central

    Tsala, David Emery; Nga, Nnanga; Thiery, Bella Ndzana Martin; Bienvenue, Mballa Therese; Theophile, Dimo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential and the wound healing effect of the ethanolic extract of the bark of Calotropis procera. The antioxidant study was evaluated in vitro, using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and deoxyribose degradation assays. Wound healing was studied using excision and incision wound on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing rodent models. Alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins and phenols were screened in the extract used whereas saponins and true tannins were absent. The extract contains only 12.5 gallic acid equivalent and 399.54 rutin equivalent. It was found to inhibit DPPH and deoxyribose oxidation (IC50 = 24.24 and 5.40 respectively). In vivo study demonstrated a significant reduction in the epithelialization time (P < 0.001) to 17-18 days in normal and dexamethasone treated rats following the ethanolic extract of the bark of C. procera application. The same extract also significantly increased the breaking strength in dexamethasone treated rats. Histological examination of incision wounds of treated group showed matured extracellular matrix, numerous fibroblasts. This study illustrated an excellent potential of the bark of C. procera therapy on dermal wound healing, with a tentative mechanism of action related to improved collagen deposition and reduced inflammatory reaction. PMID:26401387

  14. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of Calotropis procera latex on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to toxic 4-nonylphenol.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Mohamed, Nadia H; Ismail, Mady A; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Shoreit, Ahmed A M

    2016-06-01

    Calotropis procera L. is known as medicinal plant. The Phytochemical analyzes of its latex revealed that it possessed antioxidants, namely terpenes, phenolic compounds and cardenolides, flavonoids and saponins, while tannins, alkaloids and resin were absent in moderate to high concentration. In the present study, the role of latex of Calotropis procera as antioxidant and antiapoptotic was reported. To carry out this aim, fishes were exposed to 100 µg l(-1) 4-nonylphenol as chemical pollutant. The enzymes, superoxidase dismutase, catalase, acetlycholinstrase (AchE), glutathione s-transferase, cortisol, G6PDH) and apoptotic cells increased significantly (p<0.05) accompanied by irregular disturbance of (Na(+), K(+)) ions in the presence of 4-nonylphenol. On the other hand, these enzymes, ions, and apoptotic cells decreased normally and significantly (p<0.05) in the presence of latex. Total phenol content, total capacity antioxidant, reducing power decrease significantly (p<0.05) in the presence of 4-nonylphenol and increase normally in the presence of latex. Latex was used for the first time to protect catfish after 4-nonylphenol exposure. Our study confirms that crude latex of Calotropis procera possessed antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities against the toxicity of 4-Nonylphenol.

  15. Implants and all-ceramic restorations in a patient treated for aggressive periodontitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jin-Sun; Yeo, In-Sung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk

    2010-01-01

    A 23-year-old female with aggressive periodontitis was treated using dental implants and LAVA system. The severely compromised teeth were extracted irrespective of initial conservative periodontal treatment. An implant-supported overdenture with 4 implants was fabricated for the maxilla and all-ceramic restorations for the mandible. Esthetic and functional goals were achieved with team approach involving periodontists and prosthodontists. This case report describes a treatment procedure for a generalized aggressive periodontitis patient with severe bone resorption. PMID:21165277

  16. Topological design of all-ceramic dental bridges for enhancing fracture resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongpu; Chen, Junning; Li, Eric; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Layered all-ceramic systems have been increasingly adopted in major dental prostheses. However, ceramics are inherently brittle, and they often subject to premature failure under high occlusion forces especially in the posterior region. This study aimed to develop mechanically sound novel topological designs for all-ceramic dental bridges by minimizing the fracture incidence under given loading conditions. A bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) technique is implemented within the extended finite element method (XFEM) framework. Extended finite element method allows modeling crack initiation and propagation inside all-ceramic restoration systems. Following this, BESO searches the optimum distribution of two different ceramic materials, namely porcelain and zirconia, for minimizing fracture incidence. A performance index, as per a ratio of peak tensile stress to material strength, is used as a design objective. In this study, the novel XFEM based BESO topology optimization significantly improved structural strength by minimizing performance index for suppressing fracture incidence in the structures. As expected, the fracture resistance and factor of safety of fixed partial dentures structure increased upon redistributing zirconia and porcelain in the optimal topological configuration. Dental CAD/CAM systems and the emerging 3D printing technology were commercially available to facilitate implementation of such a computational design, exhibiting considerable potential for clinical application in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Adhesion of oral streptococci to all-ceramics dental restorative materials in vitro.

    PubMed

    Meier, R; Hauser-Gerspach, I; Lüthy, H; Meyer, J

    2008-10-01

    In recent years, patients have benefited from the development of better and more esthetic materials, including all-ceramics dental restorative materials. Dental plaque formation on teeth and restorative materials plays an important role in the pathogenesis of oral diseases. This study investigates initial adhesion of stationary phase streptococcal species to different all-ceramics dental restorative materials. The saliva-coated materials were incubated with the bacteria for 1 h in an in vitro flow chamber which mimics environmental conditions in the oral cavity. Number and vitality of adhering bacteria were determined microscopically after staining. Surface roughness and the composition of the materials had no distinctive influence on bacterial adhesion. However, S. mutans and S. sobrinus adhered about tenfold less numerous to all materials than the other streptococcal species. Further, there was a correlation between bacterial vitality and materials' glass content. The results showed that early plaque formation was influenced predominantly by the presence of the salivary pellicle rather than by material dependent parameters whereas the composition of the all-ceramics appeared to have influenced the percentage of viable cells during the adhesion process. This presented in vitro technique may provide a useful model to study the influence of different parameters on adherence of oral streptococcal species.

  18. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a* shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b* shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings.

  19. Influence of cement type on the marginal adaptation of all-ceramic MOD inlays.

    PubMed

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Lang, Reinhold; Handel, Gerhard

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro marginal adaptation of all-ceramic class II inlays which were luted with conventional multi-stage pre-treatment cements and one new type of cement, which requires no conditioning. The marginal adaptation of 56 all-ceramic inlays was determined with scanning electron microscopy and microleakage tests. The marginal integrity of each tooth was evaluated at cement-dentin and cement-enamel junctions, with regard to the transitions between tooth-cement and cement-inlay. The inlays were luted on human molars with two resin cements, one compomer, one resin modified glass-ionomer and one new resin cement in accordance with the manufacture's recommended pre-treatment. Light- and chemical-curing modifications were investigated. All tests were performed after thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML). For the resin cements and the new material the marginal integrity was higher than 90% before and after TCML. The marginal adaptation was between 55-80% for the resin modified glass-ionomer and lower than 20% for the compomer. The microleakage was lower than 20% for all cements, only the compomer showed values up to 100% penetration. The difference in marginal integrity between the new universal resin cement without any tooth pre-treatment and conventional resin cements after total-etching, priming and bonding was not significant. Resin GIC may be used with restrictions and compomer cement should not be used with all-ceramic class II inlay restorations.

  20. Manufacturing conditioned roughness and wear of biomedical oxide ceramics for all-ceramic knee implants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ceramic materials are used in a growing proportion of hip joint prostheses due to their wear resistance and biocompatibility properties. However, ceramics have not been applied successfully in total knee joint endoprostheses to date. One reason for this is that with strict surface quality requirements, there are significant challenges with regard to machining. High-toughness bioceramics can only be machined by grinding and polishing processes. The aim of this study was to develop an automated process chain for the manufacturing of an all-ceramic knee implant. Methods A five-axis machining process was developed for all-ceramic implant components. These components were used in an investigation of the influence of surface conformity on wear behavior under simplified knee joint motion. Results The implant components showed considerably reduced wear compared to conventional material combinations. Contact area resulting from a variety of component surface shapes, with a variety of levels of surface conformity, greatly influenced wear rate. Conclusions It is possible to realize an all-ceramic knee endoprosthesis device, with a precise and affordable manufacturing process. The shape accuracy of the component surfaces, as specified by the design and achieved during the manufacturing process, has a substantial influence on the wear behavior of the prosthesis. This result, if corroborated by results with a greater sample size, is likely to influence the design parameters of such devices. PMID:23988155

  1. [Clinical application of anterior all-ceramic cantilevered resin-bonded fixed partial dentures].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Nie, Yu-Guang; Xie, Qiu-Fei

    2008-04-01

    To explore a fabricating method of incisor all-ceramic cantilevered resin-bonded fixed partial denture (RBFPD) and evaluate their clinical performances. All-ceramic cantilevered RBFPDs were made to replace 1 missing incisor in each of 10 patients. The RBFPDs with lingual surface retainer were made of Empress II ceramic materials and luted with resin cement. The prostheses were examined at 2 weeks, 1 year and 2 years after denture insertion. Examining criteria included: fracture of bridge, marginal adaptation, secondary caries, and color match. The average follow-up period was 14. 7 months. No framework fracture and retainer debonding were observed and marginal adaptation was evaluated as good. Seven RBFPDs matched the color of adjacent teeth, and other three did not match well but within the acceptable range of tooth shade difference. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the clinical performances of all-ceramic cantilevered RBFPDs are good in short-term evaluation, but their long-term success needs to be further investigated.

  2. Manufacturing conditioned roughness and wear of biomedical oxide ceramics for all-ceramic knee implants.

    PubMed

    Turger, Anke; Köhler, Jens; Denkena, Berend; Correa, Tomas A; Becher, Christoph; Hurschler, Christof

    2013-08-29

    Ceramic materials are used in a growing proportion of hip joint prostheses due to their wear resistance and biocompatibility properties. However, ceramics have not been applied successfully in total knee joint endoprostheses to date. One reason for this is that with strict surface quality requirements, there are significant challenges with regard to machining. High-toughness bioceramics can only be machined by grinding and polishing processes. The aim of this study was to develop an automated process chain for the manufacturing of an all-ceramic knee implant. A five-axis machining process was developed for all-ceramic implant components. These components were used in an investigation of the influence of surface conformity on wear behavior under simplified knee joint motion. The implant components showed considerably reduced wear compared to conventional material combinations. Contact area resulting from a variety of component surface shapes, with a variety of levels of surface conformity, greatly influenced wear rate. It is possible to realize an all-ceramic knee endoprosthesis device, with a precise and affordable manufacturing process. The shape accuracy of the component surfaces, as specified by the design and achieved during the manufacturing process, has a substantial influence on the wear behavior of the prosthesis. This result, if corroborated by results with a greater sample size, is likely to influence the design parameters of such devices.

  3. Evaluation of marginal fit of two all-ceramic copings with two finish lines

    PubMed Central

    Subasi, Gulce; Ozturk, Nilgun; Inan, Ozgur; Bozogullari, Nalan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This in-vitro study investigated the marginal fit of two all-ceramic copings with 2 finish line designs. Methods: Forty machined stainless steel molar die models with two different margin designs (chamfer and rounded shoulder) were prepared. A total of 40 standardized copings were fabricated and divided into 4 groups (n=10 for each finish line-coping material). Coping materials tested were IPS e.max Press and Zirkonzahn; luting agent was Variolink II. Marginal fit was evaluated after cementation with a stereomicroscope (Leica MZ16). Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey-HSD test were performed to assess the influence of each finish line design and ceramic type on the marginal fit of 2 all-ceramic copings (α =.05). Results: Two-way analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences for marginal fit relative to finish lines (P=.362) and ceramic types (P=.065). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, both types of all-ceramic copings demonstrated that the mean marginal fit was considered acceptable for clinical application (⩽120 μm). PMID:22509119

  4. Illuminating light-dependent color shifts in core and veneer layers of dental all-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Yu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The color of an object is perceived differently depending on the ambient light conditions. Since dental all-ceramic restorations are fabricated by building up several layers to reproduce the tooth shade, the optical properties of each layer should be optimized for successful shade reproduction. This study aimed to determine the separate contributions of the color shifts in each of the core and veneer layers of all-ceramics by switching the illuminating lights on the color shifts of layered ceramics. Specimens of seven kinds of core ceramics and the corresponding veneer ceramics for each core were fabricated with a layered thickness of 1.5 mm. A sintering ceramic was used as a reference core material. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates of core, veneer, and layered specimens were measured with a spectroradiometer under the CIE illuminant D65 (daylight), A (incandescent lamp), and F9 (fluorescent lamp) simulating lights. Color shifts of the layered specimens were primarily determined by the CIE a shifts (D65 to A switch) or by the CIE b shifts (D65 to F9 switch) of the veneer layer. The color coordinates shifts in the constituent layers differentially influenced those of the layered specimens by the kind of switched lights. Therefore, the optical properties of the constituent layers of all-ceramics should be controlled to reflect these findings.

  5. In Vitro Evaluation and Comparison of the Translucency of Two Different All-Ceramic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jurišić, Sanja; Jurišić, Gordan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the translucency of two different all-ceramic systems using Vita Easyshade digital shade matching device in an in vitro model. Materials and methods Translucency of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press) and zirconia all-ceramic system (Ceramill ZI) were evaluated and compared. A total of 5 square-shaped specimens with 0.5 mm thickness were fabricated from each ceramic system in A1 shade according to Vitapan Classical shade tab. Specimens were then veneered and glazed with corresponding veneer ceramics recommended by each system manufacturer and the total thickness was set to 1.5 mm. Translucency was evaluated using VITA Easyshade in two stages: before and after veneering and glazing on black and white background. Translucency parameter (TP) was calculated. A one-way ANOVA and Bonferonni tests were used when appropriate (α=0.05). Results Lithium disilicate glass-ceramic was significantly more translucent than the zirconia system in both stages (P<0.05). Translucency of all specimens was significantly decreased after veneering and glazing in both all-ceramic systems (P<0.05). Conclusion The translucency of two different dental ceramics was significantly influenced by both material and stages of preparation. Within the limitations of the experiment, these results can be valuable and help the clinician to make appropriate esthetic decisions. PMID:27688403

  6. Influence of abutment material on the gingival color of implant-supported all-ceramic restorations: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Eriberto; Paniz, Gianluca; Lops, Diego; Corazza, Boris; Romeo, Eugenio; Favero, Gianantonio

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this clinical research on implant-supported restorations is to analyze, through spectrophotometric digital technology, the influence of the abutment material on the color of the peri-implant soft tissue. Twenty patients received an endosseous dental implant in the anterior maxilla. At the time of each definitive prosthesis delivery, an all-ceramic crown has been tried on gold, titanium and zirconia abutment. After the insertion of each single abutment, the peri-implant soft tissue color has been measured through a spectrophotometer. Also, the thickness of the facial peri-implant soft tissue was measured at the level of the implant neck through a caliper. A specific software has been utilized to identify a specific tissue area and to collect the data before the statistical analysis in Lab* color space. The normality of the quantitative variables was verified by means of the Shapiro-Wilk test. Simple linear correlation between quantitative variables was evaluated by using Pearson's coefficient. The results on the performance of the abutment materials with regard to the color measurements and the overall measurement ΔE were described by computing the least-square means. The significance of differences among types of abutment was verified by means of the Scheffe test for multiple comparisons. For all the abutments used, the color of the peri-implant soft tissue appeared to be significantly different from the one of the contra-lateral tooth (ΔE>8.5). Significantly higher (P<0.05) difference were present with the use of titanium abutments (11 ± 0.4) when compared with the results of gold (8.9 ± 0.4) and zirconia (8.5 ± 0.4) abutments. No correlation has been demonstrated between soft tissue thickness and degree of color difference (P>0.25). Within the limitation of the present study, the peri-implant soft tissue color appears to be different from the soft tissue color around natural teeth, no matter which type of restorative material is selected. When

  7. Composition, phase analysis, biaxial flexural strength, and fatigue of unshaded versus shaded Procera zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Spyropoulou, Panagiota-Eirini; Kamposiora, Phophi; Eliades, George; Papavasiliou, George; Razzoog, Michael E; Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Smith, Robert L; Bayne, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    Recent interest in shaded zirconia has raised questions about the relative stability of the tetragonal phase after colorant oxide additions. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of fatigue cycling on the stability of a commercially available dental zirconia (Procera) in both unshaded and shaded compositions by measuring the change in biaxial flexural strength (BFS) after 500 000 cycles at 80-N loads and in phase composition as detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Partially stabilized zirconia disks (NobelProcera) were fabricated in unshaded and shaded forms (12 mm diameter × 0.8 mm thick). Specimens were analyzed by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and by wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (WDS) for oxide compositions which indicated the presence of small amounts of Fe-O (0.13 ±0.10 wt %) in the shaded specimens. XRD focused on the tetragonal (T) and monoclinic (M) peaks in the 20 to 40 degrees 2θ range. The disks were polished on 1 side, cyclically loaded (80N, 500 000 cycles, custom 4-station fatigue test machine), and tested for residual BFS after cycling. Unshaded (U) and shaded groups (S) were compared before (U1, S1) and after (U2, S2) load cycling with XRD and residual BFS. Residual BFS (MPa) for specimens before (U1=856 ±99 versus S1= 842 ±40) and after fatigue (U2=772 ±65 versus S2= 718 ±68) were statistically different (U1 versus U2; S1 versus S2; U2 versus S2, P<.05). The XRD of U1 and S1 specimens revealed tetragonal and cubic zirconia. U2 and S2 specimens contained tetragonal zirconia, with the initial appearance of small amounts of monoclinic zirconia after fatigue cycling. Monoclinic detection was measured on the tension side of the tested specimens and varied between tests at the center and radially at 4 mm. The results indicated shaded materials more readily transform the tetragonal to the monoclinic phase during load cycling than unshaded ones. However, extrapolating the effects of any

  8. Chemical composition and in vitro activity of Calotropis procera (Ait.) latex on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Géssica S; de Morais, Selene M; Andre, Weibson P P; Ribeiro, Wesley L C; Rodrigues, Ana L M; De Lira, Fábia C M L; Viana, Janaína M; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L

    2016-08-15

    Calotropis procera is among the species of medicinal plants that have traditionally been used for the treatment of parasites in small ruminants, stimulating the scientific validation of anthelmintic effects. This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of ethyl acetate extract of Calotropis procera latex (EAECPL), assess the in vitro effect against Haemonchus contortus and the structural changes caused in the adult worm. The latex was collected, lyophilized and subjected to washing with the ethyl acetate solvent to obtain EAECPL. The constituents of the extract were isolated by column chromatography and identified by (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The egg hatching test (EHT), larval development test (LDT) and adult worms motility test (WMT) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of EAECPL on eggs, larvae and adult of H. contortus, respectively. The worms obtained from the WMT, after 24h exposure to EAECPL or controls were observed on a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were analysed by variance analysis and compared with Tukey's test (P<0.05). Three compounds were isolated from EAECPL and identified as urs-19(29)-en-3-yl acetate, (3β)-Urs-19(29)-en-3-ol, and 1-(2',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-glycerol. In the EHT, EAECPL inhibited larval hatching by 91.8% at dose of 4mg/ml. In the LDT 1mg/ml inhibited 99.8% larval development. In the WMT, EAECPL in the concentration of 100μg/ml inhibited 100% motility of worms, 12h post-exposition. In the SEM, obvious differences were not detected between the negative control worms and the worms treated with EAECPL. In this study, EAECPL showed an effect on inhibition egg hatching, larval development and motility of the adult worms of H. contortus. This should be related both to the identified compounds, as well as the other compounds present in the EAECPL, acting alone or synergistically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars restored with lithium disilicate CAD/CAM crowns or onlays and luted with two luting agents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiqiang; Guo, Kewu; Zhang, Baowei; Weng, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars restored using CAD/CAM onlays or crowns and luted with two types of resin cement. Forty all-ceramic crowns and twenty onlays were fabricated on maxillary premolars using the Cerec 3 system (n=10). The abutments were randomly subjected to two different procedures: Endodontic treatment was performed on forty teeth restored through a mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity preparation with composite resin fillings; twenty teeth without endodontic treatment served as control. In endodontically treated teeth restored using IPS e.max CAD crowns or onlays, the fracture loads were lower than those of the control. Endodontic treatment of teeth restored using CAD/CAM crowns does not impair the fracture load but shows more severe fractures than teeth restored using CAD/CAM onlays. This suggests that a CAD/CAM onlay might be an effective method for the restoration of endodontically treated premolars with MOD cavity defect.

  10. Removal of failed crown and bridge

    PubMed Central

    Rahul, G R.; Poduval, Soorya T.; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-01-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. PMID:24558549

  11. Removal of failed crown and bridge.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashu; Rahul, G R; Poduval, Soorya T; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-07-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure.

  12. Equations to convert compacted crown ratio to uncompacted crown ratio for trees in the Interior West

    Treesearch

    Chris Toney; Matthew C. Reeves

    2009-01-01

    Crown ratio is the proportion of total tree length supporting live foliage. Inventory programs of the US Forest Service generally define crown ratio in terms of compacted or uncompacted measurements. Measurement of compacted crown ratio (CCR) involves envisioning the transfer of lower branches of trees with asymmetric crowns to fill holes in the upper portion of the...

  13. Assessing crown fire potential by linking models of surface and crown fire behavior

    Treesearch

    Joe H. Scott; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt

    2001-01-01

    Fire managers are increasingly concerned about the threat of crown fires, yet only now are quantitative methods for assessing crown fire hazard being developed. Links among existing mathematical models of fire behavior are used to develop two indices of crown fire hazard-the Torching Index and Crowning Index. These indices can be used to ordinate different forest...

  14. Transcriptome and Metabolite analysis reveal candidate genes of the cardiac glycoside biosynthetic pathway from Calotropis procera

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Akansha; Swarnkar, Vishakha; Pandey, Tushar; Srivastava, Piush; Kanojiya, Sanjeev; Mishra, Dipak Kumar; Tripathi, Vineeta

    2016-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant of immense importance due to its pharmaceutical active components, especially cardiac glycosides (CG). As genomic resources for this plant are limited, the genes involved in CG biosynthetic pathway remain largely unknown till date. Our study on stage and tissue specific metabolite accumulation showed that CG’s were maximally accumulated in stems of 3 month old seedlings. De novo transcriptome sequencing of same was done using high throughput Illumina HiSeq platform generating 44074 unigenes with average mean length of 1785 base pair. Around 66.6% of unigenes were annotated by using various public databases and 5324 unigenes showed significant match in the KEGG database involved in 133 different pathways of plant metabolism. Further KEGG analysis resulted in identification of 336 unigenes involved in cardenolide biosynthesis. Tissue specific expression analysis of 30 putative transcripts involved in terpenoid, steroid and cardenolide pathways showed a positive correlation between metabolite and transcript accumulation. Wound stress elevated CG levels as well the levels of the putative transcripts involved in its biosynthetic pathways. This result further validated the involvement of identified transcripts in CGs biosynthesis. The identified transcripts will lay a substantial foundation for further research on metabolic engineering and regulation of cardiac glycosides biosynthesis pathway genes. PMID:27703261

  15. Procerain, a stable cysteine protease from the latex of Calotropis procera.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vikash Kumar; Jagannadham, M V

    2003-04-01

    A protease was purified to homogeneity from the latex of medicinal plant Calotropis procera (Family-Asclepiadaceae). The molecular mass and isoelectric point of the enzyme are 28.8 kDa and 9.32, respectively. Hydrolysis of azoalbumin by the enzyme was optimal in the range of pH 7.0-9.0 and temperature 55-60 degree C. The enzyme hydrolyses denatured natural substrates like casein, azoalbumin, and azocasein with high specific activity. Proteolytic and amidolytic activities of the enzyme were activated by thiol protease activators and inhibited by thiol protease inhibitors, indicating the enzyme to be a cysteine protease. The enzyme named as procerain, cleaves N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide but not -Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide, -Ala p-nitroanilide and N-d-Benzoyl--Arg-p-nitroanilide and appears to be peptide length dependent. The extinction coefficient (epsilon 1% 280 nm) of the enzyme was 24.9 and it had no detectable carbohydrate moiety. Procerain contains eight tryptophan, 20 tyrosine and seven cysteine residues forming three disulfide bridges, and the remaining one being free. Procerain retains full activity over a broad range of pH 3.0-12.0 and temperatures up to 70 degree C, besides being stable at very high concentrations of chemical denaturants and organic solvents. Polyclonal antibodies against procerain do not cross-react with other related proteases. Procerain unlike most of the plant cysteine proteases has blocked N-terminal residue.

  16. Osmotin from Calotropis procera latex: new insights into structure and antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Cleverson Diniz Teixeira; Lopes, José Luiz de Souza; Beltramini, Leila Maria; de Oliveira, Raquel Sombra Basílio; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu; Ramos, Márcio Viana

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating the structural properties and mechanisms of the antifungal action of CpOsm, a purified osmotin from Calotropis procera latex. Fluorescence and CD assays revealed that the CpOsm structure is highly stable, regardless of pH levels. Accordingly, CpOsm inhibited the spore germination of Fusarium solani in all pH ranges tested. The content of the secondary structure of CpOsm was estimated as follows: α-helix (20%), β-sheet (33%), turned (19%) and unordered (28%), RMSD 1%. CpOsm was stable at up to 75°C, and thermal denaturation (T(m)) was calculated to be 77.8°C. This osmotin interacted with the negatively charged large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-1-glycerol (POPG), inducing vesicle permeabilization by the leakage of calcein. CpOsm induced the membrane permeabilization of spores and hyphae from Fusarium solani, allowing for propidium iodide uptake. These results show that CpOsm is a stable protein, and its antifungal activity involves membrane permeabilization, as property reported earlier for other osmotins and thaumatin-like proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Profile of trace elements in Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) from Tucholskie Forest.

    PubMed

    Jarzyńska, Grażyna; Gucia, Magdalena; Kojta, Anna K; Rezulak, Katarzyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine 19 elements contents and bioconcentration potential in fruiting bodies of Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) collected from the Tucholskie Forest complex in Poland. Also discussed were Cd, Pb and Hg contents of edible caps in relation to the current regulatory standards. K, P and Mg were particularly abundant in caps and stipes, median values were 38-49, 13, and 1.6-1.6 mg/g dry weight, and followed by Ca, Na and Rb at 110-540, 44-240 and 20-50 μg/g dw, respectively. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn were from less than 50 to 180 μg/g dw, while concentrations of other elements were ∼l.0 μg/g dw or less. Cu, K, Ag, Cd, Na, Rb, Zn and Hg were bioconcentrated (BCF >1), while Al, Ba, Fe, Mn, Co, Sr, Pb and Cr were not bioaccumulated (BCF <1). Cd and Pb content of Parasol Mushroom's edible caps collected from some sites in the Tucholskie Forest exceed the maximum levels set in the EU for cultivated mushrooms.

  18. Uncovering DELLA-Independent Gibberellin Responses by Characterizing New Tomato procera Mutants.

    PubMed

    Livne, Sivan; Lor, Vai S; Nir, Ido; Eliaz, Natanella; Aharoni, Asaph; Olszewski, Neil E; Eshed, Yuval; Weiss, David

    2015-06-01

    Gibberellin (GA) regulates plant development primarily by triggering the degradation/deactivation of the DELLA proteins. However, it remains unclear whether all GA responses are regulated by DELLAs. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has a single DELLA gene named PROCERA (PRO), and its recessive pro allele exhibits constitutive GA activity but retains responsiveness to external GA. In the loss-of-function mutant pro(ΔGRAS), all examined GA developmental responses were considerably enhanced relative to pro and a defect in seed desiccation tolerance was uncovered. As pro, but not pro(ΔGRAS), elongation was promoted by GA treatment, pro may retain residual DELLA activity. In agreement with homeostatic feedback regulation of the GA biosynthetic pathway, we found that GA20oxidase1 expression was suppressed in pro(ΔGRAS) and was not affected by exogenous GA3. In contrast, expression of GA2oxidase4 was not affected by the elevated GA signaling in pro(ΔGRAS) but was strongly induced by exogenous GA3. Since a similar response was found in Arabidopsis thaliana plants with impaired activity of all five DELLA genes, we suggest that homeostatic GA responses are regulated by both DELLA-dependent and -independent pathways. Transcriptome analysis of GA-treated pro(ΔGRAS) leaves suggests that 5% of all GA-regulated genes in tomato are DELLA independent.

  19. Cardiac and testicular toxicity effects of the latex and ethanolic leaf extract of Calotropis procera on male albino rats in comparison to abamectin.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osama M; Fahim, Hanaa I; Boules, Magdy W; Ahmed, Heba Y

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the toxic effect of latex and ethanolic leaf extract of Calotropis procera (C. procera), in comparison to abamectin, on serum biomarkers of function and histological integrity of heart and testis in male albino rats. To achieve this aim, the albino rats were separately administered 1/20 and 1/10 of LD50 of C. procera latex, ethanolic C. procera leaf extract and abamectin respectively by oral gavage for 4 and 8 weeks. C. procera latex and leaf extract as well as abamectin markedly elevated the activities of serum CK-MB, AST and LDH at the two tested periods in a dose dependent manner. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased while GSH level and GPx, GST and SOD activities were significantly depleted in heart and testis of all treated rats. All treatments also induced a marked increase in serum TNF-α and decrease in serum IL-4, testosterone, FSH and LH levels in a dose dependent manner. The latex seemed to be more effective in deteriorating the testicular function and sex hormones' levels while the ethanolic leaf extract produced more deleterious effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system in both heart and testis. The normal histological architecture and integrity of the heart and testis were perturbed after treatments and the severity of lesions, which include odema, inflammatory cell infiltration, necrosis and degeneration, is dose and time dependent. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicated that C. procera latex and ethanolic extract of leaves could induce marked toxicity in heart and testis and these toxic effects may be more or less similar to those of abamectin. The cardiotoxicity and testicular toxicity may be mediated via stimulation of inflammation, increased oxidative stress and suppression of antioxidant defense system.

  20. Digital photo monitoring for tree crown

    Treesearch

    Neil Clark; Sang-Mook Lee

    2007-01-01

    Assessing change in the amount of foliage within a tree’s crown is the goal of crown transparency estimation, a component in many forest health assessment programs. Many sources of variability limit analysis and interpretation of crown condition data. Increased precision is needed to detect more subtle changes that are important for detection of health problems....

  1. UrbanCrowns: an assessment and monitoring tool for urban trees

    Treesearch

    Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman; Sang-Mook. Lee

    2011-01-01

    UrbanCrowns is a Windows®-based computer program used to assess the crown characteristics of urban trees. The software analyzes side-view digital photographs of trees to compute several crown metrics, including crown height, crown diameter, live crown ratio, crown volume, crown density, and crown transparency. Potential uses of the UrbanCrowns program include...

  2. The osmotin of Calotropis procera latex is not expressed in laticifer-free cultivated callus and under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Souza, Isabel C C; Ramos, Márcio V; Costa, José H; Freitas, Cleverson D T; Oliveira, Raquel S B; Moreno, Frederico B; Moreira, Renato A; Carvalho, Cristina P S

    2017-10-01

    The latex of Calotropis procera has previously been reported to contain osmotin. This protein (CpOsm) inhibited phytopathogens and this was mechanistically characterized. Here, the time-course profile of CpOsm transcripts was examined in the salt-stressed cultivated callus of C. procera in order to better understand its role in the physiology of the plant. Stressed callus (80 mM NaCl) showed an unbalanced content of organic compounds (proline and total soluble sugar) and inorganic ions (Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+)). Under salt treatment, the transcripts of CpOsm were detected after 12 h and slightly increased to a maximum at day seven, followed by reduction. Interestingly, CpOsm was not detected in the soluble protein fraction recovered from the salt-stressed callus as probed by electrophoresis, dot/Western blotting and mass spectrometry. The results suggested that (1) CpOsm is not constitutive in cultivated cells (laticifer-free tissues); (2) CpOsm transcripts appear under salt-stressed conditions; (3) the absence of CpOsm in the protein fractions of stressed cultivated cells indicated that salt-induced transcripts were not used for protein synthesis and this accounts to the belief that CpOsm may be a true laticifer protein in C. procera. More effort will be needed to unveil this process. In this study we show evidences that CpOsm gene is responsive to salt stress. However the corresponding protein is not produced in cultivated cells. Therefore, presently the hypothesis that CpOsm is involved in abiotic stress is not fully supported. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Outcome of bonded vs all-ceramic and metal- ceramic fixed prostheses for single tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Karl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The conventional treatment of a single missing tooth is most frequently based on the provision of a fixed dental prosthesis (FDPs). A variety of designs and restorative materials are available which have an impact on the treatment outcome. Consequently, it was the aim of this review to compare resin-bonded, all-ceramic and metal-ceramic FDPs based on existing evidence. An electronic literature search using "metal-ceramic" AND "fixed dental prosthesis" AND "clinical, all-ceramic" AND "fixed dental prosthesis" AND "clinical, resin-bonded" AND "fixed dental prosthesis" AND "clinical, fiber reinforced composite" AND "clinical, monolithic" AND "zirconia" AND "clinical" was conducted and supplemented by the manual searching of bibliographies from articles already included. A total of 258 relevant articles were identified. Metal-ceramic FDPs still show the highest survival rates of all tooth-supported restorations. Depending on the ceramic system used, all-ceramic restorations may reach comparable survival rates while the technical complications, i.e. chipping fractures of veneering materials in particular, are more frequent. Resin-bonded FDPs can be seen as long-term provisional restorations with the survival rate being higher in anterior locations and when a cantilever design is applied. Inlay-retained FDPs and the use of fiber-reinforced composites overall results in a compromised long-term prognosis. Recently advocated monolithic zirconia restorations bear the risk of low temperature degradation. Several variables affect treatment planning for a given patient situation, with survival and success rates of different restorative options representing only one factor. The broad variety of designs and materials available for conventional tooth-supported restorations should still be considered as a viable treatment option for single tooth replacement.

  4. [Influence of background color on chromatic value of four all-ceramic system core materials].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong-gang; Zhang, Nian; Deng, Xu-liang

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the influence of post-core background color on chromatic value of four all-ceramic system core materials at clinically appropriate thicknesses. Disc specimens of 15 mm in diameter and 0.80 mm in thickness (Empress II: Group A), and 0.50 mm in thickness (In-Ceram Zirconia core: Group B; Cercon base color zirconia core: Group C; Cercon base zirconia core: Group D) were fabricated, five in each group. Au-Pt alloy, Ni-Cr alloy and visible light cured dental composite resin (A2 color) background were prepared. Samples were put on different background and their chromatic values were measured with colorimeter (CIE-1976-L(*)a(*)b(*)). Color differences of each specimen on different background material were calculated. The color differences among specimens of Group A on different background material were more than 1.5 (2.83 ± 0.70) which meant it could be noticeable to eyes. Those of zirconia were less than 1.5 [Group B: (0.14 ± 0.08); Group C: (0.90 ± 0.20); Group D: (0.99 ± 0.09)]. The influence of background color on Group A was noticeable to human eyes, and as a result, tooth-colored post should be used for this all-ceramic system. For the other three kinds of zirconia core materia1 system, the color differences among specimens on different background material were unnoticeable. Therefore the three all-ceramic systems have excellent color masking ability and can be used on all color background.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of all-ceramic solid oxide fuel cells based on composite oxide anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeonghee; Shin, Dongwook; Son, Ji-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Byung-Kook; Je, Hae-June; Lee, Hae-Weon; Yoon, Kyung Joong

    2013-11-01

    All-ceramic solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which offer advantages in carbon tolerance, sulfur resistance and redox stability, are fabricated and evaluated. The electrolyte-supported cells are composed of a La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-δ (LSCM)-Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ (GDC) anode, an Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) electrolyte, a GDC interdiffusion barrier layer, and a La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF)-GDC cathode. A particle-dispersed glycine-nitrate process is developed to synthesize extremely fine and homogeneous LSCM-GDC ceramic composite powders. The electrochemical performance of the LSCM-GDC anode is comparable to that of conventional Ni-based anodes. The impedance spectra of the all-ceramic SOFCs are successfully interpreted by the independent characterization of the individual electrodes via half-cell measurements. The impedance of the LSCM-GDC anode is dominated by a low-frequency arc originating from the “chemical capacitance”, which is associated with the variation of the oxygen nonstoichiometry in the mixed conducting ceramic electrode. In addition, the impedance arc associated with the electrode-gas interaction is observed in the LSCM-GDC anode. The rate-limiting processes for the LSCF-GDC cathode are observed to be solid-state oxygen diffusion and surface chemical exchange. Herein, the reaction mechanisms and rate-limiting processes of the all-ceramic SOFCs are discussed in detail and compared with those of conventional Ni-based SOFCs.

  6. Comparison of the arithmetic and geometric means in estimating crown diameter and crown cross-sectional area

    Treesearch

    KaDonna Randolph

    2010-01-01

    The use of the geometric and arithmetic means for estimating tree crown diameter and crown cross-sectional area were examined for trees with crown width measurements taken at the widest point of the crown and perpendicular to the widest point of the crown. The average difference between the geometric and arithmetic mean crown diameters was less than 0.2 ft in absolute...

  7. Comparison of 3 polishing techniques for 2 all-ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Saraç, Duygu; Turk, Tamer; Elekdag-Turk, Selma; Saraç, Y Sinaç

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the surface roughness produced by polishing 2 all-ceramic materials after surface conditioning. Air particle abrasion (APA) with 25-microm aluminum oxide, 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (HFA,) and APA + HFA were applied for ceramic surface conditioning. Subsequently, the ceramics were subjected to 3 polishing techniques: polishing kit, polishing paste, and polishing kit + polishing paste. Surface roughness (Ra) was evaluated profilometrically. The highest deltaRa values were obtained with the polishing kit and polishing kit + paste for the APA + HFA groups. No significant differences were observed among the polishing paste groups. Combining a polishing kit and polishing paste produced the smoothest ceramic surfaces.

  8. Assessment of crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancies in a South Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Doodamani, Geeta Maruti; Khala, Anmol S; Manohar, Mala; Umashankar

    2011-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancy in a sample population from Davangere, South India. Materials and Methods: One hundred adults (50 male and 50 female) of age 18–30 years, with Angle's class I ideal occlusion and balanced profiles, were selected for the study. Study models were prepared and crown angulations and crown inclinations were measured using a customized protractor device. Bolton's analysis was used to measure the tooth size discrepancies. Results: Maxillary and mandibular teeth had less crown angulations. Maxillary and mandibular incisors and maxillary molars showed increased crown inclinations, whereas mandibular molars and premolars had less crown inclinations than the original Andrews sample. The mean maxillary and mandibular tooth size ratios, overall and anterior, were similar to Bolton's ratios. Conclusions: The finding of this study indicates that there are possible racial and ethnic factors contributing to variations in crown angulations and crown inclinations. PMID:22090760

  9. [Sunrise gold foil jacket crown].

    PubMed

    Lecardonnel, A

    1989-09-01

    This technique permits the preparation of ceramic jacket crowns made on Sunrise laminated precious metal alloy. The Sunrise foil is gold-colored, made of 99% of precious metals and is 50 microns thick. The die is prepared in order to display a moderate and regular undercut beyond the cervical limit. The margin will be underlined with a red pencil. The Sunrise foil is cut according to predetermined templates. Then the foil is applied without burnishing, according to the technique of jacket crowns on platinum foil only by finger pressure. The double folding on closure is preferably done distally or mesially. Then, the metal base is disinserted, sandblasted with 100 microns aluminum oxide, replaced on its die, and placed in a rubber casing before being placed in the isostatic press, to be subjected to a pressure of 2,000 TSI (14 kg par cm2). Sunrise's orange color reinforces rather subtetly the overall color, making these reconstructions particularly esthetic. The color of the Sunrise metal does not require, therefore a too thick opaque. Any ceramic intended to be fired on a metal base, may be used in respecting its firing protocol. Sunrise, as any other technique of this type, require a careful preparation with a shoulder that has a rounded gingivoaxial line angle. Bridges may be built on the "thimbles" crowns, fitted on Sunrise cores, the pontics being made as a ceramo-metal framework.

  10. Protective effect of proteins derived from Calotropis procera latex against acute inflammation in rat.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V L; Guruprasad, B; Chaudhary, P; Fatmi, S M A; Oliveira, R S B; Ramos, M V

    2015-07-01

    The non-dialysable proteins present in the latex of plant Calotropis procera possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of latex proteins (LP) on the level of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers and tissue histology in the rat model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. This study also aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory efficacy of LP against different mediators and comparing it with their respective antagonists. Paw inflammation was induced by subplantar injection of carrageenan, and the effect of LP was evaluated on oedema volume, level of TNF-α, PGE(2), myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and tissue histology at the time of peak inflammation. Paw inflammation was also induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin and PGE(2), and the inhibitory effect of LP against these mediators was compared with their respective antagonists at the time of peak effect. Treatment with LP produced a dose-dependent inhibition of oedema formation, and its anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw inflammation was accompanied by reduction in the levels of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress markers and normalization of tissue architecture. LP also produced a dose-dependent inhibition of oedema formation induced by different inflammatory mediators, and its efficacy was comparable to their respective antagonists and more pronounced than that of diclofenac. Thus, our study shows that LP has a potential to be used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions where the role of these mediators is well established.

  11. Cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines and anti-inflammatory properties of chitinases from Calotropis procera latex.

    PubMed

    Viana, Carolina Araújo; Ramos, Márcio V; Filho, José Delano Barreto Marinho; Lotufo, Letícia Veras Costa; Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha Tavares; de Oliveira, Jefferson Soares; Mastroeni, Pietro; Lima-Filho, José Vitor; Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes

    2017-07-11

    The role of chitinases from the latex of medicinal shrub Calotropis procera on viability of tumor cell lines and inflammation was investigated. Soluble latex proteins were fractionated in a CM Sepharose Fast-Flow Column and the major peak (LPp1) subjected to ion exchange chromatography using a Mono-Q column coupled to an FPLC system. In a first series of experiments, immortalized macrophages were cultured with LPp1 for 24 h. Then, cytotoxicity of chitinase isoforms (LPp1-P1 to P6) was evaluated against HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), OVCAR-8 (ovarian carcinoma), and SF-295 (glioblastoma) tumor cell lines in 96-well plates. Cytotoxic chitinases had its anti-inflammatory potential assessed through the mouse peritonitis model. We have shown that LPp1 was not toxic to macrophages at dosages lower than 125 μg/mL but induced high messenger RNA expression of IL-6, IL1-β, TNF-α, and iNOs. On the other hand, chitinase isoform LPp1-P4 retained all LPp1 cytotoxic activities against the tumor cell lines with IC50 ranging from 1.2 to 2.9 μg/mL. The intravenous administration of LPp1-P4 to mouse impaired neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan. Although the contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL1-β were high in the bloodstreams, such effect was reverted by administration of iNOs inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and aminoguanidine. We conclude that chitinase isoform LPp1-P4 was highly cytotoxic to tumor cell lines and capable to reduce inflammation by an iNOs-derived NO mechanism.

  12. All-ceramic inlay-retained fixed partial dentures: preliminary results from a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ohlmann, Brigitte; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schmitter, Marc; Schwarz, Stefanie; Gabbert, Olaf

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of zirconia-based all-ceramic fixed partial dentures anchored by inlays. A total of thirty FPDs, manufactured using a zirconia frame and veneered with press ceramic, were anchored by use of inlay retainers. All FPDs were designed to replace one missing molar and were adhesively luted by use of one of two different resin cements. Documentation included failures and other complications, plaque accumulation, and aesthetic and functional performance. Statistical analysis was performed using a cox-regression model. During the 12 months observation period a total of thirteen clinically relevant complications occurred-four delaminations of the veneer and six decementations. Three FPDs had to be replaced because of a fracture of the framework. The cement chosen, the location, and the design of the retainer had no statistically significant effect on the occurrence of complications. During the observation period, accumulation of plaque on the abutment teeth was not significantly greater than on reference teeth. Postoperative sensitivity did not differ significantly between the different luting cement groups. The aesthetic and functional performance of the FPDs was acceptable. Improved adhesion between resin cement and inlay retainer is desirable before general recommendation of all-ceramic inlay-retained FPDs. Use of different luting cements seems to have no effect on the occurrence of complications.

  13. A new classification system for all-ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Gracis, Stefano; Thompson, Van P; Ferencz, Jonathan L; Silva, Nelson R F A; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2015-01-01

    Classification systems for all-ceramic materials are useful for communication and educational purposes and warrant continuous revisions and updates to incorporate new materials. This article proposes a classification system for ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials in an attempt to systematize and include a new class of materials. This new classification system categorizes ceramic restorative materials into three families: (1) glass-matrix ceramics, (2) polycrystalline ceramics, and (3) resin-matrix ceramics. Subfamilies are described in each group along with their composition, allowing for newly developed materials to be placed into the already existing main families. The criteria used to differentiate ceramic materials are based on the phase or phases present in their chemical composition. Thus, an all-ceramic material is classified according to whether a glass-matrix phase is present (glass-matrix ceramics) or absent (polycrystalline ceramics) or whether the material contains an organic matrix highly filled with ceramic particles (resin-matrix ceramics). Also presented are the manufacturers' clinical indications for the different materials and an overview of the different fabrication methods and whether they are used as framework materials or monolithic solutions. Current developments in ceramic materials not yet available to the dental market are discussed.

  14. Color difference of all-ceramic materials by the change of illuminants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2009-04-01

    To determine the differences in color and color parameters (lightness, chroma and hue) of simulated layered all-ceramic specimens at a clinically relevant thickness under three CIE standard illuminants. Seven all-ceramic core materials of A2-corresponding shade, one sintering ceramic and one alloy core as references were prepared in clinically relevant thicknesses (0.4 to 0.8 mm). A2- and A3-corresponding shades of each of the recommended veneer ceramics were fabricated so that the thickness of the layered specimens was 1.5 mm. Bovine dentin was also used as a reference. Color was measured relative to the CIE standard illuminants D65, A and F2 with a reflection spectrophotometer. Differences in color and color parameters by the change of illuminants were calculated. Repeated measures two-way ANOVA with the fixed factor of the brand of ceramics on the difference in color and color parameters by the change of illuminants (D65 to A, D65 to F2 and A to F2) was performed (alpha = 0.05). Color difference (deltaE*ab) was in the range of 0.6 to 0.8 for bovine dentin, 1.3 to 3.4 for A2-veneer layered specimens and 1.6 to 4.2 for A3-veneer layered specimens. Differences in color and parameters were significantly influenced by the brand of the ceramics and the combination of illuminants (P < 0.05).

  15. Comparison of the translucency of shaded zirconia all-ceramic systems

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Mutahhar

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the translucency of shaded zirconia all-ceramic systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS Translucency of 3 different zirconia all-ceramic systems colored by different techniques was compared with a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press). Square-shaped specimens with 0.5 mm thickness were fabricated from In-Ceram YZ, ICE Zirkon and Katana systems in A1, A2 and A3.5 shades according to Vitapan Classical shade tab (n=11). Specimens were then veneered and glazed with corresponding veneer ceramic recommended by each zirconia system manufacturer and the total thickness was set to 1.5 mm. Translucency measurements were performed with VITA Easyshade Compact spectrophotometer after each stage and translucency parameter was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison test. RESULTS The control group was significantly more translucent than the zirconia systems (P<.05). ICE Zirkon cores showed the least translucency; neither In-Ceram YZ nor Katana systems were superior to each other in terms of translucency. Translucency of all specimens was decreased after veneering, and the translucency rankings were changed. CONCLUSION Coloring technique did not have a significant effect on translucency of zirconia cores. Although zirconia systems were less translucent than lithium disilicate glass ceramic, they had partial translucency and there were translucency differences among the zirconia systems. Chroma affected the translucency of precolored zirconia cores. PMID:25352964

  16. Latex peptidases of Calotropis procera for dehairing of leather as an alternative to environmentally toxic sodium sulfide treatment.

    PubMed

    Lopéz, Laura M I; Viana, Carolina A; Errasti, María E; Garro, María L; Martegani, José E; Mazzilli, Germán A; Freitas, Cléverson D T; Araújo, Ídila M S; da Silva, Rafaela O; Ramos, Márcio V

    2017-06-17

    Dehairing of crude leather is a critical stage performed at the beginning of its processing to obtain industrially useful pieces. Tanneries traditionally apply a chemical process based on sodium sulfide. Since this chemical reactive is environmentally toxic and inefficiently recycled, innovative protocols for reducing or eliminating its use in leather depilation are welcomed. Therefore, latex peptidases from Calotropis procera (CpLP) and Cryptostegia grandiflora (CgLP) were assayed for this purpose. Enzyme activity on substrates representative of skin such as hide powder azure (UHPA), elastin (UE), azocollagen (UAZOCOL), keratin (UK), and epidermis (UEP) was determined, while depilation activity was assayed on cow hide. Only CpLP was active against keratin (13.4 UK) and only CgLP was active against elastin (0.12 UE). CpLP (93.0 UHPA, 403.6 UAZOCOL, 36.3 UEP) showed higher activity against the other substrates than CgLP (47.6 UHPA, 261.5 UAZOCOL, 8.5 UEP). In pilot assays, CpLP (0.05% w/v with sodium sulfite 0.6% w/v as activator) released hairs from cow hide pieces. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses of the hide revealed that the dehairing process was complete and the leather structure was preserved. The proteolytic system of C. procera is a suitable bioresources to be exploited by tanneries.

  17. Protective effect of aqueous suspension of dried latex of Calotropis procera against oxidative stress and renal damage in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay L; Padhy, Biswa M

    2011-12-01

    Calotropis species have been used in the traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diseases of the liver and abdomen. In view of the antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic properties of an aqueous suspension obtained from the dried latex of Calotropis procera, the present study was carried out to evaluate its efficacy in affording protection against alloxan induced changes in rat kidney. A single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg) in rats produced hyperglycemia within 3 days and altered kidney functions over a period of 90 days. Daily oral administration of the aqueous suspension (100 and 400 mg/kg) in diabetic rats produced anti-hyperglycemic effect that was comparable to that of glibenclamide (10 mg/kg). Unlike glibenclamide, the aqueous suspension did not increase the serum insulin levels in diabetic rats. However, it produced a marked reduction in the levels of urinary glucose and protein and normalized the renal tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione (GSH) in diabetic rats and the effect was comparable to that of glibenclamide. The protection afforded by the aqueous suspension was also evident from the histological analysis of the renal tissue. Our study shows that by exhibiting antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic property the aqueous suspension of dried latex of C. procera affords protection against the complications associated with diabetes.

  18. Anti-hyperbilirubinemic and wound healing activity of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera leaves in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rupali Arun; Makwana, Aakash B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bilirubin lowering and wound healing property of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera (AECP) leaves in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats of either sex were used for the study. Bilirubin lowering property of C. procera leaves was evaluated using phenylhydrazine and paracetamol as inducing agents followed by measuring the concentration of serum total bilirubin in hyperbilirubinemic rats. Wound healing property was evaluated using incision and excision models by measuring tensile breaking strength, percentage wound contractions, and epithelization days, respectively. Statistical Analysis: Statistical comparison between groups in each experiment was done with one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: AECP showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in concentrations of serum total bilirubin in hyperbilirubinemic rats as well as significant (P < 0.05) increase in breaking strength and percentage wound contractions with decreased epithelization period when compared to control groups. Conclusions: AECP showed significant bilirubin lowering and wound healing property in Wistar rats. PMID:26288472

  19. Protective effect of proteins derived from the latex of Calotropis procera against inflammatory hyperalgesia in monoarthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay L; Chaudhary, Priyanka; Ramos, Marcio V; Mohan, Madan; Matos, Mayara P V

    2011-09-01

    Calotropis procera (family: Apocynaceae) is a plant growing in the wild and has been used in the traditional medicinal system for the treatment of various diseases. The plant produces milky latex that possesses potent antiinflammatory and analgesic properties. In present study the non-dialysable protein fraction isolated from the latex (LP) of this plant was evaluated for its efficacy against inflammation in rats where paw edema was induced by sub-plantar injection of carrageenin or monoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). The effect of LP was evaluated on edema volume in the paw model and on joint diameter, stair climbing ability, motility, dorsal flexion pain, levels of oxidative stress markers and joint histology in arthritis model. The protection afforded by LP was compared with that of standard antiinflammatory drug, diclofenac (5 mg/kg). LP exhibited a dose-dependent antiinflammatory effect and produced 32% and 60% inhibition of paw edema at 10 and 25 mg/kg doses and 12% and 36% inhibition of joint inflammation at 50 and 150 mg/kg doses. The protective effect of LP was associated with normalization of joint functions, histology and levels of oxidative stress markers in joint tissue. The findings of this study suggest that the protein fraction of latex of Calotropis procera has the potential to relieve inflammation and pain associated with various arthritic conditions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Germination responses of the invasive Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae): comparisons with seeds from two ecosystems in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Laura C; Meiado, Marcos V; Lopes, Ariadna V; Leal, Inara R

    2013-09-01

    Life history traits are considered key indicators of plant invasibility. Among them, the germination behavior of seeds is of major relevance because it is influenced by environmental factors of invaded ecosystem. Here, we investigated how seed traits and seed tolerance to environmental factors on seed germination of Calotropis procera vary depending on the invaded ecosystems in northeastern Brazil. We have tested seeds from two vegetation types - Caatinga and Restinga - to different levels of light intensity, salinity, and water stress. Previous to those experiments, seed-set and morphometric analysis were carried out for both studied populations. We have observed a higher seed-set in Caatinga. Seeds produced in this ecosystem had lower seed moisture content. Seeds from Restinga showed lower germination time when light intensity decreased. We observed a reduction in both the germinability and the synchronization index with decreasing osmotic potential and increasing salinity. Nevertheless, both populations exhibited changes in photoblastism when seeds were submitted to water and saline stress. In conclusion, C. procera seeds are tolerant to environmental factors assessed. That characteristic ensures the colonization success and wide distribution of this plant species in the studied ecosystems.

  1. Efficacy of Caltropis procera and Ficus sycomorus extracts in treating MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)-keratitis in rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Waiel F.; Salem, Wesam M. A.; Haridy, Mohie A. M.; Hassan, Ne'mat H.

    2015-01-01

    MRSA-induced keratitis in rabbit was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of F. sycomorus leaves and C. procera latex extracts. Within the 6 rabbit groups tested, group 1 received sterilized saline, while other groups (2 to 6) received 100 μl of intrastromal injections of 1.5×103 colony forming unit (cfu) ml-1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). After 12 hours, groups 3 to 6 also received chloramphenicol, aqueous extract of C. procera latex, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of F. sycomorus leaves, respectively 3 times daily for 12 successive days. The tested extracts inhibited MRSA growth in vitro (i.e. on culture medium). Colony counts in cornea discs from groups 3 to 6 were significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.001) compared to group 2 (untreated). Clinical signs of keratitis were observed on group 2 until the end of experiment. In groups 3 to 6, gradual recovery was observed and signs disappeared by the 12th DPI (days post inoculation). Only mild symptoms persisted in group 5 (aqueous extract of leaves). In group 3 and 5, cornea, iris, ciliary body and conjunctiva showed mild leukocytic infiltration and depigmentation of melanin cells while recovery of cornea and iris was observed in groups 4 and 6. In conclusion, the used extracts have potential therapeutic effects on MRSA-induced keratitis in rabbit. PMID:26648824

  2. Seven-year clinical performance of CEREC-2 all-ceramic CAD/CAM restorations placed within deeply destroyed teeth.

    PubMed

    Roggendorf, Matthias J; Kunzi, Bianka; Ebert, Johannes; Roggendorf, Hubert C; Frankenberger, Roland; Reich, Sven M

    2012-10-01

    Adhesively luted all-ceramic restorations represent a promising way to preserve and stabilize weakened tooth substance, but little information is published about the clinical performance of extensive all-ceramic restorations. A total of 78 large CEREC 2™ single-tooth all-ceramic restorations had been placed in 35 patients. After 7 years, 59 teeth in 25 patients were reevaluated according to USPHS or modified USPHS criteria regarding aesthetic properties, e.g., "anatomic form," "color match," and "marginal discoloration"; functional properties, e.g., "marginal integrity," wear expressed by the criteria "proximal contact" and "static/dynamic occlusal relationship"; and biological properties, e.g., "tooth vitality" and "secondary caries". Additionally, the "proportion of margin below/above cemento-enamel junction" was included. Two restorations had failed prior to the 7-year recall, one due to a bulk fracture of the restoration and one due to poor marginal integrity (rated "Charlie") after 4 years. Other six restorations were rated as failure at the 7-year evaluation (three restorations revealed secondary caries, one was bulk fracture of the Cerec 2 restoration, and two failures were related to endodontic problems resulting in extraction or amputation of one root, respectively), resulting in a failure rate of 13.1% after 7 years. A total of 96.4% of the restorations revealed sufficient ratings for esthetic properties "anatomic form," "color match," "marginal discoloration," and "marginal integrity". The survival rate of 86.9% at the 7-year recall demonstrates that adhesively luted all-ceramic CAD/CAM-generated restorations are suitable for restoration of extended coronal defects. CAD/CAM-generated all-ceramic restorations facilitate the reconstruction of deeply destroyed teeth irrespectively of the location of the cavity margins.

  3. Esthetic Outcome of Implant Supported Crowns With and Without Peri-Implant Conditioning Using Provisional Fixed Prosthesis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Furze, David; Byrne, Ashley; Alam, Sonia; Wittneben, Julia-Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Achieving an optimal esthetic result using dental implants is challenging. Fixed implant-supported provisional crowns are often used to customize the emergence profile and to individualize the surrounding peri-implant soft tissue. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the use of a provisional implant-supported crown leads to an esthetic benefit on implants that are placed in the esthetic zone. The null hypothesis is that there is no-difference between the two study groups. Twenty single implants (Bone Level, Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland) were inserted in consecutive patients. After reopening, a randomization process assigned them to either cohort group 1: a provisional phase with soft tissue conditioning using the "dynamic compression technique" or cohort group 2: without a provisional. Implants were finally restored with an all-ceramic crown. Follow-up examinations were performed at 3 and 12 months including implant success and survival, clinical, and radiographic parameters. After 1 year all implants successfully integrated, mean values of combined modPES and WES were 16.7 for group 1 and 10.5 for Group 2. This was statistically significant. Mean bone loss after 1 year was -0.09 and -0.08 for groups 1 and 2, respectively, without being statistically significant. A provisional phase with soft tissue conditioning does improve the final esthetic result. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparison of marginal fit of Lava CAD/CAM crown-copings with two finish lines.

    PubMed

    Re, Dino; Cerutti, Francesca; Augusti, Gabriele; Cerutti, Antonio; Augusti, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Marginal fit is valued as one of the most important criteria for the clinical quality and success of all-ceramic crowns. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the marginal fit of Lava Zirconia crown-copings on chamfer and shoulder preparations. Two acrylic model teeth were selected to simulate the clinical preparations: one molar was prepared with a chamfer finish line (C) and one premolar was prepared with a rounded shoulder finish line (RS). Each resin model was duplicated 10 times using silicon-based impression material and poured in type IV dental stone for the fabrication of working dies. A total of 20 copings were divided into two groups (n = 10 for each finish line). Fifty measuring locations were chosen randomly along the margin on the dies and the gap width - vertical marginal discrepancy - was measured under a light microscope with a magnification of x100. Measurements were made without cementation. The mean marginal gap widths and standard deviations were calculated and a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for different types of preparations in order to detect differences (α = 0.05). The mean marginal gap was 30 ± 3 μm for the C group and 28 ± 4 μm for the RS group. The one-way ANOVA showed no statistical significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.23). Within the limitations of this study, the marginal discrepancies were all within the clinical acceptable standard set at 120 μm. Chamfer and shoulder preparations did not show differences regarding the gap dimension. Bur design is an easily selected parameter before natural tooth preparation. Both tested finish lines are able to help clinicians in obtaining acceptable marginal fit values for the investigated zirconia copings.

  5. [Artificial crowns influence upon edge parodontium status].

    PubMed

    Zhulev, E N; Serov, A B

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of prosthetic treatment efficacy increase study of edge parodontium tissue reaction upon different types of artificial crowns was done and methods of chronic localized parodontitis prevention were developed. Changes of the main gingival fluid characteristics (amount, acidity, interleukine-1beta concentration) and indicators of microcirculation in edge parodontium of the teeth under the artificial crowns influence were disclosed. There were developed methods of chronic localized parodontitis prevention produced by artificial crowns edge.

  6. A method of evaluating crown fuels in forest stands.

    Treesearch

    Rodney W. Sando; Charles H. Wick

    1972-01-01

    A method of describing the crown fuels in a forest fuel complex based on crown weight and crown volume was developed. A computer program is an integral part of the method. Crown weight data are presented in graphical form and are separated into hardwood and coniferous fuels. The fuel complex is described using total crown weight per acre, mean height to the base of...

  7. Tree crown conditions in Missouri, 2000-2003

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph; W. Keith Moser

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes three FIA tree crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, and foliage transparency) and sapling crown vigor measured in Missouri between 2000...

  8. Equations for predicting uncompacted crown ratio based on compacted crown ratio and tree attributes.

    Treesearch

    Vicente J. Monleon; David Azuma; Donald. Gedney

    2004-01-01

    Equations to predict uncompacted crown ratio as a function of compacted crown ratio, tree diameter, and tree height are developed for the main tree species in Oregon, Washington, and California using data from the Forest Health Monitoring Program, USDA Forest Service. The uncompacted crown ratio was modeled with a logistic function and fitted using weighted, nonlinear...

  9. Latex protein extracts from Calotropis procera with immunomodulatory properties protect against experimental infections with Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Danielle Cristina de Oliveira; Ralph, Maria Taciana; Batista, Jacqueline Ellen Camelo; Silva, Diogo Manoel Farias; Gomes-Filho, Manoel Adrião; Alencar, Nylane Maria; Leal, Nilma Cintra; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Lima-Filho, Jose Vitor

    2016-06-15

    The latex from the medicinal plant Calotropis procera is often used in folk medicine against infectious and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigate a protein fraction with immunomodulatory properties, named LPPI, against experimental infections, in vitro and in vivo, with a virulent strain of Listeria monocytogenes. LPPI was exposed to cultured macrophages or Swiss mice and then challenged with L. monocytogenes. Peritoneal macrophages were obtained from Swiss mice, and cultured in 96-well microplates. Soluble latex proteins (LP) were subjected to fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography. The major peak (LPPI) was added into wells at 10 or 100µg/ml. Albumin (100µg/ml) was used for comparison between protein treatments. After incubation for 1h at 5% CO2/ 37°C, the supernatant was discarded and 0.2ml of L. monocytogenes overnight culture was added in the wells. Following 4h and 24h infection, the cytokine mRNA expression was evaluated as well as the number of intracellular colony forming units. Swiss mice (n=16) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LPPI (5 and 10mg/kg) while the control mice received albumin (10mg/kg) or LP (10mg/kg). After 24h, all animal groups were challenged with L. monocytogenes (10(6) CFU/ ml), also by i.p. route. LPPI was not toxic to uninfected macrophages (pMØ) and significantly increased mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and iNOS. Following infection, cell viability was reduced by 50% in albumin-treated pMØ (control); but only 17% in pMØ treated with LPPI at 100µg/ml. In this case, LPPI increased expression of TNF-α and IL-6 whereas the number of bacterial colony-forming units was reduced 100-fold in comparison to control groups. Swiss mice pretreated with LPPI showed dose-dependent survival rates that reached 80%, while mice that received albumin died 1-3 days after infection. After 24h infection, leukocyte migration to the infectious foci was high in LPPI-treated mice whereas the number of viable

  10. Bond strength of the porcelain repair system to all-ceramic copings and porcelain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang J; Cheong, Chan Wook; Wright, Robert F; Chang, Brian M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength of the porcelain repair system on alumina and zirconia core ceramics, comparing this strength with that of veneering porcelain. Veneering ceramic (n = 12), alumina core (n = 24), and zirconia core (n = 24) blocks measuring 10 × 5 × 5 mm(3) were fabricated. Veneering ceramic blocks were used as the control. Alumina and zirconia core blocks were divided into 2 groups (n = 12 each), and a slot (2 × 2 × 4 mm(3)) filled with veneering ceramics was prepared into one of the alumina and zirconia core groups (n = 12). Followed by surface treatments of micro-abrasion with 30 μm alumina particles, etching with 35% phosphoric acid and silane primer and bond, composite resin blocks (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3)) were built up and light polymerized onto the treated surfaces by 3 configurations: (a) composite blocks bonded onto veneering ceramic surface alone, (b) composite blocks bonded onto alumina core or zirconia core surfaces, (c) a 50% surface area of the composite blocks bonded to veneering ceramics and the other 50% surface area of the composite blocks to alumina core or zirconia core surfaces. The shear bond strength of the composite to each specimen was tested by a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. The shear bond strength was analyzed by unpaired t-tests for within the configuration groups and ANOVA for among the different configuration groups. When the mean shear bond strength was compared within groups of the same configuration, there were no statistically significant differences. Comparison of the shear bond strength among groups of different configurations revealed statistically significant differences. The mean shear bond strength of composite onto 100% veneering ceramic surface and composite onto 50% veneering 50% all-ceramic cores was statistically higher than that of composite onto 100% all-ceramic cores; however, the differences of the shear bond strength of composite bonded

  11. Pipe weld crown removal device

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, C.K.; Sette, P.J.

    1992-11-24

    A device is provided for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels. 2 figs.

  12. Pipe weld crown removal device

    SciTech Connect

    Sword, C.K.; Sette, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a device that provides for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels.

  13. Pipe weld crown removal device

    DOEpatents

    Sword, Charles K.; Sette, Primo J.

    1992-01-01

    A device is provided for grinding down the crown of a pipe weld joining aligned pipe sections so that the weld is substantially flush with the pipe sections joined by the weld. The device includes a cage assembly comprising a pair of spaced cage rings adapted to be mounted for rotation on the respective pipe sections on opposite sides of the weld, a plurality of grinding wheels, supported by the cage assembly for grinding down the crown of the weld, and a plurality of support shafts, each extending longitudinally along the joined pipe sections, parallel thereto, for individually mounting respective grinding wheels. Each end of the support shafts is mounted for rotation in a bearing assembly housed within a radially directed opening in a corresponding one of the cage rings so as to provide radial movement of the associated shaft, and thus of the associated grinding wheel, towards and away from the weld. A first drive sprocket provides rotation of the cage assembly around the pipe sections while a second drive unit, driven by a common motor, provides rotation of the grinding wheels.

  14. Protective Effect of High Molecular Weight Protein Sub-fraction of Calotropis procera Latex in Monoarthritic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Ramos, Marcio V.; Vasconcelos, Mirele da Silveira; Kumar, Vijay L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Proteins present in the latex of Calotropis procera have been shown to produce anti-inflammatory effect and to afford protection in various disease models. Objectives: To determine the efficacy of high molecular weight protein sub-fraction (LPPI) of latex of C. procera in ameliorating joint inflammation and hyperalgesia in a preclinical model of arthritis. Materials and Methods: Monoarthritis was induced in rats by intra-articular injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and the effect of two doses of LPPI (5 and 25 mg/kg) and diclofenac (5 mg/kg) was evaluated on joint swelling, stair climbing ability, motility, and dorsal flexion pain on day 3. The rats were sacrificed on day 3 to measure tissue levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Evaluation of joint histology was also made. Results: Intra-articular injection of FCA produced joint swelling and difficulty in stair climbing ability, motility, and pain on flexion of the joint as revealed by scores obtained for these functional parameters. LPPI produced a dose-dependent decrease in joint swelling and improved joint functions. Arthritic rats also revealed altered oxidative homeostasis where joint tissue GSH levels were decreased and TBARS levels were increased as compared to normal rats. The levels of these oxidative stress markers were near normal in arthritic rats treated with LPPI. Moreover, treatment with LPPI also maintained the structural integrity of the joint. The protective effect of LPPI was comparable to the standard anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac. Conclusion: The findings of the present study show that LPPI fraction comprising high molecular weight proteins could be used for the alleviation of arthritic symptoms. SUMMARY High molecular weight protein sub-fraction of latex of Calotropis procera (LPPI) reduced joint swelling and hyperalgesia in arthritic ratsLPPI produced a significant improvement in stair climbing ability and motility

  15. Protective Effect of High Molecular Weight Protein Sub-fraction of Calotropis procera Latex in Monoarthritic Rats.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Ramos, Marcio V; Vasconcelos, Mirele da Silveira; Kumar, Vijay L

    2016-05-01

    Proteins present in the latex of Calotropis procera have been shown to produce anti-inflammatory effect and to afford protection in various disease models. To determine the efficacy of high molecular weight protein sub-fraction (LPPI) of latex of C. procera in ameliorating joint inflammation and hyperalgesia in a preclinical model of arthritis. Monoarthritis was induced in rats by intra-articular injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and the effect of two doses of LPPI (5 and 25 mg/kg) and diclofenac (5 mg/kg) was evaluated on joint swelling, stair climbing ability, motility, and dorsal flexion pain on day 3. The rats were sacrificed on day 3 to measure tissue levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Evaluation of joint histology was also made. Intra-articular injection of FCA produced joint swelling and difficulty in stair climbing ability, motility, and pain on flexion of the joint as revealed by scores obtained for these functional parameters. LPPI produced a dose-dependent decrease in joint swelling and improved joint functions. Arthritic rats also revealed altered oxidative homeostasis where joint tissue GSH levels were decreased and TBARS levels were increased as compared to normal rats. The levels of these oxidative stress markers were near normal in arthritic rats treated with LPPI. Moreover, treatment with LPPI also maintained the structural integrity of the joint. The protective effect of LPPI was comparable to the standard anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac. The findings of the present study show that LPPI fraction comprising high molecular weight proteins could be used for the alleviation of arthritic symptoms. High molecular weight protein sub-fraction of latex of Calotropis procera (LPPI) reduced joint swelling and hyperalgesia in arthritic ratsLPPI produced a significant improvement in stair climbing ability and motility in arthritic ratsLPPI normalized the levels of oxidative stress markers in

  16. FRACTURE-RESISTANT MONOLITHIC DENTAL CROWNS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Mai, Zhisong; Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark; Lawn, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the splitting resistance of monolithic zirconia, lithium disilicate and nanoparticle-composite dental crowns. Methods Fracture experiments were conducted on anatomically-correct monolithic crown structures cemented to standard dental composite dies, by axial loading of a hard sphere placed between the cusps. The structures were observed in situ during fracture testing, and critical loads to split the structures were measured. Extended finite element modeling (XFEM), with provision for step-by-step extension of embedded cracks, was employed to simulate full failure evolution. Results Experimental measurements and XFEM predictions were self consistent within data scatter. In conjunction with a fracture mechanics equation for critical splitting load, the data were used to predict load-sustaining capacity for crowns on actual dentin substrates and for loading with a sphere of different size. Stages of crack propagation within the crown and support substrate were quantified. Zirconia crowns showed the highest fracture loads, lithium disilicate intermediate, and dental nanocomposite lowest. Dental nanocomposite crowns have comparable fracture resistance to natural enamel. Significance The results confirm that monolithic crowns are able to sustain high bite forces. The analysis indicates what material and geometrical properties are important in optimizing crown performance and longevity. PMID:26792623

  17. Coast redwood live crown and sapwood

    Treesearch

    John-Pascal Berrill; Jesse L. Deffress; Jessica M. Engle

    2012-01-01

    Understanding crown rise and sapwood taper will help meet management objectives such as producing long branch-free boles for clear wood and old-growth restoration, or producing sawlogs with a high proportion of heartwood. Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) tree crown ratio data were collected 20 years after partial harvesting in a 65-year-old second growth stand....

  18. 21 CFR 872.3330 - Preformed crown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preformed crown. 872.3330 Section 872.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3330 Preformed crown. (a) Identification. A preformed...

  19. Crown development: an index of stand density

    Treesearch

    John E. Krajicek; Kenneth A. Brinkman

    1957-01-01

    A study of crown characteristics of several hundred open-grown oak, hickory, and Norway spruce trees in Iowa revealed a high correlation between stem diameter and crown area. Consideration of this relationship led to the idea that perhaps here was a realistic way to measure and evaluate stand density or stocking. If, given unlimited growing space, trees of a certain...

  20. Polymeric Electrolyte Containing 12-Crown-4 Ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesa; Distefano, Salvador

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show incorporation of 12-crown-4 ether into solid electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide enhances their electrochemical properties. More specifically, 12-crown-4 ether increases Faradaic efficiency for Li+ ions in low-power secondary Li cells and enables operation of these cells at lower temperatures with higher efficiencies.

  1. Fracture resistance of zirconia-composite veneered crowns in comparison with zirconia-porcelain crowns.

    PubMed

    Alsadon, Omar; Patrick, David; Johnson, Anthony; Pollington, Sarah; Wood, Duncan

    2017-02-11

    The objectives were to evaluate the fracture resistance and stress concentration in zirconia/composite veneered crowns in comparison to zirconia/porcelain crowns using occlusal fracture resistance and by stress analysis using finite element analysis method. Zirconia substructures were divided into two groups based on the veneering material. A static load was applied occlusally using a ball indenter and the load to fracture was recorded in Newtons (N). The same crown design was used to create 3D crown models and evaluated using FEA. The zirconia/composite crowns subjected to static occlusal load showed comparable results to the zirconia/porcelain crowns. Zirconia/composite crowns showed higher stress on the zirconia substructure at 63.6 and 50.9 MPa on the zirconia substructure veneered with porcelain. In conclusion, zirconia/composite crowns withstood high occlusal loads similar to zirconia/porcelain crowns with no significant difference. However, the zirconia/composite crowns showed higher stress values than the zirconia/porcelain crowns at the zirconia substructure.

  2. Evaluating ceramic crown margins with digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Wahle, William Maxwell; Masri, Radi; Driscoll, Carl; Romberg, Elaine

    2017-09-29

    Radiographs aid in clinically determining crown fit, specifically interproximal margins where tactile and visual methods may be limited. However, investigations of the utility of digital radiographs as a tool for evaluating the marginal openings of ceramic crowns are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess whether marginal adaptation for ceramic crowns and for metal-ceramic crowns with a metal collar can be identified with digital radiographs. One lithium disilicate crown, 1 fluorapatite crown, and 1 metal-ceramic crown were fabricated for a maxillary premolar. The crowns were attached to a custom-designed device that allowed the marginal discrepancy to be changed. A total of 10 increments were measured starting at 0 to 20 μm and increasing every 20 μm to a maximum opening of 180 to 200 μm. At each increment, 2 radiographs were made of the crowns, using a digital sensor, 1 perpendicular to and 1 at 80 degrees to the long axis of the tooth. To test whether digital radiographs could be used to accurately identify "acceptable" and "unacceptable" margins, 21 dentists were asked to rate the radiographs as "acceptable" or "unacceptable." The chi square test was used to analyze differences between the dentists' evaluations and the actual marginal opening (α=.05). For the purposes of this study, a marginal discrepancy greater than 80 μm was considered "unacceptable." Of all marginal discrepancies exceeding 80 μm, 78.6% of the metal-ceramic crown radiographs were incorrectly scored as "acceptable" (P<.001). These radiographs were identified as false positives. Lithium disilicate (66.1%) and fluorapatite (45.8%) crowns were more likely to be incorrectly evaluated as "unacceptable" (P<.001) and identified as false negatives. Using digital radiographs to evaluate marginal adaptation without clinical examination is not by itself an accurate method of evaluating the marginal fit of complete coverage crowns. The marginal fit of the tested metal

  3. Microtensile bond strength of different components of core veneered all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; de Jager, Niek; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Feilzer, Albert J

    2005-10-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the core-veneer bond strength and the cohesive strength of the components of three commercial layered all-ceramic systems. Two surface treatments for the core surface finish and different veneering ceramics with different thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) were applied. The selected systems were two CAD-CAM ceramics; Cercon and Vita Mark II and one pressable system; (IPS)Empress 2 for layering technique. Standardized core specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturer's instructions, or polished with 1200 siliconcarbide polishing paper. The core specimens were veneered with either its manufacturer's veneer or an experimental veneer with higher TEC. The obtained micro-bars were subjected to the microtensile bond strength test. The obtained data were analyzed using one and two-way ANOVA. A finite element analysis (FEA) model of the test setup was analyzed. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was carried out at the fracture surface. The core materials were significantly stronger than the veneering materials and the layered core-veneer specimens of which the results were statistically comparable. Polishing the core surfaces did not have an effect on the core-veneer bond strength. Experimental veneer with higher TEC resulted in massive fractures in both the core and veneering material. SEM and FEA demonstrated fracture pattern and mechanism of failure. The core-veneer bond strength is one of the weakest links of layered all-ceramic restorations and has a significant role in their success. To exploit fully the high strength of zirconium oxide cores, further research work is needed to improve its bond with its corresponding veneering material.

  4. Strain measurements and fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars restored with all-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Seow, Liang Lin; Toh, Chooi Gait; Wilson, Nairn H F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the recovery of cuspal stiffness and fracture resistance in endodontically treated maxillary premolars restored with bonded ceramic inlays and onlays of various designs. Seventy intact premolars were selected for this study; six cavity designs were investigated: (i) mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) inlay (I), (ii) MOD inlay with palatal cusp coverage (IPC), (iii) MOD onlay (O), (iv) MOD inlay with pulp chamber extension (IPE), (v) MOD inlay with palatal cusp coverage and pulp chamber extension (IPCPE), and (vi) MOD onlay with pulp chamber extension (OPE). Intact teeth acted as control. Strain gauges were attached to the buccal and palatal surfaces of the teeth to measure cuspal stiffness under static loading. All specimens were eventually subjected to compressive load to failure. Cuspal stiffness and fracture resistance data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test. The I and IPE restorations restored cuspal stiffness to 75% of the sound tooth value. The O and OPE restored teeth had stiffness values greater than that of a sound tooth. The I, IPC, O, IPE, IPCPE and OPE restored teeth demonstrated fracture strength values of 938N±113 N (s.d.), 1073N±176 N and 1317N±219 N, 893N±129 N, 1062N±153 N and 1347N±191 N respectively. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the all-ceramic onlay or inlay with palatal cusp coverage provided best biomechanical advantage in restoring an endodontically treated maxillary premolar tooth. The onlay approach which is more conservative compared to full coverage restoration is considered an appropriate approach to the restoration of endodontically treated maxillary premolars. The addition of a pulpal extension to the all-ceramic restorations, apart from being technically challenging, was not found to offer any biomechanical advantage to the restored teeth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Viscoelastic finite element analysis of an all-ceramic fixed partial denture.

    PubMed

    DeHoff, Paul H; Anusavice, Kenneth J; Götzen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    In recent years metal-free ceramic systems have become increasingly popular in dental practice because of their superior aesthetics, chemical durability and biocompatibility. Recently, manufacturers have proposed new dental ceramic systems that are advertised as being suitable for posterior fixed partial dentures (FPDs). Reports indicate that some of these systems have exhibited poor clinical performance. The objective of this study was to use the viscoelastic option of the ANSYS finite element program to calculate residual stresses in an all-ceramic FPD for four ceramic-ceramic combinations. A three-dimensional finite element model of the FPD was constructed from digitized scanning data and calculations were performed for four systems: (1) IPS Empress 2, a glass-veneering material, and Empress 2 core ceramic; (2) IPS Eris a low fusing fluorapatite-containing glass-veneering ceramic, and Empress 2 core ceramic; (3) IPS Empress 2 veneer and an experimental lithium-disilicate-based core ceramic; and (4) IPS Eris and an experimental lithium-disilicate-based core ceramic. The maximum residual tensile stresses in the veneer layer for these combinations are as follows: (1) 77 MPa, (2) 108 MPa, (3) 79 MPa, and (4) 100 MPa. These stresses are relatively high compared to the flexural strengths of these materials. In all cases, the maximum residual tensile stresses in the core frameworks were well below the flexural strengths of these materials. We conclude that the high residual tensile stresses in all-ceramic FPDs with a layering ceramic may place these systems in jeopardy of failure under occlusal loading in the oral cavity.

  6. A Ring-D-Seco-Tetranortriterpenoid from Seeds of Carapa procera Active against Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Dioum, Mbaye Diaw; Seck, Matar; Silvestre, Virginie; Planchat, Aurélien; Loquet, Denis; Lohard, Steven; Barille-Nion, Sophie; Remaud, Gerald S; Robins, Richard J; Tea, Illa

    2016-07-01

    The seeds of Carapa procera are exploited extensively in West African ethnopharmacy for the treatment of several pathologies, including inflammation. They also are effective as insect antifeedants and as a mosquito repellent. With the aim of identifying bioactive principles, an ethyl acetate extract of the defatted seeds was made and fractionated. Two principle compounds were isolated. One of these, 5,6-dehydro-7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin (1), while known from another genus of the Meliaceae, is newly identified from the genus Carapa and its X-ray structure is described for the first time. In addition, 1 displayed strong anti-clonogenic activity at 10 µM. The other compound, mexicanolide (2), is known from this species and showed neither cytotoxicity nor anti-clonogenicity. These differences in efficacy are discussed in relation to known structure-activity relationships of limonoids.

  7. cDNA Cloning and Molecular Modeling of Procerain B, a Novel Cysteine Endopeptidase Isolated from Calotropis procera

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhay Narayan; Yadav, Prity; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Procerain B, a novel cysteine protease (endopeptidase) isolated from Calotropis procera belongs to Asclepiadaceae family. Purification of the enzyme, biochemical characterization and potential applications are already published by our group. Here, we report cDNA cloning, complete amino acid sequencing and molecular modeling of procerain B. The derived amino acid sequence showed high sequence homology with other papain like plant cysteine proteases of peptidase C1A superfamily. The three dimensional structure of active procerain B was modeled by homology modeling using X-ray crystal structure of actinidin (PDB ID: 3P5U), a cysteine protease from the fruits of Actinidia arguta. The structural aspect of the enzyme is also discussed. PMID:23527269

  8. Cysteine Protease Profiles of the Medicinal Plant Calotropis procera R. Br. Revealed by De Novo Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Chang Woo; Park, Kyung-Min; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Shin, Sang Woon; Je, Yeon Ho; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2015-01-01

    Calotropis procera R. Br., a traditional medicinal plant in India, is a promising source of commercial proteases, because the cysteine proteases from the plant exhibit high thermo-stability, broad pH optima, and plasma-clotting activity. Though several proteases such as Procerain, Procerain B, CpCp-1, CpCp-2, and CpCp-3 have been isolated and characterized, the information of their transcripts is limited to cDNAs encoding their mature peptides. Due to this limitation, in this study, to determine the cDNA sequences encoding full open reading frame of these cysteine proteases, transcripts were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq2000 sequencer. A total of 171,253,393 clean reads were assembled into 106,093 contigs with an average length of 1,614 bp and an N50 of 2,703 bp, and 70,797 contigs with an average length of 1,565 bp and N50 of 2,082 bp using Trinity and Velvet-Oases software, respectively. Among these contigs, we found 20 unigenes related to papain-like cysteine proteases by BLASTX analysis against a non-redundant NCBI protein database. Our expression analysis revealed that the cysteine protease contains an N-terminal pro-peptide domain (inhibitor region), which is necessary for correct folding and proteolytic activity. It was evident that expression yields using an inducible T7 expression system in Escherichia coli were considerably higher with the pro-peptide domain than without the domain, which could contribute to molecular cloning of the Calotropis procera protease as an active form with correct folding. PMID:25786229

  9. Anticancer and cytotoxic properties of the latex of Calotropis procera in a transgenic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Choedon, Tenzin; Mathan, Ganeshan; Arya, Soneera; Kumar, Vijay L; Kumar, Vijay

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anticancer property of the dried latex (DL) of Calotropis procera, a tropical medicinal plant, in the X15-myc transgenic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma and to elucidate its mechanism of action in cell culture. METHODS: The young transgenic mice were orally fed with the aqueous suspension of DL (400 mg/kg for 5 d/wk) for 15 wk and their liver was examined for histopathological changes at 20 wk. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also measured in these animals. To characterize the active fraction, DL was extracted with petroleum ether followed by methanol. The methanolic extract was sub-fractionated on a silica gel G column using a combination of non-polar and polar solvents and eleven fractions were obtained. Each fraction was analysed for cytotoxic effect on hepatoma (Huh7) and non-hepatoma (COS-1) cell lines and non-transformed hepatocytes (AML12) using tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Finally, the mechanism of cell death was investigated by measuring the levels of Bcl2, caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation. RESULTS: DL treatment of mice showed a complete protection against hepatocarcinogenesis. No adverse effect was observed in these animals. The serum VEGF level was significantly lowered in the treated mice as compared to control animals. Cell culture studies revealed that the methanolic extract of DL as well as its fraction 8 induced extensive cell death in both Huh-7 and COS-1 cells while AML12 cells were spared. This was accompanied by extensive fragmentation of DNA in Huh-7 and COS-1 cells. No change in the levels of canonical markers of apoptosis such as Bcl2 and caspase 3 was observed. CONCLUSION: DL of C. procera has the potential for anti-cancer therapy due to its differentiable targets and non-interference with regular pathway of apoptosis. PMID:16688796

  10. Anticancer and cytotoxic properties of the latex of Calotropis procera in a transgenic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Choedon, Tenzin; Mathan, Ganeshan; Arya, Soneera; Kumar, Vijay L; Kumar, Vijay

    2006-04-28

    To evaluate the anticancer property of the dried latex (DL) of Calotropis procera, a tropical medicinal plant, in the X15-myc transgenic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma and to elucidate its mechanism of action in cell culture. The young transgenic mice were orally fed with the aqueous suspension of DL (400 mg/kg for 5 d/wk) for 15 wk and their liver was examined for histopathological changes at 20 wk. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also measured in these animals. To characterize the active fraction, DL was extracted with petroleum ether followed by methanol. The methanolic extract was sub-fractionated on a silica gel G column using a combination of non-polar and polar solvents and eleven fractions were obtained. Each fraction was analysed for cytotoxic effect on hepatoma (Huh7) and non-hepatoma (COS-1) cell lines and non-transformed hepatocytes (AML12) using tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Finally, the mechanism of cell death was investigated by measuring the levels of Bcl2, caspase 3 and DNA fragmentation. DL treatment of mice showed a complete protection against hepatocarcinogenesis. No adverse effect was observed in these animals. The serum VEGF level was significantly lowered in the treated mice as compared to control animals. Cell culture studies revealed that the methanolic extract of DL as well as its fraction 8 induced extensive cell death in both Huh-7 and COS-1 cells while AML12 cells were spared. This was accompanied by extensive fragmentation of DNA in Huh-7 and COS-1 cells. No change in the levels of canonical markers of apoptosis such as Bcl2 and caspase 3 was observed. DL of C. procera has the potential for anti-cancer therapy due to its differentiable targets and non-interference with regular pathway of apoptosis.

  11. Latex constituents from Calotropis procera (R. Br.) display toxicity upon egg hatching and larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Márcio Viana; Bandeira, Glaís de Paiva; de Freitas, Cléverson Diniz Teixeira; Nogueira, Nádia Accioly Pinto; Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; de Sousa, Petrônio Augusto Simão; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2006-08-01

    Calotropis procera R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant with leaves, roots, and bark being exploited by popular medicine to fight many human and animal diseases. This work deals with the fractionation of the crude latex produced by the green parts of the plant and aims to evaluate its toxic effects upon egg hatching and larval development of Aedes aegypti. The whole latex was shown to cause 100% mortality of 3rd instars within 5 min. It was fractionated into water-soluble dialyzable (DF) and non-dialyzable (NDF) rubber-free materials. Both fractions were partially effective to prevent egg hatching and most of individuals growing under experimental conditions died before reaching 2nd instars or stayed in 1st instars. Besides, the fractions were very toxic to 3rd instars causing 100% mortality within 24 h. When both fractions were submitted to heat-treatment the toxic effects were diminished considerably suggesting low thermostability of the toxic compounds. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of both fractions and their newly fractionated peaks obtained through ion exchange chromatography or desalting attested the presence of proteins in both materials. When submitted to protease digestion prior to larvicidal assays NDF lost most of its toxicity but DF was still strongly active. It may be possible that the highly toxic effects of the whole latex from C. procera upon egg hatching and larvae development should be at least in part due to its protein content found in NDE However the toxicity seems also to involve non protein molecules present in DF.

  12. Influence of zirconia abutment preparation on the fracture strength of single implant lithium disilicate crowns after chewing simulation.

    PubMed

    Mitsias, Miltiadis; Koutayas, Spiridon-Oumvertos; Wolfart, Stefan; Kern, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The use of all-ceramic crowns over zirconia abutments is a well-established esthetic treatment option in implant dentistry; however, the effect of the mechanical processing due to abutment preparation has not been investigated under functional loading. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of the zirconia abutment preparation depth and preparation mode on the fracture strength and fracture mode of lithium disilicate crowns after chewing simulation. Seventy single implant-supported lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) were adhesively cemented (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar Vivadent) onto zirconia abutments (ZirDesign, Astra Tech) using implants with a diameter of 4.5 mm and a length of 15.0 mm (Osseospeed, Astra Tech). Study design concerned the replacement of a maxillary central incisor (11.0 mm in height and 8.0 mm in width). Subgroups (n = 7) were subjected to dynamic loading (C) up to 1.2 × 10(6) loading cycles at 135° with 98N in a thermomechanical chewing simulator (Kausimulator, Willytech); followed by quasi-static loading at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture in a universal testing machine (Z010/TN2S, Zwick). Additional subgroups were also subjected to quasi-static loading (S) at 135°. Lithium disilicate implant crowns were divided into five study groups (n = 14) according to the abutment preparation depth [A (control): 0.5 mm, B: 0.7 mm, C: 0.9 mm, and preparation mode [(No label): milling by the manufacturer, (P): copy-milling by the Celay System (Mikrona)]. All specimens survived dynamic loading and mean fracture strengths (N) after quasi-static loading were as follows: Group SA: 384 ± 84; Group CA: 403 ± 67; Group SB: 294 ± 95; Group CB: 374 ± 75; Group SC: 332 ± 52; Group CC: 373 ± 105; Group SPB: 332 ± 80; Group CPB: 499 ± 91; Group SPC: 380 ± 101; and Group CPC: 358 ± 54. Statistical analysis using multiple linear regression showed that both the preparation depth and mode

  13. ALL-CERAMIC AND PORCELAIN-FUSED-TO-METAL FIXED PARTIAL DENTURES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BY 2D FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSES

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Andréia Barreira; Pereira, Luiz Carlos; da Cunha, Andréia R.C.C

    2007-01-01

    All-ceramic fixed partial dentures (FPDs) have an esthetic approach for oral rehabilitation. However, metal-ceramic FPDs are best indicated in the posterior area where the follow-up studies found a lower failure rate. This 2D finite element study compared the stress distribution on 3-unit all-ceramic and metal-ceramic FPDs and identified the areas of major risk of failure. Three FPD models were designed: (1) metal-ceramic FPD; (2) All-ceramic FPD with the veneering porcelain on the occlusal and cervical surface of the abutment tooth; (3) All-ceramic FPD with the veneering porcelain only on the occlusal surface. A 100 N load was applied in an area of 0.5 mm2 on the working cusps, following these simulations: (1) on the abutment teeth and the pontic; (2) only on the abutment teeth; and (3) only on the pontic. Relative to the maximum stress values found for the physiological load, all-ceramic FPD with only occlusal veneering porcelain produced the lowest stress value (220 MPa), followed by all-ceramic FPD with cervical veneering porcelain (322 MPa) and metal-ceramic FPD (387 MPa). The stress distribution of the load applied on the abutments was significantly better compared to the other two load simulations. The highest principal stress values were low and limited in a small area for the three types of models under this load. When the load was applied on the pontic, the highest stress values appeared on the connector areas between the abutments and pontic. In conclusion, the best stress values and distribution were found for the all-ceramic FPD with the veneering porcelain only on the occlusal surface. However, in under clinical conditions, fatigue conditions and restoration defects must be considered. PMID:19089168

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear small subunit rDNA sequences suggests that the endangered African Pencil Cedar, Juniperus procera, is associated with distinct members of Glomeraceae.

    PubMed

    Wubet, Tesfaye; Weiss, Michael; Kottke, Ingrid; Teketay, Demel; Oberwinkler, Franz

    2006-09-01

    The endangered indigenous tree species Juniperus procera, commonly known as African Pencil Cedar, is an important component of the dry Afromontane vegetation of Ethiopia and was shown to be AM in earlier studies. Here we describe the composition of AM fungi in colonized roots of J. procera from two dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia. The nuSSU rDNA gene was amplified from colonized roots, cloned and sequenced using AM fungal specific primers that were partly developed for this study. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the glomeralean sequences obtained belonged exclusively to the genus Glomus (Glomeraceae). Seven distinct Glomus sequence types were identified that all are new to science. The composition of the AM fungal communities between the sampled trees, and between the two study sites in general, differed significantly. Isolation and utilization of the indigenous AM fungal taxa from the respective sites might be required for successful enrichment plantation of this threatened Juniperus species.

  15. Colorimetric values of esthetic stainless steel crowns.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Omachi, Koichi; Staninec, Michal

    2002-01-01

    The colorimetric values of two different kinds of esthetic stainless steel crowns were measured and compared with the colorimetric values of primary anterior teeth in Japanese children. The colorimetric values of resin composite-faced stainless steel crowns (Kinder Krown) and epoxy-coated stainless steel crowns (White Steel Crown) were measured with a color difference meter. The Commission Internationale de Eclairage L*, a*, b*, and delta E*ab values and Munsell value, chroma, and hue were calculated. The data were compared with previously reported colorimetric values of Japanese primary anterior teeth measured with the same color difference meter used in this study. Compared to Japanese primary anterior teeth, Kinder Krown Pedo I and Pedo II showed much higher L* values and lower hue; on the other hand, White Steel Crown showed much higher L*, a*, b* values, much higher value and chroma, and much lower hue. Color analysis revealed that the colors of the White Steel Crown and Kinder Krown Pedo I were substantially different from the color of Japanese primary anterior teeth. The color difference between Pedo II crowns and Japanese primary anterior teeth was relatively high, but the color of Pedo II might be acceptable for clinical use.

  16. Survival of all-ceramic restorations after a minimum follow-up of five years: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Nara Santos; Moda, Mariana Dias; Silva, Ebele Adaobi; Zavanelli, Adriana Cristina; Mazaro, José Vitor Quinelli; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to compare the survival and complication rates of all-ceramic restorations after a minimum follow-up time of 5 years. A comprehensive search of studies published from 2005 to November 2015 and listed in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases was performed in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two reviewers independently analyzed the abstracts. Relevant studies were selected according to predetermined inclusion criteria. Twenty-nine studies were selected for the final analysis from an initial yield of 514. Only four studies fulfilled the requirement of having a randomized design, and 25 studies were prospective with a mean follow-up period of 5 to 16 years. Overall, the 5-year complication rates were low. The most frequent complications were secondary caries, endodontic problems, ceramic fractures, ceramic chipping, and loss of retention. This systematic review showed that all-ceramic restorations fabricated using the correct clinical protocol have an adequate clinical survival for at least 5 years of clinical service with very low complication rates. Minor ceramic chipping and debonding did not affect the longevity of the restorations. Long-term clinical performance of all-ceramic restorations manufactured using various ceramic systems provides clinical evidence of complications and long-term management of these restorations. Available evidence indicates the effectiveness of many ceramic systems for numerous clinical applications. Correct planning and a rigorous technical execution protocol increase clinical success. Studies of ceramic prostheses indicate more problems with ceramic failure and debonding.

  17. Detection of a Usp-like gene in Calotropis procera plant from the de novo assembled genome contigs of the high-throughput sequencing dataset.

    PubMed

    Shokry, Ahmed M; Al-Karim, Saleh; Ramadan, Ahmed; Gadallah, Nour; Al Attas, Sanaa G; Sabir, Jamal S M; Hassan, Sabah M; Madkour, Magdy A; Bressan, Ray; Mahfouz, Magdy; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    The wild plant species Calotropis procera (C. procera) has many potential applications and beneficial uses in medicine, industry and ornamental field. It also represents an excellent source of genes for drought and salt tolerance. Genes encoding proteins that contain the conserved universal stress protein (USP) domain are known to provide organisms like bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa and plants with the ability to respond to a plethora of environmental stresses. However, information on the possible occurrence of Usp in C. procera is not available. In this study, we uncovered and characterized a one-class A Usp-like (UspA-like, NCBI accession No. KC954274) gene in this medicinal plant from the de novo assembled genome contigs of the high-throughput sequencing dataset. A number of GenBank accessions for Usp sequences were blasted with the recovered de novo assembled contigs. Homology modelling of the deduced amino acids (NCBI accession No. AGT02387) was further carried out using Swiss-Model, accessible via the EXPASY. Superimposition of C. procera USPA-like full sequence model on Thermus thermophilus USP UniProt protein (PDB accession No. Q5SJV7) was constructed using RasMol and Deep-View programs. The functional domains of the novel USPA-like amino acids sequence were identified from the NCBI conserved domain database (CDD) that provide insights into sequence structure/function relationships, as well as domain models imported from a number of external source databases (Pfam, SMART, COG, PRK, TIGRFAM).

  18. Calotropis procera extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in human skin melanoma (SK-MEL-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Aparna L; Roham, Pratiksha H; Mhaske, Rooth; Jadhav, Mahadev; Krishnadas, Kavitha; Kharat, Amol; Hardikar, Bhagyashree; Kharat, Kiran R

    2015-01-01

    Calotropis procera (family: Asclepiadaceae) contains cardiac glycosides which are cytotoxic to cancer cells. The extracts of C. procera have been reported to be cytotoxic to many cancer cell lines and this is the first report against the human skin melanoma cells (SK-MEL-2). The SK-MEL-2 cells treated with C. procera methanolic extract (CPME) were analysed for growth inhibition and apoptosis. The exposure of phosphatidylserine in apoptotic SK-MEL-2 was analysed by using the Annexin-V FITC flow cytometry method. In CPME-treated SK-MEL-2 cells, 19.6% of apoptotic and 58.3% dead cells were observed. The 15.97% and 15.85% of early apoptotic cells were found at 20 μg/mL of the ouabain and paclitaxel, respectively. Active caspases, nuclear degradation confirmed apoptotic SK-MEL-2 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis shows that CPME treated cells halt at G2/M phase. Significant cytotoxic activity of CPME against SK-MEL-2 may be attributed to its high cardenolide content.

  19. Crown-rise and crown-length dynamics: applications to loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Harry T. Valentine; Ralph L. Amateis; Jeffrey H. Gove; Annikki. Makela

    2013-01-01

    The original crown-rise model estimates the average height of a crown-base in an even-aged mono-species stand of trees. We have elaborated this model to reduce bias and prediction error, and to also provide crown-base estimates for individual trees. Results for the latter agree with a theory of branch death based on resource availability and allocation.We use the...

  20. A numerical rating system for crown classes of southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; E.C. Burkhardt; Robert L. Johnson; John D. Hodges

    2001-01-01

    A numerical rating system to delineate crown classes of southern hardwoods is described. The system is based on four criteria: (1) amount of direct sunlight from above, (2) amount of direct sunlight from the sides, (3) crown balance, and (4) relative crown size. The total point value assigned places the tree within one of the four crown classes. The rating system can...

  1. Experimental and numerical modeling of shrub crown fire initiation

    Treesearch

    Watcharapong Tachajapong; Jesse Lozano; Shakar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; David Weise

    2009-01-01

    The transition of fire from dry surface fuels to wet shrub crown fuels was studied using laboratory experiments and a simple physical model to gain a better understanding of the transition process. In the experiments, we investigated the effects of varying vertical distances between surface and crown fuels (crown base height), and of the wind speed on crown fire...

  2. Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

  3. 21 CFR 872.3330 - Preformed crown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... crown is a prefabricated device made of plastic or austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be affixed temporarily to a tooth after...

  4. Success of Hall technique crowns questioned.

    PubMed

    Nainar, S M Hashim

    2012-01-01

    Hall technique is a method of providing stainless steel crowns for primary molars without tooth preparation and requires no local anesthesia. Literature review showed inconclusive evidence and therefore this technique should not be used in clinical practice.

  5. Induction of Crown Gall on Carrot Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Fox, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the transfer of plasmid from a bacterium to a plant cell has received little attention. Presents an experiment for studying this type of genetic transformation using the causative agent of crown gall, a malignant plant tumor. (DDR)

  6. The Crown Bite Jumping Herbst.

    PubMed

    Owen, Reuel

    2003-01-01

    The Crown Bite Jumping Herbst Appliance is evaluated and combined with Straight Wire Arch Fixed Orthodontics in treatment of Class II, Division I malocclusions. This article will evaluate a combined orthodontic approach of "straightening teeth" and an orthognathic approach of "moving jaws or making skeletal changes." Orthodontic treatment cannot be accomplished well without establishing a healthy temporomandibular joint. This is defined by Keller as a joint that is "noiseless, painless and has a normal range of motion without deviation and deflection." It is not prudent to separate orthodontic treatment as its own entity without being aware of the changes in the temporomandibular joint before, during and after treatment. In other words, "If you're doing orthodontics you're doing TMJ treatment." One should treat toward a healthy, beautiful face asking, "Will proposed treatment achieve this goal?" Treatment should be able to be carried out in an efficient manner, minimizing treatment time, be comfortable and affordable for the patient, and profitable for the dentist. The finished treatment should meet Andrews' Six Keys of Occlusion, or Loudon's Twelve Commandments. Above all, do no harm to the patient. We think that a specific treatment plan can embrace these tenets. The focus will be to show Class II treatment using a modified Herbst Appliance and fixed straight wire orthodontics.

  7. 3D and 2D marginal fit of pressed and CAD/CAM lithium disilicate crowns made from digital and conventional impressions.

    PubMed

    Anadioti, Evanthia; Aquilino, Steven A; Gratton, David G; Holloway, Julie A; Denry, Isabelle; Thomas, Geb W; Qian, Fang

    2014-12-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the 3D and 2D marginal fit of pressed and computer-aided-designed/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) all-ceramic crowns made from digital and conventional impressions. A dentoform tooth (#30) was prepared for an all-ceramic crown (master die). Thirty type IV definitive casts were made from 30 polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions. Thirty resin models were produced from thirty Lava Chairside Oral Scanner impressions. Thirty crowns were pressed in lithium disilicate (IPS e.max Press; 15/impression technique). Thirty crowns were milled from lithium disilicate blocks (IPS e.max CAD; 15/impression technique) using the E4D scanner and milling engine. The master die and the intaglio of the crowns were digitized using a 3D laser coordinate measurement machine with accuracy of ±0.00898 mm. For each specimen a separate data set was created for the Qualify 2012 software. The digital master die and the digital intaglio of each crown were merged using best-fitting alignment. An area above the margin with 0.75 mm occlusal-gingival width circumferentially was defined. The 3D marginal fit of each specimen was an average of all 3D gap values on that area. For the 2D measurements, the marginal gap was measured at two standardized points (on the margin and at 0.75 mm above the margin), from standardized facial-lingual and mesial-distal digitized sections. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference and two-way ANOVA tests were used, separately, for statistical analysis of the 3D and 2D marginal data (alpha = 0.05). One-way ANOVA revealed that both 3D and 2D mean marginal gap for group A: PVS impression/IPS e.max Press (0.048 mm ± 0.009 and 0.040 mm ± 0.009) were significantly smaller than those obtained from the other three groups (p < 0.0001), while no significant differences were found among groups B: PVS impression/IPS e.max CAD (0.088 mm ± 0.024 and 0.076 mm ± 0.023), C: digital impression/IPS e.max Press (0.089 mm ± 0

  8. An investigation of crown fuel bulk density effects on the dynamics of crown fire initiation in shrublands

    Treesearch

    Watcharapong Tachajapong; Jesse Lozano; Shankar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; David R. Weise

    2008-01-01

    Crown fire initiation is studied by using a simple experimental and detailed physical modeling based on Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Experiments conducted thus far reveal that crown fuel ignition via surface fire occurs when the crown base is within the continuous flame region and does not occur when the crown base is located in the hot plume gas region of the surface...

  9. Preformed crowns for decayed primary molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Innes, Nicola P T; Ricketts, David; Chong, Lee Yee; Keightley, Alexander J; Lamont, Thomas; Santamaria, Ruth M

    2015-12-31

    Crowns for primary molars are preformed and come in a variety of sizes and materials to be placed over decayed or developmentally defective teeth. They can be made completely of stainless steel (know as 'preformed metal crowns' or PMCs), or to give better aesthetics, may be made of stainless steel with a white veneer cover or made wholly of a white ceramic material. In most cases, teeth are trimmed for the crowns to be fitted conventionally using a local anaesthetic. However, in the case of the Hall Technique, PMCs are pushed over the tooth with no local anaesthetic, carious tissue removal or tooth preparation. Crowns are recommended for restoring primary molar teeth that have had a pulp treatment, are very decayed or are badly broken down. However, few dental practitioners use them in clinical practice. This review updates the original review published in 2007. Primary objectiveTo evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of all types of preformed crowns for restoring primary teeth compared with conventional filling materials (such as amalgam, composite, glass ionomer, resin modified glass ionomer and compomers), other types of crowns or methods of crown placement, non-restorative caries treatment or no treatment. Secondary objectiveTo explore whether the extent of decay has an effect on the clinical outcome of primary teeth restored with all types of preformed crowns compared with those restored with conventional filling materials. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 21 January 2015), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 12), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 21 January 2015) and EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 21 January 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials and Open Grey for grey literature (to

  10. Ten-Year Follow-Up of Implant-Supported All-Ceramic Fixed Dental Prostheses: A Randomized, Prospective Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Christel; Vult von Steyern, Per

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of and patient satisfaction with implant-supported all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) and to compare two different all-ceramic systems, Denzir (DZ) and In-Ceram Zirconia (InZ). A total of 18 patients received 25 partial FDPs; 13 DZ, and 12 InZ. Of these patients, 17 attended the 10-year follow-up. None of the restorations had fractured. Fractures of the veneering porcelain were observed in nine patients; two from the InZ group and seven from the DZ group. All FDPs were in use, and all patients were fully satisfied with the treatment. Results from this long-term follow-up suggest that implant-supported all-ceramic FDPs are an acceptable treatment alternative.

  11. Efficacy of leaves extract of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) in controlling Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes☆

    PubMed Central

    Elimam, Abdalla M.; Elmalik, Khitma H.; Ali, Faysal S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate, the larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent activity of aqueous leaves extract of Calotropis procera against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus as natural mosquito larvicide. The larvicidal activity was monitored against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of each mosquito species 24 h post-treatment. Adult emergence inhibition activity was tested by exposing 3rd instar larvae of each mosquito species to different concentrations of extracts (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm for An. arabiensis and 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Probit analysis was used to analyze data from bioassay experiments. The oviposition deterrent activity was tested by using three different concentrations of extracts (1000, 500 and 200 for An. arabiensis, and 1000, 500 and 100 for Cx. quinquefasciatus) that caused high, moderate and low larval mortality in the larvicidal experiment against 3rd instar larvae. It was found that, LC50–LC90 values calculated were 273.53–783.43, 366.44–1018.59 and 454.99–1224.62 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of An. arabiensis and 187.93–433.51, 218.27–538.27 and 264.85–769.13 ppm for 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval instars, respectively, of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fifty percent of adult emergence inhibition (EI50) was shown at 277.90 and 183.65 ppm for An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The pupal stage was not affected till a concentration of 5000 ppm. The extract showed oviposition deterrence and effective repellence against both mosquito species at different concentrations, with the observation on that maximal eggs were laid in low concentration of extract. These results suggest that the leaves extract of C. procera possess remarkable larvicidal, adult emergence inhibitor, repellent and oviposition deterrent effect against both An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and might be used as natural biocides

  12. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing ceramic crowns cemented on solid abutments.

    PubMed

    Stona, Deborah; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2015-07-01

    Because no information was found in the dental literature regarding the fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns using CEREC (Sirona) computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) system on solid abutments, the authors conducted a study. Sixty synOcta (Straumann) implant replicas and regular neck solid abutments were embedded in acrylic resin and randomly assigned (n = 20 per group). Three types of ceramics were used: feldspathic, CEREC VITABLOCS Mark II (VITA); leucite, IPS Empress CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent); and lithium disilicate, IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar Vivadent). The crowns were fabricated by the CEREC CAD-CAM system. After receiving glaze, the crowns were cemented with RelyX U200 (3M ESPE) resin cement under load of 1 kilogram. For each ceramic, one-half of the specimens were subjected to the fracture resistance testing in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 millimeter per minute, and the other half were subjected to the fractured resistance testing after 1,000,000 cyclic fatigue loading at 100 newtons. According to a 2-way analysis of variance, the interaction between the material and mechanical cycling was significant (P = .0001). According to a Tukey test (α = .05), the fracture resistance findings with or without cyclic fatigue loading were as follows, respectively: CEREC VITABLOCKS Mark II (405 N/454 N) was statistically lower than IPS Empress CAD (1169 N/1240 N) and IPS e.max CAD (1378 N/1025 N) (P < .05). The IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD did not differ statistically (P > .05). According to a t test, there was no statistical difference in the fracture resistance with and without cyclic fatigue loading for CEREC VITABLOCS Mark II and IPS Empress CAD (P > .05). For IPS e.max CAD, the fracture resistance without cyclic fatigue loading was statistically superior to that obtained with cyclic fatigue loading (P < .05). The IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD showed higher fracture resistance compared with CEREC

  13. Influence of CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials on cell viability, migration ability and adenylate kinase release of human gingival fibroblasts and oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Pabst, A M; Walter, C; Grassmann, L; Weyhrauch, M; Brüllmann, D D; Ziebart, T; Scheller, H; Lehmann, K M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of four CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials on cell viability, migration ability and adenylate kinase (ADK) release of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and oral keratinocytes (HOK). HGF and HOK were cultured on disc-shaped CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials (e.max CAD LT, e.max CAD HT, Empress CAD and Mark II) and on discs made of tissue culture polystyrene surface (TCPS) serving as control. Cell viability was analyzed by using an MTT assay, and migration ability was investigated by a scratch assay. A ToxiLight assay has been performed to analyze the effect of all-ceramic materials on ADK release and cell apoptosis. At MTT assay for HGF, no significant decrease of cell viability could be detected at all points of measurement (p each > 0.05), while HOK demonstrated a significant decrease in cell viability especially on Empress CAD and Mark II at each point of measurement (p each < 0.001). Scratch assay demonstrated an increased migration ability for HGF on e.max CAD HT, Empress CAD and Mark II (p each < 0.001), whereas HOK showed a significantly decreased migration ability on all tested materials at all points of measurement (between -36 % and -71 %; p each < 0.001). At ToxiLight assay, only small cytotoxic effects of the all-ceramic materials could be investigated. This study disclosed significant differences in cell viability and migration ability of HGF and HOK on CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials. CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials can influence oral cell lines responsible for soft tissue creation which may affect the esthetic outcome.

  14. Effects of framework design and layering material on fracture strength of implant-supported zirconia-based molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Kamio, Shingo; Komine, Futoshi; Taguchi, Kohei; Iwasaki, Taro; Blatz, Markus B; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of framework design and layering material on the fracture strength of implant-supported zirconia-based molar crowns. Sixty-six titanium abutments (GingiHue Post) were tightened onto dental implants (Implant Lab Analog). These abutment-implant complexes were randomly divided into three groups (n = 22) according to the design of the zirconia framework (Katana), namely, uniform-thickness (UNI), anatomic (ANA), and supported anatomic (SUP) designs. The specimens in each design group were further divided into two subgroups (n = 11): zirconia-based all-ceramic restorations (ZAC group) and zirconia-based restorations with an indirect composite material (Estenia C&B) layered onto the zirconia framework (ZIC group). All crowns were cemented on implant abutments, after which the specimens were tested for fracture resistance. The data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U-test with the Bonferroni correction (α = 0.05). The following mean fracture strength values (kN) were obtained in UNI design, ANA design, and SUP design, respectively: Group ZAC, 3.78, 6.01, 6.50 and Group ZIC, 3.15, 5.65, 5.83. In both the ZAC and ZIC groups, fracture strength was significantly lower for the UNI design than the other two framework designs (P = 0.001). Fracture strength did not significantly differ (P > 0.420) between identical framework designs in the ZAC and ZIC groups. A framework design with standardized layer thickness and adequate support of veneer by zirconia frameworks, as in the ANA and SUP designs, increases fracture resistance in implant-supported zirconia-based restorations under conditions of chewing attrition. Indirect composite material and porcelain perform similarly as layering materials on zirconia frameworks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Urban Crowns: crown analysis software to assist in quantifying urban tree benefits

    Treesearch

    Matthew F. Winn; Sang-Mook Lee Bradley; Philip A. Araman

    2010-01-01

    UrbanCrowns is a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer program developed by the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station. The software assists urban forestry professionals, arborists, and community volunteers in assessing and monitoring the crown characteristics of urban trees (both deciduous and coniferous) using a single side-view digital photograph. Program output...

  16. Retrospective Study of Retention of Stainless Steel Crowns and Pre-veneered Crowns on Primary Anterior Teeth.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Loverich, Angela M; Garcia, Maria Minerva; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective chart review was to explore the retention of anterior pre-veneered stainless steel crowns (NuSmile) and conventional stainless steel crowns (3M ESPE) placed on primary anterior teeth. Records for children were reviewed over four years using the electronic record system axiUm. Data collected included child's age at time of crown placement, date of placement, tooth number, type of crown, patient behavior, treatment environment, provider type, crown presence, absence, and cementation success or failure at subsequent recall visits. A total of 637 anterior crowns in children treated with either or both crown types met this study's inclusion criteria. Of these crowns, 483 were NuSmile Signature crowns and 154 were stainless steel crowns. There was a nine percent failure rate for the NuSmile Signature crowns and a seven percent failure rate for the stainless steel crowns. There was no statistically significant difference in crown retention rates between the two groups (P<0.05). A full-coverage restoration that can follow the lifespan of the primary anterior dentition in high-risk children is needed. The results from this study indicate good crown retention rates for both crown types with no statistically significant difference between them (P<0.05).

  17. ADM guidance-Ceramics: all-ceramic multilayer interfaces in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lohbauer, Ulrich; Scherrer, Susanne S; Della Bona, Alvaro; Tholey, Michael; van Noort, Richard; Vichi, Alessandro; Kelly, J Robert; Cesar, Paulo F

    2017-06-01

    This guidance document describes the specific issues involved in dental multilayer ceramic systems. The material interactions with regard to specific thermal and mechanical properties are reviewed and the characteristics of dental tooth-shaped processing parameters (sintering, geometry, thickness ratio, etc.) are discussed. Several techniques for the measurement of bond quality and residual stresses are presented with a detailed discussion of advantages and disadvantages. In essence no single technique is able to describe adequately the all-ceramic interface. Invasive or semi-invasive methods have been shown to distort the information regarding the residual stress state while non-invasive methods are limited due to resolution, field of focus or working depth. This guidance document has endeavored to provide a scientific basis for future research aimed at characterizing the ceramic interface of dental restorations. Along with the methodological discussion it is seeking to provide an introduction and guidance to relatively inexperienced researchers. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. All-ceramic inlay-retained fixed partial bridge using a CAD-CAM produced Y-TZP framework and fluoroapatite veneering ceramic: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Ronaldo; Viotti, Ronaldo; Reis, Andre Figueiredo; de Andrade, Oswaldo Scopin

    2007-11-01

    All-ceramic materials have become an excellent option for both anterior and posterior fixed partial dentures (FPDs) due to advances in esthetic and mechanical properties. This clinical report describes the use of an all-ceramic inlay-retained three-unit FPD for replacement of a maxillary second premolar. Prosthetic restorative materials consisted of a CAD-CAM processed presintered yttrium stabilized zirconium oxide (Y-TZP) framework and a fluoroapatite veneering ceramic. The minimally invasive preparation technique and advantages of this highly esthetic and resistant treatment option are discussed.

  19. Molluscicidal activity of methomyl and cardenolide extracts from Calotropis procera and Adenium arabicum against the land snail Monacha cantiana.

    PubMed

    Al-Sarar, Ali; Hussein, Hamdy; Abobakr, Yasser; Bayoumi, Alaa

    2012-05-07

    In this work, we have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of two cardenolide extracts from Adenium arabicum Balf f. [the benzene (B) and methanol (M) extracts], one cardenolide extract from Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton (extract C), and methomyl against the harmful land snail Monacha cantiana (Montagu). The contact LD₅₀ values for the above mentioned plant extracts were 12.62, 34.63, and 34.35 mg·kg⁻¹ of body weight, respectively, while the LD₅₀ for methomyl was 116.62 mg·kg⁻¹, that is, the plant extracts were 9.24, 3.37, and 3.4 times more toxic than methomyl. In addition, a simple colorimetric method, based on Kedde reagent, was modified to determine cardenolide concentrations in plant extracts. Thin layer chromatography analysis (TLC) showed several cardiac glycosidal compounds in each plant extract. The results proved that cardiac glycosides are promising candidate compounds that could be used to control land snails, or exploited to develop new, effective, and environmentally friendly molluscicides.

  20. Calotropis procera Latex Extract Affords Protection against Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Freund's Complete Adjuvant-Induced Monoarthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay L.; Roy, Sanjeev

    2007-01-01

    In view of the well-established anti-inflammatory properties of latex of Calotropis procera (DL), the present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of its methanol extract (MeDL) against inflammation and oxidative stress in monoarthritis induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) in rats. Intra-articular injection of FCA produced inflammation of the joint with a peak effect occurring on day 4 where a maximum increase in the levels of myeloperoxidase and inflammatory mediators like PGE2, TNF-α, and nitric oxide was observed. This was associated with oxidative stress with a marked reduction in the levels of glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and an increase in the lipid peroxidation as indicated by the higher levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs). Subsequently on day 28 the histological analysis of the joint also revealed arthritic changes. Daily treatment of rats with MeDL (50 and 500 mg/kg) and standard anti-inflammatory drug rofecoxib (20 and 100 mg/kg), produced a significant attenuation in the inflammatory response and ameliorated the arthritic changes in the joint. The protection afforded by MeDL and rofecoxib was more pronounced than that of phenylbutazone and was associated with normalization of the levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. However, the overall protection afforded by rofecoxib was better than that of MeDL. PMID:17497032

  1. Osmotin purified from the latex of Calotropis procera: biochemical characterization, biological activity and role in plant defense.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Cleverson Diniz Teixeira; Nogueira, Fábio César Sousa; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa; Ramos, Márcio Viana

    2011-07-01

    A protein, similar to osmotin- and thaumatin-like proteins, was purified from Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br latex. The isolation procedure required two cation exchange chromatography steps on 50mM Na-acetate buffer (pH 5.0) CM-Sepharose Fast Flow and 25 mM Na-phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) Resource-S, respectively. The protein purity was confirmed by an unique N-terminal sequence [ATFTIRNNCPYTIWAAAVPGGGRRLNSGGTWTINVAPGTA]. The osmotin (CpOsm) appeared as a single band (20,100 Da) in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and as two spots in two-dimensional electrophoresis (pI 8.9 and 9.1). Both polypeptides were further identified by mass spectrometry as two osmotin isoforms with molecular masses of 22,340 and 22,536 Da. The CpOsm exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium solani (IC₅₀=67.0 μg mL⁻¹), Neurospora sp. (IC₅₀=57.5 μg mL⁻¹) and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (IC₅₀=32.1 μg mL⁻¹). However, this activity was lost when the protein was previously treated with a reducing agent (DTT, Dithiothreitol) suggesting the presence of disulfide bounds stabilizing the protein. The occurrence of osmotin in latex substantiates the defensive role of these fluids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Calotropis procera latex extract affords protection against inflammation and oxidative stress in Freund's complete adjuvant-induced monoarthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay L; Roy, Sanjeev

    2007-01-01

    In view of the well-established anti-inflammatory properties of latex of Calotropis procera (DL), the present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of its methanol extract (MeDL) against inflammation and oxidative stress in monoarthritis induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) in rats. Intra-articular injection of FCA produced inflammation of the joint with a peak effect occurring on day 4 where a maximum increase in the levels of myeloperoxidase and inflammatory mediators like PGE2, TNF-alpha, and nitric oxide was observed. This was associated with oxidative stress with a marked reduction in the levels of glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and an increase in the lipid peroxidation as indicated by the higher levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs). Subsequently on day 28 the histological analysis of the joint also revealed arthritic changes. Daily treatment of rats with MeDL (50 and 500 mg/kg) and standard anti-inflammatory drug rofecoxib (20 and 100 mg/kg), produced a significant attenuation in the inflammatory response and ameliorated the arthritic changes in the joint. The protection afforded by MeDL and rofecoxib was more pronounced than that of phenylbutazone and was associated with normalization of the levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. However, the overall protection afforded by rofecoxib was better than that of MeDL.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) and isolation of four flavonoid glycosides as the active constituents.

    PubMed

    Nenaah, Gomah

    2013-07-01

    Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts and flavonoids of Calotropis procera growing wild in Saudi Arabia was evaluated using the agar well-diffusion method. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude flavonoid fraction (Cf3) of MeOH extract which showed the highest antimicrobial activity led to the isolation of four flavonoid glycosides as the bioactive constituents. Structure of compounds have been elucidated using physical and spectroscopic methods including (UV, IR, (1)H, (13)C-NMR, DEPT, 2D (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY). Compounds were found to be the 3-O-rutinosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, besides the flavonoid 5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone-4'-O-β-glucopyranoside. Most of the isolated extracts showed antimicrobial activity against the test microorganisms, where the crude flavonoid fraction was the most active, diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 15.5 and 28.5 mm against the tested bacterial strains, while reached 30 mm against the fungal Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentrations varied from 0.04 to 0.32 mg/ml against all of the tested microorganisms in case of the crude flavonoid fraction. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside showed superior activity over the remainder flavonoids. The Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) were more susceptible than the Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteritidis) and the yeast species were more susceptible than the filamentous fungi. The study recommend the use of such natural products as antimicrobial biorationals.

  4. In Vivo Efficacy of Latex from Calotropis procera in Ameliorating Fever-Biochemical Characteristics and Plausible Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay L; Guruprasad, B; Fatmi, Syed Meraj A; Chaudhary, Priyanka; Alencar, Nylane Maria Nunes; Lima-Filho, José Vitor Moreira; Ramos, Márcio Viana

    2017-07-01

    Calotropis procera latex fractions possessing anti-inflammatory property were characterized for their biochemical properties, compared for their efficacy in ameliorating fever in rats and their mechanism of action was elucidated. Aqueous fraction and methanol extract (AqDL and MeDL) were derived from the dried latex (DL) and proteins were separated from the fresh latex (LP). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis carried out under denaturing conditions showed the presence of proteins with some similarity in LP and AqDL and both of these fractions exhibited proteinase activity by gelatin zymography. A further analysis revealed that only the LP fraction possesses cysteine proteinase activity. Oral administration of both AqDL and MeDL produced a dose-dependent reduction in body temperature in rats where fever was induced by yeast and their effect was comparable to that of standard drug paracetamol while intravenous administration of LP was not so effective. Both AqDL and MeDL produced a significant reduction in the levels of TNF-α, PGE2, and immunoreactivity of COX-2 in the hypothalamus as compared to yeast control group. This study shows that both AqDL and MeDL, the orally effective anti-inflammatory fractions of latex, have therapeutic potential in treating various febrile conditions.

  5. All-ceramic partial coverage restorations--midterm results of a 5-year prospective clinical splitmouth study.

    PubMed

    Guess, Petra C; Strub, Joerg R; Steinhart, Niclas; Wolkewitz, Martin; Stappert, Christian F J

    2009-08-01

    Midterm-evaluation of a 5-year prospective clinical splitmouth-investigation on survival rate and long-term behavior of all-ceramic partial coverage restorations (PCRs) on molars. Pressed ceramic and CAD/CAM fabricated PCRs were compared. 80 vital molars of 25 patients were restored with all-ceramic PCRs (40 IPS e.max Press*[IP] and 40 ProCAD*[PC]). IP-PCRs were heat pressed following the lost-wax method. PC-PCRs were fabricated with Cerec 3** and Cerec InLab** CAD/CAM system (**Sirona Dental Systems, Bensheim, Germany). All PCRs were adhesively luted with a light-polymerizing composite (Syntac*/Tetric*) (*Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). Clinical reevaluations were performed at baseline and 13, 25, and 36 months after insertion of the PCRs according to the modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria. Absolute failures were demonstrated by Kaplan-Meier survival rate. After an observation time up to 3 years, survival rate of IP-PCRs was 100% and 97% for PC-PCRs due to one severe fracture. The PC-PCR had to be replaced after 9 months. Secondary caries and endodontic complications did not occur. Increased clinical service time resulted in significant decrease of marginal adaptation (p=0.031) and enhanced marginal discoloration (p<0.0001). Both PCR ceramic materials demonstrated significant deteriorations in color match (p<0.0001) and surface roughness (p<0.0001), IP-PCRs were significantly more affected (p< or =0.005). Regarding anatomic form IP-PCRs performed significantly better (p=0.0012). Pressed ceramic and CAD/CAM fabricated partial coverage restorations exhibited a reliable treatment option to restore larger defects in posterior teeth. Marginal degradation of the resin cement and deterioration of the all-ceramic materials during clinical function determine the clinical long-term performance of partial coverage restorations.

  6. Crown cover chart for oak savannas. Forest Service technical brief

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.R.; Johnson, P.S.; Houf, G.

    1994-07-01

    Although oak savannas have been defined in many ways, they are characterized by scattered trees, largely comprised of oaks, and a sparse ground layer rich in grasses and forbs. The crown cover chart can be used to estimate the crown cover of trees as a percent of total area. Potential applications of the chart include monitoring changes in savanna crown cover, determining needed reductions in crown cover, and defining the savanna state. in restoring savannas that have grown into closed canopy stands, one can use the chart to estimate initial crown cover before restoration work is begun and again after crown cover has been reduced.

  7. The all-ceramic, inlay supported fixed partial denture. Part 1. Ceramic inlay preparation design: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M C; Thompson, K M; Swain, M

    2010-06-01

    The effect of cavity design is a controversial and underrated factor in the clinical success of ceramic inlays and inlay supported prosthesis. Many articles and studies have been conducted into the advantages and disadvantages of isolated aspects of preparation design, but lacking is a review of the most relevant papers which bring together a consensus on all the critical features. Hence, a review and analysis of cavity depth, width, preparation taper and internal line angles is warranted in our attempts to formulate preparation guidelines that will lead to clinically successful, all-ceramic inlay restorations and ceramic inlay supported prosthesis.

  8. Clinical Evaluation and Parental Satisfaction with Pediatric Zirconia Anterior Crowns.

    PubMed

    Holsinger, Daniel M; Wells, Martha H; Scarbecz, Mark; Donaldson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical success of and parental satisfaction with anterior pediatric zirconia crowns. A retrospective analysis of maxillary anterior pediatric zirconia crowns was performed. Crowns were evaluated for retention, gingival health, color match, contour, marginal integrity, and opposing tooth wear. Parental satisfaction regarding the esthetics of the crowns and parental perception of the impact of treatment on the child's appearance and oral health were evaluated by questionnaire. Fifty-seven crowns were evaluated in 18 children. Eight teeth were lost to exfoliation, three were extracted due to pathology, and two crowns debonded, leaving 44 available for examination. The average crown age at time of examination was 20.8 months. Sixteen crowns (36 percent) displayed gingival inflammation and color mismatch. No recurrent caries or opposing tooth wear was noted. Parents reported high satisfaction with the color, size, and shape of the crowns. The majority of parents reported that crowns improved the appearance and oral health of their child (78 percent and 83 percent, respectively). Eight-nine percent of parents reported that they would highly recommend these crowns. Zirconia crowns are clinically acceptable restorations in the primary maxillary anterior dentition. Parental satisfaction with zirconia crowns is high.

  9. Forest management manual for Crown lands 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The forest management plan describes the objectives for which Crown lands and the resources of Crown lands are used by the licensee and sublicensees. The operating plan describes all the proposed activities of the licensee, constituting an implementation plan for the management plan. This document describes the contents of the operating plan in relation to roads, harvest, silviculture, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, required letters of agreement, and DNR amendments; operating plan approval and maintenance; and annual report requirements for each operating plan element.

  10. [The method of esthetic crown restoration with composite resin jacket crown in primary molars].

    PubMed

    Doi, K; Shibui, N; Suda, M; Uehara, M; Karibe, H; Kondou, K

    1990-10-01

    The term "esthetics" has recently been also used in the dental field, and a field called esthetic dentistry is increasingly being noted. The number of not only adult but also pediatric patients who visit for treatment aiming at esthetic recovery is being increased. Inpedodontics, composite resin of the coronal color is generally used in the restoration of deciduous incisors. However, the method using metal crowns for the deciduous teeth is used for the deciduous molars at present. We applied a composite resin jacket crown to the deciduous molar in a way similar to that of esthetic crown restoration for the anterior teeth. The surgical procedure before crown preparation varied slightly according to the presence or absence of pulpal treatment of vital teeth and with non-vital teeth, but the application was performed as follows: 1) Desensitization of pulp, pulpal treatment and core construction. 2) Preparation of crown. 3) Selection, trial set and occlusal equilibration of a metal crown for the deciduous tooth. 4) Precision impression with a silicone impression material. 5) Removal of the metal crown for the deciduous tooth from the impression material. 6) Making of an under-cut to the abutment tooth on the buccal lingual side. 7) Filling of the impression with chemical polymerization resin. 8) Application of pressure in the oral cavity. 9) Adjustment of edge and crown forms. Thus, the preparation method for the composite resin jacket crown was relatively simple. Since this surgery, the patient has been followed up for 1 year and 6 months, and no specifically troublesome points have been observed clinically. The patient and her parents are satisfied with the results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Kinetic, Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on the biosorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera - 'Sodom apple'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukwudumebi Overah, Loretta; Babalola, Oyebamiji.; Babarinde, Adesola; Oninla, Vincent; Olatunde, Abimbola

    2013-04-01

    The kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the biosorption of Cd (II) from aqueous solution by the leaf biomass of Calotropis procera popularly known in western Nigeria as 'bom bom' and generally known as Sodom apple were investigated at different experimental conditions. Optimum conditions of pH,contact time, biomass dosage, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were determined to be 5, 60 minutes, 110 mg, 0.3 mM and 27°C respectively. The maximum biosorption capacity was found to be 8.91 mg/g. The kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption process of the metal ion followed the pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models with an R-square value of 0.998 and 0.985 respectively. Equilibrium studies showed that the biosorption of Cd (II) is well represented by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms but the Langmuir model gave a better fit with an R-square value of 0.979,Langmuir constant, bm of 0.0080 and monolayer adsorption capacity, μm of 123.46. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG° -4.846 kJmol-1, ΔH° 10.60 kJmol-1 and ΔS° 0.052 kJK-1mol-1) showed that the biosorption of Cd (II)is feasible, spontaneous, endothermic and highly disordered in nature under the experimental conditions. Thesefindings indicate that the leaf of Calotropis procera could be employed in the removal of Cd (II) from industrial effluents. Key words: Calotropis procera, Cadmium, Adsorption isotherm.

  12. Microwave-assisted enhancement of milkweed (Calotropis procera L.) leaves as an eco-friendly source of natural colorants for textile.

    PubMed

    Hussaan, Muhammad; Iqbal, Naeem; Adeel, Shahid; Azeem, Muhammad; Tariq Javed, M; Raza, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Application of natural colorants to textile fabrics has gained worldwide public acceptance due to the hazardous nature of synthetic dyes. Present study investigated the microwave's mediated extraction of natural colorants from leaves of milkweed (Calotropis procera L.) as well as their application to cotton fabrics assisted with biochemical mordants. Dye extraction from C. procera leaves was carried out in various mediums (alkali and aqueous), and the extracted dye as well as cotton fabrics was irradiated with microwaves for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 min. Effect of various temperature regimes and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations was also evaluated on the color strength of dyed cotton fabrics. The results revealed that extraction of natural colorants was enhanced when microwave radiations were applied for 4 min by using alkali as an extraction medium as compared to aqueous one. Optimum dyeing of cotton fabrics was achieved by using NaCl at a temperature of 55 °C. Among the chemical mordants, iron was effective for better color strength when used as pre- and post-mordant. Among the studied bio-mordants, extract of Acacia nilotica bark significantly improved the color strength and fastness properties as pre-mordant and Curcuma longa tuber as post-mordant. It was concluded that extract of C. procera leaves was a potential source of natural colorants and a high level of dye was obtained upon irradiation of alkali-solubilized extract for 4 min. Application of NaCl at concentration of 3 g/100 mL and temperature treatment of 55 °C significantly improved the color strength of dyed cotton fabrics.

  13. Characterization of P5CS gene in Calotropis procera plant from the de novo assembled transcriptome contigs of the high-throughput sequencing dataset.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ahmed M; Hassanein, Sameh E

    2014-12-01

    The wild plant known as Calotropis procera is important in medicine, industry and ornamental fields. Due to spread in areas that suffer from environmental stress, it has a large number of tolerance genes to environmental stress such as drought and salinity. Proline is one of the most compatible solutes that accumulate widely in plants to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions. Plant proline synthesis depends on Δ-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) gene. But information about this gene in C. procera is unavailable. In this study, we uncovered and characterized P5CS (P5CS, NCBI accession no. KJ020750) gene in this medicinal plant from the de novo assembled transcriptome contigs of the high-throughput sequencing dataset. A number of GenBank accessions for P5CS sequences were blasted with the recovered de novo assembled contigs. Homology modeling of the deduced amino acids (NCBI accession No. AHM25913) was further carried out using Swiss-Model, accessible via the EXPASY. Superimposition of C. procera P5CS-like full sequence model on Homo sapiens (P5CS_HUMAN, UniProt protein accession no. P54886) was constructed using RasMol and Deep-View programs. The functional domains of the novel P5CS amino acids sequence were identified from the NCBI conserved domain database (CDD) that provide insights into sequence structure/function relationships, as well as domain models imported from a number of external source databases (Pfam, SMART, COG, PRK, TIGRFAM).

  14. All-ceramic restoration of zirconia two-piece implants--a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Payer, Michael; Heschl, Alexander; Koller, Martin; Arnetzl, Gerwin; Lorenzoni, Martin; Jakse, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Aim of this controlled prospective randomized study was to evaluate the outcome of two-piece zirconia implants compared to titanium implants over a period of up to 24 months. A total of 31 implants (16 zirconia/Ziterion vario Z(®) + 15 titanium/Ziterion vario T(®) ) were inserted primary stable (>30 Ncm) in the maxilla (7) and mandible (24) of 22 patients (13 male, nine female) requiring neither bone nor soft tissue augmentation. After a healing period of 6 months in the maxilla and 4 months in the mandible, ceramic abutments were luted adhesively to the zirconia implants and definitive all-ceramic restoration was performed with high-density ceramics. Radiographic bone levels, condition of the peri-implant mucosa, aesthetic outcome, implant survival and success were recorded for up to 24 months. Measurements of mean marginal bone levels 24 months after surgery showed a significant bone loss (P < 0.001) in both groups (Ti: 1.43 (SD ± 0.67) vs. Zir 1.48 (SD ± 1.05). One zirconia implant was lost 8 months after restoration. No further complications were recorded, giving an overall survival and success rate of 93.3% for zirconia and 100% for titanium implants after a period of up to 24 months. After 24 months, success rates of the two-piece ceramic implants showed no significant difference compared to control two-piece titanium implants. The bonded zirconia implant abutment connection appears to be capable with clinical application over the observed period. However, further control measurements need to confirm the presented data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Bond strength, microhardness, and core/veneer interface quality of an all-ceramic system.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Nadia Z

    2010-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate three veneering materials for an all-ceramic alumina system in terms of bond strength, microhardness, and core/veneer interface quality. Fifteen In-Ceram cores were constructed for this study, forming three groups of five specimens each divided by the veneering ceramic disc fired on the occlusal surface of the alumina core: Vitadur N, Vitadur Alpha, or VM7. The specimens underwent shear bond and microhardness testing. Gross examination of debonded discs by SEM and EDAX analysis was conducted. Data for shear bond strength (SBS) and microhardness were presented as means and standard deviation (SD) values. One-way ANOVA and Duncan's post hoc test were used for pairwise comparison between the means when ANOVA test was significant. VM7 showed the highest shear bond value and lowest microhardness values of the three tested veneering materials. No statistically significant difference was evident between the SBSs of Vitadur N and Vitadur Alpha to the alumina cores. Vitadur Alpha showed statistically the highest mean VHN, followed by Vitadur N, while VM7 showed statistically the lowest mean values of VHN. In-Ceram core/Vitadur N disc debondings appeared to be interfacial by complete delaminations, leaving a shiny visible and quite distinct area, whereas there appeared to be perfect adhesion between the core and VM7 veneering material. VM7 appeared to possess ultra-fine texture with intimate contact to the core, forming what seemed like a transition zone where the ceramic and core appeared to blend for a distance. VM7's finer particle size has improved the core/veneer bond strength and decreased micohardness values. This new veneering material will probably enhance the performance and esthetics of the In-Ceram system.

  16. The effects of hydrochloric acid on all-ceramic restorative materials: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Harryparsad, A; Dullabh, H; Sykes, L; Herbst, D

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to assess the long-term effects of hydrochloric acid on the surface roughness of three all-ceramic restorative materials CEREC VITABLOC Mark II CAD, IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD. Six cylindrical specimens (10mm diameter, 3mm height) of each material type were prepared, using the CEREC CAD/CAM machine. The unpolished samples were immersed in 15ml hydrochloric acid (pH 2) at 37 degrees C. Before immersion (baseline) and at periods of 7.5 hours, 45 hours and 91 hours, the specimens were removed from the acid and two randomised areas (10 microm X 10 microm) were selected and tested on each. The atomic force microscope (Bruker Dimension icon) was used to assess surface roughness and surface area at baseline and after each exposure time. The materials were compared over time with respect to surface roughness and surface area (baseline, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year) in a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Sample groups differed significantly for roughness (p < 0.0001) and surface area (p < 0.0001). For both parameters a significant interaction also existed between material and time (surface roughness: p = 0.0085; surface area: p = 0.0014). CEREC VITABLOC Mark II CAD and IPS Empress CAD had substantially higher levels of roughness and surface area than IPS e.max CAD, which was also affected to a lesser extent over time. The results showed that IPS e.max CAD was least affected by long-term exposure to hydrochloric acid.

  17. Fracture resistance of teeth restored with all-ceramic inlays and onlays: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Saridag, S; Sevimay, M; Pekkan, G

    2013-01-01

    Fracture resistance of inlays and onlays may be influenced by the quantity of the dental structure removed and the restorative materials used. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of two different cavity preparation designs and all-ceramic restorative materials on the fracture resistance of the tooth-restoration complex. Fifty mandibular third molar teeth were randomly divided into the following five groups: group 1: intact teeth (control); group 2: inlay preparations, lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein); group 3: inlay preparations, zirconia ceramic (ICE Zirkon, Zirkonzahn SRL, Gais, Italy); group 4: onlay preparations, lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max Press); and group 5: onlay preparations, zirconia ceramic (ICE Zirkon). The inlay and onlay restorations were adhesively cemented with dual polymerizing resin cement (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent AG). After thermal cycling (5° to 55°C × 5000 cycles), specimens were subjected to a compressive load until fracture at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. The fracture strength values were significantly higher in the inlay group (2646.7 ± 360.4) restored with lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic than those of the onlay group (1673.6 ± 677) restored with lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic. The fracture strength values of teeth restored with inlays using zirconia ceramic (2849 ± 328) and onlays with zirconia ceramic (2796.3 ± 337.3) were similar to those of the intact teeth (2905.3 ± 398.8). In the IPS e.max Press groups, as the preparation amount was increased (from inlay to onlay preparation), the fracture resistance was decreased. In the ICE Zirkon ceramic groups, the preparation type did not affect the fracture resistance results.

  18. Load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic posterior inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Djamila; Wolfart, Stefan; Ludwig, Klaus; Kern, Matthias

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the quasi-static load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic resin-bonded three-unit inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses (IRFDPs) made from computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-manufactured yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) frameworks with two different connector dimensions, with and without fatigue loading. Twelve IRFDPs each were made with connector dimensions 3 x 3 mm(2) (width x height) (control group) and 3 x 2 mm(2) (test group). Inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses were adhesively cemented on identical metal-models using composite resin cement. Subgroups of six specimens each were fatigued with maximal 1,200,000 loading cycles in a chewing simulator with a weight load of 25 kg and a load frequency of 1.5 Hz. The load-bearing capacity was tested in a universal testing machine for IRFDPs without fatigue loading and for IRFDPs that had not already fractured during fatigue loading. During fatigue testing one IRFDP (17%) of the test group failed. Under both loading conditions, IRFDPs of the control group exhibited statistically significantly higher load-bearing capacities than the test group. Fatigue loading reduced the load-bearing capacity in both groups. Considering the maximum chewing forces in the molar region, it seems possible to use zirconia ceramic as a core material for IRFDPs with a minimum connector dimension of 9 mm(2). A further reduction of the connector dimensions to 6 mm(2) results in a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity.

  19. 21 CFR 872.3330 - Preformed crown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be affixed temporarily to a tooth after removal of, or breakage of, the natural crown (that portion of the tooth that normally protrudes above the...) tooth until the adult tooth erupts. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3330 - Preformed crown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be affixed temporarily to a tooth after removal of, or breakage of, the natural crown (that portion of the tooth that normally protrudes above the...) tooth until the adult tooth erupts. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  1. Crown ratio influences allometric scaling in trees

    Treesearch

    Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine

    2006-01-01

    Allometric theories suggest that the size and shape of organisms follow universal rules, with a tendency toward quarter-power scaling. In woody plants, however, structure is influenced by branch death and shedding, which leads to decreasing crown ratios, accumulation of heartwood, and stem and branch tapering. This paper examines the impacts on allometric scaling of...

  2. Crowning achievement: a case of dental aspiration.

    PubMed

    Mark, Nicholas M; Lessing, Juan N; Çoruh, Başak

    2015-12-01

    Aspiration of foreign bodies during dental procedures is a rare but potentially serious complication. We present a case of a 75-year-old man who aspirated a dental crown requiring flexible bronchoscopic retrieval. We discuss the risk factors for aspiration, the radiographic features of diagnosis, and the techniques for management and retrieval.

  3. Crowning achievement: a case of dental aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Nicholas M.; Lessing, Juan N.; Çoruh, Başak

    2015-01-01

    Aspiration of foreign bodies during dental procedures is a rare but potentially serious complication. We present a case of a 75-year-old man who aspirated a dental crown requiring flexible bronchoscopic retrieval. We discuss the risk factors for aspiration, the radiographic features of diagnosis, and the techniques for management and retrieval. PMID:26649115

  4. PREFORMED METAL CROWNS FOR THE PERMANENT DENTITION.

    PubMed

    Millar, Lynsey M; Cairns, Alison M; Fowler, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Preformed metal crowns have a range of uses in paediatric dentistry in both the primary and permanent dentition. This article provides an overview of their use in permanent teeth, including teeth that have been affected by molar incisor hypomineralisation, caries, developmental defects and tooth surface loss. The indications for use are described, along with the clinical technique for placement

  5. Aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Duncan, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    An unusual form of pulmonary aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) is described in this report. The major lesion is unique because it closely resembles a lesion referred to as an aspergilloma. An aspergilloma is a single large granulomatous lesion that resembles a tumor and is caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3330 - Preformed crown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed crown. 872.3330 Section 872.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be affixed temporarily to a tooth after removal...

  7. Clinical fit of all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures, generated with three different CAD/CAM systems.

    PubMed

    Reich, Sven; Wichmann, Manfred; Nkenke, Emeka; Proeschel, Peter

    2005-04-01

    In this study, the hypothesis was tested that the marginal and internal fit of CAD/CAM fabricated all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) can be as good as in metal-ceramic FPDs. Twenty-four all-ceramic FPDs were fabricated and randomly subdivided into three equally sized groups. Eight frameworks were fabricated using the Digident CAD/CAM system (DIGI), another eight frameworks using the Cerec Inlab system (INLA). Vita Inceram Zirkonia blanks were used for both groups. In a third group frameworks were milled from yttrium-stabilized Zirconium blanks using the Lava system (LAVA). All frameworks were layered with ceramic veneering material. In addition, six three-unit metal-ceramic FPDs served as control group. All FPDs were evaluated using a replica technique with a light body silicone stabilized with a heavy body material. The replica samples were examined under microscope. The medians of marginal gaps were 75 microm for DIGI, 65 microm for LAVA and INLA and 54 microm for the conventional FPDs. Only the DIGI data differed significantly from those of the conventional FPDs. Within the limits of this study, the results suggest that the accuracy of CAD/CAM generated three-unit FPDs is satisfactory for clinical use.

  8. Marginal fit of heat-pressed vs. CAD/CAM processed all-ceramic onlays using a milling unit prototype.

    PubMed

    Reich, Sven; Gozdowski, Stephan; Trentzsch, Lars; Frankenberger, Roland; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The composite luting gap between ceramic and dental hard tissue can be termed an "Achilles heel". Therefore, one major goal of luting ceramics focuses on minimizing the inter-marginal gap area. This study evaluated the marginal accuracy of two all-ceramic systems. The null hypothesis was that there is no statistical difference between the marginal accuracy of the IPS Empress and Cerec 3D all-ceramic systems. On 16 casts, representing different clinical situations, the left first mandibular molar was prepared to receive large onlays (MOD and replacement of the distobuccal and distal cusps). For each cavity, one laboratory heat-pressed (IPS Empress) and one chairside CAD/CAM restoration (Cerec 3D) were manufactured. A newly developed milling unit was used for CAM processing. The restorations were placed in their respective cavities and die replicas were taken and examined under SEM for quantitative gap measurement. The gap width was measured at 11 defined landmarks by two different examiners. An overall gap width of 56 microm (+/- 31 microm) was measured for IPS Empress, compared to the significantly increased value of 70 pm (+/- 32 microm) for Cerec 3D. From a clinical viewpoint, the statistically significant difference between the two systems is not relevant, since both systems still exhibit a clinically acceptable gap width of less than 100 microm.

  9. Influence of thermal and mechanical fatigue on the shear bond strength of different all-ceramic systems

    PubMed Central

    Vidotti, Hugo-Alberto; Insaurralde, Elizeu; Plaça, Luiz F.; Delben, José R.; do Valle, Accácio-Lins

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the influence of thermal and mechanical fatigue on the shear bond strength of different all-ceramic cores and veneering porcelain interfaces. Material and Methods All-ceramic systems tested were lithium disilicate and zirconia veneered by layering technique. Sixty specimens (n=20) were subjected to shear bond strength. Ten of them were thermal and mechanical cycled. Fracture analysis was performed with stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis was performed across core/veneer interfaces. Results Thermal and mechanical cycling did not influence on bond strength. However, there was significant difference among systems (<0.01). CoCr group presented the highest values, followed by lithium disilicate, and zirconia. Failure modes were predominantly adhesive for CoCr, cohesive in core for lithium disilicate, and cohesive in veneer for zirconia. Energy dispersive X-ray showed interaction zone for CoCr and lithium disilicate groups and was inconclusive for zirconia. Fatigue had no influence on bond strength of groups tested. Conclusions The results suggest that there is a chemical bond between core and veneer materials for CoCr and lithium disilicate groups. Key words:Ceramics, electron microscopy, fatigue, mechanical stress, shear bond strength. PMID:28936283

  10. INTERNAL ADAPTATION OF CAST TITANIUM CROWNS

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Sicknan Soares; Adabo, Gelson Luis; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Fonseca, Renata Garcia

    2007-01-01

    As the adaptation of titanium crowns obtained by Rematitan Plus investment, specific for titanium, is not recognized to be suitable, this study evaluated the effect of the concentration of the specific liquid and the temperature of the mold of investments on the internal misfit of crowns cast on commercially pure titanium. Individual dies of epoxy resin were obtained, representing teeth prepared for full-crown restoration with a 6-degree axial surface convergence angle and shoulder (1.0 mm). For the waxing of each crown, a ring-shaped stainless steel matrix (8.0mm internal diameter; 7.5 mm height) was adapted above the individual dies of epoxy resin. The Rematian Plus investment was mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions using two different concentrations of the specific liquid: 100%, 75%. Casting was performed in a Discovery Plasma Ar-arc vacuum-pressure casting machine with molds at temperatures of 430°C, 515°C and 600°C. The crowns were cleaned individually in a solution (1% HF + 13% HNO3) for 10 min using a ultrasonic cleaner, with no internal adaptations, and luted with zinc phosphate cement under a 5 kg static load. The crown and die assemblies were embedded in resin and sectioned longitudinally. The area occupied by cement was observed using stereoscopic lens (10X) and measured by the Leica Qwin image analysis system (mm2). The data for each experimental condition (n=8) were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test (á=0.05). The results showed that liquid dilution and the increase in mold temperature did not significantly influence the levels of internal fit of the cast titanium crowns. The lowest means (±SD) of internal misfit were obtained for the 430°C/100%: (7.25 mm2 ±1.59) and 600°C/100% (8.8 mm2 ±2.25) groups, which presented statistically similar levels of internal misfit. PMID:19089139

  11. Evaluation of wild juglans species for crown gall resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A. tumefaciens is a soil-borne Gram-negative bacterium which causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plant species including walnut. Crown gall symptoms on walnut are characterized by large tumors located near the crown of the tree but can occur near wounds caused by bleeding cuts or at the graft u...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  17. Using crown condition variables as indicators of forest health

    Treesearch

    Stanley J. Zarnoch; William A. Bechtold; K.W. Stolte

    2004-01-01

    Indicators of forest health used in previous studies have focused on crown variables analyzed individually at the tree level by summarizing over all species. This approach has the virtue of simplicity but does not account for the three-dimensional attributes of a tree crown, the multivariate nature of the crown variables, or variability among species. To alleviate...

  18. Thinning guidelines from crown area relationships for young hardwood plantations

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey W. Stringer; Luke Cecil

    2010-01-01

    Crown closure in hardwood plantations signals the first opportunity to apply density control treatments such as thinning or release. The proper timing of these treatments is a function of stocking levels and is generally scheduled within several years after initial crown closure. Predicting crown closure for a plantation provides practitioners with the ability to plan...

  19. Digital photography for urban street tree crown conditions

    Treesearch

    Neil A. Clark; Sang-Mook Lee; William A. Bechtold; Gregory A. Reams

    2006-01-01

    Crown variables such as height, diameter, live crown ratio, dieback, transparency, and density are all collected as part of the overall crown assessment (USDA 2004). Transparency and density are related to the amount of foliage and thus the photosynthetic potential of the tree. These measurements are both currently based on visual estimates and have been shown to be...

  20. 28. Photocopy of Crown Roller Mill illustration; originally published in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of Crown Roller Mill illustration; originally published in The Crown Roller Mill, Northwestern Miller 9 (May 21, 1880): 321; SHOWING WEST SIDE, LOOKING EAST - Crown Roller Mill, 105 Fifth Avenue, South, West Side Milling District, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  1. Evaluation of sampling strategies to estimate crown biomass

    Treesearch

    Krishna P Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen; Andrew N Gray

    2015-01-01

    Depending on tree and site characteristics crown biomass accounts for a significant portion of the total aboveground biomass in the tree. Crown biomass estimation is useful for different purposes including evaluating the economic feasibility of crown utilization for energy production or forest products, fuel load assessments and fire management strategies, and wildfire...

  2. Updating histological data on crown initiation and crown completion ages in southern Africans.

    PubMed

    Reid, Donald J; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie

    2017-04-01

    To update histological data on crown initiation and completion ages in southern Africans. To evaluate implications of these data for studies that: (a) rely on these data to time linear enamel hypoplasias (LEHs), or, (b) use these data for comparison to fossil hominins. Initiation ages were calculated on 67 histological sections from southern Africans, with sample sizes ranging from one to 11 per tooth type. Crown completion ages for southern Africans were calculated in two ways. First, actual derived initiation ages were added to crown formation times for each histological section to obtain direct information on the crown completion ages of individuals. Second, average initiation ages from this study were added to average crown formation times of southern Africans from the Reid and coworkers previous studies that were based on larger samples. For earlier-initiating tooth types (all anterior teeth and first molars), there is little difference in ages of initiation and crown completion between this and previous studies. Differences increase as a function of initiation age, such that the greatest differences between this and previous studies for both initiation and crown completion ages are for the second and third molars. This study documents variation in initiation ages, particularly for later-initiating tooth types. It upholds the use of previously published histological aging charts for LEHs on anterior teeth. However, this study finds that ages of crown initiation and completion in second and third molars for this southern African sample are earlier than previously estimated. These earlier ages reduce differences between modern humans and fossil hominins for these developmental events in second and third molars. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Calotropis procera mediated combustion synthesis of ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) nanophosphors: structural and luminescence studies.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, B S; Nagabhushana, H; Sharma, S C; Vidya, Y S; Anantharaju, K S

    2015-02-05

    ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) nanophosphors were synthesized for the first time by a simple and environment friendly route using Calotropis procera milk latex as fuel. The structural and surface morphological studies were carried out using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) as a function of dopant concentration and calcination temperature was studied in detail. The PXRD patterns and Rietveld confinement confirmed the cubic crystal system with space group Fd-3m. The crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's and W-H plots was found to be in the range of 16-26 nm. The PL spectrum shows an intense peak at ∼688 and ∼699 nm assigned to spin-forbidden (2)Eg→(4)A2g transition of Cr(3+) ions. The PL measurements for two excitations (∼410 and 527 nm) and with respect to calcination temperature indicated no significant change in the shape and position of emission peak except PL intensity. The CIE chromaticity coordinates lies well within the white region. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies revealed well resolved glow peak at ∼212°C with a small shoulder at 188 and 233°C. The glow peak intensity at ∼212°C increases linearly with γ-dose which suggest ZnAl2O4:Cr(3+) is suitable candidate for radiation dosimetric applications. The activation energy (E in eV), order of kinetics (b) and Frequency factor (s) were estimated using glow peak shape method.

  4. Calotropis procera mediated combustion synthesis of ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ nanophosphors: Structural and luminescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, B. S.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Vidya, Y. S.; Anantharaju, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ nanophosphors were synthesized for the first time by a simple and environment friendly route using Calotropis procera milk latex as fuel. The structural and surface morphological studies were carried out using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ as a function of dopant concentration and calcination temperature was studied in detail. The PXRD patterns and Rietveld confinement confirmed the cubic crystal system with space group Fd-3m. The crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's and W-H plots was found to be in the range of 16-26 nm. The PL spectrum shows an intense peak at ∼688 and ∼699 nm assigned to spin - forbidden 2Eg → 4A2g transition of Cr3+ ions. The PL measurements for two excitations (∼410 and 527 nm) and with respect to calcination temperature indicated no significant change in the shape and position of emission peak except PL intensity. The CIE chromaticity coordinates lies well within the white region. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies revealed well resolved glow peak at ∼212 °C with a small shoulder at 188 and 233 °C. The glow peak intensity at ∼212 °C increases linearly with γ-dose which suggest ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ is suitable candidate for radiation dosimetric applications. The activation energy (E in eV), order of kinetics (b) and Frequency factor (s) were estimated using glow peak shape method.

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines of laticifer proteins of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br.

    PubMed

    Soares de Oliveira, Jefferson; Pereira Bezerra, Daniel; Teixeira de Freitas, Cleverson Diniz; Delano Barreto Marinho Filho, José; Odorico de Moraes, Manoel; Pessoa, Claudia; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Ramos, Márcio Viana

    2007-12-01

    This work evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic activity of laticifer proteins (LP) recovered from the latex of the medicinal plant Calotropis procera. The LP displayed considerable cytotoxicity with IC(50) values ranging from 0.42 to 1.36 microg/ml to SF295 and MDA-MB-435 cell lines, respectively. In healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to LP (10 microg/ml) for 72 h, no noticeable effects on viability or cell morphology were seen. The fractionating of LP on an ion exchange chromatography gave rise to a new fraction (PI) that retained almost all cytotoxicity. The cytotoxic effects of both LP and PI were diminished when previously treated with pronase, or 2-mercaptoethanol, suggesting a protein nature of active molecules, however, pre-incubation with dithiothreitol (DTT) only reduced PI activity. PI did not exhibit cysteine proteinase activity, indicating that cysteine proteinases, abundantly found in LP, are not implicated in LP cytotoxicity. In this study, using HL-60 cell as a model, LP was shown to inhibit DNA synthesis. This is probably due to alterations in the topology of DNA, since it was observed that LP is able to interfere in topoisomerase I activity by somehow acting upon DNA. LP provoked reduction in cell number but it did not cause any significant increase in the number of non-viable cells. These findings corroborated with the morphologic analysis, where cells treated with LP showed morphology of apoptotic process with abundant vacuoles, chromatin condensation and fragmentation of the nuclei. The results of this study suggests that LP is a target for DNA topoisomerase I triggering apoptosis in cancer cell lines.

  6. Estimating the weight of crown segments for old-growth Douglas-fir and western hemlock.

    Treesearch

    J.A. Kendall Snell; Timothy A. Max

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate estimators to predict total crown weight and weight of any segment of crown for old-growth felled and bucked Douglas-fir and western hemlock trees. Equations were developed for predicting weight of continuous live crown, total live crown, dead crown, any segment of live crown, and individual branches for old-growth...

  7. Latex proteins from the plant Calotropis procera are partially digested upon in vitro enzymatic action and are not immunologically detected in fecal material.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Márcio V; Aguiar, Valéria C; da Silva Xavier, Ana A; Lima, Michael W; Bandeira, Glaís P; Etchells, J Peter; Nogueira, Nádia A P; Alencar, Nylane M N

    2006-06-01

    Soluble proteins from the latex of Calotropis procera (LP) were investigated in vitro and in vivo for digestibility as the latex has previously been shown to produce considerable toxic effects on animals. The latex is also an important biologically active compound that displays antiinflammatory and antidiarrhea properties. The proteins were digested by the action of trypsin, pepsin or chemotrypsin as revealed by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE analysis. Furthermore, the full LP digestion was easily achieved by protease treatment. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against LP failed to detect cross-reactive molecules in fecal material of experimental rats following 35 consecutive days of LP consumption in water. Similar patterns of electrophoresis were observed for the negligible amounts of protein observed in the fecal extracts of control and test animals. No death or toxic effects were observed among animals. Taken together these results suggest that harmful and toxic effects on animals of the latex from C. procera are present in its rubber and low molecular weight fractions rather than its protein content.

  8. Inflammation induced by phytomodulatory proteins from the latex of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) protects against Salmonella infection in a murine model of typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Raquel S B; Figueiredo, Ingrid S T; Freitas, Lyara B N; Pinheiro, Rachel S P; Brito, Gerly Anne C; Alencar, Nylane M N; Ramos, Márcio V; Ralph, Maria T; Lima-Filho, José V

    2012-07-01

    Laticifer proteins (LP) of Calotropis procera were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography, and the influence of a sub-fraction (LP(PI)) on the inflammatory response of Swiss mice challenged by Salmonella enterica Ser. Typhimurium was investigated. Mice (n = 10) received LP(PI) (30 or 60 mg/kg) in a single inoculum by the intraperitoneal route 24 h before infection. To investigate the relevance of the proteolytic activity, three additional groups were included: the first one received heat-treated LP (30 mg/kg-30 min at 100 °C), the second received LP (30 mg/kg) inactivated by iodoacetamide, and a control group received only phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The survival rate reached 100 % in mice treated with LP(PI) and was also observed with the other treatment, whereas the PBS group died 1-3 days after infection. The neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity of pretreated mice was enhanced and accompanied by high bacterial clearance from the bloodstream. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA transcripts, but not interferon-gamma, were detected early in spleen cells of pretreated mice after infection; however, the nitric oxide contents in the bloodstream were decreased in comparison to the PBS group. The inflammatory stimulus of C. procera proteins increased phagocytosis and balanced the nitric oxide release in the bloodstream, preventing septic shock induced by Salmonella infection.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effect of the latex from Calotropis procera in three different experimental models: peritonitis, paw edema and hemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Alencar, N M N; Figueiredo, I S T; Vale, M R; Bitencurt, F S; Oliveira, J S; Ribeiro, R A; Ramos, M V

    2004-12-01

    Latex from Calotropis procera is widely used in folk medicine as a rich source of biologically active compounds capable of promoting diverse benefits such as control of dermal fungal infections, antimicrobial activities and pain relief among other useful properties. The aim of this work was to characterize the anti-inflammatory effect of a non-dialysable protein fraction recovered from the rubber-free latex using three different experimental models when administrated intravenously. In vivo neutrophil migration induced by carrageenin (500 microg) was severely inhibited by doses of latex proteins reaching maximum inhibition (80%) at 100 mg/kg. Paw edema exacerbated by the effect of carrageenin was almost completely suppressed after 4 hours and was controlled within the first hour following latex protein administration. However, the same latex fraction was completely unable to control the paw edema invoked with dextran stimulation (400 microg), suggesting that the inhibitory effect of the latex is likely to be cell-mediated. Iphosphamide-induced vesical edema in mice was also largely prevented by the latex protein fraction. These results indicate that an effect similar to that of mesna, the classical drug used for this purpose, is operative. Our findings suggest that the sample tested seems to act over a wide spectrum as a novel anti-inflammatory agent. The results also suggest that the active molecules are of a proteinaceous nature despite the presence of numerous secondary metabolites naturally occurring in the C. procera latex.

  10. Procerain B, a cysteine protease from Calotropis procera, requires N-terminus pro-region for activity: cDNA cloning and expression with pro-sequence.

    PubMed

    Nandana, Vidhyadhar; Singh, Sushant; Singh, Abhay Narayan; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2014-11-01

    We have previously reported isolation and characterization of a novel plant cysteine protease, Procerain B, from the latex of Calotropis procera. Our initial attempts for active recombinant Procerain B in Escherichiacoli expression system was not successful. The reason for inactive enzyme production was attributed to the absence of 5' pro-region in the Procerain B cDNA that may be involved in proper folding and production of mature active protein. The current manuscript reports the cloning of full length Procerain B for the production of the active protein. The complete cDNA sequence of Procerain B with pro-region sequence was obtained by using RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of 5' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). The N-terminus pro-sequence region consists of 127 amino acids and characterized as the member of inhibitory I29 family. Further the three dimensional structure of full length Procerain B was modelled by homology modelling using X-ray crystal structure of procaricain (PDB ID: 1PCI). N-terminus pro-sequence of full length Procerain B runs along the active site cleft. Full length Procerain B was expressed in prokaryotic system and activated in vitro at pH 4.0. This is the first study reporting the production of active recombinant cysteine protease from C.procera. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Proteins derived from latex of C. procera maintain coagulation homeostasis in septic mice and exhibit thrombin- and plasmin-like activities.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Márcio V; Viana, Carolina A; Silva, Ayrles F B; Freitas, Cléverson D T; Figueiredo, Ingrid S T; Oliveira, Raquel S B; Alencar, Nylane M N; Lima-Filho, José V M; Kumar, Vijay L

    2012-05-01

    The proteins derived from the latex (LP) of Calotropis procera are well known for their anti-inflammatory property. In view of their protective effect reported in the sepsis model, they were evaluated for their efficacy in maintaining coagulation homeostasis in sepsis. Intraperitoneal injection of LP markedly reduced the procoagulation and thrombocytopenia observed in mice infected with Salmonella; while in normal mice, LP produced a procoagulant effect. In order to understand its mechanism of action, the LP was subjected to ion-exchange chromatography, and the three subfractions (LPPI, LPPII, and LPPIII) thus obtained were tested for their proteolytic effect and thrombin- and plasmin-like activities in vitro. Of the three subfractions tested, LPPII and LPPIII exhibited proteolytic effect on azocasein and exhibited procoagulant effect on human plasma in a concentration-dependent manner. Like trypsin and plasmin, these subfractions produced both fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic effects that were mediated through the hydrolysis of the Aα, Bβ, and γ chains of fibrinogen and α-polymer and γ-dimer of fibrin clot, respectively. This study shows that the cysteine proteases present in the latex of C. procera exhibit thrombin- and plasmin-like activities and suggests that these proteins have therapeutic potential in various conditions associated with coagulation abnormalities.

  12. Crown bowl: metallocyclophane by self-assembly of 4'-pyridylmethyl-armed 12-crown-4 ethers with Ag+ ions.

    PubMed

    Habata, Yoichi; Yamada, Sachiko; Osaka, Futoshi

    2006-02-06

    New 3'-pyridylmethyl- and 4'-pyridylmethyl-armed monoaza-12-crown-4 ethers were prepared by the reductive amination of monoaza-12-crown-4 with the appropriate pyridinecarbaldehyde in the presence of NaBH(OAc)3. X-ray crystallography, cold electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and 1H NMR titration experiments show that Ag+ complexes with 3'-pyridylmethyl- and 4'-pyridylmethyl-armed monoaza-12-crown-4 ethers are dimetallo[3.3]metacyclophane and trimetallo[3.3.3]paracyclophane, respectively (crown bowl). The structure of the metallocyclophanes can be controlled by the positions of the N atoms in the pyridine side arms and the ring size of the crown moiety.

  13. Effect of connector design on the fracture resistance of all-ceramic fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Suck; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2002-05-01

    Fracture of all-ceramic fixed partial dentures (FPDs) tends to occur in the connector area. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the radii of curvature at the connector affects the fracture resistance of 3-unit FPDs. With the use of a standardized silicone mold, 40 three-unit FPD wax patterns were fabricated with the same dimensions and divided into 4 groups of 10 specimens per group. Each pattern was modified at the connector areas of the occlusal embrasure (OE) and the gingival embrasure (GE); 2 wax carvers with radii of curvature at their tips of 0.90 mm and 0.25 mm were used. The dimensions of the connectors were standardized with an electronic caliper to 4 +/- 0.12 mm in height and 5 +/- 0.13 mm in width. Connector designs were as follows: Design I: OE and GE 0.90 mm; Design II: OE 0.90 mm and GE 0.25 mm; Design III: OE 0.25 mm and GE 0.90 mm; and Design IV (control): OE and GE 0.25 mm. An experimental hot-pressed core ceramic was used to make the FPD frameworks, which were consequently cemented on epoxy dies with dual-polymerizing composite (Variolink II) and loaded to fracture in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The failure load data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA; P=.05) and Duncan's test (alpha=.01). The mean failure loads and standard deviations were as follows: 943 +/- 151 N for Design I; 746 +/- 106 N for Design II; 944 +/- 144 N for Design III; and 673 +/- 55 N for Design IV. ANOVA revealed a significant difference (P< or = .0001) between the mean failure loads of different connector designs. The mean loads to failure for Designs I and III were significantly higher than those for Designs II and IV (Duncan's test). Within the limitations of this study and for the experimental ceramic tested, as the radius at the gingival embrasure increased from 0.25 to 0.90 mm, the mean failure load increased by 140%. The radius of curvature at the occlusal embrasure had only a minor effect on the

  14. Crown Features Extraction from Low Altitude AVIRIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Roberts, D.; Ustin, S.

    2005-12-01

    Automated tree recognition and crown delineations are computer-assisted procedures for identifying individual trees and segmenting their crown boundaries on digital imagery. The success of the procedures is dependent on the quality of the image data and the physiognomy of the stand as evidence by previous studies, which have all used data with spatial resolution less than 1 m and average crown diameter to pixel size ratio greater than 4. In this study we explored the prospect of identifying individual tree species and extracting crown features from low altitude AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data with spatial resolution of 4 m. The test site is a Douglas-fir and Western hemlock dominated old-growth conifer forest in the Pacific Northwest with average crown diameter of 12 m, which translates to a crown diameter pixel ratio less than 4 m; the lowest value ever used in similar studies. The analysis was carried out using AVIRIS reflectance imagery in the NIR band centered at 885 nm wavelength. The analysis required spatial filtering of the reflectance imagery followed by application of a tree identification algorithm based on maximum filter technique. For every identified tree location a crown polygon was delineated by applying crown segmentation algorithm. Each polygon boundary was characterized by a loop connecting pixels that were geometrically determined to define the crown boundary. Crown features were extracted based on the area covered by the polygons, and they include crown diameters, average distance between crowns, species spectral, pixel brightness at the identified tree locations, average brightness of pixels enclosed by the crown boundary and within crown variation in pixel brightness. Comparison of the results with ground reference data showed a high correlation between the two datasets and highlights the potential of low altitude AVIRIS data to provide the means to improve forest management and practices and estimates of critical

  15. Treatment of crown fractures with pulp exposure.

    PubMed

    de Blanco, L P

    1996-11-01

    Thirty permanent incisors with vital pulps and complicated crown fractures were treated by a partial pulpotomy (Cvek technique). This consisted of amputation of 1 to 2 mm of the exposed pulp, placement of calcium hydroxide powder, and a temporary restoration. Clinical and radiographic assessment of the hard tissue barrier was done after 3 months and again after 1 to 8 years. The treatment was successful in all incisors. No differences were found in stage of root development, size of exposure, and length of time exposed. In conclusion, the partial pulpotomy technique is a successful and permanent treatment for crown fractures with pulp exposure regardless of the size of exposure, the maturity of the root, or the interval between accident and dental treatment.

  16. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  17. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  18. Accuracy of Casting Single Crowns in Titanium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    denture bases were cast by pouring molten metal into a mold by Dr. Edward Hudson of Philadelphia in 1820 ( Hagman , 1976). In 1906, Dr. Solbrig of Paris...fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures . Wax patterns are injected into molds that have been machined from aluminum. The patterns are sprued and...as removable partial denture frameworks (Szurgot,et.al., 1988). The other system commercially available is a vertical centrifugal casting machine

  19. Stabilizing distressed glass furnace melter crowns

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Before the advent of pump casting, hot patching a melter or regenerator crown was extremely time and labor intensive. During these installations, known to many as the bucket brigade, the slurry was mixed on floor level and hauled in 50--65 lb batches up to 100 ft to the top of the crown. Today, in a single shift, a crew of seven can accomplish what took two days and a crew of {approximately}25 in the past. The first application of pump-casting zircon patch occurred on the AZS crown of an insulation-wool-glass furnace. For this application, 23 in. of insulating firebrick had to be removed to gain access to the fused AZS surface. The zircon patch was applied by pumping the mix from floor level up {approximately}60 ft to the crown by means of a concrete pump. Postmortems were performed on samples from two of the gas-fired TV-panel-glass furnaces. These postmortems were performed to determine if alterations occurred on the hot face of exposed zircon patch and, if so, how much alteration did occur. There was no destructive alteration because of alkali penetration into the patch. In fact, only trace amounts of lead, barium and strontium were detected, no further than 1 in. from the hot face. There was slight loss of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} on the hot face because of migration of phosphate toward the cold face, but it did not decrease the integrity of the patch. The dissociation of zircon was <3% baddelyite detected, all within an in. of the hot face.

  20. The use of stainless steel crowns.

    PubMed

    Seale, N Sue

    2002-01-01

    The stainless steel crown (SSC) is an extremely durable restoration with several clear-cut indications for use in primary teeth including: following a pulpotomy/pulpectomy; for teeth with developmental defects or large carious lesions involving multiple surfaces where an amalgam is likely to fail; and for fractured teeth. In other situations, its use is less clear cut, and caries risk factors, restoration longevity and cost effectiveness are considerations in decisions to use the SSC. The literature on caries risk factors in young children indicates that children at high risk exhibiting anterior tooth decay and/or molar caries may benefit by treatment with stainless steel crowns to protect the remaining at-risk tooth surfaces. Studies evaluating restoration longevity, including the durability and lifespan of SSCs and Class II amalgams demonstrate the superiority of SSCs for both parameters. Children with extensive decay, large lesions or multiple surface lesions in primary molars should be treated with stainless steel crowns. Because of the protection from future decay provided by their feature of full coverage and their increased durability and longevity, strong consideration should be given to the use of SSCs in children who require general anesthesia. Finally, a strong argument for the use of the SSC restoration is its cost effectiveness based on its durability and longevity.

  1. Fracture strength of ceramic monolithic crown systems of different thickness.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Niklas; Vult von Steyern, Per; Larsson, Christel

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fracture strength of high-translucent (HTZ) and low-translucent (LTZ) zirconia and glass-ceramic (LDS) crowns. HTZ and LTZ crowns were made with thicknesses of; 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm; and LDS crowns of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thicknesses. Each group consisted of 10 crowns. All crowns underwent artificial aging before loading until fracture. Mean fracture strengths varied from 450 N to 3,248 N in the LTZ group, 438 N to 3,487 N in the HTZ group, and 1,030 N to 1,431 N in the LDS group. The load at fracture of HTZ and LTZ crowns was equal. The load at fracture of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals crowns was significantly greater than LDS crowns (P = 0.000). Two types of fractures were recorded; complete and partial crack-like fracture. The crack type fracture occurred most frequently in all groups except in the thicker LTZ groups (1.0 mm and 1.5 mm). According to this study, there is no difference in strength between crowns made of high-translucent or low-translucent zirconia. At equal thickness, the strength of zirconia crowns was significantly greater than that of lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic.

  2. High peak-power passively Q-switched all-ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Tsunekane, Masaki; Taira, Takunori

    2010-05-01

    The output performances of a compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser were investigated using single crystals and poli-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG with doping level between 1.0 and 2.0-at.% Nd, and single crystals and poli-crystalline ceramics Cr4+:YAG with various initial transmission. Q-switch laser pulses at 1.06 μm with energies up to 2 mJ and duration below 1 ns were realized at a pump repetition rate of 10 Hz. An all-ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser could be a solution for ignition of automotive engines. The optical intensity of a laser pulse with ns duration that induces optical air breakdown was determined.

  3. High peak-power passively Q-switched all-ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Tsunekane, Masaki; Taira, Takunori

    2009-09-01

    The output performances of a compact, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser were investigated using single crystals and poli-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG with doping level between 1.0 and 2.0-at.% Nd, and single crystals and poli-crystalline ceramics Cr4+:YAG with various initial transmission. Q-switch laser pulses at 1.06 μm with energies up to 2 mJ and duration below 1 ns were realized at a pump repetition rate of 10 Hz. An all-ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser could be a solution for ignition of automotive engines. The optical intensity of a laser pulse with ns duration that induces optical air breakdown was determined.

  4. Wound-healing and potential anti-keloidal properties of the latex of Calotropis procera (Aiton) Asclepiadaceae in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Aderounmu, A O; Omonisi, A E; Akingbasote, J A; Makanjuola, M; Bejide, R A; Orafidiya, L O; Adelusola, K A

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis Procera (CP) has been used in the management of toothache, fresh skin burns, gum bleeding as well as others to make it qualify as a medicinal plant. This study was designed to assess its wound-healing property in rabbits and its potentials for anti keloidal activity.Fresh latex of Calotropis were obtained and evaluated phytochemically. Fifteen male rabbits were used and four excisional wounds were created on each rabbit. The rabbits were divided into five groups of three each. Group 1 was the negative control and received no treatment. The wounds of group 2 animals were treated with 2mL of Calotropis latex; group 3 with 2mL honey; and group 4 with a mixture of 1ml honey and 1 mL of the latex. The animals in group 5 were given 2mg triamcinolone intramuscularly. All the groups had their wounds treated daily for 21 days. The wounds' diameters were measured on the day of wound creation, thereafter on days 7, 14 and 21 post wound creation. Biopsies of the wounds were taken on days 3 and 21 and viewed histologically. Phytochemical study of the latex revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins and alkaloids. The wounds were found to be significantly (p<0.05) reduced in groups treated with 50% latex in honey and triamcinolone, respectively, on day 7 post wound creation while there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in wound surface area in all treated groups on days 14 and 21 post wound creation. Histological findings in untreated group showed thick bundle of collagen fibres some of which had broad based configurations, reminiscent of keloid. The group treated with 2mL of Calotropis latex revealed the presence of florid granulation tissues on day 3 while there was a marked reduction in quantity and size of collagen fibres on day 21 post wound creation which was comparable with what was seen for the triamcinolone-treated group.The general effect of Calotropis latex on wound-healing was noted. Likewise it's similarity to that of triamcinolone, an anti

  5. Proteins from latex of Calotropis procera prevent septic shock due to lethal infection by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Lima-Filho, José V; Patriota, Joyce M; Silva, Ayrles F B; Filho, Nicodemos T; Oliveira, Raquel S B; Alencar, Nylane M N; Ramos, Márcio V

    2010-06-16

    The latex of Calotropis procera has been used in traditional medicine to treat different inflammatory diseases. The anti-inflammatory activity of latex proteins (LP) has been well documented using different inflammatory models. In this work the anti-inflammatory protein fraction was evaluated in a true inflammatory process by inducing a lethal experimental infection in the murine model caused by Salmonella enterica Subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Experimental Swiss mice were given 0.2 ml of LP (30 or 60 mg/kg) by the intraperitoneal route 24 h before or after lethal challenge (0.2 ml) containing 10(6) CFU/ml of Salmonella Typhimurium using the same route of administration. All the control animals succumbed to infection within 6 days. When given before bacterial inoculums LP prevented the death of mice, which remained in observation until day 28. Even, LP-treated animals exhibited only discrete signs of infection which disappeared latter. LP fraction was also protective when given orally or by subcutaneous route. Histopathological examination revealed that necrosis and inflammatory infiltrates were similar in both the experimental and control groups on days 1 and 5 after infection. LP activity did not clear Salmonella Typhimurium, which was still present in the spleen at approximately 10(4) cells/g of organ 28 days after challenge. However, no bacteria were detected in the liver at this stage. LP did not inhibit bacterial growth in culture medium at all. In the early stages of infection bacteria population was similar in organs and in the peritoneal fluid but drastically reduced in blood. Titration of TNF-alpha in serum revealed no differences between experimental and control groups on days 1 and 5 days after infection while IL-12 was only discretely diminished in serum of experimental animals on day 5. Moreover, cultured macrophages treated with LP and stimulated by LPS released significantly less IL-1beta. LP-treated mice did not succumb to septic shock when

  6. An Investigation Into the Integrity of Fit of Provisional Crowns Using Current Proprietary Temporary Crown Materials.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Philip D; Georgakis, Georgios; Niggli, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Three methods of direct provisional crown construction were investigated for accuracy of marginal fit. A modified proprietary crown coping was compared to Bis GMA and isobutyl methacrylate resin provisional crowns with margins modified by using a flowable composite and 'bead on' isobutyl methacrylate respectively. Measurement was at 50x magnification at seven sites over the fit surface. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13.0.1 and measurement compared using the Mann Whitney test set at a significance level of 0.05. Reliability was checked using the Bland Altman test. Statistical significant differences were found between the three groups. The order of best fit was Bis-GMA and flowable composite > isobutyl methacrylate with 'bead on' margins > Bis-GMA modified implant temporary coping. The clinical significance is that the Bis GMA and flowable composite combination can be used with equal confidence to traditional methods of temporarisation.

  7. Clinical performance of enamel-dentine bonded all-ceramic restorations: retrospective evaluation in a postgraduate clinic.

    PubMed

    Printzell, Lisa; Haseid, Carl Fredrik; Ekfeldt, Anders; Hjortsjö, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical survival and success of five dif- ferent types of adhesive bonded all-ceramic restorations, in a postgraduate clinic. All ceramic enamel-dentin adhesive bonded restorations, either partial (n=94) or full coverage (n=145), were assessed by clinical examination using a modified Californian Dental Association (CDA) system for quality evaluation of dental care and a questionnaire assessing patient satis- faction (VAS) of 29 subjects with 239 restorations. The same 3-step adhesive bonding system in combination with dual-cured resin composite cement was used for all restorations Rubber dam was used for moisture control.The ceramics were evaluated with respect to patient satisfaction, esthetics, technical and biological complications. The reasons for treatment were mineralisation disorders (n=82), trauma (n=40), esthetic (n=57) and pathological tooth wear (n=60). Observation period for the restorations was up to 71 month (mean 33). All restorations were in place at the examinations (l00% survival rate). Number offractures and infractions were 28 and 20 respectively giving a 69% success rate. No significant difference was observed between full coverage and partial coverage restorations. Most of the fractures were small chippings of the veneering porcelain. From a biological point of view subgingival location of the restoration margin showed a significant correlation with bleeding on probing.The esthetic outcome seemed to depend on the ability of the selected veneering material to mask a severe tooth discoloration.The patients reported a high degree of satisfaction with both the esthetics and the function of their restorations. In conclusion all-ceramic enamel-dentin-bonded restorations demonstrated good short-term survival rate.The success rate was found to be lower. Both technical and biological complica- tions were present but mainly without any need of correction.The patients were in general very satisfied

  8. [Comparison of the clinical effects of selective laser melting deposition basal crowns and cobalt chromium alloy base crowns].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-min; Wang, Wei-qian; Ma, Jing-yuan

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical effects of selective laser melting (SLM) deposition basal crowns and cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns. One hundred and sixty eight patients treated with either SLM deposition basal crowns (110 teeth) or cobalt chromium alloy casting basal crowns (110 teeth) were followed-up for 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months. The revised standard of American Public Health Association was used to evaluate the clinical effect of restoration, including the color of porcelain crowns, gingival inflammation, gingival margin discoloration, and crack or fracture. Data analysis was conducted with SPSS 20 software package for Student's t test and Chi-square test. Six cases were lost to follow-up. The patients who were treated with SLM deposition basal crowns (104 teeth) and cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns (101 teeth) completed the study. Patients were more satisfied with SLM deposition cobalt chromium alloy porcelain crowns. There was 1 prosthesis with poor marginal fit after 24 months of restoration in SLM crowns. There were 6 prostheses with edge coloring and 8 with poor marginal fit in cobalt chromium alloy casting base crowns, which was significantly different between the 2 groups(P<0.05). The SLM deposition copings results in smaller edge coloring and better marginal fit than those of cobalt-chrome copings. Patients are pleased with short-term clinical results.

  9. Prospective clinical split-mouth study of pressed and CAD/CAM all-ceramic partial-coverage restorations: 7-year results.

    PubMed

    Guess, Petra C; Selz, Christian F; Steinhart, Yann-Niclas; Stampf, Susanne; Strub, Joerg R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical split-mouth study was to investigate the longterm performance of pressed and computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) all-ceramic partial-coverage restorations (PCRs). Twentyfive patients were restored with 40 lithium disilicate pressed PCRs (IPS e.max-Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) and 40 leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic CAD/CAM PCRs (ProCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). All restorations were placed in vital first or second molars. The 7-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 100% for pressed PCRs and 97% for CAD/ CAM PCRs. Both systems showed significant deterioration over time in all modified United States Public Health Service criteria. Increased surface roughness and impaired color match were significantly more prevalent with pressed PCRs. Based on the 7-year data, both all-ceramic systems can be considered reliable treatment options for posterior PCRs.

  10. Zirconia crowns - the new standard for single-visit dentistry?

    PubMed

    Wiedhahn, Klaus; Fritzsche, Günter; Wiedhahn, Claudine; Schenk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Zirconia crowns combine the advantages of metal restorations, such as minimally invasive tooth preparation and ease of cementation, with those of full ceramic crowns, such as low thermal conductivity and tooth color. With the introduction of a high-speed sintering procedure, it is possible to produce and cement zirconia crowns and small monolithic bridges in a Cerec Single Visit procedure. This new procedure is compared to established chairside methods.

  11. Characterization of Microsolvated Crown Ethers from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie; Blanco, Susana; Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Since they were first synthetized, crown ethers have been extensively used in organometallic chemistry due to their unparalleled binding selectivity with alkali metal cations. From a structural point of view, crown ethers are heterocycles containing oxygen and/or other heteroatoms, although the most common ones are formed from ethylene oxide unit. Crown ethers are conventionally seen as being hydrophilic inside and hydrophobic outside when the structures found for the metal cation complexes are considered. However, crown ethers are extremely flexible and in isolation may present a variety of stable conformations so that their structure may be easily adapted in presence of a strong ligand as an alkali metal cation minimize the energy of the resulting complex. Water can be considered a soft ligand which interacts with crown ethers through moderate hydrogen bonds. It is thus interesting to investigate which conformers are selected by water to form complexes, the preferred interaction sites and the possible conformational changes due to the presence of one or more water molecules. Previous studies identified microsolvated crown ethers but in all cases with a chromophore group attached to the structure. Here we present a broadband rotational spectroscopy study of microsolvated crown ethers produced in a pulsed molecular jet expansion. Several 1:1 and 1:2 crown ether:water aggregates are presented for 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6. Unambiguous identification of the structures has been achieved using isotopic substitution within the water unit. The subtle changes induced in the structures of the crown ether monomer upon complexation and the hydrogen-bonding network that hold them together will be also discussed. F. Gámez, B. Martínez-Haya, S. Blanco,J. C. López and J. L. Alonso, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2014, 14 12912-12918 V. A. Shubert, C.W. Müller and T. Zwier, J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113 8067-8079

  12. Fatigue Resistance of CAD/CAM Resin Composite Molar Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Shembish, Fatma A.; Tong, Hui; Kaizer, Marina; Janal, Malvin N.; Thompson, Van P.; Opdam, Niek J.; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. Methods Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava Ultimate, n = 24) and leucite reinforced glass-ceramic crowns (IPS Empress CAD, n = 24) were fabricated using CAD/CAM systems. Crowns were cemented on aged dentin-like resin composite tooth replicas (Filtek Z100) with resin-based cements (RelyX Ultimate for Lava Ultimate or Multilink Automix for IPS Empress). Three step-stress profiles (aggressive, moderate and mild) were employed for the accelerated sliding-contact mouth-motion fatigue test. Twenty one crowns from each group were randomly distributed among these three profiles (1:2:4). Failure was designated as chip-off or bulk fracture. Optical and electronic microscopes were used to examine the occlusal surface and subsurface damages, as well as the material microstructures. Results The resin composite crowns showed only minor occlusal damage during mouth-motion step-stress fatigue loading up to 1700 N. Cross-sectional views revealed contact-induced cone cracks in all specimens, and flexural radial cracks in 2 crowns. Both cone and radial cracks were relatively small compared to the crown thickness. Extending these cracks to the threshold for catastrophic failure would require much higher indentation loads or more loading cycles. In contrast, all of the glass-ceramic crowns fractured, starting at loads of approximately 450 N. Significance Monolithic CAD/CAM resin composite crowns endure, with only superficial damage, fatigue loads 3 – 4 times higher than those causing catastrophic failure in glass-ceramic CAD crowns. PMID:26777092

  13. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Shembish, Fatma A; Tong, Hui; Kaizer, Marina; Janal, Malvin N; Thompson, Van P; Opdam, Niek J; Zhang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava Ultimate, n=24) and leucite reinforced glass-ceramic crowns (IPS Empress CAD, n=24) were fabricated using CAD/CAM systems. Crowns were cemented on aged dentin-like resin composite tooth replicas (Filtek Z100) with resin-based cements (RelyX Ultimate for Lava Ultimate or Multilink Automix for IPS Empress). Three step-stress profiles (aggressive, moderate and mild) were employed for the accelerated sliding-contact mouth-motion fatigue test. Twenty one crowns from each group were randomly distributed among these three profiles (1:2:4). Failure was designated as chip-off or bulk fracture. Optical and electron microscopes were used to examine the occlusal surface and subsurface damages, as well as the material microstructures. The resin composite crowns showed only minor occlusal damage during mouth-motion step-stress fatigue loading up to 1700N. Cross-sectional views revealed contact-induced cone cracks in all specimens, and flexural radial cracks in 2 crowns. Both cone and radial cracks were relatively small compared to the crown thickness. Extending these cracks to the threshold for catastrophic failure would require much higher indentation loads or more loading cycles. In contrast, all of the glass-ceramic crowns fractured, starting at loads of approximately 450N. Monolithic CAD/CAM resin composite crowns endure, with only superficial damage, fatigue loads 3-4 times higher than those causing catastrophic failure in glass-ceramic CAD crowns. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative characterization of clumping in Scots pine crowns

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Sievänen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Proper characterization of the clumped structure of forests is needed for calculation of the absorbed radiation and photosynthetic production by a canopy. This study examined the dependency of crown-level clumping on tree size and growth conditions in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and determined the ability of statistical canopy radiation models to quantify the degree of self-shading within crowns as a result of the clumping effect. Methods Twelve 3-D Scots pine trees were generated using an application of the LIGNUM model, and the crown-level clumping as quantified by the crown silhouette to total needle area ratio (STARcrown) was calculated. The results were compared with those produced by the stochastic approach of modelling tree crowns as geometric shapes filled with a random medium. Key Results Crown clumping was independent of tree height, needle area and growth conditions. The results supported the capability of the stochastic approach in characterizing clumping in crowns given that the outer shell of the tree crown is well represented. Conclusions Variation in the whole-stand clumping index is induced by differences in the spatial pattern of trees as a function of, for example, stand age rather than by changes in the degree of self-shading within individual crowns as they grow bigger. PMID:24431344

  15. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in California, Oregon, and Washington

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Sally J. Campbell; Glenn Christensen

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes four tree crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, foliage transparency, and sapling crown vigor) measured in California, Oregon, and Washington between 1996 and 1999....

  16. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the Northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Randall S. Morin; Jim Steinman

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes four crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, foliage transparency, and sapling crown vigor) measured in Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New...

  17. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the North Central United States

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Randall S. Morin; Jim Steinman

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes four crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, foliage transparency, and sapling crown vigor) measured in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin...

  18. Descriptive statistics of tree crown condition in the United States Interior West

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Mike T. Thompson

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program uses visual assessments of tree crown condition to monitor changes and trends in forest health. This report describes four crown condition indicators (crown dieback, crown density, foliage transparency, and sapling crown vigor) measured in Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming between 1996 and...

  19. Correlations between tree crown condition and shade tolerance, crown form, and light availability

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2007-01-01

    Individual tree crown condition is the result of a combination of many factors including genetic traits, growing site characteristics, and past and present external stresses (e.g., drought, insect outbreaks, fire, etc.). Shade tolerance and the extent to which terminal buds control the length and orientation of lateral branches (epinastic control) are the two primary...

  20. Geometric-optical bidirectional reflectance modeling of the discrete crown vegetation canopy - Effect of crown shape and mutual shadowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaowen; Strahler, Alan H.

    1992-01-01

    Many natural vegetation covers can be regarded as assemblages of plant crowns, on a background, which interact with light as discrete objects. On this basis, geometric optics furnish an approach to the modeling of vegetation canopies that captures the most important features of such growths' bidirectional measurements. Attention is presently given to models which approximate these phenomena and relate the size, shape, and count density of plant crowns to viewing and illumination positions and to crown-background reflectance contrasts.

  1. The Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) Natural Genetic Variation Rg1 and the DELLA Mutant Procera Control the Competence Necessary to Form Adventitious Roots and Shoots

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wide use of plant regeneration for biotechnological purposes, the signals that allow cells to become competent to assume different fates remain largely unknown. Here, it is demonstrated that the Regeneration1 (Rg1) allele, a natural genetic variation from the tomato wild relative Solanum peruvianum, increases the capacity to form both roots and shoots in vitro; and that the gibberellin constitutive mutant procera (pro) presented the opposite phenotype, reducing organogenesis on either root-inducing medium (RIM) or shoot-inducing medium (SIM). Mutants showing alterations in the formation of specific organs in vitro were the auxin low-sensitivity diageotropica (dgt), the lateral suppresser (ls), and the KNOX-overexpressing Mouse ears (Me). dgt failed to form roots on RIM, Me increased shoot formation on SIM, and the high capacity for in vitro shoot formation of ls contrasted with its recalcitrance to form axillary meristems. Interestingly, Rg1 rescued the in vitro organ formation capacity in proRg1 and dgtRg1 double mutants and the ex vitro low lateral shoot formation in pro and ls. Such epistatic interactions were also confirmed in gene expression and histological analyses conducted in the single and double mutants. Although Me phenocopied the high shoot formation of Rg1 on SIM, it failed to increase rooting on RIM and to rescue the non-branching phenotype of ls. Taken together, these results suggest REGENERATION1 and the DELLA mutant PROCERA as controlling a common competence to assume distinct cell fates, rather than the specific induction of adventitious roots or shoots, which is controlled by DIAGEOTROPICA and MOUSE EARS, respectively. PMID:22915742

  2. Involvement of NO in the inhibitory effect of Calotropis procera latex protein fractions on leukocyte rolling, adhesion and infiltration in rat peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Márcio V; Oliveira, Jefferson S; Figueiredo, Jozy G; Figueiredo, Ingrid S T; Kumar, Vijay L; Bitencourt, Flávio S; Cunha, F Q; Oliveira, Raquel S B; Bomfim, Liezelotte R; Vitor Lima-Filho, José; Alencar, Nylane M N

    2009-09-25

    The latex of Calotropis procera has been used in the traditional medicinal system for the treatment of leprosy, ulcers, tumors, piles and diseases of liver, spleen, abdomen and toothache. It comprises of a non-dialyzable protein fraction (LP) that exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and a dialyzable fraction (DF) exhibiting pro-inflammatory properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of LP sub-fractions on neutrophil functions and nociception in rodent models and to elucidate the mediatory role of nitric oxide (NO). The LP was subjected to ion exchange chromatography and the effect of its three sub-fractions (LP(PI), LP(PII) and LP(PIII)) thus obtained was evaluated on leukocyte functions in the rat peritonitis model and on nociception in the mouse model. LP sub-fractions exhibit distinct protein profile and produce a significant decrease in the carrageenan and DF induced neutrophil influx and exhibit anti-nociceptive property. The LP and its sub-fractions produced a marked reduction in the number of rolling and adherent leukocytes in the mesenteric microvasculature as revealed by intravital microscopy. The anti-inflammatory effect of LP(PI), the most potent anti-inflammatory fraction of LP, was accompanied by an increase in the serum levels of NO. Further, our study shows that NO is also involved in the inhibitory effect of LP(PI) on neutrophil influx. Our study shows that LP fraction of Calotropis procera comprises of three distinct sets of proteins exhibiting anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of which LP(PI) was most potent in inhibiting neutrophil functions and its effects are mediated through NO production.

  3. Effect of framework design on crown failure.

    PubMed

    Bonfante, Estevam A; da Silva, Nelson R F A; Coelho, Paulo G; Bayardo-González, Daniel E; Thompson, Van P; Bonfante, Gerson

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of core-design modification on the characteristic strength and failure modes of glass-infiltrated alumina (In-Ceram) (ICA) compared with porcelain fused to metal (PFM). Premolar crowns of a standard design (PFMs and ICAs) or with a modified framework design (PFMm and ICAm) were fabricated, cemented on dies, and loaded until failure. The crowns were loaded at 0.5 mm min(-1) using a 6.25 mm tungsten-carbide ball at the central fossa. Fracture load values were recorded and fracture analysis of representative samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Probability Weibull curves with two-sided 90% confidence limits were calculated for each group and a contour plot of the characteristic strength was obtained. Design modification showed an increase in the characteristic strength of the PFMm and ICAm groups, with PFM groups showing higher characteristic strength than ICA groups. The PFMm group showed the highest characteristic strength among all groups. Fracture modes of PFMs and of PFMm frequently reached the core interface at the lingual cusp, whereas ICA exhibited bulk fracture through the alumina core. Core-design modification significantly improved the characteristic strength for PFM and for ICA. The PFM groups demonstrated higher characteristic strength than both ICA groups combined.

  4. Short clinical crowns (SCC) – treatment considerations and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Rahul, G. R.; Poduval, Soorya T.; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-01-01

    When the clinical crowns of teeth are dimensionally inadequate, esthetically and biologically acceptable restoration of these dental units is difficult. Often an acceptable restoration cannot be accomplished without first surgically increasing the length of the existing clinical crowns; therefore, successful management requires an understanding of both the dental and periodontal parameters of treatment. The complications presented by teeth with short clinical crowns demand a comprehensive treatment plan and proper sequencing of therapy to ensure a satisfactory result. Visualization of the desired result is a prerequisite of successful therapy. This review examines the periodontal and restorative factors related to restoring teeth with short clinical crowns. Modes of therapy are usually combined to meet the biologic, restorative, and esthetic requirements imposed by short clinical crowns. In this study various methods for treating short clinical crowns are reviewed, the role that restoration margin location play in the maintenance of periodontal and dental symbiosis and the effects of violation of the supracrestal gingivae by improper full-coverage restorations has also been discussed. Key words:Short clinical crown, surgical crown lengthening, forced eruption, diagnostic wax up, alveoloplasty, gingivectomy. PMID:24558561

  5. Automatic crown cover mapping to improve forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Claude Vidal; Jean-Guy Boureau; Nicolas Robert; Nicolas Py; Josiane Zerubia; Xavier Descombes; Guillaume Perrin

    2009-01-01

    To automatically analyze near infrared aerial photographs, the French National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control developed together with the French National Forest Inventory (NFI) a method for automatic crown cover mapping. This method uses a Reverse Jump Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to locate the crowns and describe those using ellipses or...

  6. Evaluation of wild Juglans species for crown gall resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Paradox, the most widely used rootstock in CA walnut production, is highly susceptible to the causal agent of crown gall (CG) Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The bacterial pathogen induces the formation of large tumors around the crown of the tree resulting in a reduction in both vigor and yield. If left...

  7. Variation in the Use of Crowns and Their Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugars, Daniel A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the use and effectiveness of dental crowns and alternative treatments for posterior teeth, using data from insurance claims. Results show older patients more likely to receive crowns, with higher costs. Regional treatment differences were also found. Data raised questions about consistency of treatment recommendations among…

  8. Variation in the Use of Crowns and Their Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugars, Daniel A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the use and effectiveness of dental crowns and alternative treatments for posterior teeth, using data from insurance claims. Results show older patients more likely to receive crowns, with higher costs. Regional treatment differences were also found. Data raised questions about consistency of treatment recommendations among…

  9. Models for estimation and simulation of crown and canopy cover

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw

    2005-01-01

    Crown width measurements collected during Forest Inventory and Analysis and Forest Health Monitoring surveys are being used to develop individual tree crown width models and plot-level canopy cover models for species and forest types in the Intermountain West. Several model applications are considered in the development process, including remote sensing of plot...

  10. Management of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of subarbeet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia root and crown rot is caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani and is one of the most severe soil-borne diseases of sugarbeet in Minnesota and North Dakota. Rhizoctonia root and crown rot may reduce yield significantly, and diseased beets may cause problems in storage piles. Fields with...

  11. Using stand-level optimization to reduce crown fire hazard

    Treesearch

    David H. Graetz; John Sessions; Steven L. Garman

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability to generate prescriptions for a wide variety of stands when the goal is to reduce crown fire potential. Forest managers charged with reducing crown fire potential while providing for commodity and ecological production have been hampered by the complexity of possible management options. A program called Stand-Level Optimization with...

  12. Estimating canine tooth crown height in early Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ward, Carol V; Paulus, Faydre L

    2009-07-01

    Canine tooth size reduction and the associated reduction in canine dimorphism is a basal hominin character that also provides important evidence for models of behavioral evolution. Two specimens of Australopithecus anamensis (KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283) that do not preserve the canine crown, but do preserve the root or alveolus, appear to suggest that canine size variation and canine dimorphism in this species may have been greater than in other hominins. We evaluate canine root and crown dimensions in a series of extant hominoids, and estimate canine crown height in Australopithecus afarensis and A. anamensis. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to generate estimates of canine crown height from basal canine crown and root dimensions with a moderate degree of accuracy. Estimates of maxillary canine crown size for A. anamensis are slightly larger than those of A. afarensis, and are approximately the same size as canines of modern female chimpanzees. Estimated mandibular canine crown height is very similar in the two species. Variation within the A. anamensis sample of estimated canine crown heights is similar to that of modern humans, suggesting a low degree of sexual dimorphism. Inclusion of estimates for KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283 does not substantially increase either the estimate of overall canine size or variation for A. anamensis.

  13. A local basal area adjustment for crown width prediction

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear crown width regressive equations were developed for 24 species common to the upper Lake States of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Of the species surveyed, 15 produced statistically significant (P 0.05) local basal area effect coefficients showing a reduction in crown...

  14. Short clinical crowns (SCC) - treatment considerations and techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashu; Rahul, G R; Poduval, Soorya T; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-10-01

    When the clinical crowns of teeth are dimensionally inadequate, esthetically and biologically acceptable restoration of these dental units is difficult. Often an acceptable restoration cannot be accomplished without first surgically increasing the length of the existing clinical crowns; therefore, successful management requires an understanding of both the dental and periodontal parameters of treatment. The complications presented by teeth with short clinical crowns demand a comprehensive treatment plan and proper sequencing of therapy to ensure a satisfactory result. Visualization of the desired result is a prerequisite of successful therapy. This review examines the periodontal and restorative factors related to restoring teeth with short clinical crowns. Modes of therapy are usually combined to meet the biologic, restorative, and esthetic requirements imposed by short clinical crowns. In this study various methods for treating short clinical crowns are reviewed, the role that restoration margin location play in the maintenance of periodontal and dental symbiosis and the effects of violation of the supracrestal gingivae by improper full-coverage restorations has also been discussed. Key words:Short clinical crown, surgical crown lengthening, forced eruption, diagnostic wax up, alveoloplasty, gingivectomy.

  15. All-Ceramic Body Flap Qualified for Space Flight on X38

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, H.; Peetz, K.

    2002-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow design of high-temperature resistant, light and robust structures. CMC materials with silicon-carbide matrix reinforced by carbon fibers (C/SiC) show constant strength and damage-tolerant behavior up to very high temperatures. CMC thermal protection systems and hot structures have been developed in Europe over many years. MAN Technologie developed the necessary technologies to create the technological basis for CMC structures for future, more economical and reusable launch vehicles. Within the German space technology program TETRA (Technologies for Future Space Transportation Systems) body flaps were developed for X-38 by MAN Technologie. Key technologies like high strength oxidation protected CMC materials, manufacturing processes for large and complex structures, advanced high temperature lubricant coating combinations for bearings, joining with ceramic fasteners, metal-to-ceramic interfaces as well as dynamic seals are required for hot structures like control surfaces for re-entry vehicles. Because of the high heat and mechanical loads of a lifting body together with the low mass requirements the body flaps for NASA's X-38 re-entry vehicle V-201were selected to demonstrate as a first flight maturity of a large and complex ceramic structure. The flaps are designed as an all-ceramic, load-carrying hot structure, which needs no heavy metallic primary structure and no additional thermal protection tiles and subsequently offers considerable mass and volume savings. The X-38 body flaps are conceived as a revolutionary step forward. The twin flaps, each with the size of 1.6 m x 1.4 m (5.25 ft x 4.6 ft) and the low weight of 68 kg (150 lb) are all made of C/SiC material to operate up to temperatures of 1800 C (3.270 F) in oxidizing atmosphere while they are deflectable under high mechanical loads up to 50 kN (11.260 lbf) at the same time. The flaps are deflected about the hinge axis on two ceramic bearings and moved by an

  16. Marginal adaptation of different types of all-ceramic partial coverage restorations after exposure to an artificial mouth.

    PubMed

    Stappert, C F J; Denner, N; Gerds, T; Strub, J R

    2005-12-24

    To determine the influence of the preparation design and the dimensions of all-ceramic partial coverage restorations (PCR) on the marginal accuracy before and after masticatory simulation. In this in vitro study 80 extracted human maxillary molars were restored with MOD inlay restorations and four different modified PCR restorations using a new press ceramic IPS e.max Press (IPS e.max Press VP 1989). The teeth were divided into five groups of 16 specimens each and prepared as follows: Group A received an MOD inlay preparation and Group B, C, D and E received modified PCR. The restorations were adhesively luted and exposed to a mastication simulator. The discrepancies of the marginal fit were examined on epoxy replicas before and after luting as well as after masticatory simulation at 200x magnification. The mean (geometrical) [95% confidence limits] marginal gap decreased from Group A to E before cementation (A-83[77-90]microm, B-68[65-70]microm, C-59[55-64]microm, D-56[52-61]microm, E-50[45-55]microm). Group A had significantly higher marginal gap values than group B (p = 0.017) and the other groups (p<0.0001). After cementation the marginal accuracy was recorded as following: A-103[93-114]microm, B-101[94-108]microm, C-93[89-98]microm, D-102[98-105]microm and E-99[96-102]microm. Cementation increased the marginal gap in groups B-E significantly (p<0.00001), not significantly in group A (p = 0.059). Artificial ageing (A-116[106-127]microm, B-114[109-120]microm, C-106[103-110]microm, D-109[100-118]microm and E-109[105-112]microm) led to further significant decrease of marginal accuracy in Group B (p = 0.029) and C (p = 0.026) only. After cementation and masticatory simulation of the ceramic restorations, the marginal gap values of Groups A, B, C, D and E did not significantly differ from each other (p = 1.00). The result of this in vitro study showed that IPS e.max Press can be used to fabricate all-ceramic inlays and PCR which meet the requirements in terms of a

  17. Effect of two connector designs on the fracture resistance of all-ceramic core materials for fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Plengsombut, Kwansiri; Brewer, Jane D; Monaco, Edward A; Davis, Elaine L

    2009-03-01

    Most all-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fail at the connectors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 connector designs on the fracture resistance of core materials used for all-ceramic FDPs. Three materials were tested: (1) heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max Press (Press)), (2) milled lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max CAD (CAD)), and (3) milled yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) (IPS e.max ZirCAD (ZirCAD)). Specimens were made into 30 x 4 x 4-mm bars to represent 3-unit FDPs. Two connector designs, round (0.60 +/-0.01-mm radius of curvature) and sharp (0.06 +/-0.001-mm radius of curvature), with a 3.00 +/-0.05-mm cross-section for each connector, were studied (n=5). Each specimen was loaded to fracture in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.1 mm/min. Data were analyzed with a 2-way univariate ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (alpha=.05). Mean (SD) failure loads for round connector designs were 684.2 (70.1) N for ZirCAD, 260 (7.8) N for CAD, and 172.9 (35.5) N for Press. Mean (SD) failure loads for sharp connector designs were 386.3 (51.5) N for ZirCAD, 87.9 (7.0) N for CAD, and 125.1 (15.1) N for Press. The 2-way univariate ANOVA indicated statistically significant differences (P<.005) for material and connector design, and, also, a significant interaction between material and connector design. Higher maximum failure loads were found for the round connector design when compared to the sharp connector design, for ZirCAD and CAD. However, this difference was not statistically significant for the Press groups. SEM subjective assessment of the fractured specimens revealed that the fracture initiated from the gingival surface (tensile) of the connector toward the pontic (central loading point). Fracture resistance of ceramic core materials is affected by fabrication technique and connector design. Connector design affected fracture resistance of the milled ceramic, but not

  18. Influence of sodalite zeolite infiltration on the coefficient of thermal expansion and bond strength of all-ceramic dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Naji, Ghassan Abdul-Hamid; Omar, Ros Anita; Yahya, Rosiyah

    2017-03-01

    In all-ceramic systems, a high incidence of veneer chip-off has been reported in clinical studies. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) behaviour is one of the factors that may increase residual stress in the interface and influence the veneer/core bond strength. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of sodalite zeolite-infiltration on the CTE behaviour and bond strength of different all-ceramic prostheses. The case-study groups were synthesized sodalite zeolite-infiltrated alumina (IA-SOD) and synthesized sodalite zeolite-infiltrated zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) (IZ-SOD), while the control groups were glass-infiltrated alumina (IA-glass) and glass-infiltrated ZTA (IZ-glass). Forty cylindrical-shaped samples measuring 5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in height were tested for CTE using a thermo-mechanical analyser machine, and forty disc-shaped ceramic samples measuring 12 mm in diameter and 1.2 ± 0.2 mm in thickness were prepared using specially designed stainless steel split mould and veneered by cylinder-shaped (2 mm high × 2 mm diameter) low-fusing porcelain (Vita VM7). The veneer/core samples were sintered and tested for shear bond strength using a high precision universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscope, stereo microscope, atomic force microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to investigate the structural characteristics of samples at the fracture surface. The collected data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). IZ-SOD revealed highest CTE and shear bond strength values, while the IA-glass revealed the lowest values than the other groups. There was no significant difference in CTE and bond strength among IZ-SOD, IA-SOD and IZ-glass samples (p>0.05). The experimental SOD zeolite-infiltrated samples revealed higher CTE mismatch and bond strength along with a more favourable mode of failure than did the commercial glass-infiltrated samples. Sandblast technique is considered as effective

  19. Crown characteristics of several coniferous tree species: relations between weight of crown, branchwood and foliage and stem diameter

    Treesearch

    Theodore G Storey; Wallace L. Fons; F.M. Sauer

    1955-01-01

    Prediction of wind breakage and uprooting in tree stands requires information on weight of dry crown, branchwood, and foliage. This information has not been published. An experimental program started in 1951 has led to a number of generalized relations by which these crown characteristics can be determined with good accuracy over a wide range of tree diameters, species...

  20. Design maps for failure of all-ceramic layer structures in concentrated cyclic loading

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Sanjit; Meléndez-Martínez, Juan José; Zhang, Yu; Lawn, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    A study is made of the competition between failure modes in ceramic-based bilayer structures joined to polymer-based substrates, in simulation of dental crown-like structures with a functional but weak “veneer” layer bonded onto a strong “core” layer. Cyclic contact fatigue tests are conducted in water on model flat systems consisting of glass plates joined to glass, sapphire, alumina or zirconia support layers glued onto polycarbonate bases. Critical numbers of cycles to take each crack mode to failure are plotted as a function of peak contact load on failure maps showing regions in which each fracture mode dominates. In low-cycle conditions, radial and outer cone cracks are competitive in specimens with alumina cores, and outer cone cracks prevail in specimens with zirconia cores; in high-cycle conditions, inner cone cracks prevail in all cases. The roles of other factors, e.g. substrate modulus, layer thickness, indenter radius and residual stresses from specimen preparation, are briefly considered. PMID:19562095

  1. Earliest known crown-group salamanders.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H

    2003-03-27

    Salamanders are a model system for studying the rates and patterns of the evolution of new anatomical structures. Recent discoveries of abundant Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous salamanders are helping to address these issues. Here we report the discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamanders from China, which constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest relatives). The new specimens are from the volcanic deposits of the Jiulongshan Formation (Bathonian), Inner Mongolia, China, and represent basal members of the Cryptobranchidae, a family that includes the endangered Asian giant salamander (Andrias) and the North American hellbender (Cryptobranchus). These fossils document a Mesozoic record of the Cryptobranchidae, predating the previous record of the group by some 100 million years. This discovery provides evidence to support the hypothesis that the divergence of the Cryptobranchidae from the Hynobiidae had taken place in Asia before the Middle Jurassic period.

  2. Clinical outcome of double crown-retained implant overdentures with zirconia primary crowns

    PubMed Central

    Buergers, Ralf; Ziebolz, Dirk; Roediger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE This retrospective study aims at the evaluation of implant-supported overdentures (IODs) supported by ceramo-galvanic double crowns (CGDCs: zirconia primary crowns + galvano-formed secondary crown). MATERIALS AND METHODS In a private practice, 14 patients were restored with 18 IODs (mandible: 11, maxilla: 7) retained by CGDCs on 4 - 8 implants and annually evaluated for technical and/or biological failures/complications. RESULTS One of the 86 inserted implants failed during the healing period (cumulative survival rate (CSR) implants: 98.8%). During the prosthetic functional period (mean: 5.9 ± 2.2 years), 1 implant demonstrated an abutment fracture (CSR-abutments: 98.2%), and one case of peri-implantitis was detected. All IODs remained in function (CSR-denture: 100%). A total of 15 technical complications required interventions to maintain function (technical complication rate: 0.178 treatments/patients/year). CONCLUSION Considering the small sample size, the use of CGDCs for the attachment of IODs is possible without an increased risk of technical complications. However, for a final evaluation, results from a larger cohort are required. PMID:26330981

  3. Fracture strength of lithium disilicate crowns compared to polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network and zirconia reinforced lithium silicate crowns.

    PubMed

    Sieper, Kim; Wille, Sebastian; Kern, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture strength of crowns made from current CAD/CAM materials. In addition the influence of crown thickness and chewing simulation on the fracture strength was evaluated. Crowns were fabricated from lithium disilicate, zirconia reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS-ceramic) and a polymer-infiltrated ceramic-network (PICN) with an occlusal thickness of 1.0mm or 1.5mm, respectively (n=16). Crowns were cemented on composite dies. Subgroups of eight specimens were loaded with 5kg in a chewing simulator for 1,200,000 cycles with thermal cycling. Finally, all specimens were loaded until fracture in a universal testing machine. Three-way ANOVA was used to detect statistical interaction. Differences regarding the materials were tested with two-way ANOVA, following one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey's-Test. All crowns survived the chewing simulation. The material had a significant influence on the fracture resistance (p≤0.05). Lithium disilicate achieved the highest values of fracture strength in almost all groups followed by ZLS-ceramic. PICN achieved the lowest values of fracture strength. Chewing simulation increased the fracture strength of thick lithium disilicate crown significantly. Greater occlusal thickness of all crown materials resulted in higher crown fracture strength before chewing simulation. After chewing simulation occlusal thickness of lithium disilicate and PICN crowns had no significant influence on the fracture strength. All crowns revealed fracture strength above the clinically expected loading forces. Therefore the durability of the tested CAD/CAM materials seems promising also in an occlusal thickness of 1.0mm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Restoration of composite on etched stainless steel crowns. (1)].

    PubMed

    Goto, G; Zang, Y; Hosoya, Y

    1990-01-01

    Object of investigation The retention of composite resin to etched stainless steel crowns was tested as a possible method for restoring primary anterior teeth. Method employed 1) SEM observation Stainless steel crowns (Sankin Manufacture Co.) were etched with an aqua resia to create surface roughness and undercut to retain the composite resin to the crowns. Etching times were 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 20 minutes, then washed in a 70% alcohol solution using an ultrasonic washer and dried. A total of 96 etched samples and non etched control samples were observed through the scanning electron microscope (Hitachi 520). 2) Shear bond strength test Stainless steel crowns were etched in an aqua resia from 1 to 20 minutes, then washed and dried. Composite resin (Photo Clearfil A, Kuraray Co.) with the bonding agent was placed on the crowns and the shear bond strength was tested in 56 samples using an Autograph (DCS-500, Shimazu). Results 1) SEM observation showed that the etching surface of stainless steel crowns created surface roughness and undercut. The most desirable surface was obtained in the 3 to 5 minute etching time specimens. 2) The highest bond strength was obtained in a 3 minute etching specimen. It was 42.12 MPa, although 29.26 MPa in mean value. Conclusion Etching with an aqua resia increased the adherence of composite resin to the surface of stainless steel crowns.

  5. Load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic posterior four-unit fixed partial dentures with different zirconia frameworks.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Philipp; Herzog, Timo J; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch-Scholz, Meike

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the load-bearing capacity of posterior four-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs) produced with two different yttria-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramics, one being a presintered material, the other a fully sintered, hot isostatically pressed material. Additionally, as a novel approach, the influence of preliminary mechanical damage upon the fracture force of an FPD has been investigated. A total of 20 frameworks each were milled from presintered zirconia and from fully sintered zirconia. Prior to veneering, 10 frameworks of each material were 'damaged' by a defined saw cut similar to an accidental flaw generated during shape cutting. Before fracture testing, all FPDs were subjected to thermal and mechanical cycling. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate fracture surfaces. Statistical analysis showed that FPDs milled from fully sintered zirconia had a significantly higher fracture resistance compared with specimens made from presintered material, whereas preliminary damage did not have a significant effect. After aging, FPDs made from both materials were capable of withstanding occlusal forces reported in the literature. Therefore, both types of Y-TZP may be suitable for posterior four-unit all-ceramic FPDs, although further prolonged aging experiments and prospective clinical trials are required to prove their fitness for clinical use.

  6. Advancements in all-ceramics for dental restorations and their effect on the wear of opposing dentition.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Haroon; Sheikh, Zeeshan; Misbahuddin, Syed; Kazmi, Murtaza Raza; Qureshi, Sameer; Uddin, Muhammad Zuhaib

    2016-01-01

    Tooth wear is a process that is usually a result of