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Sample records for process commonly referred

  1. The positive side of a negative reference: the delay between linguistic processing and common ground

    PubMed Central

    Noveck, Ira; Rivera, Natalia; Jaume-Guazzini, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Interlocutors converge on names to refer to entities. For example, a speaker might refer to a novel looking object as the jellyfish and, once identified, the listener will too. The hypothesized mechanism behind such referential precedents is a subject of debate. The common ground view claims that listeners register the object as well as the identity of the speaker who coined the label. The linguistic view claims that, once established, precedents are treated by listeners like any other linguistic unit, i.e. without needing to keep track of the speaker. To test predictions from each account, we used visual-world eyetracking, which allows observations in real time, during a standard referential communication task. Participants had to select objects based on instructions from two speakers. In the critical condition, listeners sought an object with a negative reference such as not the jellyfish. We aimed to determine the extent to which listeners rely on the linguistic input, common ground or both. We found that initial interpretations were based on linguistic processing only and that common ground considerations do emerge but only after 1000 ms. Our findings support the idea that—at least temporally—linguistic processing can be isolated from common ground. PMID:28386440

  2. Review of the Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Processes Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summarizes the review and deliberations of the Risk Assessment Forum’s RfD/RfC Technical Panel and its recommendations for improvements in oral referencedose/inhalation reference concentration (RfD/RfC) process.

  3. Multiple reference frames in haptic spatial processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volčič, R.

    2008-08-01

    The present thesis focused on haptic spatial processing. In particular, our interest was directed to the perception of spatial relations with the main focus on the perception of orientation. To this end, we studied haptic perception in different tasks, either in isolation or in combination with vision. The parallelity task, where participants have to match the orientations of two spatially separated bars, was used in its two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, respectively. The influence of non-informative vision and visual interference on performance in the parallelity task was studied in Chapter 4. A different task, the mental rotation task, was introduced in a purely haptic study in Chapter 5 and in a visuo-haptic cross-modal study in Chapter 6. The interaction of multiple reference frames and their influence on haptic spatial processing were the common denominators of these studies. In this thesis we approached the problems of which reference frames play the major role in haptic spatial processing and how the relative roles of distinct reference frames change depending on the available information and the constraints imposed by different tasks. We found that the influence of a reference frame centered on the hand was the major cause of the deviations from veridicality observed in both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional studies. The results were described by a weighted average model, in which the hand-centered egocentric reference frame is supposed to have a biasing influence on the allocentric reference frame. Performance in haptic spatial processing has been shown to depend also on sources of information or processing that are not strictly connected to the task at hand. When non-informative vision was provided, a beneficial effect was observed in the haptic performance. This improvement was interpreted as a shift from the egocentric to the allocentric reference frame. Moreover, interfering visual information presented

  4. Hand controller commonality evaluation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1990-01-01

    A hand controller evaluation process has been developed to determine the appropriate hand controller configurations for supporting remotely controlled devices. These devices include remote manipulator systems (RMS), dexterous robots, and remotely-piloted free flyers. Standard interfaces were developed to evaluate six different hand controllers in three test facilities including dynamic computer simulations, kinematic computer simulations, and physical simulations. The hand controllers under consideration were six degree-of-freedom (DOF) position and rate minimaster and joystick controllers, and three-DOF rate controllers. Task performance data, subjective comments, and anthropometric data obtained during tests were used for controller configuration recommendations to the SSF Program.

  5. Interdisciplinary Common Ground: Techniques and Attentional Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidson, P. Sven

    2014-01-01

    Common ground in the interdisciplinary research process is the pivot from disciplinary to interdisciplinary perspective. As thinking moves from disciplinary to interdisciplinary, what is the shape or structure of attention, how does intellectual content transform in the attending process? Four common ground techniques--extension, redefinition,…

  6. Aligning ESP Courses with the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiou, Androulla; Constantinou, Elis Kakoulli; Neophytou, Maro; Nicolaou, Anna; Papadima Sophocleous, Salomi; Yerou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article explains how the "Common European Framework of References for Languages" (CEFR; Council of Europe 2001, "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) has been applied in language courses at the Language Centre (LC) of the Cyprus…

  7. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a <span class="hlt">common</span> building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are <span class="hlt">commonly</span> found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment <span class="hlt">process</span> and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27799298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27799298"><span>Uptake of recommended <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for chemical pathology in Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, Graham Rd; Koetsier, Sabrina</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Reference</span> intervals are a vital part of reporting numerical pathology results. It is known, however, that variation in <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals between laboratories is <span class="hlt">common</span>, even when analytical methods support <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals. In response to this, in Australia, the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists together with the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia published in 2014 a set of recommended <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for 11 <span class="hlt">common</span> serum analytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, creatinine male, creatinine female, calcium, calcium adjusted for albumin, phosphate, magnesium, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and total protein). Methods Uptake of recommended <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals in Australian laboratories was assessed using data from four annual cycles of the RCPAQAP <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals external quality assurance programme. Results Over three years, from 2013 to 2016, the use of the recommended upper and lower <span class="hlt">reference</span> limits has increased from 40% to 83%. Nearly half of the intervals in use by enrolled laboratories in 2016 have been changed in this time period, indicating an active response to the guidelines. Conclusions These data support the activities of the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists and Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia in demonstrating a change in laboratory behaviour to reduce unnecessary variation in <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals and thus provide a consistent message to doctor and patients irrespective of the laboratory used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23633469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23633469"><span>Protocol and standard operating procedures for <span class="hlt">common</span> use in a worldwide multicenter study on <span class="hlt">reference</span> values.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ozarda, Yesim; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Barth, Julian H; Klee, George</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals (RIs) given in laboratory reports have an important role in aiding clinicians in interpreting test results in <span class="hlt">reference</span> to values of healthy populations. In this report, we present a proposed protocol and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for <span class="hlt">common</span> use in conducting multicenter RI studies on a national or international scale. The protocols and consensus on their contents were refined through discussions in recent C-RIDL meetings. The protocol describes in detail (1) the scheme and organization of the study, (2) the target population, inclusion/exclusion criteria, ethnicity, and sample size, (3) health status questionnaire, (4) target analytes, (5) blood collection, (6) sample <span class="hlt">processing</span> and storage, (7) assays, (8) cross-check testing, (9) ethics, (10) data analyses, and (11) reporting of results. In addition, the protocol proposes the <span class="hlt">common</span> measurement of a panel of sera when no standard materials exist for harmonization of test results. It also describes the requirements of the central laboratory, including the method of cross-check testing between the central laboratory of each country and local laboratories. This protocol and the SOPs remain largely exploratory and may require a reevaluation from the practical point of view after their implementation in the ongoing worldwide study. The paper is mainly intended to be a basis for discussion in the scientific community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782874','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782874"><span>Nationwide Multicenter <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Interval Study for 28 <span class="hlt">Common</span> Biochemical Analytes in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xia, Liangyu; Chen, Ming; Liu, Min; Tao, Zhihua; Li, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Cheng, Xinqi; Qin, Xuzhen; Han, Jianhua; Li, Pengchang; Hou, Li’an; Yu, Songlin; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Qiu, Ling</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract A nationwide multicenter study was conducted in the China to explore sources of variation of <span class="hlt">reference</span> values and establish <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for 28 <span class="hlt">common</span> biochemical analytes, as a part of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Committee on <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Intervals and Decision Limits (IFCC/C-RIDL) global study on <span class="hlt">reference</span> values. A total of 3148 apparently healthy volunteers were recruited in 6 cities covering a wide area in China. Blood samples were tested in 2 central laboratories using Beckman Coulter AU5800 chemistry analyzers. Certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and value-assigned serum panel were used for standardization of test results. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore sources of variation. Need for partition of <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals was evaluated based on 3-level nested ANOVA. After secondary exclusion using the latent abnormal values exclusion method, <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals were derived by a parametric method using the modified Box–Cox formula. Test results of 20 analytes were made traceable to <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedures. By the ANOVA, significant sex-related and age-related differences were observed in 12 and 12 analytes, respectively. A small regional difference was observed in the results for albumin, glucose, and sodium. Multiple regression analysis revealed BMI-related changes in results of 9 analytes for man and 6 for woman. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> intervals of 28 analytes were computed with 17 analytes partitioned by sex and/or age. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals of 28 <span class="hlt">common</span> chemistry analytes applicable to Chinese Han population were established by use of the latest methodology. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> intervals of 20 analytes traceable to <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedures can be used as <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals, whereas others can be used as the assay system-specific <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals in China. PMID:26945390</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26945390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26945390"><span>Nationwide Multicenter <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Interval Study for 28 <span class="hlt">Common</span> Biochemical Analytes in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xia, Liangyu; Chen, Ming; Liu, Min; Tao, Zhihua; Li, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Cheng, Xinqi; Qin, Xuzhen; Han, Jianhua; Li, Pengchang; Hou, Li'an; Yu, Songlin; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Qiu, Ling</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A nationwide multicenter study was conducted in the China to explore sources of variation of <span class="hlt">reference</span> values and establish <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for 28 <span class="hlt">common</span> biochemical analytes, as a part of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Committee on <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Intervals and Decision Limits (IFCC/C-RIDL) global study on <span class="hlt">reference</span> values. A total of 3148 apparently healthy volunteers were recruited in 6 cities covering a wide area in China. Blood samples were tested in 2 central laboratories using Beckman Coulter AU5800 chemistry analyzers. Certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and value-assigned serum panel were used for standardization of test results. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore sources of variation. Need for partition of <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals was evaluated based on 3-level nested ANOVA. After secondary exclusion using the latent abnormal values exclusion method, <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals were derived by a parametric method using the modified Box-Cox formula. Test results of 20 analytes were made traceable to <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedures. By the ANOVA, significant sex-related and age-related differences were observed in 12 and 12 analytes, respectively. A small regional difference was observed in the results for albumin, glucose, and sodium. Multiple regression analysis revealed BMI-related changes in results of 9 analytes for man and 6 for woman. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> intervals of 28 analytes were computed with 17 analytes partitioned by sex and/or age. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals of 28 <span class="hlt">common</span> chemistry analytes applicable to Chinese Han population were established by use of the latest methodology. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> intervals of 20 analytes traceable to <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement procedures can be used as <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals, whereas others can be used as the assay system-specific <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=levels+AND+language&pg=3&id=EJ1144980','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=levels+AND+language&pg=3&id=EJ1144980"><span>Empirical Learner Language and the Levels of the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wisniewski, Katrin</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>" (CEFR) is the most widespread <span class="hlt">reference</span> tool for linking language tests, curricula, and national educational standards to levels of foreign language proficiency in Europe. In spite of this, little is known about how the CEFR levels (A1-C2) relate to empirical learner language(s). This article…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21058183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21058183"><span>Peer education in the <span class="hlt">commons</span>: a new approach to <span class="hlt">reference</span> services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Neal, Ruth E; Ajamie, Lauren F; Harmon, Karen D; Kellerby, Carissa D; Schweikhard, April J</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>In planning for a new library construction project for the University of Oklahoma-Tulsa, graduate students enrolled in the University of Oklahoma (OU) School of Library and Information Studies collaborated in an innovative effort to develop a <span class="hlt">commons</span>-based <span class="hlt">reference</span> service. By first considering a philosophical approach to the need for a <span class="hlt">commons</span>, blending in the experiences of other libraries that have created similar spaces, and focusing on the workflow issues likely to be encountered by the graduate assistants staffing the <span class="hlt">commons</span> itself, this planning team developed an uncommon peer-to-peer approach to <span class="hlt">reference</span> and education services, one focused on the patron as student.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27683403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27683403"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Intervals of <span class="hlt">Common</span> Clinical Chemistry Analytes for Adults in Hong Kong.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lo, Y C; Armbruster, David A</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Defining <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals is a major challenge because of the difficulty in recruiting volunteers to participate and testing samples from a significant number of healthy <span class="hlt">reference</span> individuals. Historical literature citation intervals are often suboptimal because they're be based on obsolete methods and/or only a small number of poorly defined <span class="hlt">reference</span> samples. Blood donors in Hong Kong gave permission for additional blood to be collected for <span class="hlt">reference</span> interval testing. The samples were tested for twenty-five routine analytes on the Abbott ARCHITECT clinical chemistry system. Results were analyzed using the Rhoads EP evaluator software program, which is based on the CLSI/IFCC C28-A guideline, and defines the <span class="hlt">reference</span> interval as the 95% central range. Method specific <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals were established for twenty-five <span class="hlt">common</span> clinical chemistry analytes for a Chinese ethnic population. The intervals were defined for each gender separately and for genders combined. Gender specific or combined gender intervals were adapted as appropriate for each analyte. A large number of healthy, apparently normal blood donors from a local ethnic population were tested to provide current <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for a new clinical chemistry system. Intervals were determined following an accepted international guideline. Laboratories using the same or similar methodologies may adapt these intervals if deemed validated and deemed suitable for their patient population. Laboratories using different methodologies may be able to successfully adapt the intervals for their facilities using the <span class="hlt">reference</span> interval transference technique based on a method comparison study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1141611.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1141611.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR) in Canada: A Research Agenda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Arnott, Stephanie; Brogden, Lace Marie; Faez, Farahnaz; Péguret, Muriel; Piccardo, Enrica; Rehner, Katherine; Taylor, Shelley K.; Wernicke, Meike</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This article proposes a research agenda for future inquiry into the use of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR) in the plurilingual Canadian context. Drawing on data collected from a research forum hosted by the Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers in 2014, as well as a detailed analysis of Canadian empirical studies and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=local+AND+linear&pg=7&id=EJ858310','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=local+AND+linear&pg=7&id=EJ858310"><span>Connecting Online Learners with Diverse Local Practices: The Design of Effective <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Points for Conversation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Friend Wise, Alyssa; Padmanabhan, Poornima; Duffy, Thomas M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This mixed-methods study probed the effectiveness of three kinds of objects (video, theory, metaphor) as <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> points for conversations between online learners (student teachers). Individuals' degree of detail-focus was examined as a potentially interacting covariate and the outcome measure was learners' level of tacit knowledge related…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+management&pg=6&id=EJ838859','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+management&pg=6&id=EJ838859"><span>Language Educational Policy and Language Learning Quality Management: The "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barenfanger, Olaf; Tschirner, Erwin</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The major goal of the Council of Europe to promote and facilitate communication and interaction among Europeans of different mother tongues has led to the development of the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment" (CEFR). Among other things, the CEFR is intended to help language…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17924850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17924850"><span>Standardization of gamma-glutamyltransferase assays by intermethod calibration. Effect on determining <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinmetz, Josiane; Schiele, Françoise; Gueguen, René; Férard, Georges; Henny, Joseph</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The improvement of the consistency of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity results among different assays after calibration with a <span class="hlt">common</span> material was estimated. We evaluated if this harmonization could lead to <span class="hlt">reference</span> limits <span class="hlt">common</span> to different routine methods. Seven laboratories measured GGT activity using their own routine analytical system both according to the manufacturer's recommendation and after calibration with a multi-enzyme calibrator [value assigned by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) <span class="hlt">reference</span> procedure]. All samples were re-measured using the IFCC <span class="hlt">reference</span> procedure. Two groups of subjects were selected in each laboratory: a group of healthy men aged 18-25 years without long-term medication and with alcohol consumption less than 44 g/day and a group of subjects with elevated GGT activity. The day-to-day coefficients of variation were less than 2.9% in each laboratory. The means obtained in the group of healthy subjects without <span class="hlt">common</span> calibration (range of the means 16-23 U/L) were significantly different from those obtained by the IFCC procedure in five laboratories. After calibration, the means remained significantly different from the IFCC procedure results in only one laboratory. For three calibrated methods, the slope values of linear regression vs. the IFCC procedure were not different from the value 1. The results obtained with these three methods for healthy subjects (n=117) were gathered and <span class="hlt">reference</span> limits were calculated. These were 11-49 U/L (2.5th-97.5th percentiles). The calibration also improved the consistency of elevated results when compared to the IFCC procedure. The <span class="hlt">common</span> calibration improved the level of consistency between different routine methods. It permitted to define <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> limits which are quite similar to those proposed by the IFCC. This approach should lead to a real benefit in terms of prevention, screening, diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring and for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=poppers&pg=4&id=EJ317184','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=poppers&pg=4&id=EJ317184"><span>The <span class="hlt">Reference</span> <span class="hlt">Process</span> and the Philosophy of Karl Popper.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Neill, S. D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Two aspects of Karl Popper's philosophy are applied to <span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">process</span>: <span class="hlt">process</span> is viewed as series of problem-solving situations amenable to analysis using Popper's problem-solving schema. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> interview is analyzed in context of Popper's postulate that books contain autonomous world of ideas existing apart from mind of knower. (30…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28943480','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28943480"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> lines modeling for <span class="hlt">reference</span> free Ab-initio reconstruction in cryo-EM.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenberg, Ido; Shkolnisky, Yoel</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>We consider the problem of estimating an unbiased and <span class="hlt">reference</span>-free ab initio model for non-symmetric molecules from images generated by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The proposed algorithm finds the globally optimal assignment of orientations that simultaneously respects all <span class="hlt">common</span> lines between all images. The contribution of each <span class="hlt">common</span> line to the estimated orientations is weighted according to a statistical model for <span class="hlt">common</span> lines' detection errors. The key property of the proposed algorithm is that it finds the global optimum for the orientations given the <span class="hlt">common</span> lines. In particular, any local optima in the <span class="hlt">common</span> lines energy landscape do not affect the proposed algorithm. As a result, it is applicable to thousands of images at once, very robust to noise, completely <span class="hlt">reference</span> free, and not biased towards any initial model. A byproduct of the algorithm is a set of measures that allow to asses the reliability of the obtained ab initio model. We demonstrate the algorithm using class averages from two experimental data sets, resulting in ab initio models with resolutions of 20Å or better, even from class averages consisting of as few as three raw images per class. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4804256','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4804256"><span>Standardization in laboratory medicine: Adoption of <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals to the Croatian population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Flegar-Meštrić, Zlata; Perkov, Sonja; Radeljak, Andrea</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Considering the fact that the results of laboratory tests provide useful information about the state of health of patients, determination of <span class="hlt">reference</span> value is considered an intrinsic part in the development of laboratory medicine. There are still huge differences in the analytical methods used as well as in the associated <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals which could consequently significantly affect the proper assessment of patient health. In a constant effort to increase the quality of patients’ care, there are numerous international initiatives for standardization and/or harmonization of laboratory diagnostics in order to achieve maximum comparability of laboratory test results and improve patient safety. Through the standardization and harmonization <span class="hlt">processes</span> of analytical methods the ability to create unique <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals is achieved. Such <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals could be applied globally in all laboratories using methods traceable to the same <span class="hlt">reference</span> measuring system and analysing the biological samples from the populations with similar socio-demographic and ethnic characteristics. In this review we outlined the results of the harmonization <span class="hlt">processes</span> in Croatia in the field of population based <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for clinically relevant blood and serum constituents which are in accordance with ongoing activity for worldwide standardization and harmonization based on traceability in laboratory medicine. PMID:27019800</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27019800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27019800"><span>Standardization in laboratory medicine: Adoption of <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals to the Croatian population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Flegar-Meštrić, Zlata; Perkov, Sonja; Radeljak, Andrea</p> <p>2016-03-26</p> <p>Considering the fact that the results of laboratory tests provide useful information about the state of health of patients, determination of <span class="hlt">reference</span> value is considered an intrinsic part in the development of laboratory medicine. There are still huge differences in the analytical methods used as well as in the associated <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals which could consequently significantly affect the proper assessment of patient health. In a constant effort to increase the quality of patients' care, there are numerous international initiatives for standardization and/or harmonization of laboratory diagnostics in order to achieve maximum comparability of laboratory test results and improve patient safety. Through the standardization and harmonization <span class="hlt">processes</span> of analytical methods the ability to create unique <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals is achieved. Such <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals could be applied globally in all laboratories using methods traceable to the same <span class="hlt">reference</span> measuring system and analysing the biological samples from the populations with similar socio-demographic and ethnic characteristics. In this review we outlined the results of the harmonization <span class="hlt">processes</span> in Croatia in the field of population based <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for clinically relevant blood and serum constituents which are in accordance with ongoing activity for worldwide standardization and harmonization based on traceability in laboratory medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6996036-isle-image-signal-processing-lisp-environment-reference-manual','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6996036-isle-image-signal-processing-lisp-environment-reference-manual"><span>ISLE (Image and Signal <span class="hlt">Processing</span> LISP Environment) <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sherwood, R.J.; Searfus, R.M.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>ISLE is a rapid prototyping system for performing image and signal <span class="hlt">processing</span>. It is designed to meet the needs of a person doing development of image and signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> algorithms in a research environment. The image and signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> modules in ISLE form a very capable package in themselves. They also provide a rich environment for quickly and easily integrating user-written software modules into the package. ISLE is well suited to applications in which there is a need to develop a <span class="hlt">processing</span> algorithm in an interactive manner. It is straightforward to develop the algorithms, load it into ISLE, apply themore » algorithm to an image or signal, display the results, then modify the algorithm and repeat the develop-load-apply-display cycle. ISLE consists of a collection of image and signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> modules integrated into a cohesive package through a standard command interpreter. ISLE developer elected to concentrate their effort on developing image and signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> software rather than developing a command interpreter. A <span class="hlt">COMMON</span> LISP interpreter was selected for the command interpreter because it already has the features desired in a command interpreter, it supports dynamic loading of modules for customization purposes, it supports run-time parameter and argument type checking, it is very well documented, and it is a commercially supported product. This manual is intended to be a <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual for the ISLE functions The functions are grouped into a number of categories and briefly discussed in the Function Summary chapter. The full descriptions of the functions and all their arguments are given in the Function Descriptions chapter. 6 refs.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27993877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27993877"><span>Specific Immunoglobulin (Ig) G <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Intervals for <span class="hlt">Common</span> Food, Insect, and Mold Allergens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martins, Thomas B; Bandhauer, Michael E; Wilcock, Diane M; Hill, Harry R; Slev, Patricia R</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The clinical utility of serum IgG measurement in the diagnosis of allergy and food-induced hypersensitivity has been largely discredited. Recent studies, however, have shown that specific IgG can inhibit IgE mediated allergies, and may play a role in allergen specific desensitization. Accurate <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for IgG specific allergens have not been widely established and are needed for better interpretation of serum antibody concentrations. In this study we established 64 IgG <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for 48 <span class="hlt">common</span> food allergens, 5 venoms, and 11 molds. Specific IgG concentrations were determined employing an automated fluorescent enzyme immunoassay on serum samples from 130 normal adults (65 males and 65 females), age range 18-69 y, mean 37.3 y. The lower <span class="hlt">reference</span> interval limit for all allergens tested (n=64) was <2 mcg/mL. The median upper <span class="hlt">reference</span> interval value for all 64 allergens was 12.9 mcg/mL, with Tuna (f40) having the lowest upper interval limit at 3.8 mcg/mL, and the mold Setomelanomma rostrate (m8) demonstrating the highest upper interval limit at 131 mcg/L. The considerable variation observed among the upper <span class="hlt">reference</span> interval limits emphasizes the need for the establishment of allergen specific ranges for IgG. These newly established ranges should be a useful aid for clinicians in the interpretation of laboratory serum IgG results. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1986.7009T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1986.7009T"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Workflow Service: Standards Based Solution for Managing Operational <span class="hlt">Processes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tinio, A. W.; Hollins, G. A.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Workflow Service is a collaborative and standards-based solution for managing mission operations <span class="hlt">processes</span> using techniques from the Business <span class="hlt">Process</span> Management (BPM) discipline. This presentation describes the CWS and its benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27797165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27797165"><span>Memory and <span class="hlt">Common</span> Ground <span class="hlt">Processes</span> in Language Use.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Duff, Melissa C</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>During communication, we form assumptions about what our communication partners know and believe. Information that is mutually known between the discourse partners-their <span class="hlt">common</span> ground-serves as a backdrop for successful communication. Here we present an introduction to the focus of this topic, which is the role of memory in <span class="hlt">common</span> ground and language use. Two types of questions emerge as central to understanding the relationship between memory and <span class="hlt">common</span> ground, specifically questions having to do with the representation of <span class="hlt">common</span> ground in memory, and the use of <span class="hlt">common</span> ground during language <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5813694','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5813694"><span>Memory and <span class="hlt">Common</span> Ground <span class="hlt">Processes</span> in Language Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Duff, Melissa C.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>During communication, we form assumptions about what our communication partners know and believe. Information that is mutually known between the discourse partners—their <span class="hlt">common</span> ground—serves as a backdrop for successful communication. Here we present an introduction to the focus of this topic, which is the role of memory in <span class="hlt">common</span> ground and language use. Two types of questions emerge as central to understanding the relationship between memory and <span class="hlt">common</span> ground, specifically questions having to do with the representation of <span class="hlt">common</span> ground in memory, and the use of <span class="hlt">common</span> ground during language <span class="hlt">processing</span>. PMID:27797165</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23154759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23154759"><span>An endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene of <span class="hlt">common</span> and durum wheat for detection of genetically modified wheat.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Imai, Shinjiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Nishitsuji, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Matsuoka, Yasuyuki; Arami, Shin-Ichiro; Sato, Megumi; Haraguchi, Hiroyuki; Kurimoto, Youichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>To develop a method for detecting GM wheat that may be marketed in the near future, we evaluated the proline-rich protein (PRP) gene as an endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene of <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durum L.). Real-time PCR analysis showed that only DNA of wheat was amplified and no amplification product was observed for phylogenetically related cereals, indicating that the PRP detection system is specific to wheat. The intensities of the amplification products and Ct values among all wheat samples used in this study were very similar, with no nonspecific or additional amplification, indicating that the PRP detection system has high sequence stability. The limit of detection was estimated at 5 haploid genome copies. The PRP region was demonstrated to be present as a single or double copy in the <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat haploid genome. Furthermore, the PRP detection system showed a highly linear relationship between Ct values and the amount of plasmid DNA, indicating that an appropriate calibration curve could be constructed for quantitative detection of GM wheat. All these results indicate that the PRP gene is a suitable endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene for PCR-based detection of GM wheat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25399516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25399516"><span>Serum chemistry <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for the <span class="hlt">common</span> genet (Genetta genetta): variations associated with Leishmania infantum infection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Millán, Javier; Chirife, Andrea D; Altet, Laura</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of leishmaniosis in under debate, and determining whether infection with Leishmania infantum causes illness in wild carnivores is important to determine its potential role as a reservoir. To provide for the first time serum biochemistry <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for the <span class="hlt">common</span> genet (Genetta genetta), and to determine variations associated with L. infantum infection. Twenty-five serum biochemistry parameters were determined in 22 wild-caught genets. Blood samples were analyzed for L. infantum DNA by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two female genets were positive for L. infantum DNA but did not show any external clinical sign upon physical examination. Among other variations in the biochemistry values of these genets, one presented a higher concentration of gamma-globulins and cholesterol, whereas the other genet presented increased creatinine, bilirubin, and chloride levels when compared to uninfected females. Sex-related differences in some parameters were also reported. Infection with L. infantum may sometimes be accompanied by abnormal serum biochemistry in wild carnivores. Clinical disease may occur in L. infantum-infected wild carnivores. This has implications in the epidemiology of leishmaniosis. In addition, the data provided here would also be useful as <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for researchers or rehabilitators working with the <span class="hlt">common</span> genet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1065846.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1065846.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Process</span> Writing and Communicative-Task-Based Instruction: Many <span class="hlt">Common</span> Features, but More <span class="hlt">Common</span> Limitations?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bruton, Anthony</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Process</span> writing and communicative-task-based instruction both assume productive tasks that prompt self-expression to motivate students and as the principal engine for developing L2 proficiency in the language classroom. Besides this, <span class="hlt">process</span> writing and communicative-task-based instruction have much else in <span class="hlt">common</span>, despite some obvious…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16494340','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16494340"><span>Transport equations of electrodiffusion <span class="hlt">processes</span> in the laboratory <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garrido, Javier</p> <p>2006-02-23</p> <p>The transport equations of electrodiffusion <span class="hlt">processes</span> use three <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames for defining the fluxes: Fick's <span class="hlt">reference</span> in diffusion, solvent-fixed <span class="hlt">reference</span> in transference numbers, and laboratory fluxes in electric conductivity. The convenience of using only one <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame is analyzed here from the point of view of the thermodynamics of irreversible <span class="hlt">processes</span>. A relation between the fluxes of ions and solvent and the electric current density is deduced first from a mass and volume balance. This is then used to show that (i) the laboratory and Fick's diffusion coefficients are identical and (ii) the transference numbers of both the solvent and the ion in the laboratory <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame are related. Finally, four experimental methods for the measurement of ion transference numbers are analyzed critically. New expressions for evaluating transference numbers for the moving boundary method and the chronopotentiometry technique are deduced. It is concluded that the ion transport equation in the laboratory <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame plays a key role in the description of electrodiffusion <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25153598','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25153598"><span>A multicenter nationwide <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals study for <span class="hlt">common</span> biochemical analytes in Turkey using Abbott analyzers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ozarda, Yesim; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Aslan, Diler; Aybek, Hulya; Ari, Zeki; Taneli, Fatma; Coker, Canan; Akan, Pinar; Sisman, Ali Riza; Bahceci, Onur; Sezgin, Nurzen; Demir, Meltem; Yucel, Gultekin; Akbas, Halide; Ozdem, Sebahat; Polat, Gurbuz; Erbagci, Ayse Binnur; Orkmez, Mustafa; Mete, Nuriye; Evliyaoglu, Osman; Kiyici, Aysel; Vatansev, Husamettin; Ozturk, Bahadir; Yucel, Dogan; Kayaalp, Damla; Dogan, Kubra; Pinar, Asli; Gurbilek, Mehmet; Cetinkaya, Cigdem Damla; Akin, Okhan; Serdar, Muhittin; Kurt, Ismail; Erdinc, Selda; Kadicesme, Ozgur; Ilhan, Necip; Atali, Dilek Sadak; Bakan, Ebubekir; Polat, Harun; Noyan, Tevfik; Can, Murat; Bedir, Abdulkerim; Okuyucu, Ali; Deger, Orhan; Agac, Suret; Ademoglu, Evin; Kaya, Ayşem; Nogay, Turkan; Eren, Nezaket; Dirican, Melahat; Tuncer, GulOzlem; Aykus, Mehmet; Gunes, Yeliz; Ozmen, Sevda Unalli; Kawano, Reo; Tezcan, Sehavet; Demirpence, Ozlem; Degirmen, Elif</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A nationwide multicenter study was organized to establish <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals (RIs) in the Turkish population for 25 <span class="hlt">commonly</span> tested biochemical analytes and to explore sources of variation in <span class="hlt">reference</span> values, including regionality. Blood samples were collected nationwide in 28 laboratories from the seven regions (≥400 samples/region, 3066 in all). The sera were collectively analyzed in Uludag University in Bursa using Abbott reagents and analyzer. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> materials were used for standardization of test results. After secondary exclusion using the latent abnormal values exclusion method, RIs were derived by a parametric method employing the modified Box-Cox formula and compared with the RIs by the non-parametric method. Three-level nested ANOVA was used to evaluate variations among sexes, ages and regions. Associations between test results and age, body mass index (BMI) and region were determined by multiple regression analysis (MRA). By ANOVA, differences of <span class="hlt">reference</span> values among seven regions were significant in none of the 25 analytes. Significant sex-related and age-related differences were observed for 10 and seven analytes, respectively. MRA revealed BMI-related changes in results for uric acid, glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyltransferase. Their RIs were thus derived by applying stricter criteria excluding individuals with BMI >28 kg/m2. Ranges of RIs by non-parametric method were wider than those by parametric method especially for those analytes affected by BMI. With the lack of regional differences and the well-standardized status of test results, the RIs derived from this nationwide study can be used for the entire Turkish population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27312352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27312352"><span><span class="hlt">Commonly</span> used <span class="hlt">reference</span> values underestimate oxygen uptake in healthy, 50-year-old Swedish women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Genberg, M; Andrén, B; Lind, L; Hedenström, H; Malinovschi, A</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard among clinical exercise tests. It combines a conventional stress test with measurement of oxygen uptake (V O 2 ) and CO 2 production. No validated Swedish <span class="hlt">reference</span> values exist, and <span class="hlt">reference</span> values in women are generally understudied. Moreover, the importance of achieved respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and the significance of breathing reserve (BR) at peak exercise in healthy individuals are poorly understood. We compared V O 2 at maximal load (peakV O 2 ) and anaerobic threshold (V O 2@ AT ) in healthy Swedish individuals with <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used <span class="hlt">reference</span> values, taking gender into account. Further, we analysed maximal workload and peakV O 2 with regard to peak RER and BR. In all, 181 healthy, 50-year-old individuals (91 women) performed CPET. PeakV O 2 was best predicted using Jones et al. (100·5%), while SHIP <span class="hlt">reference</span> values underestimated peakV O 2 most: 112·5%. Furthermore, underestimation of peakV O 2 in women was found for all studied <span class="hlt">reference</span> values (P<0·001) and was largest for SHIP: women had 128% of predicted peakV O 2 , while men had 104%. PeakV O 2 was similar in subjects with peak RER of 1-1·1 and RER > 1·1 (2 328·7 versus 2 176·7 ml min -1 , P = 0·11). Lower BR (≤30%) related to significantly higher peakV O 2 (P<0·001). In conclusion, peakV O 2 was best predicted by Jones. All studied <span class="hlt">reference</span> values underestimated oxygen uptake in women. No evidence for demanding RER > 1·1 in healthy individuals was found. A lowered BR is probably a normal response to higher workloads in healthy individuals. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IEITC..92.1669T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IEITC..92.1669T"><span>Comparisons between <span class="hlt">Common</span> and Dedicated <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Signals for MIMO Multiplexing Using Precoding in Evolved UTRA Downlink</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taoka, Hidekazu; Kishiyama, Yoshihisa; Higuchi, Kenichi; Sawahashi, Mamoru</p> <p></p> <p>This paper presents comparisons between <span class="hlt">common</span> and dedicated <span class="hlt">reference</span> signals (RSs) for channel estimation in MIMO multiplexing using codebook-based precoding for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radio access in the Evolved UTRA downlink with frequency division duplexing (FDD). We clarify the best RS structure for precoding-based MIMO multiplexing based on comparisons of the structures in terms of the achievable throughput taking into account the overhead of the <span class="hlt">common</span> and dedicated RSs and the precoding matrix indication (PMI) signal. Based on extensive simulations on the throughput in 2-by-2 and 4-by-4 MIMO multiplexing with precoding, we clarify that channel estimation based on <span class="hlt">common</span> RSs multiplied with the precoding matrix indicated by the PMI signal achieves higher throughput compared to that using dedicated RSs irrespective of the number of spatial multiplexing streams when the number of available precoding matrices, i.e., the codebook size, is less than approximately 16 and 32 for 2-by-2 and 4-by-4 MIMO multiplexing, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5005345','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5005345"><span>Production of <span class="hlt">Referring</span> Expressions for an Unknown Audience: A Computational Model of Communal <span class="hlt">Common</span> Ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kutlak, Roman; van Deemter, Kees; Mellish, Chris</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article presents a computational model of the production of <span class="hlt">referring</span> expressions under uncertainty over the hearer's knowledge. Although situations where the hearer's knowledge is uncertain have seldom been addressed in the computational literature, they are <span class="hlt">common</span> in ordinary communication, for example when a writer addresses an unknown audience, or when a speaker addresses a stranger. We propose a computational model composed of three complimentary heuristics based on, respectively, an estimation of the recipient's knowledge, an estimation of the extent to which a property is unexpected, and the question of what is the optimum number of properties in a given situation. The model was tested in an experiment with human readers, in which it was compared against the Incremental Algorithm and human-produced descriptions. The results suggest that the new model outperforms the Incremental Algorithm in terms of the proportion of correctly identified entities and in terms of the perceived quality of the generated descriptions. PMID:27630592</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8057811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8057811"><span>Automated <span class="hlt">processing</span> for proton spectroscopic imaging using water <span class="hlt">reference</span> deconvolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maudsley, A A; Wu, Z; Meyerhoff, D J; Weiner, M W</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>Automated formation of MR spectroscopic images (MRSI) is necessary before routine application of these methods is possible for in vivo studies; however, this task is complicated by the presence of spatially dependent instrumental distortions and the complex nature of the MR spectrum. A data <span class="hlt">processing</span> method is presented for completely automated formation of in vivo proton spectroscopic images, and applied for analysis of human brain metabolites. This procedure uses the water <span class="hlt">reference</span> deconvolution method (G. A. Morris, J. Magn. Reson. 80, 547(1988)) to correct for line shape distortions caused by instrumental and sample characteristics, followed by parametric spectral analysis. Results for automated image formation were found to compare favorably with operator dependent spectral integration methods. While the water <span class="hlt">reference</span> deconvolution <span class="hlt">processing</span> was found to provide good correction of spatially dependent resonance frequency shifts, it was found to be susceptible to errors for correction of line shape distortions. These occur due to differences between the water <span class="hlt">reference</span> and the metabolite distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4436368','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4436368"><span>Adrenal Hormones in <span class="hlt">Common</span> Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Intervals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hart, Leslie B.; Wells, Randall S.; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lamb, Stephen V.; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Inshore <span class="hlt">common</span> bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones <span class="hlt">commonly</span> associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals will be used to gauge an individual’s response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000–2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91–4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32–6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25993341','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25993341"><span>Adrenal Hormones in <span class="hlt">Common</span> Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Intervals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hart, Leslie B; Wells, Randall S; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Lamb, Stephen V; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Inshore <span class="hlt">common</span> bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones <span class="hlt">commonly</span> associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals will be used to gauge an individual's response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000-2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91-4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32-6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of Sarasota Bay</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29236822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29236822"><span>The relative frequency of <span class="hlt">common</span> neuromuscular diagnoses in a <span class="hlt">reference</span> center.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cotta, Ana; Paim, Júlia Filardi; Carvalho, Elmano; da-Cunha-Júnior, Antonio Lopes; Navarro, Monica M; Valicek, Jaquelin; Menezes, Miriam Melo; Nunes, Simone Vilela; Xavier-Neto, Rafael; Baptista, Sidney; Lima, Luciano Romero; Takata, Reinaldo Issao; Vargas, Antonio Pedro</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The diagnostic procedure in neuromuscular patients is complex. Knowledge of the relative frequency of neuromuscular diseases within the investigated population is important to allow the neurologist to perform the most appropriate diagnostic tests. To report the relative frequency of <span class="hlt">common</span> neuromuscular diagnoses in a <span class="hlt">reference</span> center. A 17-year chart review of patients with suspicion of myopathy. Among 3,412 examinations, 1,603 (46.98%) yielded confirmatory results: 782 (48.78%) underwent molecular studies, and 821 (51.21%) had muscle biopsies. The most frequent diagnoses were: dystrophinopathy 460 (28.70%), mitochondriopathy 330 (20.59%), spinal muscular atrophy 158 (9.86%), limb girdle muscular dystrophy 157 (9.79%), Steinert myotonic dystrophy 138 (8.61%), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 99 (6.17%), and other diagnoses 261 (16.28%). Using the presently-available diagnostic techniques in this service, a specific limb girdle muscular dystrophy subtype diagnosis was reached in 61% of the patients. A neuromuscular-appropriate diagnosis is important for genetic counseling, rehabilitation orientation, and early treatment of respiratory and cardiac complications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Globalization+AND+limits&id=EJ1123414','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Globalization+AND+limits&id=EJ1123414"><span>The "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>" Down Under: A Survey of Its Use and Non-Use in Australian Universities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Normand-Marconnet, Nadine; Lo Bianco, Joseph</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Today, the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" (CEFR; Council of Europe 2001) is widely recognised as emblematic of globalization in education, both in the realms of policy and in educational practice (Byram et al. 2012a). In Europe the CEFR is regularly cited as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> point for curriculum planning, and is often…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nga&id=EJ864113','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nga&id=EJ864113"><span>Openness of <span class="hlt">Common</span>-Standards <span class="hlt">Process</span> at Issue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cavanagh, Sean</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>As the most concerted venture to craft <span class="hlt">common</span> academic standards in more than a decade rolls forward, the <span class="hlt">process</span> has drawn criticism from those who say too much of the nitty-gritty work is taking place behind closed doors. The organizations leading the effort--the National Governors Association (NGA) and the Council of Chief State School Officers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028968','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028968"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processes</span> in Evidence-Based Adolescent HIV Prevention Programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ingram, Barbara L.; Flannery, Diane; Elkavich, Amy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Dissemination of evidence-based HIV prevention programs for adolescents will be increased if community interventionists are able to distinguish core, essential program elements from optional, discretionary ones. We selected five successful adolescent HIV prevention programs, used a qualitative coding method to identify <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> described in the procedural manuals, and then compared the programs. Nineteen <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> were categorized as structural features, group management strategies, competence building, and addressing developmental challenges of adolescence. All programs shared the same structural features (goal-setting and session agendas), used an active engagement style of group management, and built cognitive competence. Programs varied in attention to developmental challenges, emphasis on behavioral and emotional competence, and group management methods. This qualitative analysis demonstrated that successful HIV programs contain <span class="hlt">processes</span> not articulated in their developers’ theoretical models. By moving from the concrete specifics of branded interventions to identification of core, <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span>, we are consistent with the progress of “<span class="hlt">common</span> factors” research in psychotherapy. PMID:18330687</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=339669&Lab=NRMRL&keyword=life+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=339669&Lab=NRMRL&keyword=life+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>US Federal LCA <span class="hlt">Commons</span> Life Cycle Inventory Unit <span class="hlt">Process</span> Template</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The US Federal LCA <span class="hlt">Commons</span> Life Cycle Inventory Unit <span class="hlt">Process</span> Template is a multi-sheet Excel template for life cycle inventory data, metadata and other documentation. The template comes as a package that consistent of three parts: (1) the main template itself for life cycle inven...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29310466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29310466"><span>Valid analytical performance specifications for combined analytical bias and imprecision for the use of <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G; Sandberg, Sverre; Sölétormos, György</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Background Many clinical decisions are based on comparison of patient results with <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals. Therefore, an estimation of the analytical performance specifications for the quality that would be required to allow sharing <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals is needed. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended a minimum of 120 <span class="hlt">reference</span> individuals to establish <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals. This number implies a certain level of quality, which could then be used for defining analytical performance specifications as the maximum combination of analytical bias and imprecision required for sharing <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals, the aim of this investigation. Methods Two methods were investigated for defining the maximum combination of analytical bias and imprecision that would give the same quality of <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals as the IFCC recommendation. Method 1 is based on a formula for the combination of analytical bias and imprecision and Method 2 is based on the Microsoft Excel formula NORMINV including the fractional probability of <span class="hlt">reference</span> individuals outside each limit and the Gaussian variables of mean and standard deviation. The combinations of normalized bias and imprecision are illustrated for both methods. The formulae are identical for Gaussian and log-Gaussian distributions. Results Method 2 gives the correct results with a constant percentage of 4.4% for all combinations of bias and imprecision. Conclusion The Microsoft Excel formula NORMINV is useful for the estimation of analytical performance specifications for both Gaussian and log-Gaussian distributions of <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6301E..0YG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6301E..0YG"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> software implementation for GIFTS ground data <span class="hlt">processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcia, R. K.; Howell, H. B.; Knuteson, R. O.; Martin, G. D.; Olson, E. R.; Smuga-Otto, M. J.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Future satellite weather instruments such as high spectral resolution imaging interferometers pose a challenge to the atmospheric science and software development communities due to the immense data volumes they will generate. An open-source, scalable <span class="hlt">reference</span> software implementation demonstrating the calibration of radiance products from an imaging interferometer, the Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer1 (GIFTS), is presented. This paper covers essential design principles laid out in summary system diagrams, lessons learned during implementation and preliminary test results from the GIFTS Information <span class="hlt">Processing</span> System (GIPS) prototype.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11895011','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11895011"><span>The auditory <span class="hlt">processing</span> battery: survey of <span class="hlt">common</span> practices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Emanuel, Diana C</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p>A survey of auditory <span class="hlt">processing</span> (AP) diagnostic practices was mailed to all licensed audiologists in the State of Maryland and sent as an electronic mail attachment to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and Educational Audiology Association Internet forums. <span class="hlt">Common</span> AP protocols (25 from the Internet, 28 from audiologists in Maryland) included requiring basic audiologic testing, using questionnaires, and administering dichotic listening, monaural low-redundancy speech, temporal <span class="hlt">processing</span>, and electrophysiologic tests. Some audiologists also administer binaural interaction, attention, memory, and speech-language/psychological/educational tests and incorporate a classroom observation. The various AP batteries presently administered appear to be based on the availability of AP tests with well-documented normative data. Resources for obtaining AP tests are listed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575354','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575354"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> type system for clinical natural language <span class="hlt">processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span> (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be <span class="hlt">processed</span> and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a <span class="hlt">common</span> type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. Results We describe a <span class="hlt">common</span> type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. Conclusions We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types. PMID:23286462</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286462','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23286462"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> type system for clinical natural language <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Stephen T; Kaggal, Vinod C; Dligach, Dmitriy; Masanz, James J; Chen, Pei; Becker, Lee; Chapman, Wendy W; Savova, Guergana K; Liu, Hongfang; Chute, Christopher G</p> <p>2013-01-03</p> <p>One challenge in reusing clinical data stored in electronic medical records is that these data are heterogenous. Clinical Natural Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span> (NLP) plays an important role in transforming information in clinical text to a standard representation that is comparable and interoperable. Information may be <span class="hlt">processed</span> and shared when a type system specifies the allowable data structures. Therefore, we aim to define a <span class="hlt">common</span> type system for clinical NLP that enables interoperability between structured and unstructured data generated in different clinical settings. We describe a <span class="hlt">common</span> type system for clinical NLP that has an end target of deep semantics based on Clinical Element Models (CEMs), thus interoperating with structured data and accommodating diverse NLP approaches. The type system has been implemented in UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture) and is fully functional in a popular open-source clinical NLP system, cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) versions 2.0 and later. We have created a type system that targets deep semantics, thereby allowing for NLP systems to encapsulate knowledge from text and share it alongside heterogenous clinical data sources. Rather than surface semantics that are typically the end product of NLP algorithms, CEM-based semantics explicitly build in deep clinical semantics as the point of interoperability with more structured data types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5559..131R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5559..131R"><span>Missile signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> <span class="hlt">common</span> computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p> may be programmed under existing real-time operating systems using parallel <span class="hlt">processing</span> software libraries, resulting in highly portable code that can be rapidly migrated to new platforms as processor technology evolves. Use of standardized development tools and 3rd party software upgrades are enabled as well as rapid upgrade of <span class="hlt">processing</span> components as improved algorithms are developed. The resulting weapon system will have a superior <span class="hlt">processing</span> capability over a custom approach at the time of deployment as a result of a shorter development cycles and use of newer technology. The signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> computer may be upgraded over the lifecycle of the weapon system, and can migrate between weapon system variants enabled by modification simplicity. This paper presents a <span class="hlt">reference</span> design using the new approach that utilizes an Altivec PowerPC parallel COTS platform. It uses a VxWorks-based real-time operating system (RTOS), and application code developed using an efficient parallel vector library (PVL). A quantification of computing requirements and demonstration of interceptor algorithm operating on this real-time platform are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Standardization+AND+processes&pg=7&id=EJ739062','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Standardization+AND+processes&pg=7&id=EJ739062"><span>Practised Intelligence Testing Based on a Modern Test Conceptualization and Its <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Intelligence Theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kubinger, Klaus D.; Litzenberger, Margarete; Mrakotsky, Christine</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The question is to what extent intelligence test-batteries prove any kind of empirical <span class="hlt">reference</span> to <span class="hlt">common</span> intelligence theories. Of particular interest are conceptualized tests that are of a high psychometric standard--those that fit the Rasch model--and hence are not exposed to fundamental critique. As individualized testing, i.e., a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=textbook+AND+market&pg=7&id=EJ1121285','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=textbook+AND+market&pg=7&id=EJ1121285"><span>The Council of Europe's "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" (CEFR): Approach, Status, Function and Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martyniuk, Waldemar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Council of Europe's "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" is rapidly becoming a powerful instrument for shaping language education policies in Europe and beyond. The task of relating language policies, language curricula, teacher education and training, textbook and course design and content, examinations and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24098735','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24098735"><span>Evaluation of four endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and their real-time PCR assays for <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat quantification in GMOs detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Proper selection of endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene and its real-time PCR assay for <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene for <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3786954','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3786954"><span>Evaluation of Four Endogenous <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Genes and Their Real-Time PCR Assays for <span class="hlt">Common</span> Wheat Quantification in GMOs Detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Proper selection of endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene and its real-time PCR assay for <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene for <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat. PMID:24098735</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4079700','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4079700"><span>Self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> in individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Molz Adams, Ashleigh; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Pendergast, Laura H.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are <span class="hlt">common</span> and impairing, which has led to an examination of risk factors for their development and maintenance. Historically, research has examined cognitive vulnerabilities to BSDs derived largely from the unipolar depression literature. Specifically, theorists propose that dysfunctional information <span class="hlt">processing</span> guided by negative self-schemata may be a risk factor for depression. However, few studies have examined whether BSD individuals also show self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> biases. Methods This study examined self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> differences between 66 individuals with and 58 individuals without a BSD in a young adult sample (age M = 19.65, SD = 1.74; 62% female; 47% Caucasian). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to examine multivariate effects of BSD diagnosis on 4 self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> variables (self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> judgments, response latency, behavioral predictions, and recall) in response to depression-related and nondepression-related stimuli. Results Bipolar individuals endorsed and recalled more negative and fewer positive self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> adjectives, as well as made more negative and fewer positive behavioral predictions. Many of these information-<span class="hlt">processing</span> biases were partially, but not fully, mediated by depressive symptoms. Limitations Our sample was not a clinical or treatment-seeking sample, so we cannot generalize our results to clinical BSD samples. No participants had a bipolar I disorder at baseline. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that individuals with BSDs exhibit a negative self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> bias. This may mean that those with BSDs have selective attention and recall of negative information about themselves, highlighting the need for attention to cognitive biases in therapy. PMID:24074480</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24074480','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24074480"><span>Self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> in individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Molz Adams, Ashleigh; Shapero, Benjamin G; Pendergast, Laura H; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are <span class="hlt">common</span> and impairing, which has led to an examination of risk factors for their development and maintenance. Historically, research has examined cognitive vulnerabilities to BSDs derived largely from the unipolar depression literature. Specifically, theorists propose that dysfunctional information <span class="hlt">processing</span> guided by negative self-schemata may be a risk factor for depression. However, few studies have examined whether BSD individuals also show self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> biases. This study examined self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> differences between 66 individuals with and 58 individuals without a BSD in a young adult sample (age M=19.65, SD=1.74; 62% female; 47% Caucasian). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to examine multivariate effects of BSD diagnosis on 4 self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> variables (self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> judgments, response latency, behavioral predictions, and recall) in response to depression-related and nondepression-related stimuli. Bipolar individuals endorsed and recalled more negative and fewer positive self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> adjectives, as well as made more negative and fewer positive behavioral predictions. Many of these information-<span class="hlt">processing</span> biases were partially, but not fully, mediated by depressive symptoms. Our sample was not a clinical or treatment-seeking sample, so we cannot generalize our results to clinical BSD samples. No participants had a bipolar I disorder at baseline. This study provides further evidence that individuals with BSDs exhibit a negative self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> bias. This may mean that those with BSDs have selective attention and recall of negative information about themselves, highlighting the need for attention to cognitive biases in therapy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=346915','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=346915"><span>Uneven recombination and linkage disequilibrium across a <span class="hlt">reference</span> SNP map for <span class="hlt">common</span> bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and recombination (R) analyses are the basis for plant breeding. LD and R vary by breeding system, by generation of inbreeding or outcrossing and by region of the chromosome. <span class="hlt">Common</span> bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a favored food legume with a small sequenced genome and n=...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2829013','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2829013"><span>BABAR: an R package to simplify the normalisation of <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> design microarray-based transcriptomic datasets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background The development of DNA microarrays has facilitated the generation of hundreds of thousands of transcriptomic datasets. The use of a <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> microarray design allows existing transcriptomic data to be readily compared and re-analysed in the light of new data, and the combination of this design with large datasets is ideal for 'systems'-level analyses. One issue is that these datasets are typically collected over many years and may be heterogeneous in nature, containing different microarray file formats and gene array layouts, dye-swaps, and showing varying scales of log2- ratios of expression between microarrays. Excellent software exists for the normalisation and analysis of microarray data but many data have yet to be analysed as existing methods struggle with heterogeneous datasets; options include normalising microarrays on an individual or experimental group basis. Our solution was to develop the Batch Anti-Banana Algorithm in R (BABAR) algorithm and software package which uses cyclic loess to normalise across the complete dataset. We have already used BABAR to analyse the function of Salmonella genes involved in the <span class="hlt">process</span> of infection of mammalian cells. Results The only input required by BABAR is unprocessed GenePix or BlueFuse microarray data files. BABAR provides a combination of 'within' and 'between' microarray normalisation steps and diagnostic boxplots. When applied to a real heterogeneous dataset, BABAR normalised the dataset to produce a comparable scaling between the microarrays, with the microarray data in excellent agreement with RT-PCR analysis. When applied to a real non-heterogeneous dataset and a simulated dataset, BABAR's performance in identifying differentially expressed genes showed some benefits over standard techniques. Conclusions BABAR is an easy-to-use software tool, simplifying the simultaneous normalisation of heterogeneous two-colour <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> design cDNA microarray-based transcriptomic datasets. We show</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17465326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17465326"><span>Computation and brain <span class="hlt">processes</span>, with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to neuroendocrine systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toni, Roberto; Spaletta, Giulia; Casa, Claudia Della; Ravera, Simone; Sandri, Giorgio</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The development of neural networks and brain automata has made neuroscientists aware that the performance limits of these brain-like devices lies, at least in part, in their computational power. The computational basis of a. standard cybernetic design, in fact, <span class="hlt">refers</span> to that of a discrete and finite state machine or Turing Machine (TM). In contrast, it has been suggested that a number of human cerebral activites, from feedback controls up to mental <span class="hlt">processes</span>, rely on a mixing of both finitary, digital-like and infinitary, continuous-like procedures. Therefore, the central nervous system (CNS) of man would exploit a form of computation going beyond that of a TM. This "non conventional" computation has been called hybrid computation. Some basic structures for hybrid brain computation are believed to be the brain computational maps, in which both Turing-like (digital) computation and continuous (analog) forms of calculus might occur. The cerebral cortex and brain stem appears primary candidate for this <span class="hlt">processing</span>. However, also neuroendocrine structures like the hypothalamus are believed to exhibit hybrid computional <span class="hlt">processes</span>, and might give rise to computational maps. Current theories on neural activity, including wiring and volume transmission, neuronal group selection and dynamic evolving models of brain automata, bring fuel to the existence of natural hybrid computation, stressing a cooperation between discrete and continuous forms of communication in the CNS. In addition, the recent advent of neuromorphic chips, like those to restore activity in damaged retina and visual cortex, suggests that assumption of a discrete-continuum polarity in designing biocompatible neural circuitries is crucial for their ensuing performance. In these bionic structures, in fact, a correspondence exists between the original anatomical architecture and synthetic wiring of the chip, resulting in a correspondence between natural and cybernetic neural activity. Thus, chip "form</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4086331','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4086331"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> path in-line holography using enhanced joint object <span class="hlt">reference</span> digital interferometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Joint object <span class="hlt">reference</span> digital interferometer (JORDI) is a recently developed system capable of recording holograms of various types [Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4719 (2013)24322115]. Presented here is a new enhanced system design that is based on the previous JORDI. While the previous JORDI has been based purely on diffractive optical elements, displayed on spatial light modulators, the present design incorporates an additional refractive objective lens, thus enabling hologram recording with improved resolution and increased system applicability. Experimental results demonstrate successful hologram recording for various types of objects, including transmissive, reflective, three-dimensional, phase and highly scattering objects. The resolution limit of the system is analyzed and experimentally validated. Finally, the suitability of JORDI for microscopic applications is verified as a microscope objective based configuration of the system is demonstrated. PMID:24663838</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24895842','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24895842"><span>3D flexible alignment using 2D maximum <span class="hlt">common</span> substructure: dependence of prediction accuracy on target-<span class="hlt">reference</span> chemical similarity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kawabata, Takeshi; Nakamura, Haruki</p> <p>2014-07-28</p> <p>A protein-bound conformation of a target molecule can be predicted by aligning the target molecule on the <span class="hlt">reference</span> molecule obtained from the 3D structure of the compound-protein complex. This strategy is called "similarity-based docking". For this purpose, we develop the flexible alignment program fkcombu, which aligns the target molecule based on atomic correspondences with the <span class="hlt">reference</span> molecule. The correspondences are obtained by the maximum <span class="hlt">common</span> substructure (MCS) of 2D chemical structures, using our program kcombu. The prediction performance was evaluated using many target-<span class="hlt">reference</span> pairs of superimposed ligand 3D structures on the same protein in the PDB, with different ranges of chemical similarity. The details of atomic correspondence largely affected the prediction success. We found that topologically constrained disconnected MCS (TD-MCS) with the simple element-based atomic classification provides the best prediction. The crashing potential energy with the receptor protein improved the performance. We also found that the RMSD between the predicted and correct target conformations significantly correlates with the chemical similarities between target-<span class="hlt">reference</span> molecules. Generally speaking, if the <span class="hlt">reference</span> and target compounds have more than 70% chemical similarity, then the average RMSD of 3D conformations is <2.0 Å. We compared the performance with a rigid-body molecular alignment program based on volume-overlap scores (ShaEP). Our MCS-based flexible alignment program performed better than the rigid-body alignment program, especially when the target and <span class="hlt">reference</span> molecules were sufficiently similar.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23270375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23270375"><span>Statistical inference from multiple iTRAQ experiments without using <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herbrich, Shelley M; Cole, Robert N; West, Keith P; Schulze, Kerry; Yager, James D; Groopman, John D; Christian, Parul; Wu, Lee; O'Meally, Robert N; May, Damon H; McIntosh, Martin W; Ruczinski, Ingo</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) is a prominent mass spectrometry technology for protein identification and quantification that is capable of analyzing multiple samples in a single experiment. Frequently, iTRAQ experiments are carried out using an aliquot from a pool of all samples, or "masterpool", in one of the channels as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> sample standard to estimate protein relative abundances in the biological samples and to combine abundance estimates from multiple experiments. In this manuscript, we show that using a masterpool is counterproductive. We obtain more precise estimates of protein relative abundance by using the available biological data instead of the masterpool and do not need to occupy a channel that could otherwise be used for another biological sample. In addition, we introduce a simple statistical method to associate proteomic data from multiple iTRAQ experiments with a numeric response and show that this approach is more powerful than the conventionally employed masterpool-based approach. We illustrate our methods using data from four replicate iTRAQ experiments on aliquots of the same pool of plasma samples and from a 406-sample project designed to identify plasma proteins that covary with nutrient concentrations in chronically undernourished children from South Asia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25698367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25698367"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> values of MRI measurements of the <span class="hlt">common</span> bile duct and pancreatic duct in children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gwal, Kriti; Bedoya, Maria A; Patel, Neal; Rambhatla, Siri J; Darge, Kassa; Sreedharan, Ram R; Anupindi, Sudha A</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the <span class="hlt">common</span> bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the <span class="hlt">common</span> bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The <span class="hlt">common</span> bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6510E..13D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6510E..13D"><span>Proposed diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels for 3 <span class="hlt">common</span> cardiac interventional procedures in Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Helft, C.; McGee, A. M.; Rainford, L. A.; Mc Fadden, S. L.; Hughes, C. M.; Winder, R. J.; Brennan, P. C.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Radiation doses for 3 <span class="hlt">common</span> types of cardiac radiological examinations where investigated: coronary angiography (CA), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and pacemaker insertions (PPI). 22 cardiac imaging suites participated in the study. Radiation dose was monitored for 1804 adult patients using dose area product (DAP) meters. Operational and examination details such as cardiologist grade, patient details and examination complexity were recorded for each examination. Both intra and inter-hospital variations where demonstrated by the results. Individual patient DAP values ranged from 136-23,101cGycm2, 475-41,038cGycm2 and 45- 17,192cGycm2 for CA, PCI and PPI respectively, with third quartile values of 4,173cGycm2, 8,836cGycm2 and 2,051cGycm2. Screening times varied from 0.22-27.6mins, 1.8-98mins and 0.33-54.5mins for CA, PCI and PPI respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27035827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27035827"><span>Unstable Expression of <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Used <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kosinová, Lucie; Cahová, Monika; Fábryová, Eva; Týcová, Irena; Koblas, Tomáš; Leontovyč, Ivan; Saudek, František; Kříž, Jan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and one gene of interest (F3) in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0-120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48-120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes. However, this method could provide reliable information from 48 hrs onwards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18831796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18831796"><span>Assessment of data <span class="hlt">processing</span> to improve reliability of microarray experiments using genomic DNA <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Yunfeng; Zhu, Mengxia; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong</p> <p>2008-09-16</p> <p>Using genomic DNA as <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> in microarray experiments has recently been tested by different laboratories. Conflicting results have been reported with regard to the reliability of microarray results using this method. To explain it, we hypothesize that data <span class="hlt">processing</span> is a critical element that impacts the data quality. Microarray experiments were performed in a gamma-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis. Pair-wise comparison of three experimental conditions was obtained either with two labeled cDNA samples co-hybridized to the same array, or by employing Shewanella genomic DNA as a standard <span class="hlt">reference</span>. Various data <span class="hlt">processing</span> techniques were exploited to reduce the amount of inconsistency between both methods and the results were assessed. We discovered that data quality was significantly improved by imposing the constraint of minimal number of replicates, logarithmic transformation and random error analyses. These findings demonstrate that data <span class="hlt">processing</span> significantly influences data quality, which provides an explanation for the conflicting evaluation in the literature. This work could serve as a guideline for microarray data analysis using genomic DNA as a standard <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=SPIRE&pg=2&id=EJ276763','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=SPIRE&pg=2&id=EJ276763"><span>Automating Technical <span class="hlt">Processes</span> and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Services Using SPIRES.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Buckley, Joseph James</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Examines the capabilities, cost-effectiveness, and flexibility of the Stanford Public Information Retrieval System (SPIRES), an online information retrieval system producing a variety of printed products, and notes its use in the Title I Evaluation Clearinghouse, advantages of SPIRES, programing, and availability. Eleven <span class="hlt">references</span> and a five-item…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/57618','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/57618"><span>Health hazards associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (<span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as DOP) in HEPA filter test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NONE</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), <span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as di-octyl phthalate, is an important production chemical in the US. In addition to its major use as an additive in plastics, DEHP is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Historically, DEHP was also used in quantitative fit testing for respirators. Evaluations of this compound a decade ago showed that it can induce hepatocellular carcinomas in laboratory animals. Although most Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have since discontinued using DEHP in respirator fit testing, DEHP continues to be used for evaluating HEPA filters. This report summarizes availablemore » information on the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other hazards and problems posed by DEHP, specifically with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to HEPA filter testing. Information on work practice improvements as well as the availability and suitability of DEHP substitutes are also presented. This material should assist the DOE in the safe use of this material.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8532','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8532"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and uncommon sense about erosional <span class="hlt">processes</span> in mountain lands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>R. M. Rice</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Current knowledge of erosional <span class="hlt">processes</span> in mountainous watersheds is reviewed with emphasis on the west coast of the United States. Appreciation of the relative magnitude of erosional <span class="hlt">processes</span> may be distorted by the tendency for researchers to study ""problems"" and by the relatively short time span of their records</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25129063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25129063"><span>Discovery of <span class="hlt">common</span> sequences absent in the human <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome using pooled samples from next generation sequencing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yu; Koyutürk, Mehmet; Maxwell, Sean; Xiang, Min; Veigl, Martina; Cooper, Richard S; Tayo, Bamidele O; Li, Li; LaFramboise, Thomas; Wang, Zhenghe; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Chance, Mark R</p> <p>2014-08-16</p> <p>Sequences up to several megabases in length have been found to be present in individual genomes but absent in the human <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome. These sequences may be <span class="hlt">common</span> in populations, and their absence in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome may indicate rare variants in the genomes of individuals who served as donors for the human genome project. As the <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome is used in probe design for microarray technology and mapping short reads in next generation sequencing (NGS), this missing sequence could be a source of bias in functional genomic studies and variant analysis. One End Anchor (OEA) and/or orphan reads from paired-end sequencing have been used to identify novel sequences that are absent in <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome. However, there is no study to investigate the distribution, evolution and functionality of those sequences in human populations. To systematically identify and study the missing <span class="hlt">common</span> sequences (micSeqs), we extended the previous method by pooling OEA reads from large number of individuals and applying strict filtering methods to remove false sequences. The pipeline was applied to data from phase 1 of the 1000 Genomes Project. We identified 309 micSeqs that are present in at least 1% of the human population, but absent in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome. We confirmed 76% of these 309 micSeqs by comparison to other primate genomes, individual human genomes, and gene expression data. Furthermore, we randomly selected fifteen micSeqs and confirmed their presence using PCR validation in 38 additional individuals. Functional analysis using published RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data showed that eleven micSeqs are highly expressed in human brain and three micSeqs contain transcription factor (TF) binding regions, suggesting they are functional elements. In addition, the identified micSeqs are absent in non-primates and show dynamic acquisition during primate evolution culminating with most micSeqs being present in Africans, suggesting some micSeqs may be important sources of human</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4398391','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4398391"><span>Mercury vapor in residential building <span class="hlt">common</span> areas in communities where mercury is used for cultural purposes versus a <span class="hlt">reference</span> community</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Garetano, Gary; Stern, Alan H.; Robson, Mark; Gochfeld, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Exposure to elemental mercury (Hg0) in residential buildings can occur from accidental spills, broken objects (thermometers, fluorescent fixtures, thermostats), and deliberate introduction, one mode of which involves cultural practices by individuals who believe dispersal of mercury in a residence will bring luck, enhance health or ward off harm. Objectives To determine whether mercury vapor levels in <span class="hlt">common</span> areas of residential buildings is higher in a community where cultural uses are likely (study areas S1, S2) than in a <span class="hlt">reference</span> community (C1) where cultural use is unlikely, and whether levels can serve as a signal of significant cultural mercury use. Methods We monitored Hg0 vapor with a portable spectrophotometer in the three communities. We randomly selected sites in S1 and C1 community, and also include sites in S2 specified by local health officials who suspected cultural mercury use. We evaluated 122 multifamily buildings and 116 outdoor locations. Findings We found >25 ng/m3 Hg0 in 14% of buildings in study areas compared to only one <span class="hlt">reference</span> building. In the latter we identified an accidental mercury spill from a bottle that had been brought into the building. Both the mean and maximum indoor mercury vapor levels were greater in the study communities than in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> community. In all communities, we observed mean indoor Hg0 vapor concentration greater than outdoors, although in two-thirds of buildings, indoor levels did not exceed the area-specific outdoor upper-limit concentration. Conclusion After controlling for factors that might influence Hg0 vapor levels, the most plausible explanation for greater Hg0 levels in the study area is a relationship to cultural use of mercury. None of the measured levels exceeded the ATSDR minimum risk level for residences of 200 ng/m3 Hg0 although levels in living quarters might be greater than those in the <span class="hlt">common</span> areas. PMID:18406445</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6358226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6358226"><span>The <span class="hlt">processing</span> and collaborative assay of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> endotoxin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hochstein, H D; Mills, D F; Outschoorn, A S; Rastogi, S C</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>A preparation of Escherichia coli bacterial endotoxin, the latest of successive lots drawn from bulk material which has been studied in laboratory tests and in animals and humans for suitability as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> endotoxin, has been filled and lyophilized in a large number of vials. Details of its characterization, including stability studies, are given. A collaborative assay was conducted by 14 laboratories using gelation end-points with Limulus amebocyte lysates. Approximate continuity of the unit of potency with the existing national unit was achieved. The lot was made from the single final bulk but had to be freeze-dried in five sublimators. An assessment was therefore made for possible heterogeneity. The results indicate that the lot can be used as a large homogeneous quantity. The advantages of using it widely as a standard for endotoxins are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010sssp.conf...13E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010sssp.conf...13E"><span>Graphical Technique to Support the Teaching/Learning <span class="hlt">Process</span> of Software <span class="hlt">Process</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Espinosa-Curiel, Ismael Edrein; Rodríguez-Jacobo, Josefina; Fernández-Zepeda, José Alberto</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, we propose a set of diagrams to visualize software <span class="hlt">process</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> models (PRM). The diagrams, called dimods, are the combination of some visual and <span class="hlt">process</span> modeling techniques such as rich pictures, mind maps, IDEF and RAD diagrams. We show the use of this technique by designing a set of dimods for the Mexican Software Industry <span class="hlt">Process</span> Model (MoProSoft). Additionally, we perform an evaluation of the usefulness of dimods. The result of the evaluation shows that dimods may be a support tool that facilitates the understanding, memorization, and learning of software PRMs in both, software development organizations and universities. The results also show that dimods may have advantages over the traditional description methods for these types of models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=263882','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=263882"><span>Sensitivity of Mycobacterium bovis to <span class="hlt">common</span> beef <span class="hlt">processing</span> interventions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Introduction. Cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and a relevant zoonosis to humans, may be sent to slaughter before diagnosis of infection because of slow multiplication of the pathogen. Purpose. This study evaluates multiple <span class="hlt">processing</span> interventi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol9-sec63-487.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol9-sec63-487.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... § 63.487 Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol11-sec63-1322.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol11-sec63-1322.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents. The owner or operator of a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol12-sec63-1322.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol12-sec63-1322.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1322 Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents. The owner or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol12-sec63-1322.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol12-sec63-1322.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents. The owner or operator of a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol12-sec63-1322.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol12-sec63-1322.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 63.1322 Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents. The owner or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol11-sec63-1322.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol11-sec63-1322.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents. The owner or operator of a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2497334','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2497334"><span>Divided versus selective attention: evidence for <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hahn, Britta; Wolkenberg, Frank A.; Ross, Thomas J.; Myers, Carol S.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Stein, Dan J.; Kurup, Pradeep K.; Stein, Elliot A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The current study revisited the question of whether there are brain mechanisms specific to divided attention that differ from those used in selective attention. Increased neuronal activity required to simultaneously <span class="hlt">process</span> two stimulus dimensions as compared with each separate dimension has often been observed, but rarely has activity induced by a divided attention condition exceeded the sum of activity induced by the component tasks. Healthy participants performed a selective-divided attention paradigm while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The task required participants to make a same-different judgment about either one of two simultaneously presented stimulus dimensions, or about both dimensions. Performance accuracy was equated between tasks by dynamically adjusting the stimulus display time. Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal differences between tasks were identified by whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons and by region-specific analyses of all areas modulated by the divided attention task (DIV). No region displayed greater activation or deactivation by DIV than the sum of signal change by the two selective attention tasks. Instead, regional activity followed the tasks’ <span class="hlt">processing</span> demands as reflected by reaction time. Only a left cerebellar region displayed a correlation between participants’ BOLD signal intensity and reaction time that was selective for DIV. The correlation was positive, reflecting slower responding with greater activation. Overall, the findings do not support the existence of functional brain activity specific to DIV. Increased activity appears to reflect additional <span class="hlt">processing</span> demands by introducing a secondary task, but those demands do not appear to qualitatively differ from <span class="hlt">processes</span> of selective attention. PMID:18479670</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18479670','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18479670"><span>Divided versus selective attention: evidence for <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> mechanisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hahn, Britta; Wolkenberg, Frank A; Ross, Thomas J; Myers, Carol S; Heishman, Stephen J; Stein, Dan J; Kurup, Pradeep K; Stein, Elliot A</p> <p>2008-06-18</p> <p>The current study revisited the question of whether there are brain mechanisms specific to divided attention that differ from those used in selective attention. Increased neuronal activity required to simultaneously <span class="hlt">process</span> two stimulus dimensions as compared with each separate dimension has often been observed, but rarely has activity induced by a divided attention condition exceeded the sum of activity induced by the component tasks. Healthy participants performed a selective-divided attention paradigm while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The task required participants to make a same-different judgment about either one of two simultaneously presented stimulus dimensions, or about both dimensions. Performance accuracy was equated between tasks by dynamically adjusting the stimulus display time. Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal differences between tasks were identified by whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons and by region-specific analyses of all areas modulated by the divided attention task (DIV). No region displayed greater activation or deactivation by DIV than the sum of signal change by the two selective attention tasks. Instead, regional activity followed the tasks' <span class="hlt">processing</span> demands as reflected by reaction time. Only a left cerebellar region displayed a correlation between participants' BOLD signal intensity and reaction time that was selective for DIV. The correlation was positive, reflecting slower responding with greater activation. Overall, the findings do not support the existence of functional brain activity specific to DIV. Increased activity appears to reflect additional <span class="hlt">processing</span> demands by introducing a secondary task, but those demands do not appear to qualitatively differ from <span class="hlt">processes</span> of selective attention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5844515','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5844515"><span>Uneven recombination rate and linkage disequilibrium across a <span class="hlt">reference</span> SNP map for <span class="hlt">common</span> bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Farmer, Andrew D.; Huang, Wei; Ambachew, Daniel; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Assefa, Teshale; Cannon, Steven B.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Recombination (R) rate and linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses are the basis for plant breeding. These vary by breeding system, by generation of inbreeding or outcrossing and by region in the chromosome. <span class="hlt">Common</span> bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a favored food legume with a small sequenced genome (514 Mb) and n = 11 chromosomes. The goal of this study was to describe R and LD in the <span class="hlt">common</span> bean genome using a 768-marker array of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) based on Trans-legume Orthologous Group (TOG) genes along with an advanced-generation Recombinant Inbred Line <span class="hlt">reference</span> mapping population (BAT93 x Jalo EEP558) and an internationally available diversity panel. A whole genome genetic map was created that covered all eleven linkage groups (LG). The LGs were linked to the physical map by sequence data of the TOGs compared to each chromosome sequence of <span class="hlt">common</span> bean. The genetic map length in total was smaller than for previous maps reflecting the precision of allele calling and mapping with SNP technology as well as the use of gene-based markers. A total of 91.4% of TOG markers had singleton hits with annotated Pv genes and all mapped outside of regions of resistance gene clusters. LD levels were found to be stronger within the Mesoamerican genepool and decay more rapidly within the Andean genepool. The recombination rate across the genome was 2.13 cM / Mb but R was found to be highly repressed around centromeres and frequent outside peri-centromeric regions. These results have important implications for association and genetic mapping or crop improvement in <span class="hlt">common</span> bean. PMID:29522524</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29202280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29202280"><span>No evidence for <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> of cognitive control and self-control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scherbaum, Stefan; Frisch, Simon; Holfert, Anna-Maria; O'Hora, Denis; Dshemuchadse, Maja</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Cognitive control and self-control are often used as interchangeable terms. Both terms <span class="hlt">refer</span> to the ability to pursue long-term goals, but the types of controlled behavior that are typically associated with these terms differ, at least superficially. Cognitive control is observed in the control of attention and the overcoming of habitual responses, while self-control is observed in resistance to short-term impulses and temptations. Evidence from clinical studies and neuroimaging studies suggests that below these superficial differences, <span class="hlt">common</span> control <span class="hlt">process</span> (e.g., inhibition) might guide both types of controlled behavior. Here, we study this hypothesis in a behavioral experiment, which interlaced trials of a Simon task with trials of an intertemporal decision task. If cognitive control and self-control depend on a <span class="hlt">common</span> control <span class="hlt">process</span>, we expected conflict adaptation from Simon task trials to lead to increased self-control in the intertemporal decision trials. However, despite successful manipulations of conflict and conflict adaptation, we found no evidence for this hypothesis. We investigate a number of alternative explanations of this result and conclude that the differences between cognitive control and self-control are not superficial, but rather reflect differences at the <span class="hlt">process</span> level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026002','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026002"><span>Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult <span class="hlt">common</span> carp from contaminated and <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites in Lake Mead, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral <span class="hlt">common</span> carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult <span class="hlt">common</span> carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a <span class="hlt">reference</span> site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the <span class="hlt">reference</span> site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=wall+AND+street+AND+journal&pg=3&id=ED518883','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=wall+AND+street+AND+journal&pg=3&id=ED518883"><span>Building a <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Resolution System Using Human Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span> for Inspiration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watters, Shana Kay</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>For over 30 years, <span class="hlt">reference</span> resolution, the <span class="hlt">process</span> of determining what a noun phrase including a pronoun <span class="hlt">refers</span> to in written and spoken language, has been an important and on-going area of research. Most existing pronominal <span class="hlt">reference</span> resolution algorithms and systems are designed to use syntactic information and surface features (e.g. number…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/956960','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/956960"><span>HYBRID SULFUR <span class="hlt">PROCESS</span> <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.</p> <p>2009-05-12</p> <p>This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, whilemore » also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New <span class="hlt">processes</span> are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these <span class="hlt">processes</span> under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical <span class="hlt">processes</span> that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.T51G0560L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.T51G0560L"><span>Spontaneous subduction at transform faults: <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> or outlier?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lallemand, S.; Abecassis, S.; Arcay, D.; Garel, F.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Spontaneous subduction is argued to occur mainly at transform faults, as a result of gravitational instability of the older plate in the absence of convergence, leading to subduction. Spontaneous subduction has been suggested for the initiation of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction zone, based on the occurrence of a specific magmatic sequence including forearc basalts and boninites. Some thermo-mechanical models have been designed to focus on gravitational instability but only of the colder plate present at the transform fault, restricting the study of conditions yielding spontaneous subduction. We perform a more general 2D parameteric study, by combining pseudo-brittle and ductile rheologies. We test the influence of the two plate ages but also the role and the rheological properties of the transform fault, assumed to be made of a weak layer (crust in our case). This crustal layer may also be present (or not) on top of plates. Slip is free on all sides of the simulation box. We observe three different behaviors depending on experimental set-up: overall static conductive cooling, spontaneous subduction of the colder plate, and spontaneous subduction of the younger lithosphere. Our results suggest that spontaneous subduction of the colder plate can occur only for a limited range of lithosphere age pairs and if the brittle strength of the oceanic crust is low enough. In any cases, this mode of subduction initiation yields an instantaneous slab rollback associated with an extremely fast trench retreat, resulting in upper plate extension and asthenosphere upwelling along the slab top up to the surface. Our first conclusion is that the set of conditions necessary to trigger spontaneous subduction is (extremely) rare in nature, so that this <span class="hlt">process</span> appears as an outlier. The second conclusion is that, when it occurs, spontaneous subduction initiation is close to catastrophic. This implies that the typical magmatic sequence including boninites should erupt within a limited</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V53B..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V53B..01C"><span>238U/235U determinations of some <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and U-bearing accessory minerals (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Condon, D.; Noble, S.; McLean, N.; Bowring, S. A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We have determined 238U/235U ratios for a suite of <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used natural (CRM 112a, SRM 950a, HU-1) and synthetic (IRMM 184 and CRM U500) uranium <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials in addition to several U-bearing accessory phases (zircon and monazite) by thermal ionisation mass-spectrometry (TIMS) using the IRMM 3636 233U-236U double spike to accurately correct for mass fractionation. The 238U/235U values for the natural uranium <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials differ, by up to 0.1%, from the widely used ‘consensus’ value (137.88) with all having 238U/235U values less than 137.88. Similarly, initial 238U/235U data from zircon and monazite yield 238U/235U values that are lower than the ‘consensus’ value. The data obtained from U-bearing minerals is used to assess how the uncertainty in the 238U/235U ratio contributes to the systematic discordance observed in 238U/206Pb and 235U/207Pb dates (Mattinson, 2000; Schoene et al., 2006) which has traditionally been wholly attributed to error in the U decay constants. The 238U/235U determinations made on the synthetic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials yield results that are considerably more precise and accurate than the certified values (0.02% vs. 0.1% for CRM U500). The calibration of isotopic tracers used for U-daughter geochronology that are partially based upon these <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, and the resultant age determinations, will benefit from increased accuracy and precision. Mattinson, J.M., 2000. Revising the “gold standard”—the uranium decay constants of Jaffey et al., 1971. Eos Trans. AGU, Spring Meet. Suppl., Abstract V61A-02. Schoene B., Crowley J.L., Condon D.C., Schmitz M.D., Bowring S.A., 2006, Reassessing the uranium decay constants for geochronology using ID-TIMS U-Pb data. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 426-445</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29107870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29107870"><span>Consent <span class="hlt">process</span> for US-based family <span class="hlt">reference</span> DNA samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katsanis, Sara H; Snyder, Lindsey; Arnholt, Kelly; Mundorff, Amy Z</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>DNA collection from family members of the missing is a tenet for missing persons' and mass fatality investigations. Procedures for consenting family members are disparate, depending on the context supporting the reason for sample collection. While guidelines and best practices have been developed for handling mass fatalities and for identification of the missing, these guidelines do not address standard consent practices for living family members of potential victims. We examined the relevant U.S. laws, international guidelines and best practices, sampled consent forms currently used for DNA collection of family members, and drafted model language for a consent form to communicate the required and recommended information. We modeled the consent form on biobank consenting practices and tested the consent language among students and the general population for constructive feedback and readability. We also asked respondents to consider the options for DNA collection and either hypothetically agree or disagree. The model language presented here highlights information important to relay in consent <span class="hlt">processes</span> and can serve as a foundation for future consent practices in mass fatalities and missing persons' investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol9-sec63-113.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol9-sec63-113.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.113 - <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.113 Section 63.113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.113 <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) The owner or operator of a Group 1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol10-sec63-487.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol10-sec63-487.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>...-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.487 Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol10-sec63-487.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol10-sec63-487.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>...-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.487 Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol10-sec63-487.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol10-sec63-487.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>...-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.487 Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol10-sec63-113.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol10-sec63-113.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.113 - <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.113 Section 63.113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.113 <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) The owner or operator of a Group 1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol10-sec63-113.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol10-sec63-113.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.113 - <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.113 Section 63.113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.113 <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) The owner or operator of a Group 1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol9-sec63-113.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol9-sec63-113.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.113 - <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.113 Section 63.113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.113 <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) The owner or operator of a Group 1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol10-sec63-113.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol10-sec63-113.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.113 - <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.113 Section 63.113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.113 <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) The owner or operator of a Group 1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=data+AND+automation&pg=3&id=EJ248955','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=data+AND+automation&pg=3&id=EJ248955"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Tools for Data <span class="hlt">Processing</span>, Office Automation, and Data Communications: An Introductory Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cupoli, Patricia Dymkar</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Provides an introduction to various <span class="hlt">reference</span> sources which are useful in dealing with the areas of data <span class="hlt">processing</span>, office automation, and communications technologies. A bibliography with vendor listings is included. (FM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol9-sec63-487.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol9-sec63-487.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.487 Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21756925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21756925"><span>Emotional self-<span class="hlt">reference</span>: brain structures involved in the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of words describing one's own emotions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herbert, Cornelia; Herbert, Beate M; Pauli, Paul</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the role of emotion-related (e.g., amygdala) and self-related brain structures (MPFC in particular) in the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of emotional words varying in stimulus <span class="hlt">reference</span>. Healthy subjects (N=22) were presented with emotional (pleasant or unpleasant) or neutral words in three different conditions: (1) self (e.g., my fear), (2) other (e.g., his fear) and (3) no <span class="hlt">reference</span> (e.g., the fear). <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of unpleasant words was associated with increased amygdala and also insula activation across all conditions. Pleasant stimuli were specifically associated with increased activation of amygdala and insula when related to the self (vs. other and no <span class="hlt">reference</span>). Activity in the MPFC (vMPFC in particular) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was preferentially increased during <span class="hlt">processing</span> of self-related emotional words (vs. other and no <span class="hlt">reference</span>). These results demonstrate that amygdala activation in response to emotional stimuli is modulated by stimulus <span class="hlt">reference</span> and that brain structures implicated in emotional and self-related <span class="hlt">processing</span> might be important for the subjective experience of one's own emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=self+AND+management+AND+skill&pg=4&id=EJ1123587','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=self+AND+management+AND+skill&pg=4&id=EJ1123587"><span>The "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages," the European Language Portfolio, and Language Teaching/Learning at University: An Argument and Some Proposals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Little, David</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>I begin this article by briefly explaining why I think CercleS should encourage university language centres to align their courses and assessment with the proficiency levels of the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" (CEFR) and why they should use a version of the European Language Portfolio (ELP) to support the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1081311.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1081311.pdf"><span>Teaching Writing within the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR): A Supplement Asynchronous Blended Learning Approach in an EFL Undergraduate Course in Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shaarawy, Hanaa Youssef; Lotfy, Nohayer Esmat</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Based on the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR) and following a blended learning approach (a supplement model), this article reports on a quasi-experiment where writing was taught evenly with other language skills in everyday language contexts and where asynchronous online activities were required from students to extend learning beyond…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H51A0787G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H51A0787G"><span><span class="hlt">Process</span>-based <span class="hlt">reference</span> conditions: An alternative approach for managed river systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grams, P.; Melis, T.; Wright, S.; Schmidt, J.; Topping, D.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Physical <span class="hlt">reference</span> conditions, whether based on historic information or the condition of nearby less impaired systems, provide necessary information that contributes to an assessment of stream condition and the nature of channel transformation. In many cases, however, the utility of this traditional '<span class="hlt">reference</span>' approach may end at the assessment stage and not be applicable to establishing and implementing restoration goals. Ongoing impacts such as continued existence of an upstream dam or the persistence of invasive vegetation may render restoration based on a physical <span class="hlt">reference</span> infeasible. In these circumstances, an alternative approach is to identify and describe <span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> in place of physical <span class="hlt">reference</span> conditions. This is the case for the Colorado River where large dams, a commitment to hydropower production, and legal mandates for regional distribution and off- channel consumption of water greatly reduce the relevance of historical conditions in setting goals for rehabilitation. In this setting, two strategies are available for setting <span class="hlt">reference</span> conditions. One is maintenance of post-dam sediment mass balance, which attempts to ensure that the channel does not continue to degrade or aggrade and that riverine habitats do not continue to diverge from their historical condition. Post- dam sediment mass balance can be quantified at a reconnaissance or project scale. The second strategy is to define key <span class="hlt">processes</span> that maintain the native ecosystem. These <span class="hlt">processes</span> may, or may not, be consistent with maintenance of sediment mass balance, but they may be key to rejuvenation of spawning and rearing habitats, maintenance of historical ranges of temperature and turbidity, maintenance of a sustainable food base for the native aquatic community, or maintaining other riverine resources. Both strategies require careful monitoring of <span class="hlt">processes</span> (e.g. sediment flux), which may add considerably to the cost and complexity of a monitoring program. An additional challenge</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2409101','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2409101"><span>Locomotion and posture from the <span class="hlt">common</span> hominoid ancestor to fully modern hominins, with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the last <span class="hlt">common</span> panin/hominin ancestor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Crompton, R H; Vereecke, E E; Thorpe, S K S</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Based on our knowledge of locomotor biomechanics and ecology we predict the locomotion and posture of the last <span class="hlt">common</span> ancestors of (a) great and lesser apes and their close fossil relatives (hominoids); (b) chimpanzees, bonobos and modern humans (hominines); and (c) modern humans and their fossil relatives (hominins). We evaluate our propositions against the fossil record in the context of a broader review of evolution of the locomotor system from the earliest hominoids of modern aspect (crown hominoids) to early modern Homo sapiens. While some early East African stem hominoids were pronograde, it appears that the adaptations which best characterize the crown hominoids are orthogrady and an ability to abduct the arm above the shoulder – rather than, as is often thought, manual suspension sensu stricto. At 7–9 Ma (not much earlier than the likely 4–8 Ma divergence date for panins and hominins, see Bradley, 2008) there were crown hominoids in southern Europe which were adapted to moving in an orthograde posture, supported primarily on the hindlimb, in an arboreal, and possibly for Oreopithecus, a terrestrial context. By 7 Ma, Sahelanthropus provides evidence of a Central African hominin, panin or possibly gorilline adapted to orthogrady, and both orthogrady and habitually highly extended postures of the hip are evident in the arboreal East African protohominin Orrorin at 6 Ma. If the traditional idea that hominins passed through a terrestrial ‘knuckle-walking’ phase is correct, not only does it have to be explained how a quadrupedal gait typified by flexed postures of the hindlimb could have preadapted the body for the hominin acquisition of straight-legged erect bipedality, but we would have to accept a transition from stem-hominoid pronogrady to crown hominoid orthogrady, back again to pronogrady in the African apes and then back to orthogrady in hominins. Hand-assisted arboreal bipedality, which is part of a continuum of orthograde behaviours, is used by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780044931&hterms=holograms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dholograms','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780044931&hterms=holograms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dholograms"><span>Electronic heterodyne recording and <span class="hlt">processing</span> of optical holograms using phase modulated <span class="hlt">reference</span> waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Decker, A. J.; Pao, Y.-H.; Claspy, P. C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The use of a phase-modulated <span class="hlt">reference</span> wave for the electronic heterodyne recording and <span class="hlt">processing</span> of a hologram is described. Heterodyne recording is used to eliminate the self-interference terms of a hologram and to create a Leith-Upatnieks hologram with coaxial object and <span class="hlt">reference</span> waves. Phase modulation is also shown to be the foundation of a multiple-view hologram system. When combined with hologram scale transformations, heterodyne recording is the key to general optical <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Spatial filtering is treated as an example.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25636165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25636165"><span>Selection of <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard during method development using the analytical hierarchy <span class="hlt">process</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Wan-yang; Tong, Ling; Li, Dong-xiang; Huang, Jing-yi; Zhou, Shui-ping; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kai-shun</p> <p>2015-03-25</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> standard is critical for ensuring reliable and accurate method performance. One important issue is how to select the ideal one from the alternatives. Unlike the optimization of parameters, the criteria of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard are always immeasurable. The aim of this paper is to recommend a quantitative approach for the selection of <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard during method development based on the analytical hierarchy <span class="hlt">process</span> (AHP) as a decision-making tool. Six alternative single <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards were assessed in quantitative analysis of six phenolic acids from Salvia Miltiorrhiza and its preparations by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The AHP model simultaneously considered six criteria related to <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard characteristics and method performance, containing feasibility to obtain, abundance in samples, chemical stability, accuracy, precision and robustness. The priority of each alternative was calculated using standard AHP analysis method. The results showed that protocatechuic aldehyde is the ideal <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard, and rosmarinic acid is about 79.8% ability as the second choice. The determination results successfully verified the evaluation ability of this model. The AHP allowed us comprehensive considering the benefits and risks of the alternatives. It was an effective and practical tool for optimization of <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards during method development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25078400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25078400"><span>A specific endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> for genetically modified <span class="hlt">common</span> bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) <span class="hlt">common</span> bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding <span class="hlt">common</span> bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span>. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 <span class="hlt">common</span> bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM <span class="hlt">common</span> bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM <span class="hlt">common</span> bean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhyD..369...47R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhyD..369...47R"><span>On <span class="hlt">common</span> noise-induced synchronization in complex networks with state-dependent noise diffusion <span class="hlt">processes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Russo, Giovanni; Shorten, Robert</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>This paper is concerned with the study of <span class="hlt">common</span> noise-induced synchronization phenomena in complex networks of diffusively coupled nonlinear systems. We consider the case where <span class="hlt">common</span> noise propagation depends on the network state and, as a result, the noise diffusion <span class="hlt">process</span> at the nodes depends on the state of the network. For such networks, we present an algebraic sufficient condition for the onset of synchronization, which depends on the network topology, the dynamics at the nodes, the coupling strength and the noise diffusion. Our result explicitly shows that certain noise diffusion <span class="hlt">processes</span> can drive an unsynchronized network towards synchronization. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of our result, we consider two applications: collective decision <span class="hlt">processes</span> and synchronization of chaotic systems. We explicitly show that, in the former application, a sufficiently large noise can drive a population towards a <span class="hlt">common</span> decision, while, in the latter, we show how <span class="hlt">common</span> noise can synchronize a network of Lorentz chaotic systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23054351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23054351"><span>The combined effects of self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> and ruminative responses on adolescent depression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Black, Stephanie Winkeljohn; Pössel, Patrick</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Adolescents who develop depression have worse interpersonal and affective experiences and are more likely to develop substance problems and/or suicidal ideation compared to adolescents who do not develop depression. This study examined the combined effects of negative self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> and rumination (i.e., brooding and reflection) on adolescent depressive symptoms. It was hypothesized that the interaction of negative self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> and brooding would significantly predict depressive symptoms, while the interaction of negative self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> and reflection would not predict depressive symptoms. Adolescents (n = 92; 13-15 years; 34.7% female) participated in a 6-month longitudinal study. Self-report instruments measured depressive symptoms and rumination; a cognitive task measured information <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Path modelling in Amos 19.0 analyzed the data. The interaction of negative information <span class="hlt">processing</span> and brooding significantly predicted an increase in depressive symptoms 6 months later. The interaction of negative information <span class="hlt">processing</span> and reflection did not significantly predict depression, however, the model not meet a priori standards to accept the null hypothesis. Results suggest clinicians working with adolescents at-risk for depression should consider focusing on the reduction of brooding and negative information <span class="hlt">processing</span> to reduce long-term depressive symptoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dual+AND+processing+AND+theory&pg=7&id=EJ717977','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dual+AND+processing+AND+theory&pg=7&id=EJ717977"><span>The <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Cost of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Set Computation: Acquisition of Stress Shift and Focus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reinhart, Tanya</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> set computation -- the construction of a (global) comparison set to determine whether a given derivation is appropriate in context -- comes with a <span class="hlt">processing</span> cost. I argue that this cost is directly visible at the acquisition stage: In those linguistic areas in which it has been independently established that such computation is indeed…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227325"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> values of amino acids and of <span class="hlt">common</span> clinical chemistry in plasma of healthy infants aged 1 and 4 months.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Kainz, Alexander; Bachmann, Claude</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To compare plasma levels of amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters in healthy infants at 1 and 4 months of age and to establish corresponding <span class="hlt">reference</span> limits. Data of three multicenter studies assessing the safety of new infant formulas were used. During these studies infants of both age-groups were either breast-fed or received formulas of low or high protein content. All samples were analyzed centrally in the same accredited laboratory. Plasma was collected from 521 infants in total, 157 boys and 135 girls aged 1 month and 121 boys and 108 girls aged 4 months. At the age of 1 month, 62 infants had received exclusively breast milk, 198 exclusively formula, and 27 both; in the 4-months age group corresponding numbers were 49, 158 and 18, respectively; for 9 infants, diet was unknown. Concentrations of most amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters differed significantly between both ages. Regardless of age, most plasma amino acid levels were comparable or lower in breast-fed than in formula-fed infants whereas at 1 month of age most clinical chemistry parameters were higher. While in breast-fed infants the plasma urea concentration decreased over 4 months of age, it increased in formula-fed infants. There were significant differences between infants fed a low and high protein formula. At both ages, high protein formulas resulted in significantly higher threonine, 2-aminobutyrate, and urea concentrations. For clinical use, age- and diet specific <span class="hlt">reference</span> limits in infants are warranted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25115040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25115040"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of <span class="hlt">commonly</span> measured laboratory variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, Michael P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to determine <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals, perform longitudinal analyses, and determine the index of individuality (IoI) of 8 hematologic, and 13 biochemical and electrophoretic variables for a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). <span class="hlt">Reference</span> intervals were determined from blood samples collected during annual wellness examinations for 41 eagles (23 male and 18 female) with ages ranging between 6 and 43 years (18.7 +/- 7.4, mean +/- SD) at the time of sample collection. Longitudinal analyses and IoI were determined for measured hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic variables, both individually and as a group, for a subset of 16 eagles (10 male and 6 female) during a 12-year period. This smaller group of eagles ranged in age between 2 and 20 years at the start of the study period, and between 14 and 32 years (21.9 +/- 5.0, mean +/- SD) at the end of the study period. Significant increases with age within the group of 16 eagles were observed only for red blood cells, percent heterophils, total protein, and beta-globulin protein fraction, while albumin:globulin decreased significantly with age. A low IoI (> or = 1.4) was determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables except gamma globulins, which had high IoI (< or = 0.6) for 3 individuals within the subset of 16.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mediation&id=EJ1103179','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mediation&id=EJ1103179"><span>Developing Illustrative Descriptors of Aspects of Mediation for the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR): A Council of Europe Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>North, Brian; Piccardo, Enrica</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The notion of mediation has been the object of growing interest in second language education in recent years. The increasing awareness of the complex nature of the <span class="hlt">process</span> of learning--and teaching--stretches our collective reflection towards less explored areas. In mediation, the immediate focus is on the role of language in <span class="hlt">processes</span> like…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B3..819H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B3..819H"><span>Centimeter-Level Robust Gnss-Aided Inertial Post-<span class="hlt">Processing</span> for Mobile Mapping Without Local <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hutton, J. J.; Gopaul, N.; Zhang, X.; Wang, J.; Menon, V.; Rieck, D.; Kipka, A.; Pastor, F.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>For almost two decades mobile mapping systems have done their georeferencing using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) to measure position and inertial sensors to measure orientation. In order to achieve cm level position accuracy, a technique <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as post-<span class="hlt">processed</span> carrier phase differential GNSS (DGNSS) is used. For this technique to be effective the maximum distance to a single <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Station should be no more than 20 km, and when using a network of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Stations the distance to the nearest station should no more than about 70 km. This need to set up local <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Stations limits productivity and increases costs, especially when mapping large areas or long linear features such as roads or pipelines. An alternative technique to DGNSS for high-accuracy positioning from GNSS is the so-called Precise Point Positioning or PPP method. In this case instead of differencing the rover observables with the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Station observables to cancel out <span class="hlt">common</span> errors, an advanced model for every aspect of the GNSS error chain is developed and parameterized to within an accuracy of a few cm. The Trimble Centerpoint RTX positioning solution combines the methodology of PPP with advanced ambiguity resolution technology to produce cm level accuracies without the need for local <span class="hlt">reference</span> stations. It achieves this through a global deployment of highly redundant monitoring stations that are connected through the internet and are used to determine the precise satellite data with maximum accuracy, robustness, continuity and reliability, along with advance algorithms and receiver and antenna calibrations. This paper presents a new post-<span class="hlt">processed</span> realization of the Trimble Centerpoint RTX technology integrated into the Applanix POSPac MMS GNSS-Aided Inertial software for mobile mapping. Real-world results from over 100 airborne flights evaluated against a DGNSS network <span class="hlt">reference</span> are presented which show that the post-<span class="hlt">processed</span> Centerpoint RTX solution agrees with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EnOp...49.1388Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EnOp...49.1388Z"><span>Single-machine <span class="hlt">common</span>/slack due window assignment problems with linear decreasing <span class="hlt">processing</span> times</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xingong; Lin, Win-Chin; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Wu, Chin-Chia</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>This paper studies linear non-increasing <span class="hlt">processing</span> times and the <span class="hlt">common</span>/slack due window assignment problems on a single machine, where the actual <span class="hlt">processing</span> time of a job is a linear non-increasing function of its starting time. The aim is to minimize the sum of the earliness cost, tardiness cost, due window location and due window size. Some optimality results are discussed for the <span class="hlt">common</span>/slack due window assignment problems and two O(n log n) time algorithms are presented to solve the two problems. Finally, two examples are provided to illustrate the correctness of the corresponding algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737377','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737377"><span>Contribution of 32 GWAS-Identified <span class="hlt">Common</span> Variants to Severe Obesity in European Adults <span class="hlt">Referred</span> for Bariatric Surgery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yousseif, Ahmed; Pucci, Andrea; Santini, Ferruccio; Karra, Efthimia; Querci, Giorgia; Pelosini, Caterina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Batterham, Rachel L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The prevalence of severe obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥35.0 kg/m2, is rising rapidly. Given the disproportionately high health burden and healthcare costs associated with this condition, understanding the underlying aetiology, including predisposing genetic factors, is a biomedical research priority. Previous studies have suggested that severe obesity represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation, reflecting shared genetic factors operating across the spectrum. Here, we sought to determine whether a panel of 32 known <span class="hlt">common</span> obesity-susceptibility variants contribute to severe obesity in patients (n = 1,003, mean BMI 48.4±8.1 kg/m2) attending bariatric surgery clinics in two European centres. We examined the effects of these 32 <span class="hlt">common</span> variants on obesity risk and BMI, both as individual markers and in combination as a genetic risk score, in a comparison with normal-weight controls (n = 1,809, BMI 18.0–24.9 kg/m2); an approach which, to our knowledge, has not been previously undertaken in the setting of a bariatric clinic. We found strong associations with severe obesity for SNP rs9939609 within the FTO gene (P = 9.3×10−8) and SNP rs2815752 near the NEGR1 gene (P = 3.6×10−4), and directionally consistent nominal associations (P<0.05) for 12 other SNPs. The genetic risk score associated with severe obesity (P = 8.3×10−11) but, within the bariatric cohort, this score did not associate with BMI itself (P = 0.264). Our results show significant effects of individual BMI-associated <span class="hlt">common</span> variants within a relatively small sample size of bariatric patients. Furthermore, the burden of such low-penetrant risk alleles contributes to severe obesity in this population. Our findings support that severe obesity observed in bariatric patients represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation. Moreover, future genetic studies focused on bariatric patients may provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4684.1819L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4684.1819L"><span>From plastic to gold: a unified classification scheme for <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards in medical image <span class="hlt">processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehmann, Thomas M.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>Reliable evaluation of medical image <span class="hlt">processing</span> is of major importance for routine applications. Nonetheless, evaluation is often omitted or methodically defective when novel approaches or algorithms are introduced. Adopted from medical diagnosis, we define the following criteria to classify <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards: 1. Reliance, if the generation or capturing of test images for evaluation follows an exactly determined and reproducible protocol. 2. Equivalence, if the image material or relationships considered within an algorithmic <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard equal real-life data with respect to structure, noise, or other parameters of importance. 3. Independence, if any <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard relies on a different procedure than that to be evaluated, or on other images or image modalities than that used routinely. This criterion bans the simultaneous use of one image for both, training and test phase. 4. Relevance, if the algorithm to be evaluated is self-reproducible. If random parameters or optimization strategies are applied, reliability of the algorithm must be shown before the <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard is applied for evaluation. 5. Significance, if the number of <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard images that are used for evaluation is sufficient large to enable statistically founded analysis. We demand that a true gold standard must satisfy the Criteria 1 to 3. Any standard only satisfying two criteria, i.e., Criterion 1 and Criterion 2 or Criterion 1 and Criterion 3, is <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as silver standard. Other standards are termed to be from plastic. Before exhaustive evaluation based on gold or silver standards is performed, its relevance must be shown (Criterion 4) and sufficient tests must be carried out to found statistical analysis (Criterion 5). In this paper, examples are given for each class of <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072518"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> point indentation is insufficient for detecting alterations in traditional mechanical properties of bone under <span class="hlt">common</span> experimental conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krege, John B; Aref, Mohammad W; McNerny, Erin; Wallace, Joseph M; Organ, Jason M; Allen, Matthew R</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> point indentation (RPI) was developed as a novel method to assess mechanical properties of bone in vivo, yet it remains unclear what aspects of bone dictate changes/differences in RPI-based parameters. The main RPI parameter, indentation distance increase (IDI), has been proposed to be inversely related to the ability of bone to form/tolerate damage. The goal of this work was to explore the relationshipre-intervention RPI measurebetween RPI parameters and traditional mechanical properties under varying experimental conditions (drying and ashing bones to increase brittleness, demineralizing bones and soaking in raloxifene to decrease brittleness). Beams were machined from cadaveric bone, pre-tested with RPI, subjected to experimental manipulation, post-tested with RPI, and then subjected to four-point bending to failure. Drying and ashing significantly reduced RPI's IDI, as well as ultimate load (UL), and energy absorption measured from bending tests. Demineralization increased IDI with minimal change to bending properties. Ex vivo soaking in raloxifene had no effect on IDI but tended to enhance post-yield behavior at the structural level. These data challenge the paradigm of an inverse relationship between IDI and bone toughness, both through correlation analyses and in the individual experiments where divergent patterns of altered IDI and mechanical properties were noted. Based on these results, we conclude that RPI measurements alone, as compared to bending tests, are insufficient to reach conclusions regarding mechanical properties of bone. This proves problematic for the potential clinical use of RPI measurements in determining fracture risk for a single patient, as it is not currently clear that there is an IDI, or even a trend of IDI, that can determine clinically relevant changes in tissue properties that may contribute to whole bone fracture resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4862890','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4862890"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> point indentation is insufficient for detecting alterations in traditional mechanical properties of bone under <span class="hlt">common</span> experimental conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krege, John B.; Aref, Mohammad W.; McNerny, Erin; Wallace, Joseph M.; Organ, Jason M.; Allen, Matthew R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> point indentation (RPI) was developed as a novel method to assess mechanical properties of bone in vivo, yet it remains unclear what aspects of bone dictate changes/differences in RPI-based parameters. The main RPI parameter, indentation distance increase (IDI), has been proposed to be inversely related to the ability of bone to form/tolerate damage. The goal of this work was to explore the relationship between RPI parameters and traditional mechanical properties under varying experimental conditions (drying and ashing bones to increase brittleness, demineralizing bones and soaking in raloxifene to decrease brittleness). Beams were machined from cadaveric bone, pre-tested with RPI, subjected to experimental manipulation, post-tested with RPI, and then subjected to four-point bending to failure. Drying and ashing significantly reduced RPI’s IDI, as well as ultimate load (UL), and energy absorption measured from bending tests. Demineralization increased IDI with minimal change to bending properties. Ex vivo soaking in raloxifene had no effect on IDI but tended to enhance post-yield behavior at the structural level. These data challenge the paradigm of an inverse relationship between IDI and bone toughness, both through correlation analyses and in the individual experiments where divergent patterns of altered IDI and mechanical properties were noted. Based on these results, we conclude that RPI measurements alone, as compared to bending tests, are insufficient to reach conclusions regarding mechanical properties of bone. This proves problematic for the potential clinical use of RPI measurements in determining fracture risk for a single patient, as it is not currently clear that there is an IDI, or even a trend of IDI, that can determine clinically relevant changes in tissue properties that may contribute to whole bone fracture resistance. PMID:27072518</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26365506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26365506"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and distinct networks for self-referential and social stimulus <span class="hlt">processing</span> in the human brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herold, Dorrit; Spengler, Stephanie; Sajonz, Bastian; Usnich, Tatiana; Bermpohl, Felix</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Self-referential <span class="hlt">processing</span> is a complex cognitive function, involving a set of implicit and explicit <span class="hlt">processes</span>, complicating investigation of its distinct neural signature. The present study explores the functional overlap and dissociability of self-referential and social stimulus <span class="hlt">processing</span>. We combined an established paradigm for explicit self-referential <span class="hlt">processing</span> with an implicit social stimulus <span class="hlt">processing</span> paradigm in one fMRI experiment to determine the neural effects of self-relatedness and social <span class="hlt">processing</span> within one study. Overlapping activations were found in the orbitofrontal cortex and in the intermediate part of the precuneus. Stimuli judged as self-referential specifically activated the posterior cingulate cortex, the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, extending into anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex, the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, the ventral and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, the left inferior temporal gyrus, and occipital cortex. Social <span class="hlt">processing</span> specifically involved the posterior precuneus and bilateral temporo-parietal junction. Taken together, our data show, not only, first, <span class="hlt">common</span> networks for both <span class="hlt">processes</span> in the medial prefrontal and the medial parietal cortex, but also, second, functional differentiations for self-referential <span class="hlt">processing</span> versus social <span class="hlt">processing</span>: an anterior-posterior gradient for social <span class="hlt">processing</span> and self-referential <span class="hlt">processing</span> within the medial parietal cortex and specific activations for self-referential <span class="hlt">processing</span> in the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex and for social <span class="hlt">processing</span> in the temporo-parietal junction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3365060','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3365060"><span>DISCO-SCA and Properly Applied GSVD as Swinging Methods to Find <span class="hlt">Common</span> and Distinctive <span class="hlt">Processes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Van Deun, Katrijn; Van Mechelen, Iven; Thorrez, Lieven; Schouteden, Martijn; De Moor, Bart; van der Werf, Mariët J.; De Lathauwer, Lieven; Smilde, Age K.; Kiers, Henk A. L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background In systems biology it is <span class="hlt">common</span> to obtain for the same set of biological entities information from multiple sources. Examples include expression data for the same set of orthologous genes screened in different organisms and data on the same set of culture samples obtained with different high-throughput techniques. A major challenge is to find the important biological <span class="hlt">processes</span> underlying the data and to disentangle therein <span class="hlt">processes</span> <span class="hlt">common</span> to all data sources and <span class="hlt">processes</span> distinctive for a specific source. Recently, two promising simultaneous data integration methods have been proposed to attain this goal, namely generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) and simultaneous component analysis with rotation to <span class="hlt">common</span> and distinctive components (DISCO-SCA). Results Both theoretical analyses and applications to biologically relevant data show that: (1) straightforward applications of GSVD yield unsatisfactory results, (2) DISCO-SCA performs well, (3) provided proper pre-<span class="hlt">processing</span> and algorithmic adaptations, GSVD reaches a performance level similar to that of DISCO-SCA, and (4) DISCO-SCA is directly generalizable to more than two data sources. The biological relevance of DISCO-SCA is illustrated with two applications. First, in a setting of comparative genomics, it is shown that DISCO-SCA recovers a <span class="hlt">common</span> theme of cell cycle progression and a yeast-specific response to pheromones. The biological annotation was obtained by applying Gene Set Enrichment Analysis in an appropriate way. Second, in an application of DISCO-SCA to metabolomics data for Escherichia coli obtained with two different chemical analysis platforms, it is illustrated that the metabolites involved in some of the biological <span class="hlt">processes</span> underlying the data are detected by one of the two platforms only; therefore, platforms for microbial metabolomics should be tailored to the biological question. Conclusions Both DISCO-SCA and properly applied GSVD are promising integrative methods for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Organizational+AND+Culture+AND+Leadership%2c&pg=2&id=EJ1018971','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Organizational+AND+Culture+AND+Leadership%2c&pg=2&id=EJ1018971"><span>Developing <span class="hlt">Common</span> Measures in Evaluation Capacity Building: An Iterative Science and Practice <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Labin, Susan N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A fundamental reason for doing evaluation capacity building (ECB) is to improve program outcomes. Developing <span class="hlt">common</span> measures of outcomes and the activities, <span class="hlt">processes</span>, and factors that lead to these outcomes is an important step in moving the science and the practice of ECB forward. This article identifies a number of existing ECB measurement…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1726b0071K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1726b0071K"><span>Dependent Neyman type A <span class="hlt">processes</span> based on <span class="hlt">common</span> shock Poisson approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kadilar, Gamze Özel; Kadilar, Cem</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Neyman type A <span class="hlt">process</span> is used for describing clustered data since the Poisson <span class="hlt">process</span> is insufficient for clustering of events. In a multivariate setting, there may be dependencies between multivarite Neyman type A <span class="hlt">processes</span>. In this study, dependent form of the Neyman type A <span class="hlt">process</span> is considered under <span class="hlt">common</span> shock approach. Then, the joint probability function are derived for the dependent Neyman type A Poisson <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Then, an application based on forest fires in Turkey are given. The results show that the joint probability function of the dependent Neyman type A <span class="hlt">processes</span>, which is obtained in this study, can be a good tool for the probabilistic fitness for the total number of burned trees in Turkey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3722127','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3722127"><span>An ERP Study of the <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of <span class="hlt">Common</span> and Decimal Fractions: How Different They Are</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Li; Wang, Qi; Lin, Chongde; Ding, Cody; Zhou, Xinlin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study explored event-related potential (ERP) correlates of <span class="hlt">common</span> fractions (1/5) and decimal fractions (0.2). Thirteen subjects performed a numerical magnitude matching task under two conditions. In the <span class="hlt">common</span> fraction condition, a nonsymbolic fraction was asked to be judged whether its magnitude matched the magnitude of a <span class="hlt">common</span> fraction; in the decimal fraction condition, a nonsymbolic fraction was asked to be matched with a decimal fraction. Behavioral results showed significant main effects of condition and numerical distance, but no significant interaction of condition and numerical distance. Electrophysiological data showed that when nonsymbolic fractions were compared to <span class="hlt">common</span> fractions, they displayed larger N1 and P3 amplitudes than when they were compared to decimal fractions. This finding suggested that the visual identification for nonsymbolic fractions was different under the two conditions, which was not due to perceptual differences but to task demands. For symbolic fractions, the condition effect was observed in the N1 and P3 components, revealing stimulus-specific visual identification <span class="hlt">processing</span>. The effect of numerical distance as an index of numerical magnitude representation was observed in the P2, N3 and P3 components under the two conditions. However, the topography of the distance effect was different under the two conditions, suggesting stimulus specific semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span> of <span class="hlt">common</span> fractions and decimal fractions. PMID:23894491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITE..93..827O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITE..93..827O"><span>An Optimization System with Parallel <span class="hlt">Processing</span> for Reducing <span class="hlt">Common</span>-Mode Current on Electronic Control Unit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okazaki, Yuji; Uno, Takanori; Asai, Hideki</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, we propose an optimization system with parallel <span class="hlt">processing</span> for reducing electromagnetic interference (EMI) on electronic control unit (ECU). We adopt simulated annealing (SA), genetic algorithm (GA) and taboo search (TS) to seek optimal solutions, and a Spice-like circuit simulator to analyze <span class="hlt">common</span>-mode current. Therefore, the proposed system can determine the adequate combinations of the parasitic inductance and capacitance values on printed circuit board (PCB) efficiently and practically, to reduce EMI caused by the <span class="hlt">common</span>-mode current. Finally, we apply the proposed system to an example circuit to verify the validity and efficiency of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17934190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17934190"><span>Functional neuronal <span class="hlt">processing</span> of body odors differs from that of similar <span class="hlt">common</span> odors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lundström, Johan N; Boyle, Julie A; Zatorre, Robert J; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Visual and auditory stimuli of high social and ecological importance are <span class="hlt">processed</span> in the brain by specialized neuronal networks. To date, this has not been demonstrated for olfactory stimuli. By means of positron emission tomography, we sought to elucidate the neuronal substrates behind body odor perception to answer the question of whether the central <span class="hlt">processing</span> of body odors differs from perceptually similar nonbody odors. Body odors were <span class="hlt">processed</span> by a network that was distinctly separate from <span class="hlt">common</span> odors, indicating a separation in the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of odors based on their source. Smelling a friend's body odor activated regions previously seen for familiar stimuli, whereas smelling a stranger activated amygdala and insular regions akin to what has previously been demonstrated for fearful stimuli. The results provide evidence that social olfactory stimuli of high ecological relevance are <span class="hlt">processed</span> by specialized neuronal networks similar to what has previously been demonstrated for auditory and visual stimuli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009070','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009070"><span>Using NASA's <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture: Comparing Polar and Geostationary Data <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ullman, Richard; Burnett, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The JPSS and GOES-R programs are housed at NASA GSFC and jointly implemented by NASA and NOAA to NOAA requirements. NASA's role in the JPSS Ground System is to develop and deploy the system according to NOAA requirements. NASA's role in the GOES-R ground segment is to provide Systems Engineering expertise and oversight for NOAA's development and deployment of the system. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture is a document developed by NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards <span class="hlt">Process</span> Group that describes a NASA Earth Observing Mission Ground system as a generic abstraction. The authors work within the respective ground segment projects and are also separately contributors to the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture document. Opinions expressed are the author's only and are not NOAA, NASA or the Ground Projects' official positions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1007868','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1007868"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> conditions for giant sequoia forest restoration: structure, <span class="hlt">process</span>, and precision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stephenson, Nathan L.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>National Park Service policy directs that more natural conditions be restored to giant sequoia groves, which have been altered by a century of fire exclusion. Efforts to find a reasonable and practical definition of “natural” have helped drive scientists and land managers to use past grove conditions as <span class="hlt">reference</span> conditions for restoration. Extensive research aimed at determining <span class="hlt">reference</span> conditions has demonstrated that past fire regimes can be characterized with greater precision than past grove structures. Difficulty and imprecision in determining past grove structure has helped fuel a debate between “structural restorationists,” who believe that forest structure should be restored mechanically before fire is reintroduced, and “<span class="hlt">process</span> restorationists,” who believe that simple reintroduction of fire is appropriate. I evaluate old and new studies from sequoia groves to show that some of the arguments of both groups have been flawed. Importantly, it appears that restoration of fire without a preceding mechanical restoration may restore the pre-Euro-American structure of sequoia groves, at least within the bounds of our imprecise knowledge of past grove structure. However, the same may not be true for all forest types that have experienced lengthy fire exclusion. Our ability to draw robust generalizations about fire's role in forest restoration will depend heavily on a thorough understanding of past and present interactions among climate, fire, and forest structure. Use of <span class="hlt">reference</span> conditions will be central to developing this understanding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5217473','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5217473"><span>A psychometric investigation of gender differences and <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> across Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chun, Seokjoon; Harris, Alexa; Carrion, Margely; Rojas, Elizabeth; Stark, Stephen; Lejuez, Carl; Lechner, William V.; Bornovalova, Marina A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The comorbidity between Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is well-established, and the two disorders share many similarities. However, there are also differences across disorders: most notably, BPD is diagnosed more frequently in females and ASPD in males. We investigated if a) comorbidity between BPD and ASPD is attributable to two discrete disorders or the expression of <span class="hlt">common</span> underlying <span class="hlt">processes</span>, and b) if the model of comorbidity is true across sex. Using a clinical sample of 1400 drug users in residential substance abuse treatment, we tested three competing models to explore whether the comorbidity of ASPD and BPD should be represented by a single <span class="hlt">common</span> factor, two correlated factors, or a bifactor structure involving a general and disorder-specific factors. Next, we tested whether our resulting model was meaningful by examining its relationship with criterion variables previously reported to be associated with BPD and ASPD. The bifactor model provided the best fit and was invariant across sex. Overall, the general factor of the bifactor model significantly accounted for a large percentage of the variance in criterion variables, whereas the BPD and AAB specific factors added little to the models. The association of the general and specific factor with all criterion variables was equal for males and females. Our results suggest <span class="hlt">common</span> underlying vulnerability accounts for both the comorbidity between BPD and AAB (across sex), and this <span class="hlt">common</span> vulnerability drives the association with other psychopathology and maladaptive behavior. This in turn has implications for diagnostic classification systems and treatment. General scientific summary This study found that, for both males and females, borderline and antisocial personality disorders show a large degree of overlap, and little uniqueness. The <span class="hlt">commonality</span> between BPD and ASPD mainly accounted for associations with criterion variables. This suggests that BPD and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28135902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28135902"><span>Mapping <span class="hlt">Common</span> Aphasia Assessments to Underlying Cognitive <span class="hlt">Processes</span> and Their Neural Substrates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Xing, Shihui; Fama, Mackenzie E; Turkeltaub, Peter E</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the <span class="hlt">processes</span> they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language <span class="hlt">process</span> impairments. To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used aphasia tests. Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained. Test scores were entered into a principal components analysis to extract the latent variables (factors) measured by the tests. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to localize lesions associated with the factor scores. The principal components analysis yielded 4 dissociable factors, which we labeled Word Finding/Fluency, Comprehension, Phonology/Working Memory Capacity, and Executive Function. While many tests loaded onto the factors in predictable ways, some relied heavily on factors not <span class="hlt">commonly</span> associated with the tests. Lesion symptom mapping demonstrated discrete brain structures associated with each factor, including frontal, temporal, and parietal areas extending beyond the classical language network. Specific functions mapped onto brain anatomy largely in correspondence with modern neural models of language <span class="hlt">processing</span>. An extensive clinical aphasia assessment identifies 4 independent language functions, relying on discrete parts of the left middle cerebral artery territory. A better understanding of the <span class="hlt">processes</span> underlying cognitive tests and the link between lesion and behavior may lead to improved aphasia diagnosis, and may yield treatments better targeted to an individual's specific pattern of deficits and preserved abilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4490127','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4490127"><span>Hemifield-dependent N1 and event-related theta/delta oscillations: An unbiased comparison of surface Laplacian and <span class="hlt">common</span> EEG <span class="hlt">reference</span> choices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Surface Laplacian methodology has been used to reduce the impact of volume conduction and arbitrary choice of EEG recording <span class="hlt">reference</span> for the analysis of surface potentials. However, the empirical implications of employing these different transformations to the same EEG data remain obscure. This study directly compared the statistical effects of four <span class="hlt">commonly</span>-used (nose, linked mastoids, average) or recommended (<span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode standardization technique [REST]) <span class="hlt">references</span> and their spherical spline current source density (CSD) transformation for a large data set stemming from a well-understood experimental manipulation. ERPs (72 sites) recorded from 130 individuals during a visual half-field paradigm with highly-controlled emotional stimuli were characterized by mid-parietooccipital N1 (125 ms peak latency) and event-related synchronization (ERS) of theta/delta (160 ms), which were most robust over the contralateral hemisphere. All five data transformations were rescaled to the same covariance and submitted to a single temporal or time-frequency PCA (Varimax) to yield simplified estimates of N1 or theta/delta ERS. Unbiased nonparametric permutation tests revealed that these hemifield-dependent asymmetries were by far most focal and prominent for CSD data, despite all transformations showing maximum effects at mid-parietooccipital sites. Employing smaller subsamples (signal-to-noise) or window-based ERP/ERS amplitudes did not affect these comparisons. Furthermore, correlations between N1 and theta/delta ERS at these sites were strongest for CSD and weakest for nose-referenced data. Contrary to the <span class="hlt">common</span> notion that the spatial high pass filter properties of a surface Laplacian reduce important contributions of neuronal generators to the EEG signal, the present findings demonstrate that instead volume conduction inherent in surface potentials weakens the representation of neuronal activation patterns at scalp that directly reflect regional brain activity. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15173679','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15173679"><span><span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> in the central nervous system's involvement with complementary medical therapies: limbic morphinergic <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Esch, Tobias; Guarna, Massimo; Bianchi, Enrica; Zhu, Wei; Stefano, George B</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Currently, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are experiencing growing popularity, especially in former industrialized countries. However, most of the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms as well as participating biological structures are still speculative. Specific and non-specific effects may play a role in CAM. Moreover, trust, belief, and expectation may be of importance, pointing towards <span class="hlt">common</span> central nervous system (CNS) pathways involved in CAM. Four CAM approaches (acupuncture, meditation, music therapy, and massage therapy) were examined with regard to the CNS activity pattern involved. CNS <span class="hlt">commonalities</span> between different approaches were investigated. Frontal/prefrontal and limbic brain structures play a role in CAM. Particularly, left-anterior regions of the brain and reward or motivation circuitry constituents are involved, indicating positive affect and emotion-related memory <span class="hlt">processing</span>--accompanied by endocrinologic and autonomic functions--as crucial components of CAM effects. Thus, trust and belief in a therapist or positive therapy expectations seem to be important. However, besides <span class="hlt">common</span> non-specific or subjective effects, specific (objective) physiological components also exist. Non-specific CNS <span class="hlt">commonalities</span> are involved in various CAM therapies. Different therapeutic approaches physiologically overlap in the brain. However, molecular correspondents of the detected CNS analogies still have to be specified. In particular, fast acting autoregulatory signaling molecules presumably play a role. These may also be involved in the placebo response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28561639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28561639"><span>Susceptibility of Salmonella Biofilm and Planktonic Bacteria to <span class="hlt">Common</span> Disinfectant Agents Used in Poultry <span class="hlt">Processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chylkova, Tereza; Cadena, Myrna; Ferreiro, Aura; Pitesky, Maurice</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Poultry contaminated with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica are a major cause of zoonotic foodborne gastroenteritis. Salmonella Heidelberg is a <span class="hlt">common</span> serotype of Salmonella that has been implicated as a foodborne pathogen associated with the consumption of improperly prepared chicken. To better understand the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">common</span> antimicrobial disinfectants (i.e., peroxyacetic acid [PAA], acidified hypochlorite [aCH], and cetylpyridinium chloride [CPC]), environmental isolates of nontyphoidal Salmonella were exposed to these agents under temperature, concentration, and contact time conditions consistent with poultry <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Under simulated <span class="hlt">processing</span> conditions (i.e., chiller tank and dipping stations), the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of each disinfectant were assessed against biofilm and planktonic cultures of each organism in a disinfectant challenge. Log reductions, planktonic MICs, and mean biofilm eradication concentrations were computed. The biofilms of each Salmonella isolate were more resistant to the disinfectants than were their planktonic counterparts. Although PAA was bacteriostatic and bactericidal against the biofilm and planktonic Salmonella isolates tested at concentrations up to 64 times the concentrations <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used in a chiller tank during poultry <span class="hlt">processing</span>, aCH was ineffective against the same isolates under identical conditions. At the simulated 8-s dipping station, CPC was bacteriostatic against all seven and bactericidal against six of the seven Salmonella isolates in their biofilm forms at concentrations within the regulatory range. These results indicate that at the current contact times and concentrations, aCH and PAA are not effective against these Salmonella isolates in their biofilm state. The use of CPC should be considered as a tool for controlling Salmonella biofilms in poultry <span class="hlt">processing</span> environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AdSpR..61.2418S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AdSpR..61.2418S"><span>Application of time-variable <span class="hlt">process</span> noise in terrestrial <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames determined from VLBI data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soja, Benedikt; Gross, Richard S.; Abbondanza, Claudio; Chin, Toshio M.; Heflin, Michael B.; Parker, Jay W.; Wu, Xiaoping; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Nilsson, Tobias; Glaser, Susanne; Karbon, Maria; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>In recent years, Kalman filtering has emerged as a suitable technique to determine terrestrial <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames (TRFs), a prime example being JTRF2014. The time series approach allows variations of station coordinates that are neither reduced by observational corrections nor considered in the functional model to be taken into account. These variations are primarily due to non-tidal geophysical loading effects that are not reduced according to the current IERS Conventions (2010). It is standard practice that the <span class="hlt">process</span> noise models applied in Kalman filter TRF solutions are derived from time series of loading displacements and account for station dependent differences. So far, it has been assumed that the parameters of these <span class="hlt">process</span> noise models are constant over time. However, due to the presence of seasonal and irregular variations, this assumption does not truly reflect reality. In this study, we derive a station coordinate <span class="hlt">process</span> noise model allowing for such temporal variations. This <span class="hlt">process</span> noise model and one that is a parameterized version of the former are applied in the computation of TRF solutions based on very long baseline interferometry data. In comparison with a solution based on a constant <span class="hlt">process</span> noise model, we find that the station coordinates are affected at the millimeter level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5690520','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5690520"><span>Evaluation of dose‐area product of <span class="hlt">common</span> radiographic examinations towards establishing a preliminary diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels (PDRLs) in Southwestern Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jibiri, Nnamdi N.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In Nigeria, a large number of radiographic examinations are conducted yearly for various diagnostic purposes. However, most examinations carried out do not have records of doses received by the patients, and the employed exposure parameters used are not documented; therefore, adequate radiation dose management is hindered. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dose‐area product (DAP) of patients examined in Nigeria, and to propose regional <span class="hlt">reference</span> dose levels for nine <span class="hlt">common</span> examinations (chest PA, abdomen AP, pelvis AP, lumbar AP, skull AP, leg AP, knee AP, hand AP, and thigh AP) undertaken in Nigeria. Measurement of entrance surface dose (ESD) was carried out using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). Measured ESDS were converted into DAP using the beam area of patients in 12 purposely selected hospitals. Results of the study show that the maximum/minimum ratio ranged from 3 for thigh AP to 57 in abdomen AP. The range of determined mean and 75th percentile DAPs were 0.18–17.16, and 0.25–28.59 Gy cm2, respectively. Data available for comparison show that 75th percentile DAPs in this study (in chest PA, abdomen AP, pelvis AP, lumbar AP) are higher than NRPB‐HPE <span class="hlt">reference</span> values. The DAP in this study is higher by factor of 31.4 (chest PA), 9.9 (abdomen AP), 2.2 (pelvis AP), and 2.1 (lumbar AP) than NRPB‐HPE values. The relative higher dose found in this study shows nonoptimization of practice in Nigeria. It is expected that regular dose auditing and dose optimization implementation in Nigeria would lead to lower DAP value, especially in abdomen AP. The 75th percentile DAP distribution reported in this study could be taken as regional diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> level in the Southwestern Nigeria; however, a more extensive nationwide dose survey is required to establish national <span class="hlt">reference</span> dose. PACS number(s): 87.53.Bn, 87.59.B PMID:27929511</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27929511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27929511"><span>Evaluation of dose-area product of <span class="hlt">common</span> radiographic examinations towards establishing a preliminary diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels (PDRLs) in Southwestern Nigeria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jibiri, Nnamdi N; Olowookere, Christopher J</p> <p>2016-11-08</p> <p>In Nigeria, a large number of radiographic examinations are conducted yearly for various diagnostic purposes. However, most examinations carried out do not have records of doses received by the patients, and the employed exposure parameters used are not documented; therefore, adequate radiation dose management is hin-dered. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dose-area product (DAP) of patients examined in Nigeria, and to propose regional <span class="hlt">reference</span> dose levels for nine <span class="hlt">common</span> examinations (chest PA, abdomen AP, pelvis AP, lumbar AP, skull AP, leg AP, knee AP, hand AP, and thigh AP) undertaken in Nigeria. Measurement of entrance surface dose (ESD) was carried out using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). Measured ESDS were converted into DAP using the beam area of patients in 12 purposely selected hospitals. Results of the study show that the maximum/ minimum ratio ranged from 3 for thigh AP to 57 in abdomen AP. The range of determined mean and 75th percentile DAPs were 0.18-17.16, and 0.25-28.59 Gy cm2, respectively. Data available for comparison show that 75th percentile DAPs in this study (in chest PA, abdomen AP, pelvis AP, lumbar AP) are higher than NRPB-HPE <span class="hlt">reference</span> values. The DAP in this study is higher by factor of 31.4 (chest PA), 9.9 (abdomen AP), 2.2 (pelvis AP), and 2.1 (lumbar AP) than NRPB-HPE values. The relative higher dose found in this study shows nonoptimization of practice in Nigeria. It is expected that regular dose auditing and dose optimization implementation in Nigeria would lead to lower DAP value, especially in abdomen AP. The 75th percentile DAP distribution reported in this study could be taken as regional diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> level in the Southwestern Nigeria; however, a more extensive nationwide dose survey is required to establish national <span class="hlt">reference</span> dose. © 2016 The Authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3845374','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3845374"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> African cooking <span class="hlt">processes</span> do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elmore, Sarah E.; Mitchell, Nicole; Mays, Travis; Brown, Kristal; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Romoser, Amelia; Phillips, Timothy D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Aflatoxins are <span class="hlt">common</span> contaminants of staple crops, such as corn and groundnuts, and a significant cause of concern for food safety and public health in developing countries. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been implicated in the etiology of acute and chronic disease in humans and animals, including growth stunting, liver cancer and death. Cost effective and culturally acceptable intervention strategies for the reduction of dietary AFB1 exposure are of critical need in populations at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Fermented gruels consisting of cornmeal are a <span class="hlt">common</span> source for such exposure and are consumed by both children and adults in many countries with a history of frequent, high-level aflatoxin exposure. One proposed method to reduce aflatoxins in the diet is to include a selective enterosorbent, Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), as a food additive in contaminated foods. For UPSN to be effective in this capacity, it must be stable in complex, acidic mixtures that are often exposed to heat during the <span class="hlt">process</span> of fermented gruel preparation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to test the ability of UPSN to sorb aflatoxin while <span class="hlt">common</span> cooking conditions were applied. The influence of fermentation, heat treatment, acidity, and <span class="hlt">processing</span> time were investigated with and without UPSN. Analyses were performed using the field-practical Vicam assay with HPLC verification of trends. Our findings demonstrated that UPSN significantly reduced aflatoxin levels (47-100%) in cornmeal, regardless of <span class="hlt">processing</span> conditions. Upon comparison of each element tested, time appeared to be the primary factor influencing UPSN efficacy. The greatest decreases in AFB1 were reported in samples allowed to incubate (with or without fermentation) for 72 hrs. This data suggests that addition of UPSN to staple corn ingredients likely to contain aflatoxins would be a sustainable approach to reduce exposure. PMID:24311894</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24311894','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24311894"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> African cooking <span class="hlt">processes</span> do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elmore, Sarah E; Mitchell, Nicole; Mays, Travis; Brown, Kristal; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Romoser, Amelia; Phillips, Timothy D</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Aflatoxins are <span class="hlt">common</span> contaminants of staple crops, such as corn and groundnuts, and a significant cause of concern for food safety and public health in developing countries. Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) has been implicated in the etiology of acute and chronic disease in humans and animals, including growth stunting, liver cancer and death. Cost effective and culturally acceptable intervention strategies for the reduction of dietary AFB 1 exposure are of critical need in populations at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Fermented gruels consisting of cornmeal are a <span class="hlt">common</span> source for such exposure and are consumed by both children and adults in many countries with a history of frequent, high-level aflatoxin exposure. One proposed method to reduce aflatoxins in the diet is to include a selective enterosorbent, Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), as a food additive in contaminated foods. For UPSN to be effective in this capacity, it must be stable in complex, acidic mixtures that are often exposed to heat during the <span class="hlt">process</span> of fermented gruel preparation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to test the ability of UPSN to sorb aflatoxin while <span class="hlt">common</span> cooking conditions were applied. The influence of fermentation, heat treatment, acidity, and <span class="hlt">processing</span> time were investigated with and without UPSN. Analyses were performed using the field-practical Vicam assay with HPLC verification of trends. Our findings demonstrated that UPSN significantly reduced aflatoxin levels (47-100%) in cornmeal, regardless of <span class="hlt">processing</span> conditions. Upon comparison of each element tested, time appeared to be the primary factor influencing UPSN efficacy. The greatest decreases in AFB 1 were reported in samples allowed to incubate (with or without fermentation) for 72 hrs. This data suggests that addition of UPSN to staple corn ingredients likely to contain aflatoxins would be a sustainable approach to reduce exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23108370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23108370"><span>A target sample of adolescents and reward <span class="hlt">processing</span>: same neural and behavioral correlates engaged in <span class="hlt">common</span> paradigms?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nees, Frauke; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Steiner, Sabina; Mann, Karl; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Struve, Maren; Loth, Eva; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Adolescence is a transition period that is assumed to be characterized by increased sensitivity to reward. While there is growing research on reward <span class="hlt">processing</span> in adolescents, investigations into the engagement of brain regions under different reward-related conditions in one sample of healthy adolescents, especially in a target age group, are missing. We aimed to identify brain regions preferentially activated in a reaction time task (monetary incentive delay (MID) task) and a simple guessing task (SGT) in a sample of 14-year-old adolescents (N = 54) using two <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used reward paradigms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed during the MID with big versus small versus no win conditions and the SGT with big versus small win and big versus small loss conditions. Analyses focused on changes in blood oxygen level-dependent contrasts during reward and punishment <span class="hlt">processing</span> in anticipation and feedback phases. We found clear magnitude-sensitive response in reward-related brain regions such as the ventral striatum during anticipation in the MID task, but not in the SGT. This was also true for reaction times. The feedback phase showed clear reward-related, but magnitude-independent, response patterns, for example in the anterior cingulate cortex, in both tasks. Our findings highlight neural and behavioral response patterns engaged in two different reward paradigms in one sample of 14-year-old healthy adolescents and might be important for <span class="hlt">reference</span> in future studies investigating reward and punishment <span class="hlt">processing</span> in a target age group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27092350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27092350"><span>The use of a standardized gray <span class="hlt">reference</span> card in dental photography to correct the effects of five <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used diffusers on the color of 40 extracted human teeth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hein, Sascha; Zangl, Michael</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the color changes of human teeth caused by five different diffuser materials <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used in dental photography, as well as software influence, and to confirm whether the use of a standardized gray <span class="hlt">reference</span> card is effective in correcting these color changes during digital postproduction. Forty extracted human teeth were obtained from a specialized oral surgery practice in Cham, Germany. Five <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used diffuser materials were chosen to be investigated, which included: polyethylene (PET), White Frost photographic paper, LumiQuest polyamide (nylon) material, 80 gsm white printing paper, and 3M linear polarizing filter sheet used for cross polarization. A digital single-lens reflex camera (Canon EOS 5D MKII) was used, together with a twin flash suitable for macrophotography (Canon MT-24EX Macro Twin Lite). Images were tethered into Adobe Lightroom CC using the RAW format. A standardized gray <span class="hlt">reference</span> card (WhiBal, Michael Tapes Design) was used for exposure calibration and white balancing. Classic Color Me- ter software (Ricci Adams, version 1.6 (122)) was used to obtain CIE L*a*b* values of the specimens before and after white balancing and exposure correction. All diffusers caused visually perceivable color changes on the extracted teeth: White Frost (ΔE* 1.24; sd 0.47), 80 gsm printing paper (ΔE* 2.94; sd 0.35), LumiQuest polyamide (ΔE* 3.68; sd 0.54), PET (ΔE* 6.55; sd 0.41), and 3M linear polarizing filter sheet (ΔE* 7.58; sd 1.00). The use of a standardized gray <span class="hlt">reference</span> card (WhiBal) could correct these values below the visually perceivable threshold: White Frost (ΔE* 0.58; sd 0.36), 80 gsm printing paper (ΔE* 0.93; sd 0.54), LumiQuest polyamide (ΔE* 0.66; sd 0.58), PET (ΔE* 0.59; sd 0.33), and 3M linear polarizing filter sheet (ΔE* 0.53; sd 0.42). The use of a standardized gray <span class="hlt">reference</span> card with specified CIE L*a*b* values should be considered when diffusers are used in dental photography in</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844275"><span>Natural antioxidant activity of <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed plant foods in India: effect of domestic <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sreeramulu, D; Reddy, C V K; Chauhan, Anitha; Balakrishna, N; Raghunath, M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Phytochemicals protect against oxidative stress which in turn helps in maintaining the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. In recent times natural antioxidants are gaining considerable interest among nutritionists, food manufacturers, and consumers because of their perceived safety, potential therapeutic value, and long shelf life. Plant foods are known to protect against degenerative diseases and ageing due to their antioxidant activity (AOA) attributed to their high polyphenolic content (PC). Data on AOA and PC of Indian plant foods is scanty. Therefore we have determined the antioxidant activity in 107 <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed Indian plant foods and assessed their relation to their PC. Antioxidant activity is presented as the range of values for each of the food groups. The foods studied had good amounts of PC and AOA although they belonged to different food groups. Interestingly, significant correlation was observed between AOA (DPPH and FRAP) and PC in most of the foods, corroborating the literature that polyphenols are potent antioxidants and that they may be important contributors to the AOA of the plant foods. We have also observed that <span class="hlt">common</span> domestic methods of <span class="hlt">processing</span> may not affect the PC and AOA of the foods studied in general. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results of the kind in <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed Indian plant foods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5393922','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5393922"><span>Mapping <span class="hlt">common</span> aphasia assessments to underlying cognitive <span class="hlt">processes</span> and their neural substrates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Skipper-Kallal, LM; Xing, S; Fama, ME; Turkeltaub, PE</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the <span class="hlt">processes</span> they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language <span class="hlt">process</span> impairments. Objective To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used aphasia tests. Methods 25 behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high resolution MRI was obtained. Test scores were entered into a principal components analysis to extract the latent variables (factors) measured by the tests. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to localize lesions associated with the factor scores. Results The principal components analysis yielded four dissociable factors, which we labeled Word Finding/Fluency, Comprehension, Phonology/Working Memory Capacity, and Executive Function. While many tests loaded onto the factors in predictable ways, some relied heavily on factors not <span class="hlt">commonly</span> associated with the tests. Lesion symptom mapping demonstrated discrete brain structures associated with each factor, including frontal, temporal, and parietal areas extending beyond the classical language network. Specific functions mapped onto brain anatomy largely in correspondence with modern neural models of language <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Conclusions An extensive clinical aphasia assessment identifies four independent language functions, relying on discrete parts of the left middle cerebral artery territory. A better understanding of the <span class="hlt">processes</span> underlying cognitive tests and the link between lesion and behavior may lead to improved aphasia diagnosis, and may yield treatments better targeted to an individual’s specific pattern of deficits and preserved abilities. PMID:28135902</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21843538','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21843538"><span>Neural correlates of the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> emotional information in bulimia nervosa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pringle, A; Ashworth, F; Harmer, C J; Norbury, R; Cooper, M J</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>There is increasing interest in understanding the roles of distorted beliefs about the self, ostensibly unrelated to eating, weight and shape, in eating disorders (EDs), but little is known about their neural correlates. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span> in EDs. During the scan, unmedicated patients with bulimia nervosa (n=11) and healthy controls (n=16) responded to personality words previously found to be related to negative self beliefs in EDs and depression. Rating of the negative personality descriptors resulted in reduced activation in patients compared to controls in parietal, occipital and limbic areas including the amygdala. There was no evidence that reduced activity in patients was secondary to increased cognitive control. Different patterns of neural activation between patients and controls may be the result of either habituation to personally relevant negative self beliefs or of emotional blunting in patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5354406','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5354406"><span>The spermatogenic <span class="hlt">process</span> of the <span class="hlt">common</span> vampire bat Desmodus rotundus under a histomorphometric view</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Puga, Luciano Carlos Heringer Porcaro; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rêgo; Freitas, Mariella Bontempo Duca; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Among all bat species, Desmodus rotundus stands out as one of the most intriguing due to its exclusively haematophagous feeding habits. However, little is known about their spermatogenic cycle. This study aimed at describing the spermatogenic <span class="hlt">process</span> of <span class="hlt">common</span> vampire bats through testicular histomorphometric characterization of adult specimens, spermatogenic production indexes, description of stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and estimative of the spermatogenic <span class="hlt">process</span> duration. Morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyzes for bromodeoxiuridine were conducted under light microscopy and ultrastructural analyzes were performed under transmission electron microscopy. Vampire bats showed higher investment in gonadal tissue (gonadosomatic index of 0.54%) and in seminiferous tubules (tubulesomatic index of 0.49%) when compared to larger mammals. They also showed a high tubular length per gram of testis (34.70 m). Approximately half of the intertubular compartment was found to be comprised by Leydig cells (51.20%), and an average of 23.77x106 of these cells was found per gram of testis. The germline cells showed 16.93% of mitotic index and 2.51% of meiotic index. The overall yield of spermatogenesis was 60% and the testicular spermatic reserve was 71.44x107 spermatozoa per gram of testis. With a total spermatogenesis duration estimated at 37.02 days, vampire bats showed a daily sperm production of 86.80x106 gametes per gram of testis. These findings demonstrate a high sperm production, which is <span class="hlt">commonly</span> observed in species with promiscuous mating system. PMID:28301534</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/10159844-radwaste-desk-reference-volume-part-processing-liquid-waste-final-report','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/10159844-radwaste-desk-reference-volume-part-processing-liquid-waste-final-report"><span>Radwaste desk <span class="hlt">reference</span> - Volume 3, Part 1: <span class="hlt">Processing</span> liquid waste. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Deltete, D.; Fisher, S.; Kelly, J.J.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>EPRI began, late in 1987, to produce a Radwaste Desk <span class="hlt">Reference</span> that would allow each of the member utilities access to the available information and expertise on radwaste management. EPRI considers this important because radwaste management involves a wide variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. These include chemical and mechanical engineering, chemistry, and health physics. Radwaste management also plays a role in implementing a wide variety of regulatory requirements. These include plant-specific technical specifications, NRC standards for protection against radiation, DOE transportation regulations and major environmental legislation such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. EPRI chose a question andmore » answer format because it could be easily accessed by radwaste professionals with a variety of interests. The questions were generated at two meetings of utility radwaste professionals and EPRI contractors. The names of the participants and their affiliation appear in the acknowledgments. The questions were organized using the matrix which appears in the introduction and below. During the writing phase, some questions were combined and new questions added. To aid the reader, each question was numbered and tied to individual Section Contents. An extensive index provides additional reader assistance. EPRI chose authors who are acknowledged experts in their fields and good communicators. Each author focused her or his energies on specific areas of radwaste management activities, thereby contributing to one or more volumes of the Radwaste Desk <span class="hlt">Reference</span>. Volume 1, which is already in publication, addresses dry active waste generation, <span class="hlt">processing</span> and measurement. Volume 2 addresses low level waste storage, transportation and disposal. This volume, Volume 3, is being issued in two parts. Part 1 concentrates on the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of liquid radioactive waste, whereas Part 2 addresses liquid waste management.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26927107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26927107"><span>Utilisation of Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors with Dissipation (QCM-D) for a Clauss Fibrinogen Assay in Comparison with <span class="hlt">Common</span> Coagulation <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Methods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oberfrank, Stephanie; Drechsel, Hartmut; Sinn, Stefan; Northoff, Hinnak; Gehring, Frank K</p> <p>2016-02-24</p> <p>The determination of fibrinogen levels is one of the most important coagulation measurements in medicine. It plays a crucial part in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions, often associated with time-critical conditions. The <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used measurement is the Clauss fibrinogen assay (CFA) where plasma is activated by thrombin reagent and which is conducted by mechanical/turbidimetric devices. As quartz crystal microbalance sensors with dissipation (QCM-D) based devices have a small footprint, can be operated easily and allow measurements independently from sample transportation time, laboratory location, availability and opening hours, they offer a great opportunity to complement laboratory CFA measurements. Therefore, the objective of the work was to (1) transfer the CFA to the QCM-D method; (2) develop an easy, time- and cost-effective procedure and (3) compare the results with <span class="hlt">references</span>. Different sensor coatings (donor's own plasma; gold surface) and different QCM-D parameters (frequency signal shift; its calculated turning point; dissipation signal shift) were sampled. The results demonstrate the suitability for a QCM-D-based CFA in physiological fibrinogen ranges. Results were obtained in less than 1 min and in very good agreement with a standardized <span class="hlt">reference</span> (Merlin coagulometer). The results provide a good basis for further investigation and pave the way to a possible application of QCM-D in clinical and non-clinical routine in the medical field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4813857','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4813857"><span>Utilisation of Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors with Dissipation (QCM-D) for a Clauss Fibrinogen Assay in Comparison with <span class="hlt">Common</span> Coagulation <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oberfrank, Stephanie; Drechsel, Hartmut; Sinn, Stefan; Northoff, Hinnak; Gehring, Frank K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The determination of fibrinogen levels is one of the most important coagulation measurements in medicine. It plays a crucial part in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions, often associated with time-critical conditions. The <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used measurement is the Clauss fibrinogen assay (CFA) where plasma is activated by thrombin reagent and which is conducted by mechanical/turbidimetric devices. As quartz crystal microbalance sensors with dissipation (QCM-D) based devices have a small footprint, can be operated easily and allow measurements independently from sample transportation time, laboratory location, availability and opening hours, they offer a great opportunity to complement laboratory CFA measurements. Therefore, the objective of the work was to (1) transfer the CFA to the QCM-D method; (2) develop an easy, time- and cost-effective procedure and (3) compare the results with <span class="hlt">references</span>. Different sensor coatings (donor’s own plasma; gold surface) and different QCM-D parameters (frequency signal shift; its calculated turning point; dissipation signal shift) were sampled. The results demonstrate the suitability for a QCM-D-based CFA in physiological fibrinogen ranges. Results were obtained in less than 1 min and in very good agreement with a standardized <span class="hlt">reference</span> (Merlin coagulometer). The results provide a good basis for further investigation and pave the way to a possible application of QCM-D in clinical and non-clinical routine in the medical field. PMID:26927107</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3125524','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3125524"><span>Transfer of Training between Music and Speech: <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processing</span>, Attention, and Memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Besson, Mireille; Chobert, Julie; Marie, Céline</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>After a brief historical perspective of the relationship between language and music, we review our work on transfer of training from music to speech that aimed at testing the general hypothesis that musicians should be more sensitive than non-musicians to speech sounds. In light of recent results in the literature, we argue that when long-term experience in one domain influences acoustic <span class="hlt">processing</span> in the other domain, results can be interpreted as <span class="hlt">common</span> acoustic <span class="hlt">processing</span>. But when long-term experience in one domain influences the building-up of abstract and specific percepts in another domain, results are taken as evidence for transfer of training effects. Moreover, we also discuss the influence of attention and working memory on transfer effects and we highlight the usefulness of the event-related potentials method to disentangle the different <span class="hlt">processes</span> that unfold in the course of music and speech perception. Finally, we give an overview of an on-going longitudinal project with children aimed at testing transfer effects from music to different levels and aspects of speech <span class="hlt">processing</span>. PMID:21738519</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21738519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21738519"><span>Transfer of Training between Music and Speech: <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processing</span>, Attention, and Memory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Besson, Mireille; Chobert, Julie; Marie, Céline</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>After a brief historical perspective of the relationship between language and music, we review our work on transfer of training from music to speech that aimed at testing the general hypothesis that musicians should be more sensitive than non-musicians to speech sounds. In light of recent results in the literature, we argue that when long-term experience in one domain influences acoustic <span class="hlt">processing</span> in the other domain, results can be interpreted as <span class="hlt">common</span> acoustic <span class="hlt">processing</span>. But when long-term experience in one domain influences the building-up of abstract and specific percepts in another domain, results are taken as evidence for transfer of training effects. Moreover, we also discuss the influence of attention and working memory on transfer effects and we highlight the usefulness of the event-related potentials method to disentangle the different <span class="hlt">processes</span> that unfold in the course of music and speech perception. Finally, we give an overview of an on-going longitudinal project with children aimed at testing transfer effects from music to different levels and aspects of speech <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5678947','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5678947"><span>Description of Defense Waste <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Facility <span class="hlt">reference</span> waste form and canister. Revision 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baxter, R.G.</p> <p>1983-08-01</p> <p>The Defense Waste <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Facility (DWPF) will be located at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, SC, and is scheduled for construction authorization during FY-1984. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> waste form is borosilicate glass containing approx. 28 wt % sludge oxides, with the balance glass frit. Borosilicate glass was chosen because of its high resistance to leaching by water, its relatively high solubility for nuclides found in the sludge, and its reasonably low melting temperature. The glass frit contains about 58% SiO/sub 2/ and 15% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Leachabilities of SRP waste glasses are expected to approach 10/sup -8/ g/m/sup 2/-day basedmore » upon 1000-day tests using glasses containing SRP radioactive waste. Tests were performed under a wide variety of conditions simulating repository environments. The canister is filled with 3260 lb of glass which occupies about 85% of the free canister volume. The filled canister will generate approx. 470 watts when filled with oxides from 5-year-old sludge and 15-year-old supernate from the sludge and supernate <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The radionuclide content of the canister is about 177,000 ci, with a radiation level of 5500 rem/h at canister surface contact. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> canister is fabricated of standard 24-in.-OD, Schedule 20, 304L stainless steel pipe with a dished bottom, domed head, and a combined lifting and welding flange on the head neck. The overall canister length is 9 ft 10 in. with a 3/8-in. wall thickness. The 3-m canister length was selected to reduce equipment cell height in the DWPF to a practical size. The canister diameter was selected as an optimum size from glass quality considerations, a logical size for repository handling and to ensure that a filled canister with its double containment shipping cask could be accommodated on a legal-weight truck. The overall dimensions and weight appear to be compatible with preliminary assessments of repository requirements. 10 <span class="hlt">references</span>.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3852350','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3852350"><span>Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> and Differences in the Semantic <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of Words and Objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Devereux, Barry J.; Clarke, Alex; Marouchos, Andreas; Tyler, Lorraine K.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the meanings of words and objects requires the activation of underlying conceptual representations. Semantic representations are often assumed to be coded such that meaning is evoked regardless of the input modality. However, the extent to which meaning is coded in modality-independent or amodal systems remains controversial. We address this issue in a human fMRI study investigating the neural <span class="hlt">processing</span> of concepts, presented separately as written words and pictures. Activation maps for each individual word and picture were used as input for searchlight-based multivoxel pattern analyses. Representational similarity analysis was used to identify regions correlating with low-level visual models of the words and objects and the semantic category structure <span class="hlt">common</span> to both. <span class="hlt">Common</span> semantic category effects for both modalities were found in a left-lateralized network, including left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LpMTG), left angular gyrus, and left intraparietal sulcus (LIPS), in addition to object- and word-specific semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span> in ventral temporal cortex and more anterior MTG, respectively. To explore differences in representational content across regions and modalities, we developed novel data-driven analyses, based on k-means clustering of searchlight dissimilarity matrices and seeded correlation analysis. These revealed subtle differences in the representations in semantic-sensitive regions, with representations in LIPS being relatively invariant to stimulus modality and representations in LpMTG being uncorrelated across modality. These results suggest that, although both LpMTG and LIPS are involved in semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span>, only the functional role of LIPS is the same regardless of the visual input, whereas the functional role of LpMTG differs for words and objects. PMID:24285896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24285896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24285896"><span>Representational similarity analysis reveals <span class="hlt">commonalities</span> and differences in the semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span> of words and objects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Devereux, Barry J; Clarke, Alex; Marouchos, Andreas; Tyler, Lorraine K</p> <p>2013-11-27</p> <p>Understanding the meanings of words and objects requires the activation of underlying conceptual representations. Semantic representations are often assumed to be coded such that meaning is evoked regardless of the input modality. However, the extent to which meaning is coded in modality-independent or amodal systems remains controversial. We address this issue in a human fMRI study investigating the neural <span class="hlt">processing</span> of concepts, presented separately as written words and pictures. Activation maps for each individual word and picture were used as input for searchlight-based multivoxel pattern analyses. Representational similarity analysis was used to identify regions correlating with low-level visual models of the words and objects and the semantic category structure <span class="hlt">common</span> to both. <span class="hlt">Common</span> semantic category effects for both modalities were found in a left-lateralized network, including left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LpMTG), left angular gyrus, and left intraparietal sulcus (LIPS), in addition to object- and word-specific semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span> in ventral temporal cortex and more anterior MTG, respectively. To explore differences in representational content across regions and modalities, we developed novel data-driven analyses, based on k-means clustering of searchlight dissimilarity matrices and seeded correlation analysis. These revealed subtle differences in the representations in semantic-sensitive regions, with representations in LIPS being relatively invariant to stimulus modality and representations in LpMTG being uncorrelated across modality. These results suggest that, although both LpMTG and LIPS are involved in semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span>, only the functional role of LIPS is the same regardless of the visual input, whereas the functional role of LpMTG differs for words and objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4486993','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4486993"><span>Validity of palpation of the C1 transverse <span class="hlt">process</span>: comparison with a radiographic <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cooperstein, Robert; Young, Morgan; Lew, Makani</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: Primary goal: to determine the validity of C1 transverse <span class="hlt">process</span> (TVP) palpation compared to an imaging <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard. Methods: Radiopaque markers were affixed to the skin at the putative location of the C1 TVPs in 21 participants receiving APOM radiographs. The radiographic vertical distances from the marker to the C1 TVP, mastoid <span class="hlt">process</span>, and C2 TVP were evaluated to determine palpatory accuracy. Results: Interexaminer agreement for radiometric analysis was “excellent.” Stringent accuracy (marker placed ±4mm from the most lateral projection of the C1 TVP) = 57.1%; expansive accuracy (marker placed closer to contiguous structures) = 90.5%. Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) = 4.34 (3.65, 5.03) mm; root-mean-squared error = 5.40mm. Conclusions: Manual palpation of the C1 TVP can be very accurate and likely to direct a manual therapist or other health professional to the intended diagnostic or therapeutic target. This work is relevant to manual therapists, anesthetists, surgeons, and other health professionals. PMID:26136601</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471250"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and distinct modulation of electrophysiological indices of feedback <span class="hlt">processing</span> by autistic and psychopathic traits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carter Leno, Virginia; Naples, Adam; Cox, Anthony; Rutherford, Helena; McPartland, James C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and psychopathy are primarily characterized by social dysfunction; overlapping phenotypic features may reflect altered function in <span class="hlt">common</span> brain mechanisms. The current study examined the degree to which neural response to social and nonsocial feedback is modulated by autistic versus psychopathic traits in a sample of typically developing adults (N = 31, 11 males, 18-52 years). Event-related potentials were recorded whilst participants completed a behavioral task and received feedback on task performance. Both autistic and psychopathic traits were associated with alterations in the neural correlates of feedback <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Sensitivity to specific forms of feedback (social, nonsocial, positively valenced, negatively valenced) differed between the two traits. Autistic traits were associated with decreased sensitivity to social feedback. In contrast, the antisocial domain of psychopathic traits was associated with an overall decrease in sensitivity to feedback, and the interpersonal manipulation domain was associated with preserved <span class="hlt">processing</span> of positively valenced feedback. Results suggest distinct alterations within specific mechanisms of feedback <span class="hlt">processing</span> may underlie similar difficulties in social behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406238"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and dissociable neural correlates associated with component <span class="hlt">processes</span> of inductive reasoning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jia, Xiuqin; Liang, Peipeng; Lu, Jie; Yang, Yanhui; Zhong, Ning; Li, Kuncheng</p> <p>2011-06-15</p> <p>The ability to draw numerical inductive reasoning requires two key cognitive <span class="hlt">processes</span>, identification and extrapolation. This study aimed to identify the neural correlates of both component <span class="hlt">processes</span> of numerical inductive reasoning using event-related fMRI. Three kinds of tasks: rule induction (RI), rule induction and application (RIA), and perceptual judgment (Jud) were solved by twenty right-handed adults. Our results found that the left superior parietal lobule (SPL) extending into the precuneus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were <span class="hlt">commonly</span> recruited in the two components. It was also observed that the fronto-parietal network was more specific to identification, whereas the striatal-thalamic network was more specific to extrapolation. The findings suggest that numerical inductive reasoning is mediated by the coordination of multiple brain areas including the prefrontal, parietal, and subcortical regions, of which some are more specific to demands on only one of these two component <span class="hlt">processes</span>, whereas others are sensitive to both. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18955906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18955906"><span>Perceptual grouping in the human brain: <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> of different cues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seymour, Kiley; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Himmelbach, Marc</p> <p>2008-12-03</p> <p>The perception of global scenes and objects consisting of multiple constituents is based on the integration of local elements or features. Gestalt grouping cues, such as proximity or similarity, can aid this <span class="hlt">process</span>. Using functional MRI we investigated whether grouping guided by different gestalt cues rely on distinct networks in the brain or share a <span class="hlt">common</span> network. Our study revealed that gestalt grouping involved the inferior parietal cortex, middle temporal gyrus and prefrontal cortex irrespective of the specific cue used. These findings agree with observations in neurological patients, which suggest that inferior parietal regions may aid the integration of local features into a global gestalt. Damage to this region results in simultanagnosia, a deficit in perceiving multiple objects and global scenes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8225804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8225804"><span>A framework for a <span class="hlt">process</span>-driven <span class="hlt">common</span> foundation programme for graduates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jasper, M; Rolfe, G</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>This paper discusses some of the problems encountered in writing a shortened <span class="hlt">Common</span> Foundation Programme in nursing for graduates, and outlines a course which takes as its starting point the particular educational needs and requirements of the student group. Thus, the first question to be addressed by the curriculum writers when designing the course was "How can we teach these students?", rather than "What can we teach them?". The resulting <span class="hlt">process</span>-driven course is heavily influenced by the student-centred philosophy of Carl Rogers, and utilizes a variety of large- and small-group methods to facilitate the students in gradually taking responsibility for, and making decisions about, their learning needs. The paper continues with some strategies for ensuring a smooth transition from a tutor-led, syllabus-driven start to the course, to a student-led, <span class="hlt">process</span>-driven finish for both the theoretical and clinical components, and for the assessment schedule. Finally, a student-centred approach to evaluation is briefly outlined, and the paper concludes by suggesting that the principles employed in designing and implementing this course could be successfully transferred to a wide variety of other educational settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16881258','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16881258"><span>Dynamic anticipatory <span class="hlt">processing</span> of hierarchical sequential events: a <span class="hlt">common</span> role for Broca's area and ventral premotor cortex across domains?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fiebach, Christian J; Schubotz, Ricarda I</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a domain-general model for the functional contribution of ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and adjacent Broca's area to perceptual, cognitive, and motor <span class="hlt">processing</span>. We propose to understand this frontal region as a highly flexible sequence processor, with the PMv mapping sequential events onto stored structural templates and Broca's Area involved in more complex, hierarchical or hypersequential <span class="hlt">processing</span>. This proposal is supported by <span class="hlt">reference</span> to previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating abstract sequence <span class="hlt">processing</span> and syntactic <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3668432','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3668432"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Production in Young Speakers with and without Autism: Effects of Discourse Status and <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arnold, Jennifer E.; Bennetto, Loisa; Diehl, Joshua J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We examine the referential choices (pronouns/zeros vs. names/descriptions) made during a narrative by high-functioning children and adolescents with autism and a well-matched typically developing control group. The <span class="hlt">process</span> of choosing appropriate <span class="hlt">referring</span> expressions has been proposed to depend on two areas of cognitive functioning: a) judging the attention and knowledge of one’s interlocutor, and b) the use of memory and attention mechanisms to represent the discourse situation. We predicted possible group differences, since autism is often associated with deficits in a) mentalizing and b) memory and attention, as well as a more general tendency to have difficulty with the pragmatic aspects of language use. Results revealed that some of the participants with autism were significantly less likely to produce pronouns or zeros in some discourse contexts. However, the difference was only one of degree. Overall, all participants in our analysis exhibited fine-grained sensitivity to the discourse context. Furthermore, referential choices for all participants were modulated by factors related to the cognitive effort of language production. PMID:19111285</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OptEn..51h1512W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OptEn..51h1512W"><span>Dynamic tracking down-conversion signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> method based on <span class="hlt">reference</span> signal for grating heterodyne interferometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Guochao; Yan, Shuhua; Zhou, Weihong; Gu, Chenhui</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Traditional displacement measurement systems by grating, which purely make use of fringe intensity to implement fringe count and subdivision, have rigid demands for signal quality and measurement condition, so they are not easy to realize measurement with nanometer precision. Displacement measurement with the dual-wavelength and single-grating design takes advantage of the single grating diffraction theory and the heterodyne interference theory, solving quite well the contradiction between large range and high precision in grating displacement measurement. To obtain nanometer resolution and nanometer precision, high-power subdivision of interference fringes must be realized accurately. A dynamic tracking down-conversion signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> method based on the <span class="hlt">reference</span> signal is proposed. Accordingly, a digital phase measurement module to realize high-power subdivision on field programmable gate array (FPGA) was designed, as well as a dynamic tracking down-conversion module using phase-locked loop (PLL). Experiments validated that a carrier signal after down-conversion can constantly maintain close to 100 kHz, and the phase-measurement resolution and phase precision are more than 0.05 and 0.2 deg, respectively. The displacement resolution and the displacement precision, corresponding to the phase results, are 0.139 and 0.556 nm, respectively.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.824a2049W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.824a2049W"><span>Mathematizing <span class="hlt">Process</span> of Junior High School Students to Improve Mathematics Literacy <span class="hlt">Refers</span> PISA on RCP Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wardono; Mariani, S.; Hendikawati, P.; Ikayani</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Mathematizing <span class="hlt">process</span> (MP) is the <span class="hlt">process</span> of modeling a phenomenon mathematically or establish the concept of a phenomenon. There are two mathematizing that is Mathematizing Horizontal (MH) and Mathematizing Vertical (MV). MH as events changes contextual problems into mathematical problems, while MV is the <span class="hlt">process</span> of formulation of the problem into a variety of settlement mathematics by using some appropriate rules. Mathematics Literacy (ML) is the ability to formulate, implement and interpret mathematics in various contexts, including the capacity to perform reasoning mathematically and using the concepts, procedures, and facts to describe, explain or predict phenomena incident. If junior high school students are conditioned continuously to conduct mathematizing activities on RCP (RME-Card Problem) learning, it will be able to improve ML that <span class="hlt">refers</span> PISA. The purpose of this research is to know the capability of the MP grade VIII on ML content shape and space with the matter of the cube and beams with RCP learning better than the scientific learning, upgrade MP grade VIII in the issue of the cube and beams with RCP learning better than the scientific learning in terms of cognitive styles reflective and impulsive the MP grade VIII with the approach of the RCP learning in terms of cognitive styles reflective and impulsive This research is the mixed methods model concurrent embedded. The population in this study, i.e., class VIII SMPN 1 Batang with sample two class. Data were taken with the observation, interviews, and tests and analyzed with a different test average of one party the right qualitative and descriptive. The results of this study demonstrate the capability of the MP student with RCP learning better than the scientific learning, upgrade MP with RCP learning better compare with scientific learning in term cognitive style of reflective and impulsive. The subject of the reflective group top, middle, and bottom can meet all the <span class="hlt">process</span> of MH indicators are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JEI....21d3012Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JEI....21d3012Z"><span>Decomposed multidimensional control grid interpolation for <span class="hlt">common</span> consumer electronic image <span class="hlt">processing</span> applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zwart, Christine M.; Venkatesan, Ragav; Frakes, David H.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Interpolation is an essential and broadly employed function of signal <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Accordingly, considerable development has focused on advancing interpolation algorithms toward optimal accuracy. Such development has motivated a clear shift in the state-of-the art from classical interpolation to more intelligent and resourceful approaches, registration-based interpolation for example. As a natural result, many of the most accurate current algorithms are highly complex, specific, and computationally demanding. However, the diverse hardware destinations for interpolation algorithms present unique constraints that often preclude use of the most accurate available options. For example, while computationally demanding interpolators may be suitable for highly equipped image <span class="hlt">processing</span> platforms (e.g., computer workstations and clusters), only more efficient interpolators may be practical for less well equipped platforms (e.g., smartphones and tablet computers). The latter examples of consumer electronics present a design tradeoff in this regard: high accuracy interpolation benefits the consumer experience but computing capabilities are limited. It follows that interpolators with favorable combinations of accuracy and efficiency are of great practical value to the consumer electronics industry. We address multidimensional interpolation-based image <span class="hlt">processing</span> problems that are <span class="hlt">common</span> to consumer electronic devices through a decomposition approach. The multidimensional problems are first broken down into multiple, independent, one-dimensional (1-D) interpolation steps that are then executed with a newly modified registration-based one-dimensional control grid interpolator. The proposed approach, decomposed multidimensional control grid interpolation (DMCGI), combines the accuracy of registration-based interpolation with the simplicity, flexibility, and computational efficiency of a 1-D interpolation framework. Results demonstrate that DMCGI provides improved interpolation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27153324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27153324"><span>Systemic Inflammation: Methodological Approaches to Identification of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Pathological <span class="hlt">Process</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zotova, N V; Chereshnev, V A; Gusev, E Yu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We defined Systemic inflammation (SI) as a "typical, multi-syndrome, phase-specific pathological <span class="hlt">process</span>, developing from systemic damage and characterized by the total inflammatory reactivity of endotheliocytes, plasma and blood cell factors, connective tissue and, at the final stage, by microcirculatory disorders in vital organs and tissues." The goal of the work: to determine methodological approaches and particular methodical solutions for the problem of identification of SI as a <span class="hlt">common</span> pathological <span class="hlt">process</span>. SI can be defined by the presence in plasma of systemic proinflammatory cell stress products-cytokines and other inflammatory mediators, and also by the complexity of other <span class="hlt">processes</span> signs. We have developed 2 scales: 1) The Reactivity Level scale (RL)-from 0 to 5 points: 0-normal level; RL-5 confirms systemic nature of inflammatory mediator release, and RL- 2-4 defines different degrees of event probability. 2) The SI scale, considering additional criteria along with RL, addresses more integral criteria of SI: the presence of ≥ 5 points according to the SI scale proves the high probability of SI developing. To calculate the RL scale, concentrations of 4 cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α) and C-reactive protein in plasma were examined. Additional criteria of the SI scale were the following: D-dimers>500ng/ml, cortisol>1380 or <100nmol/l, troponin I≥0.2ng/ml and/or myoglobin≥800ng/ml. 422 patients were included in the study with different septic (n-207) and aseptic (n-215) pathologies. In 190 cases (of 422) there were signs of SI (lethality 38.4%, n-73). In only 5 of 78 cases, lethality was not confirmed by the presence of SI. SI was registered in 100% of cases with septic shock (n-31). There were not significant differences between AU-ROC of CR, SI scale and SOFA to predict death in patients with sepsis and trauma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26218054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26218054"><span>Characteristics of Pediatric Performance on a Test Battery <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Used in the Diagnosis of Central Auditory <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weihing, Jeffrey; Guenette, Linda; Chermak, Gail; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzgerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Brenneman, Lauren; Musiek, Frank</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although central auditory <span class="hlt">processing</span> disorder (CAPD) test battery performance has been examined in adults with neurologic lesions of the central auditory nervous system (CANS), similar data on children being <span class="hlt">referred</span> for CAPD evaluations are sparse. This study characterizes CAPD test battery performance in children using tests <span class="hlt">commonly</span> administered to diagnose the disorder. Specifically, this study describes failure rates for various test combinations, relationships between CAPD tests used in the battery, and the influence of cognitive function on CAPD test performance and CAPD diagnosis. A comparison is also made between the performance of children with CAPD and data from patients with neurologic lesions of the CANS. A retrospective study. Fifty-six pediatric patients were <span class="hlt">referred</span> for CAPD testing. Participants were administered four CAPD tests, including frequency patterns (FP), low-pass filtered speech (LPFS), dichotic digits (DD), and competing sentences (CS). In addition, they were given the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Descriptive analyses examined the failure rates of various test combinations, as well as how often children with CAPD failed certain combinations when compared with adults with CANS lesions. A principal components analysis was performed to examine interrelationships between tests. Correlations and regressions were conducted to determine the relationship between CAPD test performance and the WISC. Results showed that the FP and LPFS tests were most <span class="hlt">commonly</span> failed by children with CAPD. Two-test combinations that included one or both of these two tests and excluded DD tended to be failed more often. Including the DD and CS test in a battery benefited specificity. Tests thought to measure interhemispheric transfer tended to be correlated. Compared with adult patients with neurologic lesions, children with CAPD tended to fail LPFS more frequently and DD less frequently. Both groups failed FP with relatively equal frequency</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19864328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19864328"><span>Estimation of skin entrance doses (SEDs) for <span class="hlt">common</span> medical X-ray diagnostic examinations in India and proposed diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels (DRLs).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sonawane, A U; Shirva, V K; Pradhan, A S</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Skin entrance doses (SEDs) were estimated by carrying out measurements of air kerma from 101 X-ray machines installed in 45 major and selected hospitals in the country by using a silicon detector-based dose Test-O-Meter. 1209 number of air kerma measurements of diagnostic projections for adults have been analysed for seven types of <span class="hlt">common</span> diagnostic examinations, viz. chest (AP, PA, LAT), lumbar spine (AP, LAT), thoracic spine (AP, LAT), abdomen (AP), pelvis (AP), hip joints (AP) and skull (PA, LAT) for different film-screen combinations. The values of estimated diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels (DRLs) (third quartile values of SEDs) were compared with guidance levels/DRLs of doses published by the IAEA-BSS-Safety Series No. 115, 1996; HPA (NRPB) (2000 and 2005), UK; CRCPD/CDRH (USA), European Commission and other national values. The values of DRLs obtained in this study are comparable with the values published by the IAEA-BSS-115 (1996); HPA (NRPB) (2000 and 2005) UK; EC and CRCPD/CDRH, USA including values obtained in previous studies in India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9668E..4WH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9668E..4WH"><span>CMOS compatible fabrication <span class="hlt">process</span> of MEMS resonator for timing <span class="hlt">reference</span> and sensing application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huynh, Duc H.; Nguyen, Phuong D.; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Skafidas, Stan; Evans, Robin</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> and timing control devices are ubiquitous in electronic applications. There is at least one resonator required for each of this device. Currently electromechanical resonators such as crystal resonator, ceramic resonator are the ultimate choices. This tendency will probably keep going for many more years. However, current market demands for small size, low power consumption, cheap and reliable products, has divulged many limitations of this type of resonators. They cannot be integrated into standard CMOS (Complement metaloxide- semiconductor) IC (Integrated Circuit) due to material and fabrication <span class="hlt">process</span> incompatibility. Currently, these devices are off-chip and they require external circuitries to interface with the ICs. This configuration significantly increases the overall size and cost of the entire electronic system. In addition, extra external connection, especially at high frequency, will potentially create negative impacts on the performance of the entire system due to signal degradation and parasitic effects. Furthermore, due to off-chip packaging nature, these devices are quite expensive, particularly for high frequency and high quality factor devices. To address these issues, researchers have been intensively studying on an alternative for type of resonator by utilizing the new emerging MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology. Recent progress in this field has demonstrated a MEMS resonator with resonant frequency of 2.97 GHz and quality factor (measured in vacuum) of 42900. Despite this great achievement, this prototype is still far from being fully integrated into CMOS system due to incompatibility in fabrication <span class="hlt">process</span> and its high series motional impedance. On the other hand, fully integrated MEMS resonator had been demonstrated but at lower frequency and quality factor. We propose a design and fabrication <span class="hlt">process</span> for a low cost, high frequency and a high quality MEMS resonator, which can be integrated into a standard</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29487448','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29487448"><span>Elucidating potential utilization of Portuguese <span class="hlt">common</span> bean varieties in rice based <span class="hlt">processed</span> foods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carbas, Bruna; Pathania, Shivani; Castanho, Ana; Lourenço, Diana; Veiga, Isabel Mota; Patto, Maria Carlota Vaz; Brites, Carla</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The present study was aimed at studying the physico-chemical and functional properties of 31 Portuguese <span class="hlt">common</span> bean varieties. In addition, the whole bean flours (WBF) and starch isolates (SI) of three representative bean varieties and their rice: bean blends (70:30; 50:50) were assessed for amylose content, thermal and pasting properties in view of supplementation in rice based <span class="hlt">processed</span> foods. Bean varieties showed significant differences in protein content (20.78-27.10%), fat content (1.16-2.18%), hydration capacity (95.90-149.30%), unhydrated seeds (4.00-40.00%), γ tocopherol (3.20-98.05 mg/100 g fat), δ tocopherol (0.06-4.72 mg/100 g fat) and pasting behavior. Amylose content of WBF (11.4-20.2%) was significantly lower than rice flour (23.51%) whereas SI of beans (40.00-47.26%) had significantly higher amylose content than SI of rice (28.13%). DSC results showed that WBF (11.4-20.2 °C) had significantly broader and lower gelatinization temperature range (∆Tr) than corresponding SI (20.9-23.1 °C). WBF had significantly lower pasting viscosity due to low starch content and compositional matrix effect as compared to SI. Setback viscosities of WBF and rice: bean blends was lower than rice flour. Low setback viscosities of rice:bean blends may be used to prevent syneresis and stabilizing the quality of frozen foods in rice based <span class="hlt">processed</span> foods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G53B0929S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G53B0929S"><span>The UNAVCO Real-time GPS Data <span class="hlt">Processing</span> System and Community <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Data Sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sievers, C.; Mencin, D.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>UNAVCO has constructed a real-time GPS (RT-GPS) network of 420 GPS stations. The majority of the streaming stations come from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) through an NSF-ARRA funded Cascadia Upgrade Initiative that upgraded 100 backbone stations throughout the PBO footprint and 282 stations focused in the Pacific Northwest. Additional contributions from NOAA (~30 stations in Southern California) and the USGS (8 stations at Yellowstone) account for the other real-time stations. Based on community based outcomes of a workshop focused on real-time GPS position data products and formats hosted by UNAVCO in Spring of 2011, UNAVCO now provides real-time PPP positions for all 420 stations using Trimble's PIVOT software and for 50 stations using TrackRT at the volcanic centers located at Yellowstone (Figure 1 shows an example ensemble of TrackRT networks used in <span class="hlt">processing</span> the Yellowstone data), Mt St Helens, and Montserrat. The UNAVCO real-time system has the potential to enhance our understanding of earthquakes, seismic wave propagation, volcanic eruptions, magmatic intrusions, movement of ice, landslides, and the dynamics of the atmosphere. Beyond its increasing uses for science and engineering, RT-GPS has the potential to provide early warning of hazards to emergency managers, utilities, other infrastructure managers, first responders and others. With the goal of characterizing stability and improving software and higher level products based on real-time GPS time series, UNAVCO is developing an open community standard data set where data processors can provide solutions based on <span class="hlt">common</span> sets of RT-GPS data which simulate real world scenarios and events. UNAVCO is generating standard data sets for playback that include not only real and synthetic events but also background noise, antenna movement (e.g., steps, linear trends, sine waves, and realistic earthquake-like motions), receiver drop out and online return, interruption of communications (such as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27543806','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27543806"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span>-based indirect comparison meta-analysis of eslicarbazepine versus lacosamide as add on treatments for focal epilepsy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Milan, Alberto; Grillo, Elisabetta</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) and lacosamide (LCM) have recently emerged as add-on treatments in patients with focal epilepsy experiencing seizures despite adequate monotherapy. Both drugs enhance slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. To date no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has directly compared ESL with LCM as add-on treatments for focal epilepsy. Our aim was to indirectly compare the efficacy of ESL and LCM used as add-on treatments in patients with focal epilepsy using <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span>-based indirect comparison meta-analysis. We systematically searched RCTs in which ESL or LCM has been used as add-on treatment in patients with focal epilepsy and compared with placebo. Following outcomes were considered: ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency; seizure freedom; treatment withdrawal for any reason; ≥25% increase in seizure frequency. Random-effects Mantel-Haenszel meta-analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for the efficacy of ESL or LCM versus placebo. Adjusted indirect comparisons were then made between ESL and LCM using the obtained results, and comparing the minimum and the highest effective recommended daily dose of each drug. Eight studies were included. Indirect comparisons adjusted for dose-effect showed no difference between ESL and LCM for responder rate, seizure freedom, and withdrawal rates. We could not assess increase in seizure frequency due to lack of data. Indirect comparisons failed to find a significant difference in efficacy between add-on ESL and LCM in patients with focal epilepsy. Direct head-to-head clinical trials comparing ESL with LCM as add-on antiepileptic treatment are required to confirm these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20855295','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20855295"><span>Self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> modulates the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of emotional stimuli in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herbert, Cornelia; Pauli, Paul; Herbert, Beate M</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Self-referential evaluation of emotional stimuli has been shown to modify the way emotional stimuli are <span class="hlt">processed</span>. This study aimed at a new approach by investigating whether self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> alters emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span> in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions. Event-related potentials were measured while subjects spontaneously viewed a series of emotional and neutral nouns. Nouns were preceded either by personal pronouns ('my') indicating self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> or a definite article ('the') without self-<span class="hlt">reference</span>. The early posterior negativity, a brain potential reflecting rapid attention capture by emotional stimuli was enhanced for unpleasant and pleasant nouns relative to neutral nouns irrespective of whether nouns were preceded by personal pronouns or articles. Later brain potentials such as the late positive potential were enhanced for unpleasant nouns only when preceded by personal pronouns. Unpleasant nouns were better remembered than pleasant or neutral nouns when paired with a personal pronoun. Correlation analysis showed that this bias in favor of self-related unpleasant concepts can be explained by participants' depression scores. Our results demonstrate that self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> acts as a first <span class="hlt">processing</span> filter for emotional material to receive higher order <span class="hlt">processing</span> after an initial rapid attention capture by emotional content has been completed. Mood-congruent <span class="hlt">processing</span> may contribute to this effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3190208','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3190208"><span>Self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> modulates the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of emotional stimuli in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pauli, Paul; Herbert, Beate M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Self-referential evaluation of emotional stimuli has been shown to modify the way emotional stimuli are <span class="hlt">processed</span>. This study aimed at a new approach by investigating whether self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> alters emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span> in the absence of explicit self-referential appraisal instructions. Event-related potentials were measured while subjects spontaneously viewed a series of emotional and neutral nouns. Nouns were preceded either by personal pronouns (‘my’) indicating self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> or a definite article (‘the’) without self-<span class="hlt">reference</span>. The early posterior negativity, a brain potential reflecting rapid attention capture by emotional stimuli was enhanced for unpleasant and pleasant nouns relative to neutral nouns irrespective of whether nouns were preceded by personal pronouns or articles. Later brain potentials such as the late positive potential were enhanced for unpleasant nouns only when preceded by personal pronouns. Unpleasant nouns were better remembered than pleasant or neutral nouns when paired with a personal pronoun. Correlation analysis showed that this bias in favor of self-related unpleasant concepts can be explained by participants’ depression scores. Our results demonstrate that self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> acts as a first <span class="hlt">processing</span> filter for emotional material to receive higher order <span class="hlt">processing</span> after an initial rapid attention capture by emotional content has been completed. Mood-congruent <span class="hlt">processing</span> may contribute to this effect. PMID:20855295</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=286755','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=286755"><span>Gaussian <span class="hlt">process</span> models for <span class="hlt">reference</span> ET estimation from alternative meteorological data sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Accurate estimates of daily crop evapotranspiration (ET) are needed for efficient irrigation management, especially in arid and semi-arid regions where crop water demand exceeds rainfall. Daily grass or alfalfa <span class="hlt">reference</span> ET values and crop coefficients are widely used to estimate crop water demand. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25707445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25707445"><span>Information <span class="hlt">processing</span> biases concurrently and prospectively predict depressive symptoms in adolescents: Evidence from a self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> encoding task.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Connolly, Samantha L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Negative information <span class="hlt">processing</span> biases have been hypothesised to serve as precursors for the development of depression. The current study examined negative self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> and depressive symptoms in a community sample of adolescents (N = 291, Mage at baseline = 12.34 ± 0.61, 53% female, 47.4% African-American, 49.5% Caucasian and 3.1% Biracial). Participants completed a computerised self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> encoding task (SRET) and a measure of depressive symptoms at baseline and completed an additional measure of depressive symptoms nine months later. Several negative information <span class="hlt">processing</span> biases on the SRET were associated with concurrent depressive symptoms and predicted increases in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Findings partially support the hypothesis that negative information <span class="hlt">processing</span> biases are associated with depressive symptoms in a nonclinical sample of adolescents, and provide preliminary evidence that these biases prospectively predict increases in depressive symptoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=drosophila&pg=5&id=EJ762018','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=drosophila&pg=5&id=EJ762018"><span>Using Dragonflies as <span class="hlt">Common</span>, Flexible & Charismatic Subjects for Teaching the Scientific <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Switzer, Paul V.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Biology laboratories are usually designed around convenient and available subjects. For example, for animal laboratories "Daphnia magna," "Drosophila melanogaster," frogs, rats, and mice are <span class="hlt">common</span> animals that are relatively easy to obtain, relatively cheap, and consequently lend themselves well to laboratory experimentation. On many campuses, …</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Changes+AND+international+AND+schools&pg=6&id=EJ1102079','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Changes+AND+international+AND+schools&pg=6&id=EJ1102079"><span>Global Conceptualization of the Professional Learning Community <span class="hlt">Process</span>: Transitioning from Country Perspectives to International <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Huffman, Jane B.; Olivier, Dianne F.; Wang, Ting; Chen, Peiying; Hairon, Salleh; Pang, Nicholas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The authors seek to find <span class="hlt">common</span> PLC structures and actions among global educational systems to enhance understanding and practice. Six international researchers formed the Global Professional Learning Community Network (GloPLCNet), conducted literature reviews of each country's involvement with PLC actions, and noted similarities and common…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27099164','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27099164"><span>Towards a comprehensive atlas of cortical connections in a primate brain: Mapping tracer injection studies of the <span class="hlt">common</span> marmoset into a <span class="hlt">reference</span> digital template.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Majka, Piotr; Chaplin, Tristan A; Yu, Hsin-Hao; Tolpygo, Alexander; Mitra, Partha P; Wójcik, Daniel K; Rosa, Marcello G P</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The marmoset is an emerging animal model for large-scale attempts to understand primate brain connectivity, but achieving this aim requires the development and validation of procedures for normalization and integration of results from many neuroanatomical experiments. Here we describe a computational pipeline for coregistration of retrograde tracing data on connections of cortical areas into a 3D marmoset brain template, generated from Nissl-stained sections. The procedure results in a series of spatial transformations that are applied to the coordinates of labeled neurons in the different cases, bringing them into <span class="hlt">common</span> stereotaxic space. We applied this procedure to 17 injections, placed in the frontal lobe of nine marmosets as part of earlier studies. Visualizations of cortical patterns of connections revealed by these injections are supplied as Supplementary Materials. Comparison between the results of the automated and human-based <span class="hlt">processing</span> of these cases reveals that the centers of injection sites can be reconstructed, on average, to within 0.6 mm of coordinates estimated by an experienced neuroanatomist. Moreover, cell counts obtained in different areas by the automated approach are highly correlated (r = 0.83) with those obtained by an expert, who examined in detail histological sections for each individual. The present procedure enables comparison and visualization of large datasets, which in turn opens the way for integration and analysis of results from many animals. Its versatility, including applicability to archival materials, may reduce the number of additional experiments required to produce the first detailed cortical connectome of a primate brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2161-2181, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14681148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14681148"><span>Brain <span class="hlt">processing</span> of meter and rhythm in music. Electrophysiological evidence of a <span class="hlt">common</span> network.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuck, Heleln; Grossbach, Michael; Bangert, Marc; Altenmüller, Eckart</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>To determine cortical structures involved in "global" meter and "local" rhythm <span class="hlt">processing</span>, slow brain potentials (DC potentials) were recorded from the scalp of 18 musically trained subjects while listening to pairs of monophonic sequences with both metric structure and rhythmic variations. The second sequence could be either identical to or different from the first one. Differences were either of a metric or a rhythmic nature. The subjects' task was to judge whether the sequences were identical or not. During <span class="hlt">processing</span> of the auditory tasks, brain activation patterns along with the subjects' performance were assessed using 32-channel DC electroencephalography. Data were statistically analyzed using MANOVA. <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of both meter and rhythm produced sustained cortical activation over bilateral frontal and temporal brain regions. A shift towards right hemispheric activation was pronounced during presentation of the second stimulus. <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of rhythmic differences yielded a more centroparietal activation compared to metric <span class="hlt">processing</span>. These results do not support Lerdhal and Jackendoff's two-component model, predicting a dissociation of left hemispheric rhythm and right hemispheric meter <span class="hlt">processing</span>. We suggest that the uniform right temporofrontal predominance reflects auditory working memory and a pattern recognition module, which participates in both rhythm and meter <span class="hlt">processing</span>. More pronounced parietal activation during rhythm <span class="hlt">processing</span> may be related to switching of task-solving strategies towards mental imagination of the score.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+family+AND+relationships&pg=3&id=EJ872221','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+family+AND+relationships&pg=3&id=EJ872221"><span>Interaction and Communication in the <span class="hlt">Process</span> of Education and Shared <span class="hlt">Common</span> Area in the Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karadag, Engin; Caliskan, Nihat</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>School is an institution that plays a significant role in a child's life. Being an active employee in this institution, a teacher should be democratic, tender, patient, reliable and humorous to his/her students during the interaction and communication <span class="hlt">processes</span> so that the teaching and learning <span class="hlt">processes</span> are affected positively. It is important to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+AND+disabled+AND+students+AND+reading+AND+comprehension&pg=2&id=EJ766681','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+AND+disabled+AND+students+AND+reading+AND+comprehension&pg=2&id=EJ766681"><span>Is There a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Linkage among Reading Comprehension, Visual Attention, and Magnocellular <span class="hlt">Processing</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Solan, Harold A.; Shelley-Tremblay, John F.; Hansen, Peter C.; Larson, Steven</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The authors examined the relationships between reading comprehension, visual attention, and magnocellular <span class="hlt">processing</span> in 42 Grade 7 students. The goal was to quantify the sensitivity of visual attention and magnocellular visual <span class="hlt">processing</span> as concomitants of poor reading comprehension in the absence of either vision therapy or cognitive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16126337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16126337"><span>ARAMIS project: a comprehensive methodology for the identification of <span class="hlt">reference</span> accident scenarios in <span class="hlt">process</span> industries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Delvosalle, Christian; Fievez, Cécile; Pipart, Aurore; Debray, Bruno</p> <p>2006-03-31</p> <p>In the frame of the Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries (ARAMIS) project, this paper aims at presenting the work carried out in the part of the project devoted to the definition of accident scenarios. This topic is a key-point in risk assessment and serves as basis for the whole risk quantification. The first result of the work is the building of a methodology for the identification of major accident hazards (MIMAH), which is carried out with the development of generic fault and event trees based on a typology of equipment and substances. The term "major accidents" must be understood as the worst accidents likely to occur on the equipment, assuming that no safety systems are installed. A second methodology, called methodology for the identification of <span class="hlt">reference</span> accident scenarios (MIRAS) takes into account the influence of safety systems on both the frequencies and possible consequences of accidents. This methodology leads to identify more realistic accident scenarios. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> accident scenarios are chosen with the help of a tool called "risk matrix", crossing the frequency and the consequences of accidents. This paper presents both methodologies and an application on an ethylene oxide storage.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JTF....27..103L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JTF....27..103L"><span>Data <span class="hlt">processing</span> for GPS <span class="hlt">common</span> view time comparison between remote clocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Bian</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>GPS CV method will play an important role in JATC (joint atomic time of China) system which is being rebuilt. The selection of <span class="hlt">common</span> view data and the methods of filtering the random noise from the observed data are introduced. The methods to correct ionospheric delay and geometric delay for GPS CV comparison are expounded. The calculation results for the data of CV comparison between NTSC (National Time Service Conter, the Chinese Academy of Sciences) and CRL (Communications Research Laboratory, which has been renamed National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810019574','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810019574"><span>Materials <span class="hlt">processing</span> in space: A survey of <span class="hlt">referred</span> open literature publications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pentecost, E. (Compiler)</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Over 190 reports published in the open literature by workers in the materials <span class="hlt">processing</span> in space program are listed according to year as well as alphabetically by author. Thirty five reports submitted for publication are also cited. Supported either directly or indirectly by NASA, the research generally pertains to the influence (or lack of influence) of gravity on <span class="hlt">processes</span> involved in crystal growth, solidification, fluid transport, containerless phenomena, and various separation techniques of interest to the biomedical community. Studies of the possibilities of using the high vacuum in the wake of orbiting vehicles for performing <span class="hlt">processes</span> involving large heat loads and evolution of gases are also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1188896','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1188896"><span>Schizotypal thinking and associative <span class="hlt">processing</span>: a response <span class="hlt">commonality</span> analysis of verbal fluency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Duchêne, A; Graves, R E; Brugger, P</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: To determine whether people with high scores for schizotypal thinking generate more uncommon words in a letter fluency task than people with low scores. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University psychology department. PATIENTS: Forty healthy, right-handed students. INTERVENTIONS: Students were administered the Magical Ideation (MI) Scale and a 2-minute letter fluency task in which they named as many nouns as possible beginning with "A" or "F," in any order. OUTCOME MEASURES: Total number of words produced and percentage of unique, rare and <span class="hlt">common</span> words (as determined by the responses of the whole group); scores on MI scale. RESULTS: Participants with high scores (above the median) on the MI scale generated as many words as those who had low scores. People in both groups also generated a comparable number of unique words (named by only 1 person) and <span class="hlt">common</span> words (named by 6 or more people). As hypothesized, people with high scores on the MI scale generated more rare words (named by fewer than 6 people) than those with low scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the view of a disinhibition of semantic network functioning as the neuropsychological basis of creative thought, magical ideation and thought disorder. PMID:9505061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790012873','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790012873"><span>Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): <span class="hlt">Reference</span> design <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, D. D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The airplane design <span class="hlt">process</span> and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design <span class="hlt">process</span> management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70195568','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70195568"><span>Relationships between protein-encoding gene abundance and corresponding <span class="hlt">process</span> are <span class="hlt">commonly</span> assumed yet rarely observed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rocca, Jennifer D.; Hall, Edward K.; Lennon, Jay T.; Evans, Sarah E.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Cotner, James B.; Nemergut, Diana R.; Graham, Emily B.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For any enzyme-catalyzed reaction to occur, the corresponding protein-encoding genes and transcripts are necessary prerequisites. Thus, a positive relationship between the abundance of gene or transcripts and corresponding <span class="hlt">process</span> rates is often assumed. To test this assumption, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationships between gene and/or transcript abundances and corresponding <span class="hlt">process</span> rates. We identified 415 studies that quantified the abundance of genes or transcripts for enzymes involved in carbon or nitrogen cycling. However, in only 59 of these manuscripts did the authors report both gene or transcript abundance and rates of the appropriate <span class="hlt">process</span>. We found that within studies there was a significant but weak positive relationship between gene abundance and the corresponding <span class="hlt">process</span>. Correlations were not strengthened by accounting for habitat type, differences among genes or reaction products versus reactants, suggesting that other ecological and methodological factors may affect the strength of this relationship. Our findings highlight the need for fundamental research on the factors that control transcription, translation and enzyme function in natural systems to better link genomic and transcriptomic data to ecosystem <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=stressors+AND+adults&pg=6&id=EJ722433','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=stressors+AND+adults&pg=6&id=EJ722433"><span>Older Adults' Coping with Negative Life Events: <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processes</span> of Managing Health, Interpersonal, and Financial/Work Stressors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This study examined how older adults cope with negative life events in health, interpersonal, and financial/work domains and whether <span class="hlt">common</span> stress and coping <span class="hlt">processes</span> hold across these three domains. On three occasions, older adults identified the most severe negative event they faced in the last year and described how they appraised and coped…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1111236.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1111236.pdf"><span>Linking English-Language Test Scores onto the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: An Application of Standard-Setting Methodology. TOEFL iBT Research Report TOEFL iBt-06. ETS RR-08-34</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Wylie, E. Caroline</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR) describes language proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and listening on a 6-level scale. In this study, English-language experts from across Europe linked CEFR levels to scores on three tests: the TOEFL® iBT test, the TOEIC® assessment, and the TOEIC "Bridge"™ test.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=modern+AND+portfolio&pg=2&id=EJ1121286','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=modern+AND+portfolio&pg=2&id=EJ1121286"><span>The "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" and the European Language Portfolio: Some History, a View of Language Learner Autonomy, and Some Implications for Language Learning in Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Little, David</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article is based on a plenary talk given at the CercleS seminar hosted by the University of Groningen in November 2011 to mark the tenth anniversary of the publication of the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" and the launch of the European Language Portfolio. The first part of the article summarizes the history…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=photo+AND+image&pg=6&id=EJ943259','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=photo+AND+image&pg=6&id=EJ943259"><span>Are Depictive Gestures like Pictures? <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> and Differences in Semantic <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Ying Choon; Coulson, Seana</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Conversation is multi-modal, involving both talk and gesture. Does understanding depictive gestures engage <span class="hlt">processes</span> similar to those recruited in the comprehension of drawings or photographs? Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from neurotypical adults as they viewed spontaneously produced depictive gestures preceded by congruent…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=military+AND+spending&pg=3&id=ED243778','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=military+AND+spending&pg=3&id=ED243778"><span>Defense Dollars and Sense: A <span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Guide to the Defense Budget <span class="hlt">Process</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rovner, Mark</p> <p></p> <p>Designed to increase public awareness of military spending, this 5-part guide examines the <span class="hlt">process</span> and problems of preparing the national defense budget. The publication begins with a brief overview of the 1984 defense budget. Major military programs, trends in budgeting, and key concerns in budget formulation are explored. Graphs and charts…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=text+AND+mining&pg=4&id=ED536057','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=text+AND+mining&pg=4&id=ED536057"><span>Combining Natural Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span> and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus <span class="hlt">Common</span> Languages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jarman, Jay</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language <span class="hlt">processing</span> (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-11/pdf/2012-11373.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-11/pdf/2012-11373.pdf"><span>77 FR 27658 - <span class="hlt">Common</span> Crop Insurance Regulations; <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>... CFR part 400, subpart J for the informal administrative review <span class="hlt">process</span> of good farming practices as... 7 CFR part 400, subpart J for determinations of good farming practices, as applicable, must be... farming operation. For instance, all producers are required to submit an application and acreage report to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7558618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7558618"><span>Resistance to awareness of the supervisor's transferences with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the parallel <span class="hlt">process</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stimmel, B</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Supervision is an essential part of psychoanalytic education. Although not taken for granted, it is not studied with the same critical eye as is the analytic <span class="hlt">process</span>. This paper examines the supervision specifically with a focus on the supervisor's transference towards the supervisee. The point is made, in the context of clinical examples, that one of the ways these transference reactions may be rationalised is within the setting of the parallel <span class="hlt">process</span> so often encountered in supervision. Parallel <span class="hlt">process</span>, a very familiar term, is used frequently and easily when discussing supervision. It may be used also as a resistance to awareness of transference phenomena within the supervisor in relation to the supervisee, particularly because of its clinical presentation. It is an enactment between supervisor and supervisee, thus ripe with possibilities for disguise, displacement and gratification. While transference reactions of the supervisee are often discussed, those of the supervisor are notably missing in our literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27606570','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27606570"><span>Developmental validation of the DNAscan™ Rapid DNA Analysis™ instrument and expert system for <span class="hlt">reference</span> sample <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Della Manna, Angelo; Nye, Jeffrey V; Carney, Christopher; Hammons, Jennifer S; Mann, Michael; Al Shamali, Farida; Vallone, Peter M; Romsos, Erica L; Marne, Beth Ann; Tan, Eugene; Turingan, Rosemary S; Hogan, Catherine; Selden, Richard F; French, Julie L</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Since the implementation of forensic DNA typing in labs more than 20 years ago, the analysis procedures and data interpretation have always been conducted in a laboratory by highly trained and qualified scientific personnel. Rapid DNA technology has the potential to expand testing capabilities within forensic laboratories and to allow forensic STR analysis to be performed outside the physical boundaries of the traditional laboratory. The developmental validation of the DNAscan/ANDE Rapid DNA Analysis System was completed using a BioChipSet™ Cassette consumable designed for high DNA content samples, such as single source buccal swabs. A total of eight laboratories participated in the testing which totaled over 2300 swabs, and included nearly 1400 unique individuals. The goal of this extensive study was to obtain, document, analyze, and assess DNAscan and its internal Expert System to reliably genotype <span class="hlt">reference</span> samples in a manner compliant with the FBI's Quality Assurance Standards (QAS) and the NDIS Operational Procedures. The DNAscan System provided high quality, concordant results for <span class="hlt">reference</span> buccal swabs, including automated data analysis with an integrated Expert System. Seven external laboratories and NetBio, the developer of the technology, participated in the validation testing demonstrating the reproducibility and reliability of the system and its successful use in a variety of settings by numerous operators. The DNAscan System demonstrated limited cross reactivity with other species, was resilient in the presence of numerous inhibitors, and provided reproducible results for both buccal and purified DNA samples with sensitivity at a level appropriate for buccal swabs. The precision and resolution of the system met industry standards for detection of micro-variants and displayed single base resolution. PCR-based studies provided confidence that the system was robust and that the amplification reaction had been optimized to provide high quality results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PJMPE..23...67R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PJMPE..23...67R"><span>Patient dose measurement in <span class="hlt">common</span> medical X-ray examinations and propose the first local dose <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels to diagnostic radiology in Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rasuli, Behrouz; Tabari Juybari, Raheleh; Forouzi, Meysam; Ghorbani, Mohammad</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to investigate patient dose in pelvic and abdomen x-ray examinations. This work also provided the LDRLs (local diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels) in Khuzestan region, southwest of Iran to help establish the NDRLs (national diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels). Methods: Patient doses were assessed from patient's anatomical data and exposure parameters based on the IAEA indirect dosimetry method. With regard to this method, exposure parameters such as tube output, kVp, mAs, FFD and patient anatomical data were used for calculating ESD (entrance skin dose) of patients. This study was conducted on 250 standard patients (50% men and 50% women) at eight high-patient-load imaging centers. Results: The results indicate that mean ESDs for the both pelvic and abdomen examinations were lower than the IAEA and EC <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels, 2.3 and 3.7 mGy, respectively. Mean applied kVps were 67 and 70 and mean FFDs were 103 and 109, respectively. Tube loadings obtained in this study for pelvic examination were lower than all the corresponding values in the reviewed literature. Likewise, the average annual patient load across all hospitals were more than 37000 patients, i.e. more than 100 patients a day. Conclusions: The authors recommend that DRLs (diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels) obtained in this region, which are the first available data, can be used as local DRLs for pelvic and abdomen procedures. This work also provides that on-the-job training programs for staffs and close cross collaboration between physicists and physicians should be strongly considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12765210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12765210"><span>Retention of court-<span class="hlt">referred</span> youths in residential treatment programs: client characteristics and treatment <span class="hlt">process</span> effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Orlando, Maria; Chan, Kitty S; Morral, Andrew R</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>The juvenile justice system relies heavily on residential treatment services for adolescents. Because treatment dropout limits the likely effectiveness of these services, in this study we examine the client and program characteristics associated with program retention among a sample of adolescent probationers <span class="hlt">referred</span> to residential rehabilitation by the Juvenile Court in Los Angeles. Participants in the present study (n = 291) are a subset of those in the Adolescent Outcomes Project, conducted within RAND's Drug Policy Research Center, to examine the outcomes of youths entering treatment at seven residential treatment programs. Three months after a preadmission interview, youths were asked about their perceptions of counselors at the program, other residents, and their feelings of safety in the program. In addition, they were asked whether they needed and had received various services (e.g., job training, legal advice, family counseling). Results of a multivariate survival analysis revealed that pretreatment characteristics including motivation and substance use severity, as well as treatment program factors including safety, and perceived over- and underprovision of services, contribute significantly to the prediction of retention. Pretreatment environmental risk factors and ratings of program counselor and resident support were marginally significant. These results imply that changes in adolescent residential program delivery may serve to increase retention rates, thus improving long-term outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=anger+AND+health&pg=5&id=EJ867228','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=anger+AND+health&pg=5&id=EJ867228"><span>Anger and Sadness Perception in Clinically <span class="hlt">Referred</span> Preschoolers: Emotion <span class="hlt">Processes</span> and Externalizing Behavior Symptoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martin, Sarah E.; Boekamp, John R.; McConville, David W.; Wheeler, Elizabeth E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study examined emotion perception <span class="hlt">processes</span> in preschool aged children presenting with clinically significant emotional and behavior problems, with emphasis on sadness perception accuracy (i.e., the ability to correctly identify sadness from expressive and situational cues) and anger perception bias (i.e., the tendency to perceive anger in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002871','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002871"><span>Design <span class="hlt">Process</span> of Flight Vehicle Structures for a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Bulkhead and an MPCV Spacecraft Adapter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aggarwal, Pravin; Hull, Patrick V.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Design and manufacturing space flight vehicle structures is a skillset that has grown considerably at NASA during that last several years. Beginning with the Ares program and followed by the Space Launch System (SLS); in-house designs were produced for both the Upper Stage and the SLS Multipurpose crew vehicle (MPCV) spacecraft adapter. Specifically, critical design review (CDR) level analysis and flight production drawing were produced for the above mentioned hardware. In particular, the experience of this in-house design work led to increased manufacturing infrastructure for both Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF), improved skillsets in both analysis and design, and hands on experience in building and testing (MSA) full scale hardware. The hardware design and development <span class="hlt">processes</span> from initiation to CDR and finally flight; resulted in many challenges and experiences that produced valuable lessons. This paper builds on these experiences of NASA in recent years on designing and fabricating flight hardware and examines the design/development <span class="hlt">processes</span> used, as well as the challenges and lessons learned, i.e. from the initial design, loads estimation and mass constraints to structural optimization/affordability to release of production drawing to hardware manufacturing. While there are many documented design <span class="hlt">processes</span> which a design engineer can follow, these unique experiences can offer insight into designing hardware in current program environments and present solutions to many of the challenges experienced by the engineering team.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22797491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22797491"><span>National Bone Health Alliance Bone Turnover Marker Project: current practices and the need for US harmonization, standardization, and <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ranges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bauer, D; Krege, J; Lane, N; Leary, E; Libanati, C; Miller, P; Myers, G; Silverman, S; Vesper, H W; Lee, D; Payette, M; Randall, S</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>This position paper reviews how the National Bone Health Alliance (NBHA) will execute a project to help assure health professionals of the clinical utility of bone turnover markers; the current clinical approaches concerning osteoporosis and the status and use of bone turnover markers in the USA; the rationale for focusing this effort around two specific bone turnover markers; the need to standardize bone marker sample collection procedures, <span class="hlt">reference</span> ranges, and bone turnover marker assays in clinical laboratories; and the importance of harmonization for future research of bone turnover markers. Osteoporosis is a major global health problem, with the prevalence and incidence of osteoporosis for at-risk populations estimated to be 44 million Americans. The potential of bone markers as an additional tool for health care professionals to improve patient outcomes and impact morbidity and mortality is crucial in providing better health care and addressing rising health care costs. This need to advance the field of bone turnover markers has been recognized by a number of organizations, including the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), National Osteoporosis Foundation, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), and the NBHA. This position paper elucidates how this project will standardize bone turnover marker sample collection procedures in the USA, establish a USA <span class="hlt">reference</span> range for one bone formation (serum procollagen type I N propeptide, s-PINP) and one bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, s-CTX) marker, and standardize bone turnover marker assays used in clinical laboratories. This effort will allow clinicians from the USA to have confidence in their use of bone turnover markers to help monitor osteoporosis treatment and assess future fracture risk. This project builds on the recommendations of the IOF/IFCC Bone Marker Standards Working Group by developing USA <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards for s</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23631551','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23631551"><span>Implicit and explicit second language training recruit <span class="hlt">common</span> neural mechanisms for syntactic <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In contrast to native language acquisition, adult second-language (L2) acquisition occurs under highly variable learning conditions. Although most adults acquire their L2 at least partially through explicit instruction, as in a classroom setting, many others acquire their L2 primarily through implicit exposure, as is typical of an immersion environment. Whether these differences in acquisition environment play a role in determining the neural mechanisms that are ultimately recruited to <span class="hlt">process</span> L2 grammar has not been well characterized. This study investigated this issue by comparing the ERP response to novel L2 syntactic rules acquired under conditions of implicit exposure and explicit instruction, using a novel laboratory language-learning paradigm. Native speakers tested on these stimuli showed a biphasic response to syntactic violations, consisting of an earlier negativity followed by a later P600 effect. After merely an hour of training, both implicitly and explicitly trained learners who were capable of detecting grammatical violations also elicited P600 effects. In contrast, learners who were unable to discriminate between grammatically correct and incorrect sentences did not show significant P600 effects. The magnitude of the P600 effect was found to correlate with learners' behavioral proficiency. Behavioral measures revealed that successful learners from both the implicit and explicit groups gained explicit, verbalizable knowledge about the L2 grammar rules. Taken together, these results indicate that late, controlled mechanisms indexed by the P600 play a crucial role in <span class="hlt">processing</span> a late-learned L2 grammar, regardless of training condition. These findings underscore the remarkable plasticity of later, attention-dependent <span class="hlt">processes</span> and their importance in lifelong learning.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29494411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29494411"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Conditions of the Hand for the Nurse Practitioner: How to Diagnose, How to Manage, and When to <span class="hlt">Refer</span> to a Hand Surgeon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Young, Amanda L</p> <p></p> <p>In many parts of the United States, a plastics-trained hand surgeon can be in limited supply. Depending on individual state law, nurse practitioners can manage <span class="hlt">common</span> and moderately complex hand conditions, the undertaking of which requires extensive training, high command of the anatomy, and knowing when referral is necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMM%26M..16b4501C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMM%26M..16b4501C"><span>Ge/IIIV fin field-effect transistor <span class="hlt">common</span> gate <span class="hlt">process</span> and numerical simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Bo-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Lin; Chu, Chun-Lin; Luo, Guang-Li; Lee, Shyong; Chang, Edward Yi</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>This study investigates the manufacturing <span class="hlt">process</span> of thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) and analyzes its thermal and physical mechanisms. Moreover, experimental observations and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are both used to investigate the formation and deposition rate of a film for precisely controlling the thickness and structure of the deposited material. First, the design of the TALD system model is analyzed, and then CFD is used to simulate the optimal parameters, such as gas flow and the thermal, pressure, and concentration fields, in the manufacturing <span class="hlt">process</span> to assist the fabrication of oxide-semiconductors and devices based on them, and to improve their characteristics. In addition, the experiment applies ALD to grow films on Ge and GaAs substrates with three-dimensional (3-D) transistors having high electric performance. The electrical analysis of dielectric properties, leakage current density, and trapped charges for the transistors is conducted by high- and low-frequency measurement instruments to determine the optimal conditions for 3-D device fabrication. It is anticipated that the competitive strength of such devices in the semiconductor industry will be enhanced by the reduction of cost and improvement of device performance through these optimizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2570793','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2570793"><span>New Insight into the Colonization <span class="hlt">Processes</span> of <span class="hlt">Common</span> Voles: Inferences from Molecular and Fossil Evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tougard, Christelle; Renvoisé, Elodie; Petitjean, Amélie; Quéré, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Elucidating the colonization <span class="hlt">processes</span> associated with Quaternary climatic cycles is important in order to understand the distribution of biodiversity and the evolutionary potential of temperate plant and animal species. In Europe, general evolutionary scenarios have been defined from genetic evidence. Recently, these scenarios have been challenged with genetic as well as fossil data. The origins of the modern distributions of most temperate plant and animal species could predate the Last Glacial Maximum. The glacial survival of such populations may have occurred in either southern (Mediterranean regions) and/or northern (Carpathians) refugia. Here, a phylogeographic analysis of a widespread European small mammal (Microtus arvalis) is conducted with a multidisciplinary approach. Genetic, fossil and ecological traits are used to assess the evolutionary history of this vole. Regardless of whether the European distribution of the five previously identified evolutionary lineages is corroborated, this combined analysis brings to light several colonization <span class="hlt">processes</span> of M. arvalis. The species' dispersal was relatively gradual with glacial survival in small favourable habitats in Western Europe (from Germany to Spain) while in the rest of Europe, because of periglacial conditions, dispersal was less regular with bottleneck events followed by postglacial expansions. Our study demonstrates that the evolutionary history of European temperate small mammals is indeed much more complex than previously suggested. Species can experience heterogeneous evolutionary histories over their geographic range. Multidisciplinary approaches should therefore be preferentially chosen in prospective studies, the better to understand the impact of climatic change on past and present biodiversity. PMID:18958287</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19645578','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19645578"><span>Hematologic and serum biochemical <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for free-ranging <span class="hlt">common</span> bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and variation in the distributions of clinicopathologic values related to geographic sampling site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwacke, Lori H; Hall, Ailsa J; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Hansen, Larry J; Hohn, Aleta A; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A; Rowles, Teresa K</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>To develop robust <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for hematologic and serum biochemical variables by use of data derived from free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and examine potential variation in distributions of clinicopathologic values related to sampling sites' geographic locations. 255 free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. Data from samples collected during multiple bottlenose dolphin capture-release projects conducted at 4 southeastern US coastal locations in 2000 through 2006 were combined to determine <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for 52 clinicopathologic variables. A nonparametric bootstrap approach was applied to estimate 95th percentiles and associated 90% confidence intervals; the need for partitioning by length and sex classes was determined by testing for differences in estimated thresholds with a bootstrap method. When appropriate, quantile regression was used to determine continuous functions for 95th percentiles dependent on length. The proportion of out-of-range samples for all clinicopathologic measurements was examined for each geographic site, and multivariate ANOVA was applied to further explore variation in leukocyte subgroups. A need for partitioning by length and sex classes was indicated for many clinicopathologic variables. For each geographic site, few significant deviations from expected number of out-of-range samples were detected. Although mean leukocyte counts did not vary among sites, differences in the mean counts for leukocyte subgroups were identified. Although differences in the centrality of distributions for some variables were detected, the 95th percentiles estimated from the pooled data were robust and applicable across geographic sites. The derived <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals provide critical information for conducting bottlenose dolphin population health studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25743587','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25743587"><span>[Examination of <span class="hlt">processed</span> vegetable foods for the presence of <span class="hlt">common</span> DNA sequences of genetically modified tomatoes].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Ubukata, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroshi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The contamination of <span class="hlt">processed</span> vegetable foods with genetically modified tomatoes was investigated by the use of qualitative PCR methods to detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) and the kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII). DNA fragments of P35S and NPTII were detected in vegetable juice samples, possibly due to contamination with the genomes of cauliflower mosaic virus infecting juice ingredients of Brassica species and soil bacteria, respectively. Therefore, to detect the transformation construct sequences of GM tomatoes, primer pairs were designed for qualitative PCR to specifically detect the border region between P35S and NPTII, and the border region between nopaline synthase gene promoter and NPTII. No amplification of the targeted sequences was observed using genomic DNA purified from the juice ingredients. The developed qualitative PCR method is considered to be a reliable tool to check contamination of products with GM tomatoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_Crystal/snowshoechemistry/index.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_Crystal/snowshoechemistry/index.html"><span>Water chemistry at Snowshoe Mountain, Colorado: mixed <span class="hlt">processes</span> in a <span class="hlt">common</span> bedrock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hoch, A.R.; Reddy, M.M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>At Snowshoe Mountain the primary bedrock is quite homogeneous, but weathering <span class="hlt">processes</span> vary as waters moves through the soils, vadose zone and phreatic zone of the subsurface. In the thin soil, physical degradation of tuff facilitates preferential dissolution of potassium ion from glass within the rock matrix, while other silicate minerals remain unaltered. In the vadose zone, in the upper few meters of fractured bedrock, dilute water infiltrates during spring snowmelt and summer storms, leading to preferential dissolution of augite exposed on fracture surfaces. Deeper yet, in the phreatic zone of the fractured bedrock, Pleistocene calcite fracture fillings dissolve, and dioctahedral and trioctahedral clays form as penetrative weathering alters feldspar and pyroxene. Alkalinity is generated and silica concentrations are buffered by mineral alteration reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27652926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27652926"><span>Work <span class="hlt">process</span>, performance and professional profile of a Hearing Health Network: <span class="hlt">reference</span> for satisfaction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Escarce, Andrezza Gonzalez; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar; Carvalho, Sirley Alves da Silva</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To analyze the correlation between the satisfaction of professionals from the Hearing Health Care network in two micro-regions of Minas Gerais state and the sociodemographic profile, work <span class="hlt">process</span>, and work performance in the health service. This is a cross-sectional, observational, analytic study with a non-probabilistic sample including 34 professionals from the Hearing Health Care services. Data collection occurred through individual interviews in the municipality of professional practice. Associations between the Professional Satisfaction variable and the explanatory variables Sociodemographic Data, Work Routine, and Developed Actions were conducted. Professionals with graduate studies were more satisfied with the human resources policy and the activities developed, whereas health civil servants showed more satisfaction with the wage policy and the work schedule. The correlation analysis between work <span class="hlt">process</span> and satisfaction revealed a moderate positive correlation between items such as Health Promotion Actions, Satisfaction with Diagnostic Equipment, and Satisfaction with Maintenance Equipment. The present study revealed a higher level of satisfaction among professionals with graduate studies (human resources policy and activities developed) and civil servants (wage policy and work schedule). The relevance of this study lies on the important role that health professionals play on the Health Care Network. Additionally, the study of satisfaction level can provide a search for improvements, considering that satisfied professionals not only improve service quality, but also show greater creativity, commitment, and performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ArMiS..61..425S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ArMiS..61..425S"><span>Analysis of Combustion <span class="hlt">Process</span> of Sewage Sludge in <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Coals and Biomass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Środa, Katarzyna; Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Production of sewage sludge is an inseparable part of the treatment <span class="hlt">process</span>. The chemical and sanitary composition of sewage sludge flowing into the treatment plant is a very important factor determining the further use of the final product obtained in these plants. The sewage sludge is characterized by heterogeneity and multi-components properties, because they have characteristics of the classical and fertilizer wastes and energetic fuels. The thermal utilization of sewage sludge is necessary due to the unfavorable sanitary characteristics and the addition of the industrial sewage. This method ensures use of sewage sludge energy and return of expenditure incurred for the treatment of these wastes and their disposal. Sewage sludge should be analyzed in relation to conventional fuels (coals and biomass). They must comply with the applicable requirements, for example by an appropriate degree of dehydration, which guarantee the stable and efficient combustion. This paper takes the issue of the combustion <span class="hlt">process</span> of the different sewage sludge and their comparison of the coal and biomass fuels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29484116','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29484116"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> molecular signature of intestinal-type gastric carcinoma indicates <span class="hlt">processes</span> related to gastric carcinogenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Binato, Renata; Santos, Everton Cruz; Boroni, Mariana; Demachki, Samia; Assumpção, Paulo; Abdelhay, Eliana</p> <p>2018-01-26</p> <p>Gastric carcinoma (GC) is one of the most aggressive cancers and the second leading cause of cancer death in the world. According to the Lauren classification, this adenocarcinoma is divided into two subtypes, intestinal and diffuse, which differ in their clinical, epidemiological and molecular features. Several studies have attempted to delineate the molecular signature of gastric cancer to develop new and non-invasive screening tests that improve diagnosis and lead to new treatment strategies. However, a consensus signature has not yet been identified for each condition. Thus, this work aimed to analyze the gene expression profile of Brazilian intestinal-type GC tissues using microarrays and compare the results to those of non-tumor tissue samples. Moreover, we compared our intestinal-type gastric carcinoma profile with those obtained from populations worldwide to assess their similarity. The results identified a molecular signature for intestinal-type GC and revealed that 38 genes differentially expressed in Brazilian intestinal-type gastric carcinoma samples can successfully distinguish gastric tumors from non-tumor tissue in the global population. These differentially expressed genes participate in biological <span class="hlt">processes</span> important to cell homeostasis. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis suggested that 7 of these genes could individually be able to predict overall survival in intestinal-type gastric cancer patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26756521','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26756521"><span>Social Information <span class="hlt">Processing</span> and Cluster B Personality Pathology among Clinic-<span class="hlt">Referred</span> Adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hessels, Christel; van Aken, Marcel A G; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Laceulle, Odilia M; van Voorst, Guus</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated relations between personality pathology and mentalizing capacities reflected in social information <span class="hlt">processing</span> (SIP) of adolescents. 96 adolescent outpatients completed a structured interview regarding SIP. Their clinicians completed a checklist based on DSM-IV, assessing severity of personality pathology. Significant relations were found between the severity of personality pathology and SIP: the more severe the personality pathology, the higher the intensity of reported emotions, the more likely adolescents were to choose inadequate coping strategies and aggressive reactions in social situations, and the more positively they evaluated aggressive reactions. Severity of traits of antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) had unique associations with distinctive SIP variables: ASPD being more related to inadequate coping strategies, less reflection on other's motives and aggressive responses, and BPD being more related to avoidant or prosocial responses and in particular to memories of frustrating events. This study provides evidence for difficulties in SIP among adolescents with more severe personality pathology, suggesting that the steps in the SIP model can be used to operationalize mentalizing problems. The results seem to paint a picture of ASPD and BPD having a shared background, but their own specific problems concerning SIP. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29105895','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29105895"><span>A dimensional approach to determine <span class="hlt">common</span> and specific neurofunctional markers for depression and social anxiety during emotional face <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Lizhu; Becker, Benjamin; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Zhiying; Xu, Xiaolei; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Jiaojian; Kou, Juan; Dai, Jing; Kendrick, Keith M</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>Major depression disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorder are both prevalent and debilitating. High rates of comorbidity between MDD and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest <span class="hlt">common</span> pathological pathways, including aberrant neural <span class="hlt">processing</span> of interpersonal signals. In patient populations, the determination of <span class="hlt">common</span> and distinct neurofunctional markers of MDD and SAD is often hampered by confounding factors, such as generally elevated anxiety levels and disorder-specific brain structural alterations. This study employed a dimensional disorder approach to map neurofunctional markers associated with levels of depression and social anxiety symptoms in a cohort of 91 healthy subjects using an emotional face <span class="hlt">processing</span> paradigm. Examining linear associations between levels of depression and social anxiety, while controlling for trait anxiety revealed that both were associated with exaggerated dorsal striatal reactivity to fearful and sad expression faces respectively. Exploratory analysis revealed that depression scores were positively correlated with dorsal striatal functional connectivity during <span class="hlt">processing</span> of fearful faces, whereas those of social anxiety showed a negative association during <span class="hlt">processing</span> of sad faces. No linear relationships between levels of depression and social anxiety were observed during a facial-identity matching task or with brain structure. Together, the present findings indicate that dorsal striatal neurofunctional alterations might underlie aberrant interpersonal <span class="hlt">processing</span> associated with both increased levels of depression and social anxiety. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4974818','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4974818"><span>The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex facilitates <span class="hlt">processing</span> of sentential context to locate <span class="hlt">referents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nozari, Nazbanou; Mirman, Daniel; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) has been implicated in both integration and conflict resolution in sentence comprehension. Most evidence in favor of the integration account comes from <span class="hlt">processing</span> ambiguous or anomalous sentences, which also poses a demand for conflict resolution. In two eye-tracking experiments we studied the role of VLPFC in integration when demands for conflict resolution were minimal. Two closely-matched groups of individuals with chronic post-stroke aphasia were tested: the Anterior group had damage to left VLPFC, whereas the Posterior group had left temporo-parietal damage. In Experiment 1 a semantic cue (e.g., “She will eat the apple”) uniquely marked the target (apple) among three distractors that were incompatible with the verb. In Experiment 2 phonological cues (e.g., “She will see an eagle.” / “She will see a bear.”) uniquely marked the target among three distractors whose onsets were incompatible with the cue (e.g., all consonants when the target started with a vowel). In both experiments, control conditions had a similar format, but contained no semantic or phonological contextual information useful for target integration (e.g., the verb “see”, and the determiner “the”). All individuals in the Anterior group were slower in using both types of contextual information to locate the target than were individuals in the Posterior group. These results suggest a role for VLPFC in integration beyond conflict resolution. We discuss a framework that accommodates both integration and conflict resolution. PMID:27148817</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951254"><span>The <span class="hlt">process</span>-knowledge model of health literacy: evidence from a componential analysis of two <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used measures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chin, Jessie; Morrow, Daniel G; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Conner-Garcia, Thembi; Graumlich, James F; Murray, Michael D</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We investigated the effects of domain-general <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity (fluid ability such as working memory), domain-general knowledge (crystallized ability such as vocabulary), and domain-specific health knowledge for two of the most <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used measures of health literacy (S-TOFHLA and REALM). One hundred forty six community-dwelling older adults participated; 103 had been diagnosed with hypertension. The results showed that older adults who had higher levels of <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity or knowledge (domain-general or health) performed better on both of the health literacy measures. <span class="hlt">Processing</span> capacity interacted with knowledge: <span class="hlt">Processing</span> capacity had a lower level of association with health literacy for participants with more knowledge than for those with lower levels of knowledge, suggesting that knowledge may offset the effects of <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity limitations on health literacy. Furthermore, performance on the two health literacy measures appeared to reflect a different weighting for the three types of abilities. S-TOFHLA performance reflected <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity as well as general knowledge, whereas performance on the REALM depended more on general and health knowledge than on <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity. The findings support a <span class="hlt">process</span>-knowledge model of health literacy among older adults, and have implications for selecting health literacy measures in various health care contexts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27544206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27544206"><span>Unity and disunity in evolutionary sciences: <span class="hlt">process</span>-based analogies open <span class="hlt">common</span> research avenues for biology and linguistics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>List, Johann-Mattis; Pathmanathan, Jananan Sylvestre; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric</p> <p>2016-08-20</p> <p>For a long time biologists and linguists have been noticing surprising similarities between the evolution of life forms and languages. Most of the proposed analogies have been rejected. Some, however, have persisted, and some even turned out to be fruitful, inspiring the transfer of methods and models between biology and linguistics up to today. Most proposed analogies were based on a comparison of the research objects rather than the <span class="hlt">processes</span> that shaped their evolution. Focusing on <span class="hlt">process</span>-based analogies, however, has the advantage of minimizing the risk of overstating similarities, while at the same time reflecting the <span class="hlt">common</span> strategy to use <span class="hlt">processes</span> to explain the evolution of complexity in both fields. We compared important evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span> in biology and linguistics and identified <span class="hlt">processes</span> specific to only one of the two disciplines as well as <span class="hlt">processes</span> which seem to be analogous, potentially reflecting core evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span>. These new <span class="hlt">process</span>-based analogies support novel methodological transfer, expanding the application range of biological methods to the field of historical linguistics. We illustrate this by showing (i) how methods dealing with incomplete lineage sorting offer an introgression-free framework to analyze highly mosaic word distributions across languages; (ii) how sequence similarity networks can be used to identify composite and borrowed words across different languages; (iii) how research on partial homology can inspire new methods and models in both fields; and (iv) how constructive neutral evolution provides an original framework for analyzing convergent evolution in languages resulting from <span class="hlt">common</span> descent (Sapir's drift). Apart from new analogies between evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span>, we also identified <span class="hlt">processes</span> which are specific to either biology or linguistics. This shows that general evolution cannot be studied from within one discipline alone. In order to get a full picture of evolution, biologists and linguists need to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29358231','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29358231"><span>An Overexpressed Q Allele Leads to Increased Spike Density and Improved <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Quality in <span class="hlt">Common</span> Wheat (Triticum aestivum).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Bin-Jie; Chen, Qing; Zheng, Ting; Jiang, Yun-Feng; Qiao, Yuan-Yuan; Guo, Zhen-Ru; Cao, Yong-Li; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Ya-Zhou; Zong, Lu-Juan; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Cai-Hong; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Ma, Jian; Wang, Ji-Rui; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming; Qi, Peng-Fei</p> <p>2018-03-02</p> <p>Spike density and <span class="hlt">processing</span> quality are important traits in modern wheat production and are controlled by multiple gene loci. The associated genes have been intensively studied and new discoveries have been constantly reported during the past few decades. However, no gene playing a significant role in the development of these two traits has been identified. In the current study, a <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat mutant with extremely compact spikes and good <span class="hlt">processing</span> quality was isolated and characterized. A new allele ( Q c1 ) of the Q gene (an important domestication gene) responsible for the mutant phenotype was cloned, and the molecular mechanism for the mutant phenotype was studied. Results revealed that Q c1 originated from a point mutation that interferes with the miRNA172-directed cleavage of Q transcripts, leading to its overexpression. It also reduces the longitudinal cell size of rachises, resulting in an increased spike density. Furthermore, Q c1 increases the number of vascular bundles, which suggests a higher efficiency in the transportation of assimilates in the spikes of the mutant than that of wild type. This accounts for the improved <span class="hlt">processing</span> quality. The effects of Q c1 on spike density and wheat <span class="hlt">processing</span> quality were confirmed by analyzing nine <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat mutants possessing four different Q c alleles. These results deepen our understanding of the key roles of Q gene, and provide new insights for the potential application of Q c alleles in wheat quality breeding. Copyright © 2018 Xu et al.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25842052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25842052"><span>Wechsler profiles in <span class="hlt">referred</span> children with intellectual giftedness: Associations with trait-anxiety, emotional dysregulation, and heterogeneity of Piaget-like reasoning <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guénolé, Fabian; Speranza, Mario; Louis, Jacqueline; Fourneret, Pierre; Revol, Olivier; Baleyte, Jean-Marc</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>It is <span class="hlt">common</span> that intellectually gifted children (IQ ≥ 130) are <span class="hlt">referred</span> to paediatric or child neuropsychiatry clinics for socio-emotional problems and/or school underachievement or maladjustment. Among them, those displaying developmental asynchrony - a heterogeneous developmental pattern reflected in a significant verbal-performance discrepancy (SVPD) on Wechsler's intelligence profile - are thought to be more emotionally and behaviourally impaired than others. Our purpose was to investigate this clinical dichotomy using a cognitive psychopathological approach. Trait-anxiety and emotional dysregulation were investigated in two groups of <span class="hlt">referred</span> gifted children (n = 107 and 136, respectively), a pilot-study of reasoning <span class="hlt">processes</span> on extensive Piaget-like tasks was also performed in an additional small group (n = 12). Compared to those with a homogenous Wechsler profile, children with a SVPD exhibited: 1) a decreased prevalence of social preoccupation-anxiety (11.1% versus 27.4%; p < 0.05); 2) an increased prevalence of emotional dysregulation (58.7% versus 41.3%; p < 0.05); and 3) an increased prevalence of pathological cognitive disharmony on Piaget-like tasks (87.5% versus 0.0%; p < 0.05). The results support a clinical dichotomy of behaviourally-impaired children with intellectual giftedness, with developmentally asynchronous ones exhibiting more severe psychopathological features. This suggests that developmental asynchrony matters when examining emotional and behavioural problems in gifted children and call for further investigation of this profile. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28083826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28083826"><span>Development of a <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Image Collection Library for Histopathology Image <span class="hlt">Processing</span>, Analysis and Decision Support Systems Research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kostopoulos, Spiros; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Asvestas, Pantelis; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Xenogiannopoulos, George; Cavouras, Dionisis; Glotsos, Dimitris</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Histopathology image <span class="hlt">processing</span>, analysis and computer-aided diagnosis have been shown as effective assisting tools towards reliable and intra-/inter-observer invariant decisions in traditional pathology. Especially for cancer patients, decisions need to be as accurate as possible in order to increase the probability of optimal treatment planning. In this study, we propose a new image collection library (HICL-Histology Image Collection Library) comprising 3831 histological images of three different diseases, for fostering research in histopathology image <span class="hlt">processing</span>, analysis and computer-aided diagnosis. Raw data comprised 93, 116 and 55 cases of brain, breast and laryngeal cancer respectively collected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. The 3831 images were generated from the most representative regions of the pathology, specified by an experienced histopathologist. The HICL Image Collection is free for access under an academic license at http://medisp.bme.teiath.gr/hicl/ . Potential exploitations of the proposed library may span over a board spectrum, such as in image <span class="hlt">processing</span> to improve visualization, in segmentation for nuclei detection, in decision support systems for second opinion consultations, in statistical analysis for investigation of potential correlations between clinical annotations and imaging findings and, generally, in fostering research on histopathology image <span class="hlt">processing</span> and analysis. To the best of our knowledge, the HICL constitutes the first attempt towards creation of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> image collection library in the field of traditional histopathology, publicly and freely available to the scientific community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1729780','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1729780"><span>An echocardiographic assessment of cardiac morphology and <span class="hlt">common</span> ECG findings in teenage professional soccer players: <span class="hlt">reference</span> ranges for use in screening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Somauroo, J; Pyatt, J; Jackson, M; Perry, R; Ramsdale, D</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>. Sinus bradycardia and the ECG criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy were <span class="hlt">common</span> but there was poor correlation with echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy. The type of hypertrophy found reflected the combined endurance and strength based training undertaken.


Keywords: cardiac morphology; professional soccer players; echocardiography; ECG findings PMID:11359746</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3890679','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3890679"><span>Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying <span class="hlt">processed</span> and poorly conserved plant materials <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used in South African traditional medicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Moteetee, Annah M.; Daru, Barnabas H.; van der Bank, Michelle</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species), either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from <span class="hlt">processed</span> and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most <span class="hlt">common</span> plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a <span class="hlt">reference</span> database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health. PMID:24453559</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25212326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25212326"><span>Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of <span class="hlt">common</span> beans and soybeans upon thermal <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The effects of boiling and steaming <span class="hlt">processes</span> on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of <span class="hlt">common</span> beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-<span class="hlt">processing</span> methods caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total saponin content (TSC) and phytic acid content (PAC) values in all bean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal <span class="hlt">processing</span>. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different <span class="hlt">processing</span> methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal <span class="hlt">processing</span> caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22197801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22197801"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> data model for natural language <span class="hlt">processing</span> based on two existing standard information models: CDA+GrAF.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meystre, Stéphane M; Lee, Sanghoon; Jung, Chai Young; Chevrier, Raphaël D</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>An increasing need for collaboration and resources sharing in the Natural Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span> (NLP) research and development community motivates efforts to create and share a <span class="hlt">common</span> data model and a <span class="hlt">common</span> terminology for all information annotated and extracted from clinical text. We have combined two existing standards: the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), and the ISO Graph Annotation Format (GrAF; in development), to develop such a data model entitled "CDA+GrAF". We experimented with several methods to combine these existing standards, and eventually selected a method wrapping separate CDA and GrAF parts in a <span class="hlt">common</span> standoff annotation (i.e., separate from the annotated text) XML document. Two use cases, clinical document sections, and the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge (i.e., problems, tests, and treatments, with their assertions and relations), were used to create examples of such standoff annotation documents, and were successfully validated with the XML schemata provided with both standards. We developed a tool to automatically translate annotation documents from the 2010 i2b2/VA NLP Challenge format to GrAF, and automatically generated 50 annotation documents using this tool, all successfully validated. Finally, we adapted the XSL stylesheet provided with HL7 CDA to allow viewing annotation XML documents in a web browser, and plan to adapt existing tools for translating annotation documents between CDA+GrAF and the UIMA and GATE frameworks. This <span class="hlt">common</span> data model may ease directly comparing NLP tools and applications, combining their output, transforming and "translating" annotations between different NLP applications, and eventually "plug-and-play" of different modules in NLP applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17519393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17519393"><span>Dopamine modulation of emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span> in cortical and subcortical neural circuits: evidence for a final <span class="hlt">common</span> pathway in schizophrenia?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laviolette, Steven R</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>The neural regulation of emotional perception, learning, and memory is essential for normal behavioral and cognitive functioning. Many of the symptoms displayed by individuals with schizophrenia may arise from fundamental disturbances in the ability to accurately <span class="hlt">process</span> emotionally salient sensory information. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and its ability to modulate neural regions involved in emotional learning, perception, and memory formation has received considerable research attention as a potential final <span class="hlt">common</span> pathway to account for the aberrant emotional regulation and psychosis present in the schizophrenic syndrome. Evidence from both human neuroimaging studies and animal-based research using neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and electrophysiological techniques have implicated the mesocorticolimbic DA circuit as a crucial system for the encoding and expression of emotionally salient learning and memory formation. While many theories have examined the cortical-subcortical interactions between prefrontal cortical regions and subcortical DA substrates, many questions remain as to how DA may control emotional perception and learning and how disturbances linked to DA abnormalities may underlie the disturbed emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span> in schizophrenia. Beyond the mesolimbic DA system, increasing evidence points to the amygdala-prefrontal cortical circuit as an important processor of emotionally salient information and how neurodevelopmental perturbances within this circuitry may lead to dysregulation of DAergic modulation of emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span> and learning along this cortical-subcortical emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span> circuit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16925852','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16925852"><span>Food <span class="hlt">processing</span> methods influence the glycaemic indices of some <span class="hlt">commonly</span> eaten West Indian carbohydrate-rich foods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bahado-Singh, P S; Wheatley, A O; Ahmad, M H; Morrison, E Y St A; Asemota, H N</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>Glycaemic index (GI) values for fourteen <span class="hlt">commonly</span> eaten carbohydrate-rich foods <span class="hlt">processed</span> by various methods were determined using ten healthy subjects. The foods studied were round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), negro and lucea yams (Dioscorea rotundata), white and sweet yams (Dioscorea alata), sweet potato (Solanum tuberosum), Irish potato (Ipomoea batatas), coco yam (Xanthosoma spp.), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), green banana (Musa sapientum), and green and ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca). The foods were <span class="hlt">processed</span> by boiling, frying, baking and roasting where applicable. Pure glucose was used as the standard with a GI value of 100. The results revealed marked differences in GI among the different foods studied ranging from 35 (se 3) to 94 (se 8). The area under the glucose response curve and GI value of some of the roasted and baked foods were significantly higher than foods boiled or fried (P<0.05). The results indicate that foods <span class="hlt">processed</span> by roasting or baking may result in higher GI. Conversely, boiling of foods may contribute to a lower GI diet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2000668','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2000668"><span>Manually controlled human balancing using visual, vestibular and proprioceptive senses involves a <span class="hlt">common</span>, low frequency neural <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lakie, Martin; Loram, Ian D</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Ten subjects balanced their own body or a mechanically equivalent unstable inverted pendulum by hand, through a compliant spring linkage. Their balancing <span class="hlt">process</span> was always characterized by repeated small reciprocating hand movements. These bias adjustments were an observable sign of intermittent alterations in neural output. On average, the adjustments occurred at intervals of ∼400 ms. To generate appropriate stabilizing bias adjustments, sensory information about body or load movement is needed. Subjects used visual, vestibular or proprioceptive sensation alone and in combination to perform the tasks. We first ask, is the time between adjustments (bias duration) sensory specific? Vision is associated with slow responses. Other senses involved with balance are known to be faster. Our second question is; does bias duration depend on sensory abundance? An appropriate bias adjustment cannot occur until unplanned motion is unambiguously perceived (a sensory threshold). The addition of more sensory data should therefore expedite action, decreasing the mean bias adjustment duration. Statistical analysis showed that (1) the mean bias adjustment duration was remarkably independent of the sensory modality and (2) the addition of one or two sensory modalities made a small, but significant, decrease in the mean bias adjustment duration. Thus, a threshold effect can alter only a very minor part of the bias duration. The bias adjustment duration in manual balancing must reflect something more than visual sensation and perceptual thresholds; our suggestion is that it is a <span class="hlt">common</span> central motor planning <span class="hlt">process</span>. We predict that similar <span class="hlt">processes</span> may be identified in the control of standing. PMID:16959857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/common-variable-immune-deficiency','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/common-variable-immune-deficiency"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: <span class="hlt">common</span> variable immune deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... CVID. Immune cells can accumulate in other organs, forming small lumps called granulomas. Approximately 25 percent of ... N, Enright V, Du L, Salzer U, Eibel H, Pfeifer D, Veelken H, Stauss H, Lougaris V, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/15001917-web-based-common-framework-support-test-evaluation-process-any-time-anywhere-anyhow','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/15001917-web-based-common-framework-support-test-evaluation-process-any-time-anywhere-anyhow"><span>A Web-Based <span class="hlt">Common</span> Framework to Support the Test and Evaluation <span class="hlt">Process</span> Any Time, Anywhere, and Anyhow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schur, Anne; Brown, James C.; Eaton, Sharon L.</p> <p></p> <p>Test and evaluation (T and E) is an enterprise. For any product, large or small, performance data is desired on many aspects to evaluate the product?s effectiveness for the intended users. Representing the many T and E facets without bewildering the user is challenging when there is a range of people, from the system developers to the manager of the organization, that want specific feedback. A web-based One-Stop Evaluation Center was created to meet these needs for a particular project. The evaluation center is usable at any time in the systems development lifecycle and streamlines the T and E enterprise.more » This paper discusses a <span class="hlt">common</span> framework that unifies the T and E <span class="hlt">process</span> with many stakeholders involved and is flexible to accommodate each stakeholders?specific evaluative <span class="hlt">processes</span> and content. Our success has translated to many cost savings by enabling quick responses to change and a better line of communication between the users, developers, and managers.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514274"><span>Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution <span class="hlt">processed</span> red emitters with evaporated blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul</p> <p>2015-10-30</p> <p>We prepared highly-efficient solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2')tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m(2). To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515903C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515903C"><span>Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution <span class="hlt">processed</span> red emitters with evaporated blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We prepared highly-efficient solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2’)tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m2. To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626861','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626861"><span>Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution <span class="hlt">processed</span> red emitters with evaporated blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We prepared highly-efficient solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2’)tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m2. To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device. PMID:26514274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1948895','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1948895"><span>OLDER ADULTS’ COPING WITH NEGATIVE LIFE EVENTS: <span class="hlt">COMMON</span> <span class="hlt">PROCESSES</span> OF MANAGING HEALTH, INTERPERSONAL, AND FINANCIAL/WORK STRESSORS*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>MOOS, RUDOLF H.; BRENNAN, PENNY L.; SCHUTTE, KATHLEEN K.; MOOS, BERNICE S.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This study examined how older adults cope with negative life events in health, interpersonal, and financial/work domains and whether <span class="hlt">common</span> stress and coping <span class="hlt">processes</span> hold across these three domains. On three occasions, older adults identified the most severe negative event they faced in the last year and described how they appraised and coped with that event, their ambient chronic stressors, and event and functioning outcomes. The stress and coping <span class="hlt">process</span> was largely consistent across the three life domains. Individuals who appraised events as challenging and relied more on approach coping were more likely to report some benefit from those events. Individuals who experienced more chronic stressors and favored avoidance coping were more likely to be depressed and to have late-life drinking problems. Chronic stressors, as well as approach and avoidance coping, were predictably associated with overall outcomes in all three event domains. These findings provide a basis for preventive interventions that may help older adults’ address the most prevalent stressors of aging more effectively. PMID:16454482</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24444847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24444847"><span><span class="hlt">Process</span> evaluation of a problem solving intervention to prevent recurrent sickness absence in workers with <span class="hlt">common</span> mental disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arends, Iris; Bültmann, Ute; Nielsen, Karina; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R; van der Klink, Jac J L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> mental disorders (CMDs) are a major cause of sickness absence. Twenty to 30% of the workers who return to work after sickness absence due to CMDs experience recurrent sickness absence. We developed the Stimulating Healthy participation And Relapse Prevention (SHARP)-at work intervention, a problem solving intervention delivered by occupational physicians (OPs), to prevent recurrent sickness absence in this worker population in The Netherlands. A <span class="hlt">process</span> evaluation was conducted alongside a cluster-randomised controlled trial to (1) evaluate whether the SHARP-at work intervention was implemented according to the protocol and differed from treatment in the control group, and (2) to investigate the relationship between the key elements of the intervention and the effect outcome (i.e. recurrent sickness absence). We collected <span class="hlt">process</span> data for both the intervention and control group on recruitment, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, context and satisfaction. Data on recurrent sickness absence was collected through the registry system of the collaborating occupational health service. The study was performed in the Netherlands, and between 2010 and 2012, 154 OPs and 158 participants participated. Compared to the control group, participants in the intervention group more frequently had two or more consultations with the OP (odds ratio [OR] = 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-8.8) and completed more assignments (OR = 33.8, 95% CI = 10.4-109.5) as recommended in the intervention protocol. OPs and participants were satisfied with the intervention and rated it as applicable. Several individual intervention components were linked to the effect outcome. The <span class="hlt">process</span> evaluation showed that the SHARP-at work intervention was conducted according to the protocol for the majority of the participants and well-received by OPs and participants. Furthermore, the intervention differed from treatment in the control group. Overall, the results provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29399318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29399318"><span>Is There a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Summary Statistical <span class="hlt">Process</span> for Representing the Mean and Variance? A Study Using Illustrations of Familiar Items.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Yi; Tokita, Midori; Ishiguchi, Akira</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>A number of studies revealed that our visual system can extract different types of summary statistics, such as the mean and variance, from sets of items. Although the extraction of such summary statistics has been studied well in isolation, the relationship between these statistics remains unclear. In this study, we explored this issue using an individual differences approach. Observers viewed illustrations of strawberries and lollypops varying in size or orientation and performed four tasks in a within-subject design, namely mean and variance discrimination tasks with size and orientation domains. We found that the performances in the mean and variance discrimination tasks were not correlated with each other and demonstrated that extractions of the mean and variance are mediated by different representation mechanisms. In addition, we tested the relationship between performances in size and orientation domains for each summary statistic (i.e. mean and variance) and examined whether each summary statistic has distinct <span class="hlt">processes</span> across perceptual domains. The results illustrated that statistical summary representations of size and orientation may share a <span class="hlt">common</span> mechanism for representing the mean and possibly for representing variance. Introspections for each observer performing the tasks were also examined and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3395003','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3395003"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and distinct networks underlying reward valence and <span class="hlt">processing</span> stages: A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Xun; Hairston, Jacqueline; Schrier, Madeleine; Fan, Jin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To better understand the reward circuitry in human brain, we conducted activation likelihood estimation (ALE) and parametric voxel-based meta-analyses (PVM) on 142 neuroimaging studies that examined brain activation in reward-related tasks in healthy adults. We observed several core brain areas that participated in reward-related decision making, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), caudate, putamen, thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), bilateral anterior insula, anterior (ACC) and posterior (PCC) cingulate cortex, as well as cognitive control regions in the inferior parietal lobule and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The NAcc was <span class="hlt">commonly</span> activated by both positive and negative rewards across various stages of reward <span class="hlt">processing</span> (e.g., anticipation, outcome, and evaluation). In addition, the medial OFC and PCC preferentially responded to positive rewards, whereas the ACC, bilateral anterior insula, and lateral PFC selectively responded to negative rewards. Reward anticipation activated the ACC, bilateral anterior insula, and brain stem, whereas reward outcome more significantly activated the NAcc, medial OFC, and amygdala. Neurobiological theories of reward-related decision making should therefore distributed and interrelated representations of reward valuation and valence assessment into account. PMID:21185861</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20965208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20965208"><span>Do we track what we see? <span class="hlt">Common</span> versus independent <span class="hlt">processing</span> for motion perception and smooth pursuit eye movements: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spering, Miriam; Montagnini, Anna</p> <p>2011-04-22</p> <p>Many neurophysiological studies in monkeys have indicated that visual motion information for the guidance of perception and smooth pursuit eye movements is - at an early stage - <span class="hlt">processed</span> in the same visual pathway in the brain, crucially involving the middle temporal area (MT). However, these studies left some questions unanswered: Are perception and pursuit driven by the same or independent neuronal signals within this pathway? Are the perceptual interpretation of visual motion information and the motor response to visual signals limited by the same source of neuronal noise? Here, we review psychophysical studies that were motivated by these questions and compared perception and pursuit behaviorally in healthy human observers. We further review studies that focused on the interaction between perception and pursuit. The majority of results point to similarities between perception and pursuit, but dissociations were also reported. We discuss recent developments in this research area and conclude with suggestions for <span class="hlt">common</span> and separate principles for the guidance of perceptual and motor responses to visual motion information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5788105','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5788105"><span>Is There a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Summary Statistical <span class="hlt">Process</span> for Representing the Mean and Variance? A Study Using Illustrations of Familiar Items</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Yi; Tokita, Midori; Ishiguchi, Akira</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>A number of studies revealed that our visual system can extract different types of summary statistics, such as the mean and variance, from sets of items. Although the extraction of such summary statistics has been studied well in isolation, the relationship between these statistics remains unclear. In this study, we explored this issue using an individual differences approach. Observers viewed illustrations of strawberries and lollypops varying in size or orientation and performed four tasks in a within-subject design, namely mean and variance discrimination tasks with size and orientation domains. We found that the performances in the mean and variance discrimination tasks were not correlated with each other and demonstrated that extractions of the mean and variance are mediated by different representation mechanisms. In addition, we tested the relationship between performances in size and orientation domains for each summary statistic (i.e. mean and variance) and examined whether each summary statistic has distinct <span class="hlt">processes</span> across perceptual domains. The results illustrated that statistical summary representations of size and orientation may share a <span class="hlt">common</span> mechanism for representing the mean and possibly for representing variance. Introspections for each observer performing the tasks were also examined and discussed. PMID:29399318</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5622944','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5622944"><span>The Presentation Location of the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Stimuli Affects the Left-Side Bias in the <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of Faces and Chinese Characters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Chenglin; Cao, Xiaohua</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>For faces and Chinese characters, a left-side <span class="hlt">processing</span> bias, in which observers rely more heavily on information conveyed by the left side of stimuli than the right side of stimuli, has been frequently reported in previous studies. However, it remains unclear whether this left-side bias effect is modulated by the <span class="hlt">reference</span> stimuli's location. The present study adopted the chimeric stimuli task to investigate the influence of the presentation location of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> stimuli on the left-side bias in face and Chinese character <span class="hlt">processing</span>. The results demonstrated that when a <span class="hlt">reference</span> face was presented in the left visual field of its chimeric images, which are centrally presented, the participants showed a preference higher than the no-bias threshold for the left chimeric face; this effect, however, was not observed in the right visual field. This finding indicates that the left-side bias effect in face <span class="hlt">processing</span> is stronger when the <span class="hlt">reference</span> face is in the left visual field. In contrast, the left-side bias was observed in Chinese character <span class="hlt">processing</span> when the <span class="hlt">reference</span> Chinese character was presented in either the left or right visual field. Together, these findings suggest that although faces and Chinese characters both have a left-side <span class="hlt">processing</span> bias, the underlying neural mechanisms of this left-side bias might be different. PMID:29018391</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29018391','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29018391"><span>The Presentation Location of the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Stimuli Affects the Left-Side Bias in the <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of Faces and Chinese Characters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Chenglin; Cao, Xiaohua</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>For faces and Chinese characters, a left-side <span class="hlt">processing</span> bias, in which observers rely more heavily on information conveyed by the left side of stimuli than the right side of stimuli, has been frequently reported in previous studies. However, it remains unclear whether this left-side bias effect is modulated by the <span class="hlt">reference</span> stimuli's location. The present study adopted the chimeric stimuli task to investigate the influence of the presentation location of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> stimuli on the left-side bias in face and Chinese character <span class="hlt">processing</span>. The results demonstrated that when a <span class="hlt">reference</span> face was presented in the left visual field of its chimeric images, which are centrally presented, the participants showed a preference higher than the no-bias threshold for the left chimeric face; this effect, however, was not observed in the right visual field. This finding indicates that the left-side bias effect in face <span class="hlt">processing</span> is stronger when the <span class="hlt">reference</span> face is in the left visual field. In contrast, the left-side bias was observed in Chinese character <span class="hlt">processing</span> when the <span class="hlt">reference</span> Chinese character was presented in either the left or right visual field. Together, these findings suggest that although faces and Chinese characters both have a left-side <span class="hlt">processing</span> bias, the underlying neural mechanisms of this left-side bias might be different.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED527334.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED527334.pdf"><span>Analyzing How Formalist, Cognitive-<span class="hlt">Processing</span>, and Literacy Practices Learning Paradigms are Shaping the Implementation of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beach, Richard</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper analyzes the influence of three different learning paradigms for learning literacy--formalist, cognitive-<span class="hlt">processing</span>, and literacy practices--on the implementation of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards. It argues that the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards are based largely on a formalist paradigm as evident in the emphasis on teaching text…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10605E..1CZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10605E..1CZ"><span>A method of camera calibration in the measurement <span class="hlt">process</span> with <span class="hlt">reference</span> mark for approaching observation space target</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Hua; Zeng, Luan</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Binocular stereoscopic vision can be used for space-based space targets near observation. In order to solve the problem that the traditional binocular vision system cannot work normally after interference, an online calibration method of binocular stereo measuring camera with self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> is proposed. The method uses an auxiliary optical imaging device to insert the image of the standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> object into the edge of the main optical path and image with the target on the same focal plane, which is equivalent to a standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> in the binocular imaging optical system; When the position of the system and the imaging device parameters are disturbed, the image of the standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> will change accordingly in the imaging plane, and the position of the standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> object does not change. The camera's external parameters can be re-calibrated by the visual relationship of the standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> object. The experimental results show that the maximum mean square error of the same object can be reduced from the original 72.88mm to 1.65mm when the right camera is deflected by 0.4 degrees and the left camera is high and low with 0.2° rotation. This method can realize the online calibration of binocular stereoscopic vision measurement system, which can effectively improve the anti - jamming ability of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51D1899N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP51D1899N"><span>Climatic change and evaporative <span class="hlt">processes</span> in the development of <span class="hlt">Common</span> Era hypersaline lakes, East Antarctica: A study of Lake Suribati</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakashima, H.; Seto, K.; Katsuki, K.; Kaneko, H.; yamada, K.; Imura, S.; Dettman, D. L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Antarctic continent was uplifted by glacioisostatic rebound due to the regression of ice sheets after the last glacial period. Today's saline lakes were formed in shallow basins originally below sea level. Antarctic hypersaline lakes are formed by concentration of isolated seawater bodies as affected by recent climate change. Many saline lakes are found in the ice-free area of the Soya coast, East Antarctica. Lake Suribati is located in Sukarvsnes on the Soya coast. It is a hypersaline lake with maximum salinity ~200 psu, and an observable stable halocline at 7~12m depth. This study uses Lake Suribati sediment core Sr4C-01, collected by the 46th Japanese Antarctica Research Expedition, to examine the relationship of climatic change to evaporative <span class="hlt">processes</span> and solute concentration in Lake Suribati in the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Era. Sr4C-01 core was collected at 9.53m water depth in Lake Suribati in 2005 (core length is 63cm). This core primarily consists of black mud and laminated black organic mud. In the interval from 10 to 24cm below the sediment surface evaporite crystals occur. The age of the Sr4C-01 core bottom is estimated to be ~3,500 cal yrs BP, based on AMS carbon-14 dating at 6 core horizons. The evaporite crystals were indentified as aragonite based on XRD. Total inorganic carbon (TIC) content is low, around 0.5%, throughout the Sr4C-01 core, with higher values, approximately 1~4%, in two intervals, 57~52cm and 29~10cm core depth. Variation in CaO content tracks TIC content. We suggest that synchronous change in CaO and TIC contents indicate the vertical change in the amount of aragonite. Two intervals of evaporite precipition imply two intervals of evaporation and concentration of lake water. Hypersaline lake conditions did not occur soon after the isolation from the sea, rather these occurred under repeated concentration and dilution of lake water. Dilution of saline lake water could occur through the inflow of melt water from local snow or ice, indicating a warm</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.soilcrust.org/refer.htm','SCIGOVWS'); return false;" href="http://www.soilcrust.org/refer.htm"><span>Soilcrust <span class="hlt">References</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/aboutsearch.html">Science.gov Websites</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><em>Soil</em> Crust Home Crust 101 Advanced Gallery <span class="hlt">References</span> CCERS Site Links Updated: April 24, 2006 <span class="hlt">References</span> The complete biological <em>soil</em> crust <span class="hlt">reference</span> list is available in three formats: HTML Version</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23027234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23027234"><span>Circular <span class="hlt">common</span>-path point diffraction interferometer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Du, Yongzhao; Feng, Guoying; Li, Hongru; Vargas, J; Zhou, Shouhuan</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>A simple and compact point-diffraction interferometer with circular <span class="hlt">common</span>-path geometry configuration is developed. The interferometer is constructed by a beam-splitter, two reflection mirrors, and a telescope system composed by two lenses. The signal and <span class="hlt">reference</span> waves travel along the same path. Furthermore, an opaque mask containing a <span class="hlt">reference</span> pinhole and a test object holder or test window is positioned in the <span class="hlt">common</span> focal plane of the telescope system. The object wave is divided into two beams that take opposite paths along the interferometer. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> wave is filtered by the <span class="hlt">reference</span> pinhole, while the signal wave is transmitted through the object holder. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> and signal waves are combined again in the beam-splitter and their interference is imaged in the CCD. The new design is compact, vibration insensitive, and suitable for the measurement of moving objects or dynamic <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%5b5.2%5d+AND+%5bNP+AND+8%3a11%5d+AND+%5bJD+AND+8%3a13+AND+%5bABC%5d+AND+%5d+AND+%5bNP+AND+8%3a14%5d&pg=4&id=EJ945290','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%5b5.2%5d+AND+%5bNP+AND+8%3a11%5d+AND+%5bJD+AND+8%3a13+AND+%5bABC%5d+AND+%5d+AND+%5bNP+AND+8%3a14%5d&pg=4&id=EJ945290"><span>The Sentence-Composition Effect: <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of Complex Sentences Depends on the Configuration of <span class="hlt">Common</span> Noun Phrases versus Unusual Noun Phrases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Marcus L.; Lowder, Matthew W.; Gordon, Peter C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In 2 experiments, the authors used an eye tracking while reading methodology to examine how different configurations of <span class="hlt">common</span> noun phrases versus unusual noun phrases (NPs) influenced the difference in <span class="hlt">processing</span> difficulty between sentences containing object- and subject-extracted relative clauses. Results showed that <span class="hlt">processing</span> difficulty was…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=encyclopedia+AND+evaluation&pg=7&id=ED386216','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=encyclopedia+AND+evaluation&pg=7&id=ED386216"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> and Information Services: An Introduction. Second Edition. Library Science Text Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bopp, Richard E., Ed.; Smith, Linda C., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This document provides an overview of the concepts and <span class="hlt">processes</span> behind <span class="hlt">reference</span> services and the most important sources consulted in answering <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> questions. The book is divided into two parts. Part 1 deals with concepts and theory. It covers ethical aspects of <span class="hlt">reference</span> service, the <span class="hlt">reference</span> interview, the principles and goals of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26290738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26290738"><span>GAPDH, β-actin and β2-microglobulin, as three <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes, are not reliable for gene expression studies in equine adipose- and marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nazari, Fatemeh; Parham, Abbas; Maleki, Adham Fani</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the most important techniques for gene-expression analysis in molecular based studies. Selecting a proper internal control gene for normalizing data is a crucial step in gene expression analysis via this method. The expression levels of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes should be remained constant among cells in different tissues. However, it seems that the location of cells in different tissues might influence their expression. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has any effect on expression level of three <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes (GAPDH, β-actin and β2-microglobulin) in equine marrow- and adipose- derived undifferentiated MSCs and consequently their reliability for comparative qRT-PCR. Adipose tissue (AT) and bone marrow (BM) samples were harvested from 3 mares. MSCs were isolated and cultured until passage 3 (P3). Total RNA of P3 cells was extracted for cDNA synthesis. The generated cDNAs were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The PCR reactions were ended with a melting curve analysis to verify the specificity of amplicon. The expression levels of GAPDH were significantly different between AT- and BM- derived MSCs (p < 0.05). Differences in expression level of β-actin (P < 0.001) and B2M (P < 0.006.) between MSCs derived from AT and BM were substantially higher than GAPDH. In addition, the fold change in expression levels of GAPDH, β-actin and B2M in AT-derived MSCs compared to BM-derived MSCs were 2.38, 6.76 and 7.76, respectively. This study demonstrated that GAPDH and especially β-actin and B2M express in different levels in equine AT- and BM- derived MSCs. Thus they cannot be considered as reliable <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for comparative quantitative gene expression analysis in MSCs derived from equine bone marrow and adipose tissue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28598613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28598613"><span>Role of Sample <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Strategies at the European Union National <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Laboratories (NRLs) Concerning the Analysis of Pesticide Residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hajeb, Parvaneh; Herrmann, Susan S; Poulsen, Mette E</p> <p>2017-07-19</p> <p>The guidance document SANTE 11945/2015 recommends that cereal samples be milled to a particle size preferably smaller than 1.0 mm and that extensive heating of the samples should be avoided. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the differences in milling procedures, obtained particle size distributions, and the resulting pesticide residue recovery when cereal samples were milled at the European Union National <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Laboratories (NRLs) with their routine milling procedures. A total of 23 NRLs participated in the study. The oat and rye samples milled by each NRL were sent to the European Union <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Laboratory on Cereals and Feedingstuff (EURL) for the determination of the particle size distribution and pesticide residue recovery. The results showed that the NRLs used several different brands and types of mills. Large variations in the particle size distributions and pesticide extraction efficiencies were observed even between samples milled by the same type of mill.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780024786','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780024786"><span>Application of the informational <span class="hlt">reference</span> system OZhUR to the automated <span class="hlt">processing</span> of data from satellites of the Kosmos series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pokras, V. M.; Yevdokimov, V. P.; Maslov, V. D.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The structure and potential of the information <span class="hlt">reference</span> system OZhUR designed for the automated data <span class="hlt">processing</span> systems of scientific space vehicles (SV) is considered. The system OZhUR ensures control of the extraction phase of <span class="hlt">processing</span> with respect to a concrete SV and the exchange of data between phases.The practical application of the system OZhUR is exemplified in the construction of a data <span class="hlt">processing</span> system for satellites of the Cosmos series. As a result of automating the operations of exchange and control, the volume of manual preparation of data is significantly reduced, and there is no longer any need for individual logs which fix the status of data <span class="hlt">processing</span>. The system Ozhur is included in the automated data <span class="hlt">processing</span> system Nauka which is realized in language PL-1 in a binary one-address system one-state (BOS OS) electronic computer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29533055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29533055"><span>Effect of industrial <span class="hlt">processing</span> on the IgE reactivity of three <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed Mo-roccan fish species in Fez region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mejrhit, N; Azdad, O; Aarab, L</p> <p>2018-03-02</p> <p>Objectives. The aim of this work was to study the effect of industrial <span class="hlt">processing</span> on the allergenicity of three <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed Moroccan fish species in Fez region (sardine, <span class="hlt">common</span> pandora, and shrimp). Methods. This work was conducted by a sera-bank obtained from 1248 patients recruited from Fez Hospitals. Their sera were analyzed for specific IgE binding to raw fish extracts. Among them, 60 patients with higher specific IgE levels were selected, and used to estimate the binding variation of IgE to these products under several <span class="hlt">processing</span> (frying, cooking, canning, marinade, and fermentation) using ELISA analysis. Results. ELISA results demonstrated that all the studied <span class="hlt">processing</span> cause a reduction in the immunoreactivity of human IgE to fish products, with a high action with marinade and fermentation compared to other <span class="hlt">processing</span>. This alteration was also observed with rabbit IgG in all <span class="hlt">processed</span> products, showing that the maximum reduction was marked in fermented sardine with 64.5%, in cooked <span class="hlt">common</span> pandora with 58%, and in fermented shrimp with 69.2%. Conclusion. In conclusion, our study has shown that the allergenicity of the three studied fish could be reduced by different industrial <span class="hlt">processes</span> with different degrees.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED557593.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED557593.pdf"><span>States' Implementation of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards and the Australian Curriculum: A Comparison of the Change <span class="hlt">Process</span> in Two Countries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watt, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine and compare key elements of the actions that states in the USA and Australia took to implement the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards or Phase One of the Australian Curriculum, and what <span class="hlt">processes</span> and products they used to facilitate implementation of these innovations. A rubric adapted from a diagnostic tool,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20809367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20809367"><span>A rigorous approach to investigating <span class="hlt">common</span> assumptions about disease transmission: <span class="hlt">Process</span> algebra as an emerging modelling methodology for epidemiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCaig, Chris; Begon, Mike; Norman, Rachel; Shankland, Carron</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Changing scale, for example, the ability to move seamlessly from an individual-based model to a population-based model, is an important problem in many fields. In this paper, we introduce <span class="hlt">process</span> algebra as a novel solution to this problem in the context of models of infectious disease spread. <span class="hlt">Process</span> algebra allows us to describe a system in terms of the stochastic behaviour of individuals, and is a technique from computer science. We review the use of <span class="hlt">process</span> algebra in biological systems, and the variety of quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques available. The analysis illustrated here solves the changing scale problem: from the individual behaviour we can rigorously derive equations to describe the mean behaviour of the system at the level of the population. The biological problem investigated is the transmission of infection, and how this relates to individual interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=SOA&pg=7&id=EJ777467','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=SOA&pg=7&id=EJ777467"><span>Effects of Task Requirements on Rapid Natural Scene <span class="hlt">Processing</span>: From <span class="hlt">Common</span> Sensory Encoding to Distinct Decisional Mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bacon-Mace, Nadege; Kirchner, Holle; Fabre-Thorpe, Michele; Thorpe, Simon J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Using manual responses, human participants are remarkably fast and accurate at deciding if a natural scene contains an animal, but recent data show that they are even faster to indicate with saccadic eye movements which of 2 scenes contains an animal. How could it be that 2 images can apparently be <span class="hlt">processed</span> faster than a single image? To better…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19862492','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19862492"><span>Neurotensin and neuromedin N are differentially <span class="hlt">processed</span> from a <span class="hlt">common</span> precursor by prohormone convertases in tissues and cell lines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kitabgi, Patrick</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Neurotensin (NT) is synthesized as part of a larger precursor that also contains neuromedin N (NN), a six amino acid NT-like peptide. NT and NN are located in the C-terminal region of the precursor (pro-NT/NN) where they are flanked and separated by three Lys-Arg sequences. A fourth dibasic sequence is present in the middle of the precursor. Dibasics are the consensus sites recognized and cleaved by specialized endoproteases that belong to the family of proprotein convertases (PCs). In tissues that express pro-NT/NN, the three C-terminal Lys-Arg sites are differentially <span class="hlt">processed</span>, whereas the middle dibasic is poorly cleaved. <span class="hlt">Processing</span> gives rise mainly to NT and NN in the brain, NT and a large peptide with a C-terminal NN moiety (large NN) in the gut, and NT, large NN, and a large peptide with a C-terminal NT moiety (large NT) in the adrenals. Recent evidence indicates that PC1, PC2, and PC5-A are the prohormone convertases responsible for the <span class="hlt">processing</span> patterns observed in the gut, brain, and adrenals, respectively. As NT, NN, large NT, and large NN are all endowed with biological activity, the evidence reviewed here supports the idea that posttranslational <span class="hlt">processing</span> of pro-NT/NN in tissues may generate biological diversity of pathophysiological relevance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=think+AND+global%2c+AND+act+AND+local&id=EJ1122734','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=think+AND+global%2c+AND+act+AND+local&id=EJ1122734"><span>Global <span class="hlt">References</span>, Local Translation: Adaptation of the Bologna <span class="hlt">Process</span> Degree Structure and Credit System at Universities in Cameroon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eta, Elizabeth Agbor; Vubo, Emmanuel Yenshu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article uses temporal comparison and thematic analytical approaches to analyse text documents and interviews, examining the adaptation of the Bologna <span class="hlt">Process</span> degree structure and credit system in two sub-systems of education in Cameroon: the Anglo-Saxon and the French systems. The central aim is to verify whether such adaptation has replaced,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=quantitative+AND+evaluative+AND+study&pg=3&id=EJ1063485','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=quantitative+AND+evaluative+AND+study&pg=3&id=EJ1063485"><span>Evaluative Research of the Mentoring <span class="hlt">Process</span> of the PGDT, with Particular <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Cluster Centers under Jimma University Facilitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tegegne, Worku Fentie; Gelaneh, Alebachew Hailu</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the study is to evaluate the mentoring <span class="hlt">process</span> of the PGDT program which was under the supervision of Jimma University in the regional states of Oromia and SNNP, Ethiopia. The overall intention was to see whether the program was being underway as expected. Because, there was uncertainty regarding the proper running of it as it was…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23745357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23745357"><span>[<span class="hlt">Reference</span> citation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brkić, Silvija</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. <span class="hlt">References</span> important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of <span class="hlt">reference</span> citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for <span class="hlt">reference</span> citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to <span class="hlt">reference</span> citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018MS%26E..327b2053K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018MS%26E..327b2053K"><span>Determining Parameters of Double-Wiebe Function for Simulation of Combustion <span class="hlt">Process</span> in Overload Diesel Engine with <span class="hlt">Common</span> Rail Fuel Feed System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Markov, V. A.; Lysov, I. O.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>To analyze the peculiarities of the combustion <span class="hlt">process</span> in an overload diesel engine with the system of <span class="hlt">Common</span> Rail type with one-stage injection, the indicator diagram was registered. The parameters of the combustion <span class="hlt">process</span> simulated by the double-Wiebe function were calculated as satisfactorily reconstructing the law of burning rate variation. The main parameters of the operating cycle obtained through the indicator diagram <span class="hlt">processing</span> and the double-Wiebe function calculation differed insignificantly. And the calculated curve of the cylinder pressure differed notably only in the end of the expansion stroke. To improve the performance of the diesel engine, a two-stage fuel injection was recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3272038','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3272038"><span>Introspective Minds: Using ALE Meta-Analyses to Study <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> in the Neural Correlates of Emotional <span class="hlt">Processing</span>, Social & Unconstrained Cognition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schilbach, Leonhard; Bzdok, Danilo; Timmermans, Bert; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.; Vogeley, Kai; Eickhoff, Simon B.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Previous research suggests overlap between brain regions that show task-induced deactivations and those activated during the performance of social-cognitive tasks. Here, we present results of quantitative meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies, which confirm a statistical convergence in the neural correlates of social and resting state cognition. Based on the idea that both social and unconstrained cognition might be characterized by introspective <span class="hlt">processes</span>, which are also thought to be highly relevant for emotional experiences, a third meta-analysis was performed investigating studies on emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span>. By using conjunction analyses across all three sets of studies, we can demonstrate significant overlap of task-related signal change in dorso-medial prefrontal and medial parietal cortex, brain regions that have, indeed, recently been linked to introspective abilities. Our findings, therefore, provide evidence for the existence of a core neural network, which shows task-related signal change during socio-emotional tasks and during resting states. PMID:22319593</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27565428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27565428"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> monitoring framework for ending preventable maternal mortality, 2015-2030: phase I of a multi-step <span class="hlt">process</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moran, Allisyn C; Jolivet, R Rima; Chou, Doris; Dalglish, Sarah L; Hill, Kathleen; Ramsey, Kate; Rawlins, Barbara; Say, Lale</p> <p>2016-08-26</p> <p>While global maternal mortality declined 44 % between 1990 and 2015, the majority of countries fell short of attaining Millennium Development Goal targets. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adopted in late 2015, include a target to reduce national maternal mortality ratios (MMR) to achieve a global average of 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030. A comprehensive paper outlining Strategies toward Ending Preventable Maternal Mortality (EPMM) was launched in February 2015 to support achievement of the SDG global targets. To date, there has not been consensus on a set of core metrics to track progress toward the overall global maternal mortality target, which has made it difficult to systematically monitor maternal health status and programs over time. The World Health Organization (WHO), Maternal Health Taskforce (MHTF), and the US Agency for International Development (USAID) along with its flagship Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP), facilitated a consultative <span class="hlt">process</span> to seek consensus on maternal health indicators for global monitoring and reporting by all countries. Consensus was reached on 12 indicators and four priority areas for further indicator development and testing. These indicators are being harmonized with the Every Newborn Action Plan core metrics for a joint global maternal newborn monitoring framework. Next steps include a similar <span class="hlt">process</span> to agree upon indicators to monitor social, political and economic determinants of maternal health and survival highlighted in the EPMM strategies. This <span class="hlt">process</span> provides a foundation for the maternal health community to work collaboratively to track progress on core global indicators. It is important that actors continue to work together through transparent and participatory <span class="hlt">processes</span> to track progress to end preventable maternal mortality and achieve the SDG maternal mortality targets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24010386','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24010386"><span>[Decomposition of corpses--a microbial degradation <span class="hlt">process</span> with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to mummification, formation of adipocere and incomplete putrified corpes].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schoenen, Dirk</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Decomposition of the human body is a microbial <span class="hlt">process</span>. It is influenced by the environmental situation and it depends to a high degree on the exchange of substances between the corpse and the environment. Mummification occurs at low humidity or frost. Adipocere arises from lack of oxygen, incomplete putrified corpses develop when there is no exchange of air or water between the corpse and the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10153388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10153388"><span>Benchmarking <span class="hlt">reference</span> services: an introduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marshall, J G; Buchanan, H S</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Benchmarking is based on the <span class="hlt">common</span> sense idea that someone else, either inside or outside of libraries, has found a better way of doing certain things and that your own library's performance can be improved by finding out how others do things and adopting the best practices you find. Benchmarking is one of the tools used for achieving continuous improvement in Total Quality Management (TQM) programs. Although benchmarking can be done on an informal basis, TQM puts considerable emphasis on formal data collection and performance measurement. Used to its full potential, benchmarking can provide a <span class="hlt">common</span> measuring stick to evaluate <span class="hlt">process</span> performance. This article introduces the general concept of benchmarking, linking it whenever possible to <span class="hlt">reference</span> services in health sciences libraries. Data collection instruments that have potential application in benchmarking studies are discussed and the need to develop <span class="hlt">common</span> measurement tools to facilitate benchmarking is emphasized.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=online+AND+customer+AND+service&pg=6&id=EJ885392','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=online+AND+customer+AND+service&pg=6&id=EJ885392"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bivens-Tatum, Wayne</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of <span class="hlt">reference</span> assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual <span class="hlt">reference</span>, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=oclc&pg=4&id=EJ573844','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=oclc&pg=4&id=EJ573844"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Revolutions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mason, Marilyn Gell</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic <span class="hlt">reference</span> services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of <span class="hlt">reference</span> services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25306104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25306104"><span>A comparison between the example <span class="hlt">reference</span> biosphere model ERB 2B and a <span class="hlt">process</span>-based model: simulation of a natural release scenario.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Almahayni, T</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The BIOMASS methodology was developed with the objective of constructing defensible assessment biospheres for assessing potential radiological impacts of radioactive waste repositories. To this end, a set of Example <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Biospheres were developed to demonstrate the use of the methodology and to provide an international point of <span class="hlt">reference</span>. In this paper, the performance of the Example <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Biosphere model ERB 2B associated with the natural release scenario, discharge of contaminated groundwater to the surface environment, was evaluated by comparing its long-term projections of radionuclide dynamics and distribution in a soil-plant system to those of a <span class="hlt">process</span>-based, transient advection-dispersion model (AD). The models were parametrised with data characteristic of a typical rainfed winter wheat crop grown on a sandy loam soil under temperate climate conditions. Three safety-relevant radionuclides, (99)Tc, (129)I and (237)Np with different degree of sorption were selected for the study. Although the models were driven by the same hydraulic (soil moisture content and water fluxes) and radiological (Kds) input data, their projections were remarkably different. On one hand, both models were able to capture short and long-term variation in activity concentration in the subsoil compartment. On the other hand, the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Biosphere model did not project any radionuclide accumulation in the topsoil and crop compartments. This behaviour would underestimate the radiological exposure under natural release scenarios. The results highlight the potential role deep roots play in soil-to-plant transfer under a natural release scenario where radionuclides are released into the subsoil. When considering the relative activity and root depth profiles within the soil column, much of the radioactivity was taken up into the crop from the subsoil compartment. Further improvements were suggested to address the limitations of the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Biosphere model presented in this paper</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28372175','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28372175"><span>Identification and quantification of ethyl carbamate occurring in urea complexation <span class="hlt">processes</span> <span class="hlt">commonly</span> utilized for polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vázquez, Luis; Prados, Isabel M; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos F</p> <p>2017-08-15</p> <p>The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids by formation of urea adducts from three different sources was studied to elucidate the formation of ethyl carbamates in the course of these procedures. Two different methodologies were performed: with ethanol at high temperature and with hexane/ethanol mixtures at room temperature. It was proved that the amount of urethanes generated at high temperature was higher than at room temperature. Besides, subsequent washing steps of the PUFA fraction with water were efficient to remove the urethanes from the final products. The methodology at room temperature with 0.4mL ethanol and 3g urea provided good relationship between concentration and yield of the main bioactive PUFA, with the lowest formation of ethyl carbamates in the <span class="hlt">process</span>. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BGeo...14.2815W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BGeo...14.2815W"><span>Increased temperature causes different carbon and nitrogen <span class="hlt">processing</span> patterns in two <span class="hlt">common</span> intertidal foraminifera (Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wukovits, Julia; Enge, Annekatrin Julie; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Heinz, Petra</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Benthic foraminifera are highly abundant heterotrophic protists in marine sediments, but future environmental changes will challenge the tolerance limits of intertidal species. Metabolic rates and physiological <span class="hlt">processes</span> in foraminifera are strongly dependent on environmental temperatures. Temperature-related stress could therefore impact foraminiferal food source <span class="hlt">processing</span> efficiency and might result in altered nutrient fluxes through the intertidal food web. In this study, we performed a laboratory feeding experiment on Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica, two dominant foraminiferal species of the German Wadden Sea/Friedrichskoog, to test the effect of temperature on phytodetritus retention. The specimens were fed with 13C and 15N labelled freeze-dried Dunaliella tertiolecta (green algae) at the start of the experiment and were incubated at 20, 25 and 30 °C respectively. Dual labelling was applied to observe potential temperature effects on the relation of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen retention. Samples were taken over a period of 2 weeks. Foraminiferal cytoplasm was isotopically analysed to investigate differences in carbon and nitrogen uptake derived from the food source. Both species showed a positive response to the provided food source, but carbon uptake rates of A. tepida were 10-fold higher compared to those of H. germanica. Increased temperatures had a far stronger impact on the carbon uptake of H. germanica than on A. tepida. A distinct increase in the levels of phytodetrital-derived nitrogen (compared to more steady carbon levels) could be observed over the course of the experiment in both species. The results suggest that higher temperatures have a significant negative effect on the carbon exploitation of H. germanica. For A. tepida, higher carbon uptake rates and the enhanced tolerance range for higher temperatures could outline an advantage in warmer periods if the main food source consists of chlorophyte phytodetritus. These conditions are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007CompM..39..247K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007CompM..39..247K"><span>Reproducing Kernel Particle Method in Plasticity of Pressure-Sensitive Material with <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Powder Forming <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khoei, A. R.; Samimi, M.; Azami, A. R.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, an application of the reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM) is presented in plasticity behavior of pressure-sensitive material. The RKPM technique is implemented in large deformation analysis of powder compaction <span class="hlt">process</span>. The RKPM shape function and its derivatives are constructed by imposing the consistency conditions. The essential boundary conditions are enforced by the use of the penalty approach. The support of the RKPM shape function covers the same set of particles during powder compaction, hence no instability is encountered in the large deformation computation. A double-surface plasticity model is developed in numerical simulation of pressure-sensitive material. The plasticity model includes a failure surface and an elliptical cap, which closes the open space between the failure surface and hydrostatic axis. The moving cap expands in the stress space according to a specified hardening rule. The cap model is presented within the framework of large deformation RKPM analysis in order to predict the non-uniform relative density distribution during powder die pressing. Numerical computations are performed to demonstrate the applicability of the algorithm in modeling of powder forming <span class="hlt">processes</span> and the results are compared to those obtained from finite element simulation to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18020839','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18020839"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and specific <span class="hlt">process</span> factors in cardiac rehabilitation: independent and interactive effects of the working alliance and self-efficacy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burns, John W; Evon, Donna</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>Therapeutic <span class="hlt">processes</span> in cardiac rehabilitation programs are virtually unexamined. Models were tested by which changes in the working alliance between patient and staff (agreement on goals/tasks; emotional bond) may affect outcomes in conjunction with changes in patient self-efficacy to change their diets and increase exercise. Cardiac patients (n = 79) participated in a 12-week program, and completed assessments at early, mid, and late treatment. Changes in cardiac depression, physical health, perceived exertion during exercise, rate/pressure product at submaximal exercise tolerance, weight loss, return to work, total fat intake. Early-treatment changes in agreement on goals/tasks were related to changes in psychosocial factors and perceived exertion during exercise independent of effects of changes in self-efficacy. Early-treatment changes in goals/tasks and self-efficacy interacted to predict changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, weight loss, and return to work such that patients high on both goals/tasks and self-efficacy showed the most gains. Sound therapeutic relationships between patients and staff may play an important role in facilitating the achievement of a wide-range of salutary outcomes during cardiac rehabilitation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20954938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20954938"><span>Interactions between auditory and visual semantic stimulus classes: evidence for <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> networks for speech and body actions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meyer, Georg F; Greenlee, Mark; Wuerger, Sophie</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Incongruencies between auditory and visual signals negatively affect human performance and cause selective activation in neuroimaging studies; therefore, they are increasingly used to probe audiovisual integration mechanisms. An open question is whether the increased BOLD response reflects computational demands in integrating mismatching low-level signals or reflects simultaneous unimodal conceptual representations of the competing signals. To address this question, we explore the effect of semantic congruency within and across three signal categories (speech, body actions, and unfamiliar patterns) for signals with matched low-level statistics. In a localizer experiment, unimodal (auditory and visual) and bimodal stimuli were used to identify ROIs. All three semantic categories cause overlapping activation patterns. We find no evidence for areas that show greater BOLD response to bimodal stimuli than predicted by the sum of the two unimodal responses. Conjunction analysis of the unimodal responses in each category identifies a network including posterior temporal, inferior frontal, and premotor areas. Semantic congruency effects are measured in the main experiment. We find that incongruent combinations of two meaningful stimuli (speech and body actions) but not combinations of meaningful with meaningless stimuli lead to increased BOLD response in the posterior STS (pSTS) bilaterally, the left SMA, the inferior frontal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobule, and the anterior insula. These interactions are not seen in premotor areas. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that pSTS and frontal areas form a recognition network that combines sensory categorical representations (in pSTS) with action hypothesis generation in inferior frontal gyrus/premotor areas. We argue that the same neural networks <span class="hlt">process</span> speech and body actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045433','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045433"><span>Clays, <span class="hlt">common</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Virta, R.L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the <span class="hlt">common</span> clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of <span class="hlt">common</span> clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of <span class="hlt">common</span> clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19774070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19774070"><span>How are 'Barack Obama' and 'President Elect' differentially stored in the brain? An ERP investigation on the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of proper and <span class="hlt">common</span> noun pairs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mariani, Serena; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta</p> <p>2009-09-23</p> <p>One of the most debated issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language is whether distinct semantic domains are differentially represented in the brain. Clinical studies described several anomic dissociations with no clear neuroanatomical correlate. Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory retrieval is more demanding for proper than <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns in that the former are purely arbitrary referential expressions. In this study a semantic relatedness paradigm was devised to investigate neural <span class="hlt">processing</span> of proper and <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns. 780 words (arranged in pairs of Italian nouns/adjectives and the first/last names of well known persons) were presented. Half pairs were semantically related ("Woody Allen" or "social security"), while the others were not ("Sigmund Parodi" or "judicial cream"). All items were balanced for length, frequency, familiarity and semantic relatedness. Participants were to decide about the semantic relatedness of the two items in a pair. RTs and N400 data suggest that the task was more demanding for <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns. The LORETA neural generators for the related-unrelated contrast (for proper names) included the left fusiform gyrus, right medial temporal gyrus, limbic and parahippocampal regions, inferior parietal and inferior frontal areas, which are thought to be involved in the conjoined <span class="hlt">processing</span> a familiar face with the relevant episodic information. Person name was more emotional and sensory vivid than <span class="hlt">common</span> noun semantic access. When memory retrieval is not required, proper name access (conspecifics knowledge) is not more demanding. The neural generators of N400 to unrelated items (unknown persons and things) did not differ as a function of lexical class, thus suggesting that proper and <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns are not treated differently as belonging to different grammatical classes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2741605','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2741605"><span>How Are ‘Barack Obama’ and ‘President Elect’ Differentially Stored in the Brain? An ERP Investigation on the <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of Proper and <span class="hlt">Common</span> Noun Pairs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mariani, Serena; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background One of the most debated issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language is whether distinct semantic domains are differentially represented in the brain. Clinical studies described several anomic dissociations with no clear neuroanatomical correlate. Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory retrieval is more demanding for proper than <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns in that the former are purely arbitrary referential expressions. In this study a semantic relatedness paradigm was devised to investigate neural <span class="hlt">processing</span> of proper and <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns. Methodology/Principal Findings 780 words (arranged in pairs of Italian nouns/adjectives and the first/last names of well known persons) were presented. Half pairs were semantically related (“Woody Allen” or “social security”), while the others were not (“Sigmund Parodi” or “judicial cream”). All items were balanced for length, frequency, familiarity and semantic relatedness. Participants were to decide about the semantic relatedness of the two items in a pair. RTs and N400 data suggest that the task was more demanding for <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns. The LORETA neural generators for the related-unrelated contrast (for proper names) included the left fusiform gyrus, right medial temporal gyrus, limbic and parahippocampal regions, inferior parietal and inferior frontal areas, which are thought to be involved in the conjoined <span class="hlt">processing</span> a familiar face with the relevant episodic information. Person name was more emotional and sensory vivid than <span class="hlt">common</span> noun semantic access. Conclusions/Significance When memory retrieval is not required, proper name access (conspecifics knowledge) is not more demanding. The neural generators of N400 to unrelated items (unknown persons and things) did not differ as a function of lexical class, thus suggesting that proper and <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns are not treated differently as belonging to different grammatical classes. PMID:19774070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386273','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386273"><span>A trauma outreach program provided by a level I trauma center is an effective way to initiate peer review at <span class="hlt">referring</span> hospitals and foster <span class="hlt">process</span> improvements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Byrnes, Matthew C; Irwin, Eric; Becker, Leslie; Thorson, Melissa; Beilman, Greg; Horst, Patrick; Croston, Kevin</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The initial care of critically injured patients has profound effects on ultimate outcomes. The "golden hour" of trauma care is often provided by rural hospitals before definitive transfer. There are, however, no standardized methods for providing educational feedback to these hospitals for the purposes of performance improvement. We hypothesized that an outreach program would stimulate peer review and identify systematic deficiencies in the care of patients with injuries. We developed a quality improvement program aimed at providing educational feedback to hospitals that <span class="hlt">referred</span> patients to our American College of Surgeons-verified level I trauma center. We traveled to each referral center to provide feedback on the initial treatment and ultimate outcome of patients that were transferred to us. These feedback sessions were presented in the format of case presentations and case discussions. The outreach program was presented at each hospital every 3 months to 6 months. Nine hospitals were included in our program. We received 334 patients in transfer from these hospitals during the study period. Formal peer review that focused on trauma patients increased from 14% of hospitals to 100% of hospitals after institution of the program. Eighty-five percent of hospitals thought that the care of patients with injuries was improved as a result of the program. Eighty-five percent of hospitals developed <span class="hlt">process</span> improvement initiatives as a result of the program. A formal outreach program can stimulate peer review at rural hospitals, provide continuing education in the care of patients with injuries, and foster <span class="hlt">process</span> improvements at <span class="hlt">referring</span> hospitals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019724','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019724"><span>Hand controller <span class="hlt">commonality</span> evaluation <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> cold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... treatments have been tried for colds, such as vitamin C, zinc supplements, and echinacea. Talk to your health ... Accessed February 1, 2017. Hemila H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold. Cochrane ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1169009','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1169009"><span>Poroelastic <span class="hlt">references</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Morency, Christina</p> <p>2014-12-12</p> <p>This file contains a list of relevant <span class="hlt">references</span> on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27006075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27006075"><span>Using the Nine <span class="hlt">Common</span> Themes of Good Practice checklist as a tool for evaluating the research priority setting <span class="hlt">process</span> of a provincial research and program evaluation program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mador, Rebecca L; Kornas, Kathy; Simard, Anne; Haroun, Vinita</p> <p>2016-03-23</p> <p>Given the context-specific nature of health research prioritization and the obligation to effectively allocate resources to initiatives that will achieve the greatest impact, evaluation of priority setting <span class="hlt">processes</span> can refine and strengthen such exercises and their outcomes. However, guidance is needed on evaluation tools that can be applied to research priority setting. This paper describes the adaption and application of a conceptual framework to evaluate a research priority setting exercise operating within the public health sector in Ontario, Canada. The Nine <span class="hlt">Common</span> Themes of Good Practice checklist, described by Viergever et al. (Health Res Policy Syst 8:36, 2010) was used as the conceptual framework to evaluate the research priority setting <span class="hlt">process</span> developed for the Locally Driven Collaborative Projects (LDCP) program in Ontario, Canada. Multiple data sources were used to inform the evaluation, including a review of selected priority setting approaches, surveys with priority setting participants, document review, and consultation with the program advisory committee. The evaluation assisted in identifying improvements to six elements of the LDCP priority setting <span class="hlt">process</span>. The modifications were aimed at improving inclusiveness, information gathering practices, planning for project implementation, and evaluation. In addition, the findings identified that the timing of priority setting activities and level of control over the <span class="hlt">process</span> were key factors that influenced the ability to effectively implement changes. The findings demonstrate the novel adaptation and application of the 'Nine <span class="hlt">Common</span> Themes of Good Practice checklist' as a tool for evaluating a research priority setting exercise. The tool can guide the development of evaluation questions and enables the assessment of key constructs related to the design and delivery of a research priority setting <span class="hlt">process</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=obstetrician&pg=3&id=ED276509','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=obstetrician&pg=3&id=ED276509"><span>Volunteeer's <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Armstrong, Julie; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>For Postpartum Education for Parents (PEP) volunteers, this <span class="hlt">reference</span> guide provides background information about the <span class="hlt">common</span> concerns of parents. Extensively reviewed for accuracy and content by pediatricians, psychologists, obstetricians, nurses, and childbirth educators, the guide contains a summary discussion of the postpartum infant and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22278094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22278094"><span>Effects of a <span class="hlt">common</span> variant in the CD38 gene on social <span class="hlt">processing</span> in an oxytocin challenge study: possible links to autism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sauer, Carina; Montag, Christian; Wörner, Christiane; Kirsch, Peter; Reuter, Martin</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The intranasal application of oxytocin (OT) has been shown to influence behavioral and neural correlates of social <span class="hlt">processing</span>. These effects are probably mediated by genetic variations within the OT system. One potential candidate could be the CD38 gene, which codes for a transmembrane protein engaged in OT secretion <span class="hlt">processes</span>. A <span class="hlt">common</span> variation in this gene (rs3796863) was recently found to be associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using an imaging genetics approach, we studied differential effects of an intranasal OT application on neural <span class="hlt">processing</span> of social stimuli in 55 healthy young men depending on their CD38 gene variant in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Genotype had a significant influence on both behavioral and neuronal measures of social <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Homozygotic risk allele carriers showed slower reaction times (RT) and higher activation of left fusiform gyrus during visual <span class="hlt">processing</span> of social stimuli. Under OT activation differences between genotypes were more evident (though not statistically significantly increased) and RT were accelerated in homozygotic risk allele carriers. According to our data, rs3796863 mainly influences fusiform gyrus activation, an area which has been widely discussed in ASD research. OT seems to modulate this effect by enhancing activation differences between allele groups, which suggests an interaction between genetic makeup and OT availability on fusiform gyrus activation. These results support recent approaches to apply OT as a pharmacological treatment of ASD symptoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28194208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28194208"><span>Identification and assessment of <span class="hlt">common</span> errors in the admission <span class="hlt">process</span> of patients in Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center based on "failure modes and effects analysis".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dehghan, Ashraf; Abumasoudi, Rouhollah Sheikh; Ehsanpour, Soheila</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Infertility and errors in the <span class="hlt">process</span> of its treatment have a negative impact on infertile couples. The present study was aimed to identify and assess the <span class="hlt">common</span> errors in the reception <span class="hlt">process</span> by applying the approach of "failure modes and effects analysis" (FMEA). In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the admission <span class="hlt">process</span> of fertility and infertility center of Isfahan was selected for evaluation of its errors based on the team members' decision. At first, the admission <span class="hlt">process</span> was charted through observations and interviewing employees, holding multiple panels, and using FMEA worksheet, which has been used in many researches all over the world and also in Iran. Its validity was evaluated through content and face validity, and its reliability was evaluated through reviewing and confirmation of the obtained information by the FMEA team, and eventually possible errors, causes, and three indicators of severity of effect, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection were determined and corrective actions were proposed. Data analysis was determined by the number of risk priority (RPN) which is calculated by multiplying the severity of effect, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection. Twenty-five errors with RPN ≥ 125 was detected through the admission <span class="hlt">process</span>, in which six cases of error had high priority in terms of severity and occurrence probability and were identified as high-risk errors. The team-oriented method of FMEA could be useful for assessment of errors and also to reduce the occurrence probability of errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26100550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26100550"><span>Development and validation of a method for mercury determination in seawater for the <span class="hlt">process</span> control of a candidate certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sánchez, Raquel; Snell, James; Held, Andrea; Emons, Hendrik</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A simple, robust and reliable method for mercury determination in seawater matrices based on the combination of cold vapour generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CV-ICP-MS) and its complete in-house validation are described. The method validation covers parameters such as linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision and robustness. A calibration curve covering the whole working range was achieved with coefficients of determination typically higher than 0.9992. The repeatability of the method (RSDrep) was 0.5 %, and the intermediate precision was 2.3 % at the target mass fraction of 20 ng/kg. Moreover, the method was robust with respect to the salinity of the seawater. The limit of quantification was 2.7 ng/kg, which corresponds to 13.5 % of the target mass fraction in the future certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> material (20 ng/kg). An uncertainty budget for the measurement of mercury in seawater has been established. The relative expanded (k = 2) combined uncertainty is 6 %. The performance of the validated method was demonstrated by generating results for <span class="hlt">process</span> control and a homogeneity study for the production of a candidate certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> material.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29401059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29401059"><span>Survey of Current Practice in the Fitting and Fine-Tuning of <span class="hlt">Common</span> Signal-<span class="hlt">Processing</span> Features in Hearing Aids for Adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, Melinda C; Arehart, Kathryn H; Souza, Pamela E</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>Current guidelines for adult hearing aid fittings recommend the use of a prescriptive fitting rationale with real-ear verification that considers the audiogram for the determination of frequency-specific gain and ratios for wide dynamic range compression. However, the guidelines lack recommendations for how other <span class="hlt">common</span> signal-<span class="hlt">processing</span> features (e.g., noise reduction, frequency lowering, directional microphones) should be considered during the provision of hearing aid fittings and fine-tunings for adult patients. The purpose of this survey was to identify how audiologists make clinical decisions regarding <span class="hlt">common</span> signal-<span class="hlt">processing</span> features for hearing aid provision in adults. An online survey was sent to audiologists across the United States. The 22 survey questions addressed four primary topics including demographics of the responding audiologists, factors affecting selection of hearing aid devices, the approaches used in the fitting of signal-<span class="hlt">processing</span> features, and the strategies used in the fine-tuning of these features. A total of 251 audiologists who provide hearing aid fittings to adults completed the electronically distributed survey. The respondents worked in a variety of settings including private practice, physician offices, university clinics, and hospitals/medical centers. Data analysis was based on a qualitative analysis of the question responses. The survey results for each of the four topic areas (demographics, device selection, hearing aid fitting, and hearing aid fine-tuning) are summarized descriptively. Survey responses indicate that audiologists vary in the procedures they use in fitting and fine-tuning based on the specific feature, such that the approaches used for the fitting of frequency-specific gain differ from other types of features (i.e., compression time constants, frequency lowering parameters, noise reduction strength, directional microphones, feedback management). Audiologists <span class="hlt">commonly</span> rely on prescriptive fitting formulas and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28557506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28557506"><span>"A psychometric investigation of gender differences and <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> across borderline and antisocial personality disorders": Correction to Chun et al. (2017).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Reports an error in "A psychometric investigation of gender differences and <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> across borderline and antisocial personality disorders" by Seokjoon Chun, Alexa Harris, Margely Carrion, Elizabeth Rojas, Stephen Stark, Carl Lejuez, William V. Lechner and Marina A. Bornovalova ( Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 2017[Jan], Vol 126[1], 76-88). In the article, there were two errors in the article's supplemental material. The supplemental material stated, "In each case, if the relaxed model fit significantly better than the baseline model (i.e., Δ X ²> 3.84, Δ df =2), then the item under investigation was flagged as noninvariant; otherwise the item was marked as invariant." The value for Δ X ² should have been 5.99. The supplemental material also stated, "If there was no decrement in fit as a function of constraining a given item, the item in question was flagged as noninvariant." It should have stated that these items were flagged as invariant. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-53090-001.) The comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is well-established, and the 2 disorders share many similarities. However, there are also differences across disorders: most notably, BPD is diagnosed more frequently in women and ASPD in men. We investigated if (a) comorbidity between BPD and ASPD is attributable to 2 discrete disorders or the expression of <span class="hlt">common</span> underlying <span class="hlt">processes</span>, and (b) if the model of comorbidity is true across sex. Using a clinical sample of 1,400 drug users in residential substance abuse treatment, we tested 3 competing models to explore whether the comorbidity of ASPD and BPD should be represented by a single <span class="hlt">common</span> factor, 2 correlated factors, or a bifactor structure involving a general and disorder-specific factors. Next, we tested whether our resulting model was meaningful by examining its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29473657','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29473657"><span>Fermentable short chain carbohydrate (FODMAP) content of <span class="hlt">common</span> plant-based foods and <span class="hlt">processed</span> foods suitable for vegetarian- and vegan-based eating patterns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tuck, C; Ly, E; Bogatyrev, A; Costetsou, I; Gibson, P; Barrett, J; Muir, J</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food <span class="hlt">processing</span> practices <span class="hlt">common</span> to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population. The present study aimed to quantify the FODMAP content of plant-based foods <span class="hlt">common</span> in vegetarian/vegan diets and to investigate whether food <span class="hlt">processing</span> can impact FODMAP levels. Total FODMAP content was quantified in 35 foods, including fructose-in-excess-of-glucose, lactose, sorbitol, mannitol, galacto-oligosaccharide and total fructan, using high-performance-liquid-chromatography and enzymatic assays. The effects of cooking, sprouting, pickling, fermentation, activation and canning on FODMAP content were assessed. The Monash University criteria to classify foods as low FODMAP was used. Of the 35 foods, 20 were classified as low FODMAP, including canned coconut milk (0.24 g serve -1 ), dulse (0.02 serve -1 ), nutritional yeast (0.01 serve -1 ), soy cheese (0.03 serve -1 ), tempeh (0.26 serve -1 ), wheat gluten (0.13 serve -1 ) and wheat grass (0.05 serve -1 ). No FODMAPs were detected in agar-agar, egg replacer, vegan egg yolk, kelp noodles and spirulina. Food <span class="hlt">processing</span> techniques that produced the greatest reduction in FODMAP content included pickling and canning. The present study provides a greater FODMAP composition knowledge of plant-based foods that can now be applied to the dietetic management of vegetarians/vegans requiring a low FODMAP diet. Food <span class="hlt">processing</span> lowered the FODMAP content of foods, thereby increasing options for patients following a low FODMAP diet. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/commoncold.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/commoncold.html"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... cure for the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold. But there are treatments that can make you feel better while you wait for the cold to go away on its own: Getting plenty of rest Drinking fluids Gargling with warm salt water Using cough drops or throat sprays Taking over-the-counter pain ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=project+AND+costs&pg=6&id=EJ676301','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=project+AND+costs&pg=6&id=EJ676301"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>American School & University, 2003</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Presents K-12 and college <span class="hlt">common</span> areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=marvin+AND+minsky&id=EJ298485','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=marvin+AND+minsky&id=EJ298485"><span>The <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Encounter Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>White, Marilyn Domas</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Develops model of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> interview which explicitly incorporates human information <span class="hlt">processing</span>, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive <span class="hlt">processing</span> and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+good&id=EJ934718','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+good&id=EJ934718"><span>Making the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Good <span class="hlt">Common</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chase, Barbara</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their <span class="hlt">common</span> commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5301075','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5301075"><span>Identification and assessment of <span class="hlt">common</span> errors in the admission <span class="hlt">process</span> of patients in Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center based on “failure modes and effects analysis”</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dehghan, Ashraf; Abumasoudi, Rouhollah Sheikh; Ehsanpour, Soheila</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Infertility and errors in the <span class="hlt">process</span> of its treatment have a negative impact on infertile couples. The present study was aimed to identify and assess the <span class="hlt">common</span> errors in the reception <span class="hlt">process</span> by applying the approach of “failure modes and effects analysis” (FMEA). Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the admission <span class="hlt">process</span> of fertility and infertility center of Isfahan was selected for evaluation of its errors based on the team members’ decision. At first, the admission <span class="hlt">process</span> was charted through observations and interviewing employees, holding multiple panels, and using FMEA worksheet, which has been used in many researches all over the world and also in Iran. Its validity was evaluated through content and face validity, and its reliability was evaluated through reviewing and confirmation of the obtained information by the FMEA team, and eventually possible errors, causes, and three indicators of severity of effect, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection were determined and corrective actions were proposed. Data analysis was determined by the number of risk priority (RPN) which is calculated by multiplying the severity of effect, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection. Results: Twenty-five errors with RPN ≥ 125 was detected through the admission <span class="hlt">process</span>, in which six cases of error had high priority in terms of severity and occurrence probability and were identified as high-risk errors. Conclusions: The team-oriented method of FMEA could be useful for assessment of errors and also to reduce the occurrence probability of errors. PMID:28194208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28369959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28369959"><span>Phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and antiproliferative potential of 10 <span class="hlt">common</span> edible flowers from China assessed using a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis <span class="hlt">process</span> combined with cellular assays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Weisu; Mao, Shuqin; Zhang, Liuquan; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Zhou, Fei; Zhao, Yajing; Li, Maiquan</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Phenolic compounds could be sensitive to digestive conditions, thus a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis <span class="hlt">process</span> and cellular assays was used to determine phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials of 10 <span class="hlt">common</span> edible flowers from China and their functional components. Gallic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin were widely present in these flowers, which demonstrated various antioxidant capacities (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CAA values) and antiproliferative potentials measured by the MTT method. Rosa rugosa, Paeonia suffruticosa and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited the best antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials against HepG2, A549 and SGC-7901 cell lines, except that Osmanthus fragrans was not the best against SGC-7901 cells. The in vitro digestion-dialysis <span class="hlt">process</span> decreased the antioxidant potential by 33.95-90.72% and the antiproliferative potential by 13.22-87.15%. Following the in vitro digestion-dialysis <span class="hlt">process</span>, phenolics were probably responsible for antioxidant (R 2 = 0.794-0.924, P < 0.01) and antiproliferative (R 2 = 0.408-0.623, P < 0.05) potential. Moreover, gallic acid may be responsible for the antioxidant potential of seven flowers rich in edible flowers. The antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of 10 edible flowers revealed a clear decrease after digestion and dialysis along with the reduction of phenolics. Nevertheless, they still had considerable antioxidant and antiproliferative potential, which merited further investigation in in vivo studies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29482544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29482544"><span>Reducing time-to-unit among patients <span class="hlt">referred</span> to an outpatient stroke assessment unit with a novel triage <span class="hlt">process</span>: a prospective cohort study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bibok, Maximilian B; Votova, Kristine; Balshaw, Robert F; Lesperance, Mary L; Croteau, Nicole S; Trivedi, Anurag; Morrison, Jaclyn; Sedgwick, Colin; Penn, Andrew M</p> <p>2018-02-27</p> <p>To evaluate the performance of a novel triage system for Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) units built upon an existent clinical prediction rule (CPR) to reduce time to unit arrival, relative to the time of symptom onset, for true TIA and minor stroke patients. Differentiating between true and false TIA/minor stroke cases (mimics) is necessary for effective triage as medical intervention for true TIA/minor stroke is time-sensitive and TIA unit spots are a finite resource. Prospective cohort study design utilizing patient referral data and TIA unit arrival times from a regional fast-track TIA unit on Vancouver Island, Canada, accepting referrals from emergency departments (ED) and general practice (GP). Historical referral cohort (N = 2942) from May 2013-Oct 2014 was triaged using the ABCD2 score; prospective referral cohort (N = 2929) from Nov 2014-Apr 2016 was triaged using the novel system. A retrospective survival curve analysis, censored at 28 days to unit arrival, was used to compare days to unit arrival from event date between cohort patients matched by low (0-3), moderate (4-5) and high (6-7) ABCD2 scores. Survival curve analysis indicated that using the novel triage system, prospectively <span class="hlt">referred</span> TIA/minor stroke patients with low and moderate ABCD2 scores arrived at the unit 2 and 1 day earlier than matched historical patients, respectively. The novel triage <span class="hlt">process</span> is associated with a reduction in time to unit arrival from symptom onset for <span class="hlt">referred</span> true TIA/minor stroke patients with low and moderate ABCD2 scores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27901640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27901640"><span>A traceable <span class="hlt">reference</span> for direct comparative assessment of total naphthenic acid concentrations in commercial and acid extractable organic mixtures derived from oil sands <span class="hlt">process</span> water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brunswick, Pamela; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Kim, Marcus; van Aggelen, Graham; Shang, Dayue</p> <p>2017-02-23</p> <p>The advantage of using naphthenic acid (NA) mixtures for the determination of total NA lies in their chemical characteristics and identification of retention times distinct from isobaric interferences. However, the differing homolog profiles and unknown chemical structures of NA mixtures do not allow them to be considered a traceable <span class="hlt">reference</span> material. The current study provides a new tool for the comparative assessment of different NA mixtures by direct <span class="hlt">reference</span> to a single, well-defined and traceable compound, decanoic-d 19 acid. The method employed an established liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QToF) procedure that was applicable both to the classic O2 NA species dominating commercial mixtures and additionally to the O4 species known to be present in acid extractable organics (AEOs) derived from oil sands <span class="hlt">process</span> water (OSPW). Four different commercial NA mixtures and one OSPW-derived AEOs mixture were comparatively assessed. Results showed significant difference among Merichem Technical, Aldrich, Acros, and Kodak commercial NA mixtures with respect to "equivalent to decanoic-d 19 acid" concentration ratios to nominal. Furthermore, different lot numbers of single commercial NA mixtures were found to be inconsistent with respect to their homolog content by percent response. Differences in the observed homolog content varied significantly, particularly at the lower (n = 9-14) and higher (n = 20-23) carbon number ranges. Results highlighted the problem between using NA mixtures from different sources and different lot numbers but offered a solution to the problem from a concentration perspective. It is anticipated that this tool may be utilized in review of historical data in addition to future studies, such as the study of OSPW derived acid extractable organics (AEOs) and fractions employed during toxicological studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/minimum-risk-pesticides/commonly-consumed-food-commodities','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/minimum-risk-pesticides/commonly-consumed-food-commodities"><span><span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Consumed Food Commodities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Commonly</span> consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or <span class="hlt">processed</span> commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=chicago+AND+fire&id=EJ1129099','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=chicago+AND+fire&id=EJ1129099"><span>Finding <span class="hlt">Common</span> Ground with the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moisan, Heidi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The <span class="hlt">process</span> raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29556491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29556491"><span>An Overview of the Reimbursement Decision-Making <span class="hlt">Processes</span> in Bulgaria As a <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Country for the Middle-Income European Countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kamusheva, Maria; Vassileva, Mariya; Savova, Alexandra; Manova, Manoela; Petrova, Guenka</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Policy makers face a lot of challenges in the <span class="hlt">process</span> of drug reimbursement decision-making, especially in the context of entering the market of more and more innovative medicinal products (MPs). The aim of the current study is to make an overview of the reimbursement system development and to evaluate the access of innovative medicines, which have entered the EU-market in the period 2015-2017, in Bulgaria as <span class="hlt">reference</span> example for middle-income European country. A literature and a legislative systematic review regarding the Bulgarian reimbursement system as well as a defining the number of available innovative reimbursed MPs in 2017 in Bulgaria was made. The reimbursement legislation in Bulgaria is quite unstable due to constant changes, which have been made, especially in the recent years. Despite this fact, the reimbursement <span class="hlt">process</span> in Bulgaria is in accordance with the Transparency Directive. Bulgarian patients have a relatively delayed access to innovative medicines as only 5% of centrally authorized MPs in 2017 are available in the positive drug list (PDL), 16% of all in 2016 and 18%-in 2015. This could be explained by the long procedure for their appraisal in Bulgaria: the first step is issuing an opinion by the HTA Committee, followed by negotiation of discounts between the marketing authorization holder and the National Health Insurance Fund and making a final decision by the National Council on Prices and Reimbursement (NCPR) for the inclusion into the PDL. Optimization of the procedure for issuing reimbursement status for innovative MPs is needed, such as improvements in the <span class="hlt">process</span> of conducting HTA reports and their appraisal, incorporation of adequate systems for following the effectiveness and safety of MPs in the real-world conditions, value-based pricing implementation, and increasing the financial control over the health insurance system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20843264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20843264"><span>The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the version for children and youth as a tool in child habilitation/early childhood intervention--feasibility and usefulness as a <span class="hlt">common</span> language and frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> for practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Björck-Åkesson, Eva; Wilder, Jenny; Granlund, Mats; Pless, Mia; Simeonsson, Rune; Adolfsson, Margareta; Almqvist, Lena; Augustine, Lilly; Klang, Nina; Lillvist, Anne</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Early childhood intervention and habilitation services for children with disabilities operate on an interdisciplinary basis. It requires a <span class="hlt">common</span> language between professionals, and a shared framework for intervention goals and intervention implementation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the version for children and youth (ICF-CY) may serve as this <span class="hlt">common</span> framework and language. This overview of studies implemented by our research group is based on three research questions: Do the ICF-CY conceptual model have a valid content and is it logically coherent when investigated empirically? Is the ICF-CY classification useful for documenting child characteristics in services? What difficulties and benefits are related to using ICF-CY model as a basis for intervention when it is implemented in services? A series of studies, undertaken by the CHILD researchers are analysed. The analysis is based on data sets from published studies or master theses. Results and conclusion show that the ICF-CY has a useful content and is logically coherent on model level. Professionals find it useful for documenting children's body functions and activities. Guidelines for separating activity and participation are needed. ICF-CY is a complex classification, implementing it in services is a long-term project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25303928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25303928"><span>Development of C-reactive protein certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> material NMIJ CRM 6201-b: optimization of a hydrolysis <span class="hlt">process</span> to improve the accuracy of amino acid analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kato, Megumi; Kinumi, Tomoya; Yoshioka, Mariko; Goto, Mari; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Takatsu, Akiko</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>To standardize C-reactive protein (CRP) assays, the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) has developed a C-reactive protein solution certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> material, CRM 6201-b, which is intended for use as a primary <span class="hlt">reference</span> material to enable the SI-traceable measurement of CRP. This study describes the development <span class="hlt">process</span> of CRM 6201-b. As a candidate material of the CRM, recombinant human CRP solution was selected because of its higher purity and homogeneity than the purified material from human serum. Gel filtration chromatography was used to examine the homogeneity and stability of the present CRM. The total protein concentration of CRP in the present CRM was determined by amino acid analysis coupled to isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS-AAA). To improve the accuracy of IDMS-AAA, we optimized the hydrolysis <span class="hlt">process</span> by examining the effect of parameters such as the volume of protein samples taken for hydrolysis, the procedure of sample preparation prior to the hydrolysis, hydrolysis temperature, and hydrolysis time. Under optimized conditions, we conducted two independent approaches in which the following independent hydrolysis and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) were combined: one was vapor-phase acid hydrolysis (130 °C, 24 h) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) method, and the other was microwave-assisted liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (150 °C, 3 h) and pre-column derivatization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The quantitative values of the two different amino acid analyses were in agreement within their uncertainties. The certified value was the weighted mean of the results of the two methods. Uncertainties from the value-assignment method, between-method variance, homogeneity, long-term stability, and short-term stability were taken into account in evaluating the uncertainty for a certified value. The certified value and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22749892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22749892"><span>Effects of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold on mood, psychomotor performance, the encoding of new information, speed of working memory and semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Andrew P</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Previous research has shown that people with the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold report a more negative mood and psychomotor slowing. Recent research suggests that memory speed may also be impaired. This was examined in the study reported here. A prospective design was used and all participants (N=200; half male, half female; mean age 21 years, range 18-30 years) carried out a baseline session when healthy. The test battery involved mood rating, simple and choice reaction time, verbal reasoning and semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Volunteers returned when they developed an upper respiratory tract illness (URTI) and repeated the test battery. If they remained healthy they were recalled as a control. One hundred and eighty-nine participants completed the study and 48 developed URTIs and 141 were in the healthy control group. Symptoms and signs suggested that those who were ill had colds rather than influenza. The results showed that those with colds reported lower alertness, a more negative mood, and psychomotor slowing. They were also slower at encoding new information and slower on the verbal reasoning and semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span> tasks. The magnitude of the mood changes associated with being ill were correlated with symptom severity. The performance changes were not correlated with symptom severity, sleep duration or mood changes. Further research is now needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the behavioral malaise associated with URTIs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.766D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.766D"><span>Computer <span class="hlt">processing</span> of Mars Odyssey THEMIS IR imaging, MGS MOLA altimetry and Mars Express stereo imaging to locate Airy-0, the Mars prime meridian <span class="hlt">reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duxbury, Thomas; Neukum, Gerhard; Smith, David E.; Christensen, Philip; Neumann, Gregory; Albee, Arden; Caplinger, Michael; Seregina, N. V.; Kirk, Randolph L.</p> <p></p> <p>The small crater Airy-0 was selected from Mariner 9 images to be the <span class="hlt">reference</span> for the Mars prime meridian. Initial analyses were made in year 2000 to tie Viking Orbiter and Mars Orbiter Camera images of Airy-0 to the evolving Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter global digital terrain model to improve the location accuracy of Airy-0. Based upon this tie and radiometric tracking of landers / rovers from earth, new expressions for the Mars spin axis direction, spin rate and prime meridian epoch value were produced to define the orientation of the Martian surface in inertial space over time. Now that the Mars Global Surveyor mission and the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter global digital terrain model are complete, a more exhaustive study has been performed to determine the location of Airy-0 relative to the global terrain grid. THEMIS IR image cubes of the Airy and Gale crater regions were tied to the global terrain grid using precision stereo photogrammetric image <span class="hlt">processing</span> techniques. The Airy-0 location was determined to be within 50 meters of the currently defined IAU prime meridian, with this offset at the limiting absolute accuracy of the global terrain grid. Additional outputs of this study were a controlled multi-band photomosaic of Airy, precision alignment and geometric models of the ten THEMIS IR bands and a controlled multi-band photomosaic of Gale crater used to validate the Mars Surface Laboratory operational map products supporting their successful landing on Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27362912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27362912"><span>Electronic health record interventions at the point of care improve documentation of care <span class="hlt">processes</span> and decrease orders for genetic tests <span class="hlt">commonly</span> ordered by nongeneticists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scheuner, Maren T; Peredo, Jane; Tangney, Kelly; Schoeff, Diane; Sale, Taylor; Lubick-Goldzweig, Caroline; Hamilton, Alison; Hilborne, Lee; Lee, Martin; Mittman, Brian; Yano, Elizabeth M; Lubin, Ira M</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>To determine whether electronic health record (EHR) tools improve documentation of pre- and postanalytic care <span class="hlt">processes</span> for genetic tests ordered by nongeneticists. We conducted a nonrandomized, controlled, pre-/postintervention study of EHR point-of-care tools (informational messages and template report) for three genetic tests. Chart review assessed documentation of genetic testing <span class="hlt">processes</span> of care, with points assigned for each documented item. Multiple linear and logistic regressions assessed factors associated with documentation. Preimplementation, there were no significant site differences (P > 0.05). Postimplementation, mean documentation scores increased (5.9 (2.1) vs. 5.0 (2.2); P = 0.0001) and records with clinically meaningful documentation increased (score >5: 59 vs. 47%; P = 0.02) at the intervention versus the control site. Pre- and postimplementation, a score >5 was positively associated with abnormal test results (OR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.8-9.2) and trainee provider (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.6). Postimplementation, a score >5 was also positively associated with intervention site (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-5.1) and specialty clinic (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). There were also significantly fewer tests ordered after implementation (264/100,000 vs. 204/100,000; P = 0.03), with no significant change at the control site (280/100,000 vs. 257/100,000; P = 0.50). EHR point-of-care tools improved documentation of genetic testing <span class="hlt">processes</span> and decreased utilization of genetic tests <span class="hlt">commonly</span> ordered by nongeneticists.Genet Med 19 1, 112-120.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T13A2184D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T13A2184D"><span>Peridote-water interaction generating migration pathways of H2-rich fluids in subduction context: <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> in the ophiolites of Oman, New-Caledonia, Philippines and Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deville, E. P.; Prinzhofer, A.; Pillot, D.; Vacquand, C.; Sissmann, O.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The occurrence of H2 flows which were punctually known notably in the ophiolites of Oman, Zambales (Philippines) and Antalya (Turkey) appears to be a widespread phenomenon in these major peridotite massifs associated with ancient or active subduction <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Similar H2-rich gas flows have been discovered also in the peridotite of New-Caledonia. H2 concentrations are locally high (<span class="hlt">commonly</span> 60 to90% in Oman). H2 is frequently degassing in hyperalkaline springs but the highest flows were found directly expelled from fractures in the peridotites. Obviously, within the fracture systems, gas and associated hyperalkaline water separate at shallow depth close to the top of the upper aquifer level. Locally high flows of gas migrate vertically in the fractures, whereas water with degassing H2 tends to migrate laterally in the fracture network toward the creeks where most of the hyperalkaline springs are found. The genesis of natural H2 is interpreted as the result of the interaction, at depth, between ultrabasic mantle rocks in the upper plate and water expelled by the subducted sediments by oxidation of metals (Fe2+, Mn2+) and reduction of water during serpentinisation. CH4 is <span class="hlt">commonly</span> associated to the H2-rich fluids and it is interpreted as the result of the reduction of available CO2 at depth. N2 is also <span class="hlt">commonly</span> associated to the H2-rich fluids in the ophiolites, whereas N2 flows (within H2) were found in the subducted sediments (below the sole décollement of the peridotite) where it can be observed (Oman and New-Caledonia). Within the peridotites, the hyperalkaline water is rich in ions OH- and Ca2+ and characterized by high pH (between 11 and 12). Most alkaline springs are found in the vicinity of major faults and/or lithological discontinuities like the basal décollement of the ophiolites and the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). This hyperalkaline water migration induces a chain of diagenetic reactions starting at depth within the fracture systems by the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21828','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21828"><span>No. 1 and No. 2 <span class="hlt">Common</span> red oak yields: similar part sizes when gang-ripping is used to <span class="hlt">process</span> boards with crook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Charles J. Gatchell; Charles J. Gatchell</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Computer simulation was used to gang rip No. 1 and No. 2 <span class="hlt">Common</span> red oak boards before and after removal of crook. While No. 1 <span class="hlt">Common</span> produced slightly more total yield, the part yields were very similar. No. 1 <span class="hlt">Common</span> was superior only in yielding 75-inch-long pieces. Either grade is an excellent choice for the furniture and cabinet industries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28221857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28221857"><span>Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Carrying Virulence-Attenuating Mutations in Internalin A Are <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Food <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Plant and Retail Environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>VAN Stelten, A; Roberts, A R; Manuel, C S; Nightingale, K K</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Listeria monocytogenes is a human foodborne pathogen that may cause an invasive disease known as listeriosis in susceptible individuals. Internalin A (InlA; encoded by inlA) is a virulence factor that facilitates crossing of host cell barriers by L. monocytogenes . At least 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inlA that result in a premature stop codon (PMSC) have been described worldwide. SNPs leading to a PMSC in inlA have been shown to be causally associated with attenuated virulence. L. monocytogenes pathogens carrying virulence-attenuating (VA) mutations in inlA have been <span class="hlt">commonly</span> isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) foods but rarely have been associated with human disease. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of VA SNPs in inlA among L. monocytogenes from environments associated with RTE food production and handling. More than 700 L. monocytogenes isolates from RTE food <span class="hlt">processing</span> plant (n = 409) and retail (n = 319) environments were screened for the presence of VA SNPs in inlA. Overall, 26.4% of isolates from RTE food <span class="hlt">processing</span> plant and 32.6% of isolates from retail environments carried a VA mutation in inlA. Food contact surfaces sampled at retail establishments were significantly (P < 0.0001) more likely to be contaminated by a L. monocytogenes isolate carrying a VA mutation in inlA (56% of 55 isolates) compared with nonfood contact surfaces (28% of 264 isolates). Overall, a significant proportion of L. monocytogenes isolated from RTE food production and handling environments have reduced virulence. These data will be useful in the revision of current and the development of future risk assessments that incorporate strain-specific virulence parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27150734','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27150734"><span><span class="hlt">Process</span> Evaluation of a Blended Web-Based Intervention on Return to Work for Sick-Listed Employees with <span class="hlt">Common</span> Mental Health Problems in the Occupational Health Setting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Volker, D; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M C; Brouwers, E P M; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Purpose A blended web-based intervention, "eHealth module embedded in collaborative occupational health care" (ECO), aimed at return to work, was developed and found effective in sick-listed employees with <span class="hlt">common</span> mental disorders. In order to establish the feasibility of ECO, a <span class="hlt">process</span> evaluation was conducted. Methods Seven <span class="hlt">process</span> components were investigated: recruitment, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, satisfaction and context. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data: an online questionnaire for the employees, website data, telephonic interviews with occupational physicians (OPs) and observations of the researchers. Results Recruitment was uncomplicated for the employees, but required several steps for the OPs. Reach was 100 % at the OP level and 76.3 % at the employee level. Dose delivered and received for OPs: 91.6 % received minimally one email message. Dose delivered and received for the employees: finishing of the different modules of ECO varied between 13 and 90 %. Fidelity: the support of the OP to the employee in ECO was lower than anticipated. Satisfaction: both employees and OPs were satisfied with the intervention. However, employees reported a need for more support in ECO. The context showed that OPs had limited time to support the employees and it was impossible for the employee to contact the OP outside their regular contacts. Conclusion Feasibility of ECO and satisfaction of employees and OPs with ECO were good. Fidelity of OPs was limited. For further implementation in the occupational health setting, especially contextual barriers regarding time limitation and accessibility of OPs for employees should be addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26939686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26939686"><span>Selected problems with boron determination in water treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Part I: comparison of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> methods for ICP-MS and ICP-OES determinations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kmiecik, Ewa; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Wątor, Katarzyna; Bodzek, Michał</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to compare the two <span class="hlt">reference</span> methods for the determination of boron in water samples and further assess the impact of the method of preparation of samples for analysis on the results obtained. Samples were collected during different desalination <span class="hlt">processes</span>, ultrafiltration and the double reverse osmosis system, connected in series. From each point, samples were prepared in four different ways: the first was filtered (through a membrane filter of 0.45 μm) and acidified (using 1 mL ultrapure nitric acid for each 100 mL of samples) (FA), the second was unfiltered and not acidified (UFNA), the third was filtered but not acidified (FNA), and finally, the fourth was unfiltered but acidified (UFA). All samples were analysed using two analytical methods: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results obtained were compared and correlated, and the differences between them were studied. The results show that there are statistically significant differences between the concentrations obtained using the ICP-MS and ICP-OES techniques regardless of the methods of sampling preparation (sample filtration and preservation). Finally, both the ICP-MS and ICP-OES methods can be used for determination of the boron concentration in water. The differences in the boron concentrations obtained using these two methods can be caused by several high-level concentrations in selected whole-water digestates and some matrix effects. Higher concentrations of iron (from 1 to 20 mg/L) than chromium (0.02-1 mg/L) in the samples analysed can influence boron determination. When iron concentrations are high, we can observe the emission spectrum as a double joined and overlapping peak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRE..119.2471D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRE..119.2471D"><span>The location of Airy-0, the Mars prime meridian <span class="hlt">reference</span>, from stereo photogrammetric <span class="hlt">processing</span> of THEMIS IR imaging and digital elevation data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duxbury, T. C.; Christensen, P.; Smith, D. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Kirk, R. L.; Caplinger, M. A.; Albee, A. A.; Seregina, N. V.; Neukum, G.; Archinal, B. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The small crater Airy-0 was selected from Mariner 9 images to be the <span class="hlt">reference</span> for the Mars prime meridian. Initial analyses in the year 2000 tied Viking Orbiter and Mars Orbiter Camera images of Airy-0 to the evolving Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter global digital terrain model to update the location of Airy-0. Based upon this tie and radiometric tracking of landers/rovers from Earth, new expressions for the Mars spin axis direction, spin rate, and prime meridian epoch value were produced to define the orientation of the Martian surface in inertial space over time. Since the Mars Global Surveyor mission and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter global digital terrain model were completed some time ago, a more exhaustive study has been performed to determine the accuracy of the Airy-0 location and orientation of Mars at the standard epoch. Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) IR image cubes of the Airy and Gale crater regions were tied to the global terrain grid using precision stereo photogrammetric image <span class="hlt">processing</span> techniques. The Airy-0 location was determined to be about 0.001° east of its predicted location using the currently defined International Astronomical Union (IAU) prime meridian location. Information on this new location and how it was derived will be provided to the NASA Mars Exploration Program Geodesy and Cartography Working Group for their assessment. This NASA group will make a recommendation to the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements to update the expression for the Mars spin axis direction, spin rate, and prime meridian location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5297882','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5297882"><span>Nutritional and Digestive Properties of Protein Isolates Extracted from the Muscle of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Carp Using pH‐Shift <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tian, Yuanyong; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Chunhong; Zhang, Long; Liu, Jinyang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract This study details the nutritional and digestive properties of protein isolates that are extracted from carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) muscle using pH shifting methods. Alkaline (ALPI) and acid (ACPI) protein isolates exhibit higher protein yields (87.6%, 76.3%, respectively). In addition to the high recovery of myofibrillar protein, a portion of the water‐soluble proteins is also recovered. The moisture contents of ACPI and ALPI are 85.5% and 88.5%, respectively, and the crude protein contents of these two fractions are 83.20% and 83.0%, respectively, both contents of which are higher than those for fresh muscle. Most part of the ash and fat are removed in the separation <span class="hlt">process</span>. The protein isolation is also found to be lighter and whiter than the fresh muscle and there is no difference between amino acid content of protein isolation and that of fresh muscle. The maximum solubility of water washed surimi is 73.21%, while solubility of ACPI‐2 and ALPI‐2 (pH 7.0) are 66.67% and 62.08%, respectively. The digestibility of ALPI and ACPI is improved after being treated with chymotrypsin, which is about 7–8 times as that of fresh muscle. The results indicate that the protein isolates have better nutritional and digestive properties than the fresh muscle does in food <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Practical Applications <span class="hlt">Common</span> carp is a lower additional value fish that exists in large amount in China. This study investigates nutritional and digestive properties of protein from carp extracted by pH shifting methods. According to the obtained data in this study, pH shifting method is a good protein recovery method that can effectively remove bone spurs, skin, fat and other impurities. In addition, sarcoplasmic proteins can also be recovered. The nutritional properties of protein isolates of carp were suitable for supplementing as an ingredient for human consumption. The pH‐shift <span class="hlt">process</span> greatly improves the protein digestibility. Therefore, there are broad application</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/866683','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/866683"><span>Aluminum <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sadoway, Donald R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A stable <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the <span class="hlt">process</span> of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7067429','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7067429"><span>Aluminum <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sadoway, D.R.</p> <p>1988-08-16</p> <p>A stable <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the <span class="hlt">process</span> of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=encyclopedia+AND+evaluation&pg=6&id=ED449799','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=encyclopedia+AND+evaluation&pg=6&id=ED449799"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> and Information Services: An Introduction. Third Edition. Library and Information Science Text Series.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bopp, Richard E., Ed.; Smith, Linda C., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>Like the first two editions, this third edition is designed primarily to provide the beginning student of library and information science with an overview both of the concepts and <span class="hlt">processes</span> behind today's <span class="hlt">reference</span> services and of the most important sources consulted in answering <span class="hlt">common</span> types of <span class="hlt">reference</span> questions. The first 12 chapters deal with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12519023','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12519023"><span>Gestalt grouping and <span class="hlt">common</span> onset masking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kahan, Todd A; Mathis, Katherine M</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>A four-dot mask that surrounds and is presented simultaneously with a briefly presented target will reduce a person's ability to identity that target if the mask persists beyond target offset and attention is divided (Enns & Di Lollo, 1997, 2000). This masking effect, <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as <span class="hlt">common</span> onset masking, reflects reentrant <span class="hlt">processing</span> in the visual system and can best be explained with a theory of object substitution (Di Lollo, Enns, & Rensink, 2000). In the present experiments, we investigated whether Gestalt grouping variables would influence the strength of <span class="hlt">common</span> onset masking. The results indicated that (1) masking was impervious to grouping by form, similarity of color, position, luminance polarity, and <span class="hlt">common</span> region and (2) masking increased with the number of elements in the masking display.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=good+AND+practices&pg=4&id=EJ1031718','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=good+AND+practices&pg=4&id=EJ1031718"><span>Putting the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Good Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>North, Brian</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper recapitulates the aims of the CEFR and highlights three aspects of good practice in exploiting it: firstly, taking as a starting point the real-world language ability that is the aim of all modern language learners; secondly, the exploitation of good descriptors as transparent learning objectives in order to involve and empower the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=337315&keyword=Ethics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=337315&keyword=Ethics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Updating Regulations for Human Subjects Research: The New <span class="hlt">Common</span> Rule Has arrived! What Changes Are Coming?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The “<span class="hlt">Common</span> Rule” <span class="hlt">refers</span> to the federal regulations that govern research involving human subjects. These regulations have been largely unchanged since 1981, while the research they cover has continued to evolve. After a 6-year rulemaking <span class="hlt">process</span>, the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Rule was ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27251901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27251901"><span>Quantification of <span class="hlt">common</span> carotid artery and descending aorta vessel wall thickness from MR vessel wall imaging using a fully automated <span class="hlt">processing</span> pipeline.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Shan; van 't Klooster, Ronald; Brandts, Anne; Roes, Stijntje D; Alizadeh Dehnavi, Reza; de Roos, Albert; Westenberg, Jos J M; van der Geest, Rob J</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>To develop and evaluate a method that can fully automatically identify the vessel wall boundaries and quantify the wall thickness for both <span class="hlt">common</span> carotid artery (CCA) and descending aorta (DAO) from axial magnetic resonance (MR) images. 3T MRI data acquired with T 1 -weighted gradient-echo black-blood imaging sequence from carotid (39 subjects) and aorta (39 subjects) were used to develop and test the algorithm. The vessel wall segmentation was achieved by respectively fitting a 3D cylindrical B-spline surface to the boundaries of lumen and outer wall. The tube-fitting was based on the edge detection performed on the signal intensity (SI) profile along the surface normal. To achieve a fully automated <span class="hlt">process</span>, Hough Transform (HT) was developed to estimate the lumen centerline and radii for the target vessel. Using the outputs of HT, a tube model for lumen segmentation was initialized and deformed to fit the image data. Finally, lumen segmentation was dilated to initiate the adaptation procedure of outer wall tube. The algorithm was validated by determining: 1) its performance against manual tracing; 2) its interscan reproducibility in quantifying vessel wall thickness (VWT); 3) its capability of detecting VWT difference in hypertensive patients compared with healthy controls. Statistical analysis including Bland-Altman analysis, t-test, and sample size calculation were performed for the purpose of algorithm evaluation. The mean distance between the manual and automatically detected lumen/outer wall contours was 0.00 ± 0.23/0.09 ± 0.21 mm for CCA and 0.12 ± 0.24/0.14 ± 0.35 mm for DAO. No significant difference was observed between the interscan VWT assessment using automated segmentation for both CCA (P = 0.19) and DAO (P = 0.94). Both manual and automated segmentation detected significantly higher carotid (P = 0.016 and P = 0.005) and aortic (P < 0.001 and P = 0.021) wall thickness in the hypertensive patients. A reliable and reproducible pipeline for fully</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=application+AND+spaces&pg=6&id=EJ1119257','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=application+AND+spaces&pg=6&id=EJ1119257"><span>Does <span class="hlt">Common</span> Enrollment Work?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carpenter, Dick M., II; Clayton, Grant</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this article, researchers Dick M. Carpenter II and Grant Clayton explore <span class="hlt">common</span> enrollment systems (CESs)--how they work and what school leaders can learn from districts that have implemented CESs. Denver, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey) have rolled out this centralized enrollment <span class="hlt">process</span> for all district-run and charter schools in their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9402E..09L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9402E..09L"><span>Cross-<span class="hlt">reference</span> identification within a PDF document</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Sida; Gao, Liangcai; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cross-<span class="hlt">references</span>, such like footnotes, endnotes, figure/table captions, <span class="hlt">references</span>, are a <span class="hlt">common</span> and useful type of page elements to further explain their corresponding entities in the target document. In this paper, we focus on cross-<span class="hlt">reference</span> identification in a PDF document, and present a robust method as a case study of identifying footnotes and figure <span class="hlt">references</span>. The proposed method first extracts footnotes and figure captions, and then matches them with their corresponding <span class="hlt">references</span> within a document. A number of novel features within a PDF document, i.e., page layout, font information, lexical and linguistic features of cross-<span class="hlt">references</span>, are utilized for the task. Clustering is adopted to handle the features that are stable in one document but varied in different kinds of documents so that the <span class="hlt">process</span> of identification is adaptive with document types. In addition, this method leverages results from the matching <span class="hlt">process</span> to provide feedback to the identification <span class="hlt">process</span> and further improve the algorithm accuracy. The primary experiments in real document sets show that the proposed method is promising to identify cross-<span class="hlt">reference</span> in a PDF document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=relativity+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ398251','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=relativity+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ398251"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frames and Relativity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Swartz, Clifford</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Stresses the importance of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames and noninertial <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames. Provides examples of <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames with diagrams. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=seed+AND+processing&id=EJ1106964','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=seed+AND+processing&id=EJ1106964"><span>Comprehending Text versus Reading Words in Young Readers with Varying Reading Ability: Distinct Patterns of Functional Connectivity from <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Hubs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Aboud, Katherine S.; Bailey, Stephen K.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Cutting, Laurie E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Skilled reading depends on recognizing words efficiently in isolation ("word-level <span class="hlt">processing</span>"; "WL") and extracting meaning from text ("discourse-level <span class="hlt">processing</span>"; "DL"); deficiencies in either result in poor reading. FMRI has revealed consistent overlapping networks in word and passage reading, as well as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732514','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732514"><span>The work of the European Union <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation <span class="hlt">process</span> of feed additives in the European Union: a review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5152102-praxis-language-reference-manual','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5152102-praxis-language-reference-manual"><span>Praxis language <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walker, J.H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>This document is a language <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual for the programming language Praxis. The document contains the specifications that must be met by any compiler for the language. The Praxis language was designed for systems programming in real-time <span class="hlt">process</span> applications. Goals for the language and its implementations are: (1) highly efficient code generated by the compiler; (2) program portability; (3) completeness, that is, all programming requirements can be met by the language without needing an assembler; and (4) separate compilation to aid in design and management of large systems. The language does not provide any facilities for input/output, stack and queuemore » handling, string operations, parallel <span class="hlt">processing</span>, or coroutine <span class="hlt">processing</span>. These features can be implemented as routines in the language, using machine-dependent code to take advantage of facilities in the control environment on different machines.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=business+AND+disciplinary+AND+process&pg=3&id=EJ570696','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=business+AND+disciplinary+AND+process&pg=3&id=EJ570696"><span>The Execution and Evaluation of an Integrated Business <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core Curriculum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pharr, Steven W.; Morris, John S.; Stover, Dana; Byers, C. Randall; Reyes, Mario G.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes the rationale, <span class="hlt">process</span>, and organization of an integrated, cross-disciplinary undergraduate program known as the Integrated Business <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core (IBC) at the University of Idaho. Indicates that IBC's goal is to provide students with an understanding of key business issues, with emphasis on <span class="hlt">processes</span>. (2 tables and 11 <span class="hlt">references</span>) (JDI)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=THC&pg=3&id=ED260736','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=THC&pg=3&id=ED260736"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Service Policy Statement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Young, William F.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">reference</span> service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage <span class="hlt">reference</span> service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy <span class="hlt">refers</span> only to <span class="hlt">reference</span> service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Services Division.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4945471','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4945471"><span>Comprehending text versus reading words in young readers with varying reading ability: Distinct patterns of functional connectivity from <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> hubs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aboud, Katherine S.; Bailey, Stephen K.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Cutting, Laurie E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Skilled reading depends on recognizing words efficiently in isolation (word-level <span class="hlt">processing</span>; WL) and extracting meaning from text (discourse-level <span class="hlt">processing</span>; DL); deficiencies in either result in poor reading. FMRI has revealed consistent overlapping networks in word and passage reading, as well as unique regions for DL <span class="hlt">processing</span>, however less is known about how WL and DL <span class="hlt">processes</span> interact. Here we examined functional connectivity from seed regions derived from where BOLD signal overlapped during word and passage reading in 38 adolescents ranging in reading ability, hypothesizing that even though certain regions support word- and higher-level language, connectivity patterns from overlapping regions would be task modulated. Results indeed revealed that the left-lateralized semantic and working memory (WM) seed regions showed task-dependent functional connectivity patterns: during DL <span class="hlt">processes</span>, semantic and WM nodes all correlated with the left angular gyrus, a region implicated in semantic memory/coherence building. In contrast, during WL, these nodes coordinated with a traditional WL area (left occipitotemporal region). Additionally, these WL and DL findings were modulated by decoding and comprehension abilities, respectively, with poorer abilities correlating with decreased connectivity. Findings indicate that key regions may uniquely contribute to multiple levels of reading; we speculate that these connectivity patterns may be especially salient for reading outcomes and intervention response. PMID:27147257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170007855','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170007855"><span>Design and Principles Enabling the Space <span class="hlt">Reference</span> FOM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moeller, Bjoern; Dexter, Dan; Madden, Michael; Crues, Edwin Z.; Garro, Alfredo; Skuratovskiy, Anton</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A first complete draft of the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) Space <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Federation Object Model (FOM) has now been produced. This paper provides some insights into its capabilities and discusses the opportunity for reuse in other domains. The focus of this first version of the standard is execution control, time management and coordinate systems, well-known <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames, as well as some basic support for physical entities. The biggest part of the execution control is the coordinated start-up <span class="hlt">process</span>. This <span class="hlt">process</span> contains a number of steps, including checking of required federates, handling of early versus late joiners, sharing of federation wide configuration data and multi-phase initialization. An additional part of Execution Control is the coordinated and synchronized transition between Run mode, Freeze mode and Shutdown. For time management, several time lines are defined, including real-time, scenario time, High Level Architecture (HLA) logical time and physical time. A strategy for mixing simulations that use different time steps is introduced, as well as an approach for finding <span class="hlt">common</span> boundaries for fully synchronized freeze. For describing spatial information, a mechanism with a set of <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames is specified. Each <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame has a position and orientation related to a parent <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame. This makes it possible for federates to perform calculations in <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames that are convenient to them. An operation on the Moon can be performed using lunar coordinates whereas an operation on Earth can be performed using Earth coordinates. At the same time, coordinates in one <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame have an unambiguous relationship to a coordinate in another <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame. While the Space <span class="hlt">Reference</span> FOM is originally being developed for Space operations, the authors believe that many parts of it can be reused for any simulation that has a focus on physical <span class="hlt">processes</span> with one or more coordinate systems, and require high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA488882','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA488882"><span>Improving the U.S. Navy’s Execution of Technical Authority through a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Risk Management and Technical Assessment <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>ITP . Assessment Indicators: • Has the risk management team (RMT) provided a risk management plan (RMP)? − Does the RMP provide an organized...<span class="hlt">processes</span>. Diskettes, which contain the necessary programs for accessing BMP◊NET from IBM -compatible or Macintosh computers with a modem, and answers to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057923','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057923"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span>-garden experiment to quantify evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span> in copepods: the case of emamectin benzoate resistance in the parasitic sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The development of pesticide resistance represents a global challenge to food production. Specifically for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, parasitic sea lice and their developing resistance to delousing chemicals is challenging production. In this study, seventeen full sibling families, established from three strains of Lepeophtheirus salmonis displaying differing backgrounds in emamectin benzoate (EB) tolerance were produced and quantitatively compared under a <span class="hlt">common</span>-garden experimental design. Lice surviving to the preadult stage were then exposed to EB and finally identified through the application of DNA parentage testing. Results With the exception of two families (19 and 29%), survival from the infectious copepod to preadult stage was very similar among families (40-50%). In contrast, very large differences in survival following EB exposure were observed among the families (7.9-74%). Family survival post EB exposure was consistent with the EB tolerance characteristics of the strains from which they were established and no negative effect on infection success were detected in association with increased EB tolerance. Two of the lice families that displayed reduced sensitivity to EB were established from a commercial farm that had previously used this chemical. This demonstrates that resistant alleles were present on this farm even though the farm had not reported treatment failure. Conclusions To our knowledge, this represents the first study where families of any multi-cellular parasite have been established and compared in performance under communal rearing conditions in a <span class="hlt">common</span>-garden experiment. The system performed in a predictable manner and permitted, for the first time, elucidation of quantitative traits among sea lice families. While this experiment concentrated on, and provided a unique insight into EB sensitivity among lice families, the experimental design represents a novel methodology to experimentally address both resistance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24885085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24885085"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span>-garden experiment to quantify evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span> in copepods: the case of emamectin benzoate resistance in the parasitic sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ljungfeldt, Lina Eva Robin; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Glover, Kevin Alan</p> <p>2014-05-19</p> <p>The development of pesticide resistance represents a global challenge to food production. Specifically for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, parasitic sea lice and their developing resistance to delousing chemicals is challenging production. In this study, seventeen full sibling families, established from three strains of Lepeophtheirus salmonis displaying differing backgrounds in emamectin benzoate (EB) tolerance were produced and quantitatively compared under a <span class="hlt">common</span>-garden experimental design. Lice surviving to the preadult stage were then exposed to EB and finally identified through the application of DNA parentage testing. With the exception of two families (19 and 29%), survival from the infectious copepod to preadult stage was very similar among families (40-50%). In contrast, very large differences in survival following EB exposure were observed among the families (7.9-74%). Family survival post EB exposure was consistent with the EB tolerance characteristics of the strains from which they were established and no negative effect on infection success were detected in association with increased EB tolerance. Two of the lice families that displayed reduced sensitivity to EB were established from a commercial farm that had previously used this chemical. This demonstrates that resistant alleles were present on this farm even though the farm had not reported treatment failure. To our knowledge, this represents the first study where families of any multi-cellular parasite have been established and compared in performance under communal rearing conditions in a <span class="hlt">common</span>-garden experiment. The system performed in a predictable manner and permitted, for the first time, elucidation of quantitative traits among sea lice families. While this experiment concentrated on, and provided a unique insight into EB sensitivity among lice families, the experimental design represents a novel methodology to experimentally address both resistance development and other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890004880','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890004880"><span>Space station <span class="hlt">commonality</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station <span class="hlt">Commonality</span> Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the <span class="hlt">commonality</span> aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials <span class="hlt">processing</span> platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and <span class="hlt">commonality</span>. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware <span class="hlt">commonality</span>, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12659114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12659114"><span>Competency and <span class="hlt">common</span> law: why and how decision-making capacity criteria should be drawn from the capacity-determination <span class="hlt">process</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baron, C H</p> <p>2000-06-01</p> <p>Determining competence to request physician-assisted suicide should be no more difficult than determining competence to refuse life-prolonging treatment. In both cases, criteria and procedures should be developed out of the <span class="hlt">process</span> of actually making capacity determinations; they should not be promulgated a priori. Because patient demeanor plays a critical role in capacity determinations, it should be made part of the record of such determinations through greater use of video- and audiotapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4666833','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4666833"><span>The Value of Quality Improvement <span class="hlt">Process</span> in the Detection and Correction of <span class="hlt">Common</span> Errors in Echocardiographic Hemodynamic Parameters in a Busy Echocardiography Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fanari, Zaher; Choudhry, Usman I; Reddy, Vivek K; Eze-Nliam, Chete; Hammami, Sumaya; Kolm, Paul; Weintraub, William S.; Marshall, Erik S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Accurate assessment of cardiac structures, ventricular function, and hemodynamics are essential for any echocardiographic laboratory. Quality Improvement (QI) <span class="hlt">processes</span> described by the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and the Intersocietal Commission (IAC) should be instrumental in reaching this goal. Methods All patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) followed by cardiac catheterization within 24 hours at Christiana Care Health System in 2011 and 2012 were identified, with 126 and 133 cases respectively. Hemodynamic parameters of diastolic function, Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure (PASP) on TTE correlated poorly with catheterization in 2011. An educational <span class="hlt">process</span> was developed and implemented at quarterly QI meetings based on ASE and IAC recommendations to target frequently encountered errors and provide methods for improved performance. The hemodynamic parameters were then re-examined in 2012 post-intervention. Results Following the QI <span class="hlt">process</span>, there was significant improvement in the correlation between invasive and echocardiographic hemodynamic measurements in both systolic and diastolic function, and PASP. This reflected in significant better correlations between echo and cath LVEF [R = 0.88, ICC=0.87 vs. R = 0.85, ICC=0.85; p <0.001], Average E/E’ and of left Ventricle End Diastolic Pressure (LVEDP) [R = 0.62vs. R = 0.09, p = 0.006] and a better correlation for PASP [R= 0.77, ICC=0.77 vs. R = 0.30, ICC=0.31; p = 0.05] in 2012 compared to 2011. Conclusion The QI <span class="hlt">process</span>, as recommended by ASE and IAC, can allow for identification as well as rectification of quality issues in a large regional academic medical center hospital. PMID:26033297</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26033297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26033297"><span>The Value of Quality Improvement <span class="hlt">Process</span> in the Detection and Correction of <span class="hlt">Common</span> Errors in Echocardiographic Hemodynamic Parameters in a Busy Echocardiography Laboratory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fanari, Zaher; Choudhry, Usman I; Reddy, Vivek K; Eze-Nliam, Chete; Hammami, Sumaya; Kolm, Paul; Weintraub, William S; Marshall, Erik S</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Accurate assessment of cardiac structures, ventricular function, and hemodynamics is essential for any echocardiographic laboratory. Quality improvement (QI) <span class="hlt">processes</span> described by the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and the Intersocietal Commission (IAC) should be instrumental in reaching this goal. All patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) followed by cardiac catheterization within 24 hours at Christiana Care Health System in 2011 and 2012 were identified, with 126 and 133 cases, respectively. Hemodynamic parameters of diastolic function and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) on TTE correlated poorly with catheterization in 2011. An educational <span class="hlt">process</span> was developed and implemented at quarterly QI meetings based on ASE and IAC recommendations to target frequently encountered errors and provide methods for improved performance. The hemodynamic parameters were then reexamined in 2012 postintervention. Following the QI <span class="hlt">process</span>, there was significant improvement in the correlation between invasive and echocardiographic hemodynamic measurements in both systolic and diastolic function, and PASP. This reflected in significant better correlations between echo and cath LVEF [R = 0.88, ICC = 0.87 vs. R = 0.85, ICC = 0.85; P < 0.001], average E/E' and of left ventricle end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) [R = 0.62 vs. R = 0.09, P = 0.006] and a better correlation for PASP [R = 0.77, ICC = 0.77 vs. R = 0.30, ICC = 0.31; P = 0.05] in 2012 compared to 2011. The QI <span class="hlt">process</span>, as recommended by ASE and IAC, can allow for identification as well as rectification of quality issues in a large regional academic medical center hospital. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=abnormal+AND+psychology+AND+david&pg=5&id=EJ159921','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=abnormal+AND+psychology+AND+david&pg=5&id=EJ159921"><span><span class="hlt">Referent</span> Communication in Chronic Schizophrenia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kantorowitz, David A.; Cohen, Bertram D.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Thirty chronic schizophrenics (15 <span class="hlt">process</span> and 15 reactive) and 15 normal control speakers described colors displayed in three-chip sets containing a <span class="hlt">referent</span> and two nonreferent colors. Concludes that poor communication accuracy in long-term schizophrenics results from failure to include a self-editing stage as a part of the communication <span class="hlt">process</span>.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=intention+AND+book&pg=3&id=EJ1047566','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=intention+AND+book&pg=3&id=EJ1047566"><span>No <span class="hlt">Common</span> Opinion on the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a <span class="hlt">common</span> set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3427371','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3427371"><span>Survey of the Diagnostic Retooling <span class="hlt">Process</span> in National TB <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Laboratories, with Special Focus on Rapid Speciation Tests Endorsed by WHO in 2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>van Kampen, Sanne C.; Oskam, Linda; Tuijn, Coosje J.; Klatser, Paul R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Successful integration of new diagnostics in national tuberculosis (TB) control programs, also called ‘retooling’, is highly dependent on operational aspects related to test availability, accessibility and affordability. This survey aimed to find out whether recommendations to use new diagnostics lead to successful retooling in high TB endemic countries, using immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for TB culture speciation as a case study. ICTs are recommended to accurately confirm the presence of bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in liquid culture isolates. Methods and Findings Questionnaires were sent to national TB <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratories (NRLs) in 42 high TB endemic countries to address their access to information on ICT implementation, logistics related to availability, accessibility and affordability of ICTs, and testing algorithms. Results from 16 responding countries indicated that half of the NRLs were aware of the contents of WHO guidance documents on liquid culture and ICT implementation, as well as their eligibility for a negotiated pricing agreement for ICT procurement. No major issues with availability and accessibility of ICTs were raised. When asked about testing algorithms, ICTs were not used as stand-alone or first test for TB culture identification as recommended by WHO. Conclusions The low response rate was a limitation of this survey and together with NRLs managers' unawareness of global guidance, suggests a lack of effective communication between partners of the global laboratory network and NRLs. TB tests could become more affordable to high TB endemic countries, if the possibility to negotiate lower prices for commercial products is communicated to them more successfully. NRLs need additional guidance to identify where available technologies can be most usefully implemented and in what order, taking into account long-term laboratory strategies. PMID:22937050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=climatology&id=EJ720668','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=climatology&id=EJ720668"><span>Reach for <span class="hlt">Reference</span>. Four Recent <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Safford, Barbara Ripp</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school <span class="hlt">reference</span> collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan <span class="hlt">Reference</span>/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=zink&pg=4&id=EJ232595','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=zink&pg=4&id=EJ232595"><span>Putting "<span class="hlt">Reference</span>" in the Publications <span class="hlt">Reference</span> File.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zink, Steven D.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Argues for more widespread utilization of the U.S. Government Printing Office's Publications <span class="hlt">Reference</span> File, a <span class="hlt">reference</span> tool in microfiche format used to answer questions about current U.S. government documents and their availability. Ways to accomplish this task are suggested. (Author/JD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19757075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19757075"><span>Context-dependent dynamic <span class="hlt">processes</span> in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: differentiating <span class="hlt">common</span> and unique effects of state regulation deficits and delay aversion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Wiersema, Jan R; van der Meere, Jacob J; Roeyers, Herbert</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The ability to specify differential predictions is a mark of a scientific models' value. State regulation deficits (SRD) and delay aversion (DAv) have both been hypothesized as context-dependent dynamic dysfunctions in ADHD. However, to date there has been no systematic comparison of their <span class="hlt">common</span> and unique elements. Here we review these hypotheses-and describe the core and secondary manifestations of the two constructs and review evidence in support of them. Second, we focus on what are seen as the hallmark indicators of the two deficits-preference of small immediate over large delayed rewards for DAv and the slow event rate effect for SRD. We describe the overlap between these two manifestations and then explore how experimental manipulations and the analysis of neuropsychological and physiological mediators of effects can allow us to differentiate these two patterns of neuropsychological dysfunction on the basis of specific predictions. Finally, we highlight the implications of neuropsychological heterogeneity for the practical implementation of tests of DAv and SRD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Service+AND+reference&pg=2&id=ED534861','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Service+AND+reference&pg=2&id=ED534861"><span>Fundamentals of <span class="hlt">Reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mulac, Carolyn M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The all-in-one "<span class="hlt">Reference</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span>" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to <span class="hlt">reference</span> sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/strd/index.html','NISTDBS'); return false;" href="http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/strd/index.html"><span>Statistical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Datasets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://srdata.nist.gov/gateway/gateway?search=keyword">National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Statistical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Datasets is also supported by the Standard <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing <span class="hlt">reference</span> datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4888899','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4888899"><span><span class="hlt">References</span> for Haplotype Imputation in the Big Data Era</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Wenzhi; Xu, Wei; Li, Qiling; Ma, Li; Song, Qing</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Imputation is a powerful in silico approach to fill in those missing values in the big datasets. This <span class="hlt">process</span> requires a <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel, which is a collection of big data from which the missing information can be extracted and imputed. Haplotype imputation requires ethnicity-matched <span class="hlt">references</span>; a mismatched <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel will significantly reduce the quality of imputation. However, currently existing big datasets cover only a small number of ethnicities, there is a lack of ethnicity-matched <span class="hlt">references</span> for many ethnic populations in the world, which has hampered the data imputation of haplotypes and its downstream applications. To solve this issue, several approaches have been proposed and explored, including the mixed <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel, the internal <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel and genotype-converted <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel. This review article provides the information and comparison between these approaches. Increasing evidence showed that not just one or two genetic elements dictate the gene activity and functions; instead, cis-interactions of multiple elements dictate gene activity. Cis-interactions require the interacting elements to be on the same chromosome molecule, therefore, haplotype analysis is essential for the investigation of cis-interactions among multiple genetic variants at different loci, and appears to be especially important for studying the <span class="hlt">common</span> diseases. It will be valuable in a wide spectrum of applications from academic research, to clinical diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27274952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23151732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23151732"><span>Design development scopes towards occupational wellness of women workers: specific <span class="hlt">reference</span> to local agro based food <span class="hlt">processing</span> industries in NE India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhattacharyya, Nandita; Chakrabarti, Debkumar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Women workers constitute one of the most vulnerable segments of the country's labour force. They often face different workplace health challenges than men do. They are engaged in a range of work that extends from heavy, monotonous, repetitive jobs, which are in many times experienced with low-paid and involves in long hours of work. Women's workplace health problems are frequently compounded by getting more of the same at home--the "double jeopardy" of domestic work. Specific issues to improve the workers motivation leading to enhancement of productivity and improving occupational health and safety were addressed. Context specific application of ergonomics principles were studied in the <span class="hlt">process</span> of designing of work related equipment of local fruit <span class="hlt">processing</span> units, as well as in tea industry, covering 180 subjects selected purposively. Ergonomic risk factors prevailed among the workers associates productivity and relevant health issues were quantified using QEC, RULA. NMQ was used to gather data on prevalence of CTDs among the workers. Pineapple peeling, tea leaves plucking were found highly labour intensive, done manually. Postures scores found were very high. WRMSDs were prevalent among the workers. Scope for ergonomic design intervention was observed to improve productivity and occupational health.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1246964','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1246964"><span>Mercury Contamination - Amalgamate (contract with NFS and ADA). Demonstration of DeHg SM <span class="hlt">Process</span>. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Number 1675</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>None, None</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>Through efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of bulk elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides stored at various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is thought to be approximately 16 m3 (Conley et al. 1998). At least 19 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) specifies amalgamation as the treatment method for radioactively contaminated elemental mercury. Although the chemistry of amalgamation is well known, the practical engineering of a sizable amalgamation <span class="hlt">process</span> has not been tested (Tysonmore » 1993). To eliminate the existing DOE inventory in a reasonable timeframe, scalable equipment is needed that can produce waste forms that meet the EPA definition of amalgamation, produce waste forms that pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) limit of 0.20 mg/L, limit mercury vapor concentrations during <span class="hlt">processing</span> to below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) 8-h worker exposure limit (50 mg/m3) for mercury, and perform the above economically.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/oculopharyngeal-muscular-dystrophy','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/oculopharyngeal-muscular-dystrophy"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... This condition is much more <span class="hlt">common</span> in the French-Canadian population of the Canadian province of Quebec, ... A, Perie S, Pouget J, Eymard B; Neurologists of French Neuromuscular <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Centers CORNEMUS and FILNEMUS. Correlation between ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17205970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17205970"><span>Dissection of enhanced cell expansion <span class="hlt">processes</span> in leaves triggered by a defect in cell proliferation, with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to roles of endoreduplication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fujikura, Ushio; Horiguchi, Gorou; Tsukaya, Hirokazu</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>Leaf development relies on cell proliferation, post-mitotic cell expansion and the coordination of these <span class="hlt">processes</span>. In several Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in cell proliferation, such as angustifolia3 (an3), leaf cells are larger than normal at their maturity. This phenomenon, which we call compensated cell enlargement, suggests the presence of such coordination in leaf development. To dissect genetically the cell expansion system(s) underlying this compensation seen in the an3 mutant, we isolated and utilized 10 extra-small sisters (xs) mutant lines that show decreased cell size but normal cell numbers in leaves. In the xs single mutants, the palisade cell sizes in mature leaves are about 20-50% smaller than those of wild-type cells. Phenotypes of the palisade cell sizes in all combinations of xs an3 double mutants fall into three classes. In the first class, the compensated cell enlargement was significantly suppressed. Conversely, in the second class, the defective cell expansion conferred by the xs mutations was significantly suppressed by the an3 mutation. The residual xs mutations had effects additive to those of the an3 mutation on cell expansion. The endopolyploidy levels in the first class of mutants were decreased, unaffected or increased, as compared with those in wild-type, suggesting that the abnormally enhanced cell expansion observed in an3 could be mediated, at least in part, by ploidy-independent mechanisms. Altogether, these results clearly showed that a defect in cell proliferation in leaf primordia enhances a part of the network that regulates cell expansion, which is required for normal leaf expansion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17594235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17594235"><span>What is the best <span class="hlt">reference</span> RNA? And other questions regarding the design and analysis of two-color microarray experiments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kerr, Kathleen F; Serikawa, Kyle A; Wei, Caimiao; Peters, Mette A; Bumgarner, Roger E</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">reference</span> design is a practical and popular choice for microarray studies using two-color platforms. In the <span class="hlt">reference</span> design, the <span class="hlt">reference</span> RNA uses half of all array resources, leading investigators to ask: What is the best <span class="hlt">reference</span> RNA? We propose a novel method for evaluating <span class="hlt">reference</span> RNAs and present the results of an experiment that was specially designed to evaluate three <span class="hlt">common</span> choices of <span class="hlt">reference</span> RNA. We found no compelling evidence in favor of any particular <span class="hlt">reference</span>. In particular, a commercial <span class="hlt">reference</span> showed no advantage in our data. Our experimental design also enabled a new way to test the effectiveness of pre-<span class="hlt">processing</span> methods for two-color arrays. Our results favor using intensity normalization and foregoing background subtraction. Finally, we evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of data quality filters, and we propose a new filter that can be applied to any experimental design and does not rely on replicate hybridizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28714659','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28714659"><span>Are patients <span class="hlt">referred</span> to rehabilitation diagnosed accurately?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tederko, Piotr; Krasuski, Marek; Nyka, Izabella; Mycielski, Jerzy; Tarnacka, Beata</p> <p>2017-07-17</p> <p>An accurate diagnosis of the leading health condition and comorbidities is a prerequisite for safe and effective rehabilitation. The problem of diagnostic errors in physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has not been addressed sufficiently. The responsibility of a <span class="hlt">referring</span> physician is to determine indications and contraindications for rehabilitation. To assess the rate of and risk factors for inaccurate referral diagnoses (RD) in patients <span class="hlt">referred</span> to a rehabilitation facility. We hypothesized that inaccurate RD would be more <span class="hlt">common</span> in patients 1) <span class="hlt">referred</span> by non-PRM physicians; 2) waiting longer for the admission; 3) older patients. Retrospective observational study. 1000 randomly selected patients admitted between 2012 and 2016 to a day- rehabilitation center (DRC). University DRC specialized in musculoskeletal diseases. On admission all cases underwent clinical verification of RD. Inappropriateness regarding primary diagnoses and comorbidities were noted. Influence of several factors affecting probability of inaccurate RD was analyzed with multiple binary regression model applied to 6 categories of diseases. The rate of inaccurate RD was 25.2%. Higher frequency of inaccurate RD was noted among patients <span class="hlt">referred</span> by non-PRM specialists (30.3% vs 17.3% in cases <span class="hlt">referred</span> by PRM specialists). Application of logit regression showed highly significant influence of the specialty of a <span class="hlt">referring</span> physician on the odds of inaccurate RD (joint Wald test ch2(6)=38.98, p- value=0.000), controlling for the influence of other variables. This may reflect a suboptimal knowledge of the rehabilitation <span class="hlt">process</span> and a tendency to neglect of comorbidities by non-PRM specialists. The rate of inaccurate RD did not correlate with time between referral and admission (joint Wald test of all odds ratios equal to 1, chi2(6)=5.62, p-value=0.467), however, mean and median waiting times were relatively short (35.7 and 25 days respectively).A high risk of overlooked multimorbidity was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/22979','DOTNTL'); return false;" href="https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/22979"><span>Guide to listing <span class="hlt">references</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do">DOT National Transportation Integrated Search</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The introduction of listing <span class="hlt">references</span>. It introduces the <span class="hlt">reference</span> of printed sources, CD-ROMs, websites, unpublished papers and program manuals, tapes, or other documentation for models. Meanwhile, it describes some examples to use Chicago Manual o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=RAAS&pg=7&id=EJ225796','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=RAAS&pg=7&id=EJ225796"><span>The Test of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Childers, Thomas</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Reports the results of an unobtrusive study, from a user's viewpoint, of <span class="hlt">reference</span> services available in the Suffolk Cooperative Library System. The study raises questions of policy centering around user expectations of library <span class="hlt">reference</span> services. (RAA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED282265.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED282265.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Failures. Technical Report No. 398.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goodman, Bradley A.</p> <p></p> <p>In order to build robust natural language <span class="hlt">processing</span> systems that can detect and recover from miscommunication, the investigation of how people communicate and how they recover from problems in communication described in this artificial intelligence report focused on <span class="hlt">reference</span> problems which a listener may have in determining what or whom a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022336','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022336"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failure Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating <span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause; Examples; Defense against <span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause; Impact of varied <span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.marchofdimes.org/baby/common-nicu-equipment.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.marchofdimes.org/baby/common-nicu-equipment.aspx"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> NICU Equipment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... care unit (NICU) > <span class="hlt">Common</span> NICU equipment <span class="hlt">Common</span> NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... understand how they can help your baby. What equipment is <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used in the NICU? Providers use ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25065634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25065634"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> materials for cellular therapeutics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bravery, Christopher A; French, Anna</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The development of cellular therapeutics (CTP) takes place over many years, and, where successful, the developer will anticipate the product to be in clinical use for decades. Successful demonstration of manufacturing and quality consistency is dependent on the use of complex analytical methods; thus, the risk of <span class="hlt">process</span> and method drift over time is high. The use of <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials (RM) is an established scientific principle and as such also a regulatory requirement. The various uses of RM in the context of CTP manufacturing and quality are discussed, along with why they are needed for living cell products and the analytical methods applied to them. Relatively few consensus RM exist that are suitable for even <span class="hlt">common</span> methods used by CTP developers, such as flow cytometry. Others have also identified this need and made proposals; however, great care will be needed to ensure any consensus RM that result are fit for purpose. Such consensus RM probably will need to be applied to specific standardized methods, and the idea that a single RM can have wide applicability is challenged. Written standards, including standardized methods, together with appropriate measurement RM are probably the most appropriate way to define specific starting cell types. The characteristics of a specific CTP will to some degree deviate from those of the starting cells; consequently, a product RM remains the best solution where feasible. Each CTP developer must consider how and what types of RM should be used to ensure the reliability of their own analytical measurements. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=disadvantage+AND+administrative+AND+management&pg=2&id=EJ384350','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=disadvantage+AND+administrative+AND+management&pg=2&id=EJ384350"><span>Collective Management of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Comer, Cynthia H.; And Others</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Describes a one-year experiment with collective management--i.e., management in which decision-making rests with the department as a whole--in the Oberlin College Library <span class="hlt">reference</span> department. The planning <span class="hlt">process</span>, problems, and advantages and disadvantages of this style of management are discussed. Several questions are raised about the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA061681','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA061681"><span><span class="hlt">Process</span> Models of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> in Context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1978-10-01</p> <p>Paso Ttmn, Texas: "The manager of a nudist park complains that a hole was cut In the wall surrounding, the camp. Police are looking Into It," The need...concept for "it." The humor comes from the Incongruity of the interpretations that: 1) the police are looKinr, into thr nudist park, or g) the police</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title15-vol1-sec200-104.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title15-vol1-sec200-104.pdf"><span>15 CFR 200.104 - Standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily <span class="hlt">referred</span> to a <span class="hlt">common</span> base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials available from NIST. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title15-vol1-sec200-104.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title15-vol1-sec200-104.pdf"><span>15 CFR 200.104 - Standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily <span class="hlt">referred</span> to a <span class="hlt">common</span> base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials available from NIST. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title15-vol1-sec200-104.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title15-vol1-sec200-104.pdf"><span>15 CFR 200.104 - Standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily <span class="hlt">referred</span> to a <span class="hlt">common</span> base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials available from NIST. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title15-vol1-sec200-104.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title15-vol1-sec200-104.pdf"><span>15 CFR 200.104 - Standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily <span class="hlt">referred</span> to a <span class="hlt">common</span> base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials available from NIST. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title15-vol1-sec200-104.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title15-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title15-vol1-sec200-104.pdf"><span>15 CFR 200.104 - Standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily <span class="hlt">referred</span> to a <span class="hlt">common</span> base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials available from NIST. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066019"><span>[Errors in Peruvian medical journals <span class="hlt">references</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huamaní, Charles; Pacheco-Romero, José</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">References</span> are fundamental in our studies; an adequate selection is asimportant as an adequate description. To determine the number of errors in a sample of <span class="hlt">references</span> found in Peruvian medical journals. We reviewed 515 scientific papers <span class="hlt">references</span> selected by systematic randomized sampling and corroborated <span class="hlt">reference</span> information with the original document or its citation in Pubmed, LILACS or SciELO-Peru. We found errors in 47,6% (245) of the <span class="hlt">references</span>, identifying 372 types of errors; the most frequent were errors in presentation style (120), authorship (100) and title (100), mainly due to spelling mistakes (91). <span class="hlt">References</span> error percentage was high, varied and multiple. We suggest systematic revision of <span class="hlt">references</span> in the editorial <span class="hlt">process</span> as well as to extend the discussion on this theme. <span class="hlt">references</span>, periodicals, research, bibliometrics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/869330','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/869330"><span>High frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kronberg, James W.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A high frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7035527','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7035527"><span>High frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kronberg, J.W.</p> <p>1994-05-31</p> <p>A high frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/869263','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/869263"><span>Optical voltage <span class="hlt">reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Rankin, Richard; Kotter, Dale</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>An optical voltage <span class="hlt">reference</span> for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical <span class="hlt">reference</span> apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage <span class="hlt">reference</span> through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5029567','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5029567"><span>Optical voltage <span class="hlt">reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.</p> <p>1994-04-26</p> <p>An optical voltage <span class="hlt">reference</span> for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical <span class="hlt">reference</span> apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage <span class="hlt">reference</span> through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24182847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24182847"><span>Using high-performance ¹H NMR (HP-qNMR®) for the certification of organic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials under accreditation guidelines--describing the overall <span class="hlt">process</span> with focus on homogeneity and stability assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weber, Michael; Hellriegel, Christine; Rueck, Alexander; Wuethrich, Juerg; Jenks, Peter</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Quantitative NMR spectroscopy (qNMR) is gaining interest across both analytical and industrial research applications and has become an essential tool for the content assignment and quantitative determination of impurities. The key benefits of using qNMR as measurement method for the purity determination of organic molecules are discussed, with emphasis on the ability to establish traceability to "The International System of Units" (SI). The work describes a routine certification procedure from the point of view of a commercial producer of certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials (CRM) under ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO Guide 34 accreditation, that resulted in a set of essential <span class="hlt">references</span> for (1)H qNMR measurements, and the relevant application data for these substances are given. The overall <span class="hlt">process</span> includes specific selection criteria, pre-tests, experimental conditions, homogeneity and stability studies. The advantages of an accelerated stability study over the classical stability-test design are shown with respect to shelf-life determination and shipping conditions. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1095440','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1095440"><span>Sensor Characteristics <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.</p> <p></p> <p>The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systemsmore » through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement <span class="hlt">process</span> and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810017894','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810017894"><span>Thermocouple, multiple junction <span class="hlt">reference</span> oven</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leblanc, L. P. (Inventor)</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>An improved oven for maintaining the junctions of a plurality of <span class="hlt">reference</span> thermocouples at a <span class="hlt">common</span> and constant temperature is described. The oven is characterized by a cylindrical body defining a heat sink with axially extended-cylindrical cavity a singularized heating element which comprises a unitary cylindrical heating element consisting of a resistance heating coil wound about the surface of metallic spool with an axial bore defined and seated in the cavity. Other features of the oven include an annular array of radially extended bores defined in the cylindrical body and a plurality of <span class="hlt">reference</span> thermocouple junctions seated in the bores in uniformly spaced relation with the heating element, and a temperature sensing device seated in the axial bore for detecting temperature changes as they occur in the spool and circuit to apply a voltage across the coil in response to detected drops in temperatures of the spool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/Common-Misconceptions-about-Cholesterol_UCM_305638_Article.jsp#.WRIPE-Xyu00','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/Common-Misconceptions-about-Cholesterol_UCM_305638_Article.jsp#.WRIPE-Xyu00"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Misconceptions about Cholesterol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More <span class="hlt">Common</span> Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some <span class="hlt">common</span> misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194208"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and distinct neural correlates of facial emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span> in social anxiety disorder and Williams syndrome: A systematic review and voxel-based meta-analysis of functional resonance imaging studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Binelli, C; Subirà, S; Batalla, A; Muñiz, A; Sugranyés, G; Crippa, J A; Farré, M; Pérez-Jurado, L; Martín-Santos, R</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WS) are two conditions which seem to be at opposite ends in the continuum of social fear but show compromised abilities in some overlapping areas, including some social interactions, gaze contact and <span class="hlt">processing</span> of facial emotional cues. The increase in the number of neuroimaging studies has greatly expanded our knowledge of the neural bases of facial emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span> in both conditions. However, to date, SAD and WS have not been compared. We conducted a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies comparing SAD and WS cases to healthy control participants (HC) using facial emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span> paradigms. Two researchers conducted comprehensive PubMed/Medline searches to identify all fMRI studies of facial emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span> in SAD and WS. The following search key-words were used: "emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span>"; "facial emotion"; "social anxiety"; "social phobia"; "Williams syndrome"; "neuroimaging"; "functional magnetic resonance"; "fMRI" and their combinations, as well as terms specifying individual facial emotions. We extracted spatial coordinates from each study and conducted two separate voxel-wise activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses, one for SAD and one for WS. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: 17 studies of SAD and five of WS. We found evidence for both <span class="hlt">common</span> and distinct patterns of neural activation. Limbic engagement was <span class="hlt">common</span> to SAD and WS during facial emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span>, although we observed opposite patterns of activation for each disorder. Compared to HC, SAD cases showed hyperactivation of the amygdala, the parahippocampal gyrus and the globus pallidus. Compared to controls, participants with WS showed hypoactivation of these regions. Differential activation in a number of regions specific to either condition was also identified: SAD cases exhibited greater activation of the insula, putamen, the superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal regions and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........39B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........39B"><span>How <span class="hlt">Common</span> is <span class="hlt">Common</span> Use Facilities at Airports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barbeau, Addison D.</p> <p></p> <p>This study looked at <span class="hlt">common</span> use airports across the country and at the implementation of <span class="hlt">common</span> use facailities at airports. <span class="hlt">Common</span> use consists of several elements that maybe installed at an airport. One of the elements is the self-service kiosks that allow passengers to have a faster check-in <span class="hlt">process</span>, therefore moving them more quickly within the airport. Another element is signage and the incorporation of each airline's logo. Another aspect of <span class="hlt">common</span> useis an airport regaining control of terminal gates by reducing the number of gates that are exclusively leased to a specific air carrier. This research focused on the current state of the <span class="hlt">common</span> use facilities across the United States and examines the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. The research entailed interviews with personnel at a wide range of airports and found that each airport is in a different stage of implementation; some have fully implemented the <span class="hlt">common</span> use concept while others are in the beginning stages of implementation. The questions were tailored to determine what the advantages and disadvantages are of a <span class="hlt">common</span> use facility. The most <span class="hlt">common</span> advantages reported included flexibility and cost. In the commom use system the airport reserves the right to move any airline to a different gate at any time for any reason. In turn, this helps reduce gates delays at that facility. For the airports that were interviewed no major disadvantages were reported. One down side of <span class="hlt">common</span> use facilities for the airport involved is the major capital cost that is required to move to a <span class="hlt">common</span> use system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA616401','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA616401"><span>ESPC <span class="hlt">Common</span> Model Architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-09-30</p> <p>1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ESPC <span class="hlt">Common</span> Model Architecture Earth System Modeling...Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) was established between NOAA and Navy to develop <span class="hlt">common</span> software architecture for easy and efficient...development under a <span class="hlt">common</span> model architecture and other software-related standards in this project. OBJECTIVES NUOPC proposes to accelerate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED395959.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED395959.pdf"><span>Canonical <span class="hlt">Commonality</span> Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leister, K. Dawn</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Commonality</span> analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. <span class="hlt">Commonality</span> analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "<span class="hlt">common</span>" to or shared with at least one predictor…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900017969','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900017969"><span>Knowledge representation for <span class="hlt">commonality</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yeager, Dorian P.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Domain-specific knowledge necessary for <span class="hlt">commonality</span> analysis falls into two general classes: <span class="hlt">commonality</span> constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the <span class="hlt">Commonality</span> Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=biology%3a+AND+global+AND+approach&pg=4&id=EJ574280','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=biology%3a+AND+global+AND+approach&pg=4&id=EJ574280"><span><span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> in Biology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brett, William J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Discusses Boyer's proposal to incorporate the seven human <span class="hlt">commonalities</span> into college courses so that students will become less parochial and more global individuals. Describes the application of this <span class="hlt">commonalities</span> approach to both a general education course and an introductory course for biology majors. <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> are presented in a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketing+AND+mix&pg=3&id=EJ508695','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketing+AND+mix&pg=3&id=EJ508695"><span>Marketing <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Norman, O. Gene</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Relates the marketing concept to library <span class="hlt">reference</span> services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to <span class="hlt">reference</span> services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED456855.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED456855.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Collection Development Policy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nebraska Univ., Kearney.</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this policy is to outline those principles that guide the development of the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Collection at the Calvin T. Ryan Library, University of Nebraska at Kearney. It clarifies, records, and makes public the basic principles that the members of the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Department believe should be applied in adding items to or withdrawing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Home+AND+automation&pg=3&id=EJ708038','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Home+AND+automation&pg=3&id=EJ708038"><span>Rethinking Virtual <span class="hlt">Reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tenopir, Carol</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Virtual <span class="hlt">reference</span> services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online <span class="hlt">reference</span>. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.myphr.com/Privacy/common_privacy_myths.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.myphr.com/Privacy/common_privacy_myths.aspx"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Privacy Myths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... learned that a PHR saves time, energy, and money. And it saved my life! A woman's Facebook ... Doctor’s Visit A <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Guide Blue Button Resources Mobile PHRs Blog FAQ © 2018 AHIMA, All Rights Reserved | ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/senate-bill/1800?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22illness%22%5D%7D&r=14','CONGRESS-111'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/senate-bill/1800?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22illness%22%5D%7D&r=14"><span>A bill to amend the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000 to provide compensation for certain persons injured in the course of employment at the Feed Materials Production Center (<span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as "Fernald") or the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor in Ohio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=111">THOMAS, 111th Congress</a></p> <p>Sen. Brown, Sherrod [D-OH</p> <p>2009-10-20</p> <p>Senate - 10/20/2009 Read twice and <span class="hlt">referred</span> to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-bill/3992?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22illness%22%5D%7D&r=15','CONGRESS-111'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-bill/3992?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22illness%22%5D%7D&r=15"><span>To amend the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000 to provide compensation for certain persons injured in the course of employment at the Feed Materials Production Center (<span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as "Fernald") or the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor in Ohio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=111">THOMAS, 111th Congress</a></p> <p>Rep. Driehaus, Steve [D-OH-1</p> <p>2009-11-03</p> <p>House - 01/04/2010 <span class="hlt">Referred</span> to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-concurrent-resolution/328?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22Public+AND+sector+AND+innovation%22%5D%7D&r=3','CONGRESS-111'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-concurrent-resolution/328?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22Public+AND+sector+AND+innovation%22%5D%7D&r=3"><span>Expressing the sense of the Congress regarding the successful and substantial contributions of the amendments to the patent and trademark laws that were initially enacted in 1980 by Public Law 96-517 (<span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as the "Bayh-Dole Act") on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of its enactment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=111">THOMAS, 111th Congress</a></p> <p>Rep. Conyers, John, Jr. [D-MI-14</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>Senate - 11/17/2010 Received in the Senate and <span class="hlt">referred</span> to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950011177','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950011177"><span>A standard satellite control <span class="hlt">reference</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Golden, Constance</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes a Satellite Control <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model that provides the basis for an approach to identify where standards would be beneficial in supporting space operations functions. The background and context for the development of the model and the approach are described. A <span class="hlt">process</span> for using this <span class="hlt">reference</span> model to trace top level interoperability directives to specific sets of engineering interface standards that must be implemented to meet these directives is discussed. Issues in developing a 'universal' <span class="hlt">reference</span> model are also identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6040374-civil-engineering-reference-guide','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6040374-civil-engineering-reference-guide"><span>Civil engineering <span class="hlt">reference</span> guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Merritt, F.S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The civil engineering <span class="hlt">reference</span> guide contains the following: Structural theory. Structural steel design. Concrete design and construction. Wood design and construction. Bridge engineering. Geotechnical engineering. Water engineering. Environmental engineering. Surveying.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1166943','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1166943"><span>Value of Information <span class="hlt">References</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Morency, Christina</p> <p>2014-12-12</p> <p>This file contains a list of relevant <span class="hlt">references</span> on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=139171&keyword=principal+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=139171&keyword=principal+AND+management&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>EPA QUICK <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> GUIDES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA Quick <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hypercholesterolemia','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hypercholesterolemia"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: hypercholesterolemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... factors that impact cholesterol levels include a person's gender, age, and health problems such as diabetes and ... <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act (GINA) Turns 10 All Bulletins Features What ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020281','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020281"><span>Enterprise <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of <span class="hlt">references</span>, but no mechanisms to share <span class="hlt">reference</span> libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which <span class="hlt">references</span> are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized <span class="hlt">reference</span> management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user <span class="hlt">reference</span> management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own <span class="hlt">reference</span> management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise <span class="hlt">reference</span> library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing <span class="hlt">reference</span> material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6342106','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6342106"><span>Membrane <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.</p> <p>1988-01-21</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a <span class="hlt">reference</span> material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/0207-95/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/0207-95/report.pdf"><span>USGS <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Every year in the United States, millions of measurements are made on the chemical composition of items that affect us on a daily basis. Determining the accuracy of these measurements is based on the analysis of appropriate <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials whose composition was previously determined through rigorous testing. Today, <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials help us evaluate the composition of the food we eat, medicine we use, soil we grow our crops in, and hundreds of other products that affect our everyday lives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/872869','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/872869"><span>Precision displacement <span class="hlt">reference</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.</p> <p>2000-02-22</p> <p>A precision displacement <span class="hlt">reference</span> system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating <span class="hlt">reference</span> disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 1290.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES <span class="hlt">REFERRED</span> TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 1290.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES <span class="hlt">REFERRED</span> TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 1290.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES <span class="hlt">REFERRED</span> TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 1290.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES <span class="hlt">REFERRED</span> TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 1290.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES <span class="hlt">REFERRED</span> TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1060507.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1060507.pdf"><span>Uncertainty in <span class="hlt">Reference</span> and Information Service</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>VanScoy, Amy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: Uncertainty is understood as an important component of the information seeking <span class="hlt">process</span>, but it has not been explored as a component of <span class="hlt">reference</span> and information service. Method: Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to examine the practitioner perspective of <span class="hlt">reference</span> and information service for eight academic research…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Blakely&pg=5&id=EJ044802','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Blakely&pg=5&id=EJ044802"><span>Preceiving Patterns of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Service: A Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blakely, Florence</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> librarians must, if they hope to survive, retool in preparation for becoming the interface between the patron and computer-based information systems. This involves sharpening the interview technique and understanding where to plug into the information flow <span class="hlt">process</span>. (4 <span class="hlt">references</span>) (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/10872','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/10872"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Pine Shoot Beetle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Robert A. Haack; Daniel Kucera; Steven Passoa</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">common</span> (or larger) pine shoot beetle, Tomicus (=Blastophagus) piniperda (L.), was discovered near Cleveland, Ohio in July 1992. As of this writing, it is now in six states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Adults of the <span class="hlt">common</span> pine shoot beetle are cylindrical and range from 3 to 5 mm in length (about the size of a match head). Their...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518360','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518360"><span>Statistical considerations for harmonization of the global multicenter study on <span class="hlt">reference</span> values.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ichihara, Kiyoshi</p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>The global multicenter study on <span class="hlt">reference</span> values coordinated by the Committee on <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) of the IFCC was launched in December 2011, targeting 45 <span class="hlt">commonly</span> tested analytes with the following objectives: 1) to derive <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals (RIs) country by country using a <span class="hlt">common</span> protocol, and 2) to explore regionality/ethnicity of <span class="hlt">reference</span> values by aligning test results among the countries. To achieve these objectives, it is crucial to harmonize 1) the protocol for recruitment and sampling, 2) statistical procedures for deriving the RI, and 3) test results through measurement of a panel of sera in <span class="hlt">common</span>. For harmonized recruitment, very lenient inclusion/exclusion criteria were adopted in view of differences in interpretation of what constitutes healthiness by different cultures and investigators. This policy may require secondary exclusion of individuals according to the standard of each country at the time of deriving RIs. An iterative optimization procedure, called the latent abnormal values exclusion (LAVE) method, can be applied to automate the <span class="hlt">process</span> of refining the choice of <span class="hlt">reference</span> individuals. For global comparison of <span class="hlt">reference</span> values, test results must be harmonized, based on the among-country, pair-wise linear relationships of test values for the panel. Traceability of <span class="hlt">reference</span> values can be ensured based on values assigned indirectly to the panel through collaborative measurement of certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials. The validity of the adopted strategies is discussed in this article, based on interim results obtained to date from five countries. Special considerations are made for dissociation of RIs by parametric and nonparametric methods and between-country difference in the effect of body mass index on <span class="hlt">reference</span> values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=music+AND+science&pg=2&id=EJ1012105','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=music+AND+science&pg=2&id=EJ1012105"><span>Simplifying the ELA <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core; Demystifying Curriculum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The English Language Arts (ELA) <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the <span class="hlt">process</span> seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core and create coherent,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cue%2bmemory&id=EJ1132195','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cue%2bmemory&id=EJ1132195"><span>Conceptual Match as a Determinant of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reuse in Dialogue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Knutsen, Dominique; Le Bigot, Ludovic</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>As speakers interact, they add <span class="hlt">references</span> to their <span class="hlt">common</span> ground, which they can then reuse to facilitate listener comprehension. However, all <span class="hlt">references</span> are not equally likely to be reused. The purpose of this study was to shed light on how the speakers' conceptualizations of the <span class="hlt">referents</span> under discussion affect reuse (along with a generation…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5315376','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5315376"><span>Sustainability of <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kamijo, Yoshio</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we <span class="hlt">refer</span> to as “capitalism,” affects human nature for utilizing <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies. PMID:28212426</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28212426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28212426"><span>Sustainability of <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we <span class="hlt">refer</span> to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993mli..rept.....M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993mli..rept.....M"><span>NASCAP programmer's <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual and user's guide. It is designed as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/864772','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/864772"><span>Multifunctional <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A multifunctional, low mass <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940007230','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940007230"><span>NASCAP programmer's <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual and user's guide. It is designed as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5039836','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5039836"><span>Multifunctional <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.</p> <p>1981-12-30</p> <p>A multifunctional, low mass <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050229951','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050229951"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dischinger, Portia</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation presents NASA's <span class="hlt">Common</span> Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to <span class="hlt">common</span> infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. <span class="hlt">Common</span> Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the <span class="hlt">common</span> infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant <span class="hlt">processes</span>, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/obesity/pages/Childhood-Obesity-Common-Misconceptions.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/obesity/pages/Childhood-Obesity-Common-Misconceptions.aspx"><span>Childhood Obesity: <span class="hlt">Common</span> Misconceptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: <span class="hlt">Common</span> Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=health&pg=5&id=EJ1122392','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=health&pg=5&id=EJ1122392"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Mental Health Issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This chapter provides an overview of <span class="hlt">common</span> student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000583.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000583.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> symptoms during pregnancy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... keep your gums healthy Swelling, Varicose Veins, and Hemorrhoids Swelling in your legs is <span class="hlt">common</span>. You may ... In your rectum, veins that swell are called hemorrhoids. To reduce swelling: Raise your legs and rest ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=petrochemical&pg=2&id=EJ088519','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=petrochemical&pg=2&id=EJ088519"><span>Barry <span class="hlt">Commoner</span> Assails Petrochemicals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chemical and Engineering News, 1973</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Discusses <span class="hlt">Commoner</span>'s ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basics/ced/index.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basics/ced/index.html"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Eye Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... by 2020. ( Click here to see demonstration ) Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a <span class="hlt">common</span> complication of diabetes. It ... blood vessels), and proliferative retinopathy (most advanced stage). Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes. The risks of DR ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/press-releases/2016/genomic-data-commons-launch','NCI'); return false;" href="https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/press-releases/2016/genomic-data-commons-launch"><span>Genomic Data <span class="hlt">Commons</span> launches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Genomic Data <span class="hlt">Commons</span> (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/pages/Common-Conditions-in-Newborns.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/pages/Common-Conditions-in-Newborns.aspx"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Conditions in Newborns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... following in your baby, contact your pediatrician. Abdominal Distension Most babies’ bellies normally stick out, especially after ... new bone is forming to mend the injury. Muscle weakness is another <span class="hlt">common</span> birth injury, caused during ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045435','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045435"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> clay and shale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Virta, R.L.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of <span class="hlt">common</span> clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030658','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030658"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> clay and shale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Virta, R.L.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>At present, 150 companies produce <span class="hlt">common</span> clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for <span class="hlt">common</span> clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044870','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044870"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> clay and shale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Virta, R.L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The article discusses the latest developments in the global <span class="hlt">common</span> clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that <span class="hlt">common</span> clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-bill/6086?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%225+AND+amendment%22%5D%7D&r=31','CONGRESS-111'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-bill/6086?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%225+AND+amendment%22%5D%7D&r=31"><span>To amend the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Investment Company Act of 1940, and the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 to provide for certain disclosures under section 552 of title 5, United States Code, (<span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as the Freedom of Information Act), and for other purposes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=111">THOMAS, 111th Congress</a></p> <p>Rep. Towns, Edolphus [D-NY-10</p> <p>2010-08-10</p> <p>House - 08/10/2010 <span class="hlt">Referred</span> to House Oversight and Government Reform (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3717, which became Public Law 111-257 on 10/5/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24808407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24808407"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and Innovative Visuals: A sparsity modeling framework for video.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdolhosseini Moghadam, Abdolreza; Kumar, Mrityunjay; Radha, Hayder</p> <p>2014-05-02</p> <p>Efficient video representation models are critical for many video analysis and <span class="hlt">processing</span> tasks. In this paper, we present a framework based on the concept of finding the sparsest solution to model video frames. To model the spatio-temporal information, frames from one scene are decomposed into two components: (i) a <span class="hlt">common</span> frame, which describes the visual information <span class="hlt">common</span> to all the frames in the scene/segment, and (ii) a set of innovative frames, which depicts the dynamic behaviour of the scene. The proposed approach exploits and builds on recent results in the field of compressed sensing to jointly estimate the <span class="hlt">common</span> frame and the innovative frames for each video segment. We <span class="hlt">refer</span> to the proposed modeling framework by CIV (<span class="hlt">Common</span> and Innovative Visuals). We show how the proposed model can be utilized to find scene change boundaries and extend CIV to videos from multiple scenes. Furthermore, the proposed model is robust to noise and can be used for various video <span class="hlt">processing</span> applications without relying on motion estimation and detection or image segmentation. Results for object tracking, video editing (object removal, inpainting) and scene change detection are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and the performance of the proposed model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=336742','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=336742"><span>THE CONCEPT OF <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> CONDITION, REVISITED ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ecological assessments of aquatic ecosystems depend on the ability to compare current conditions against some expectation of how they could be in the absence of significant human disturbance. The concept of a ‘‘<span class="hlt">reference</span> condition’’ is often used to describe the standard or benchmark against which current condition is compared. If assessments are to be conducted consistently, then a <span class="hlt">common</span> understanding of the definitions and complications of <span class="hlt">reference</span> condition is necessary. A 2006 paper (Stoddard et al., 2006, Ecological Applications 16:1267-1276) made an early attempt at codifying the <span class="hlt">reference</span> condition concept; in this presentation we will revisit the points raised in that paper (and others) and examine how our thinking has changed in a little over 10 years.Among the issues to be discussed: (1) the “moving target” created when <span class="hlt">reference</span> site data are used to set thresholds in large scale assessments; (2) natural vs. human disturbance and their effects on <span class="hlt">reference</span> site distributions; (3) circularity and the use of biological data to assist in <span class="hlt">reference</span> site identification; (4) using site-scale (in-stream or in-lake) measurements vs. landscape-level human activity to identify <span class="hlt">reference</span> conditions. Ecological assessments of aquatic ecosystems depend on the ability to compare current conditions against some expectation of how they could be in the absence of significant human disturbance. The concept of a ‘‘<span class="hlt">reference</span> condition’’ is often use</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=example+AND+pretest-posttest&pg=7&id=EJ379107','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=example+AND+pretest-posttest&pg=7&id=EJ379107"><span>Teaching <span class="hlt">Common</span> Errors in Applying a Procedure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marcone, Stephen; Reigeluth, Charles M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Discusses study that investigated whether or not the teaching of matched examples and nonexamples in the form of <span class="hlt">common</span> errors could improve student performance in undergraduate music theory courses. Highlights include hypotheses tested, pretests and posttests, and suggestions for further research with different age groups. (19 <span class="hlt">references</span>)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hearth&id=EJ1019126','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hearth&id=EJ1019126"><span>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core: Far from Home</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Toscano, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this opinion piece, Michael Toscano writes that his criticism of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards ultimately has very little to do with their innate quality, but rather that their relation to other social spheres is disordered. He <span class="hlt">refers</span> to the full reordering of American education away from families and local communities--which he states are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910021307','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910021307"><span>International <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The International <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=professional+AND+server&pg=5&id=ED363708','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=professional+AND+server&pg=5&id=ED363708"><span>Hospitality Services <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Book.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">reference</span> book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=print+AND+materials+AND+advantages&pg=2&id=EJ786482','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=print+AND+materials+AND+advantages&pg=2&id=EJ786482"><span>Best <span class="hlt">Reference</span> 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Coutts, Brian E.; LaGuardia, Cheryl</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Reading <span class="hlt">reference</span> sources, whether on paper or on the screen, often leads to enlightened thinking, especially for library patrons. In an earlier age, enlightened monarchs surrounded themselves with leading intellectuals and patronized the arts. Today, people have the advantage of the world's collected wisdom at their fingertips in the form of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://store.elsevier.com/The-Encyclopedia-of-Mass-Spectrometry/isbn-9780080438047/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://store.elsevier.com/The-Encyclopedia-of-Mass-Spectrometry/isbn-9780080438047/"><span>Isotope <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Coplen, Tyler B.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. International distribution of light element isotopic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Methodology+AND+Search&pg=6&id=EJ783545','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Methodology+AND+Search&pg=6&id=EJ783545"><span>The Unreliability of <span class="hlt">References</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barden, Dennis M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's <span class="hlt">references</span> to ensure that they know…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19690000486','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19690000486"><span>Radiometric temperature <span class="hlt">reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Monford, L. G., Jr.</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>Radiometric Temperature <span class="hlt">Reference</span> uses a thermistor as both a heating and sensing element to maintain its resistance at a preselected level to continuously control the power supplying it. The fixed infrared radiation level must be simple, rugged, and capable of high temperature operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22human+communication%22&pg=6&id=EJ784196','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22human+communication%22&pg=6&id=EJ784196"><span>Generating Multimodal <span class="hlt">References</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal <span class="hlt">referring</span> expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=system+AND+web+AND+virtual+AND+library&pg=2&id=EJ678212','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=system+AND+web+AND+virtual+AND+library&pg=2&id=EJ678212"><span>Virtual <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brewer, Sally</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable <span class="hlt">reference</span> resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED058897.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED058897.pdf"><span>Book Catalogs; Selected <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brandhorst, Wesley T.</p> <p></p> <p>The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected <span class="hlt">References</span>, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nrel.gov/rredc/smarts/references.html','SCIGOVWS'); return false;" href="https://www.nrel.gov/rredc/smarts/references.html"><span>NREL: SMARTS - SMARTS <span class="hlt">References</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.science.gov/aboutsearch.html">Science.gov Websites</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Improve Concentrating <em>Photovoltaic</em> System Design & Performance Evaluation." Proceedings of the 29th Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers <em>Photovoltaic</em> Specialists Conference. New Orleans Irradiance <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Standards for <em>Photovoltaic</em> Performance." Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (126</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=New+AND+York+AND+Review+AND+Books&pg=5&id=EJ588316','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=New+AND+York+AND+Review+AND+Books&pg=5&id=EJ588316"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Collections and Standards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Winkel, Lois</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Reviews six <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/40931','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/40931"><span>NED-2 <span class="hlt">reference</span> guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Mark J. Twery; Peter D. Knopp; Scott A. Thomasma; Donald E. Nute</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This is the <span class="hlt">reference</span> guide for NED-2, which is the latest version of NED, a forest ecosystem management decision support system. This software is part of a family of software products intended to help resource managers develop goals, assess current and future conditions, and produce sustainable management plans for forest properties. Designed for stand-alone Windows-...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=malaria&pg=2&id=EJ884779','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=malaria&pg=2&id=EJ884779"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span>-Dependent Sympathy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Small, Deborah A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of <span class="hlt">reference</span> dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Infrastructure+Economics%22&pg=2&id=EJ520209','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Infrastructure+Economics%22&pg=2&id=EJ520209"><span>Reflections on <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brandt, Kerryn A.; And Others</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Describes programmatic changes in <span class="hlt">reference</span> services at the Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical library and speculates on the future. Topics include institutional restructuring and consolidation; improvements in technology infrastructure; external economic pressure; and fiscal accountability, including library funding and cost center…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/porphyria','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/porphyria"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: porphyria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... control breathing become paralyzed. Acute porphyrias include acute intermittent porphyria and ALAD deficiency porphyria . Two other forms ... the disease never experience signs or symptoms. Acute intermittent porphyria is the most <span class="hlt">common</span> form of acute ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21327374','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21327374"><span>Categorizing entities by <span class="hlt">common</span> role.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goldwater, Micah B; Markman, Arthur B</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Many categories group together entities that play a <span class="hlt">common</span> role across situations. For example, guest and host <span class="hlt">refer</span> to complementary roles in visiting situations and, thus, are role-governed categories (A. B. Markman & Stilwell, Journal of Experiment & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 13, 329-358, 2001). However, categorizing an entity by role is one of many possible classification strategies. This article examines factors that promote role-governed categorization over thematic-relation-based categorization (Lin & Murphy, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 3-28, 2001). In Experiments 1a and 1b, we demonstrate that the use of novel category labels facilitates role-governed categorization. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we demonstrate that analogical comparison facilitates role-governed categorization. In Experiments 1b and 2b, we show that these facilitatory factors induce a general sensitivity to role information, as opposed to only promoting role-governed categorization on an item-by-item basis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/ornithine-translocase-deficiency','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/ornithine-translocase-deficiency"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: ornithine translocase deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Diagnosis of Japanese patients with HHH syndrome by molecular genetic analysis: a <span class="hlt">common</span> mutation, R179X. J Hum Genet. ... M, Fariello G, Dionisi-Vici C. Clinical and molecular findings in hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria ... Bulletins Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Celebrates Its ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008stso.book..301Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008stso.book..301Z"><span>Modeling <span class="hlt">Common</span>-Sense Decisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zak, Michail</p> <p></p> <p>This paper presents a methodology for efficient synthesis of dynamical model simulating a <span class="hlt">common</span>-sense decision making <span class="hlt">process</span>. The approach is based upon the extension of the physics' First Principles that includes behavior of living systems. The new architecture consists of motor dynamics simulating actual behavior of the object, and mental dynamics representing evolution of the corresponding knowledge-base and incorporating it in the form of information flows into the motor dynamics. The autonomy of the decision making <span class="hlt">process</span> is achieved by a feedback from mental to motor dynamics. This feedback replaces unavailable external information by an internal knowledgebase stored in the mental model in the form of probability distributions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9643E..0AD','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9643E..0AD"><span>Sentinel 2 global <span class="hlt">reference</span> image</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dechoz, C.; Poulain, V.; Massera, S.; Languille, F.; Greslou, D.; de Lussy, F.; Gaudel, A.; L'Helguen, C.; Picard, C.; Trémas, T.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Sentinel-2 is a multispectral, high-resolution, optical imaging mission, developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of the Copernicus program of the European Commission. In cooperation with ESA, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) is responsible for the image quality of the project, and will ensure the CAL/VAL commissioning phase. Sentinel-2 mission is devoted the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas, and will provide a continuity of SPOT- and Landsat-type data. Sentinel-2 will also deliver information for emergency services. Launched in 2015 and 2016, there will be a constellation of 2 satellites on a polar sun-synchronous orbit, imaging systematically terrestrial surfaces with a revisit time of 5 days, in 13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red. Therefore, multi-temporal series of images, taken under the same viewing conditions, will be available. So as to ensure for the multi-temporal registration of the products, specified to be better than 0.3 pixels at 2σ, a Global <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Image (GRI) will be produced during the CAL/VAL period. This GRI is composed of a set of Sentinel-2 acquisitions, which geometry has been corrected by bundle block adjustment. During L1B <span class="hlt">processing</span>, Ground Control Points will be taken between this <span class="hlt">reference</span> image and the sentinel-2 acquisition <span class="hlt">processed</span> and the geometric model of the image corrected, so as to ensure the good multi-temporal registration. This paper first details the production of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> during the CALVAL period, and then details the qualification and geolocation performance assessment of the GRI. It finally presents its use in the Level-1 <span class="hlt">processing</span> chain and gives a first assessment of the multi-temporal registration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720005708','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720005708"><span>Hydrogen slush density <span class="hlt">reference</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weitzel, D. H.; Lowe, L. T.; Ellerbruch, D. A.; Cruz, J. E.; Sindt, C. F.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>A hydrogen slush density <span class="hlt">reference</span> system was designed for calibration of field-type instruments and/or transfer standards. The device is based on the buoyancy principle of Archimedes. The solids are weighed in a low-mass container so arranged that solids and container are buoyed by triple-point liquid hydrogen during the weighing <span class="hlt">process</span>. Several types of hydrogen slush density transducers were developed and tested for possible use as transfer standards. The most successful transducers found were those which depend on change in dielectric constant, after which the Clausius-Mossotti function is used to relate dielectric constant and density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16777256','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16777256"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> drug programs: effectiveness and policy implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schneeweiss, Sebastian</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented <span class="hlt">reference</span> drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a <span class="hlt">common</span> reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a <span class="hlt">process</span> of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented <span class="hlt">reference</span> drug programs, and others are considering</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2884180','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2884180"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications☆</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schneeweiss, Sebastian</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented <span class="hlt">reference</span> drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a <span class="hlt">common</span> reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a <span class="hlt">process</span> of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented <span class="hlt">reference</span> drug programs, and others are considering</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720012067','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720012067"><span>A stellar tracking <span class="hlt">reference</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klestadt, B.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>A stellar attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> system concept for satellites was studied which promises to permit continuous precision pointing of payloads with accuracies of 0.001 degree without the use of gyroscopes. It is accomplished with the use of a single, clustered star tracker assembly mounted on a non-orthogonal, two gimbal mechanism, driven so as to unwind satellite orbital and orbit precession rates. A set of eight stars was found which assures the presence of an adequate inertial <span class="hlt">reference</span> on a continuous basis in an arbitrary orbit. Acquisition and operational considerations were investigated and inherent <span class="hlt">reference</span> redundancy/reliability was established. Preliminary designs for the gimbal mechanism, its servo drive, and the star tracker cluster with its associated signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> were developed for a baseline sun-synchronous, noon-midnight orbit. The functions required of the onboard computer were determined and the equations to be solved were found. In addition detailed error analyses were carried out, based on structural, thermal and other operational considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015733','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015733"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failure Modes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>High technology industries with high failure costs <span class="hlt">commonly</span> use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to <span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26555275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26555275"><span>With <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The choice of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being <span class="hlt">commonly</span> selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes were screened. Fewer <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes before conducting gene expression studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10170607','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10170607"><span>OSH technical <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to <span class="hlt">reference</span> DOE-wide materials pertinentmore » to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AmJPh..60.1069S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992AmJPh..60.1069S"><span>``Frames of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>'' revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steyn-Ross, Alistair; Ivey, Donald G.</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>The PSSC teaching film, ``Frames of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>,'' was made in 1960, and was one of the first audio-visual attempts at showing how your physical ``point of view,'' or frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span>, necessarily alters both your perceptions and your observations of motion. The gentle humor and original demonstrations made a lasting impact on many audiences, and with its recent re-release as part of the AAPT Cinema Classics videodisc it is timely that we should review both the message and the methods of the film. An annotated script and photographs from the film are presented, followed by extension material on rotating frames which teachers may find appropriate for use in their classrooms: constructions, demonstrations, an example, and theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/866280','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/866280"><span>Alignment <span class="hlt">reference</span> device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Patton, Gail Y.; Torgerson, Darrel D.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An alignment <span class="hlt">reference</span> device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B8D1F4382-424A-492E-8D2E-ADC046140BBB%7D','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B8D1F4382-424A-492E-8D2E-ADC046140BBB%7D"><span>Toxicity <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Toxicity <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested public to search and download thousands of animal toxicity testing results for hundreds of chemicals that were previously found only in paper documents. Currently, there are 474 chemicals in ToxRefDB, primarily the data rich pesticide active ingredients, but the number will continue to expand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1324296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1324296"><span>Open SHMEM <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Implementation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pritchard, Howard; Curtis, Anthony; Welch, Aaron</p> <p>2016-05-12</p> <p>OpenSHMEM is an effort to create a specification for a standardized API for parallel programming in the Partitioned Global Address Space. Along with the specification the project is also creating a <span class="hlt">reference</span> implementation of the API. This implementation attempts to be portable, to allow it to be deployed in multiple environments, and to be a starting point for implementations targeted to particular hardware platforms. It will also serve as a springboard for future development of the API.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SOIL....3..113A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SOIL....3..113A"><span>Decision support for the selection of <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bürge, Alexandra; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The classical approach of using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer is based on the comparison between stable <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites and sites affected by soil redistribution <span class="hlt">processes</span>; it enables the derivation of soil erosion and deposition rates. The method is associated with potentially large sources of uncertainty with major parts of this uncertainty being associated with the selection of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites. We propose a decision support tool to Check the Suitability of <span class="hlt">reference</span> Sites (CheSS). <span class="hlt">Commonly</span>, the variation among 137Cs inventories of spatial replicate <span class="hlt">reference</span> samples is taken as the sole criterion to decide on the suitability of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> inventory. Here we propose an extension of this procedure using a repeated sampling approach, in which the <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites are resampled after a certain time period. Suitable <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites are expected to present no significant temporal variation in their decay-corrected 137Cs depth profiles. Possible causes of variation are assessed by a decision tree. More specifically, the decision tree tests for (i) uncertainty connected to small-scale variability in 137Cs due to its heterogeneous initial fallout (such as in areas affected by the Chernobyl fallout), (ii) signs of erosion or deposition <span class="hlt">processes</span> and (iii) artefacts due to the collection, preparation and measurement of the samples; (iv) finally, if none of the above can be assigned, this variation might be attributed to <q>turbation</q> <span class="hlt">processes</span> (e.g. bioturbation, cryoturbation and mechanical turbation, such as avalanches or rockfalls). CheSS was exemplarily applied in one Swiss alpine valley where the apparent temporal variability called into question the suitability of the selected <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites. In general we suggest the application of CheSS as a first step towards a comprehensible approach to test for the suitability of <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045437','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045437"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> clay and shale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Virta, R.L.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the <span class="hlt">common</span> clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014677','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014677"><span>Solving <span class="hlt">Common</span> Mathematical Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Luz, Paul L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some <span class="hlt">common</span> mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2328145','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2328145"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Dermatoses of Infancy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gora, Irv</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more <span class="hlt">common</span> rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267297</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=help+AND+desk&pg=2&id=EJ787489','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=help+AND+desk&pg=2&id=EJ787489"><span>Information <span class="hlt">Commons</span> to Go</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bayer, Marc Dewey</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information <span class="hlt">Commons</span> (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4081523','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4081523"><span>Epidemiology of <span class="hlt">common</span> cold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Cauwenberge, P B</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>The epidemiology of <span class="hlt">common</span> cold and the role of some predisposing factors were studied by examining 2065 healthy children, aged 2.5-6 years. The examination included a questionnaire, completed by the parents, a general physical examination, a clinical E.N.T.-examination and various technical investigations. The mean annual incidence of <span class="hlt">common</span> cold was 2.43 (as was reported by the parents) and 5 when taking into consideration the time span between the last episode of <span class="hlt">common</span> cold and the date of examination. Mucoid and purulent rhinitis were less frequently found in older children. A positive history of upper respiratory tract infections in the parents showed to be the most important risk factor for the occurrence of infectious rhinitis in the children. The higher the weight of the child, the lower the incidence of <span class="hlt">common</span> cold and the fewer pathological rhinoscopical findings. Children with a head circumference below the 2.5 percentile had the highest incidence of infectious rhinitis. Humid housing conditions showed to be connected with a higher incidence of infectious rhinitis. Children of parents with a higher profession had more rhinitis than children of labourers. Smoking habits of the parents had only little effect on the rhinological status of children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18770653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18770653"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> conversion factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>This appendix presents tables of some of the more <span class="hlt">common</span> conversion factors for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Magnet&pg=3&id=EJ1025032','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Magnet&pg=3&id=EJ1025032"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Magnets, Unexpected Polarities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Olson, Mark</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets <span class="hlt">common</span> to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045436','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045436"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> clay and shale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Virta, R.L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and <span class="hlt">common</span> clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESASP.701E..32H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESASP.701E..32H"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Specifications for SAVOIR Avionics Elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hult, Torbjorn; Lindskog, Martin; Roques, Remi; Planche, Luc; Brunjes, Bernhard; Dellandrea, Brice; Terraillon, Jean-Loup</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Space industry and Agencies have been recognizing already for quite some time the need to raise the level of standardisation in the spacecraft avionics systems in order to increase efficiency and reduce development cost and schedule. This also includes the aspect of increasing competition in global space business, which is a challenge that European space companies are facing at all stages of involvement in the international markets.A number of initiatives towards this vision are driven both by the industry and ESA’s R&D programmes. However, today an intensified coordination of these activities is required in order to achieve the necessary synergy and to ensure they converge towards the shared vision. It has been proposed to federate these initiatives under the <span class="hlt">common</span> Space Avionics Open Interface Architecture (SAVOIR) initiative. Within this initiative, the approach based on <span class="hlt">reference</span> architectures and building blocks plays a key role.Following the principles outlined above, the overall goal of the SAVOIR is to establish a streamlined onboard architecture in order to standardize the development of avionics systems for space programmes. This reflects the need to increase efficiency and cost-effectiveness in the development <span class="hlt">process</span> as well as account the trend towards more functionality implemented by the onboard building blocks, i.e. HW and SW components, and more complexity for the overall space mission objectives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26452376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26452376"><span>Event boundaries and anaphoric <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, Alexis N; Radvansky, Gabriel A</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The current study explored the finding that parsing a narrative into separate events impairs anaphor resolution. According to the Event Horizon Model, when a narrative event boundary is encountered, a new event model is created. Information associated with the prior event model is removed from working memory. So long as the event model containing the anaphor <span class="hlt">referent</span> is currently being <span class="hlt">processed</span>, this information should still be available when there is no narrative event boundary, even if reading has been disrupted by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. In those cases, readers may reactivate their prior event model, and anaphor resolution would not be affected. Alternatively, comprehension may not be as event oriented as this account suggests. Instead, any disruption of the contents of working memory during comprehension, event related or not, may be sufficient to disrupt anaphor resolution. In this case, reading comprehension would be more strongly guided by other, more basic language <span class="hlt">processing</span> mechanisms and the event structure of the described events would play a more minor role. In the current experiments, participants were given stories to read in which we included, between the anaphor and its <span class="hlt">referent</span>, either the presence of a narrative event boundary (Experiment 1) or a narrative event boundary along with a working-memory-clearing distractor task (Experiment 2). The results showed that anaphor resolution was affected by narrative event boundaries but not by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. This is interpreted as being consistent with the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/polymicrogyria','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/polymicrogyria"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: polymicrogyria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Guerrini R, Katz N, Kimonis V, Lin JP, Lynch DR, Mohammed SN, Massey RF, McDonald M, Rogers RC, Splitt M, Stevens CA, Tischkowitz MD, Stoodley N, Leventer RJ, Pilz DT, Dobyns WB. Polymicrogyria and deletion 22q11.2 syndrome: window to the etiology of a <span class="hlt">common</span> cortical ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA637708','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA637708"><span>Automated Coastal Engineering System: Technical <span class="hlt">Reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>of Contents ACES Technical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Wave Transmission Through Permeable Structures ..................................... 5-4 Littoral <span class="hlt">Processes</span>...A-2 Table A-4: Grain-Size Scales ( Soil Classification) ..................................... A-3 Table A-5: Major Tidal Constituents... Permeable Structures Lonphore Sediment Tranaport Littoral Numerical Si~ulation of Time-Dependent Beach and Dune Erosion <span class="hlt">Processes</span> Calculation of Composite</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770012112','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770012112"><span>Magnetic heading <span class="hlt">reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garner, H. D. (Inventor)</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>This invention employs a magnetometer as a magnetic heading <span class="hlt">reference</span> for a vehicle such as a small aircraft. The magnetometer is mounted on a directional dial in the aircraft in the vicinity of the pilot such that it is free to turn with the dial about the yaw axis of the aircraft. The invention includes a circuit for generating a signal proportional to the northerly turning error produced in the magnetometer due to the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field. This generated signal is then subtracted from the output of the magnetometer to compensate for the northerly turning error.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA268214','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA268214"><span>Maritime Claims <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1990-07-12</p> <p>line connecting the following points: Cap de la Morsetta--Pointe des Scoglietti-llot de Gargalo--Cap Rosso --Pointe d’Omignis--Cap de Feno (Golfe de...Tg. Rua. 127. 09 - 45.5 S 119 - 11.6 T Tg. Mambo. 128. 09 - 40.5 S 119 - 02.0 T 129. 08 - 53.6 S 118 - 29.9 T Toro Doro. 2-229 <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> CO-ORDINATES...8217 - 12013.40’) to Capo Linaro (42001.70’ - 11050.20’); From Civitavecchia beacon (42005.75’ - 11046.65’) to Isola Giannutri Punta del Capel Rosso</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/942202','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/942202"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> tester platform concept.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hurst, Michael James</p> <p></p> <p>This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a <span class="hlt">common</span> tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The <span class="hlt">common</span> tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies andmore » operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2528905','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2528905"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> medical pains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jacobson, Sheila</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely <span class="hlt">common</span>. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most <span class="hlt">common</span> sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhTea..51..454O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhTea..51..454O"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Magnets, Unexpected Polarities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olson, Mark</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets <span class="hlt">common</span> to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational contexts. This leads students, in my experience, to frequently and erroneously attribute magnetic poles based on geometric associations rather than actual observed behavior. This polarity discrepancy can provide teachers the opportunity to engage students in authentic inquiry about objects in their daily experiences. I've found that investigation of the magnetic polarities of <span class="hlt">common</span> magnets provides a productive context for students in which to develop valuable and authentic scientific inquiry practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800000303&hterms=Buffer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DBuffer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800000303&hterms=Buffer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DBuffer"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> data buffer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Byrne, F.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Time-shared interface speeds data <span class="hlt">processing</span> in distributed computer network. Two-level high-speed scanning approach routes information to buffer, portion of which is reserved for series of "first-in, first-out" memory stacks. Buffer address structure and memory are protected from noise or failed components by error correcting code. System is applicable to any computer or <span class="hlt">processing</span> language.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160007009','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160007009"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failure Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of <span class="hlt">common</span> cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a <span class="hlt">common</span> cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022340','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022340"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failure Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of <span class="hlt">common</span> cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a <span class="hlt">common</span> cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11890001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11890001"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> bacterial skin infections.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trent, J T; Federman, D; Kirsner, R S</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>Skin infections account for a significant portion of dermatologic disease, often resulting in or as a consequence of a disruption in the skin's integrity. This article covers the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the more <span class="hlt">common</span> bacterial infections. The infections presented herein include impetigo, ecthyma, folliculitis, carbuncles/furuncles, cellulitis, toxic shock syndrome, and ecthyma gangrenosum. Once a diagnosis is made, treatment is based on the culture and antibiotic sensitivities of the offending organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870020436','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870020436"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> drive unit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24987313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24987313"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> anorectal disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most <span class="hlt">common</span> anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4076876','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4076876"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Anorectal Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most <span class="hlt">common</span> anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996chep.conf..668T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996chep.conf..668T"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> HEP UNIX Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taddei, Arnaud</p> <p></p> <p>After it had been decided to design a <span class="hlt">common</span> user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a <span class="hlt">common</span> user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a <span class="hlt">common</span> user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983SPIE..380...38V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983SPIE..380...38V"><span>Antares <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Telescopes System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Viswanathan, V. K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.</p> <p>1983-11-01</p> <p>Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300-1000 pm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m diameter by 9.3-m long vacuum (10-6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: 1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; 2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; 3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates tne target; and 4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983opti.confR..11V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983opti.confR..11V"><span>Antares <span class="hlt">reference</span> telescope system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Viswanathan, V. K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.</p> <p></p> <p>Antares is a 24 beam, 40 TW carbon dioxide laser fusion system currently nearing completion. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target. It is to position the targets to within 10 (SIGMA)m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares <span class="hlt">reference</span> telescope system is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares <span class="hlt">reference</span> telescope system consists of two similar electrooptical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9% optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and tradeoffs are discussed. The final system chosen and its current status are described.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012781','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012781"><span>Photogrammetry Toolbox <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Specialized photogrammetric and image <span class="hlt">processing</span> MATLAB functions useful for wind tunnel and other ground-based testing of aerospace structures are described. These functions include single view and multi-view photogrammetric solutions, basic image <span class="hlt">processing</span> to determine image coordinates, 2D and 3D coordinate transformations and least squares solutions, spatial and radiometric camera calibration, epipolar relations, and various supporting utility functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981015"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> intervals: current status, recent developments and future considerations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ozarda, Yesim</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Reliable and accurate <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals (RIs) for laboratory analyses are an integral part of the <span class="hlt">process</span> of correct interpretation of clinical laboratory test results. RIs given in laboratory reports have an important role in aiding the clinician in interpreting test results in <span class="hlt">reference</span> to values for healthy populations. Since the 1980s, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) has been proactive in establishing recommendations to clarify the true significance of the term 'RIs, to select the appropriate <span class="hlt">reference</span> population and statistically analyse the data. The C28-A3 guideline published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and IFCC is still the most widely-used source of <span class="hlt">reference</span> in this area. In recent years, protocols additional to the Guideline have been published by the IFCC, Committee on <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL), including all details of multicenter studies on RIs to meet the requirements in this area. Multicentric RIs studies are the most important development in the area of RIs. Recently, the C-RIDL has performed many multicentric studies to obtain <span class="hlt">common</span> RIs. Confusion of RIs and clinical decision limits (CDLs) remains an issue and pediatric and geriatric age groups are a significant problem. For future studies of RIs, the genetic effect would seem to be the most challenging area. 
The aim of the review is to present the current theory and practice of RIs, with special emphasis given to multicenter RIs studies, RIs studies for pediatric and geriatric age groups, clinical decision limits and partitioning by genetic effects on RIs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4783089','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4783089"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> intervals: current status, recent developments and future considerations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ozarda, Yesim</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Reliable and accurate <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals (RIs) for laboratory analyses are an integral part of the <span class="hlt">process</span> of correct interpretation of clinical laboratory test results. RIs given in laboratory reports have an important role in aiding the clinician in interpreting test results in <span class="hlt">reference</span> to values for healthy populations. Since the 1980s, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) has been proactive in establishing recommendations to clarify the true significance of the term ‘RIs, to select the appropriate <span class="hlt">reference</span> population and statistically analyse the data. The C28-A3 guideline published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and IFCC is still the most widely-used source of <span class="hlt">reference</span> in this area. In recent years, protocols additional to the Guideline have been published by the IFCC, Committee on <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL), including all details of multicenter studies on RIs to meet the requirements in this area. Multicentric RIs studies are the most important development in the area of RIs. Recently, the C-RIDL has performed many multicentric studies to obtain <span class="hlt">common</span> RIs. Confusion of RIs and clinical decision limits (CDLs) remains an issue and pediatric and geriatric age groups are a significant problem. For future studies of RIs, the genetic effect would seem to be the most challenging area.
The aim of the review is to present the current theory and practice of RIs, with special emphasis given to multicenter RIs studies, RIs studies for pediatric and geriatric age groups, clinical decision limits and partitioning by genetic effects on RIs. PMID:26981015</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1552..560D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1552..560D"><span>Type T <span class="hlt">reference</span> function suitability for low temperature applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dowell, D.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Type T thermocouples are <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used in industrial measurement applications due to their accuracy relative to other thermocouple types, low cost, and the ready availability of measurement equipment. Type T thermocouples are very effective when used in differential measurements, as there is no cold junction compensation necessary for the connections to the measurement equipment. Type T's published accuracy specifications result in its frequent use in low temperature applications. An examination of over 328 samples from a number of manufacturers has been completed for this investigation. Samples were compared to a Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer (SPRT) at the LN2 boiling point along with four other standardized measurement points using a characterized ice point <span class="hlt">reference</span>, low-thermal EMF scanner and an 8.5 digit multimeter, and the data compiled and analyzed. The test points were approximately -196 °C, -75 °C, 0 °C, +100 °C, and +200 °C. These data show an anomaly in the conformance to the <span class="hlt">reference</span> functions where the <span class="hlt">reference</span> functions meet at 0 °C. Additionally, in the temperature region between -100 °C to -200 °C, a positive offset of up to 5.4 °C exists between the <span class="hlt">reference</span> function equations published in the ASTM E230-06 for the nitrogen point and the measured response of the actual wire. This paper will examine the historical and technological reasons for this anomaly in the both the ASTM and IEC <span class="hlt">reference</span> functions. At the request of the author and the Proceedings Editor the above article has been replaced with a corrected version. The original PDF file supplied to AIP Publishing contained several figures with missing information/characters—caused by <span class="hlt">processes</span> used to generate the PDF file. All figures were affected by this error. The article has been replaced and these figures now display correctly. The corrected article was published on 7 November 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28730186','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28730186"><span>STANDARD <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> MATERIALS FOR THE POLYMERS INDUSTRY.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McDonough, Walter G; Orski, Sara V; Guttman, Charles M; Migler, Kalman D; Beers, Kathryn L</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides science, industry, and government with a central source of well-characterized materials certified for chemical composition or for some chemical or physical property. These materials are designated Standard <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials ® (SRMs) and are used to calibrate measuring instruments, to evaluate methods and systems, or to produce scientific data that can be <span class="hlt">referred</span> readily to a <span class="hlt">common</span> base. In this paper, we discuss the history of polymer based SRMs, their current status, and challenges and opportunities to develop new standards to address industrial measurement challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27872504','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27872504"><span>Harmonising <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Intervals for Three Calculated Parameters used in Clinical Chemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hughes, David; Koerbin, Gus; Potter, Julia M; Glasgow, Nicholas; West, Nic; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Cavanaugh, Juleen; Armbruster, David; Hickman, Peter E</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>For more than a decade there has been a global effort to harmonise all phases of the testing <span class="hlt">process</span>, with particular emphasis on the most frequently utilised measurands. In addition, it is recognised that calculated parameters derived from these measurands should also be a target for harmonisation. Using data from the Aussie Normals study we report <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for three calculated parameters: serum osmolality, serum anion gap and albumin-adjusted serum calcium. The Aussie Normals study was an a priori study that analysed samples from 1856 healthy volunteers. The nine analytes used for the calculations in this study were measured on Abbott Architect analysers. The data demonstrated normal (Gaussian) distributions for the albumin-adjusted serum calcium, the anion gap (using potassium in the calculation) and the calculated serum osmolality (using both the Bhagat et al. and Smithline and Gardner formulae). To assess the suitability of these <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for use as harmonised <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals, we reviewed data from the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia/Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (RCPA/AACB) bias survey. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals for the calculated serum osmolality (using the Smithline and Gardner formulae) may be suitable for use as a <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> interval. Although a <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> interval for albumin-adjusted serum calcium may be possible, further investigations (including a greater range of albumin concentrations) are needed. This is due to the bias between the Bromocresol Green (BCG) and Bromocresol Purple (BCP) methods at lower serum albumin concentrations. Problems with the measurement of Total CO 2 in the bias survey meant that we could not use the data for assessing the suitability of a <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> interval for the anion gap. Further study is required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2824446','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2824446"><span>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Patterns of Nature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Frank, Steven A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We typically observe large-scale outcomes that arise from the interactions of many hidden, small-scale <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Examples include age of disease onset, rates of amino acid substitutions, and composition of ecological communities. The macroscopic patterns in each problem often vary around a characteristic shape that can be generated by neutral <span class="hlt">processes</span>. A neutral generative model assumes that each microscopic <span class="hlt">process</span> follows unbiased or random stochastic fluctuations: random connections of network nodes; amino acid substitutions with no effect on fitness; species that arise or disappear from communities randomly. These neutral generative models often match <span class="hlt">common</span> patterns of nature. In this paper, I present the theoretical background by which we can understand why these neutral generative models are so successful. I show where the classic patterns come from, such as the Poisson pattern, the normal or Gaussian pattern, and many others. Each classic pattern was often discovered by a simple neutral generative model. The neutral patterns share a special characteristic: they describe the patterns of nature that follow from simple constraints on information. For example, any aggregation of <span class="hlt">processes</span> that preserves information only about the mean and variance attracts to the Gaussian pattern; any aggregation that preserves information only about the mean attracts to the exponential pattern; any aggregation that preserves information only about the geometric mean attracts to the power law pattern. I present a simple and consistent informational framework of the <span class="hlt">common</span> patterns of nature based on the method of maximum entropy. This framework shows that each neutral generative model is a special case that helps to discover a particular set of informational constraints; those informational constraints define a much wider domain of non-neutral generative <span class="hlt">processes</span> that attract to the same neutral pattern. PMID:19538344</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27191942','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27191942"><span>Motion-based nearest vector metric for <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame selection in the perception of motion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agaoglu, Mehmet N; Clarke, Aaron M; Herzog, Michael H; Ögmen, Haluk</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We investigated how the visual system selects a <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame for the perception of motion. Two concentric arcs underwent circular motion around the center of the display, where observers fixated. The outer (target) arc's angular velocity profile was modulated by a sine wave midflight whereas the inner (<span class="hlt">reference</span>) arc moved at a constant angular speed. The task was to report whether the target reversed its direction of motion at any point during its motion. We investigated the effects of spatial and figural factors by systematically varying the radial and angular distances between the arcs, and their relative sizes. We found that the effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame decreases with increasing radial- and angular-distance measures. Drastic changes in the relative sizes of the arcs did not influence motion reversal thresholds, suggesting no influence of stimulus form on perceived motion. We also investigated the effect of <span class="hlt">common</span> velocity by introducing velocity fluctuations to the <span class="hlt">reference</span> arc as well. We found no effect of whether or not a <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame has a constant motion. We examined several form- and motion-based metrics, which could potentially unify our findings. We found that a motion-based nearest vector metric can fully account for all the data reported here. These findings suggest that the selection of <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames for motion <span class="hlt">processing</span> does not result from a winner-take-all <span class="hlt">process</span>, but instead, can be explained by a field whose strength decreases with the distance between the nearest motion vectors regardless of the form of the moving objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mirror+AND+therapy&pg=3&id=EJ243949','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mirror+AND+therapy&pg=3&id=EJ243949"><span>Remediating <span class="hlt">Common</span> Math Errors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wagner, Rudolph F.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Explanations and remediation suggestions for five types of mathematics errors due either to perceptual or cognitive difficulties are given. Error types include directionality problems, mirror writing, visually misperceived signs, diagnosed directionality problems, and mixed <span class="hlt">process</span> errors. (CL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3589705','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3589705"><span>Phenotyping <span class="hlt">common</span> beans for adaptation to drought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. <span class="hlt">Common</span> bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve <span class="hlt">common</span> bean for drought tolerance, <span class="hlt">referring</span> to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of <span class="hlt">common</span> bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2797525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2797525"><span>Managing <span class="hlt">common</span> marital stresses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martin, A C; Starling, B P</p> <p>1989-10-01</p> <p>Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the <span class="hlt">common</span> stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28849871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28849871"><span>Heated, humidified air for the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Meenu; Singh, Manvi; Jaiswal, Nishant; Chauhan, Anil</p> <p>2017-08-29</p> <p>Heated, humidified air has long been used by people with the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and that heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. This is an update of a review last published in 2013. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding, and nasal resistance. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to February 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to 24 February 2017), Embase (1990 to 24 February 2017), and Current Contents (1998 to 24 February 2017). We also searched World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) (8 March 2017) and ClinicalTrials.gov (8 March 2017) as well as <span class="hlt">reference</span> lists of included studies. Randomised controlled trials using heated water vapour in participants with the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold or experimentally induced <span class="hlt">common</span> cold were eligible for inclusion. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Three review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion of potential studies identified from the search. We recorded the selection <span class="hlt">process</span> in sufficient detail to complete a PRISMA flow diagram. We used a data collection form for study characteristics and outcome data that was developed and used for previous versions of this review. Two review authors independently extracted data, and a third review author resolved any disagreements. We used Review Manager 5 software to analyse data. We included six trials from five publications involving a total of 387 participants. We included no new studies in this 2017 update. The 'Risk of bias' assessment suggested an unclear risk of bias in the domain of randomisation and a low risk of bias in performance, detection, attrition, and reporting.It was uncertain whether heated, humidified air provides symptomatic relief for the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold, as the fixed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6742161','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6742161"><span>Long life <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.</p> <p>1987-07-30</p> <p>An external, <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1463B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1463B"><span>International <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere -2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo</p> <p></p> <p>The International <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere 2010 includes several important improvements and ad-ditions. This presentation introduces these changes and discusses their benefits. The electron and ion density profiles for the bottomside ionosphere will be significantly improved by using more ionosonde data as well as photochemical considerations. As an additional lower iono-sphere parameter IRI-2010 will include the transition height from molecular to cluster ions. At the F2 peak Neural Net models for the peak density and the propagation factor M3000F2, which is related to the F2 peak height, are introduced as new options. At high latitudes the model will benefit from the introduction of auroral oval boundaries and their variation with magnetic activity. Regarding the electron temperature, IRI-2010 now models variations with solar activity. The homepage for the IRI project is at http://IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4421..749E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4421..749E"><span>A <span class="hlt">reference</span> tristimulus colorimeter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eppeldauer, George P.</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">reference</span> tristimulus colorimeter has been developed at NIST with a transmission-type silicon trap detector (1) and four temperature-controlled filter packages to realize the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) x(λ), y(λ) and z(λ) color matching functions (2). Instead of lamp standards, high accuracy detector standards are used for the colorimeter calibration. A detector-based calibration procedure is being suggested for tristimulus colorimeters wehre the absolute spectral responsivity of the tristimulus channels is determined. Then, color (spectral) correct and peak (amplitude) normalization are applied to minimize uncertainties caused by the imperfect realizations of the CIE functions. As a result of the corrections, the chromaticity coordinates of stable light sources with different spectral power distributions can be measured with uncertainties less than 0.0005 (k=1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009832','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009832"><span>PASCAL/48 <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Knight, J. C.; Hamm, R. W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>PASCAL/48 is a programming language for the Intel MCS-48 series of microcomputers. In particular, it can be used with the Intel 8748. It is designed to allow the programmer to control most of the instructions being generated and the allocation of storage. The language can be used instead of ASSEMBLY language in most applications while allowing the user the necessary degree of control over hardware resources. Although it is called PASCAL/48, the language differs in many ways from PASCAL. The program structure and statements of the two languages are similar, but the expression mechanism and data types are different. The PASCAL/48 cross-compiler is written in PASCAL and runs on the CDC CYBER NOS system. It generates object code in Intel hexadecimal format that can be used to program the MCS-48 series of microcomputers. This <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual defines the language, describes the predeclared procedures, lists error messages, illustrates use, and includes language syntax diagrams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7164560','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7164560"><span>Long life <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.</p> <p>1989-04-04</p> <p>An external, <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/866903','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/866903"><span>Long life <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Yonco, Robert M.; Nagy, Zoltan</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>An external, <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22436747-nuclear-science-references-database','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22436747-nuclear-science-references-database"><span>Nuclear Science <span class="hlt">References</span> Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pritychenko, B., E-mail: pritychenko@bnl.gov; Běták, E.; Singh, B.</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>The Nuclear Science <span class="hlt">References</span> (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energymore » Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/tyrosinemia','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/tyrosinemia"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: tyrosinemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... in the multistep <span class="hlt">process</span> that breaks down the amino acid tyrosine, a building block of most proteins. If ... 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