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Sample records for process commonly referred

  1. The positive side of a negative reference: the delay between linguistic processing and common ground.

    PubMed

    Kronmüller, Edmundo; Noveck, Ira; Rivera, Natalia; Jaume-Guazzini, Francisco; Barr, Dale

    2017-02-01

    Interlocutors converge on names to refer to entities. For example, a speaker might refer to a novel looking object as the jellyfish and, once identified, the listener will too. The hypothesized mechanism behind such referential precedents is a subject of debate. The common ground view claims that listeners register the object as well as the identity of the speaker who coined the label. The linguistic view claims that, once established, precedents are treated by listeners like any other linguistic unit, i.e. without needing to keep track of the speaker. To test predictions from each account, we used visual-world eyetracking, which allows observations in real time, during a standard referential communication task. Participants had to select objects based on instructions from two speakers. In the critical condition, listeners sought an object with a negative reference such as not the jellyfish . We aimed to determine the extent to which listeners rely on the linguistic input, common ground or both. We found that initial interpretations were based on linguistic processing only and that common ground considerations do emerge but only after 1000 ms. Our findings support the idea that-at least temporally-linguistic processing can be isolated from common ground.

  2. The positive side of a negative reference: the delay between linguistic processing and common ground

    PubMed Central

    Noveck, Ira; Rivera, Natalia; Jaume-Guazzini, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Interlocutors converge on names to refer to entities. For example, a speaker might refer to a novel looking object as the jellyfish and, once identified, the listener will too. The hypothesized mechanism behind such referential precedents is a subject of debate. The common ground view claims that listeners register the object as well as the identity of the speaker who coined the label. The linguistic view claims that, once established, precedents are treated by listeners like any other linguistic unit, i.e. without needing to keep track of the speaker. To test predictions from each account, we used visual-world eyetracking, which allows observations in real time, during a standard referential communication task. Participants had to select objects based on instructions from two speakers. In the critical condition, listeners sought an object with a negative reference such as not the jellyfish. We aimed to determine the extent to which listeners rely on the linguistic input, common ground or both. We found that initial interpretations were based on linguistic processing only and that common ground considerations do emerge but only after 1000 ms. Our findings support the idea that—at least temporally—linguistic processing can be isolated from common ground. PMID:28386440

  3. A parallel A/D converter array structure with common reference processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Keping; Svensson, Christer

    1989-08-01

    A successive-approximation A/D converter array with a parallel architecture is proposed. The circuit is realized using a switched-capacitor technique. The architecture of the array is based on a common-reference processing unit and multichannel parallel-input, signal processing units. The latter, which are the main part of the array, are insensitive to the capacitor ratio mismatch and the gain of the amplifiers. The linearity of the array is insensitive to parasitic capacitors and offset of the amplifiers. The conversion time is linearly proportional to the number of bits required. Due to the small number of components needed and the simplicity of the circuit realization, the proposed A/D solution is suitable for VLSI implementation. A typical application would be in a small sensor system, where a sensor array, parallel A/D converters, and parallel digital processors are integrated in a single chip.

  4. Reference Intervals for Common Laboratory Tests in Melanesian Children

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Laurens; Laman, Moses; Townsend, Mary Anne; Chubb, Stephen P.; Siba, Peter M.; Mueller, Ivo; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric reference intervals for biochemical tests are often derived from studies in Western countries and may not be applicable to the developing world. No such intervals exist for Melanesian populations. The aim of this study was to provide specific reference intervals for children from Papua New Guinea (PNG). We assayed plasma from 327 healthy Melanesian children living in Madang Province for common biochemical and hematological analytes. We used well-validated commercially available assay methodology. Compared with reference intervals from children from Western countries and/or African children, there were substantial differences in hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor, ferritin, calcium, phosphate, and C-reactive protein. Differences in the upper limits of reference intervals for bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase were also observed. Available reference intervals from Western and African countries may be inappropriate in PNG and other Melanesian countries. This has implications for clinical care and safety monitoring in pharmaceutical intervention trials and vaccine studies. PMID:21734123

  5. Review of the Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Processes Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summarizes the review and deliberations of the Risk Assessment Forum’s RfD/RfC Technical Panel and its recommendations for improvements in oral referencedose/inhalation reference concentration (RfD/RfC) process.

  6. Interdisciplinary Common Ground: Techniques and Attentional Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidson, P. Sven

    2014-01-01

    Common ground in the interdisciplinary research process is the pivot from disciplinary to interdisciplinary perspective. As thinking moves from disciplinary to interdisciplinary, what is the shape or structure of attention, how does intellectual content transform in the attending process? Four common ground techniques--extension, redefinition,…

  7. Adequacy of representation of the National Drug File Reference Terminology Physiologic Effects reference hierarchy for commonly prescribed medications

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Awad, Joseph; Speroff, Ted; Elkin, Peter L.; Rothman, Russell; Spickard, Anderson; Peterson, Josh; Bauer, Brent A; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Lee, Mark; Gregg, William; Johnson, Kevin B.; Jirjis, Jim; Erlbaum, Mark S.; Carter, John S.; Lincoln, Michael J.; Brown, Steven H.

    2003-01-01

    The National Drug File Reference Terminology contains a novel reference hierarchy to describe physiologic effects (PE) of drugs. The PE reference hierarchy contains 1697 concepts arranged into two broad categories; organ specific and generalized systemic effects. This investigation evaluated the appropriateness of the PE concepts for classifying a random selection of commonly prescribed medications. Ten physician reviewers classified the physiologic effects of ten drugs and rated the accuracy of the selected term. Inter reviewer agreement, overall confidence, and concept frequencies were assessed and were correlated with the complexity of the drug’s known physiologic effects. In general, agreement between reviewers was fair to moderate (kappa range 0.08–0.49). The physiologic effects modeled became more disperse with drugs having and inducing multiple physiologic processes. Complete modeling of all physiologic effects was limited by reviewers focusing on different physiologic processes. The reviewers were generally comfortable with the accuracy of the concepts selected. Overall, the PE reference hierarchy was useful for physician reviewers classifying the physiologic effects of drugs. Ongoing evolution of the PE reference hierarchy as it evolves should take into account the experiences of our reviewers. PMID:14728237

  8. AN ANALYSIS OF TWO COMMON REFERENCE POINTS FOR EEGS.

    PubMed

    López, S; Gross, A; Yang, S; Golmohammadi, M; Obeid, I; Picone, J

    2016-12-01

    Clinical electroencephalographic (EEG) data varies significantly depending on a number of operational conditions (e.g., the type and placement of electrodes, the type of electrical grounding used). This investigation explores the statistical differences present in two different referential montages: Linked Ear (LE) and Averaged Reference (AR). Each of these accounts for approximately 45% of the data in the TUH EEG Corpus. In this study, we explore the impact this variability has on machine learning performance. We compare the statistical properties of features generated using these two montages, and explore the impact of performance on our standard Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based classification system. We show that a system trained on LE data significantly outperforms one trained only on AR data (77.2% vs. 61.4%). We also demonstrate that performance of a system trained on both data sets is somewhat compromised (71.4% vs. 77.2%). A statistical analysis of the data suggests that mean, variance and channel normalization should be considered. However, cepstral mean subtraction failed to produce an improvement in performance, suggesting that the impact of these statistical differences is subtler.

  9. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a <span class="hlt">common</span> building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are <span class="hlt">commonly</span> found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment <span class="hlt">process</span> and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=english+AND+foreign+AND+language+AND+teaching+AND+process&pg=7&id=EJ1123589','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=english+AND+foreign+AND+language+AND+teaching+AND+process&pg=7&id=EJ1123589"><span>Aligning ESP Courses with the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Athanasiou, Androulla; Constantinou, Elis Kakoulli; Neophytou, Maro; Nicolaou, Anna; Papadima Sophocleous, Salomi; Yerou, Christina</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article explains how the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">References</span> for Languages" (CEFR; Council of Europe 2001, "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) has been applied in language courses at the Language Centre (LC) of the Cyprus…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=second+AND+language+AND+acquisition&pg=7&id=EJ1144980','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=second+AND+language+AND+acquisition&pg=7&id=EJ1144980"><span>Empirical Learner Language and the Levels of the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wisniewski, Katrin</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>" (CEFR) is the most widespread <span class="hlt">reference</span> tool for linking language tests, curricula, and national educational standards to levels of foreign language proficiency in Europe. In spite of this, little is known about how the CEFR levels (A1-C2) relate to empirical learner language(s). This article…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Padmanabhan&id=EJ858310','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Padmanabhan&id=EJ858310"><span>Connecting Online Learners with Diverse Local Practices: The Design of Effective <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Points for Conversation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Friend Wise, Alyssa; Padmanabhan, Poornima; Duffy, Thomas M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This mixed-methods study probed the effectiveness of three kinds of objects (video, theory, metaphor) as <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> points for conversations between online learners (student teachers). Individuals' degree of detail-focus was examined as a potentially interacting covariate and the outcome measure was learners' level of tacit knowledge related…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Quality+AND+management&pg=6&id=EJ838859','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Quality+AND+management&pg=6&id=EJ838859"><span>Language Educational Policy and Language Learning Quality Management: The "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barenfanger, Olaf; Tschirner, Erwin</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The major goal of the Council of Europe to promote and facilitate communication and interaction among Europeans of different mother tongues has led to the development of the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment" (CEFR). Among other things, the CEFR is intended to help language…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1141611.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1141611.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR) in Canada: A Research Agenda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Arnott, Stephanie; Brogden, Lace Marie; Faez, Farahnaz; Péguret, Muriel; Piccardo, Enrica; Rehner, Katherine; Taylor, Shelley K.; Wernicke, Meike</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This article proposes a research agenda for future inquiry into the use of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR) in the plurilingual Canadian context. Drawing on data collected from a research forum hosted by the Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers in 2014, as well as a detailed analysis of Canadian empirical studies and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914776K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914776K"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Adjustment of TRF, EOP and CRF for a Consistent Realization of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwak, Younghee; Angermann, Detlef; Bloßfeld, Mathis; Gerstl, Michael; Schmid, Ralf; Seitz, Manuela</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The International Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System is realized today solely by VLBI which is the only space geodetic technique which allows the observation of the inertial space. In contrast, the International Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System is currently realized through the combination of four space geodetic techniques: GNSS, VLBI, SLR and DORIS. To connect two systems, Earth orientation parameters (EOP) are estimated simultaneously with Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (TRF) fixing Celestial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (CRF) at DGFI-TUM. This way of estimation/combination intrinsically contains inconsistency between TRF, EOP and CRF because the data and geometry of the contributing networks are different. To overcome this inconsistency, a combined normal equation system where all parameters (TRF, EOP and CRF) are included would ensure a <span class="hlt">common</span> network. In this presentation, we simultaneously estimate TRF, EOP and CRF using most recent data (2005-2015) of GNSS, VLBI and SLR. We show the latest results of the consistent realization and discuss the pros and cons of the simultaneous estimation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721206S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721206S"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Mountain-Building <span class="hlt">Processes</span> on Ceres and Pluto?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sykes, Mark V.; Bland, Michael; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Feldman, William; Hoffmann, Martin; Hughson, Kynan; Jaumann, Ralf; King, Scott; LeCorre, Lucille; Li, Jian-Yang; Mest, Scott; Natheus, Andreas; O'Brien, David; Platz, Thomas; Prettyman, Thomas; Raymond, Carol; Reddy, Vishnu; Reusch, Ottaviano; Russell, Christopher T.; Schenk, Paul; Sizemore, Hanna; Schmidt, Britney; Travis, Bryan</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The Dawn Framing Camera has revealed a unique feature on the surface of Ceres, popularly <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as the “pyramid.” It is a roughly conical and flat-topped feature with an elevation of ~5 km and base diameter of ~20 km. The side slopes are roughly consistent with an angle of repose one expects of particulate material on Earth (which may change with gravity). The pyramid is also notable for its striations down its side over half of its circumference. These striations sharply terminate at the base of the cone without a distinctive talus deposit, including an adjacent crater. Recently released images of Norgay Montes and a second mountain chain in Tombaugh Regio on Pluto by the New Horizons mission reveal mountains with strikingly similar morphologies with the Ceres pyramid. They are of similar size to within a factor of a few. We investigate the hypothesis that there may be a <span class="hlt">common</span> mechanism giving rise to these features on the two dwarf planets. Given their significantly different heliocentric distances, the remarkable ongoing widespread <span class="hlt">processing</span> of the surface of Pluto and increasing evidence of relatively recent activity in some areas of Ceres, interior <span class="hlt">processes</span> such as plume activity or tectonics may be responsible. A comparative study of uplift morphology on the two dwarf planets may also lend insights into heat production and retention on such bodies throughout the solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28943480','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28943480"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> lines modeling for <span class="hlt">reference</span> free Ab-initio reconstruction in cryo-EM.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenberg, Ido; Shkolnisky, Yoel</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>We consider the problem of estimating an unbiased and <span class="hlt">reference</span>-free ab initio model for non-symmetric molecules from images generated by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The proposed algorithm finds the globally optimal assignment of orientations that simultaneously respects all <span class="hlt">common</span> lines between all images. The contribution of each <span class="hlt">common</span> line to the estimated orientations is weighted according to a statistical model for <span class="hlt">common</span> lines' detection errors. The key property of the proposed algorithm is that it finds the global optimum for the orientations given the <span class="hlt">common</span> lines. In particular, any local optima in the <span class="hlt">common</span> lines energy landscape do not affect the proposed algorithm. As a result, it is applicable to thousands of images at once, very robust to noise, completely <span class="hlt">reference</span> free, and not biased towards any initial model. A byproduct of the algorithm is a set of measures that allow to asses the reliability of the obtained ab initio model. We demonstrate the algorithm using class averages from two experimental data sets, resulting in ab initio models with resolutions of 20Å or better, even from class averages consisting of as few as three raw images per class. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1986.7009T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1986.7009T"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Workflow Service: Standards Based Solution for Managing Operational <span class="hlt">Processes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tinio, A. W.; Hollins, G. A.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Workflow Service is a collaborative and standards-based solution for managing mission operations <span class="hlt">processes</span> using techniques from the Business <span class="hlt">Process</span> Management (BPM) discipline. This presentation describes the CWS and its benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16494340','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16494340"><span>Transport equations of electrodiffusion <span class="hlt">processes</span> in the laboratory <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garrido, Javier</p> <p>2006-02-23</p> <p>The transport equations of electrodiffusion <span class="hlt">processes</span> use three <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames for defining the fluxes: Fick's <span class="hlt">reference</span> in diffusion, solvent-fixed <span class="hlt">reference</span> in transference numbers, and laboratory fluxes in electric conductivity. The convenience of using only one <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame is analyzed here from the point of view of the thermodynamics of irreversible <span class="hlt">processes</span>. A relation between the fluxes of ions and solvent and the electric current density is deduced first from a mass and volume balance. This is then used to show that (i) the laboratory and Fick's diffusion coefficients are identical and (ii) the transference numbers of both the solvent and the ion in the laboratory <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame are related. Finally, four experimental methods for the measurement of ion transference numbers are analyzed critically. New expressions for evaluating transference numbers for the moving boundary method and the chronopotentiometry technique are deduced. It is concluded that the ion transport equation in the laboratory <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame plays a key role in the description of electrodiffusion <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796555"><span>How probable is <span class="hlt">common</span> ancestry according to different evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sober, Elliott; Steel, Mike</p> <p>2015-05-21</p> <p>Darwin and contemporary biologists argue that all present-day life traces back to one or a few <span class="hlt">common</span> ancestors. Here we investigate the relationship of different evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span> to this hypothesis of <span class="hlt">common</span> ancestry. We identify the property of an evolutionary <span class="hlt">process</span> that determines what its probabilistic impact on the <span class="hlt">common</span> ancestry thesis will be. The point of this exercise is to understand how the parts of Darwin׳s powerful theory fit together, not to call into question <span class="hlt">common</span> ancestry or natural selection, since these two pillars of Darwin׳s theory enjoy strong support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25399516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25399516"><span>Serum chemistry <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for the <span class="hlt">common</span> genet (Genetta genetta): variations associated with Leishmania infantum infection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Millán, Javier; Chirife, Andrea D; Altet, Laura</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of leishmaniosis in under debate, and determining whether infection with Leishmania infantum causes illness in wild carnivores is important to determine its potential role as a reservoir. To provide for the first time serum biochemistry <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for the <span class="hlt">common</span> genet (Genetta genetta), and to determine variations associated with L. infantum infection. Twenty-five serum biochemistry parameters were determined in 22 wild-caught genets. Blood samples were analyzed for L. infantum DNA by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two female genets were positive for L. infantum DNA but did not show any external clinical sign upon physical examination. Among other variations in the biochemistry values of these genets, one presented a higher concentration of gamma-globulins and cholesterol, whereas the other genet presented increased creatinine, bilirubin, and chloride levels when compared to uninfected females. Sex-related differences in some parameters were also reported. Infection with L. infantum may sometimes be accompanied by abnormal serum biochemistry in wild carnivores. Clinical disease may occur in L. infantum-infected wild carnivores. This has implications in the epidemiology of leishmaniosis. In addition, the data provided here would also be useful as <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for researchers or rehabilitators working with the <span class="hlt">common</span> genet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27312352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27312352"><span><span class="hlt">Commonly</span> used <span class="hlt">reference</span> values underestimate oxygen uptake in healthy, 50-year-old Swedish women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Genberg, M; Andrén, B; Lind, L; Hedenström, H; Malinovschi, A</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard among clinical exercise tests. It combines a conventional stress test with measurement of oxygen uptake (V O 2 ) and CO 2 production. No validated Swedish <span class="hlt">reference</span> values exist, and <span class="hlt">reference</span> values in women are generally understudied. Moreover, the importance of achieved respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and the significance of breathing reserve (BR) at peak exercise in healthy individuals are poorly understood. We compared V O 2 at maximal load (peakV O 2 ) and anaerobic threshold (V O 2@ AT ) in healthy Swedish individuals with <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used <span class="hlt">reference</span> values, taking gender into account. Further, we analysed maximal workload and peakV O 2 with regard to peak RER and BR. In all, 181 healthy, 50-year-old individuals (91 women) performed CPET. PeakV O 2 was best predicted using Jones et al. (100·5%), while SHIP <span class="hlt">reference</span> values underestimated peakV O 2 most: 112·5%. Furthermore, underestimation of peakV O 2 in women was found for all studied <span class="hlt">reference</span> values (P<0·001) and was largest for SHIP: women had 128% of predicted peakV O 2 , while men had 104%. PeakV O 2 was similar in subjects with peak RER of 1-1·1 and RER > 1·1 (2 328·7 versus 2 176·7 ml min -1 , P = 0·11). Lower BR (≤30%) related to significantly higher peakV O 2 (P<0·001). In conclusion, peakV O 2 was best predicted by Jones. All studied <span class="hlt">reference</span> values underestimated oxygen uptake in women. No evidence for demanding RER > 1·1 in healthy individuals was found. A lowered BR is probably a normal response to higher workloads in healthy individuals. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5005345','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5005345"><span>Production of <span class="hlt">Referring</span> Expressions for an Unknown Audience: A Computational Model of Communal <span class="hlt">Common</span> Ground</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kutlak, Roman; van Deemter, Kees; Mellish, Chris</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article presents a computational model of the production of <span class="hlt">referring</span> expressions under uncertainty over the hearer's knowledge. Although situations where the hearer's knowledge is uncertain have seldom been addressed in the computational literature, they are <span class="hlt">common</span> in ordinary communication, for example when a writer addresses an unknown audience, or when a speaker addresses a stranger. We propose a computational model composed of three complimentary heuristics based on, respectively, an estimation of the recipient's knowledge, an estimation of the extent to which a property is unexpected, and the question of what is the optimum number of properties in a given situation. The model was tested in an experiment with human readers, in which it was compared against the Incremental Algorithm and human-produced descriptions. The results suggest that the new model outperforms the Incremental Algorithm in terms of the proportion of correctly identified entities and in terms of the perceived quality of the generated descriptions. PMID:27630592</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1608272','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1608272"><span><span class="hlt">Commonly</span> used Indian abortifacient plants with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to their teratologic effects in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nath, D; Sethi, N; Singh, R K; Jain, A K</p> <p>1992-04-01</p> <p>A survey programme was organised in Lucknow and Farrukhabad, two towns of Uttar Pradesh, from March 1987 to July 1987. During the survey, the <span class="hlt">common</span> folk medicine plants used by women were recorded and Ayurvedic and Unani drug encyclopedias were consulted for the antireproductive potential of these plants. Aqueous or 90% ethanol extracts of the plants of interest were studied in rats orally dosed for 10 days after insemination with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to effects on foetal development. Leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and Adhatoda vasica were 100% abortive at doses equivalent to 175 mg/kg of starting dry material. Only the flowers of Acacia arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis appeared to lack teratologic potential at the doses tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211108T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1211108T"><span>A '<span class="hlt">Common</span> Information Model' for the climate modelling <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Treshansky, Allyn; Devine, Gerard</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Information Model (CIM), developed by the EU-funded METAFOR project (http://metaforclimate.eu), is a formal model of the climate modeling <span class="hlt">process</span>. It provides a rich structured description of not only climate data but also the "provenance" of that data: the software models and tools used to generate that data, the simulations those models implement, the experiments those simulations conform to, etc.. This formal metadata model is expected to add value to those datasets by firstly codifying what is currently found only in the heads of climate experts (the aforementioned provenance of climate datasets), and secondly by allowing tools to be developed that make searching for and analysing climate datasets a much more intuitive <span class="hlt">process</span> than it has been in the past. This paper will describe the structure of the CIM, concentrating on how it works with and what it adds to other metadata standards. As alluded to above, current metadata standards concentrate on the contents of a climate dataset. Scientific detail and relevance of the model components that generated that data as well as the context for why it was run are missing. The CIM addresses this gap. However, it does not aim to replace existing standards. Rather, wherever possible it re-uses them. It also attempts to standardise our understanding of climate modeling at a very high level, at a conceptual level. This results in a UML description of climate modeling, the CONCIM. METAFOR extracts from this high-level UML the bits of the CIM that we want to use in our applications; These bits get converted into a set of XSD application schemas, the APPCIM. Other user groups may derive a different APPCIM (in a different format) that suits them from the same CONCIM. Thus there is a <span class="hlt">common</span> understanding of the concepts used in climate modeling even if the implementation differs. In certain key places the CIM describes a general structure over which a specific Controlled Vocabulary (CV) can be applied. For example</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=339669&keyword=environmental+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=339669&keyword=environmental+AND+science&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>US Federal LCA <span class="hlt">Commons</span> Life Cycle Inventory Unit <span class="hlt">Process</span> Template</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The US Federal LCA <span class="hlt">Commons</span> Life Cycle Inventory Unit <span class="hlt">Process</span> Template is a multi-sheet Excel template for life cycle inventory data, metadata and other documentation. The template comes as a package that consistent of three parts: (1) the main template itself for life cycle inven...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4436368','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4436368"><span>Adrenal Hormones in <span class="hlt">Common</span> Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Intervals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hart, Leslie B.; Wells, Randall S.; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lamb, Stephen V.; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Inshore <span class="hlt">common</span> bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones <span class="hlt">commonly</span> associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals will be used to gauge an individual’s response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000–2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91–4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32–6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25993341','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25993341"><span>Adrenal Hormones in <span class="hlt">Common</span> Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Influential Factors and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Intervals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hart, Leslie B; Wells, Randall S; Kellar, Nick; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Lamb, Stephen V; Rowles, Teri; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Inshore <span class="hlt">common</span> bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are exposed to a broad spectrum of natural and anthropogenic stressors. In response to these stressors, the mammalian adrenal gland releases hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone to maintain physiological and biochemical homeostasis. Consequently, adrenal gland dysfunction results in disruption of hormone secretion and an inappropriate stress response. Our objective herein was to develop diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals (RIs) for adrenal hormones <span class="hlt">commonly</span> associated with the stress response (i.e., cortisol, aldosterone) that account for the influence of intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., time) factors. Ultimately, these <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals will be used to gauge an individual's response to chase-capture stress and could indicate adrenal abnormalities. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were used to evaluate demographic and sampling factors contributing to differences in serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations among bottlenose dolphins sampled in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA (2000-2012). Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly associated with elapsed time from initial stimulation to sample collection (p<0.05), and RIs were constructed using nonparametric methods based on elapsed sampling time for dolphins sampled in less than 30 minutes following net deployment (95% RI: 0.91-4.21 µg/dL) and following biological sampling aboard a research vessel (95% RI: 2.32-6.68 µg/dL). To examine the applicability of the pre-sampling cortisol RI across multiple estuarine stocks, data from three additional southeast U.S. sites were compared, revealing that all of the dolphins sampled from the other sites (N = 34) had cortisol concentrations within the 95th percentile RI. Significant associations between serum concentrations of aldosterone and variables reported in previous studies (i.e., age, elapsed sampling time) were not observed in the current project (p<0.05). Also, approximately 16% of Sarasota Bay</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference+AND+languages&pg=3&id=EJ1123414','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference+AND+languages&pg=3&id=EJ1123414"><span>The "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>" Down Under: A Survey of Its Use and Non-Use in Australian Universities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Normand-Marconnet, Nadine; Lo Bianco, Joseph</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Today, the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" (CEFR; Council of Europe 2001) is widely recognised as emblematic of globalization in education, both in the realms of policy and in educational practice (Byram et al. 2012a). In Europe the CEFR is regularly cited as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> point for curriculum planning, and is often…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15746717','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15746717"><span>The research grant <span class="hlt">process</span>: a <span class="hlt">reference</span> guide for cardiovascular sonographers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bierig, S Michelle; Coon, Patrick; Korcarz, Claudia E; Waggoner, Alan D</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Opportunities for sonographer-initiated research have increased during the past decade. Although research has traditionally been viewed as a nonclinical activity, funding is available for clinical problems. This article aims to increase sonographer awareness of this unique opportunity, encourage the submission of grant proposals, and enhance the understanding of the grant writing <span class="hlt">process</span>. This review discusses the procedures involved in planning a research project while describing the structure of the research grant proposal including specific aims, background, preliminary studies, methods, potential limitations, significance, budget, and <span class="hlt">references</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29236822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29236822"><span>The relative frequency of <span class="hlt">common</span> neuromuscular diagnoses in a <span class="hlt">reference</span> center.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cotta, Ana; Paim, Júlia Filardi; Carvalho, Elmano; da-Cunha-Júnior, Antonio Lopes; Navarro, Monica M; Valicek, Jaquelin; Menezes, Miriam Melo; Nunes, Simone Vilela; Xavier-Neto, Rafael; Baptista, Sidney; Lima, Luciano Romero; Takata, Reinaldo Issao; Vargas, Antonio Pedro</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The diagnostic procedure in neuromuscular patients is complex. Knowledge of the relative frequency of neuromuscular diseases within the investigated population is important to allow the neurologist to perform the most appropriate diagnostic tests. To report the relative frequency of <span class="hlt">common</span> neuromuscular diagnoses in a <span class="hlt">reference</span> center. A 17-year chart review of patients with suspicion of myopathy. Among 3,412 examinations, 1,603 (46.98%) yielded confirmatory results: 782 (48.78%) underwent molecular studies, and 821 (51.21%) had muscle biopsies. The most frequent diagnoses were: dystrophinopathy 460 (28.70%), mitochondriopathy 330 (20.59%), spinal muscular atrophy 158 (9.86%), limb girdle muscular dystrophy 157 (9.79%), Steinert myotonic dystrophy 138 (8.61%), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 99 (6.17%), and other diagnoses 261 (16.28%). Using the presently-available diagnostic techniques in this service, a specific limb girdle muscular dystrophy subtype diagnosis was reached in 61% of the patients. A neuromuscular-appropriate diagnosis is important for genetic counseling, rehabilitation orientation, and early treatment of respiratory and cardiac complications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22105232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22105232"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> computational <span class="hlt">process</span> in cueing and conjunction search tasks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, KangWoo; Choo, Hyunseung</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The question of whether Posner's beam is the same as Treisman's glue is addressed to construct a computational model that integrates both target and cue information. The cueing and conjunction search tasks are conducted to analyze a <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> that may be underlying the tasks. The dynamic interaction between target and cue information produces attentional benefit- and cost-based in the cueing task. Furthermore, the search order for target candidates in a conjunction search task is determined through the integration of target and cue information, which is basically the same as in the cueing task. Our simulations suggest that consistency (or validity) is considered as a computational <span class="hlt">process</span> that may be <span class="hlt">commonly</span> involved in the both tasks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29310466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29310466"><span>Valid analytical performance specifications for combined analytical bias and imprecision for the use of <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G; Sandberg, Sverre; Sölétormos, György</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Background Many clinical decisions are based on comparison of patient results with <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals. Therefore, an estimation of the analytical performance specifications for the quality that would be required to allow sharing <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals is needed. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended a minimum of 120 <span class="hlt">reference</span> individuals to establish <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals. This number implies a certain level of quality, which could then be used for defining analytical performance specifications as the maximum combination of analytical bias and imprecision required for sharing <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals, the aim of this investigation. Methods Two methods were investigated for defining the maximum combination of analytical bias and imprecision that would give the same quality of <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals as the IFCC recommendation. Method 1 is based on a formula for the combination of analytical bias and imprecision and Method 2 is based on the Microsoft Excel formula NORMINV including the fractional probability of <span class="hlt">reference</span> individuals outside each limit and the Gaussian variables of mean and standard deviation. The combinations of normalized bias and imprecision are illustrated for both methods. The formulae are identical for Gaussian and log-Gaussian distributions. Results Method 2 gives the correct results with a constant percentage of 4.4% for all combinations of bias and imprecision. Conclusion The Microsoft Excel formula NORMINV is useful for the estimation of analytical performance specifications for both Gaussian and log-Gaussian distributions of <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FrEaS...2...28C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014FrEaS...2...28C"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> at unique volcanoes - a volcanological conundrum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cashman, Katharine; Biggs, Juliet</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on <span class="hlt">commonalities</span> among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or “personality”). In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption “styles” referenced to “type” volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian); this approach implicitly assumes that <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1). The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4079700','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4079700"><span>Self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> in individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Molz Adams, Ashleigh; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Pendergast, Laura H.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are <span class="hlt">common</span> and impairing, which has led to an examination of risk factors for their development and maintenance. Historically, research has examined cognitive vulnerabilities to BSDs derived largely from the unipolar depression literature. Specifically, theorists propose that dysfunctional information <span class="hlt">processing</span> guided by negative self-schemata may be a risk factor for depression. However, few studies have examined whether BSD individuals also show self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> biases. Methods This study examined self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> differences between 66 individuals with and 58 individuals without a BSD in a young adult sample (age M = 19.65, SD = 1.74; 62% female; 47% Caucasian). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to examine multivariate effects of BSD diagnosis on 4 self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> variables (self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> judgments, response latency, behavioral predictions, and recall) in response to depression-related and nondepression-related stimuli. Results Bipolar individuals endorsed and recalled more negative and fewer positive self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> adjectives, as well as made more negative and fewer positive behavioral predictions. Many of these information-<span class="hlt">processing</span> biases were partially, but not fully, mediated by depressive symptoms. Limitations Our sample was not a clinical or treatment-seeking sample, so we cannot generalize our results to clinical BSD samples. No participants had a bipolar I disorder at baseline. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that individuals with BSDs exhibit a negative self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> information <span class="hlt">processing</span> bias. This may mean that those with BSDs have selective attention and recall of negative information about themselves, highlighting the need for attention to cognitive biases in therapy. PMID:24074480</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51I3149C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51I3149C"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">References</span> for Inter Comparison of L-Band Brightness Temperatures Satellite Acquisitions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cabot, F.; Anterrieu, E.; Kerr, Y. H.; Khazaal, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The SMOS mission, in orbit since November 2009, has been the first spatial instrument observing the earth at L-Band since the Skylab experiment in 1977. Since then, it has been joined by Aquarius in June 2011, and will be joined by SMAP in October 2014.Within these 4 years, earth observation at L-band has gone from historical curiosity to highly repetitive constellation.Still, since all these instruments do not share the same technology and even principle of acquisitions, direct comparison and synergistic use of their measurements is not straightforward.The objective of this paper is to propose a method to make them inter-comparable, down to a <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span>. The proposed method uses SMOS as a transfer radiometer.This method can be applied over different types of surfaces: making use of a stable target to assess the consistency and stability of both data sets. This is done over the area surrounding Dome Concordia in Antarctica. After careful selection and filtering, statistics of the comparison are retrieved along with long term trends in both data sets. Once every so often, satellites overpass the same area within a very short time period. Due to different inclinations these alignments occur essentially along the equator, but over different surfaces, giving access to wide dynamic range in brightness temperature. These collocation will be happening at about the same frequency for Aquarius and SMAP. After careful selection, SMOS measurements is used in an innovative way - taking advantage of it accessibility to wide areas with a large range of incidence angles - to make it directly comparable to other instruments. Accounting for instrument characteristics such as real antenna patterns is also done at this step. This presentation will completely describe the method, along with examples of results when applied to compare SMOS and Aquarius measurement. Although these methods have already been presented and demonstrated, this presentation will include demonstration of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12747405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12747405"><span>Virulence factors in food, clinical and <span class="hlt">reference</span> Enterococci: A <span class="hlt">common</span> trait in the genus?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Semedo, Teresa; Santos, Margarida Almeida; Lopes, Maria Fátima Silva; Figueiredo Marques, José J; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Tenreiro, Rogério</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>The occurrence of several virulence traits (cytolysin, adhesins and hydrolytic enzymes) was investigated in a collection of 164 enterococci, including food and clinical isolates (from human and veterinary origin), as well as type and <span class="hlt">reference</span> strains from 20 enterococcal species. Up to fifteen different cyl genotypes were found, as well as silent cyl genes. The occurrence of the cyl operon and haemolytic potential seems to be widespread in the genus. A significant association of this virulent trait with clinical isolates was found (p < 0.05). High levels of incidence were also observed for genes encoding surface adhesins (esp, efaA(fs), efaA(fm)), agg and gelE, irrespectively of species allocation and origin of strains. Although gelE behaves as silent in the majority of the strains, gelatinase activity predominates in clinical isolates, whereas lipase and DNase were mainly detected in food isolates pointing to their minor role as virulence determinants. No hyaluronidase activity was detected for all strains. Numerical hierarchic data analysis grouped the strains in three main clusters, two of them including a total of 50 strains with low number of virulence determinants (from 2 to 7) and the other with 114 strains with a high virulence potential (up to 12 determinants). No statistical association was found between virulence clusters and species allocation (p > 0.10), strongly suggesting that virulence determinants are a <span class="hlt">common</span> trait in the genus Enterococcus. Clinical strains seem to be significantly associated with high virulence potential, whereas food, commensal and environmental strains harbour fewer virulence determinants (p < 0.01). A high level of relative diversity in virulence patterns was observed (Shannon's index varies from 0.95 to 1.0 among clusters), reinforcing the strain-specific nature of the association of virulence factors. Although a low risk seems to be associated with the use of enterococci in long-established artisanal cheeses, screening of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3292506','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3292506"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> population from four European Holstein populations increases reliability of genomic predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Size of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> population and reliability of phenotypes are crucial factors influencing the reliability of genomic predictions. It is therefore useful to combine closely related populations. Increased accuracies of genomic predictions depend on the number of individuals added to the <span class="hlt">reference</span> population, the reliability of their phenotypes, and the relatedness of the populations that are combined. Methods This paper assesses the increase in reliability achieved when combining four Holstein <span class="hlt">reference</span> populations of 4000 bulls each, from European breeding organizations, i.e. UNCEIA (France), VikingGenetics (Denmark, Sweden, Finland), DHV-VIT (Germany) and CRV (The Netherlands, Flanders). Each partner validated its own bulls using their national <span class="hlt">reference</span> data and the combined data, respectively. Results Combining the data significantly increased the reliability of genomic predictions for bulls in all four populations. Reliabilities increased by 10%, compared to reliabilities obtained with national <span class="hlt">reference</span> populations alone, when they were averaged over countries and the traits evaluated. For different traits and countries, the increase in reliability ranged from 2% to 19%. Conclusions Genomic selection programs benefit greatly from combining data from several closely related populations into a single large <span class="hlt">reference</span> population. PMID:22152008</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5559..131R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SPIE.5559..131R"><span>Missile signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> <span class="hlt">common</span> computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p> may be programmed under existing real-time operating systems using parallel <span class="hlt">processing</span> software libraries, resulting in highly portable code that can be rapidly migrated to new platforms as processor technology evolves. Use of standardized development tools and 3rd party software upgrades are enabled as well as rapid upgrade of <span class="hlt">processing</span> components as improved algorithms are developed. The resulting weapon system will have a superior <span class="hlt">processing</span> capability over a custom approach at the time of deployment as a result of a shorter development cycles and use of newer technology. The signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> computer may be upgraded over the lifecycle of the weapon system, and can migrate between weapon system variants enabled by modification simplicity. This paper presents a <span class="hlt">reference</span> design using the new approach that utilizes an Altivec PowerPC parallel COTS platform. It uses a VxWorks-based real-time operating system (RTOS), and application code developed using an efficient parallel vector library (PVL). A quantification of computing requirements and demonstration of interceptor algorithm operating on this real-time platform are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16511795','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16511795"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> intervals for hematologic and biochemical constituents and protein electrophoretic fractions in captive <span class="hlt">common</span> buzzards (Buteo buteo).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spagnolo, Valentina; Crippa, Valentina; Marzia, Amelia; Sartorelli, Paola</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Increasing interest in wildlife care leads to the need for new tools to evaluate animal health. Laboratory investigations require <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals against which to compare the results obtained. For <span class="hlt">common</span> buzzards, only a few studies have been performed to establish hematologic and biochemical <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals. The aim of this work was to develop <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for routine hematologic and biochemical constituents and protein electrophoretic fractions and evaluate possible seasonal differences in values for healthy <span class="hlt">common</span> buzzards. Heparinized blood samples were collected from 23 captive, clinically healthy <span class="hlt">common</span> buzzards between February 2001 and June 2003. A CBC, routine biochemical analysis, and protein electrophoresis were performed. Data distribution was assessed and results from birds sampled in spring, summer, and winter were compared. Results from alternative methods for hemoglobin (Hgb; estimated as HCT / 3 vs spectrophotometry), total protein (biuret vs refractometry), and albumin (bromcresol green vs electrophoresis) concentrations also were compared. <span class="hlt">Reference</span> intervals were calculated as 10-90th percentiles. In spring and summer, total WBC and heterophil counts, and urea, total protein, prealbumin, and beta- and gamma-globulins concentrations were significantly different from winter values. Results obtained by alternative methods for Hgb, total protein, and albumin concentrations were significantly different from those obtained by standard methods, although estimated and spectrophotometric Hgb values were significantly correlated. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> values obtained in this study for hematologic and plasma biochemical constituents and their seasonal variation in healthy, captive <span class="hlt">common</span> buzzards will be useful in the clinical evaluation of these birds in rehabilitation settings.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=297686','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=297686"><span>A <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome for <span class="hlt">common</span> bean and genome wide analysis of dual domestications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the single most important grain legume for human consumption and, due to its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen via symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms, has a valuable place in sustainable agriculture. We assembled 473 Mb of the <span class="hlt">common</span> bean genome and geneti...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP43B0971C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP43B0971C"><span>Challenges to natural <span class="hlt">process</span> restoration: <span class="hlt">common</span> dam removal management concerns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collins, M. J.; Tullos, D. D.; Bellmore, J. R.; Bountry, J.; Connolly, P. J.; Shafroth, P. B.; Wilcox, A. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Practitioners must make dam removal decisions in spite of uncertainty about physical and ecological responses. This can result in implementing structural controls or other interventions at a site to avoid anticipated negative effects, sometimes even if a given concern is not warranted. We used a newly available dam removal science database and other information sources to explore seven frequently raised issues we call "<span class="hlt">Common</span> Management Concerns" (CMCs), investigating their occurrence and the contributing biophysical controls. We describe these controls to enable managers to better assess if further analyses are warranted at their sites before interventions are planned and implemented. The CMCs addressed are: rate and degree of reservoir sediment erosion; drawdown impacts on local water infrastructure; excessive channel incision; downstream sediment aggradation; elevated turbidity; colonization of reservoir sediments by non-native plants; and expansion of invasive fish. The relative dearth of case studies available for many CMCs limited the generalizable conclusions we could draw about prevalence, but the available data and established understanding of relevant <span class="hlt">processes</span> revealed important biophysical phenomena controlling the likelihood of CMC occurrence. To assess CMC risk, we recommend managers concurrently evaluate if site conditions suggest the ecosystem, infrastructure, or other human uses will be negatively affected if the biophysical phenomenon producing the CMC occurs. We show how many CMCs have one or more controls in <span class="hlt">common</span>, facilitating the identification of multiple risks at a site, and demonstrate why CMC risks should be considered in the context of other important factors like watershed disturbance history, natural variability, and dam removal tradeoffs. Better understanding CMCs and how to evaluate them will enable practitioners to avoid unnecessary interventions and thus maximize opportunities for working with natural <span class="hlt">processes</span> to restore river</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Neuropsychological+AND+testing&pg=7&id=EJ739062','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Neuropsychological+AND+testing&pg=7&id=EJ739062"><span>Practised Intelligence Testing Based on a Modern Test Conceptualization and Its <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Intelligence Theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kubinger, Klaus D.; Litzenberger, Margarete; Mrakotsky, Christine</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The question is to what extent intelligence test-batteries prove any kind of empirical <span class="hlt">reference</span> to <span class="hlt">common</span> intelligence theories. Of particular interest are conceptualized tests that are of a high psychometric standard--those that fit the Rasch model--and hence are not exposed to fundamental critique. As individualized testing, i.e., a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference+AND+languages&id=EJ1121285','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference+AND+languages&id=EJ1121285"><span>The Council of Europe's "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" (CEFR): Approach, Status, Function and Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martyniuk, Waldemar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Council of Europe's "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" is rapidly becoming a powerful instrument for shaping language education policies in Europe and beyond. The task of relating language policies, language curricula, teacher education and training, textbook and course design and content, examinations and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference+AND+languages&id=EJ1121207','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference+AND+languages&id=EJ1121207"><span>The" <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages," the European Language Portfolio, and Language Learning in Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Little, David</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This article explains the relevance of the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP) to language learning in higher education, especially as regards the definition of aims and learning outcomes and the promotion of students' capacity to manage their own learning. After…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3786954','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3786954"><span>Evaluation of Four Endogenous <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Genes and Their Real-Time PCR Assays for <span class="hlt">Common</span> Wheat Quantification in GMOs Detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Proper selection of endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene and its real-time PCR assay for <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene for <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat. PMID:24098735</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24098735','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24098735"><span>Evaluation of four endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and their real-time PCR assays for <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat quantification in GMOs detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Proper selection of endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene and its real-time PCR assay for <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene for <span class="hlt">common</span> wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19921156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19921156"><span>Standardization of ceruloplasmin measurements is still an issue despite the availability of a <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Infusino, Ilenia; Valente, Cristina; Dolci, Alberto; Panteghini, Mauro</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of measurement standardization is to achieve closer comparability of results obtained using different commercial systems. Regarding serum protein immunoassays, a <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparation (BCR-470) was released in 1993 and adopted by manufacturers across the world to value-assign their assay calibrators for routine methods to reduce method-dependent variation. Moving from nephelometric (Beckman Immage 800) to turbidimetric determination (Roche Cobas c 501) of seven serum proteins, we preliminarily checked the comparability of results between the two systems. The study was performed according to the CLSI EP9-A protocol on 30 fresh sera, tested on each system in duplicate, and subdivided on two different days, without recalibration and using manufacturers' control materials to validate the runs. Both manufacturers' package inserts provide statements that kit calibrators are traceable to BCR-470. Suggested <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals are also the same. Although a fairly good correlation was observed (r = 0.955), the comparison of ceruloplasmin methods produced evidence of highly significant proportional (regression slope, 0.572) and constant bias (intercept, 0.05 g/L). Absolute and percentage mean differences were -0.11 g/L (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.13 to -0.10 g/L) and -39.1% (CI -43.1 to -35.2%), respectively. No other evaluated proteins showed similar problems. Lacking a ceruloplasmin <span class="hlt">reference</span> method, it is impossible to demonstrate that one of the two assays produces true ceruloplasmin values. The problem is, however, that results coming from the two assays are clearly not comparable. This may be either due to a lack of commutability of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> material with biological samples in the evaluated assays or to calibration problems by manufacturers in one of the stages of the calibration hierarchy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22918981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22918981"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and segregated <span class="hlt">processing</span> of observed actions in human SPL.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdollahi, Rouhollah O; Jastorff, Jan; Orban, Guy A</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>To clarify the functional organization of parietal cortex involved in action observation, we scanned subjects observing 3 widely different classes of actions: Manipulation with the hands, locomotion, and climbing. An effector-based organization predicts that parietal regions involved in the observation of climbing should not differ from those involved in observing manipulation and locomotion, opposite to the prediction of an organization based upon the action performed. Compared with individual controls, the observation of climbing evoked activity in dorsal superior parietal lobule (SPL), extending into precuneus and posterior cingulate sulcus. Observation of locomotion differentially activated similar regions less strongly. Observation of manipulation activated ventro-rostral SPL, including putative human AIP (phAIP). Using interaction testing and exclusive masking to directly compare the parietal regions involved in observing the 3 action classes, relative to the controls, revealed that the rostral part of dorsal SPL was specifically involved in observing climbing and phAIP in observing manipulation. Parietal regions <span class="hlt">common</span> to observing all 3 action classes were restricted and likely reflected higher order visual <span class="hlt">processing</span> of body posture and 3D structure from motion. These results support a functional organization of some parietal regions involved in action observation according to the type of action in the case of climbing and manipulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4086331','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4086331"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> path in-line holography using enhanced joint object <span class="hlt">reference</span> digital interferometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kelner, Roy; Katz, Barak; Rosen, Joseph</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Joint object <span class="hlt">reference</span> digital interferometer (JORDI) is a recently developed system capable of recording holograms of various types [Opt. Lett. 22(5), 4719 (2013)]. Presented here is a new enhanced system design that is based on the previous JORDI. While the previous JORDI has been based purely on diffractive optical elements, displayed on spatial light modulators, the present design incorporates an additional refractive objective lens, thus enabling hologram recording with improved resolution and increased system applicability. Experimental results demonstrate successful hologram recording for various types of objects, including transmissive, reflective, three-dimensional, phase and highly scattering objects. The resolution limit of the system is analyzed and experimentally validated. Finally, the suitability of JORDI for microscopic applications is verified as a microscope objective based configuration of the system is demonstrated. PMID:24663838</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18831796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18831796"><span>Assessment of data <span class="hlt">processing</span> to improve reliability of microarray experiments using genomic DNA <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Yunfeng; Zhu, Mengxia; Wu, Liyou; Zhou, Jizhong</p> <p>2008-09-16</p> <p>Using genomic DNA as <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> in microarray experiments has recently been tested by different laboratories. Conflicting results have been reported with regard to the reliability of microarray results using this method. To explain it, we hypothesize that data <span class="hlt">processing</span> is a critical element that impacts the data quality. Microarray experiments were performed in a gamma-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis. Pair-wise comparison of three experimental conditions was obtained either with two labeled cDNA samples co-hybridized to the same array, or by employing Shewanella genomic DNA as a standard <span class="hlt">reference</span>. Various data <span class="hlt">processing</span> techniques were exploited to reduce the amount of inconsistency between both methods and the results were assessed. We discovered that data quality was significantly improved by imposing the constraint of minimal number of replicates, logarithmic transformation and random error analyses. These findings demonstrate that data <span class="hlt">processing</span> significantly influences data quality, which provides an explanation for the conflicting evaluation in the literature. This work could serve as a guideline for microarray data analysis using genomic DNA as a standard <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23270375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23270375"><span>Statistical inference from multiple iTRAQ experiments without using <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herbrich, Shelley M; Cole, Robert N; West, Keith P; Schulze, Kerry; Yager, James D; Groopman, John D; Christian, Parul; Wu, Lee; O'Meally, Robert N; May, Damon H; McIntosh, Martin W; Ruczinski, Ingo</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) is a prominent mass spectrometry technology for protein identification and quantification that is capable of analyzing multiple samples in a single experiment. Frequently, iTRAQ experiments are carried out using an aliquot from a pool of all samples, or "masterpool", in one of the channels as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> sample standard to estimate protein relative abundances in the biological samples and to combine abundance estimates from multiple experiments. In this manuscript, we show that using a masterpool is counterproductive. We obtain more precise estimates of protein relative abundance by using the available biological data instead of the masterpool and do not need to occupy a channel that could otherwise be used for another biological sample. In addition, we introduce a simple statistical method to associate proteomic data from multiple iTRAQ experiments with a numeric response and show that this approach is more powerful than the conventionally employed masterpool-based approach. We illustrate our methods using data from four replicate iTRAQ experiments on aliquots of the same pool of plasma samples and from a 406-sample project designed to identify plasma proteins that covary with nutrient concentrations in chronically undernourished children from South Asia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10103004','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10103004"><span>Reliability analysis of <span class="hlt">common</span> hazardous waste treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Waters, Robert D.</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>Five hazardous waste treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span> are analyzed probabilistically using Monte Carlo simulation to elucidate the relationships between <span class="hlt">process</span> safety factors and reliability levels. The treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span> evaluated are packed tower aeration, reverse osmosis, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and activated carbon adsorption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/57618','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/57618"><span>Health hazards associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (<span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as DOP) in HEPA filter test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), <span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as di-octyl phthalate, is an important production chemical in the US. In addition to its major use as an additive in plastics, DEHP is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Historically, DEHP was also used in quantitative fit testing for respirators. Evaluations of this compound a decade ago showed that it can induce hepatocellular carcinomas in laboratory animals. Although most Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have since discontinued using DEHP in respirator fit testing, DEHP continues to be used for evaluating HEPA filters. This report summarizes available information on the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other hazards and problems posed by DEHP, specifically with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to HEPA filter testing. Information on work practice improvements as well as the availability and suitability of DEHP substitutes are also presented. This material should assist the DOE in the safe use of this material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/57618','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/57618"><span>Health hazards associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (<span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as DOP) in HEPA filter test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NONE</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), <span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as di-octyl phthalate, is an important production chemical in the US. In addition to its major use as an additive in plastics, DEHP is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Historically, DEHP was also used in quantitative fit testing for respirators. Evaluations of this compound a decade ago showed that it can induce hepatocellular carcinomas in laboratory animals. Although most Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have since discontinued using DEHP in respirator fit testing, DEHP continues to be used for evaluating HEPA filters. This report summarizes availablemore » information on the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other hazards and problems posed by DEHP, specifically with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to HEPA filter testing. Information on work practice improvements as well as the availability and suitability of DEHP substitutes are also presented. This material should assist the DOE in the safe use of this material.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8532','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8532"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and uncommon sense about erosional <span class="hlt">processes</span> in mountain lands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>R. M. Rice</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Current knowledge of erosional <span class="hlt">processes</span> in mountainous watersheds is reviewed with emphasis on the west coast of the United States. Appreciation of the relative magnitude of erosional <span class="hlt">processes</span> may be distorted by the tendency for researchers to study ""problems"" and by the relatively short time span of their records</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol12-sec63-1322.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol12-sec63-1322.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents. The owner or operator of a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol10-sec63-487.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol10-sec63-487.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Resins § 63.487 Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol9-sec63-487.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol9-sec63-487.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.487 Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol12-sec63-1322.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol12-sec63-1322.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 63.1322 Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents. The owner or...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol12-sec63-1322.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol12/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol12-sec63-1322.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 63.1322 Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents. The owner or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol11-sec63-1322.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol11-sec63-1322.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents. The owner or operator of a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol11-sec63-1322.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol11-sec63-1322.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch <span class="hlt">process</span> vents. The owner or operator of a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol9-sec63-487.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol9-sec63-487.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.487 Section 63.487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.487 Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Type+AND+I+AND+Restriction+AND+Systems&id=ED518883','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Type+AND+I+AND+Restriction+AND+Systems&id=ED518883"><span>Building a <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Resolution System Using Human Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span> for Inspiration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watters, Shana Kay</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>For over 30 years, <span class="hlt">reference</span> resolution, the <span class="hlt">process</span> of determining what a noun phrase including a pronoun <span class="hlt">refers</span> to in written and spoken language, has been an important and on-going area of research. Most existing pronominal <span class="hlt">reference</span> resolution algorithms and systems are designed to use syntactic information and surface features (e.g. number…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25129063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25129063"><span>Discovery of <span class="hlt">common</span> sequences absent in the human <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome using pooled samples from next generation sequencing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yu; Koyutürk, Mehmet; Maxwell, Sean; Xiang, Min; Veigl, Martina; Cooper, Richard S; Tayo, Bamidele O; Li, Li; LaFramboise, Thomas; Wang, Zhenghe; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Chance, Mark R</p> <p>2014-08-16</p> <p>Sequences up to several megabases in length have been found to be present in individual genomes but absent in the human <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome. These sequences may be <span class="hlt">common</span> in populations, and their absence in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome may indicate rare variants in the genomes of individuals who served as donors for the human genome project. As the <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome is used in probe design for microarray technology and mapping short reads in next generation sequencing (NGS), this missing sequence could be a source of bias in functional genomic studies and variant analysis. One End Anchor (OEA) and/or orphan reads from paired-end sequencing have been used to identify novel sequences that are absent in <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome. However, there is no study to investigate the distribution, evolution and functionality of those sequences in human populations. To systematically identify and study the missing <span class="hlt">common</span> sequences (micSeqs), we extended the previous method by pooling OEA reads from large number of individuals and applying strict filtering methods to remove false sequences. The pipeline was applied to data from phase 1 of the 1000 Genomes Project. We identified 309 micSeqs that are present in at least 1% of the human population, but absent in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome. We confirmed 76% of these 309 micSeqs by comparison to other primate genomes, individual human genomes, and gene expression data. Furthermore, we randomly selected fifteen micSeqs and confirmed their presence using PCR validation in 38 additional individuals. Functional analysis using published RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data showed that eleven micSeqs are highly expressed in human brain and three micSeqs contain transcription factor (TF) binding regions, suggesting they are functional elements. In addition, the identified micSeqs are absent in non-primates and show dynamic acquisition during primate evolution culminating with most micSeqs being present in Africans, suggesting some micSeqs may be important sources of human</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=misconception+AND+STEM+AND+students&pg=6&id=EJ258398','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=misconception+AND+STEM+AND+students&pg=6&id=EJ258398"><span>Algebra Word Problem Solutions: Thought <span class="hlt">Processes</span> Underlying a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Misconception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Clement, John</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Data indicate that relatively advanced science-oriented college students can experience serious difficulties in symbolizing certain meaningful relationships with algebraic equations. Reversal errors in formulating equations were seen to stem from two main sources: (1) a syntactic word order matching <span class="hlt">process</span> and (2) a semantic static comparison…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=263882','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=263882"><span>Sensitivity of Mycobacterium bovis to <span class="hlt">common</span> beef <span class="hlt">processing</span> interventions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Introduction. Cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and a relevant zoonosis to humans, may be sent to slaughter before diagnosis of infection because of slow multiplication of the pathogen. Purpose. This study evaluates multiple <span class="hlt">processing</span> interventi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18406445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18406445"><span>Mercury vapor in residential building <span class="hlt">common</span> areas in communities where mercury is used for cultural purposes versus a <span class="hlt">reference</span> community.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garetano, Gary; Stern, Alan H; Robson, Mark; Gochfeld, Michael</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Exposure to elemental mercury (Hg0) in residential buildings can occur from accidental spills, broken objects (thermometers, fluorescent fixtures, thermostats), and deliberate introduction, one mode of which involves cultural practices by individuals who believe dispersal of mercury in a residence will bring luck, enhance health or ward off harm. To determine whether mercury vapor levels in <span class="hlt">common</span> areas of residential buildings is higher in a community where cultural uses are likely (study areas S1, S2) than in a <span class="hlt">reference</span> community (C1) where cultural use is unlikely, and whether levels can serve as a signal of significant cultural mercury use. We monitored Hg0 vapor with a portable spectrophotometer in the three communities. We randomly selected sites in S1 and C1 community, and also include sites in S2 specified by local health officials who suspected cultural mercury use. We evaluated 122 multifamily buildings and 116 outdoor locations. We found >25 ng/m3 Hg0 in 14% of buildings in study areas compared to only one <span class="hlt">reference</span> building. In the latter we identified an accidental mercury spill from a bottle that had been brought into the building. Both the mean and maximum indoor mercury vapor levels were greater in the study communities than in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> community. In all communities, we observed mean indoor Hg0 vapor concentration greater than outdoors, although in two-thirds of buildings, indoor levels did not exceed the area-specific outdoor upper-limit concentration. After controlling for factors that might influence Hg0 vapor levels, the most plausible explanation for greater Hg0 levels in the study area is a relationship to cultural use of mercury. None of the measured levels exceeded the ATSDR minimum risk level for residences of 200 ng/m3 Hg0 although levels in living quarters might be greater than those in the <span class="hlt">common</span> areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29202280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29202280"><span>No evidence for <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> of cognitive control and self-control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scherbaum, Stefan; Frisch, Simon; Holfert, Anna-Maria; O'Hora, Denis; Dshemuchadse, Maja</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Cognitive control and self-control are often used as interchangeable terms. Both terms <span class="hlt">refer</span> to the ability to pursue long-term goals, but the types of controlled behavior that are typically associated with these terms differ, at least superficially. Cognitive control is observed in the control of attention and the overcoming of habitual responses, while self-control is observed in resistance to short-term impulses and temptations. Evidence from clinical studies and neuroimaging studies suggests that below these superficial differences, <span class="hlt">common</span> control <span class="hlt">process</span> (e.g., inhibition) might guide both types of controlled behavior. Here, we study this hypothesis in a behavioral experiment, which interlaced trials of a Simon task with trials of an intertemporal decision task. If cognitive control and self-control depend on a <span class="hlt">common</span> control <span class="hlt">process</span>, we expected conflict adaptation from Simon task trials to lead to increased self-control in the intertemporal decision trials. However, despite successful manipulations of conflict and conflict adaptation, we found no evidence for this hypothesis. We investigate a number of alternative explanations of this result and conclude that the differences between cognitive control and self-control are not superficial, but rather reflect differences at the <span class="hlt">process</span> level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA278595','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA278595"><span>A Survey of <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Applied Methods for Software <span class="hlt">Process</span> Improvement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>for Organizations at Various CMM Levels 64 Figure 12-1 *House of Quality" Diagram 98 Figure 16-1 Characteristics of a Software Development...organizations with the described method. The report describes the methods in the context of the Capability Maturity Model ( CMM ). The methods are correlated...to key <span class="hlt">process</span> areas (KPAs) of the CMM so that organizations at different levels of maturity can better identify the best methods to se- lect and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol10-sec63-113.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol10-sec63-113.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.113 - <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.113 Section 63.113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.113 <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) The owner or operator of a Group 1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol10-sec63-113.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol10-sec63-113.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.113 - <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.113 Section 63.113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.113 <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) The owner or operator of a Group 1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol9-sec63-113.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol9-sec63-113.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.113 - <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. 63.113 Section 63.113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.113 <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) The owner or operator of a Group 1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29107870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29107870"><span>Consent <span class="hlt">process</span> for US-based family <span class="hlt">reference</span> DNA samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katsanis, Sara H; Snyder, Lindsey; Arnholt, Kelly; Mundorff, Amy Z</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>DNA collection from family members of the missing is a tenet for missing persons' and mass fatality investigations. Procedures for consenting family members are disparate, depending on the context supporting the reason for sample collection. While guidelines and best practices have been developed for handling mass fatalities and for identification of the missing, these guidelines do not address standard consent practices for living family members of potential victims. We examined the relevant U.S. laws, international guidelines and best practices, sampled consent forms currently used for DNA collection of family members, and drafted model language for a consent form to communicate the required and recommended information. We modeled the consent form on biobank consenting practices and tested the consent language among students and the general population for constructive feedback and readability. We also asked respondents to consider the options for DNA collection and either hypothetically agree or disagree. The model language presented here highlights information important to relay in consent <span class="hlt">processes</span> and can serve as a foundation for future consent practices in mass fatalities and missing persons' investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026002','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026002"><span>Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult <span class="hlt">common</span> carp from contaminated and <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites in Lake Mead, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral <span class="hlt">common</span> carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult <span class="hlt">common</span> carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a <span class="hlt">reference</span> site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the <span class="hlt">reference</span> site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol10-sec63-487.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol10-sec63-487.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... Resins § 63.487 Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span>... control device as it relates to continuous front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents shall be used. Furthermore, the... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol10-sec63-487.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol10-sec63-487.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... Resins § 63.487 Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents—<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology. (a) Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span>... control device as it relates to continuous front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents shall be used. Furthermore, the... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batch front-end <span class="hlt">process</span> vents...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481146','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4481146"><span>Neural correlates of the self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> effect: evidence from evaluation and recognition <span class="hlt">processes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> effect (SRE) is defined as better recall or recognition performance when the memorized materials <span class="hlt">refer</span> to the self. Recently, a number of neuroimaging studies using self-referential and other-referential tasks have reported that self- and other-referential judgments basically show greater activation in <span class="hlt">common</span> brain regions, specifically in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) when compared with nonmentalizing judgments, but that a ventral-to-dorsal gradient in MPFC emerges from a direct comparison between self- and other-judgments. However, most of these previous studies could not provide an adequate explanation for the neural basis of SRE because they did not directly compare brain activation for recognition/recall of the words referenced to the self with another person. Here, we used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that measured brain activity during <span class="hlt">processing</span> of <span class="hlt">references</span> to the self and another, and for recognition of self and other referenced words. Results from the fMRI evaluation task indicated greater activation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) in the self-referential condition. While in the recognition task, VMPFC, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and bilateral angular gyrus (AG) showed greater activation when participants correctly recognized self-referenced words versus other-referenced words. These data provide evidence that the self-referenced words evoked greater activation in the self-related region (VMPFC) and memory-related regions (PCC and AG) relative to another person in the retrieval phase, and that the words remained as a stronger memory trace that supports recognition. PMID:26167149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26167149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26167149"><span>Neural correlates of the self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> effect: evidence from evaluation and recognition <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> effect (SRE) is defined as better recall or recognition performance when the memorized materials <span class="hlt">refer</span> to the self. Recently, a number of neuroimaging studies using self-referential and other-referential tasks have reported that self- and other-referential judgments basically show greater activation in <span class="hlt">common</span> brain regions, specifically in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) when compared with nonmentalizing judgments, but that a ventral-to-dorsal gradient in MPFC emerges from a direct comparison between self- and other-judgments. However, most of these previous studies could not provide an adequate explanation for the neural basis of SRE because they did not directly compare brain activation for recognition/recall of the words referenced to the self with another person. Here, we used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that measured brain activity during <span class="hlt">processing</span> of <span class="hlt">references</span> to the self and another, and for recognition of self and other referenced words. Results from the fMRI evaluation task indicated greater activation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) in the self-referential condition. While in the recognition task, VMPFC, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and bilateral angular gyrus (AG) showed greater activation when participants correctly recognized self-referenced words versus other-referenced words. These data provide evidence that the self-referenced words evoked greater activation in the self-related region (VMPFC) and memory-related regions (PCC and AG) relative to another person in the retrieval phase, and that the words remained as a stronger memory trace that supports recognition.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25918569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25918569"><span><span class="hlt">Commonization</span> of HIV/AIDS services in Nigeria: the need, the <span class="hlt">processes</span> and the prospects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Oladipo, Olabisi; Osita-Oleribe, Princess; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka; Nkwopara, Frank; Ekom, Ekei; Nwabuzor, Solomon; Iyalla, Grace; Onyewuchi, Kenneth; Olutola, Ayodotun; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>With the first case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) identified in 1986, the management of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria has evolved through the years. The emergency phase of the HIV/AIDS program, aimed at containing the HIV/AIDS epidemic within a short time frame, was carried out by international agencies that built structures separate from hospitals' programs. It is imperative that Nigeria shifts from the previous paradigm to the concept of <span class="hlt">Commonization</span> of HIV to achieve sustainability. <span class="hlt">Commonization</span> ensures that HIV/AIDS is seen as a health condition like others. It involves making HIV services available at all levels of healthcare. Excellence & Friends Management Consult (EFMC) undertook this <span class="hlt">process</span> by conducting HIV tests in people's homes and work places, <span class="hlt">referring</span> infected persons for treatment and follow up, establishing multiple HIV testing points and HIV services in private and public primary healthcare facilities. EFMC integrated HIV services within existing hospital care structures and trained all healthcare workers at all supported sites on HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment modalities. <span class="hlt">Commonization</span> has improved the uptake of HIV testing and counseling and enrolment into HIV care as more people are aware that HIV services are available. It has integrated HIV services into general hospital services and minimized the cost of HIV programming as the existing structures and personnel in healthcare facilities are utilized for HIV services. <span class="hlt">Commonization</span> of HIV services i.e. integrating HIV care into the existing fabric of the healthcare system, is highly recommended for a sustainable and efficient healthcare system as it makes HIV services acceptable by all.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23164675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23164675"><span>Human <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for acute airway effects of five <span class="hlt">common</span> ozone-initiated terpene reaction products in indoor air.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wolkoff, Peder; Larsen, Søren T; Hammer, Maria; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Clausen, Per A; Nielsen, Gunnar D</p> <p>2013-01-10</p> <p>Ozone-initiated monoterpene reaction products have been hypothesized to cause eye and airway complaints in office environments and some have been proposed to cause skin irritation and sensitization. The respiratory effects of 60 min exposures to five <span class="hlt">common</span> oxidation products from abundant terpenoids (e.g. limonene), used as solvent and fragrance in <span class="hlt">common</span> household products or present in skin lipids (e.g. squalene), were studied in a head out mouse bioassay. This allowed determination of acute upper airway (sensory) irritation, airflow limitation in the conducting airways, and pulmonary irritation in the alveolar region. Derived human <span class="hlt">reference</span> values (RFs) for sensory irritation were 1.3, 0.16 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, for 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene ( 0.2 ppm) [corrected], 3-isopropenyl-6-oxo-heptanal (IPOH), and 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one (6-MHO). Derived RFs for airflow limitation were 0.8, 0.45, 0.03, and 0.5 ppm, respectively, for dihydrocarvone (DHC), 0.2 ppm [corrected], 4-oxo-pentanal (0.3 ppm) [corrected], and 6-MHO. Pulmonary irritation was unobserved as a critical effect. The RFs indicate that the oxidation products would not contribute substantially to sensory irritation in eyes and upper airways in office environments. Reported concentrations in offices of 6-MHO and 0.3 ppm [corrected]would not result in airflow limitation. However, based upon the RFs for IPOH and 0.3 ppm [corrected], precautionary actions should be considered that disfavor their formation in excess. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cefr&pg=4&id=EJ876401','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cefr&pg=4&id=EJ876401"><span>Analysing Tests of Reading and Listening in Relation to the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: The Experience of The Dutch CEFR Construct Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alderson, J. Charles; Figueras, Neus; Kuijper, Henk; Nold, Guenter; Takala, Sauli; Tardieu, Claire</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR) is intended as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> document for language education including assessment. This article describes a project that investigated whether the CEFR can help test developers construct reading and listening tests based on CEFR levels. If the CEFR scales together with the detailed description of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4737868','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4737868"><span>Prior Misdiagnosis of Celiac Disease Is <span class="hlt">Common</span> Among Patients <span class="hlt">Referred</span> to a Tertiary Care Center: A Prospective Cohort Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ianiro, Gianluca; Bibbò, Stefano; Bruno, Giovanni; Ricci, Riccardo; Arena, Vincenzo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Cammarota, Giovanni</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: Interest of patients and physicians in celiac disease is growing worldwide, but without a corresponding increase in the awareness of the disease. Many patients are diagnosed as celiacs even without completing the whole diagnostic <span class="hlt">process</span>, with consequent risk of misdiagnosis and delay in the evaluation of other diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the rates of prior celiac disease misdiagnosis among patients <span class="hlt">referred</span> to a tertiary care center. Methods: From June 2013 to December 2014, we prospectively recruited patients <span class="hlt">referred</span> for the first time to our Celiac Disease Center. Patients with a previous diagnosis of celiac disease underwent a diagnostic revaluation by second reading of duodenal tissue slides, dosage of specific antibodies, and/or duodenal biopsy sampling; HLA status was investigated in pertinent cases. Results: A total of 198 subjects were recruited. Of these, 91 “naïve” patients (46%) started the diagnostic screening for celiac disease; 58 of them (64–29% of the whole sample) were diagnosed as celiacs. The remaining 107 patients (54%) came with a previous diagnosis of celiac disease: of these, 52 (49–26% of the whole sample) presented with confirmed diagnosis of celiac disease, whereas 55 (51–28% of the whole sample) underwent diagnostic revaluation. After the reassessment, diagnosis was rejected in 43 cases (78–22% of the whole sample) and confirmed in the remaining 12 (22–6% of the whole sample). Overall, diagnosis was confirmed in only 64 of the 107 subjects with a previous diagnosis (60–32% of the whole sample). Diagnosis of celiac disease was more frequently confirmed in “naïve” patients compared those with a questionable previous diagnosis (64% vs. 22% P<0.0001). Conclusions: A considerable number of patients <span class="hlt">referred</span> to a tertiary care center are inaccurately diagnosed with celiac disease. Although we cannot exclude that uncertain diagnosis was a reason for the referral, we suggest greater</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26293745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26293745"><span>A <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span>-Based Indirect Comparison Meta-Analysis of Buccal versus Intranasal Midazolam for Early Status Epilepticus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brigo, Francesco; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Trinka, Eugen</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Intranasal and buccal midazolam have recently emerged as possible alternatives to intravenous or rectal diazepam or intravenous lorazepam in the treatment of early status epilepticus (SE). However, to date no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has directly compared intranasal midazolam with buccal midazolam. The aim of this study was to indirectly compare intranasal midazolam with buccal midazolam in the treatment of early SE using <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span>-based indirect comparison meta-analyses. RCTs comparing intranasal or buccal midazolam versus either intravenous or rectal diazepam for early SE were systematically searched. Random-effects Mantel-Haenszel meta-analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for the efficacy and safety of intranasal or buccal midazolam versus either intravenous or rectal diazepam. Adjusted indirect comparisons were then made between intranasal and buccal midazolam using the obtained results. Fifteen studies, with a total of 1662 seizures in 1331 patients (some studies included patients with more than one episode of SE) were included; 1303 patients were younger than 16 years. Indirect comparisons showed no difference between intranasal and buccal midazolam for seizure cessation (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.32-3.01, comparator: intravenous diazepam; OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.46-1.64, comparator: rectal diazepam). For serious adverse effects, we found a large width and asymmetrical distribution of confidence intervals around the obtained OR of 2.81 (95% CI 0.39-20.12; comparator: rectal diazepam). No data were available for OR using intravenous diazepam as the comparator. Indirect comparisons suggest that intranasal and buccal midazolam share similar efficacy in the treatment of early SE in children. Intranasal midazolam should be used with caution and under clinical monitoring of vital functions. RCTs directly comparing intranasal midazolam with buccal midazolam are required to confirm these findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28553719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28553719"><span>Quality indicators in digestive endoscopy: introduction to structure, <span class="hlt">process</span>, and outcome <span class="hlt">common</span> indicators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>López-Picazo, Julio; Alberca de Las Parras, Fernando; Sánchez Del Río, Antonio; Pérez Romero, Shirley; León Molina, Joaquín; Júdez, Francisco Javier</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The general goal of the project wherein this paper is framed is the proposal of useful quality and safety procedures and indicators to facilitate quality improvement in digestive endoscopy units. This initial offspring sets forth procedures and indicators <span class="hlt">common</span> to all digestive endoscopy procedures. First, a diagram of pre- and post-digestive endoscopy steps was developed. A group of health care quality and/or endoscopy experts under the auspices of the Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva (Spanish Society of Digestive Diseases) carried out a qualitative review of the literature regarding the search for quality indicators in endoscopic procedures. Then, a paired analysis was used for the selection of literature <span class="hlt">references</span> and their subsequent review. Twenty indicators were identified, including seven for structure, eleven for <span class="hlt">process</span> (five pre-procedure, three intra-procedure, three post-procedure), and two for outcome. Quality of evidence was analyzed for each indicator using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) classification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780044931&hterms=Holograms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHolograms','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780044931&hterms=Holograms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHolograms"><span>Electronic heterodyne recording and <span class="hlt">processing</span> of optical holograms using phase modulated <span class="hlt">reference</span> waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Decker, A. J.; Pao, Y.-H.; Claspy, P. C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The use of a phase-modulated <span class="hlt">reference</span> wave for the electronic heterodyne recording and <span class="hlt">processing</span> of a hologram is described. Heterodyne recording is used to eliminate the self-interference terms of a hologram and to create a Leith-Upatnieks hologram with coaxial object and <span class="hlt">reference</span> waves. Phase modulation is also shown to be the foundation of a multiple-view hologram system. When combined with hologram scale transformations, heterodyne recording is the key to general optical <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Spatial filtering is treated as an example.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25636165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25636165"><span>Selection of <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard during method development using the analytical hierarchy <span class="hlt">process</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Wan-yang; Tong, Ling; Li, Dong-xiang; Huang, Jing-yi; Zhou, Shui-ping; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kai-shun</p> <p>2015-03-25</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> standard is critical for ensuring reliable and accurate method performance. One important issue is how to select the ideal one from the alternatives. Unlike the optimization of parameters, the criteria of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard are always immeasurable. The aim of this paper is to recommend a quantitative approach for the selection of <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard during method development based on the analytical hierarchy <span class="hlt">process</span> (AHP) as a decision-making tool. Six alternative single <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards were assessed in quantitative analysis of six phenolic acids from Salvia Miltiorrhiza and its preparations by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The AHP model simultaneously considered six criteria related to <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard characteristics and method performance, containing feasibility to obtain, abundance in samples, chemical stability, accuracy, precision and robustness. The priority of each alternative was calculated using standard AHP analysis method. The results showed that protocatechuic aldehyde is the ideal <span class="hlt">reference</span> standard, and rosmarinic acid is about 79.8% ability as the second choice. The determination results successfully verified the evaluation ability of this model. The AHP allowed us comprehensive considering the benefits and risks of the alternatives. It was an effective and practical tool for optimization of <span class="hlt">reference</span> standards during method development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Padmanabhan&id=EJ807439','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Padmanabhan&id=EJ807439"><span>Deepening Online Conversation: How and Why to Use a <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Referent</span> to Connect Learners with Diverse Local Practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wise, Alyssa; Duffy, Thomas M.; Padmanabhan, Poornima</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the authors argue that online learning conversations need to go beyond the <span class="hlt">common</span> "information exchange" to a deeper level of interaction in order to help learners build situated knowledge that is useful in their local contexts. The article begins by looking at the <span class="hlt">commonly</span>-used framework of a Community of Practice (CoP) and, in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference+AND+languages&pg=2&id=EJ866994','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference+AND+languages&pg=2&id=EJ866994"><span>Standard Setting in Relation to the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages: The Case of the State Examination of Dutch as a Second Language</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bechger, Timo M.; Kuijper, Henk; Maris, Gunter</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This article reports on two related studies carried out to link the State examination of Dutch as a second language to the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for languages (CEFR). In the first study, key persons from institutions for higher education were asked to determine the minimally required language level of beginning students. In the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1081311.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1081311.pdf"><span>Teaching Writing within the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR): A Supplement Asynchronous Blended Learning Approach in an EFL Undergraduate Course in Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shaarawy, Hanaa Youssef; Lotfy, Nohayer Esmat</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Based on the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR) and following a blended learning approach (a supplement model), this article reports on a quasi-experiment where writing was taught evenly with other language skills in everyday language contexts and where asynchronous online activities were required from students to extend learning beyond…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ASSESSMENT+AND+CENTRE&pg=5&id=EJ1123587','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ASSESSMENT+AND+CENTRE&pg=5&id=EJ1123587"><span>The "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages," the European Language Portfolio, and Language Teaching/Learning at University: An Argument and Some Proposals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Little, David</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>I begin this article by briefly explaining why I think CercleS should encourage university language centres to align their courses and assessment with the proficiency levels of the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" (CEFR) and why they should use a version of the European Language Portfolio (ELP) to support the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16850176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16850176"><span>Injury risk at the work <span class="hlt">processes</span> in fishing: a case-<span class="hlt">referent</span> study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jensen, Olaf C</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Epidemiological studies on occupational injuries describe the incidence ratios related to the main strata in the industries, while the injury incidence ratios for the specific work <span class="hlt">processes</span> within the work places have not yet been studied. The aim was to estimate the injury rate-ratios for the main work <span class="hlt">processes</span> in commercial fishing. A case-<span class="hlt">referent</span> design with samples of person-time was used. The reported injuries to the National Maritime Authorities for a 5-year period for four types of commercial fishing defined the cases. The odds for the <span class="hlt">referents</span> were calculated from samples of person-times for the specific working <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for the specific working <span class="hlt">processes</span>. A total of 560 cases were included and the samples of <span class="hlt">referent</span> working periods were 63110 min in total. The largest part of the injuries (n = 318 injuries) 56.8% were related to three main working <span class="hlt">processes</span> 5-7 (WP 5-7): preparing, shooting and hauling of the fishing gear and nets. The OR's for the specific working <span class="hlt">processes</span> varied highly. The OR for WP 5-7 in total was 2.4 (2.10-2.77) with variations from of the OR s from 1.10 to 3.5 in different types of fishing. The OR's for traffic on board was 15.3 (12.0-19.4). The variations in the odds ratios indicate that the fishermen continuously shift between low and high-risk areas pointing out areas for prevention. The case-<span class="hlt">referent</span> design with samples of person-time is useful for other areas of prevention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B3..819H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B3..819H"><span>Centimeter-Level Robust Gnss-Aided Inertial Post-<span class="hlt">Processing</span> for Mobile Mapping Without Local <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Stations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hutton, J. J.; Gopaul, N.; Zhang, X.; Wang, J.; Menon, V.; Rieck, D.; Kipka, A.; Pastor, F.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>For almost two decades mobile mapping systems have done their georeferencing using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) to measure position and inertial sensors to measure orientation. In order to achieve cm level position accuracy, a technique <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as post-<span class="hlt">processed</span> carrier phase differential GNSS (DGNSS) is used. For this technique to be effective the maximum distance to a single <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Station should be no more than 20 km, and when using a network of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Stations the distance to the nearest station should no more than about 70 km. This need to set up local <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Stations limits productivity and increases costs, especially when mapping large areas or long linear features such as roads or pipelines. An alternative technique to DGNSS for high-accuracy positioning from GNSS is the so-called Precise Point Positioning or PPP method. In this case instead of differencing the rover observables with the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Station observables to cancel out <span class="hlt">common</span> errors, an advanced model for every aspect of the GNSS error chain is developed and parameterized to within an accuracy of a few cm. The Trimble Centerpoint RTX positioning solution combines the methodology of PPP with advanced ambiguity resolution technology to produce cm level accuracies without the need for local <span class="hlt">reference</span> stations. It achieves this through a global deployment of highly redundant monitoring stations that are connected through the internet and are used to determine the precise satellite data with maximum accuracy, robustness, continuity and reliability, along with advance algorithms and receiver and antenna calibrations. This paper presents a new post-<span class="hlt">processed</span> realization of the Trimble Centerpoint RTX technology integrated into the Applanix POSPac MMS GNSS-Aided Inertial software for mobile mapping. Real-world results from over 100 airborne flights evaluated against a DGNSS network <span class="hlt">reference</span> are presented which show that the post-<span class="hlt">processed</span> Centerpoint RTX solution agrees with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2409101','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2409101"><span>Locomotion and posture from the <span class="hlt">common</span> hominoid ancestor to fully modern hominins, with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the last <span class="hlt">common</span> panin/hominin ancestor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Crompton, R H; Vereecke, E E; Thorpe, S K S</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Based on our knowledge of locomotor biomechanics and ecology we predict the locomotion and posture of the last <span class="hlt">common</span> ancestors of (a) great and lesser apes and their close fossil relatives (hominoids); (b) chimpanzees, bonobos and modern humans (hominines); and (c) modern humans and their fossil relatives (hominins). We evaluate our propositions against the fossil record in the context of a broader review of evolution of the locomotor system from the earliest hominoids of modern aspect (crown hominoids) to early modern Homo sapiens. While some early East African stem hominoids were pronograde, it appears that the adaptations which best characterize the crown hominoids are orthogrady and an ability to abduct the arm above the shoulder – rather than, as is often thought, manual suspension sensu stricto. At 7–9 Ma (not much earlier than the likely 4–8 Ma divergence date for panins and hominins, see Bradley, 2008) there were crown hominoids in southern Europe which were adapted to moving in an orthograde posture, supported primarily on the hindlimb, in an arboreal, and possibly for Oreopithecus, a terrestrial context. By 7 Ma, Sahelanthropus provides evidence of a Central African hominin, panin or possibly gorilline adapted to orthogrady, and both orthogrady and habitually highly extended postures of the hip are evident in the arboreal East African protohominin Orrorin at 6 Ma. If the traditional idea that hominins passed through a terrestrial ‘knuckle-walking’ phase is correct, not only does it have to be explained how a quadrupedal gait typified by flexed postures of the hindlimb could have preadapted the body for the hominin acquisition of straight-legged erect bipedality, but we would have to accept a transition from stem-hominoid pronogrady to crown hominoid orthogrady, back again to pronogrady in the African apes and then back to orthogrady in hominins. Hand-assisted arboreal bipedality, which is part of a continuum of orthograde behaviours, is used by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3643927','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3643927"><span>Similar Local and Landscape <span class="hlt">Processes</span> Affect Both a <span class="hlt">Common</span> and a Rare Newt Species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Denoël, Mathieu; Perez, Amélie; Cornet, Yves; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although rare species are often the focus of conservation measures, more <span class="hlt">common</span> species may experience similar decline and suffer from the same threatening <span class="hlt">processes</span>. We tested this hypothesis by examining, through an information-theoretic approach, the importance of ecological <span class="hlt">processes</span> at multiple scales in the great crested newt Triturus cristatus, regionally endangered and protected in Europe, and the more <span class="hlt">common</span> smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris. Both species were similarly affected by the same <span class="hlt">processes</span>, i.e. suitability of aquatic and terrestrial components of their habitat at different scales, connectivity among breeding sites, and the presence of introduced fish. T. cristatus depended more on water depth and aquatic vegetation than L. vulgaris. The results show that environmental pressures threaten both <span class="hlt">common</span> and rare species, and therefore the more widespread species should not be neglected in conservation programs. Because environmental trends are leading to a deterioration of aquatic and terrestrial habitat features required by newt populations, populations of the <span class="hlt">common</span> species may follow the fate of the rarest species. This could have substantial conservation implications because of the numerical importance of <span class="hlt">common</span> species in ecosystems and because <span class="hlt">commonness</span> could be a transient state moving towards rarity. On the other hand, in agreement with the umbrella species concept, targeting conservation efforts on the most demanding species would also protect part of the populations of the most <span class="hlt">common</span> species. PMID:23658765</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080008780','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080008780"><span>Real-time garbage collection for list <span class="hlt">processing</span> using restructured cells for increased <span class="hlt">reference</span> counter size</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shuler, Jr., Robert L. (Inventor)</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>In a list <span class="hlt">processing</span> system, small <span class="hlt">reference</span> counters are maintained in conjunction with memory cells for the purpose of identifying memory cells that become available for re-use. The counters are updated as <span class="hlt">references</span> to the cells are created and destroyed, and when a counter of a cell is decremented to logical zero the cell is immediately returned to a list of free cells. In those cases where a counter must be incremented beyond the maximum value that can be represented in a small counter, the cell is restructured so that the additional <span class="hlt">reference</span> count can be represented. The restructuring involves allocating an additional cell, distributing counter, tag, and pointer information among the two cells, and linking both cells appropriately into the existing list structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2085C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2085C"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Station Selection for Improved Geometric Spacing During Baseline <span class="hlt">Processing</span> in OPUS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Kevin; Weston, Neil</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) designed, implemented and continues to operate a web-based GPS <span class="hlt">processing</span> tool known as the Online Positioning User Service (OPUS). There are several versions of OPUS in operation, mainly because no one algorithm is optimized to <span class="hlt">process</span> GPS data collected between 15 minutes and 48 hours. For short duration datasets, NGS designed OPUS Rapid Static (OPUS-RS), a version that uses up to nine CORS located nearby to interpolate the ionosphere around the rover. OPUS Static (OPUS-S) on the other hand, is one of the most heavily used versions of OPUS and <span class="hlt">processes</span> datasets that span between two and 48 hours in duration. OPUS-S chooses five nearby CORS to form individual baselines with the rover and then each is <span class="hlt">processed</span> independently. The latest version of OPUS to be presented here is OPUS Networks (OPUS-Net) and is currently in beta testing. OPUS-Net selects up to 10 IGS <span class="hlt">reference</span> stations and three regional CORS to perform a simultaneous least squares adjustment with the rover dataset. For OPUS-Net, the three CORS are primarily used to better estimate the troposphere while the position of the unknown station and the three CORS are determined from the more precisely known and monitored IGS <span class="hlt">reference</span> stations. All versions of OPUS require sets of baselines between the rover and <span class="hlt">reference</span> stations which have known positions and velocities. Because of the nature of atmospheric corrections during relative positioning, evenly-spaced geometric distribution will result in the most stable and reliable solutions. We have developed an algorithm to choose <span class="hlt">reference</span> stations with the best geometric distribution at a given location. Rather than selecting the stations by distance, the new algorithm builds station lists by azimuth groups (zones) and selects the closest station in a zone. The <span class="hlt">process</span> is repeated until a predefined number of stations have been selected in each zone. Also, additional functionality has been added for the operational</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12625239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12625239"><span>[Negative bias on self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> in depression: focused on mood congruent effects].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tagami, Kyoko</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate negative bias on self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> in depression, focused on the mood congruent effects in a natural depressed state and an experimentally induced transient depressed mood state. In Experiment 1, autobiographical memories and self-relevant ratings of personality trait words were examined in a natural depressed state or non-depressed state, which were measured by Beck Depression Inventory. Results revealed the mood congruent effects on both tasks. In Experiment 2, the same tasks as Experiment 1 were conducted in a transient depressed mood state or non-depressed mood state, which were induced through listening music. Unlike Experiment 1, there were no effects in both tasks, and a positive bias was observed in both mood states. It was suggested that transient mood state did not bias self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> in depression, and Beck's schema hypothesis was supported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227325"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> values of amino acids and of <span class="hlt">common</span> clinical chemistry in plasma of healthy infants aged 1 and 4 months.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Kainz, Alexander; Bachmann, Claude</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To compare plasma levels of amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters in healthy infants at 1 and 4 months of age and to establish corresponding <span class="hlt">reference</span> limits. Data of three multicenter studies assessing the safety of new infant formulas were used. During these studies infants of both age-groups were either breast-fed or received formulas of low or high protein content. All samples were analyzed centrally in the same accredited laboratory. Plasma was collected from 521 infants in total, 157 boys and 135 girls aged 1 month and 121 boys and 108 girls aged 4 months. At the age of 1 month, 62 infants had received exclusively breast milk, 198 exclusively formula, and 27 both; in the 4-months age group corresponding numbers were 49, 158 and 18, respectively; for 9 infants, diet was unknown. Concentrations of most amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters differed significantly between both ages. Regardless of age, most plasma amino acid levels were comparable or lower in breast-fed than in formula-fed infants whereas at 1 month of age most clinical chemistry parameters were higher. While in breast-fed infants the plasma urea concentration decreased over 4 months of age, it increased in formula-fed infants. There were significant differences between infants fed a low and high protein formula. At both ages, high protein formulas resulted in significantly higher threonine, 2-aminobutyrate, and urea concentrations. For clinical use, age- and diet specific <span class="hlt">reference</span> limits in infants are warranted.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mediation&id=EJ1103179','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mediation&id=EJ1103179"><span>Developing Illustrative Descriptors of Aspects of Mediation for the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR): A Council of Europe Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>North, Brian; Piccardo, Enrica</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The notion of mediation has been the object of growing interest in second language education in recent years. The increasing awareness of the complex nature of the <span class="hlt">process</span> of learning--and teaching--stretches our collective reflection towards less explored areas. In mediation, the immediate focus is on the role of language in <span class="hlt">processes</span> like…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25644522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25644522"><span>PAHs in baby food: assessment of three different <span class="hlt">processing</span> techniques for the preparation of <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huertas-Pérez, José Fernando; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Emteborg, Håkan; Baù, Andrea; Schimmel, Heinz; Dabrio, Marta</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A feasibility study for producing a matrix <span class="hlt">reference</span> material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in baby food is reported. A commercially available baby food, containing carrots, potatoes, tomato, white beans and meat, was spiked with the so-called 15 + 1 PAHs included in the PAHs priority list for food of the EU, at a mass fraction level of 1 μg/kg. The contaminated baby food was further <span class="hlt">processed</span> by autoclaving, freezing or freeze drying. The homogeneity of the three materials (bottle-to-bottle variation) and their short-term (4 weeks) and long-term (18 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. To this end, an analytical method based on a solid-liquid extraction followed by cleaning up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid phase extraction (SPE) and GC-IDMS determination, was validated in-house. It could be demonstrated that the procedure fulfilled the demands for application to the homogeneity and isochronous stability studies for the candidate <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials targeted here. All three materials proved to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use. Measurements on the autoclaved material provided the most promising results in terms of envisaged shelf life, although freeze drying was also found to be a suitable <span class="hlt">processing</span> technique for most of the investigated PAHs. These results are an important step towards the development of a matrix <span class="hlt">reference</span> material for PAHs in a <span class="hlt">processed</span> food matrix in a presentation very similar to routine samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMTD....7.3727D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMTD....7.3727D"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> quality upper-air measurements: GRUAN data <span class="hlt">processing</span> for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dirksen, R. J.; Sommer, M.; Immler, F. J.; Hurst, D. F.; Kivi, R.; Vömel, H.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The GCOS <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Upper Air Network (GRUAN) data <span class="hlt">processing</span> for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde was developed to meet the criteria for <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurements. These criteria stipulate the collection of metadata, the use of well-documented correction algorithms, and estimates of the measurement uncertainty. An important and novel aspect of the GRUAN <span class="hlt">processing</span> is that the uncertainty estimates are vertically resolved. This paper describes the algorithms that are applied in version 2 of the GRUAN <span class="hlt">processing</span> to correct for systematic errors in radiosonde measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as how the uncertainties related to these error sources are derived. An additional GRUAN requirement for performing <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurements with the RS92 is that the manufacturer-prescribed procedure for the radiosonde's preparation, i.e., heated reconditioning of the sensors and recalibration during ground check, is followed. In the GRUAN <span class="hlt">processing</span> however, the recalibration of the humidity sensors that is applied during ground check is removed. For the dominant error source, solar radiation, laboratory experiments were performed to investigate and model its effect on the RS92's temperature and humidity measurements. Daytime temperature profiles for GRUAN and Vaisala <span class="hlt">processing</span> are comparable and consistent within the estimated uncertainty. GRUAN daytime humidity profiles are up to 15% moister than Vaisala <span class="hlt">processed</span> profiles, of which two-thirds is due to the radiation dry bias correction, and one-third due to an additional calibration correction. GRUAN humidity profiles and those measured by frost point hygrometers (CFH and NOAA FPH) agree to within 15% in the troposphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25620288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25620288"><span>Atypical sensory <span class="hlt">processing</span> is <span class="hlt">common</span> in extremely low gestational age children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rahkonen, Petri; Lano, Aulikki; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Autti, Taina; Valanne, Leena; Andersson, Sture; Metsäranta, Marjo</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Atypical sensory <span class="hlt">processing</span> is <span class="hlt">common</span> in children born extremely prematurely. We investigated sensory <span class="hlt">processing</span> abilities in extremely low gestational age (ELGA) children and analysed associated neonatal risk factors, neuroanatomical findings and neurodevelopmental outcome. We carried out a prospective study of 44 ELGA children, including 42 who had undergone brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent age, when they were 2 years of corrected age. Their sensory <span class="hlt">processing</span> abilities were assessed with the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile questionnaire and their neurodevelopmental with a structured Hempel neurological examination, Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition. Sensory profiles were definitely or probably atypical (<-1 SD) in half of the ELGA children, and the most <span class="hlt">common</span> behavioural pattern was low registration (23%). Sensation seeking was associated with abnormalities in grey and/or white matter in the brain MRI (p < 0.01). Atypical oral sensory <span class="hlt">processing</span> was associated with surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (p = 0.02, adjusted p < 0.01). Atypical sensory <span class="hlt">processing</span> in ELGA children was <span class="hlt">common</span>, and children with neonatal neuroanatomical lesions tended to present specific behavioural responses to sensory stimuli. Surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus may predispose infants to feeding problems due to atypical oral sensory <span class="hlt">processing</span>. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=concept+AND+mapping+AND+planning+AND+evaluation&id=EJ1018971','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=concept+AND+mapping+AND+planning+AND+evaluation&id=EJ1018971"><span>Developing <span class="hlt">Common</span> Measures in Evaluation Capacity Building: An Iterative Science and Practice <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Labin, Susan N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A fundamental reason for doing evaluation capacity building (ECB) is to improve program outcomes. Developing <span class="hlt">common</span> measures of outcomes and the activities, <span class="hlt">processes</span>, and factors that lead to these outcomes is an important step in moving the science and the practice of ECB forward. This article identifies a number of existing ECB measurement…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fertilization&pg=5&id=EJ627587','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fertilization&pg=5&id=EJ627587"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processes</span> of Change in Psychotherapy and Seven Other Social Interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lampropoulos, Georgios K.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Argues that change <span class="hlt">processes</span> in psychotherapy can be understood more clearly by comparing them with other change-inducing social relationships. In showing how this may be done, describes different social interactions and discusses them in terms of a parsimonious set of <span class="hlt">common</span> factors in change. Stresses the importance of the cross-fertilization of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27410285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27410285"><span>Chip based <span class="hlt">common</span>-path optical coherence tomography system with an on-chip microlens and multi-<span class="hlt">reference</span> suppression algorithm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Lantian; Weiss, Nicolás; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Pollnau, Markus; de Ridder, René M; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S</p> <p>2016-06-13</p> <p>We demonstrate an integrated optical probe including an on-chip microlens for a <span class="hlt">common</span>-path swept-source optical coherence tomography system. This <span class="hlt">common</span>-path design uses the end facet of the silicon oxynitride waveguide as the <span class="hlt">reference</span> plane, thus eliminating the need of a space-consuming and dispersive on-chip loop <span class="hlt">reference</span> arm, thereby obviating the need for dispersion compensation. The on-chip micro-ball lens eliminates the need of external optical elements for coupling the light between the chip and the sample. The use of this lens leads to a signal enhancement up to 37 dB compared to the chip without a lens. The light source, the <span class="hlt">common</span>-path arm and the detector are connected by a symmetric Y junction having a wavelength independent splitting ratio (50/50) over a much larger bandwidth than can be obtained with a directional coupler. The signal-to-noise ratio of the system was measured to be 71 dB with 2.6 mW of power on a mirror sample at a distance of 0.3 mm from the waveguide end facet. Cross-sectional OCT images of a layered optical phantom sample are demonstrated with our system. A method, based on an extended Fourier-domain OCT model, for suppressing ghost images caused by additional parasitic <span class="hlt">reference</span> planes is experimentally demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737377','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737377"><span>Contribution of 32 GWAS-Identified <span class="hlt">Common</span> Variants to Severe Obesity in European Adults <span class="hlt">Referred</span> for Bariatric Surgery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yousseif, Ahmed; Pucci, Andrea; Santini, Ferruccio; Karra, Efthimia; Querci, Giorgia; Pelosini, Caterina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Batterham, Rachel L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The prevalence of severe obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥35.0 kg/m2, is rising rapidly. Given the disproportionately high health burden and healthcare costs associated with this condition, understanding the underlying aetiology, including predisposing genetic factors, is a biomedical research priority. Previous studies have suggested that severe obesity represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation, reflecting shared genetic factors operating across the spectrum. Here, we sought to determine whether a panel of 32 known <span class="hlt">common</span> obesity-susceptibility variants contribute to severe obesity in patients (n = 1,003, mean BMI 48.4±8.1 kg/m2) attending bariatric surgery clinics in two European centres. We examined the effects of these 32 <span class="hlt">common</span> variants on obesity risk and BMI, both as individual markers and in combination as a genetic risk score, in a comparison with normal-weight controls (n = 1,809, BMI 18.0–24.9 kg/m2); an approach which, to our knowledge, has not been previously undertaken in the setting of a bariatric clinic. We found strong associations with severe obesity for SNP rs9939609 within the FTO gene (P = 9.3×10−8) and SNP rs2815752 near the NEGR1 gene (P = 3.6×10−4), and directionally consistent nominal associations (P<0.05) for 12 other SNPs. The genetic risk score associated with severe obesity (P = 8.3×10−11) but, within the bariatric cohort, this score did not associate with BMI itself (P = 0.264). Our results show significant effects of individual BMI-associated <span class="hlt">common</span> variants within a relatively small sample size of bariatric patients. Furthermore, the burden of such low-penetrant risk alleles contributes to severe obesity in this population. Our findings support that severe obesity observed in bariatric patients represents an extreme tail of the population BMI variation. Moreover, future genetic studies focused on bariatric patients may provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009070','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009070"><span>Using NASA's <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture: Comparing Polar and Geostationary Data <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ullman, Richard; Burnett, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The JPSS and GOES-R programs are housed at NASA GSFC and jointly implemented by NASA and NOAA to NOAA requirements. NASA's role in the JPSS Ground System is to develop and deploy the system according to NOAA requirements. NASA's role in the GOES-R ground segment is to provide Systems Engineering expertise and oversight for NOAA's development and deployment of the system. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture is a document developed by NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards <span class="hlt">Process</span> Group that describes a NASA Earth Observing Mission Ground system as a generic abstraction. The authors work within the respective ground segment projects and are also separately contributors to the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Architecture document. Opinions expressed are the author's only and are not NOAA, NASA or the Ground Projects' official positions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19252633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19252633"><span>Ultracompact and highly sensitive <span class="hlt">common</span>-path phase-shifting interferometer using photonic crystal polarizers as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> mirror and a phase shifter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakata, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Masahiro</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>We present a <span class="hlt">common</span>-path phase-shifting interferometer in which photonic crystal polarizers (PCPs) are utilized as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> mirror and a phase shifter, allowing ultracompact and highly sensitive optics. When a laser beam polarized at 45 degrees relative to the optical axis of the PCp-based <span class="hlt">reference</span> mirror is incident, the polarization component parallel to the optical axis (s-polarized beam) is reflected and used as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> beam. The perpendicular component (p-polarized beam) passes through the PCP coupled with a quarter-wave plate (QWP) and serves as a probe beam. This beam, with its polarization transformed in the sequence p, right-circular, s, left-circular, and p, irradiates the sample surface twice, doubling the phase change due to displacement of the sample. The probe beam is then retransmitted through the PCP, where it recombines with the <span class="hlt">reference</span> beam. Four interferogram channels in phase quadrature are generated using a newly developed phase shifter, composed of a QWP and a monolithically integrated array of four PCPs. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that the PCPs perform successfully as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> mirror and a phase shifter, and that the interferometer has a remarkable displacement sensitivity, as low as 40 pm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20954937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20954937"><span>Intention <span class="hlt">processing</span> in communication: a <span class="hlt">common</span> brain network for language and gestures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enrici, Ivan; Adenzato, Mauro; Cappa, Stefano; Bara, Bruno G; Tettamanti, Marco</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Human communicative competence is based on the ability to <span class="hlt">process</span> a specific class of mental states, namely, communicative intention. The present fMRI study aims to analyze whether intention <span class="hlt">processing</span> in communication is affected by the expressive means through which a communicative intention is conveyed, that is, the linguistic or extralinguistic gestural means. Combined factorial and conjunction analyses were used to test two sets of predictions: first, that a <span class="hlt">common</span> brain network is recruited for the comprehension of communicative intentions independently of the modality through which they are conveyed; second, that additional brain areas are specifically recruited depending on the communicative modality used, reflecting distinct sensorimotor gateways. Our results clearly showed that a <span class="hlt">common</span> neural network is engaged in communicative intention <span class="hlt">processing</span> independently of the modality used. This network includes the precuneus, the left and right posterior STS and TPJ, and the medial pFC. Additional brain areas outside those involved in intention <span class="hlt">processing</span> are specifically engaged by the particular communicative modality, that is, a peri-sylvian language network for the linguistic modality and a sensorimotor network for the extralinguistic modality. Thus, <span class="hlt">common</span> representation of communicative intention may be accessed by modality-specific gateways, which are distinct for linguistic versus extralinguistic expressive means. Taken together, our results indicate that the information acquired by different communicative modalities is equivalent from a mental <span class="hlt">processing</span> standpoint, in particular, at the point at which the actor's communicative intention has to be reconstructed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072518"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> point indentation is insufficient for detecting alterations in traditional mechanical properties of bone under <span class="hlt">common</span> experimental conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krege, John B; Aref, Mohammad W; McNerny, Erin; Wallace, Joseph M; Organ, Jason M; Allen, Matthew R</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> point indentation (RPI) was developed as a novel method to assess mechanical properties of bone in vivo, yet it remains unclear what aspects of bone dictate changes/differences in RPI-based parameters. The main RPI parameter, indentation distance increase (IDI), has been proposed to be inversely related to the ability of bone to form/tolerate damage. The goal of this work was to explore the relationshipre-intervention RPI measurebetween RPI parameters and traditional mechanical properties under varying experimental conditions (drying and ashing bones to increase brittleness, demineralizing bones and soaking in raloxifene to decrease brittleness). Beams were machined from cadaveric bone, pre-tested with RPI, subjected to experimental manipulation, post-tested with RPI, and then subjected to four-point bending to failure. Drying and ashing significantly reduced RPI's IDI, as well as ultimate load (UL), and energy absorption measured from bending tests. Demineralization increased IDI with minimal change to bending properties. Ex vivo soaking in raloxifene had no effect on IDI but tended to enhance post-yield behavior at the structural level. These data challenge the paradigm of an inverse relationship between IDI and bone toughness, both through correlation analyses and in the individual experiments where divergent patterns of altered IDI and mechanical properties were noted. Based on these results, we conclude that RPI measurements alone, as compared to bending tests, are insufficient to reach conclusions regarding mechanical properties of bone. This proves problematic for the potential clinical use of RPI measurements in determining fracture risk for a single patient, as it is not currently clear that there is an IDI, or even a trend of IDI, that can determine clinically relevant changes in tissue properties that may contribute to whole bone fracture resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3722127','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3722127"><span>An ERP Study of the <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of <span class="hlt">Common</span> and Decimal Fractions: How Different They Are</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Li; Wang, Qi; Lin, Chongde; Ding, Cody; Zhou, Xinlin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study explored event-related potential (ERP) correlates of <span class="hlt">common</span> fractions (1/5) and decimal fractions (0.2). Thirteen subjects performed a numerical magnitude matching task under two conditions. In the <span class="hlt">common</span> fraction condition, a nonsymbolic fraction was asked to be judged whether its magnitude matched the magnitude of a <span class="hlt">common</span> fraction; in the decimal fraction condition, a nonsymbolic fraction was asked to be matched with a decimal fraction. Behavioral results showed significant main effects of condition and numerical distance, but no significant interaction of condition and numerical distance. Electrophysiological data showed that when nonsymbolic fractions were compared to <span class="hlt">common</span> fractions, they displayed larger N1 and P3 amplitudes than when they were compared to decimal fractions. This finding suggested that the visual identification for nonsymbolic fractions was different under the two conditions, which was not due to perceptual differences but to task demands. For symbolic fractions, the condition effect was observed in the N1 and P3 components, revealing stimulus-specific visual identification <span class="hlt">processing</span>. The effect of numerical distance as an index of numerical magnitude representation was observed in the P2, N3 and P3 components under the two conditions. However, the topography of the distance effect was different under the two conditions, suggesting stimulus specific semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span> of <span class="hlt">common</span> fractions and decimal fractions. PMID:23894491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.4463D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMT.....7.4463D"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> quality upper-air measurements: GRUAN data <span class="hlt">processing</span> for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dirksen, R. J.; Sommer, M.; Immler, F. J.; Hurst, D. F.; Kivi, R.; Vömel, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) data <span class="hlt">processing</span> for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde was developed to meet the criteria for <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurements. These criteria stipulate the collection of metadata, the use of well-documented correction algorithms, and estimates of the measurement uncertainty. An important and novel aspect of the GRUAN <span class="hlt">processing</span> is that the uncertainty estimates are vertically resolved. This paper describes the algorithms that are applied in version 2 of the GRUAN <span class="hlt">processing</span> to correct for systematic errors in radiosonde measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as how the uncertainties related to these error sources are derived. Currently, the RS92 is launched on a regular basis at 13 out of 15 GRUAN sites. An additional GRUAN requirement for performing <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurements with the RS92 is that the manufacturer-prescribed procedure for the radiosonde's preparation, i.e. heated reconditioning of the sensors and recalibration during ground check, is followed. In the GRUAN <span class="hlt">processing</span> however, the recalibration of the humidity sensors that is applied during ground check is removed. For the dominant error source, solar radiation, laboratory experiments were performed to investigate and model its effect on the RS92's temperature and humidity measurements. GRUAN uncertainty estimates are 0.15 K for night-time temperature measurements and approximately 0.6 K at 25 km during daytime. The other uncertainty estimates are up to 6% relative humidity for humidity, 10-50 m for geopotential height, 0.6 hPa for pressure, 0.4-1 m s-1 for wind speed, and 1° for wind direction. Daytime temperature profiles for GRUAN and Vaisala <span class="hlt">processing</span> are comparable and consistent within the estimated uncertainty. GRUAN daytime humidity profiles are up to 15% moister than Vaisala <span class="hlt">processed</span> profiles, of which two-thirds is due to the radiation dry bias correction and one-third is due to an additional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1007868','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1007868"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> conditions for giant sequoia forest restoration: structure, <span class="hlt">process</span>, and precision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stephenson, Nathan L.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>National Park Service policy directs that more natural conditions be restored to giant sequoia groves, which have been altered by a century of fire exclusion. Efforts to find a reasonable and practical definition of “natural” have helped drive scientists and land managers to use past grove conditions as <span class="hlt">reference</span> conditions for restoration. Extensive research aimed at determining <span class="hlt">reference</span> conditions has demonstrated that past fire regimes can be characterized with greater precision than past grove structures. Difficulty and imprecision in determining past grove structure has helped fuel a debate between “structural restorationists,” who believe that forest structure should be restored mechanically before fire is reintroduced, and “<span class="hlt">process</span> restorationists,” who believe that simple reintroduction of fire is appropriate. I evaluate old and new studies from sequoia groves to show that some of the arguments of both groups have been flawed. Importantly, it appears that restoration of fire without a preceding mechanical restoration may restore the pre-Euro-American structure of sequoia groves, at least within the bounds of our imprecise knowledge of past grove structure. However, the same may not be true for all forest types that have experienced lengthy fire exclusion. Our ability to draw robust generalizations about fire's role in forest restoration will depend heavily on a thorough understanding of past and present interactions among climate, fire, and forest structure. Use of <span class="hlt">reference</span> conditions will be central to developing this understanding.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872522','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872522"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Genetic Factors Influence Hand Strength, <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Speed, and Working Memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ogata, Soshiro; Kato, Kenji; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background It is important to detect cognitive decline at an early stage, especially before onset of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. <span class="hlt">Processing</span> speed and working memory are aspects of cognitive function that are associated with cognitive decline. Hand strength is an inexpensive, easily measurable indicator of cognitive decline. However, associations between hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed, and working memory have not been studied. In addition, the genetic and environmental structure of the association between hand strength and cognitive decline is unclear. We investigated phenotypic associations between hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed, and working memory and examined the genetic and environmental structure of the associations between phenotypes. Methods Hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed (digit symbol performance), and working memory (digit span performance) were examined in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify phenotypic associations, and structural equation modeling was used to investigate the genetic and environmental structure of the association. Results Generalized estimating equations showed that hand strength was phenotypically associated with digit symbol performance but not with digit span performance. Structural equation modeling showed that <span class="hlt">common</span> genetic factors influenced hand strength and digit symbol and digit span performance. Conclusions There was a phenotypic association between hand strength and <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed. In addition, some genetic factors were <span class="hlt">common</span> to hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed, and working memory. PMID:24292650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292650"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> genetic factors influence hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed, and working memory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ogata, Soshiro; Kato, Kenji; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>It is important to detect cognitive decline at an early stage, especially before onset of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. <span class="hlt">Processing</span> speed and working memory are aspects of cognitive function that are associated with cognitive decline. Hand strength is an inexpensive, easily measurable indicator of cognitive decline. However, associations between hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed, and working memory have not been studied. In addition, the genetic and environmental structure of the association between hand strength and cognitive decline is unclear. We investigated phenotypic associations between hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed, and working memory and examined the genetic and environmental structure of the associations between phenotypes. Hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed (digit symbol performance), and working memory (digit span performance) were examined in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify phenotypic associations, and structural equation modeling was used to investigate the genetic and environmental structure of the association. Generalized estimating equations showed that hand strength was phenotypically associated with digit symbol performance but not with digit span performance. Structural equation modeling showed that <span class="hlt">common</span> genetic factors influenced hand strength and digit symbol and digit span performance. There was a phenotypic association between hand strength and <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed. In addition, some genetic factors were <span class="hlt">common</span> to hand strength, <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed, and working memory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20712827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20712827"><span>Disrupted theory of mind network <span class="hlt">processing</span> in response to idea of <span class="hlt">reference</span> evocation in schizophrenia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, I H; Ku, J; Lee, H; Kim, S Y; Kim, S I; Yoon, K J; Kim, J-J</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the neural pathophysiology of the theory of mind network by eliciting self-referential <span class="hlt">processing</span> during an idea of <span class="hlt">reference</span> evocating situation in patients with schizophrenia. Functional MRI was conducted on 14 schizophrenic in-patients with the idea of <span class="hlt">reference</span> and 15 healthy participants while viewing video vignettes of referential conversations, non-referential conversations or no conversations between two people, which were filmed at varying distances of 1, 5 or 10 m. The patient group did not show normal patterns of superior temporal sulcus activation to conversational context, and reciprocal deactivation and activation of the ventromedial and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex to referential conversational context. Instead, the patient group showed overall greater ventromedial prefrontal activities across different conversational contexts and inverse correlation between superior temporal sulcus activity and delusional severity. Differential activations of the temporal pole and its posterior extension to varying distances were observed in the control group but not in the patient group. The present study demonstrates that theory of mind-related responses of the medial prefrontal-superior temporal network are attenuated during the self-referential <span class="hlt">processing</span> in patients with schizophrenia and that these abnormalities may be related to the formation of their referential or persecutory delusion. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28135902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28135902"><span>Mapping <span class="hlt">Common</span> Aphasia Assessments to Underlying Cognitive <span class="hlt">Processes</span> and Their Neural Substrates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Xing, Shihui; Fama, Mackenzie E; Turkeltaub, Peter E</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the <span class="hlt">processes</span> they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language <span class="hlt">process</span> impairments. To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used aphasia tests. Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained. Test scores were entered into a principal components analysis to extract the latent variables (factors) measured by the tests. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to localize lesions associated with the factor scores. The principal components analysis yielded 4 dissociable factors, which we labeled Word Finding/Fluency, Comprehension, Phonology/Working Memory Capacity, and Executive Function. While many tests loaded onto the factors in predictable ways, some relied heavily on factors not <span class="hlt">commonly</span> associated with the tests. Lesion symptom mapping demonstrated discrete brain structures associated with each factor, including frontal, temporal, and parietal areas extending beyond the classical language network. Specific functions mapped onto brain anatomy largely in correspondence with modern neural models of language <span class="hlt">processing</span>. An extensive clinical aphasia assessment identifies 4 independent language functions, relying on discrete parts of the left middle cerebral artery territory. A better understanding of the <span class="hlt">processes</span> underlying cognitive tests and the link between lesion and behavior may lead to improved aphasia diagnosis, and may yield treatments better targeted to an individual's specific pattern of deficits and preserved abilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5217473','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5217473"><span>A psychometric investigation of gender differences and <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> across Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chun, Seokjoon; Harris, Alexa; Carrion, Margely; Rojas, Elizabeth; Stark, Stephen; Lejuez, Carl; Lechner, William V.; Bornovalova, Marina A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The comorbidity between Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is well-established, and the two disorders share many similarities. However, there are also differences across disorders: most notably, BPD is diagnosed more frequently in females and ASPD in males. We investigated if a) comorbidity between BPD and ASPD is attributable to two discrete disorders or the expression of <span class="hlt">common</span> underlying <span class="hlt">processes</span>, and b) if the model of comorbidity is true across sex. Using a clinical sample of 1400 drug users in residential substance abuse treatment, we tested three competing models to explore whether the comorbidity of ASPD and BPD should be represented by a single <span class="hlt">common</span> factor, two correlated factors, or a bifactor structure involving a general and disorder-specific factors. Next, we tested whether our resulting model was meaningful by examining its relationship with criterion variables previously reported to be associated with BPD and ASPD. The bifactor model provided the best fit and was invariant across sex. Overall, the general factor of the bifactor model significantly accounted for a large percentage of the variance in criterion variables, whereas the BPD and AAB specific factors added little to the models. The association of the general and specific factor with all criterion variables was equal for males and females. Our results suggest <span class="hlt">common</span> underlying vulnerability accounts for both the comorbidity between BPD and AAB (across sex), and this <span class="hlt">common</span> vulnerability drives the association with other psychopathology and maladaptive behavior. This in turn has implications for diagnostic classification systems and treatment. General scientific summary This study found that, for both males and females, borderline and antisocial personality disorders show a large degree of overlap, and little uniqueness. The <span class="hlt">commonality</span> between BPD and ASPD mainly accounted for associations with criterion variables. This suggests that BPD and</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28561639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28561639"><span>Susceptibility of Salmonella Biofilm and Planktonic Bacteria to <span class="hlt">Common</span> Disinfectant Agents Used in Poultry <span class="hlt">Processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chylkova, Tereza; Cadena, Myrna; Ferreiro, Aura; Pitesky, Maurice</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Poultry contaminated with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica are a major cause of zoonotic foodborne gastroenteritis. Salmonella Heidelberg is a <span class="hlt">common</span> serotype of Salmonella that has been implicated as a foodborne pathogen associated with the consumption of improperly prepared chicken. To better understand the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">common</span> antimicrobial disinfectants (i.e., peroxyacetic acid [PAA], acidified hypochlorite [aCH], and cetylpyridinium chloride [CPC]), environmental isolates of nontyphoidal Salmonella were exposed to these agents under temperature, concentration, and contact time conditions consistent with poultry <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Under simulated <span class="hlt">processing</span> conditions (i.e., chiller tank and dipping stations), the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of each disinfectant were assessed against biofilm and planktonic cultures of each organism in a disinfectant challenge. Log reductions, planktonic MICs, and mean biofilm eradication concentrations were computed. The biofilms of each Salmonella isolate were more resistant to the disinfectants than were their planktonic counterparts. Although PAA was bacteriostatic and bactericidal against the biofilm and planktonic Salmonella isolates tested at concentrations up to 64 times the concentrations <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used in a chiller tank during poultry <span class="hlt">processing</span>, aCH was ineffective against the same isolates under identical conditions. At the simulated 8-s dipping station, CPC was bacteriostatic against all seven and bactericidal against six of the seven Salmonella isolates in their biofilm forms at concentrations within the regulatory range. These results indicate that at the current contact times and concentrations, aCH and PAA are not effective against these Salmonella isolates in their biofilm state. The use of CPC should be considered as a tool for controlling Salmonella biofilms in poultry <span class="hlt">processing</span> environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5113059','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5113059"><span>Neural Correlates of Contrast and Humor: <span class="hlt">Processing</span> <span class="hlt">Common</span> Features of Verbal Irony</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Flucher, Aurélie; Portefaix, Christophe; Pierot, Laurent; Kaladjian, Arthur; Caillies, Stéphanie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Irony is a kind of figurative language used by a speaker to say something that contrasts with the context and, to some extent, lends humor to a situation. However, little is known about the brain regions that specifically support the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of these two <span class="hlt">common</span> features of irony. The present study had two main aims: (i) investigate the neural basis of irony <span class="hlt">processing</span>, by delivering short ironic spoken sentences (and their literal counterparts) to participants undergoing fMRI; and (ii) assess the neural effect of two irony parameters, obtained from normative studies: degree of contrast and humor appreciation. Results revealed activation of the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), posterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal cortex, and left caudate during irony <span class="hlt">processing</span>, suggesting the involvement of both semantic and theory-of-mind networks. Parametric models showed that contrast was specifically associated with the activation of bilateral frontal and subcortical areas, and that these regions were also sensitive to humor, as shown by a conjunction analysis. Activation of the bilateral IFG is consistent with the literature on humor <span class="hlt">processing</span>, and reflects incongruity detection/resolution <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Moreover, the activation of subcortical structures can be related to the reward <span class="hlt">processing</span> of social events. PMID:27851821</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23708475','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23708475"><span>Medical review <span class="hlt">process</span> and license disposition of drivers <span class="hlt">referred</span> by law enforcement in Virginia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lococo, Kathy H; Decina, Lawrence E; Branche, Jacquelin; Wagner, Esther M</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Medically at-risk drivers come to the attention of licensing authorities through referrals from a variety of sources, including: physicians, family members, court systems, and law enforcement. A recently sponsored project by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration examined a training intervention for law enforcement to increase their awareness of medical conditions and medications that impair driving and the procedures for reporting these drivers in Virginia. A component of this project included an evaluation of the medical review <span class="hlt">process</span> and licensing outcomes for 100 drivers randomly selected from a pool of over 1,000 drivers <span class="hlt">referred</span> from law enforcement officers to the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles over a 6-month period in 2007 and 2008 prior to any training program intervention. Key findings from the evaluation of 100 drivers <span class="hlt">referred</span> for medical review by law enforcement were as follows. Over two-thirds of the drivers came to the attention of the <span class="hlt">referring</span> officer because they were involved in a crash. The most prevalent indications of a medical condition or functional impairment provided by law enforcement for these referrals were: loss of consciousness, blackout, or seizures (28%); disorientation, confusion, and mental disability (16%); and physical impairments (8%). Eighty-eight percent of the drivers received some type of licensing action (e.g., restriction, suspension, or periodic review). Only 12% of the <span class="hlt">referred</span> drivers did not require any licensing action. Law enforcement provides a vital role in the identification and referral of medically impaired drivers to licensing authorities for reexamination. Training programs can inform law enforcement officers of the signs of medical impairment (both on-road behavior, and physical and psychological clues once a driver has been pulled over), and procedures for reporting their observations and concern for safety to licensing authorities. Reexamination of drivers with functional and medical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23108370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23108370"><span>A target sample of adolescents and reward <span class="hlt">processing</span>: same neural and behavioral correlates engaged in <span class="hlt">common</span> paradigms?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nees, Frauke; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Steiner, Sabina; Mann, Karl; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Struve, Maren; Loth, Eva; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Adolescence is a transition period that is assumed to be characterized by increased sensitivity to reward. While there is growing research on reward <span class="hlt">processing</span> in adolescents, investigations into the engagement of brain regions under different reward-related conditions in one sample of healthy adolescents, especially in a target age group, are missing. We aimed to identify brain regions preferentially activated in a reaction time task (monetary incentive delay (MID) task) and a simple guessing task (SGT) in a sample of 14-year-old adolescents (N = 54) using two <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used reward paradigms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed during the MID with big versus small versus no win conditions and the SGT with big versus small win and big versus small loss conditions. Analyses focused on changes in blood oxygen level-dependent contrasts during reward and punishment <span class="hlt">processing</span> in anticipation and feedback phases. We found clear magnitude-sensitive response in reward-related brain regions such as the ventral striatum during anticipation in the MID task, but not in the SGT. This was also true for reaction times. The feedback phase showed clear reward-related, but magnitude-independent, response patterns, for example in the anterior cingulate cortex, in both tasks. Our findings highlight neural and behavioral response patterns engaged in two different reward paradigms in one sample of 14-year-old healthy adolescents and might be important for <span class="hlt">reference</span> in future studies investigating reward and punishment <span class="hlt">processing</span> in a target age group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1173..349K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1173..349K"><span>Integrated ODP Metrology Matching To <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Metrology For Lithography <span class="hlt">Process</span> Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kearney, Patrick; Uchida, Junichi; Weichert, Heiko; Likhachev, Dmitriy; Hetzer, David; Fleischer, Göran</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Advanced DRAM manufacturing demands rigorous and tight <span class="hlt">process</span> control using high measurement precision, accurate, traceable and high throughput metrology solutions. Scatterometry is one of the advanced metrology techniques which satisfies all of these requirements. Scatterometry has been implemented in semiconductor manufacturing for monitoring and controlling critical dimensions and other important structural parameters. One of the major contributing factors to the acceptance and implementation of scatterometry systems is the ability to match to <span class="hlt">reference</span> metrology. Failure to understand the optimum matching conditions, can lead to wrong conclusions with respect to hardware stability and/or incorrect analysis of production data. This paper shows the use of the integrated scatterometry system to control the lithography <span class="hlt">processes</span> in a real production environment. In the control system, the scatterometry Optical Digital Profilometry (ODP™) data is referenced to sampled CD-SEM data. A significant improvement in matching between the two metrology systems was achieved following the implementation of a new ODP-function. The results also reveal a clearer roadmap for the implementation of an integrated scatterometry based control loop system. The results also pointed to how to achieve a reduced setup time as well as a deeper understanding of the relationship between test data and production data. It has been clearly shown that to achieve the desired sub-nanometer matching in scatterometry measurements for advanced <span class="hlt">process</span> control, we need to pay scrupulous attention to matching data not only from test wafers but from production data in order to derive functions that will produce the optimum matching conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26804333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26804333"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and differential alterations of general emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span> in obsessive-compulsive and social anxiety disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weidt, S; Lutz, J; Rufer, M; Delsignore, A; Jakob, N J; Herwig, U; Bruehl, A B</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are characterized by biased perception and <span class="hlt">processing</span> of potentially threatening stimuli. A hyper-reactivity of the fear-circuit [e.g. amygdala, anterior cingulate (ACC)] has been consistently reported using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in SAD in comparison with healthy controls (HCs). Studies investigating the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of specific emotional stimuli in OCD reported mainly orbitofrontal-striatal abnormalities. The goal of this study was to examine similar/<span class="hlt">common</span> and differential neurobiological responses in OCD and SAD using unspecific emotional stimuli. Fifty-four subjects participated: two groups (each n = 18) of outpatients with a current diagnosis of OCD or SAD, and 18 HCs. All subjects underwent fMRI while anticipating and perceiving unspecific visual stimuli with prior announced emotional valence (e.g. positive). Compared to HCs, the combined patient group showed increased activation in amygdala, caudate and prefrontal/orbitofrontal cortex while anticipating unspecific emotional stimuli. Caudate was more active in the combined patient group during perception. A comparison between the OCD and the SAD samples revealed increased amygdala and decreased rostral ACC activation in OCD patients during perception, but no differences in the anticipation phase. Overall, we could identify <span class="hlt">common</span> fronto-subcortical hyper-reactivity in OCD and SAD while anticipating and perceiving unspecific emotional stimuli. While differential neurobiological responses between OCD and SAD when <span class="hlt">processing</span> specific stimuli are evident from the literature, differences were less pronounced using unspecific stimuli. This could indicate a disturbance of emotion regulation <span class="hlt">common</span> to both OCD and SAD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694554','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694554"><span>Natural Antioxidant Activity of <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Consumed Plant Foods in India: Effect of Domestic <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sreeramulu, D.; Reddy, C. V. K.; Chauhan, Anitha; Balakrishna, N.; Raghunath, M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Phytochemicals protect against oxidative stress which in turn helps in maintaining the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. In recent times natural antioxidants are gaining considerable interest among nutritionists, food manufacturers, and consumers because of their perceived safety, potential therapeutic value, and long shelf life. Plant foods are known to protect against degenerative diseases and ageing due to their antioxidant activity (AOA) attributed to their high polyphenolic content (PC). Data on AOA and PC of Indian plant foods is scanty. Therefore we have determined the antioxidant activity in 107 <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed Indian plant foods and assessed their relation to their PC. Antioxidant activity is presented as the range of values for each of the food groups. The foods studied had good amounts of PC and AOA although they belonged to different food groups. Interestingly, significant correlation was observed between AOA (DPPH and FRAP) and PC in most of the foods, corroborating the literature that polyphenols are potent antioxidants and that they may be important contributors to the AOA of the plant foods. We have also observed that <span class="hlt">common</span> domestic methods of <span class="hlt">processing</span> may not affect the PC and AOA of the foods studied in general. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results of the kind in <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed Indian plant foods. PMID:23844275</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844275"><span>Natural antioxidant activity of <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed plant foods in India: effect of domestic <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sreeramulu, D; Reddy, C V K; Chauhan, Anitha; Balakrishna, N; Raghunath, M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Phytochemicals protect against oxidative stress which in turn helps in maintaining the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. In recent times natural antioxidants are gaining considerable interest among nutritionists, food manufacturers, and consumers because of their perceived safety, potential therapeutic value, and long shelf life. Plant foods are known to protect against degenerative diseases and ageing due to their antioxidant activity (AOA) attributed to their high polyphenolic content (PC). Data on AOA and PC of Indian plant foods is scanty. Therefore we have determined the antioxidant activity in 107 <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed Indian plant foods and assessed their relation to their PC. Antioxidant activity is presented as the range of values for each of the food groups. The foods studied had good amounts of PC and AOA although they belonged to different food groups. Interestingly, significant correlation was observed between AOA (DPPH and FRAP) and PC in most of the foods, corroborating the literature that polyphenols are potent antioxidants and that they may be important contributors to the AOA of the plant foods. We have also observed that <span class="hlt">common</span> domestic methods of <span class="hlt">processing</span> may not affect the PC and AOA of the foods studied in general. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results of the kind in <span class="hlt">commonly</span> consumed Indian plant foods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5354406','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5354406"><span>The spermatogenic <span class="hlt">process</span> of the <span class="hlt">common</span> vampire bat Desmodus rotundus under a histomorphometric view</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Puga, Luciano Carlos Heringer Porcaro; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rêgo; Freitas, Mariella Bontempo Duca; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Among all bat species, Desmodus rotundus stands out as one of the most intriguing due to its exclusively haematophagous feeding habits. However, little is known about their spermatogenic cycle. This study aimed at describing the spermatogenic <span class="hlt">process</span> of <span class="hlt">common</span> vampire bats through testicular histomorphometric characterization of adult specimens, spermatogenic production indexes, description of stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and estimative of the spermatogenic <span class="hlt">process</span> duration. Morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyzes for bromodeoxiuridine were conducted under light microscopy and ultrastructural analyzes were performed under transmission electron microscopy. Vampire bats showed higher investment in gonadal tissue (gonadosomatic index of 0.54%) and in seminiferous tubules (tubulesomatic index of 0.49%) when compared to larger mammals. They also showed a high tubular length per gram of testis (34.70 m). Approximately half of the intertubular compartment was found to be comprised by Leydig cells (51.20%), and an average of 23.77x106 of these cells was found per gram of testis. The germline cells showed 16.93% of mitotic index and 2.51% of meiotic index. The overall yield of spermatogenesis was 60% and the testicular spermatic reserve was 71.44x107 spermatozoa per gram of testis. With a total spermatogenesis duration estimated at 37.02 days, vampire bats showed a daily sperm production of 86.80x106 gametes per gram of testis. These findings demonstrate a high sperm production, which is <span class="hlt">commonly</span> observed in species with promiscuous mating system. PMID:28301534</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3196291','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3196291"><span>Are depictive gestures like pictures? <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> and differences in semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Ying Choon; Coulson, Seana</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Conversation is multi-modal, involving both talk and gesture. Does understanding depictive gestures engage <span class="hlt">processes</span> similar to those recruited in the comprehension of drawings or photographs? Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from neurotypical adults as they viewed spontaneously produced depictive gestures preceded by congruent and incongruent contexts. Gestures were presented either dynamically in short, soundless video-clips, or statically as freeze frames extracted from gesture videos. In a separate ERP experiment, the same participants viewed related or unrelated pairs of photographs depicting <span class="hlt">common</span> real-world objects. Both object photos and gesture stimuli elicited less negative ERPs from 400–600ms post-stimulus when preceded by matching versus mismatching contexts (dN450). Object photos and static gesture stills also elicited less negative ERPS between 300 and 400ms post-stimulus (dN300). Findings demonstrate <span class="hlt">commonalities</span> between the conceptual integration <span class="hlt">processes</span> underlying the interpretation of iconic gestures and other types of image-based representations of the visual world. PMID:21864890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27808543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27808543"><span>A psychometric investigation of gender differences and <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> across borderline and antisocial personality disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chun, Seokjoon; Harris, Alexa; Carrion, Margely; Rojas, Elizabeth; Stark, Stephen; Lejuez, Carl; Lechner, William V; Bornovalova, Marina A</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is well-established, and the 2 disorders share many similarities. However, there are also differences across disorders: most notably, BPD is diagnosed more frequently in women and ASPD in men. We investigated if (a) comorbidity between BPD and ASPD is attributable to 2 discrete disorders or the expression of <span class="hlt">common</span> underlying <span class="hlt">processes</span>, and (b) if the model of comorbidity is true across sex. Using a clinical sample of 1,400 drug users in residential substance abuse treatment, we tested 3 competing models to explore whether the comorbidity of ASPD and BPD should be represented by a single <span class="hlt">common</span> factor, 2 correlated factors, or a bifactor structure involving a general and disorder-specific factors. Next, we tested whether our resulting model was meaningful by examining its relationship with criterion variables previously reported to be associated with BPD and ASPD. The bifactor model provided the best fit and was invariant across sex. Overall, the general factor of the bifactor model significantly accounted for a large percentage of the variance in criterion variables, whereas the BPD and AAB specific factors added little to the models. The association of the general and specific factor with all criterion variables was equal for men and women. Our results suggest <span class="hlt">common</span> underlying vulnerability accounts for both the comorbidity between BPD and AAB (across sex), and this <span class="hlt">common</span> vulnerability drives the association with other psychopathology and maladaptive behavior. This in turn has implications for diagnostic classification systems and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3125524','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3125524"><span>Transfer of Training between Music and Speech: <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processing</span>, Attention, and Memory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Besson, Mireille; Chobert, Julie; Marie, Céline</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>After a brief historical perspective of the relationship between language and music, we review our work on transfer of training from music to speech that aimed at testing the general hypothesis that musicians should be more sensitive than non-musicians to speech sounds. In light of recent results in the literature, we argue that when long-term experience in one domain influences acoustic <span class="hlt">processing</span> in the other domain, results can be interpreted as <span class="hlt">common</span> acoustic <span class="hlt">processing</span>. But when long-term experience in one domain influences the building-up of abstract and specific percepts in another domain, results are taken as evidence for transfer of training effects. Moreover, we also discuss the influence of attention and working memory on transfer effects and we highlight the usefulness of the event-related potentials method to disentangle the different <span class="hlt">processes</span> that unfold in the course of music and speech perception. Finally, we give an overview of an on-going longitudinal project with children aimed at testing transfer effects from music to different levels and aspects of speech <span class="hlt">processing</span>. PMID:21738519</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27092350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27092350"><span>The use of a standardized gray <span class="hlt">reference</span> card in dental photography to correct the effects of five <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used diffusers on the color of 40 extracted human teeth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hein, Sascha; Zangl, Michael</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the color changes of human teeth caused by five different diffuser materials <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used in dental photography, as well as software influence, and to confirm whether the use of a standardized gray <span class="hlt">reference</span> card is effective in correcting these color changes during digital postproduction. Forty extracted human teeth were obtained from a specialized oral surgery practice in Cham, Germany. Five <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used diffuser materials were chosen to be investigated, which included: polyethylene (PET), White Frost photographic paper, LumiQuest polyamide (nylon) material, 80 gsm white printing paper, and 3M linear polarizing filter sheet used for cross polarization. A digital single-lens reflex camera (Canon EOS 5D MKII) was used, together with a twin flash suitable for macrophotography (Canon MT-24EX Macro Twin Lite). Images were tethered into Adobe Lightroom CC using the RAW format. A standardized gray <span class="hlt">reference</span> card (WhiBal, Michael Tapes Design) was used for exposure calibration and white balancing. Classic Color Me- ter software (Ricci Adams, version 1.6 (122)) was used to obtain CIE L*a*b* values of the specimens before and after white balancing and exposure correction. All diffusers caused visually perceivable color changes on the extracted teeth: White Frost (ΔE* 1.24; sd 0.47), 80 gsm printing paper (ΔE* 2.94; sd 0.35), LumiQuest polyamide (ΔE* 3.68; sd 0.54), PET (ΔE* 6.55; sd 0.41), and 3M linear polarizing filter sheet (ΔE* 7.58; sd 1.00). The use of a standardized gray <span class="hlt">reference</span> card (WhiBal) could correct these values below the visually perceivable threshold: White Frost (ΔE* 0.58; sd 0.36), 80 gsm printing paper (ΔE* 0.93; sd 0.54), LumiQuest polyamide (ΔE* 0.66; sd 0.58), PET (ΔE* 0.59; sd 0.33), and 3M linear polarizing filter sheet (ΔE* 0.53; sd 0.42). The use of a standardized gray <span class="hlt">reference</span> card with specified CIE L*a*b* values should be considered when diffusers are used in dental photography in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5980C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5980C"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> framework for the development and analysis of <span class="hlt">process</span>-based hydrological models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Martyn; Kavetski, Dmitri; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Gupta, Hoshin</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p> provide a <span class="hlt">common</span> framework for model development and analysis. We recognize that the majority of <span class="hlt">process</span>-based hydrological models use the same set of physics - most models use Darcy's Law to represent the flow of water through the soil matrix and Fourier's Law for thermodynamics. Our numerical model uses robust solutions of the hydrology and thermodynamic governing equations as the structural core, and incorporates multiple options to represent the impact of different modeling decisions, including different methods to represent spatial variability and different parameterizations of surface fluxes and shallow groundwater. Our analysis isolates individual modeling decisions and uses orthogonal diagnostic signatures to evaluate model behavior. Application of this framework in research basins demonstrates that the combination of (1) flexibility in the numerical model and (2) comprehensive scrutiny of orthogonal signatures provides a powerful approach to identify the suitability of different modeling options and different model parameter values. We contend that this <span class="hlt">common</span> framework has general utility, and its widespread application in both research basins and at larger spatial scales will help accelerate the development of <span class="hlt">process</span>-based hydrologic models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DPPYI2002M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DPPYI2002M"><span>Experimental validation of the two-plasmon-decay <span class="hlt">common</span>-wave <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michel, D. T.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion requires multiple overlapping laser beams that can drive the two-plasmon-decay (TPD) instability. When multiple overlapping laser beams with polarization smoothing are used, the total energy in TPD-generated hot electrons was shown to scale with the overlapped intensity.footnotetextC. Stoeckl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 235002 (2003). This scaling would not be expected if the beams drive the TPD independently according to the single-plane wave growth rates. Experiments were conducted on OMEGA EP, in large-scale-length plasmas, to validate the <span class="hlt">common</span>-wave <span class="hlt">process</span>, where the total energy in hot electrons is measured to be similar when one or two polarized beams are used at the same overlapped intensity and significantly reduced when four beams with the same overlapped intensity are used.footnotetextD. T. Michel et al., ``Experimental Validation of the Two-Plasmon-Decay <span class="hlt">Common</span>-Wave <span class="hlt">Process</span>,'' submitted to Physical Review Letters. A theoretical model of the <span class="hlt">common</span>-wave <span class="hlt">process</span> shows that multiple laser beams can share an electron-plasma wave in the region bisecting the electromagnetic wave vectors. For two beams, this region defines a plane; for four beams, it defines a line. In this region, the convective gain of the dominant mode is proportional to the overlapped intensity and a geometric factor. When the TPD instability is saturated, the hot-electron temperature increases rapidly (25 keV to 90 keV), consistent with Zakharov simulations.footnotetextD. H. Froula et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 165003 (2012). This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.[4pt] In collaboration with A. V. Maximov, R. W. Short, J. F. Myatt, W. Seka, J. A. Delettrez, R. Follett, S. X. Hu, A. A. Solodov, C. Stoeckl, B. Yaakobi, and D. H. Froula (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Univ. of Rochester).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406238"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and dissociable neural correlates associated with component <span class="hlt">processes</span> of inductive reasoning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jia, Xiuqin; Liang, Peipeng; Lu, Jie; Yang, Yanhui; Zhong, Ning; Li, Kuncheng</p> <p>2011-06-15</p> <p>The ability to draw numerical inductive reasoning requires two key cognitive <span class="hlt">processes</span>, identification and extrapolation. This study aimed to identify the neural correlates of both component <span class="hlt">processes</span> of numerical inductive reasoning using event-related fMRI. Three kinds of tasks: rule induction (RI), rule induction and application (RIA), and perceptual judgment (Jud) were solved by twenty right-handed adults. Our results found that the left superior parietal lobule (SPL) extending into the precuneus and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were <span class="hlt">commonly</span> recruited in the two components. It was also observed that the fronto-parietal network was more specific to identification, whereas the striatal-thalamic network was more specific to extrapolation. The findings suggest that numerical inductive reasoning is mediated by the coordination of multiple brain areas including the prefrontal, parietal, and subcortical regions, of which some are more specific to demands on only one of these two component <span class="hlt">processes</span>, whereas others are sensitive to both. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471250"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and distinct modulation of electrophysiological indices of feedback <span class="hlt">processing</span> by autistic and psychopathic traits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carter Leno, Virginia; Naples, Adam; Cox, Anthony; Rutherford, Helena; McPartland, James C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and psychopathy are primarily characterized by social dysfunction; overlapping phenotypic features may reflect altered function in <span class="hlt">common</span> brain mechanisms. The current study examined the degree to which neural response to social and nonsocial feedback is modulated by autistic versus psychopathic traits in a sample of typically developing adults (N = 31, 11 males, 18-52 years). Event-related potentials were recorded whilst participants completed a behavioral task and received feedback on task performance. Both autistic and psychopathic traits were associated with alterations in the neural correlates of feedback <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Sensitivity to specific forms of feedback (social, nonsocial, positively valenced, negatively valenced) differed between the two traits. Autistic traits were associated with decreased sensitivity to social feedback. In contrast, the antisocial domain of psychopathic traits was associated with an overall decrease in sensitivity to feedback, and the interpersonal manipulation domain was associated with preserved <span class="hlt">processing</span> of positively valenced feedback. Results suggest distinct alterations within specific mechanisms of feedback <span class="hlt">processing</span> may underlie similar difficulties in social behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4939614','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4939614"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and Distinct Modulation of Electrophysiological Indices of Feedback <span class="hlt">Processing</span> by Autistic and Psychopathic Traits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leno, Virginia Carter; Naples, Adam; Cox, Anthony; Rutherford, Helena</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and psychopathy are primarily characterized by social dysfunction; overlapping phenotypic features may reflect altered function in <span class="hlt">common</span> brain mechanisms. The current study examined the degree to which neural response to social and non-social feedback is modulated by autistic versus psychopathic traits in a sample of typically-developing adults (N=31, 11 males, 18–52 years). Event-related potentials were recorded whilst participants completed a behavioral task and received feedback on task performance. Both autistic and psychopathic traits were associated with alterations in the neural correlates of feedback <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Sensitivity to specific forms of feedback (social, non-social, positively-valenced, negatively-valenced) differed between the two traits. Autistic traits were associated with decreased sensitivity to social feedback. In contrast, the antisocial domain of psychopathic traits was associated with an overall decrease in sensitivity to feedback, and the interpersonal manipulation domain was associated with preserved <span class="hlt">processing</span> of positively-valenced feedback. Results suggest distinct alterations within specific mechanisms of feedback <span class="hlt">processing</span> may underlie similar difficulties in social behavior. PMID:26471250</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18426743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18426743"><span>The effect of elevated fetal hemoglobin on hemoglobin A1c results: five <span class="hlt">common</span> hemoglobin A1c methods compared with the IFCC <span class="hlt">reference</span> method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rohlfing, Curt L; Connolly, Shawn M; England, Jack D; Hanson, Steven E; Moellering, Christina M; Bachelder, Janielle R; Little, Randie R</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is an important indicator of risk for complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Elevated fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels have been reported to interfere with results of some HbA1c methods, but it has generally been assumed that HbA1c results from boronate-affinity methods are not affected by elevated HbF levels. None of the previous studies used the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) <span class="hlt">reference</span> method as the comparative HbA1c method. We, therefore, measured HbA1c in samples with normal and elevated HbF levels by several <span class="hlt">common</span> assay methods and compared the results with those of the IFCC <span class="hlt">reference</span> method.HbF levels of more than 20% artificially lowered HbA1c results from the Primus CLC 330/385 (Primus Diagnostics, Kansas City, MO), Siemens DCA2000 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY), and Tosoh 2.2+ (Tosoh Bioscience, South San Francisco, CA), but not the Bio-Rad Variant II (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) and Tosoh G7. Physicians and laboratory professionals need to be aware of potential interference from elevated HbF levels that could affect HbA1c results, including those from boronate-affinity methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4813857','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4813857"><span>Utilisation of Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors with Dissipation (QCM-D) for a Clauss Fibrinogen Assay in Comparison with <span class="hlt">Common</span> Coagulation <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oberfrank, Stephanie; Drechsel, Hartmut; Sinn, Stefan; Northoff, Hinnak; Gehring, Frank K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The determination of fibrinogen levels is one of the most important coagulation measurements in medicine. It plays a crucial part in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions, often associated with time-critical conditions. The <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used measurement is the Clauss fibrinogen assay (CFA) where plasma is activated by thrombin reagent and which is conducted by mechanical/turbidimetric devices. As quartz crystal microbalance sensors with dissipation (QCM-D) based devices have a small footprint, can be operated easily and allow measurements independently from sample transportation time, laboratory location, availability and opening hours, they offer a great opportunity to complement laboratory CFA measurements. Therefore, the objective of the work was to (1) transfer the CFA to the QCM-D method; (2) develop an easy, time- and cost-effective procedure and (3) compare the results with <span class="hlt">references</span>. Different sensor coatings (donor’s own plasma; gold surface) and different QCM-D parameters (frequency signal shift; its calculated turning point; dissipation signal shift) were sampled. The results demonstrate the suitability for a QCM-D-based CFA in physiological fibrinogen ranges. Results were obtained in less than 1 min and in very good agreement with a standardized <span class="hlt">reference</span> (Merlin coagulometer). The results provide a good basis for further investigation and pave the way to a possible application of QCM-D in clinical and non-clinical routine in the medical field. PMID:26927107</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.824a2049W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.824a2049W"><span>Mathematizing <span class="hlt">Process</span> of Junior High School Students to Improve Mathematics Literacy <span class="hlt">Refers</span> PISA on RCP Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wardono; Mariani, S.; Hendikawati, P.; Ikayani</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Mathematizing <span class="hlt">process</span> (MP) is the <span class="hlt">process</span> of modeling a phenomenon mathematically or establish the concept of a phenomenon. There are two mathematizing that is Mathematizing Horizontal (MH) and Mathematizing Vertical (MV). MH as events changes contextual problems into mathematical problems, while MV is the <span class="hlt">process</span> of formulation of the problem into a variety of settlement mathematics by using some appropriate rules. Mathematics Literacy (ML) is the ability to formulate, implement and interpret mathematics in various contexts, including the capacity to perform reasoning mathematically and using the concepts, procedures, and facts to describe, explain or predict phenomena incident. If junior high school students are conditioned continuously to conduct mathematizing activities on RCP (RME-Card Problem) learning, it will be able to improve ML that <span class="hlt">refers</span> PISA. The purpose of this research is to know the capability of the MP grade VIII on ML content shape and space with the matter of the cube and beams with RCP learning better than the scientific learning, upgrade MP grade VIII in the issue of the cube and beams with RCP learning better than the scientific learning in terms of cognitive styles reflective and impulsive the MP grade VIII with the approach of the RCP learning in terms of cognitive styles reflective and impulsive This research is the mixed methods model concurrent embedded. The population in this study, i.e., class VIII SMPN 1 Batang with sample two class. Data were taken with the observation, interviews, and tests and analyzed with a different test average of one party the right qualitative and descriptive. The results of this study demonstrate the capability of the MP student with RCP learning better than the scientific learning, upgrade MP with RCP learning better compare with scientific learning in term cognitive style of reflective and impulsive. The subject of the reflective group top, middle, and bottom can meet all the <span class="hlt">process</span> of MH indicators are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.891a2085K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.891a2085K"><span>Cavitation <span class="hlt">processes</span> as a preparation technology basis for burning of <span class="hlt">common</span> and alternative energy fuels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kormilitsyn, V. I.; Ganiev, S. R.; Shmyrkov, O. V.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The present work contains the results of an experimental research of the flow characteristics and the mechanism occurring in flat passages during liquid flow around of various figures and by formation of the enhanced turbulence stream at the input aimed at improvement of fuel preparation for combustion. Below are implementation ways of non-linear wave mechanics effects and border layer turbulence intensification for formation of finely dispersed emulsions and components of liquid compounds that are non-soluble in each other providing for improvement of technological <span class="hlt">processes</span> of <span class="hlt">common</span> and alternative energy fuels preparation for combustion. It is shown that effects of acquiring finely dispersed fuel-water emulsions (high quality energy fuel based on either <span class="hlt">common</span> or alternative products) are achieved at flow of liquids in shaped passages in a wide range of Re numbers with high pressure falls in a generator with different cavitation booster figures and various arrangement with topping area containing holes in front of cavity zones formation area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23229089','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23229089"><span>Neuter is not <span class="hlt">common</span> in Dutch: eye movements reveal asymmetrical gender <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Loerts, Hanneke; Wieling, Martijn; Schmid, Monika S</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Native speakers of languages with transparent gender systems can use gender cues to anticipate upcoming words. To examine whether this also holds true for a non-transparent two-way gender system, i.e. Dutch, eye movements were monitored as participants followed spoken instructions to click on one of four displayed items on a screen (e.g., Klik op [Formula: see text] rode appel [Formula: see text], 'Click on the[Formula: see text] red apple[Formula: see text]'). The items contained the target, a colour- and/or gender-matching competitor, and two unrelated distractors. A mixed-effects regression analysis revealed that the presence of a colour-matching and/or gender-matching competitor significantly slowed the <span class="hlt">process</span> of finding the target. The gender effect, however, was only observed for <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns, reflecting the fact that neuter gender-marking cannot disambiguate as all Dutch nouns become neuter when used as diminutives. The gender effect for <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns occurred before noun onset, suggesting that gender information is, at least partially, activated automatically before encountering the noun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779203','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2779203"><span>Symbolic gestures and spoken language are <span class="hlt">processed</span> by a <span class="hlt">common</span> neural system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Jiang; Gannon, Patrick J.; Emmorey, Karen; Smith, Jason F.; Braun, Allen R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Symbolic gestures, such as pantomimes that signify actions (e.g., threading a needle) or emblems that facilitate social transactions (e.g., finger to lips indicating “be quiet”), play an important role in human communication. They are autonomous, can fully take the place of words, and function as complete utterances in their own right. The relationship between these gestures and spoken language remains unclear. We used functional MRI to investigate whether these two forms of communication are <span class="hlt">processed</span> by the same system in the human brain. Responses to symbolic gestures, to their spoken glosses (expressing the gestures' meaning in English), and to visually and acoustically matched control stimuli were compared in a randomized block design. General Linear Models (GLM) contrasts identified shared and unique activations and functional connectivity analyses delineated regional interactions associated with each condition. Results support a model in which bilateral modality-specific areas in superior and inferior temporal cortices extract salient features from vocal-auditory and gestural-visual stimuli respectively. However, both classes of stimuli activate a <span class="hlt">common</span>, left-lateralized network of inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions in which symbolic gestures and spoken words may be mapped onto <span class="hlt">common</span>, corresponding conceptual representations. We suggest that these anterior and posterior perisylvian areas, identified since the mid-19th century as the core of the brain's language system, are not in fact committed to language <span class="hlt">processing</span>, but may function as a modality-independent semiotic system that plays a broader role in human communication, linking meaning with symbols whether these are words, gestures, images, sounds, or objects. PMID:19923436</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19923436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19923436"><span>Symbolic gestures and spoken language are <span class="hlt">processed</span> by a <span class="hlt">common</span> neural system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Jiang; Gannon, Patrick J; Emmorey, Karen; Smith, Jason F; Braun, Allen R</p> <p>2009-12-08</p> <p>Symbolic gestures, such as pantomimes that signify actions (e.g., threading a needle) or emblems that facilitate social transactions (e.g., finger to lips indicating "be quiet"), play an important role in human communication. They are autonomous, can fully take the place of words, and function as complete utterances in their own right. The relationship between these gestures and spoken language remains unclear. We used functional MRI to investigate whether these two forms of communication are <span class="hlt">processed</span> by the same system in the human brain. Responses to symbolic gestures, to their spoken glosses (expressing the gestures' meaning in English), and to visually and acoustically matched control stimuli were compared in a randomized block design. General Linear Models (GLM) contrasts identified shared and unique activations and functional connectivity analyses delineated regional interactions associated with each condition. Results support a model in which bilateral modality-specific areas in superior and inferior temporal cortices extract salient features from vocal-auditory and gestural-visual stimuli respectively. However, both classes of stimuli activate a <span class="hlt">common</span>, left-lateralized network of inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions in which symbolic gestures and spoken words may be mapped onto <span class="hlt">common</span>, corresponding conceptual representations. We suggest that these anterior and posterior perisylvian areas, identified since the mid-19th century as the core of the brain's language system, are not in fact committed to language <span class="hlt">processing</span>, but may function as a modality-independent semiotic system that plays a broader role in human communication, linking meaning with symbols whether these are words, gestures, images, sounds, or objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9668E..4WH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9668E..4WH"><span>CMOS compatible fabrication <span class="hlt">process</span> of MEMS resonator for timing <span class="hlt">reference</span> and sensing application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huynh, Duc H.; Nguyen, Phuong D.; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Skafidas, Stan; Evans, Robin</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> and timing control devices are ubiquitous in electronic applications. There is at least one resonator required for each of this device. Currently electromechanical resonators such as crystal resonator, ceramic resonator are the ultimate choices. This tendency will probably keep going for many more years. However, current market demands for small size, low power consumption, cheap and reliable products, has divulged many limitations of this type of resonators. They cannot be integrated into standard CMOS (Complement metaloxide- semiconductor) IC (Integrated Circuit) due to material and fabrication <span class="hlt">process</span> incompatibility. Currently, these devices are off-chip and they require external circuitries to interface with the ICs. This configuration significantly increases the overall size and cost of the entire electronic system. In addition, extra external connection, especially at high frequency, will potentially create negative impacts on the performance of the entire system due to signal degradation and parasitic effects. Furthermore, due to off-chip packaging nature, these devices are quite expensive, particularly for high frequency and high quality factor devices. To address these issues, researchers have been intensively studying on an alternative for type of resonator by utilizing the new emerging MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology. Recent progress in this field has demonstrated a MEMS resonator with resonant frequency of 2.97 GHz and quality factor (measured in vacuum) of 42900. Despite this great achievement, this prototype is still far from being fully integrated into CMOS system due to incompatibility in fabrication <span class="hlt">process</span> and its high series motional impedance. On the other hand, fully integrated MEMS resonator had been demonstrated but at lower frequency and quality factor. We propose a design and fabrication <span class="hlt">process</span> for a low cost, high frequency and a high quality MEMS resonator, which can be integrated into a standard</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3708162','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3708162"><span>Converging toward a <span class="hlt">common</span> speech code: imitative and perceptuo-motor recalibration <span class="hlt">processes</span> in speech production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sato, Marc; Grabski, Krystyna; Garnier, Maëva; Granjon, Lionel; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Nguyen, Noël</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Auditory and somatosensory systems play a key role in speech motor control. In the act of speaking, segmental speech movements are programmed to reach phonemic sensory goals, which in turn are used to estimate actual sensory feedback in order to further control production. The adult's tendency to automatically imitate a number of acoustic-phonetic characteristics in another speaker's speech however suggests that speech production not only relies on the intended phonemic sensory goals and actual sensory feedback but also on the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of external speech inputs. These online adaptive changes in speech production, or phonetic convergence effects, are thought to facilitate conversational exchange by contributing to setting a <span class="hlt">common</span> perceptuo-motor ground between the speaker and the listener. In line with previous studies on phonetic convergence, we here demonstrate, in a non-interactive situation of communication, online unintentional and voluntary imitative changes in relevant acoustic features of acoustic vowel targets (fundamental and first formant frequencies) during speech production and imitation. In addition, perceptuo-motor recalibration <span class="hlt">processes</span>, or after-effects, occurred not only after vowel production and imitation but also after auditory categorization of the acoustic vowel targets. Altogether, these findings demonstrate adaptive plasticity of phonemic sensory-motor goals and suggest that, apart from sensory-motor knowledge, speech production continuously draws on perceptual learning from the external speech environment. PMID:23874316</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25851057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25851057"><span>The interaction between self-bias and reward: Evidence for <span class="hlt">common</span> and distinct <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sui, Jie; Humphreys, Glyn W</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The perceptual matching of shapes and labels can be affected by both self- and reward-biases when shapes are linked either to labels <span class="hlt">referring</span> to particular individuals (you, friend, stranger) or to different reward values (£8, £2, £0). We investigated the relations between these biases by varying the reward value associated with particular shape-label pairs (circle-you, square-friend, triangle-stranger). Self shape-label pairs (circle-you) always received no reward, while friend shape-label pairs (square-friend) received high reward and stranger shape-label pairs low reward (triangle-stranger), or the reverse (friend-low reward; stranger-high reward). Despite receiving no reward, responses to self-related pairs were advantaged relative to those to low-reward stimuli and did not differ from those to high-reward items. There was also an advantage for responses to high-reward friend pairs relative to low-reward stranger stimuli, and for high-reward stranger stimuli compared to low-reward friends. Correlations across individuals were found across trial blocks for both the self-advantage and the high-reward advantage, but the self- and reward-advantages were uncorrelated. This suggests that the self- and reward-advantage effects have different origins. In addition, the magnitude of the self-advantage varied according to the rated personal distance between a participant and a stranger. For individuals manifesting a close personal distance to strangers, the self-advantage was smaller, and sensitivity to reward influenced the difference between the self- and high-reward conditions. For individuals manifesting a large personal distance to strangers, sensitivity to reward did not affect self-matching. We suggest that self-advantages on perceptual matching arise independent of reward for individuals with a large personal distance to strangers. On the other hand, in individuals with a weak self-bias, high reward and the self modulate a <span class="hlt">common</span> subjective value system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29487448','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29487448"><span>Elucidating potential utilization of Portuguese <span class="hlt">common</span> bean varieties in rice based <span class="hlt">processed</span> foods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carbas, Bruna; Pathania, Shivani; Castanho, Ana; Lourenço, Diana; Veiga, Isabel Mota; Patto, Maria Carlota Vaz; Brites, Carla</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The present study was aimed at studying the physico-chemical and functional properties of 31 Portuguese <span class="hlt">common</span> bean varieties. In addition, the whole bean flours (WBF) and starch isolates (SI) of three representative bean varieties and their rice: bean blends (70:30; 50:50) were assessed for amylose content, thermal and pasting properties in view of supplementation in rice based <span class="hlt">processed</span> foods. Bean varieties showed significant differences in protein content (20.78-27.10%), fat content (1.16-2.18%), hydration capacity (95.90-149.30%), unhydrated seeds (4.00-40.00%), γ tocopherol (3.20-98.05 mg/100 g fat), δ tocopherol (0.06-4.72 mg/100 g fat) and pasting behavior. Amylose content of WBF (11.4-20.2%) was significantly lower than rice flour (23.51%) whereas SI of beans (40.00-47.26%) had significantly higher amylose content than SI of rice (28.13%). DSC results showed that WBF (11.4-20.2 °C) had significantly broader and lower gelatinization temperature range (∆Tr) than corresponding SI (20.9-23.1 °C). WBF had significantly lower pasting viscosity due to low starch content and compositional matrix effect as compared to SI. Setback viscosities of WBF and rice: bean blends was lower than rice flour. Low setback viscosities of rice:bean blends may be used to prevent syneresis and stabilizing the quality of frozen foods in rice based <span class="hlt">processed</span> foods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22459297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22459297"><span>Defining Alzheimer as a <span class="hlt">common</span> age-related neurodegenerative <span class="hlt">process</span> not inevitably leading to dementia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferrer, Isidro</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Since the description by Alois Alzheimer, more than 50 years have passed during which senile dementia and pre-senile dementia have been considered Alzheimer disease (AD) on the basis of their <span class="hlt">common</span> neuropathological and clinical manifestations. AD now covers pre-senile dementia, senile dementia, mild cognitive impairment and pre-clinical AD, all of them within the context of AD-related pathology. However, there is still a gray area between normal aging with AD-related pathology and AD. Here it is proposed that Alzheimer (or alzheimer) is an age-related neurodegenerative <span class="hlt">process</span> distinguished from normal aging by the presence of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Alzheimer affects about 80% of individuals aged 65 years but dementia only occurs in a small percentage of individuals at this age; prevalence of dementia in Alzheimer increases to 25% in individuals aged 80 years. The concepts derived from the β-amyloid hypothesis support β-amyloid as a conductor in the pathogenesis of familial AD and as a prodding factor in sporadic AD. Moreover, seeding of β-amyloid and truncated tau explains incorporation, enhancement and perpetuation of AD-related changes. Therefore, the earliest Alzheimer changes confined to selected regions are the first grounds and the main risk factor for developing dementia. The term Alzheimer embraces this assumption and likens its meaning to other degenerative biological <span class="hlt">processes</span>, such as atherosclerosis, that may eventually progress to disease. In this context, the first stages of Alzheimer should be considered as primary targets of therapeutic intervention in order to prevent progression to diseased states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G53B0929S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.G53B0929S"><span>The UNAVCO Real-time GPS Data <span class="hlt">Processing</span> System and Community <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Data Sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sievers, C.; Mencin, D.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>UNAVCO has constructed a real-time GPS (RT-GPS) network of 420 GPS stations. The majority of the streaming stations come from the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) through an NSF-ARRA funded Cascadia Upgrade Initiative that upgraded 100 backbone stations throughout the PBO footprint and 282 stations focused in the Pacific Northwest. Additional contributions from NOAA (~30 stations in Southern California) and the USGS (8 stations at Yellowstone) account for the other real-time stations. Based on community based outcomes of a workshop focused on real-time GPS position data products and formats hosted by UNAVCO in Spring of 2011, UNAVCO now provides real-time PPP positions for all 420 stations using Trimble's PIVOT software and for 50 stations using TrackRT at the volcanic centers located at Yellowstone (Figure 1 shows an example ensemble of TrackRT networks used in <span class="hlt">processing</span> the Yellowstone data), Mt St Helens, and Montserrat. The UNAVCO real-time system has the potential to enhance our understanding of earthquakes, seismic wave propagation, volcanic eruptions, magmatic intrusions, movement of ice, landslides, and the dynamics of the atmosphere. Beyond its increasing uses for science and engineering, RT-GPS has the potential to provide early warning of hazards to emergency managers, utilities, other infrastructure managers, first responders and others. With the goal of characterizing stability and improving software and higher level products based on real-time GPS time series, UNAVCO is developing an open community standard data set where data processors can provide solutions based on <span class="hlt">common</span> sets of RT-GPS data which simulate real world scenarios and events. UNAVCO is generating standard data sets for playback that include not only real and synthetic events but also background noise, antenna movement (e.g., steps, linear trends, sine waves, and realistic earthquake-like motions), receiver drop out and online return, interruption of communications (such as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference+AND+languages&id=EJ1121289','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=common+AND+european+AND+framework+AND+reference+AND+languages&id=EJ1121289"><span>Applying the Writing Scales of the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" to the New HSK Test of Proficiency in Chinese: Realities, Problems and Some Suggestions for Chinese Language Teachers and Learners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hsiao, Ya Ping; Broeder, Peter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article explores levels of proficiency in Chinese with <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the new HSK (Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi) Chinese Proficiency Test and the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" (CEFR). Special attention is given to learning and teaching the writing of Chinese characters and the use of Pinyin, a phonetic Romanization…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23532397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23532397"><span>A description of <span class="hlt">common</span> mental disorders in men who have sex with men (MSM) <span class="hlt">referred</span> for assessment and intervention at an MSM clinic in Cape Town, South Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stoloff, Kevin; Joska, John A; Feast, Dorothy; De Swardt, Glenn; Hugo, Johan; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James; Rebe, Kevin</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a higher prevalence of <span class="hlt">common</span> mental disorders (CMD), as compared with heterosexual men. HIV infection is independently associated with higher rates of CMD. Given this context, and the high background community prevalence of HIV in South Africa, MSM are at even greater risk of developing CMD. The aim of this research was to investigate neuropsychiatric symptoms and disorders in MSM who were <span class="hlt">referred</span> for assessment and management of mental health problems, in an MSM Clinic in urban Cape Town, South Africa. Twenty-five men were screened using the MINI, AUDIT, DUDIT, and IPDE Screener. Depression, suicidality, as well as alcohol and drug use disorders were highly prevalent in this group (44, 56, 48, and 56 % respectively). The personality disorder screening was suggestive of a high prevalence of personality disorders. The high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders in this sample supports the idea that integrated mental health services are needed to address the complex needs of this population. Adequate input into the mental health needs of this population could reduce the potential for HIV acquisition and transmission, improve adherence to treatment and care, and ensure the provision a comprehensive health service for MSM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sip&pg=5&id=EJ724949','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sip&pg=5&id=EJ724949"><span>Emotions in Social Information <span class="hlt">Processing</span> and Their Relations with Reactive and Proactive Aggression in <span class="hlt">Referred</span> Aggressive Boys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Orobio de Castro, Bram; Merk, Welmoet; Koops, Willem; Veerman, Jan W.; Bosch, Joop D.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We studied emotional aspects of social information <span class="hlt">processing</span> (SIP) and their specific relations with reactive and proactive aggression in 54 boys ages 7 to 13 who had been <span class="hlt">referred</span> for aggressive behavior problems and a comparison group. Participants listened to vignettes concerning provocations by peers and answered questions concerning SIP, own…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=american+AND+sign+AND+language+AND+recognition&pg=3&id=EJ522938','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=american+AND+sign+AND+language+AND+recognition&pg=3&id=EJ522938"><span><span class="hlt">Processing</span> Spatial Anaphora: <span class="hlt">Referent</span> Reactivation with Overt and Null Pronouns in American Sign Language.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Emmorey, Karen; Lillo-Martin, Diane</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Presents two probe recognition experiments investigating whether overt and null pronouns in American Sign Language (ASL) similarly reactivate their <span class="hlt">referents</span> during online sentence comprehension. Both experiments indicated that an important link exists between spatial verb agreement and the ASL pronomial system and that nonreferent inhibition does…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27543806','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27543806"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span>-based indirect comparison meta-analysis of eslicarbazepine versus lacosamide as add on treatments for focal epilepsy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Milan, Alberto; Grillo, Elisabetta</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) and lacosamide (LCM) have recently emerged as add-on treatments in patients with focal epilepsy experiencing seizures despite adequate monotherapy. Both drugs enhance slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. To date no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has directly compared ESL with LCM as add-on treatments for focal epilepsy. Our aim was to indirectly compare the efficacy of ESL and LCM used as add-on treatments in patients with focal epilepsy using <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span>-based indirect comparison meta-analysis. We systematically searched RCTs in which ESL or LCM has been used as add-on treatment in patients with focal epilepsy and compared with placebo. Following outcomes were considered: ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency; seizure freedom; treatment withdrawal for any reason; ≥25% increase in seizure frequency. Random-effects Mantel-Haenszel meta-analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for the efficacy of ESL or LCM versus placebo. Adjusted indirect comparisons were then made between ESL and LCM using the obtained results, and comparing the minimum and the highest effective recommended daily dose of each drug. Eight studies were included. Indirect comparisons adjusted for dose-effect showed no difference between ESL and LCM for responder rate, seizure freedom, and withdrawal rates. We could not assess increase in seizure frequency due to lack of data. Indirect comparisons failed to find a significant difference in efficacy between add-on ESL and LCM in patients with focal epilepsy. Direct head-to-head clinical trials comparing ESL with LCM as add-on antiepileptic treatment are required to confirm these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23703292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23703292"><span>Parametric amplification and cascaded-nonlinearity <span class="hlt">processes</span> in <span class="hlt">common</span> atomic system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Huaibin; Zhang, Xun; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Tian, Yaling; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Yanpeng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>For the first time, we study the parametric amplification <span class="hlt">process</span> of multi-wave mixing (PA-MWM) signal and cascaded-nonlinearity <span class="hlt">process</span> (CNP) in sodium vapors both theoretically and experimentally, based on a conventional phase-conjugate MWM and a self-diffraction four-wave mixing (SD-FWM) <span class="hlt">processes</span>, which are pumped by laser or amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), respectively. For laser pumping case, SD-FWM <span class="hlt">process</span> serves as a quantum linear amplifier (a CNP) out (inside) of the resonant absorption region. While for ASE case, only the CNP occurs and the output linewidth is much narrower than that of the MWM signal due to the second selected effect of its electromagnetically induced transparency window. In addition, the phase-sensitive amplifying <span class="hlt">process</span> seeded by two MWM <span class="hlt">processes</span> is discussed for the first time. Theoretical fittings agree well with the experiment. The investigations have important potential applications in quantum communication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3662971','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3662971"><span>Parametric Amplification and Cascaded-Nonlinearity <span class="hlt">Processes</span> in <span class="hlt">Common</span> Atomic System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zheng, Huaibin; Zhang, Xun; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Tian, Yaling; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Yanpeng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>For the first time, we study the parametric amplification <span class="hlt">process</span> of multi-wave mixing (PA-MWM) signal and cascaded-nonlinearity <span class="hlt">process</span> (CNP) in sodium vapors both theoretically and experimentally, based on a conventional phase-conjugate MWM and a self-diffraction four-wave mixing (SD-FWM) <span class="hlt">processes</span>, which are pumped by laser or amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), respectively. For laser pumping case, SD-FWM <span class="hlt">process</span> serves as a quantum linear amplifier (a CNP) out (inside) of the resonant absorption region. While for ASE case, only the CNP occurs and the output linewidth is much narrower than that of the MWM signal due to the second selected effect of its electromagnetically induced transparency window. In addition, the phase-sensitive amplifying <span class="hlt">process</span> seeded by two MWM <span class="hlt">processes</span> is discussed for the first time. Theoretical fittings agree well with the experiment. The investigations have important potential applications in quantum communication. PMID:23703292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000110937','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000110937"><span>Composite, Cryogenic, Conformal, <span class="hlt">Common</span> Bulkhead, Aerogel-Insulated Tank (CBAT) Materials and <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Methodologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kovach, Michael P.; Roberts, J. Keith; Finckenor, Jeffrey L.; McMahon, William M.; Clinton, R. G., Jr. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A viewgraph presentation outlines the current status and future activities of the composite, cryogenic, conformal, <span class="hlt">common</span> bulkhead, aerogel-insulated tank (CBAT). Each term (composite, cryogenic, conformal, etc.) is explained. The fabrication method for the CBAT is described, including challenges and their solutions. Near term and long term goals are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=frog&pg=6&id=EJ762018','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=frog&pg=6&id=EJ762018"><span>Using Dragonflies as <span class="hlt">Common</span>, Flexible & Charismatic Subjects for Teaching the Scientific <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Switzer, Paul V.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Biology laboratories are usually designed around convenient and available subjects. For example, for animal laboratories "Daphnia magna," "Drosophila melanogaster," frogs, rats, and mice are <span class="hlt">common</span> animals that are relatively easy to obtain, relatively cheap, and consequently lend themselves well to laboratory experimentation. On many campuses, …</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Network+AND+global&pg=4&id=EJ1102079','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Network+AND+global&pg=4&id=EJ1102079"><span>Global Conceptualization of the Professional Learning Community <span class="hlt">Process</span>: Transitioning from Country Perspectives to International <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Huffman, Jane B.; Olivier, Dianne F.; Wang, Ting; Chen, Peiying; Hairon, Salleh; Pang, Nicholas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The authors seek to find <span class="hlt">common</span> PLC structures and actions among global educational systems to enhance understanding and practice. Six international researchers formed the Global Professional Learning Community Network (GloPLCNet), conducted literature reviews of each country's involvement with PLC actions, and noted similarities and common…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130803','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130803"><span>Distinguishing the time-course of lexical and discourse <span class="hlt">processes</span> through context, co-<span class="hlt">reference</span>, and quantified expressions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Yi Ting; Gordon, Peter C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>How does prior context influence lexical- and discourse-level <span class="hlt">processing</span> during real-time language comprehension? Experiment 1 examined whether the referential ambiguity introduced by a repeated, anaphoric expression had an immediate or delayed effect on lexical and discourse <span class="hlt">processing</span>, using an eye-tracking while reading task. Eye-movements indicated facilitated recognition of repeated expressions, suggesting that prior context can rapidly influence lexical <span class="hlt">processing</span>. However, context effects at the discourse level affected later <span class="hlt">processing</span>, appearing in longer regression-path durations two words after the anaphor and in greater re-reading times of the antecedent expression. Experiments 2 and 3 explored the nature of this delay by examining the role of the preceding context in activating relevant representations. Off-line and on-line interpretations confirmed that relevant <span class="hlt">referents</span> were activated following the critical context. Nevertheless, their initial unavailability during comprehension suggests a robust temporal division between lexical- and discourse-level <span class="hlt">processing</span>. PMID:21480750</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810019574','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810019574"><span>Materials <span class="hlt">processing</span> in space: A survey of <span class="hlt">referred</span> open literature publications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pentecost, E. (Compiler)</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Over 190 reports published in the open literature by workers in the materials <span class="hlt">processing</span> in space program are listed according to year as well as alphabetically by author. Thirty five reports submitted for publication are also cited. Supported either directly or indirectly by NASA, the research generally pertains to the influence (or lack of influence) of gravity on <span class="hlt">processes</span> involved in crystal growth, solidification, fluid transport, containerless phenomena, and various separation techniques of interest to the biomedical community. Studies of the possibilities of using the high vacuum in the wake of orbiting vehicles for performing <span class="hlt">processes</span> involving large heat loads and evolution of gases are also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=M-equivalent&id=EJ766681','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=M-equivalent&id=EJ766681"><span>Is There a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Linkage among Reading Comprehension, Visual Attention, and Magnocellular <span class="hlt">Processing</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Solan, Harold A.; Shelley-Tremblay, John F.; Hansen, Peter C.; Larson, Steven</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The authors examined the relationships between reading comprehension, visual attention, and magnocellular <span class="hlt">processing</span> in 42 Grade 7 students. The goal was to quantify the sensitivity of visual attention and magnocellular visual <span class="hlt">processing</span> as concomitants of poor reading comprehension in the absence of either vision therapy or cognitive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+living&id=EJ872221','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+living&id=EJ872221"><span>Interaction and Communication in the <span class="hlt">Process</span> of Education and Shared <span class="hlt">Common</span> Area in the Classroom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karadag, Engin; Caliskan, Nihat</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>School is an institution that plays a significant role in a child's life. Being an active employee in this institution, a teacher should be democratic, tender, patient, reliable and humorous to his/her students during the interaction and communication <span class="hlt">processes</span> so that the teaching and learning <span class="hlt">processes</span> are affected positively. It is important to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790012873','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790012873"><span>Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): <span class="hlt">Reference</span> design <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, D. D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The airplane design <span class="hlt">process</span> and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design <span class="hlt">process</span> management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27887704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27887704"><span>Aberrant modulation of brain activation by emotional valence during self-referential <span class="hlt">processing</span> among patients with delusions of <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Girard, Todd A; Lakatos, Louis; Menon, Mahesh</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Delusions of <span class="hlt">reference</span> are thought to reflect abnormally heightened attributions of salience to mundane events or stimuli that lead to convictions that they are personally significant or directed at the observer. Recent findings highlight abnormal recruitment of brain regions associated with self-referential <span class="hlt">processes</span> among patients with referential delusions. Given the inherent overlap of emotion, incentive salience, and self-relevance, as well as with aberrant thought <span class="hlt">processes</span> in psychosis, this study investigated the implicit relations between participants' perception of the emotional valence of stimuli on neural correlates of self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> judgments among schizophrenia-spectrum patients with referential delusions. During fMRI scanning, participants indicated whether sentences describing personal characteristics seemed to <span class="hlt">refer</span> specifically to them. Subsequently, participants rated their perceived emotional valence of each statement. Regression analyses revealed differential relations between groups across regions associated with self-referential <span class="hlt">processing</span>, including prefrontal regions, anterior cingulate, insula, precuneus, and dorsal striatum. Within these regions, greater activation related to sentences rated as more positive among healthy comparison participants and more negative among patients. The current results warrant replication and extension with larger and longitudinal samples to assess potential moderating relations of clinical and demographic individual differences. These findings support aberrant brain activation associated with emotional and salience brain networks in schizophrenia and highlight the importance of considering specific emotional attributes (valence) in discrete domains of delusional thought (self-referential communication). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3152830','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3152830"><span>Similar <span class="hlt">Processes</span> Despite Divergent Behavior in Two <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Used Measures of Risky Decision Making</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>BISHARA, ANTHONY J.; PLESKAC, TIMOTHY J.; FRIDBERG, DANIEL J.; YECHIAM, ELDAD; LUCAS, JESOLYN; BUSEMEYER, JEROME R.; FINN, PETER R.; STOUT, JULIE C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Performance on complex decision-making tasks may depend on a multitude of <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Two such tasks, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), are of particular interest because they are associated with real world risky behavior, including illegal drug use. We used cognitive models to disentangle underlying <span class="hlt">processes</span> in both tasks. Whereas behavioral measures from the IGT and BART were uncorrelated, cognitive models revealed two reliable cross-task associations. Results suggest that the tasks similarly measure loss aversion and decision-consistency <span class="hlt">processes</span>, but not necessarily the same learning <span class="hlt">process</span>. Additionally, substance-using individuals (and especially stimulant users) performed worse on the IGT than healthy controls did, and this pattern could be explained by reduced decision consistency. PMID:21836771</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26994741','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26994741"><span>Cross-modal comparisons of stimulus specificity and <span class="hlt">commonality</span> in phonological <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oron, A; Wolak, T; Zeffiro, T; Szelag, E</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Phonological <span class="hlt">processing</span> is a fundamental ability which underlies language comprehension. Functional neuroanatomy of phonology constitutes a matter of ongoing debate. In the present study, subjects performed visual (rhyme detection) and auditory (identification of spoken words starting with a given consonant) tasks that were contrasted with matched nonverbal tasks. We identified regions critical for phonological <span class="hlt">processing</span> which were either stimulus specific or supramodal. The results revealed a high degree of modality specificity in both visual and auditory networks. Moreover, we observed a modality independent region in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG)/superior temporal sulcus (STS), between a more anterior temporal area with auditory specificity and a more posterior temporal area with visual specificity. This dissociation in functional neuroanatomy suggests that this area may be a core region for supramodal phonological <span class="hlt">processing</span>, acting as a gateway between spatially separate, but stimulus specific, phonological <span class="hlt">processes</span> and more general linguistic functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27606570','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27606570"><span>Developmental validation of the DNAscan™ Rapid DNA Analysis™ instrument and expert system for <span class="hlt">reference</span> sample <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Della Manna, Angelo; Nye, Jeffrey V; Carney, Christopher; Hammons, Jennifer S; Mann, Michael; Al Shamali, Farida; Vallone, Peter M; Romsos, Erica L; Marne, Beth Ann; Tan, Eugene; Turingan, Rosemary S; Hogan, Catherine; Selden, Richard F; French, Julie L</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Since the implementation of forensic DNA typing in labs more than 20 years ago, the analysis procedures and data interpretation have always been conducted in a laboratory by highly trained and qualified scientific personnel. Rapid DNA technology has the potential to expand testing capabilities within forensic laboratories and to allow forensic STR analysis to be performed outside the physical boundaries of the traditional laboratory. The developmental validation of the DNAscan/ANDE Rapid DNA Analysis System was completed using a BioChipSet™ Cassette consumable designed for high DNA content samples, such as single source buccal swabs. A total of eight laboratories participated in the testing which totaled over 2300 swabs, and included nearly 1400 unique individuals. The goal of this extensive study was to obtain, document, analyze, and assess DNAscan and its internal Expert System to reliably genotype <span class="hlt">reference</span> samples in a manner compliant with the FBI's Quality Assurance Standards (QAS) and the NDIS Operational Procedures. The DNAscan System provided high quality, concordant results for <span class="hlt">reference</span> buccal swabs, including automated data analysis with an integrated Expert System. Seven external laboratories and NetBio, the developer of the technology, participated in the validation testing demonstrating the reproducibility and reliability of the system and its successful use in a variety of settings by numerous operators. The DNAscan System demonstrated limited cross reactivity with other species, was resilient in the presence of numerous inhibitors, and provided reproducible results for both buccal and purified DNA samples with sensitivity at a level appropriate for buccal swabs. The precision and resolution of the system met industry standards for detection of micro-variants and displayed single base resolution. PCR-based studies provided confidence that the system was robust and that the amplification reaction had been optimized to provide high quality results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28893596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28893596"><span>Sustained engagement of attention is associated with increased negative self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> in major depressive disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dainer-Best, Justin; Trujillo, Logan T; Schnyer, David M; Beevers, Christopher G</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>This study investigated the link between self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> and attentional engagement in adults with (n=22) and without (HC; n=24) Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants completed the Self-<span class="hlt">Referent</span> Encoding Task (SRET). MDD participants endorsed significantly fewer positive words and more negative words as self-descriptive than HC participants. A whole-scalp data analysis technique revealed that the MDD participants had larger difference wave (negative words minus positive words) ERP amplitudes from 380 to 1000ms across posterior sites, which positively correlated with number of negative words endorsed. No group differences were observed for earlier attentional components (P1, P2). The results suggest that among adults with MDD, negative stimuli capture attention during later information <span class="hlt">processing</span>; this engagement is associated with greater self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> endorsement of negative adjectives. Sustained cognitive engagement for self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> negative stimuli may be an important target for neurocognitive depression interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=perception+AND+emotion&pg=4&id=EJ867228','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=perception+AND+emotion&pg=4&id=EJ867228"><span>Anger and Sadness Perception in Clinically <span class="hlt">Referred</span> Preschoolers: Emotion <span class="hlt">Processes</span> and Externalizing Behavior Symptoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martin, Sarah E.; Boekamp, John R.; McConville, David W.; Wheeler, Elizabeth E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study examined emotion perception <span class="hlt">processes</span> in preschool aged children presenting with clinically significant emotional and behavior problems, with emphasis on sadness perception accuracy (i.e., the ability to correctly identify sadness from expressive and situational cues) and anger perception bias (i.e., the tendency to perceive anger in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol10-sec63-113.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol10-sec63-113.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.113 - <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... or equal to 4.0 shall maintain a TRE index value greater than 1.0 and shall comply with the... greater than 4.0 shall maintain a TRE index value greater than 4.0, comply with the provisions for... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for <span class="hlt">Process</span> Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol9-sec63-113.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol9-sec63-113.pdf"><span>40 CFR 63.113 - <span class="hlt">Process</span> vent provisions-<span class="hlt">reference</span> control technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... or equal to 4.0 shall maintain a TRE index value greater than 1.0 and shall comply with the... greater than 4.0 shall maintain a TRE index value greater than 4.0, comply with the provisions for... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for <span class="hlt">Process</span> Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70195568','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70195568"><span>Relationships between protein-encoding gene abundance and corresponding <span class="hlt">process</span> are <span class="hlt">commonly</span> assumed yet rarely observed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rocca, Jennifer D.; Hall, Edward K.; Lennon, Jay T.; Evans, Sarah E.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Cotner, James B.; Nemergut, Diana R.; Graham, Emily B.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For any enzyme-catalyzed reaction to occur, the corresponding protein-encoding genes and transcripts are necessary prerequisites. Thus, a positive relationship between the abundance of gene or transcripts and corresponding <span class="hlt">process</span> rates is often assumed. To test this assumption, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationships between gene and/or transcript abundances and corresponding <span class="hlt">process</span> rates. We identified 415 studies that quantified the abundance of genes or transcripts for enzymes involved in carbon or nitrogen cycling. However, in only 59 of these manuscripts did the authors report both gene or transcript abundance and rates of the appropriate <span class="hlt">process</span>. We found that within studies there was a significant but weak positive relationship between gene abundance and the corresponding <span class="hlt">process</span>. Correlations were not strengthened by accounting for habitat type, differences among genes or reaction products versus reactants, suggesting that other ecological and methodological factors may affect the strength of this relationship. Our findings highlight the need for fundamental research on the factors that control transcription, translation and enzyme function in natural systems to better link genomic and transcriptomic data to ecosystem <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1091095','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1091095"><span>Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms: Comparison Of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> <span class="hlt">Process</span> For Ceramic Waste Form Fabrication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brinkman, K. S.; Marra, J. C.; Amoroso, J.; Tang, M.</p> <p>2013-08-22</p> <p>The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be produced from a melting and crystallization <span class="hlt">process</span>. The objective of this report is to explore the phase formation and microstructural differences between lab scale melt <span class="hlt">processing</span> in varying gas environments with alternative densification <span class="hlt">processes</span> such as Hot Pressing (HP) and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a simulant derived from a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) <span class="hlt">process</span>, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. Melt <span class="hlt">processing</span> as well as solid state sintering routes SPS and HP demonstrated the formation of the targeted phases; however differences in microstructure and elemental partitioning were observed. In SPS and HP samples, hollandite, pervoskite/pyrochlore, zirconolite, metallic alloy and TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were observed distributed in a network of fine grains with small residual pores</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994none.workT...8B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994none.workT...8B"><span>OPEX Second Workshop of the OLYMPUS Propagation Experimenters. Volume 5: <span class="hlt">Reference</span> book on data <span class="hlt">processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belshaw, J.; Pawlina, A.; Upton, S.; Gole, P.; Matagne, J.; Murr, F.; Salonen, E.; Hornbostel, A.; Willis, M.; Tervonen, J.</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>This is the last volume in the series of 5 to summarize the findings of the OPEX (Olympus Propagation Experimenters) group and to provide up-to-date information on propagation impairments to planners and system designers of satellite communication systems. This volume summarizes the experiences gained from using the standardized DAPPER (Data Analysis and <span class="hlt">Processing</span> for Propagation Research) software and briefly lists special applications and so-called user routines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20185456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20185456"><span>Harmonisation of the appearance of digital radiographs from different vendors by means of <span class="hlt">common</span> external image <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Larsson, Lars; Båth, Magnus; Engman, Eva-Lena; Månsson, Lars Gunnar</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of <span class="hlt">common</span> external image <span class="hlt">processing</span> to compensate for differences in appearance between digital X-ray images from different vendors. Twenty posteroanterior chest radiographs were collected from each of three different modalities from different vendors (GE, Siemens and Canon) with vendor-specific image <span class="hlt">processing</span> applied. The images were also extracted with neutral <span class="hlt">process</span> parameters and <span class="hlt">processed</span> with external image-<span class="hlt">processing</span> software. Six experienced radiologists rated the quality and the similarity of the images with the original Siemens images. The externally <span class="hlt">processed</span> GE images were rated of higher quality than the original GE images and more similar to the original Siemens images (p < 0.001). The opposite was obtained for the Canon images. The externally <span class="hlt">processed</span> Siemens images were rated of similar quality as the original images. The present study indicates the possibility of using <span class="hlt">common</span> external image <span class="hlt">processing</span> to harmonise the appearance of images from different vendors, although the exposure parameters may need to be adjusted for individual vendors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=still+AND+frame&pg=7&id=EJ943259','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=still+AND+frame&pg=7&id=EJ943259"><span>Are Depictive Gestures like Pictures? <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span> and Differences in Semantic <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wu, Ying Choon; Coulson, Seana</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Conversation is multi-modal, involving both talk and gesture. Does understanding depictive gestures engage <span class="hlt">processes</span> similar to those recruited in the comprehension of drawings or photographs? Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from neurotypical adults as they viewed spontaneously produced depictive gestures preceded by congruent…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sip&pg=4&id=EJ685595','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sip&pg=4&id=EJ685595"><span>Finding <span class="hlt">Commonalities</span>: Social Information <span class="hlt">Processing</span> and Domain Theory in the Study of Aggression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nucci, Larry</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Arsenio and Lemerise (this issue) proposal integrating social information <span class="hlt">processing</span> (SIP) and domain theory to study children's aggression is evaluated from a domain theory perspective. Basic tenets of domain theory rendering it compatible with SIP are discussed as well as points of divergence. Focus is directed to the proposition that…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=NLP&pg=7&id=ED536057','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=NLP&pg=7&id=ED536057"><span>Combining Natural Language <span class="hlt">Processing</span> and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus <span class="hlt">Common</span> Languages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jarman, Jay</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language <span class="hlt">processing</span> (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000073715&hterms=Hydrocarbon+Processing+Hydrocarbon+Processing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHydrocarbon%2BProcessing%2B%257C%2BMarch%2B1%252C%2B1998','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000073715&hterms=Hydrocarbon+Processing+Hydrocarbon+Processing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHydrocarbon%2BProcessing%2B%257C%2BMarch%2B1%252C%2B1998"><span>Ionization Properties of Molecules <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Used for Plasma <span class="hlt">Processing</span> of Semi-Conductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Srivastava, S. K.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Two types of <span class="hlt">processes</span> are involved in plasma <span class="hlt">processing</span> of semi-conductors. They are: plasma etching or cleaning and plasma deposition of the semi-conducting materials. For plasma etching of semi-conductors mostly halogen containing gases are used as additives to gases such as O2 and N2. For plasma deposition gases such as C2H2, SiH4, Si2H6 have been tested in the past. For an optimal performance of a reactor it is important to model the plasma. In this modeling effort electron impact excitation and ionization cross sections play a central role. For ionization balance calculations values of ionization cross sections are needed. Ion molecule reactions determine the ultimate composition of the plasma. Recently it has been discovered that the by products of many of these plasmas are per fluro hydrocarbons (PFCs) which are highly infrared absorbing species and have long life times in the atmosphere. They cause global warming. A lot of research is being pursued at the present time to find alternative molecules which do not produce global warming gases as the and product of the plasma <span class="hlt">processing</span> reactor. There is also interest in the ionization and dissociative ionization properties of these molecules from the point view of the plasma abatement of the pollutant gases at the exhaust of the semi-conductor <span class="hlt">processing</span> reactors. At the conference ionization and dissociative ionization properties of some of these molecules will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24996151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24996151"><span>Investigation of the toxicity of <span class="hlt">common</span> oxidants used in advanced oxidation <span class="hlt">processes</span> and their quenching agents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olmez-Hanci, Tugba; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Dursun, Duygu</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p>The inhibitory effect of <span class="hlt">commonly</span> known oxidants and their quenching agents was investigated by employing a battery of toxicity tests. Hydrogen peroxide toxicity could be effectively eliminated by the enzyme catalase, whereas sodium thiosulfate and ascorbic acid were recommended as suitable quenching agents for the removal of the oxidants persulfate and peroxymonosulfate in the Vibrio fischeri bioassays. None of the studied quenching agents was found to be suitable for persulfate and peroxymonosulfate in the Daphnia magna bioassays since high inhibitory effects were obtained for both oxidants. In the case of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, manganese dioxide powder should be used as an alternative quenching agent to catalase, since this enzyme exhibited a highly toxic effect towards these microalgae. Sodium sulfite, which is extensively used as a quenching agent, was not appropriate for quenching peroxymonosulfate in all studied bioassays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15311661','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15311661"><span>Haptic identification of <span class="hlt">common</span> objects: effects of constraining the manual exploration <span class="hlt">process</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lederman, Susan J; Klatzky, Roberta L</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>In this article, we address the effects on haptic recognition of <span class="hlt">common</span> objects when manual exploration is constrained by using two kinds of rigid links--sheaths (Experiment 1A) and probes (Experiments 1B and 2). The collective effects of five different constraints are considered, including three from previous research (i.e., reducing the number of end effectors, wearing a compliant finger cover, and splinting the fingers; Klatzky, Loomis, Lederman, Wake, & Fujita, 1993) and from two current constraints (i.e., wearing a rigid finger sheath and using a rigid probe). The resulting impairments are interpreted in terms of the loss of somatosensory information from cutaneous and/or kinesthetic inputs. In addition, we relate the results to the design of haptic interfaces for teleoperation and virtual environments, which share some of the same reduction of sensory cues that we have produced experimentally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16465709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16465709"><span>Application of gas microstrip detectors for X-ray absorption spectroscopy in <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">process</span> gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vollmer, Antje; Lipp, John D; Lee, Jonathan R I; Derbyshire, Gareth E; Rayment, Trevor</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>We report upon the design of a new gas microstrip detector (GMSD) for use in X-ray absorption spectroscopy applied to the study of catalysis and material science. We show that GMSDs can operate not only with the gas mixtures normally used in proportional counters but also with the majority of gas mixtures used in <span class="hlt">common</span> catalytic reactions. The detector functions well in the presence of water vapor. EXAFS investigations of a test system of NiO on Ni metal are discussed in which it is demonstrated that depth profiling using electron yield X-ray absorption spectroscopy is possible in a wide variety of gaseous environments. Electron detection of XAS using GMSDs is applicable to metals, semiconductors, and insulators presented in almost all forms of sample including films, pellets, powders, crystals, and liquids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ArMiS..61..425S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ArMiS..61..425S"><span>Analysis of Combustion <span class="hlt">Process</span> of Sewage Sludge in <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Coals and Biomass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Środa, Katarzyna; Kijo-Kleczkowska, Agnieszka</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Production of sewage sludge is an inseparable part of the treatment <span class="hlt">process</span>. The chemical and sanitary composition of sewage sludge flowing into the treatment plant is a very important factor determining the further use of the final product obtained in these plants. The sewage sludge is characterized by heterogeneity and multi-components properties, because they have characteristics of the classical and fertilizer wastes and energetic fuels. The thermal utilization of sewage sludge is necessary due to the unfavorable sanitary characteristics and the addition of the industrial sewage. This method ensures use of sewage sludge energy and return of expenditure incurred for the treatment of these wastes and their disposal. Sewage sludge should be analyzed in relation to conventional fuels (coals and biomass). They must comply with the applicable requirements, for example by an appropriate degree of dehydration, which guarantee the stable and efficient combustion. This paper takes the issue of the combustion <span class="hlt">process</span> of the different sewage sludge and their comparison of the coal and biomass fuels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1111236.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1111236.pdf"><span>Linking English-Language Test Scores onto the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: An Application of Standard-Setting Methodology. TOEFL iBT Research Report TOEFL iBt-06. ETS RR-08-34</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Wylie, E. Caroline</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (CEFR) describes language proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and listening on a 6-level scale. In this study, English-language experts from across Europe linked CEFR levels to scores on three tests: the TOEFL® iBT test, the TOEIC® assessment, and the TOEIC "Bridge"™ test.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=learner+AND+autonomy&pg=7&id=EJ1121286','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=learner+AND+autonomy&pg=7&id=EJ1121286"><span>The "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" and the European Language Portfolio: Some History, a View of Language Learner Autonomy, and Some Implications for Language Learning in Higher Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Little, David</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article is based on a plenary talk given at the CercleS seminar hosted by the University of Groningen in November 2011 to mark the tenth anniversary of the publication of the "<span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages" and the launch of the European Language Portfolio. The first part of the article summarizes the history…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23631551','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23631551"><span>Implicit and explicit second language training recruit <span class="hlt">common</span> neural mechanisms for syntactic <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In contrast to native language acquisition, adult second-language (L2) acquisition occurs under highly variable learning conditions. Although most adults acquire their L2 at least partially through explicit instruction, as in a classroom setting, many others acquire their L2 primarily through implicit exposure, as is typical of an immersion environment. Whether these differences in acquisition environment play a role in determining the neural mechanisms that are ultimately recruited to <span class="hlt">process</span> L2 grammar has not been well characterized. This study investigated this issue by comparing the ERP response to novel L2 syntactic rules acquired under conditions of implicit exposure and explicit instruction, using a novel laboratory language-learning paradigm. Native speakers tested on these stimuli showed a biphasic response to syntactic violations, consisting of an earlier negativity followed by a later P600 effect. After merely an hour of training, both implicitly and explicitly trained learners who were capable of detecting grammatical violations also elicited P600 effects. In contrast, learners who were unable to discriminate between grammatically correct and incorrect sentences did not show significant P600 effects. The magnitude of the P600 effect was found to correlate with learners' behavioral proficiency. Behavioral measures revealed that successful learners from both the implicit and explicit groups gained explicit, verbalizable knowledge about the L2 grammar rules. Taken together, these results indicate that late, controlled mechanisms indexed by the P600 play a crucial role in <span class="hlt">processing</span> a late-learned L2 grammar, regardless of training condition. These findings underscore the remarkable plasticity of later, attention-dependent <span class="hlt">processes</span> and their importance in lifelong learning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4334462','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4334462"><span>Implicit and Explicit Second Language Training Recruit <span class="hlt">Common</span> Neural Mechanisms for Syntactic <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In contrast to native language acquisition, adult second language (L2) acquisition occurs under highly variable learning conditions. While most adults acquire their L2 at least partially through explicit instruction, as in a classroom setting, many others acquire their L2 primarily through implicit exposure, as is typical of an immersion environment. Whether these differences in acquisition environment play a role in determining the neural mechanisms that are ultimately recruited to <span class="hlt">process</span> L2 grammar has not been well characterized. The present study investigated this issue by comparing the event-related potential response to novel L2 syntactic rules acquired under conditions of implicit exposure and explicit instruction, using a novel laboratory language-learning paradigm. Native speakers tested on these stimuli showed a biphasic response to syntactic violations, consisting of an earlier negativity followed by a later P600 effect. After merely an hour of training, both implicitly- and explicitly-trained learners who were capable of detecting grammatical violations also elicited P600 effects. In contrast, learners who were unable to discriminate between grammatically correct and incorrect sentences did not show significant P600 effects. The magnitude of the P600 effect was found to correlate with learners’ behavioral proficiency. Behavioral measures revealed that successful learners from both the implicit and explicit groups gained explicit, verbalizable knowledge about the L2 grammar rules. Taken together, these results indicate that late, controlled mechanisms indexed by the P600 play a crucial role in <span class="hlt">processing</span> a late-learned L2 grammar, regardless of training condition. These findings underscore the remarkable plasticity of later, attention-dependent <span class="hlt">processes</span> and their importance in lifelong learning. PMID:23631551</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26756521','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26756521"><span>Social Information <span class="hlt">Processing</span> and Cluster B Personality Pathology among Clinic-<span class="hlt">Referred</span> Adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hessels, Christel; van Aken, Marcel A G; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Laceulle, Odilia M; van Voorst, Guus</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated relations between personality pathology and mentalizing capacities reflected in social information <span class="hlt">processing</span> (SIP) of adolescents. 96 adolescent outpatients completed a structured interview regarding SIP. Their clinicians completed a checklist based on DSM-IV, assessing severity of personality pathology. Significant relations were found between the severity of personality pathology and SIP: the more severe the personality pathology, the higher the intensity of reported emotions, the more likely adolescents were to choose inadequate coping strategies and aggressive reactions in social situations, and the more positively they evaluated aggressive reactions. Severity of traits of antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) had unique associations with distinctive SIP variables: ASPD being more related to inadequate coping strategies, less reflection on other's motives and aggressive responses, and BPD being more related to avoidant or prosocial responses and in particular to memories of frustrating events. This study provides evidence for difficulties in SIP among adolescents with more severe personality pathology, suggesting that the steps in the SIP model can be used to operationalize mentalizing problems. The results seem to paint a picture of ASPD and BPD having a shared background, but their own specific problems concerning SIP. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PJMPE..23...67R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PJMPE..23...67R"><span>Patient dose measurement in <span class="hlt">common</span> medical X-ray examinations and propose the first local dose <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels to diagnostic radiology in Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rasuli, Behrouz; Tabari Juybari, Raheleh; Forouzi, Meysam; Ghorbani, Mohammad</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to investigate patient dose in pelvic and abdomen x-ray examinations. This work also provided the LDRLs (local diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels) in Khuzestan region, southwest of Iran to help establish the NDRLs (national diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels). Methods: Patient doses were assessed from patient's anatomical data and exposure parameters based on the IAEA indirect dosimetry method. With regard to this method, exposure parameters such as tube output, kVp, mAs, FFD and patient anatomical data were used for calculating ESD (entrance skin dose) of patients. This study was conducted on 250 standard patients (50% men and 50% women) at eight high-patient-load imaging centers. Results: The results indicate that mean ESDs for the both pelvic and abdomen examinations were lower than the IAEA and EC <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels, 2.3 and 3.7 mGy, respectively. Mean applied kVps were 67 and 70 and mean FFDs were 103 and 109, respectively. Tube loadings obtained in this study for pelvic examination were lower than all the corresponding values in the reviewed literature. Likewise, the average annual patient load across all hospitals were more than 37000 patients, i.e. more than 100 patients a day. Conclusions: The authors recommend that DRLs (diagnostic <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels) obtained in this region, which are the first available data, can be used as local DRLs for pelvic and abdomen procedures. This work also provides that on-the-job training programs for staffs and close cross collaboration between physicists and physicians should be strongly considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_Crystal/snowshoechemistry/index.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_Crystal/snowshoechemistry/index.html"><span>Water chemistry at Snowshoe Mountain, Colorado: mixed <span class="hlt">processes</span> in a <span class="hlt">common</span> bedrock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hoch, A.R.; Reddy, M.M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>At Snowshoe Mountain the primary bedrock is quite homogeneous, but weathering <span class="hlt">processes</span> vary as waters moves through the soils, vadose zone and phreatic zone of the subsurface. In the thin soil, physical degradation of tuff facilitates preferential dissolution of potassium ion from glass within the rock matrix, while other silicate minerals remain unaltered. In the vadose zone, in the upper few meters of fractured bedrock, dilute water infiltrates during spring snowmelt and summer storms, leading to preferential dissolution of augite exposed on fracture surfaces. Deeper yet, in the phreatic zone of the fractured bedrock, Pleistocene calcite fracture fillings dissolve, and dioctahedral and trioctahedral clays form as penetrative weathering alters feldspar and pyroxene. Alkalinity is generated and silica concentrations are buffered by mineral alteration reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25743587','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25743587"><span>[Examination of <span class="hlt">processed</span> vegetable foods for the presence of <span class="hlt">common</span> DNA sequences of genetically modified tomatoes].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Ubukata, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroshi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The contamination of <span class="hlt">processed</span> vegetable foods with genetically modified tomatoes was investigated by the use of qualitative PCR methods to detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) and the kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII). DNA fragments of P35S and NPTII were detected in vegetable juice samples, possibly due to contamination with the genomes of cauliflower mosaic virus infecting juice ingredients of Brassica species and soil bacteria, respectively. Therefore, to detect the transformation construct sequences of GM tomatoes, primer pairs were designed for qualitative PCR to specifically detect the border region between P35S and NPTII, and the border region between nopaline synthase gene promoter and NPTII. No amplification of the targeted sequences was observed using genomic DNA purified from the juice ingredients. The developed qualitative PCR method is considered to be a reliable tool to check contamination of products with GM tomatoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22304874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22304874"><span>Universal <span class="hlt">processes</span> and <span class="hlt">common</span> factors in couple therapy and relationship education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Halford, W Kim; Snyder, Douglas K</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Across nearly all cultures, sharing a lifelong committed relationship with an intimate partner comprises an almost universal and strongly held ambition. Nevertheless, cross-national data reliably indicate a high prevalence of relationship distress and dissolution, with adverse emotional and physical health consequences for adult partners and their children. This introduction to the special section summarizes findings regarding the effectiveness of couple therapy for treating general relationship distress, couple-based interventions for individual mental or physical health problems, and couple relationship education programs aimed at helping couples sustain a healthy committed relationship. Within each of these approaches, evidence regarding potential mediators of interventions' effectiveness is reviewed, and critical unanswered questions are highlighted. Discussion concludes with a brief introduction to each of the articles comprising this special section on universal <span class="hlt">processes</span> in couple therapy and relationship education. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4011662','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4011662"><span>National Bone Health Alliance Bone Turnover Marker Project: current practices and the need for US harmonization, standardization, and <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ranges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krege, J.; Lane, N.; Leary, E.; Libanati, C.; Miller, P.; Myers, G.; Silverman, S.; Vesper, H. W.; Lee, D.; Payette, M.; Randall, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary This position paper reviews how the National Bone Health Alliance (NBHA) will execute a project to help assure health professionals of the clinical utility of bone turnover markers; the current clinical approaches concerning osteoporosis and the status and use of bone turnover markers in the USA; the rationale for focusing this effort around two specific bone turnover markers; the need to standardize bone marker sample collection procedures, <span class="hlt">reference</span> ranges, and bone turnover marker assays in clinical laboratories; and the importance of harmonization for future research of bone turnover markers. Introduction Osteoporosis is a major global health problem, with the prevalence and incidence of osteoporosis for at-risk populations estimated to be 44 million Americans. The potential of bone markers as an additional tool for health care professionals to improve patient outcomes and impact morbidity and mortality is crucial in providing better health care and addressing rising health care costs. This need to advance the field of bone turnover markers has been recognized by a number of organizations, including the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF), National Osteoporosis Foundation, International Federation of Clinical Chemistry, and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), and the NBHA. Methods This position paper elucidates how this project will standardize bone turnover marker sample collection procedures in the USA, establish a USA <span class="hlt">reference</span> range for one bone formation (serum procollagen type I N propeptide, s-PINP) and one bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, s-CTX) marker, and standardize bone turnover marker assays used in clinical laboratories. This effort will allow clinicians from the USA to have confidence in their use of bone turnover markers to help monitor osteoporosis treatment and assess future fracture risk. This project builds on the recommendations of the IOF/IFCC Bone Marker Standards Working Group by developing USA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25627789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25627789"><span>Development of a new cucumber <span class="hlt">reference</span> material for pesticide residue analysis: feasibility study for material <span class="hlt">processing</span>, homogeneity and stability assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grimalt, Susana; Harbeck, Stefan; Shegunova, Penka; Seghers, John; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Emteborg, Håkan; Dabrio, Marta</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The feasibility of the production of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> material for pesticide residue analysis in a cucumber matrix was investigated. Cucumber was spiked at 0.075 mg/kg with each of the 15 selected pesticides (acetamiprid, azoxystrobin, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, diazinon, (α + β)-endosulfan, fenitrothion, imazalil, imidacloprid, iprodione, malathion, methomyl, tebuconazole and thiabendazole) respectively. Three different strategies were considered for <span class="hlt">processing</span> the material, based on the physicochemical properties of the vegetable and the target pesticides. As a result, a frozen spiked slurry of fresh cucumber, a spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder and a freeze-dried cucumber powder spiked by spraying the powder were studied. The effects of <span class="hlt">processing</span> and aspects related to the reconstitution of the material were evaluated by monitoring the pesticide levels in the three materials. Two separate analytical methods based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS were developed and validated in-house. The spiked freeze-dried cucumber powder was selected as the most feasible material and more exhaustive studies on homogeneity and stability of the pesticide residues in the matrix were carried out. The results suggested that the between-unit homogeneity was satisfactory with a sample intake of dried material as low as 0.1 g. A 9-week isochronous stability study was undertaken at -20 °C, 4 °C and 18 °C, with -70 °C designated as the <span class="hlt">reference</span> temperature. The pesticides tested exhibited adequate stability at -20 °C during the 9-week period as well as at -70 °C for a period of 18 months. These results constitute a good basis for the development of a new candidate <span class="hlt">reference</span> material for selected pesticides in a cucumber matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20533385','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20533385"><span>B cell subsets in healthy children: <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for evaluation of B cell maturation <span class="hlt">process</span> in peripheral blood.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piątosa, Barbara; Wolska-Kuśnierz, Beata; Pac, Małgorzata; Siewiera, Katarzyna; Gałkowska, Ewa; Bernatowska, Ewa</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">process</span> of maturation of the immune system leads to generation of various lymphoid cell populations having the ability to react in specific way and expressing various markers on the cell surface. The study was set up to establish <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for B lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood of children and young adults to find the spectrum of their physiological age-related variation. Blood samples were taken from 292 children and young adults aged 0-31 years and tested for distribution of B cell subsets. Relative and absolute sizes of non-memory and memory, transitional, naïve, immature marginal zone-like/IgM-only memory, class-switched memory, double negative, activated, and plasmacytoid cell populations were determined by four-color flow cytometry, based on differential expression of CD19, IgM, IgD, CD21, CD27, and CD38. Significant variation both in relative, as well as in absolute numbers of individual cell populations in tested groups was observed. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for age-related B cell subsets in eleven age groups, established as result of this study, may be used in diagnostics of any pathology related to B cell maturation <span class="hlt">process</span>, as well as in attempts of correlating laboratory results with clinical symptoms of many defects affecting antibody production in pediatric population. Determination of B cell subpopulations carried in patients with antibody deficiencies may help to understand the nature of the disease and prevent its complications. © 2010 International Clinical Cytometry Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29105895','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29105895"><span>A dimensional approach to determine <span class="hlt">common</span> and specific neurofunctional markers for depression and social anxiety during emotional face <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Lizhu; Becker, Benjamin; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Zhiying; Xu, Xiaolei; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Jiaojian; Kou, Juan; Dai, Jing; Kendrick, Keith M</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>Major depression disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorder are both prevalent and debilitating. High rates of comorbidity between MDD and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest <span class="hlt">common</span> pathological pathways, including aberrant neural <span class="hlt">processing</span> of interpersonal signals. In patient populations, the determination of <span class="hlt">common</span> and distinct neurofunctional markers of MDD and SAD is often hampered by confounding factors, such as generally elevated anxiety levels and disorder-specific brain structural alterations. This study employed a dimensional disorder approach to map neurofunctional markers associated with levels of depression and social anxiety symptoms in a cohort of 91 healthy subjects using an emotional face <span class="hlt">processing</span> paradigm. Examining linear associations between levels of depression and social anxiety, while controlling for trait anxiety revealed that both were associated with exaggerated dorsal striatal reactivity to fearful and sad expression faces respectively. Exploratory analysis revealed that depression scores were positively correlated with dorsal striatal functional connectivity during <span class="hlt">processing</span> of fearful faces, whereas those of social anxiety showed a negative association during <span class="hlt">processing</span> of sad faces. No linear relationships between levels of depression and social anxiety were observed during a facial-identity matching task or with brain structure. Together, the present findings indicate that dorsal striatal neurofunctional alterations might underlie aberrant interpersonal <span class="hlt">processing</span> associated with both increased levels of depression and social anxiety. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3310366','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3310366"><span>The <span class="hlt">Process</span>-Knowledge Model of Health Literacy: Evidence from a Componential Analysis of Two <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Used Measures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chin, Jessie; Morrow, Daniel G.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Conner-Garcia, Thembi; Graumlich, James F.; Murray, Michael D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We investigated the effects of domain-general <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity (fluid ability such as working memory), domain-general knowledge (crystallized ability such as vocabulary), and domain-specific health knowledge for two of the most <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used measures of health literacy (S-TOFHLA and REALM). One hundred forty six community-dwelling older adults participated; 103 had been diagnosed with hypertension. The results showed that older adults who had higher levels of <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity or knowledge (domain-general or health) performed better on both of the health literacy measures. <span class="hlt">Processing</span> capacity interacted with knowledge: <span class="hlt">Processing</span> capacity had a lower level of association with health literacy for participants with more knowledge than for those with lower levels of knowledge, suggesting that knowledge may offset the effects of <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity limitations on health literacy. Furthermore, performance on the two health literacy measures appeared to reflect a different weighting for the three types of abilities. S-TOFHLA performance reflected <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity as well as general knowledge, whereas performance on the REALM depended more on general and health knowledge than on <span class="hlt">processing</span> capacity. The findings support a <span class="hlt">process</span>-knowledge model of health literacy among older adults, and have implications for selecting health literacy measures in various health care contexts. PMID:21951254</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27544206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27544206"><span>Unity and disunity in evolutionary sciences: <span class="hlt">process</span>-based analogies open <span class="hlt">common</span> research avenues for biology and linguistics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>List, Johann-Mattis; Pathmanathan, Jananan Sylvestre; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric</p> <p>2016-08-20</p> <p>For a long time biologists and linguists have been noticing surprising similarities between the evolution of life forms and languages. Most of the proposed analogies have been rejected. Some, however, have persisted, and some even turned out to be fruitful, inspiring the transfer of methods and models between biology and linguistics up to today. Most proposed analogies were based on a comparison of the research objects rather than the <span class="hlt">processes</span> that shaped their evolution. Focusing on <span class="hlt">process</span>-based analogies, however, has the advantage of minimizing the risk of overstating similarities, while at the same time reflecting the <span class="hlt">common</span> strategy to use <span class="hlt">processes</span> to explain the evolution of complexity in both fields. We compared important evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span> in biology and linguistics and identified <span class="hlt">processes</span> specific to only one of the two disciplines as well as <span class="hlt">processes</span> which seem to be analogous, potentially reflecting core evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span>. These new <span class="hlt">process</span>-based analogies support novel methodological transfer, expanding the application range of biological methods to the field of historical linguistics. We illustrate this by showing (i) how methods dealing with incomplete lineage sorting offer an introgression-free framework to analyze highly mosaic word distributions across languages; (ii) how sequence similarity networks can be used to identify composite and borrowed words across different languages; (iii) how research on partial homology can inspire new methods and models in both fields; and (iv) how constructive neutral evolution provides an original framework for analyzing convergent evolution in languages resulting from <span class="hlt">common</span> descent (Sapir's drift). Apart from new analogies between evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span>, we also identified <span class="hlt">processes</span> which are specific to either biology or linguistics. This shows that general evolution cannot be studied from within one discipline alone. In order to get a full picture of evolution, biologists and linguists need to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25842052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25842052"><span>Wechsler profiles in <span class="hlt">referred</span> children with intellectual giftedness: Associations with trait-anxiety, emotional dysregulation, and heterogeneity of Piaget-like reasoning <span class="hlt">processes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guénolé, Fabian; Speranza, Mario; Louis, Jacqueline; Fourneret, Pierre; Revol, Olivier; Baleyte, Jean-Marc</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>It is <span class="hlt">common</span> that intellectually gifted children (IQ ≥ 130) are <span class="hlt">referred</span> to paediatric or child neuropsychiatry clinics for socio-emotional problems and/or school underachievement or maladjustment. Among them, those displaying developmental asynchrony - a heterogeneous developmental pattern reflected in a significant verbal-performance discrepancy (SVPD) on Wechsler's intelligence profile - are thought to be more emotionally and behaviourally impaired than others. Our purpose was to investigate this clinical dichotomy using a cognitive psychopathological approach. Trait-anxiety and emotional dysregulation were investigated in two groups of <span class="hlt">referred</span> gifted children (n = 107 and 136, respectively), a pilot-study of reasoning <span class="hlt">processes</span> on extensive Piaget-like tasks was also performed in an additional small group (n = 12). Compared to those with a homogenous Wechsler profile, children with a SVPD exhibited: 1) a decreased prevalence of social preoccupation-anxiety (11.1% versus 27.4%; p < 0.05); 2) an increased prevalence of emotional dysregulation (58.7% versus 41.3%; p < 0.05); and 3) an increased prevalence of pathological cognitive disharmony on Piaget-like tasks (87.5% versus 0.0%; p < 0.05). The results support a clinical dichotomy of behaviourally-impaired children with intellectual giftedness, with developmentally asynchronous ones exhibiting more severe psychopathological features. This suggests that developmental asynchrony matters when examining emotional and behavioural problems in gifted children and call for further investigation of this profile. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28083826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28083826"><span>Development of a <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Image Collection Library for Histopathology Image <span class="hlt">Processing</span>, Analysis and Decision Support Systems Research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kostopoulos, Spiros; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Asvestas, Pantelis; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Xenogiannopoulos, George; Cavouras, Dionisis; Glotsos, Dimitris</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Histopathology image <span class="hlt">processing</span>, analysis and computer-aided diagnosis have been shown as effective assisting tools towards reliable and intra-/inter-observer invariant decisions in traditional pathology. Especially for cancer patients, decisions need to be as accurate as possible in order to increase the probability of optimal treatment planning. In this study, we propose a new image collection library (HICL-Histology Image Collection Library) comprising 3831 histological images of three different diseases, for fostering research in histopathology image <span class="hlt">processing</span>, analysis and computer-aided diagnosis. Raw data comprised 93, 116 and 55 cases of brain, breast and laryngeal cancer respectively collected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. The 3831 images were generated from the most representative regions of the pathology, specified by an experienced histopathologist. The HICL Image Collection is free for access under an academic license at http://medisp.bme.teiath.gr/hicl/ . Potential exploitations of the proposed library may span over a board spectrum, such as in image <span class="hlt">processing</span> to improve visualization, in segmentation for nuclei detection, in decision support systems for second opinion consultations, in statistical analysis for investigation of potential correlations between clinical annotations and imaging findings and, generally, in fostering research on histopathology image <span class="hlt">processing</span> and analysis. To the best of our knowledge, the HICL constitutes the first attempt towards creation of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> image collection library in the field of traditional histopathology, publicly and freely available to the scientific community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25212326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25212326"><span>Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of <span class="hlt">common</span> beans and soybeans upon thermal <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The effects of boiling and steaming <span class="hlt">processes</span> on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of <span class="hlt">common</span> beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-<span class="hlt">processing</span> methods caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total saponin content (TSC) and phytic acid content (PAC) values in all bean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal <span class="hlt">processing</span>. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different <span class="hlt">processing</span> methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal <span class="hlt">processing</span> caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14669877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14669877"><span>Fairly <span class="hlt">processing</span> rare and <span class="hlt">common</span> species in multivariate analysis of ecological series. Application to macrobenthic communities from Algiers harbour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manté, C; Claudet, J; Rebzani-Zahaf, C</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Systematic sampling of communities gives rise to large contingency tables summing up possible changes in the assemblages' structure. Such tables are generally analysed by multivariate statistical methods, which are ill-suited for simultaneously analysing rare and <span class="hlt">common</span> species (Field et al., 1982). In order to separately <span class="hlt">process</span> species belonging to either of these categories, we propose a statistical method to select <span class="hlt">common</span> species in a sequence of ecological surveys. It is based on a precise definition of rarity, and depends on a rarity parameter. In this work, this parameter will be optimised so that the sub-table of <span class="hlt">common</span> species captures the essential features of the complete table as well as possible. In this way we analysed the spatio-temporal evolution of macrobenthic communities from the Algiers harbour to study the pollution influence during a year. The examination of the communities' structuring was done through Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the species proportions table. Environmental variables were simultaneously sampled. We show that the data structure can be explained by about 25% of the total number of present species. Two environmental gradients were brought to the fore inside the harbour, the first one representing pollution, and the second one representing hydrological instabilities. Since rare species can also convey information, the complete table was also coded according to a generalised presence/absence index and submitted to Correspondence Analysis. The results were consistent with those of PCA, but they depended on more species, and highlighted the influence of sedimentology on the assemblages composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544399.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED544399.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards for Mathematics: Teacher Self-Learning Series. Module 1: Introduction to the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards in Mathematics--The Need, the Development <span class="hlt">Process</span>, the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Languages, and the Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Louisiana Department of Education, 2013</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This module provides background information and presents the new terminology used in the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). Educators should complete this module to understand the need for <span class="hlt">common</span> standards, determine information about who developed the Standards, and learn the terminology and the coding used in the CCSSM. An…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27282662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27282662"><span>Natural remedies used by Bunong people in Mondulkiri province (Northeast Cambodia) with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the treatment of 11 most <span class="hlt">common</span> ailments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chassagne, François; Hul, Sovanmoly; Deharo, Eric; Bourdy, Geneviève</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>In this paper we present a comprehensive ethnomedicinal study conducted in Mondulkiri province. Traditional knowledge about natural medicine (plants, animals, mushrooms) was investigated in Cambodia's largest indigenous community: the Bunong people. The survey aims to document the medicinal plant use of this ethnic, by focusing on the eleven most frequent diseases encountered in the area, in order to highlight species that could be recommended in public health programs. During the years 2013 and 2014, 202 villagers were interviewed in 28 villages from the five districts in Mondulkiri. Two types of methodology were employed: (1) an ethnobotanical field survey (walk-in-the-wood interviews) and (2) semi-structured household interviews with a special emphasis on the treatment of 11 most <span class="hlt">common</span> ailments encountered in the area. Medicinal plants and mushrooms were collected and identified together with medicinal animals. The factor informant consensus (FIC) and fidelity level (FL) were calculated. Bunong people use a total of 214 plants belonging to 72 families, 1 mushroom and 22 animal species in their traditional healthcare practices in order to treat 51 different ailments. Among the medicinal plants, Fabaceae was the most predominant family; Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King and H.Rob. (Asteraceae), Zingiber montanum (J.Koenig) Link ex A.Dietr. (Zingiberaceae) and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae) were the most cited medicinal plants; and four ailments (cold/fever, diarrhea, postpartum disorders and stomachache) were described as major ailments in the community. The root was the most important part of plants used, and decoction was the most cited method of preparation. During our survey, we also discovered a "new to science" plant species called Ardisia mondulkiriensis Hul and Chassagne, and we recorded for the second time the plant species recently described, Solanum sakhanii Hul. Most of the species reported for the treatment of the 11 most frequent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1729780','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1729780"><span>An echocardiographic assessment of cardiac morphology and <span class="hlt">common</span> ECG findings in teenage professional soccer players: <span class="hlt">reference</span> ranges for use in screening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Somauroo, J; Pyatt, J; Jackson, M; Perry, R; Ramsdale, D</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>. Sinus bradycardia and the ECG criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy were <span class="hlt">common</span> but there was poor correlation with echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy. The type of hypertrophy found reflected the combined endurance and strength based training undertaken.


Keywords: cardiac morphology; professional soccer players; echocardiography; ECG findings PMID:11359746</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27566134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27566134"><span>Development of a normalized extraction to further aid in fast, high-throughput <span class="hlt">processing</span> of forensic DNA <span class="hlt">reference</span> samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Connon, Catherine C; LeFebvre, Aaron K; Benjamin, Robert C</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The goal of this project was to develop a "normalized" extraction procedure to be used in conjunction with previously validated 3μL fast PCR reactions (42-51min utilizing KAPA2G™ Fast Multiplex PCR Kit) and alternative capillary electrophoresis (24-28min injection using POP-6™ Polymer and a 22cm array). This was the final phase of a workflow overhaul for the database unit at Cellmark Forensics to achieve a substantial reduction in <span class="hlt">processing</span> time for forensic DNA database samples without incurring significant added costs and/or the need for new instrumentation, while still generating high quality STR profiles. Extraction normalization aimed to consistently yield a small range of DNA concentrations, thereby eliminating the need for sample quantification and dilution. This was specifically achieved using the ChargeSwitch ® Forensic DNA Purification Kit and a reduction in extraction bead quantity, thereby forcing an increase in bead binding efficiency. Following development of this extraction procedure, an evaluation ensued to assess the combination of normalized extraction, 3μL fast PCR (with PowerPlex 16 HS, Identifiler Plus and Identifiler primer sets), and alternative CE detection - further <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as new "first pass" procedures. These modifications resulted in a 37% reduction in <span class="hlt">processing</span> time and were evaluated via an in depth validation, from which nearly 2000 STR profiles were generated, of which 554 profiles from 77 swab donors and 210 profiles from 35 buccal collector donors specifically arose from the new first pass procedures. This validation demonstrates the robustness of these <span class="hlt">processes</span> for buccal swabs and Buccal DNA Collectors™ using the three primer sets evaluated and their ability to generate high quality STR profiles with 95-99% and 88-91% pass rates, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28805401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28805401"><span>The <span class="hlt">common</span> sense model of self-regulation: Meta-analysis and test of a <span class="hlt">process</span> model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hagger, Martin S; Koch, Severine; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Orbell, Sheina</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>According to the <span class="hlt">common</span>-sense model of self-regulation, individuals form lay representations of illnesses that guide coping procedures to manage illness threat. We meta-analyzed studies adopting the model to (a) examine the intercorrelations among illness representation dimensions, coping strategies, and illness outcomes; (b) test the sufficiency of a <span class="hlt">process</span> model in which relations between illness representations and outcomes were mediated by coping strategies; and (c) test effects of moderators on model relations. Studies adopting the <span class="hlt">common</span>-sense model in chronic illness (k = 254) were subjected to random-effects meta-analysis. The pattern of zero-order corrected correlations among illness representation dimensions (identity, consequences, timeline, perceived control, illness coherence, emotional representations), coping strategies (avoidance, cognitive reappraisal, emotion venting, problem-focused generic, problem-focused specific, seeking social support), and illness outcomes (disease state, distress, well-being, physical, role, and social functioning) was consistent with previous analyses. Meta-analytic path analyses supported a <span class="hlt">process</span> model that included direct effects of illness representations on outcomes and indirect effects mediated by coping. Emotional representations and perceived control were consistently related to illness-related and functional outcomes via, respectively, lower and greater employment of coping strategies to deal with symptoms or manage treatment. Representations signaling threat (consequences, identity) had specific positive and negative indirect effects on outcomes through problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies. There was little evidence of moderation of model effects by study design, illness type and context, and study quality. A revised <span class="hlt">process</span> model is proposed to guide future research which includes effects of moderators, individual differences, and beliefs about coping and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2000668','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2000668"><span>Manually controlled human balancing using visual, vestibular and proprioceptive senses involves a <span class="hlt">common</span>, low frequency neural <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lakie, Martin; Loram, Ian D</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Ten subjects balanced their own body or a mechanically equivalent unstable inverted pendulum by hand, through a compliant spring linkage. Their balancing <span class="hlt">process</span> was always characterized by repeated small reciprocating hand movements. These bias adjustments were an observable sign of intermittent alterations in neural output. On average, the adjustments occurred at intervals of ∼400 ms. To generate appropriate stabilizing bias adjustments, sensory information about body or load movement is needed. Subjects used visual, vestibular or proprioceptive sensation alone and in combination to perform the tasks. We first ask, is the time between adjustments (bias duration) sensory specific? Vision is associated with slow responses. Other senses involved with balance are known to be faster. Our second question is; does bias duration depend on sensory abundance? An appropriate bias adjustment cannot occur until unplanned motion is unambiguously perceived (a sensory threshold). The addition of more sensory data should therefore expedite action, decreasing the mean bias adjustment duration. Statistical analysis showed that (1) the mean bias adjustment duration was remarkably independent of the sensory modality and (2) the addition of one or two sensory modalities made a small, but significant, decrease in the mean bias adjustment duration. Thus, a threshold effect can alter only a very minor part of the bias duration. The bias adjustment duration in manual balancing must reflect something more than visual sensation and perceptual thresholds; our suggestion is that it is a <span class="hlt">common</span> central motor planning <span class="hlt">process</span>. We predict that similar <span class="hlt">processes</span> may be identified in the control of standing. PMID:16959857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24012545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24012545"><span>Competitive mechanisms in sentence <span class="hlt">processing</span>: <span class="hlt">common</span> and distinct production and reading comprehension networks linked to the prefrontal cortex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Humphreys, Gina F; Gennari, Silvia P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Despite much interest in language production and comprehension mechanisms, little is known about the relationship between the two. Previous research suggests that linguistic knowledge is shared across these tasks and that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) may be <span class="hlt">commonly</span> recruited. However, it remains unclear the extent to which production and comprehension share competition mechanisms. Here we investigate this issue and specifically examine competition in determining the event roles in a sentence (agent or affected participant). We used both behavioral and fMRI methods and compared the reading and production of high- and low-competition sentences, specifically targeting LIFG. We found that activity in pars opercularis (PO), independently identified by a competition-driven localizer, was modulated by competition in both tasks. Psychophysiological interaction analyses seeded in PO revealed task-specific networks: In comprehension, PO only interacted with the posterior temporal lobe, whereas in production, it interacted with a large network including hippocampal, posterior temporal, medial frontal and subcortical structures. Production and comprehension therefore recruit partially distinct functional networks but share competitive <span class="hlt">processes</span> within fronto-temporal regions. We argue that these <span class="hlt">common</span> regions store long-term linguistic associations and compute their higher-order contingencies, but competition in production ignites a larger neural network implementing planning, as required by task demands. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.371..167L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.371..167L"><span>The need of the change of the conceptualisation of hydrologic <span class="hlt">processes</span> under extreme conditions - taking <span class="hlt">reference</span> evapotranspiration as an example</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, S.; Tan, L.; Mo, X.; Zhang, S.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>What a hydrological model displays is the relationships between the output and input in daily, monthly, yearly and other temporal scales. In the case of climate change or other environment changes, the input of the hydrological model may show a gradual or abrupt change. There have been numerous documented studies to explore the response of output of the hydrological models to the change of the input with scenario simulation. Most of the studies assumed that the conceptualisation of hydrologic <span class="hlt">processes</span> will remain, which may be true for the gradual change of the input. However, under extreme conditions the conceptualisation of hydrologic <span class="hlt">processes</span> may be completely changed. Taking an example of the Allen's formula to calculate crop <span class="hlt">reference</span> evapotranspiration (ET0) as a simple hydrological model, we analyze the alternation of the extreme in ET0 from 1955 to 2012 at the Chongling Experimental Station located in Hebei Province, China. The relationships between ET0 and the meteorological factors for the average values, minimum (maximum) values at daily, monthly and annual scales are revealed. It is found the extreme of the output can follow the extreme of the input better when their relationship is more linear. For non-liner relationship, the extreme of the input cannot at all be reflected from the extreme of the output. Relatively, extreme event at daily scale is harder to be shown than that at monthly scale. The result implicates that a routine model may not be able to catch the response to extreme events and it is even more so as we extrapolate models to higher temperature/CO2 conditions in the future. Some possible choices for the improvements are suggested for predicting hydrological extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000791.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000791.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> peroneal nerve dysfunction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Alternative Names Neuropathy - <span class="hlt">common</span> peroneal nerve; Peroneal nerve injury; Peroneal nerve palsy Images <span class="hlt">Common</span> peroneal nerve dysfunction <span class="hlt">References</span> King JC. Peroneal neuropathy. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626861','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4626861"><span>Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution <span class="hlt">processed</span> red emitters with evaporated blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We prepared highly-efficient solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2’)tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m2. To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device. PMID:26514274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515903C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...515903C"><span>Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes formed by solution <span class="hlt">processed</span> red emitters with evaporated blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cho, Ye Ram; Kim, Hyung Suk; Yu, Young-Jun; Suh, Min Chul</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We prepared highly-efficient solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with a blue <span class="hlt">common</span> layer structure that can reasonably confine the triplet excitons inside of the red emission layer (EML) with the assistance of a bipolar exciton blocking layer. The red PHOLEDs containing EML with a 7 : 3 ratio of 11-(4,6-diphenyl-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-12-phenyl-11,12-dihydro-11,12-diaza-indeno[2,1-a]fluorene (n-type host, NH) : 4-(3-(triphenylen-2-yl)phenyl)dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (p-type host, PH) doped with 5% Iridium(III) bis(2-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)quinolinato-N,C2’)tetramethylheptadionate (Red Dopant, RD) produced the highest current and power efficiencies at 23.4 cd/A and 13.6 lm/W, with a 19% external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m2. To the best of our knowledge, such efficiency was the best among those that have been obtained from solution-<span class="hlt">processed</span> small molecular red PHOLEDs. In addition, the host molecules utilized in this study have no flexible spacers, such as an alkyl chain, which normally deteriorate the stability of the device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JSemi..31k5004Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JSemi..31k5004Z"><span>A curvature calibrated bandgap <span class="hlt">reference</span> with base—emitter current compensating in a 0.13 μm CMOS <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhuo, Ma; Xiaoqiang, Tan; Lunguo, Xie; Yang, Guo</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>In bandgap <span class="hlt">references</span>, the effect caused by the input offset of the operational amplifier can be effectively reduced by the utilization of cascade bipolar junction transistors (BJTs). But in modern CMOS logic <span class="hlt">processes</span>, due to the small value of β, the base—emitter path of BJTs has a significant streaming effect on the collector current, which leads to a large temperature drift for the <span class="hlt">reference</span> voltage. To solve this problem, a base—emitter current compensating technique is proposed in a cascade BJT bandgap <span class="hlt">reference</span> structure to calibrate the curvature of the output voltage to temperature. Experimental results based on the 0.13 μm logic CMOS <span class="hlt">process</span> show that the <span class="hlt">reference</span> voltage is 1.238 V and the temperature coefficient is 6.2 ppm/°C within the range of -40 to 125 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24444847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24444847"><span><span class="hlt">Process</span> evaluation of a problem solving intervention to prevent recurrent sickness absence in workers with <span class="hlt">common</span> mental disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arends, Iris; Bültmann, Ute; Nielsen, Karina; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R; van der Klink, Jac J L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> mental disorders (CMDs) are a major cause of sickness absence. Twenty to 30% of the workers who return to work after sickness absence due to CMDs experience recurrent sickness absence. We developed the Stimulating Healthy participation And Relapse Prevention (SHARP)-at work intervention, a problem solving intervention delivered by occupational physicians (OPs), to prevent recurrent sickness absence in this worker population in The Netherlands. A <span class="hlt">process</span> evaluation was conducted alongside a cluster-randomised controlled trial to (1) evaluate whether the SHARP-at work intervention was implemented according to the protocol and differed from treatment in the control group, and (2) to investigate the relationship between the key elements of the intervention and the effect outcome (i.e. recurrent sickness absence). We collected <span class="hlt">process</span> data for both the intervention and control group on recruitment, reach, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, context and satisfaction. Data on recurrent sickness absence was collected through the registry system of the collaborating occupational health service. The study was performed in the Netherlands, and between 2010 and 2012, 154 OPs and 158 participants participated. Compared to the control group, participants in the intervention group more frequently had two or more consultations with the OP (odds ratio [OR] = 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-8.8) and completed more assignments (OR = 33.8, 95% CI = 10.4-109.5) as recommended in the intervention protocol. OPs and participants were satisfied with the intervention and rated it as applicable. Several individual intervention components were linked to the effect outcome. The <span class="hlt">process</span> evaluation showed that the SHARP-at work intervention was conducted according to the protocol for the majority of the participants and well-received by OPs and participants. Furthermore, the intervention differed from treatment in the control group. Overall, the results provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/common-variable-immune-deficiency','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/common-variable-immune-deficiency"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: <span class="hlt">common</span> variable immune deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... disorder to fight off infections. Abnormal and deficient immune responses over time likely contribute to the increased cancer risk. In addition, vaccines for diseases such as measles and influenza do ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29446837','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29446837"><span>25-OH-vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and calcium serum levels in captive <span class="hlt">common</span> marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): <span class="hlt">Reference</span> values and effect of age, sex, season, and closure of long bone epiphyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bosseler, Leslie; Bakker, Jaco; Duchateau, Luc; Remarque, Ed; Langermans, Jan A M; Cornillie, Pieter; Chiers, Koen</p> <p>2018-02-15</p> <p>To date, <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for 25-OH-vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium in serum of <span class="hlt">common</span> marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) based on a large sample size are not available. Serum <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for these parameters were determined and correlated with sex, age, season of sampling, and time of long bone epiphyseal closure in captive-housed marmosets. The 90% <span class="hlt">reference</span> range for serum 25-OH-vitamin D is 47.40-370.4 nmol/L, for PTH 2.10-30.51 pmol/L, and for calcium 2.08-2.63 mmol/L. Lower levels of vitamin D were measured in fall compared with the other seasons. Levels of PTH were higher in males than in females, and calcium levels were lower in younger animals compared with older marmosets. No other effects of age, sex, season, or timing of growth plate closure were found. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10605E..1CZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10605E..1CZ"><span>A method of camera calibration in the measurement <span class="hlt">process</span> with <span class="hlt">reference</span> mark for approaching observation space target</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Hua; Zeng, Luan</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Binocular stereoscopic vision can be used for space-based space targets near observation. In order to solve the problem that the traditional binocular vision system cannot work normally after interference, an online calibration method of binocular stereo measuring camera with self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> is proposed. The method uses an auxiliary optical imaging device to insert the image of the standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> object into the edge of the main optical path and image with the target on the same focal plane, which is equivalent to a standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> in the binocular imaging optical system; When the position of the system and the imaging device parameters are disturbed, the image of the standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> will change accordingly in the imaging plane, and the position of the standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> object does not change. The camera's external parameters can be re-calibrated by the visual relationship of the standard <span class="hlt">reference</span> object. The experimental results show that the maximum mean square error of the same object can be reduced from the original 72.88mm to 1.65mm when the right camera is deflected by 0.4 degrees and the left camera is high and low with 0.2° rotation. This method can realize the online calibration of binocular stereoscopic vision measurement system, which can effectively improve the anti - jamming ability of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016639','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3016639"><span>A Comparison of Drug Coverage in Alberta Before and After the Introduction of the National <span class="hlt">Common</span> Drug Review <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gamble, John-Michael; Eurich, Dean T.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Objective: The integration of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Drug Review (CDR) was a substantial change for Canada's public drug plans. Detailed comparisons of time-to-listing and proportion of medications covered by the province of Alberta's drug plans within the context of the CDR <span class="hlt">process</span> have not been rigorously conducted. Methods: New drugs approved by Health Canada were identified five years prior to the CDR's first recommendation (May 2004) and five years after. The time-to-listing and proportion of new drugs covered on the Alberta Health and Wellness Drug Benefit List (AHWDBL) was compared between these periods. The level of agreement between CDR recommendations and coverage in Alberta was calculated using a kappa score. Results: Two hundred and twenty new drugs were identified and met the study eligibility criteria (118 pre-CDR, 102 post-CDR). The median time-to-listing was 312 vs. 524 days in the pre-CDR and post-CDR periods, respectively, with the difference largely driven by time from notice of compliance (NOC) to the CDR recommendation. The level of agreement between 73 drugs with CDR recommendations and coverage in Alberta was fair (kappa 0.55). Conclusion: Following the implementation of the CDR, the proportion of drugs covered has decreased and overall median time-to-listing of new drugs has increased in the province of Alberta. For drugs listed on the AHWDBL, the proportion of time attributable to the CDR <span class="hlt">process</span> (NOC to CDR recommendation) was 63% of the overall time-to-listing. PMID:22043227</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5788105','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5788105"><span>Is There a <span class="hlt">Common</span> Summary Statistical <span class="hlt">Process</span> for Representing the Mean and Variance? A Study Using Illustrations of Familiar Items</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tokita, Midori; Ishiguchi, Akira</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>A number of studies revealed that our visual system can extract different types of summary statistics, such as the mean and variance, from sets of items. Although the extraction of such summary statistics has been studied well in isolation, the relationship between these statistics remains unclear. In this study, we explored this issue using an individual differences approach. Observers viewed illustrations of strawberries and lollypops varying in size or orientation and performed four tasks in a within-subject design, namely mean and variance discrimination tasks with size and orientation domains. We found that the performances in the mean and variance discrimination tasks were not correlated with each other and demonstrated that extractions of the mean and variance are mediated by different representation mechanisms. In addition, we tested the relationship between performances in size and orientation domains for each summary statistic (i.e. mean and variance) and examined whether each summary statistic has distinct <span class="hlt">processes</span> across perceptual domains. The results illustrated that statistical summary representations of size and orientation may share a <span class="hlt">common</span> mechanism for representing the mean and possibly for representing variance. Introspections for each observer performing the tasks were also examined and discussed. PMID:29399318</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3205609','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3205609"><span>Relationship between <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Consumed in Jamaica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bahado-Singh, Perceval S.; Riley, Cliff K.; Wheatley, Andrew O.; Lowe, Henry I. C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars <span class="hlt">commonly</span> eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years). The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3), while those <span class="hlt">processed</span> by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3) and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22132322</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED527334.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED527334.pdf"><span>Analyzing How Formalist, Cognitive-<span class="hlt">Processing</span>, and Literacy Practices Learning Paradigms are Shaping the Implementation of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beach, Richard</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper analyzes the influence of three different learning paradigms for learning literacy--formalist, cognitive-<span class="hlt">processing</span>, and literacy practices--on the implementation of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards. It argues that the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards are based largely on a formalist paradigm as evident in the emphasis on teaching text…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28598613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28598613"><span>Role of Sample <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Strategies at the European Union National <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Laboratories (NRLs) Concerning the Analysis of Pesticide Residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hajeb, Parvaneh; Herrmann, Susan S; Poulsen, Mette E</p> <p>2017-07-19</p> <p>The guidance document SANTE 11945/2015 recommends that cereal samples be milled to a particle size preferably smaller than 1.0 mm and that extensive heating of the samples should be avoided. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the differences in milling procedures, obtained particle size distributions, and the resulting pesticide residue recovery when cereal samples were milled at the European Union National <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Laboratories (NRLs) with their routine milling procedures. A total of 23 NRLs participated in the study. The oat and rye samples milled by each NRL were sent to the European Union <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Laboratory on Cereals and Feedingstuff (EURL) for the determination of the particle size distribution and pesticide residue recovery. The results showed that the NRLs used several different brands and types of mills. Large variations in the particle size distributions and pesticide extraction efficiencies were observed even between samples milled by the same type of mill.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28065898','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28065898"><span>MetaSpark: a spark-based distributed <span class="hlt">processing</span> tool to recruit metagenomic reads to <span class="hlt">reference</span> genomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Wei; Li, Ruilin; Yuan, Shuo; Liu, ChangChun; Yao, Shaowen; Luo, Jing; Niu, Beifang</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>With the advent of next-generation sequencing, traditional bioinformatics tools are challenged by massive raw metagenomic datasets. One of the bottlenecks of metagenomic studies is lack of large-scale and cloud computing suitable data analysis tools. In this paper, we proposed a Spark based tool, called MetaSpark, to recruit metagenomic reads to <span class="hlt">reference</span> genomes. MetaSpark benefits from the distributed data set (RDD) of Spark, which makes it able to cache data set in memory across cluster nodes and scale well with the datasets. Compared with previous metagenomics recruitment tools, MetaSpark recruited significantly more reads than many programs such as SOAP2, BWA and LAST and increased recruited reads by ∼4% compared with FR-HIT when there were 1 million reads and 0.75 GB <span class="hlt">references</span>. Different test cases demonstrate MetaSpark's scalability and overall high performance. https://github.com/zhouweiyg/metaspark. bniu@sccas.cn , jingluo@ynu.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5596083','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5596083"><span>Self-<span class="hlt">Reference</span> Emerges Earlier than Emotion during an Implicit Self-Referential Emotion <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Task: Event-Related Potential Evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhou, Haiyan; Guo, Jialiang; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Minghui; Liu, Liqing; Feng, Lei; Yang, Jie; Wang, Zhijiang; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Ning</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Self-referential emotion <span class="hlt">refers</span> to the <span class="hlt">process</span> of evaluating emotional stimuli with respect to the self. <span class="hlt">Processes</span> indicative of a self-positivity bias are reflected in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals at ~400 ms when the task does not require a discrimination of self from other. However, when distinguishing between self-referential and other-referential emotions is required, previous studies have shown inconsistent temporal dynamics of EEG signals in slightly different tasks. Based on the observation of early self–other discrimination, we hypothesized that self would be rapidly activated in the early stage to modulate emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span> in the late stage during an implicit self-referential emotion. To test this hypothesis, we employed an implicit task in which participants were asked to judge the order of Chinese characters of trait adjectives preceded by a self (“I”) or other pronoun (“He” or “She”). This study aimed to explore the difference of social-related emotional evaluation from self-<span class="hlt">reference</span>; the other pronoun was not defined to a specific person, rather it <span class="hlt">referred</span> to the general concept. Sixteen healthy Chinese subjects participated in the experiment. Event-related potentials (ERPs) showed that there were self-other discrimination effects in the N1 (80–110 ms) and P1 (170–200 ms) components in the anterior brain. The emotional valence was discriminated in the later component of N2 (220–250 ms). The interaction between self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> and emotional valence occurred during the late positive potential (LPP; 400–500 ms). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between response time (RT) and N1 in the self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> condition based on the positive-negative contrast, suggesting a modulatory effect of the self-positivity bias. The results indicate that self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> emerges earlier than emotion and then combines with emotional <span class="hlt">processing</span> in an implicit task. The findings extend the view that the self plays a highly integrated and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780024786','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780024786"><span>Application of the informational <span class="hlt">reference</span> system OZhUR to the automated <span class="hlt">processing</span> of data from satellites of the Kosmos series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pokras, V. M.; Yevdokimov, V. P.; Maslov, V. D.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The structure and potential of the information <span class="hlt">reference</span> system OZhUR designed for the automated data <span class="hlt">processing</span> systems of scientific space vehicles (SV) is considered. The system OZhUR ensures control of the extraction phase of <span class="hlt">processing</span> with respect to a concrete SV and the exchange of data between phases.The practical application of the system OZhUR is exemplified in the construction of a data <span class="hlt">processing</span> system for satellites of the Cosmos series. As a result of automating the operations of exchange and control, the volume of manual preparation of data is significantly reduced, and there is no longer any need for individual logs which fix the status of data <span class="hlt">processing</span>. The system Ozhur is included in the automated data <span class="hlt">processing</span> system Nauka which is realized in language PL-1 in a binary one-address system one-state (BOS OS) electronic computer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Regional+AND+logistics&pg=5&id=EJ725910','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Regional+AND+logistics&pg=5&id=EJ725910"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Space, <span class="hlt">Common</span> Time, <span class="hlt">Common</span> Work</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shank, Melody J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that <span class="hlt">common</span> workspace, <span class="hlt">common</span> planning time, and <span class="hlt">common</span> tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26499807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26499807"><span>The <span class="hlt">common</span> genetic influence over <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed and white matter microstructure: Evidence from the Old Order Amish and Human Connectome Projects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kochunov, Peter; Thompson, Paul M; Winkler, Anderson; Morrissey, Mary; Fu, Mao; Coyle, Thomas R; Du, Xiaoming; Muellerklein, Florian; Savransky, Anya; Gaudiot, Christopher; Sampath, Hemalatha; Eskandar, George; Jahanshad, Neda; Patel, Binish; Rowland, Laura; Nichols, Thomas E; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Hong, L Elliot</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>Speed with which brain performs information <span class="hlt">processing</span> influences overall cognition and is dependent on the white matter fibers. To understand genetic influences on <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed and white matter FA, we assessed <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed and diffusion imaging fractional anisotropy (FA) in related individuals from two populations. Discovery analyses were performed in 146 individuals from large Old Order Amish (OOA) families and findings were replicated in 485 twins and siblings of the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The heritability of <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed was h(2)=43% and 49% (both p<0.005), while the heritability of whole brain FA was h(2)=87% and 88% (both p<0.001), in the OOA and HCP, respectively. Whole brain FA was significantly correlated with <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed in the two cohorts. Quantitative genetic analysis demonstrated a significant degree to which <span class="hlt">common</span> genes influenced joint variation in FA and brain <span class="hlt">processing</span> speed. These estimates suggested <span class="hlt">common</span> sets of genes influencing variation in both phenotypes, consistent with the idea that <span class="hlt">common</span> genetic variations contributing to white matter may also support their associated cognitive behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20809367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20809367"><span>A rigorous approach to investigating <span class="hlt">common</span> assumptions about disease transmission: <span class="hlt">Process</span> algebra as an emerging modelling methodology for epidemiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCaig, Chris; Begon, Mike; Norman, Rachel; Shankland, Carron</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Changing scale, for example, the ability to move seamlessly from an individual-based model to a population-based model, is an important problem in many fields. In this paper, we introduce <span class="hlt">process</span> algebra as a novel solution to this problem in the context of models of infectious disease spread. <span class="hlt">Process</span> algebra allows us to describe a system in terms of the stochastic behaviour of individuals, and is a technique from computer science. We review the use of <span class="hlt">process</span> algebra in biological systems, and the variety of quantitative and qualitative analysis techniques available. The analysis illustrated here solves the changing scale problem: from the individual behaviour we can rigorously derive equations to describe the mean behaviour of the system at the level of the population. The biological problem investigated is the transmission of infection, and how this relates to individual interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23915804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23915804"><span>Using image <span class="hlt">processing</span> technology combined with decision tree algorithm in laryngeal video stroboscope automatic identification of <span class="hlt">common</span> vocal fold diseases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeffrey Kuo, Chung-Feng; Wang, Po-Chun; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wang, Hsing-Won; Lai, Chun-Yu</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>This study used the actual laryngeal video stroboscope videos taken by physicians in clinical practice as the samples for experimental analysis. The samples were dynamic vocal fold videos. Image <span class="hlt">processing</span> technology was used to automatically capture the image of the largest glottal area from the video to obtain the physiological data of the vocal folds. In this study, an automatic vocal fold disease identification system was designed, which can obtain the physiological parameters for normal vocal folds, vocal paralysis and vocal nodules from image <span class="hlt">processing</span> according to the pathological features. The decision tree algorithm was used as the classifier of the vocal fold diseases. The identification rate was 92.6%, and the identification rate with an image recognition improvement <span class="hlt">processing</span> procedure after classification can be improved to 98.7%. Hence, the proposed system has value in clinical practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED557593.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED557593.pdf"><span>States' Implementation of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards and the Australian Curriculum: A Comparison of the Change <span class="hlt">Process</span> in Two Countries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watt, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine and compare key elements of the actions that states in the USA and Australia took to implement the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards or Phase One of the Australian Curriculum, and what <span class="hlt">processes</span> and products they used to facilitate implementation of these innovations. A rubric adapted from a diagnostic tool,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mace&pg=5&id=EJ777467','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mace&pg=5&id=EJ777467"><span>Effects of Task Requirements on Rapid Natural Scene <span class="hlt">Processing</span>: From <span class="hlt">Common</span> Sensory Encoding to Distinct Decisional Mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bacon-Mace, Nadege; Kirchner, Holle; Fabre-Thorpe, Michele; Thorpe, Simon J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Using manual responses, human participants are remarkably fast and accurate at deciding if a natural scene contains an animal, but recent data show that they are even faster to indicate with saccadic eye movements which of 2 scenes contains an animal. How could it be that 2 images can apparently be <span class="hlt">processed</span> faster than a single image? To better…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007CompM..39..247K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007CompM..39..247K"><span>Reproducing Kernel Particle Method in Plasticity of Pressure-Sensitive Material with <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Powder Forming <span class="hlt">Process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khoei, A. R.; Samimi, M.; Azami, A. R.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, an application of the reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM) is presented in plasticity behavior of pressure-sensitive material. The RKPM technique is implemented in large deformation analysis of powder compaction <span class="hlt">process</span>. The RKPM shape function and its derivatives are constructed by imposing the consistency conditions. The essential boundary conditions are enforced by the use of the penalty approach. The support of the RKPM shape function covers the same set of particles during powder compaction, hence no instability is encountered in the large deformation computation. A double-surface plasticity model is developed in numerical simulation of pressure-sensitive material. The plasticity model includes a failure surface and an elliptical cap, which closes the open space between the failure surface and hydrostatic axis. The moving cap expands in the stress space according to a specified hardening rule. The cap model is presented within the framework of large deformation RKPM analysis in order to predict the non-uniform relative density distribution during powder die pressing. Numerical computations are performed to demonstrate the applicability of the algorithm in modeling of powder forming <span class="hlt">processes</span> and the results are compared to those obtained from finite element simulation to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9541E..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9541E..06M"><span>An approach to OCT-based microvascular imaging using <span class="hlt">reference</span>-free <span class="hlt">processing</span> of complex valued B-scans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Ksenofontov, Sergey; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Sirotkina, Marina A.; Buyanova, Natalia L.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Demidov, Valentin; Vitkin, Alex; Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We describe a modification of a recently proposed unconventional OCT approach to 3D microvasculature imaging based on high-pass filtering of B-scans in the lateral direction. The B-scans are acquired in M-mode-like regime with highly overlapped A-scans. The goal of the described modification is to suppress non-fluid artifacts in the resultant microcirculation images. The modification is based on the amplitude normalization procedure of complex-valued OCT signal before subsequent <span class="hlt">processing</span>. This allows one to efficiently suppress imaging degradation due to the influence of very bright spots/lines (e.g. from hairs on the surface) and retain images of real flows inside the tissue without any artificial cut-off of the surface signal, or application of pixel-intensity thresholds, or signal classification approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1246966','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1246966"><span>Stability High Salt Content Waste Using Sol Gel <span class="hlt">Process</span>. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Number 0236</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>None, None</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>Mixed waste sludges, soils, and homogeneous solids containing high levels of salt ( ~ greater than 15% by weight ) have proven to be difficult to stabilize due to the soluble nature of the salts. The current stabilization technique for high salt waste, grouting with Portland cement, is limited to low waste loadings. The presence of salts interfere with the hydration and curing of the cement, cause waste form deteriorating mineral expansions, or result in an undesirable separate phase altogether. Improved technologies for the stabilization of salt waste must be able to accommodate higher salt loadings, while maintaining structural integrity, chemical durability, and leach resistance. In a joint collaboration supported by the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Arizona Materials Laboratory (AML) at the University of Arizona have developed a sol-gel (wet-chemical) based, low-temperature-<span class="hlt">processing</span> route for the stabilization of salt-containing mixed wastes. By blending and reacting liquid precursors at room temperature with salt waste, strong, impermeable “polyceram” matrices have been formed that encapsulate the environmentally hazardous waste components. As depicted by Figure 1, polycerams are hybrid organic/inorganic materials with unique properties derived from the chemical combination of polymer (organic) and ceramic (inorganic) components. For this application, the stabilizing polyceram matrices contain polybutadiene-based polymer components and silicon dioxide (SiO<sub>2</sub>) as the inorganic component. Polybutadiene (PBD) is a strong, tough, waterresistant plastic and its use in the polyceram promotes these same characteristics in the waste form. The PBD polymer component is modified to increase its reactivity with the SiO<sub>2</sub> precursor during sol-gel <span class="hlt">processing</span>. When combined, the polymer and SiO<sub>2</sub> precursors react, gel, solidify, and encapsulate the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=virtual+AND+reference+AND+services&pg=6&id=EJ885392','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=virtual+AND+reference+AND+services&pg=6&id=EJ885392"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bivens-Tatum, Wayne</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of <span class="hlt">reference</span> assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual <span class="hlt">reference</span>, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26431216','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26431216"><span>The Gateway Hypothesis, <span class="hlt">Common</span> Liability to Addictions or the Route of Administration Model A Modelling <span class="hlt">Process</span> Linking the Three Theories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mayet, Aurélie; Legleye, Stéphane; Beck, François; Falissard, Bruno; Chau, Nearkasen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to describe the transitions between tobacco (T), cannabis (C) and other illicit drugs (OIDs) initiations, to simultaneously explore several substance use theories: gateway theory (GT), <span class="hlt">common</span> liability model (CLM) and route of administration model (RAM). Data from 2 French nationwide surveys conducted in 2005 and 2010 were used (16,421 subjects aged 18-34). Using reported ages at initiations, we reconstituted a retrospective cohort describing all initiation sequences between T, C and OID. Transition probabilities between the substances were computed using a Markov multi-state model that also tested the effect of 2 latent variables (item response theory scores reflecting propensity for early onset and further substance use) on all transitions. T initiation was associated with increased likelihood of subsequent C initiation, but the reverse relationship was also observed. While the most likely initiation sequence among subjects who initiated the 3 groups of substances was the 'gateway' sequence T x2192; C x2192; OID, this pattern was not associated with substance use propensity more than alternative sequences. Early use propensity was associated with the 'gateway' sequence but also with some alternative ones beginning with T, C or OID. If the gateway sequence appears as the most likely pattern, in line with GT, the effects of early onset and substance use propensities were also observed for some alternative sequences, which is more in line with CLM. RAM could explain reciprocal interactions observed between T and C. This suggests shared influences of individual (personality traits) and environmental (substance availability, peer influence) characteristics. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28376696','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28376696"><span>Functional brain alterations during self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> in adolescents with sexual abuse-related post-traumatic stress disorder: A preliminary report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dégeilh, Fanny; Viard, Armelle; Guénolé, Fabian; Gaubert, Malo; Egler, Pierre-Jean; Egret, Stéphanie; Gerardin, Priscille; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Eustache, Francis; Dayana, Jacques; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We proposed to explore the functional brain changes during a self-<span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> (SRP) task in adolescents with sexual abuse-related post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 10), compared with healthy adolescents (N = 10). While patients showed no behavioral disturbances in (SRP), they exhibited changes in activity and connectivity in regions involved in emotional regulation (amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortex) and semantic memory (temporal and ventrolateral prefrontal regions). These preliminary results suggest that these alterations may have an effect on self-esteem which may contribute to a possible retention and impairment of symptoms in adulthood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BGeo...14.2815W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BGeo...14.2815W"><span>Increased temperature causes different carbon and nitrogen <span class="hlt">processing</span> patterns in two <span class="hlt">common</span> intertidal foraminifera (Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wukovits, Julia; Enge, Annekatrin Julie; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Heinz, Petra</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Benthic foraminifera are highly abundant heterotrophic protists in marine sediments, but future environmental changes will challenge the tolerance limits of intertidal species. Metabolic rates and physiological <span class="hlt">processes</span> in foraminifera are strongly dependent on environmental temperatures. Temperature-related stress could therefore impact foraminiferal food source <span class="hlt">processing</span> efficiency and might result in altered nutrient fluxes through the intertidal food web. In this study, we performed a laboratory feeding experiment on Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica, two dominant foraminiferal species of the German Wadden Sea/Friedrichskoog, to test the effect of temperature on phytodetritus retention. The specimens were fed with 13C and 15N labelled freeze-dried Dunaliella tertiolecta (green algae) at the start of the experiment and were incubated at 20, 25 and 30 °C respectively. Dual labelling was applied to observe potential temperature effects on the relation of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen retention. Samples were taken over a period of 2 weeks. Foraminiferal cytoplasm was isotopically analysed to investigate differences in carbon and nitrogen uptake derived from the food source. Both species showed a positive response to the provided food source, but carbon uptake rates of A. tepida were 10-fold higher compared to those of H. germanica. Increased temperatures had a far stronger impact on the carbon uptake of H. germanica than on A. tepida. A distinct increase in the levels of phytodetrital-derived nitrogen (compared to more steady carbon levels) could be observed over the course of the experiment in both species. The results suggest that higher temperatures have a significant negative effect on the carbon exploitation of H. germanica. For A. tepida, higher carbon uptake rates and the enhanced tolerance range for higher temperatures could outline an advantage in warmer periods if the main food source consists of chlorophyte phytodetritus. These conditions are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11099256','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11099256"><span>Six-fold speed-up of Smith-Waterman sequence database searches using parallel <span class="hlt">processing</span> on <span class="hlt">common</span> microprocessors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rognes, T; Seeberg, E</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>Sequence database searching is among the most important and challenging tasks in bioinformatics. The ultimate choice of sequence-search algorithm is that of Smith-Waterman. However, because of the computationally demanding nature of this method, heuristic programs or special-purpose hardware alternatives have been developed. Increased speed has been obtained at the cost of reduced sensitivity or very expensive hardware. A fast implementation of the Smith-Waterman sequence-alignment algorithm using Single-Instruction, Multiple-Data (SIMD) technology is presented. This implementation is based on the MultiMedia eXtensions (MMX) and Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) technology that is embedded in Intel's latest microprocessors. Similar technology exists also in other modern microprocessors. Six-fold speed-up relative to the fastest previously known Smith-Waterman implementation on the same hardware was achieved by an optimized 8-way parallel <span class="hlt">processing</span> approach. A speed of more than 150 million cell updates per second was obtained on a single Intel Pentium III 500 MHz microprocessor. This is probably the fastest implementation of this algorithm on a single general-purpose microprocessor described to date.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21776655','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21776655"><span>Dependence of <span class="hlt">process</span> characteristics on atomic-step density in catalyst-<span class="hlt">referred</span> etching of 4H-SiC(0001) surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okamoto, Takeshi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Tachibana, Kazuma; Arima, Kenta; Hattori, Azusa N; Yagi, Keita; Murata, Junji; Sadakuni, Shun; Yamauchi, Kazuto</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Catalyst-<span class="hlt">referred</span> etching (CARE) is a novel abrasive-free planarization method. CARE-<span class="hlt">processed</span> 4H-SiC(0001) surfaces are extremely flat and undamaged over the whole wafer. They consist of single-bilayer-height atomic steps and atomically flat terraces. This suggests that the etching properties depend principally on the atomic-step density of the substrate surface. We used on-axis and 8 degrees off-axis substrates to investigate the <span class="hlt">processing</span> characteristics that affect the atomic-step density of these substrates. We found a strong correlation between the removal rate and the atomic-step density of the two substrates. For the on-axis substrate, the removal rate increased with increasing surface roughness, which increases with an increasing atomic-step density. The removal rate ratio is approximately the same as the atomic-step density ratio of the two substrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21417510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21417510"><span>Selecting a <span class="hlt">reference</span> object.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller, Jared E; Carlson, Laura A; Hill, Patrick L</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the <span class="hlt">reference</span> object. A <span class="hlt">common</span> theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected. The current research tests this assumption, assessing the relative importance of spatial, perceptual, and functional-interactive features. Three experiments demonstrated that spatial features have the strongest influence on <span class="hlt">reference</span> object selection, with the perceptual feature of color playing no significant role. Functional-interactive features were shown to be spatially dependent, having an influence only when the spatial configuration enabled an interaction between the located object and the <span class="hlt">reference</span> object. These findings challenge the <span class="hlt">common</span> perspective that salience in and of itself dictates <span class="hlt">reference</span> object selection and argue for a reliance on spatial features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=issn&pg=3&id=EJ601929','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=issn&pg=3&id=EJ601929"><span>Ready <span class="hlt">Reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koltay, Emery</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Includes the following ready <span class="hlt">reference</span> information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/commoncold.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/commoncold.html"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold. It is probably the most <span class="hlt">common</span> illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19774070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19774070"><span>How are 'Barack Obama' and 'President Elect' differentially stored in the brain? An ERP investigation on the <span class="hlt">processing</span> of proper and <span class="hlt">common</span> noun pairs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mariani, Serena; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta</p> <p>2009-09-23</p> <p>One of the most debated issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language is whether distinct semantic domains are differentially represented in the brain. Clinical studies described several anomic dissociations with no clear neuroanatomical correlate. Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory retrieval is more demanding for proper than <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns in that the former are purely arbitrary referential expressions. In this study a semantic relatedness paradigm was devised to investigate neural <span class="hlt">processing</span> of proper and <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns. 780 words (arranged in pairs of Italian nouns/adjectives and the first/last names of well known persons) were presented. Half pairs were semantically related ("Woody Allen" or "social security"), while the others were not ("Sigmund Parodi" or "judicial cream"). All items were balanced for length, frequency, familiarity and semantic relatedness. Participants were to decide about the semantic relatedness of the two items in a pair. RTs and N400 data suggest that the task was more demanding for <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns. The LORETA neural generators for the related-unrelated contrast (for proper names) included the left fusiform gyrus, right medial temporal gyrus, limbic and parahippocampal regions, inferior parietal and inferior frontal areas, which are thought to be involved in the conjoined <span class="hlt">processing</span> a familiar face with the relevant episodic information. Person name was more emotional and sensory vivid than <span class="hlt">common</span> noun semantic access. When memory retrieval is not required, proper name access (conspecifics knowledge) is not more demanding. The neural generators of N400 to unrelated items (unknown persons and things) did not differ as a function of lexical class, thus suggesting that proper and <span class="hlt">common</span> nouns are not treated differently as belonging to different grammatical classes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009psm..book..377M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009psm..book..377M"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merkus, Henk G.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> materials for measurement of particle size and porosity may be used for calibration or qualification of instruments or for validation of operating procedures or operators. They cover a broad range of materials. On the one hand there are the certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, for which governmental institutes have certified one or more typical size or porosity values. Then, there is a large group of <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials from commercial companies. And on the other hand there are typical products in a given line of industry, where size or porosity values come from the analysis laboratory itself or from some round-robin test in a group of industrial laboratories. Their regular application is essential for adequate quality control of particle size and porosity measurement, as required in e.g., ISO 17025 on quality management. In relation to this, some quality requirements for certification are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019724','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019724"><span>Hand controller <span class="hlt">commonality</span> evaluation <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28688223','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28688223"><span><span class="hlt">Processing</span>-independent proANP measurement for low concentrations in plasma: <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals and effect of body mass index and plasma glucose.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mark, Peter D; Hunter, Ingrid; Terzic, Dijana; Goetze, Jens P</p> <p>2017-11-27</p> <p>Decreased concentrations of pro-atrial-derived natriuretic peptides (proABP) in plasma have been associated with obesity and suggested as a predictor of type 2 diabetes. However, assays for measuring proANP are generally aimed to quantitate higher concentrations of proANP associated with cardiac disease. Therefore, we aimed to measure plasma proANP concentrations in a non-obese Scandinavian <span class="hlt">reference</span> material and evaluate potential associations of plasma proANP with body mass index (BMI) and plasma glucose, respectively. We report an optimized <span class="hlt">processing</span>-independent assay (PIA) for proANP in the lower concentration range. The assay was optimized by raising the amount of radioactive tracer and modifying the mixing ratio of resuspended plasma and buffer. Blood samples from a Scandinavian plasma cohort of 693 healthy subjects were then analyzed and age and gender-specific <span class="hlt">reference</span> intervals were determined. Simple linear regression analyses of proANP and both BMI and plasma glucose in fasting subjects displayed insignificant associations. Multiple regression analyses supported these findings. However, a higher median plasma concentration of proANP was noted among women <50 years compared to men, whereas no gender-specific differences were seen in other age groups. Our results show that in a healthy non-obese population, BMI and plasma glucose in fasting subjects do not affect plasma proANP concentrations. Our method should be considered for future studies on low proANP concentration studies, e.g. in obesity and diabetes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27006075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27006075"><span>Using the Nine <span class="hlt">Common</span> Themes of Good Practice checklist as a tool for evaluating the research priority setting <span class="hlt">process</span> of a provincial research and program evaluation program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mador, Rebecca L; Kornas, Kathy; Simard, Anne; Haroun, Vinita</p> <p>2016-03-23</p> <p>Given the context-specific nature of health research prioritization and the obligation to effectively allocate resources to initiatives that will achieve the greatest impact, evaluation of priority setting <span class="hlt">processes</span> can refine and strengthen such exercises and their outcomes. However, guidance is needed on evaluation tools that can be applied to research priority setting. This paper describes the adaption and application of a conceptual framework to evaluate a research priority setting exercise operating within the public health sector in Ontario, Canada. The Nine <span class="hlt">Common</span> Themes of Good Practice checklist, described by Viergever et al. (Health Res Policy Syst 8:36, 2010) was used as the conceptual framework to evaluate the research priority setting <span class="hlt">process</span> developed for the Locally Driven Collaborative Projects (LDCP) program in Ontario, Canada. Multiple data sources were used to inform the evaluation, including a review of selected priority setting approaches, surveys with priority setting participants, document review, and consultation with the program advisory committee. The evaluation assisted in identifying improvements to six elements of the LDCP priority setting <span class="hlt">process</span>. The modifications were aimed at improving inclusiveness, information gathering practices, planning for project implementation, and evaluation. In addition, the findings identified that the timing of priority setting activities and level of control over the <span class="hlt">process</span> were key factors that influenced the ability to effectively implement changes. The findings demonstrate the novel adaptation and application of the 'Nine <span class="hlt">Common</span> Themes of Good Practice checklist' as a tool for evaluating a research priority setting exercise. The tool can guide the development of evaluation questions and enables the assessment of key constructs related to the design and delivery of a research priority setting <span class="hlt">process</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=issn&pg=2&id=EJ639605','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=issn&pg=2&id=EJ639605"><span>Ready <span class="hlt">Reference</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koltay, Emery</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Includes four articles that relate to ready <span class="hlt">reference</span>, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1169009','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1169009"><span>Poroelastic <span class="hlt">references</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Morency, Christina</p> <p>2014-12-12</p> <p>This file contains a list of relevant <span class="hlt">references</span> on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28194208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28194208"><span>Identification and assessment of <span class="hlt">common</span> errors in the admission <span class="hlt">process</span> of patients in Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center based on "failure modes and effects analysis".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dehghan, Ashraf; Abumasoudi, Rouhollah Sheikh; Ehsanpour, Soheila</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Infertility and errors in the <span class="hlt">process</span> of its treatment have a negative impact on infertile couples. The present study was aimed to identify and assess the <span class="hlt">common</span> errors in the reception <span class="hlt">process</span> by applying the approach of "failure modes and effects analysis" (FMEA). In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the admission <span class="hlt">process</span> of fertility and infertility center of Isfahan was selected for evaluation of its errors based on the team members' decision. At first, the admission <span class="hlt">process</span> was charted through observations and interviewing employees, holding multiple panels, and using FMEA worksheet, which has been used in many researches all over the world and also in Iran. Its validity was evaluated through content and face validity, and its reliability was evaluated through reviewing and confirmation of the obtained information by the FMEA team, and eventually possible errors, causes, and three indicators of severity of effect, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection were determined and corrective actions were proposed. Data analysis was determined by the number of risk priority (RPN) which is calculated by multiplying the severity of effect, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection. Twenty-five errors with RPN ≥ 125 was detected through the admission <span class="hlt">process</span>, in which six cases of error had high priority in terms of severity and occurrence probability and were identified as high-risk errors. The team-oriented method of FMEA could be useful for assessment of errors and also to reduce the occurrence probability of errors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Obstetrician&pg=3&id=ED276509','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Obstetrician&pg=3&id=ED276509"><span>Volunteeer's <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Armstrong, Julie; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>For Postpartum Education for Parents (PEP) volunteers, this <span class="hlt">reference</span> guide provides background information about the <span class="hlt">common</span> concerns of parents. Extensively reviewed for accuracy and content by pediatricians, psychologists, obstetricians, nurses, and childbirth educators, the guide contains a summary discussion of the postpartum infant and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29401059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29401059"><span>Survey of Current Practice in the Fitting and Fine-Tuning of <span class="hlt">Common</span> Signal-<span class="hlt">Processing</span> Features in Hearing Aids for Adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, Melinda C; Arehart, Kathryn H; Souza, Pamela E</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>Current guidelines for adult hearing aid fittings recommend the use of a prescriptive fitting rationale with real-ear verification that considers the audiogram for the determination of frequency-specific gain and ratios for wide dynamic range compression. However, the guidelines lack recommendations for how other <span class="hlt">common</span> signal-<span class="hlt">processing</span> features (e.g., noise reduction, frequency lowering, directional microphones) should be considered during the provision of hearing aid fittings and fine-tunings for adult patients. The purpose of this survey was to identify how audiologists make clinical decisions regarding <span class="hlt">common</span> signal-<span class="hlt">processing</span> features for hearing aid provision in adults. An online survey was sent to audiologists across the United States. The 22 survey questions addressed four primary topics including demographics of the responding audiologists, factors affecting selection of hearing aid devices, the approaches used in the fitting of signal-<span class="hlt">processing</span> features, and the strategies used in the fine-tuning of these features. A total of 251 audiologists who provide hearing aid fittings to adults completed the electronically distributed survey. The respondents worked in a variety of settings including private practice, physician offices, university clinics, and hospitals/medical centers. Data analysis was based on a qualitative analysis of the question responses. The survey results for each of the four topic areas (demographics, device selection, hearing aid fitting, and hearing aid fine-tuning) are summarized descriptively. Survey responses indicate that audiologists vary in the procedures they use in fitting and fine-tuning based on the specific feature, such that the approaches used for the fitting of frequency-specific gain differ from other types of features (i.e., compression time constants, frequency lowering parameters, noise reduction strength, directional microphones, feedback management). Audiologists <span class="hlt">commonly</span> rely on prescriptive fitting formulas and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29473657','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29473657"><span>Fermentable short chain carbohydrate (FODMAP) content of <span class="hlt">common</span> plant-based foods and <span class="hlt">processed</span> foods suitable for vegetarian- and vegan-based eating patterns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tuck, C; Ly, E; Bogatyrev, A; Costetsou, I; Gibson, P; Barrett, J; Muir, J</p> <p>2018-02-23</p> <p>The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food <span class="hlt">processing</span> practices <span class="hlt">common</span> to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population. The present study aimed to quantify the FODMAP content of plant-based foods <span class="hlt">common</span> in vegetarian/vegan diets and to investigate whether food <span class="hlt">processing</span> can impact FODMAP levels. Total FODMAP content was quantified in 35 foods, including fructose-in-excess-of-glucose, lactose, sorbitol, mannitol, galacto-oligosaccharide and total fructan, using high-performance-liquid-chromatography and enzymatic assays. The effects of cooking, sprouting, pickling, fermentation, activation and canning on FODMAP content were assessed. The Monash University criteria to classify foods as low FODMAP was used. Of the 35 foods, 20 were classified as low FODMAP, including canned coconut milk (0.24 g serve -1 ), dulse (0.02 serve -1 ), nutritional yeast (0.01 serve -1 ), soy cheese (0.03 serve -1 ), tempeh (0.26 serve -1 ), wheat gluten (0.13 serve -1 ) and wheat grass (0.05 serve -1 ). No FODMAPs were detected in agar-agar, egg replacer, vegan egg yolk, kelp noodles and spirulina. Food <span class="hlt">processing</span> techniques that produced the greatest reduction in FODMAP content included pickling and canning. The present study provides a greater FODMAP composition knowledge of plant-based foods that can now be applied to the dietetic management of vegetarians/vegans requiring a low FODMAP diet. Food <span class="hlt">processing</span> lowered the FODMAP content of foods, thereby increasing options for patients following a low FODMAP diet. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3598730','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3598730"><span>The <span class="hlt">Process</span>-Interaction-Model: a <span class="hlt">common</span> representation of rule-based and logical models allows studying signal transduction on different levels of detail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Signaling systems typically involve large, structured molecules each consisting of a large number of subunits called molecule domains. In modeling such systems these domains can be considered as the main players. In order to handle the resulting combinatorial complexity, rule-based modeling has been established as the tool of choice. In contrast to the detailed quantitative rule-based modeling, qualitative modeling approaches like logical modeling rely solely on the network structure and are particularly useful for analyzing structural and functional properties of signaling systems. Results We introduce the <span class="hlt">Process</span>-Interaction-Model (PIM) concept. It defines a <span class="hlt">common</span> representation (or basis) of rule-based models and site-specific logical models, and, furthermore, includes methods to derive models of both types from a given PIM. A PIM is based on directed graphs with nodes representing <span class="hlt">processes</span> like post-translational modifications or binding <span class="hlt">processes</span> and edges representing the interactions among <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The applicability of the concept has been demonstrated by applying it to a model describing EGF insulin crosstalk. A prototypic implementation of the PIM concept has been integrated in the modeling software ProMoT. Conclusions The PIM concept provides a <span class="hlt">common</span> basis for two modeling formalisms tailored to the study of signaling systems: a quantitative (rule-based) and a qualitative (logical) modeling formalism. Every PIM is a compact specification of a rule-based model and facilitates the systematic set-up of a rule-based model, while at the same time facilitating the automatic generation of a site-specific logical model. Consequently, modifications can be made on the underlying basis and then be propagated into the different model specifications – ensuring consistency of all models, regardless of the modeling formalism. This facilitates the analysis of a system on different levels of detail as it guarantees the application of established</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23020215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23020215"><span>The <span class="hlt">Process</span>-Interaction-Model: a <span class="hlt">common</span> representation of rule-based and logical models allows studying signal transduction on different levels of detail.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kolczyk, Katrin; Samaga, Regina; Conzelmann, Holger; Mirschel, Sebastian; Conradi, Carsten</p> <p>2012-09-28</p> <p>Signaling systems typically involve large, structured molecules each consisting of a large number of subunits called molecule domains. In modeling such systems these domains can be considered as the main players. In order to handle the resulting combinatorial complexity, rule-based modeling has been established as the tool of choice. In contrast to the detailed quantitative rule-based modeling, qualitative modeling approaches like logical modeling rely solely on the network structure and are particularly useful for analyzing structural and functional properties of signaling systems. We introduce the <span class="hlt">Process</span>-Interaction-Model (PIM) concept. It defines a <span class="hlt">common</span> representation (or basis) of rule-based models and site-specific logical models, and, furthermore, includes methods to derive models of both types from a given PIM. A PIM is based on directed graphs with nodes representing <span class="hlt">processes</span> like post-translational modifications or binding <span class="hlt">processes</span> and edges representing the interactions among <span class="hlt">processes</span>. The applicability of the concept has been demonstrated by applying it to a model describing EGF insulin crosstalk. A prototypic implementation of the PIM concept has been integrated in the modeling software ProMoT. The PIM concept provides a <span class="hlt">common</span> basis for two modeling formalisms tailored to the study of signaling systems: a quantitative (rule-based) and a qualitative (logical) modeling formalism. Every PIM is a compact specification of a rule-based model and facilitates the systematic set-up of a rule-based model, while at the same time facilitating the automatic generation of a site-specific logical model. Consequently, modifications can be made on the underlying basis and then be propagated into the different model specifications - ensuring consistency of all models, regardless of the modeling formalism. This facilitates the analysis of a system on different levels of detail as it guarantees the application of established simulation and analysis methods to</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15070840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15070840"><span>Image <span class="hlt">processing</span> and analysis program for measurement of bone density changes in <span class="hlt">reference</span> and follow-up standardized extraoral oblique lateral cephalometric radiographs of the mandible.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruijter, J M; Verhoeven, J W; van der Linden, J A M; Cune, M S; Terlou, M</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to develop an image <span class="hlt">processing</span> and analysis program for peri-implant bone density measurements of the mandible using extraoral radiographs, which includes a correction for the variable projection of the soft tissues of the face. The measurement procedure is based on pairs of <span class="hlt">reference</span> and follow-up extraoral oblique lateral cephalometric radiographs (OLCRs) of patients with endosseous implants in the anterior part of the atrophic edentulous mandible. The procedure consists of image acquisition, correction for radiographic variation using an aluminium wedge (i.e. film exposure and development) and transformation of the grey values into aluminium-equivalent values. After correction for variation in the projection of the soft tissues of the face using internal calibration fields, the actual peri-implant bone density measurements are performed. The soft tissue projection correction significantly reduces the variation between radiographs owing to the position of the soft tissues. It is concluded that the described image <span class="hlt">processing</span> and analysis program, in combination with extraorally made OLCRs, is a valuable technique for measurement of peri-implant bone density changes of the mandible. With minor adaptations, the program can be used for other semi-edentulous patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/common-warts/symptoms-causes/syc-20371125','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/common-warts/symptoms-causes/syc-20371125"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Warts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... so not everyone who comes in contact with HPV develops warts. Risk factors People at higher risk of developing ... 16, 2015. Related Stop warts from spreading <span class="hlt">Common</span> warts Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340181"><span>QCI <span class="hlt">Common</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCaskey, Alexander J.</p> <p>2016-11-18</p> <p>There are many <span class="hlt">common</span> software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing <span class="hlt">common</span> utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27901640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27901640"><span>A traceable <span class="hlt">reference</span> for direct comparative assessment of total naphthenic acid concentrations in commercial and acid extractable organic mixtures derived from oil sands <span class="hlt">process</span> water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brunswick, Pamela; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Kim, Marcus; van Aggelen, Graham; Shang, Dayue</p> <p>2017-02-23</p> <p>The advantage of using naphthenic acid (NA) mixtures for the determination of total NA lies in their chemical characteristics and identification of retention times distinct from isobaric interferences. However, the differing homolog profiles and unknown chemical structures of NA mixtures do not allow them to be considered a traceable <span class="hlt">reference</span> material. The current study provides a new tool for the comparative assessment of different NA mixtures by direct <span class="hlt">reference</span> to a single, well-defined and traceable compound, decanoic-d 19 acid. The method employed an established liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/QToF) procedure that was applicable both to the classic O2 NA species dominating commercial mixtures and additionally to the O4 species known to be present in acid extractable organics (AEOs) derived from oil sands <span class="hlt">process</span> water (OSPW). Four different commercial NA mixtures and one OSPW-derived AEOs mixture were comparatively assessed. Results showed significant difference among Merichem Technical, Aldrich, Acros, and Kodak commercial NA mixtures with respect to "equivalent to decanoic-d 19 acid" concentration ratios to nominal. Furthermore, different lot numbers of single commercial NA mixtures were found to be inconsistent with respect to their homolog content by percent response. Differences in the observed homolog content varied significantly, particularly at the lower (n = 9-14) and higher (n = 20-23) carbon number ranges. Results highlighted the problem between using NA mixtures from different sources and different lot numbers but offered a solution to the problem from a concentration perspective. It is anticipated that this tool may be utilized in review of historical data in addition to future studies, such as the study of OSPW derived acid extractable organics (AEOs) and fractions employed during toxicological studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5941196','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5941196"><span>Design and control of energy efficient food drying <span class="hlt">processes</span> with specific <span class="hlt">reference</span> to quality; evaluation of physical and quality changes in foods during drying</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bell, L.; Castaldi, A.; Jones, C.; Litchfield, B.; Narsimhan, G.; Singh, R.; Xiong, X.; Bogusz, J.; Franzen, K.; Kim, M.; Murakami, E.; Pflum, J.; Waananen, K.</p> <p>1989-08-01</p> <p>The ultimate goal of the project is to develop procedures, techniques, data and other information that will aid in the design of cost effective and energy efficient drying <span class="hlt">processes</span> that produce high quality foods. This objective has been sought by performing studies to determine the pertinent properties of food products, by developing models to describe the fundamental phenomena of food drying and by testing the models at laboratory scale. Finally, this information is used to develop recommendations and strategies for improved dryer design and control. This volume emphasizes a detailed literature review and several extensive experimental studies. Since the basic principle of food dehydration is the removal of water from food, the <span class="hlt">process</span> of removing water causes quality changes which can be categorized as physical, chemical, and nutritional. These changes often have adverse effects on the quality of the resulting dehydrated food. In this work, the types of physical and chemical changes <span class="hlt">common</span> in food drying and the important factors for them were reviewed. Pertinent kinetic models and kinetic data reported in literature were also collected and compiled as the results of review study. The overall objectives of this study were to identify major quality change in foods caused by drying <span class="hlt">process</span> and to get the knowledge of the relationship between the quality change and factors known to affect them. The quality parameters reviewed included: browning, lipid oxidation, color loss, shrinkage, solubility, texture, aroma and flavor, vitamin and protein loss and microbiological concerns. 54 refs., 74 figs., 49 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5301075','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5301075"><span>Identification and assessment of <span class="hlt">common</span> errors in the admission <span class="hlt">process</span> of patients in Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center based on “failure modes and effects analysis”</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dehghan, Ashraf; Abumasoudi, Rouhollah Sheikh; Ehsanpour, Soheila</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Infertility and errors in the <span class="hlt">process</span> of its treatment have a negative impact on infertile couples. The present study was aimed to identify and assess the <span class="hlt">common</span> errors in the reception <span class="hlt">process</span> by applying the approach of “failure modes and effects analysis” (FMEA). Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the admission <span class="hlt">process</span> of fertility and infertility center of Isfahan was selected for evaluation of its errors based on the team members’ decision. At first, the admission <span class="hlt">process</span> was charted through observations and interviewing employees, holding multiple panels, and using FMEA worksheet, which has been used in many researches all over the world and also in Iran. Its validity was evaluated through content and face validity, and its reliability was evaluated through reviewing and confirmation of the obtained information by the FMEA team, and eventually possible errors, causes, and three indicators of severity of effect, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection were determined and corrective actions were proposed. Data analysis was determined by the number of risk priority (RPN) which is calculated by multiplying the severity of effect, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection. Results: Twenty-five errors with RPN ≥ 125 was detected through the admission <span class="hlt">process</span>, in which six cases of error had high priority in terms of severity and occurrence probability and were identified as high-risk errors. Conclusions: The team-oriented method of FMEA could be useful for assessment of errors and also to reduce the occurrence probability of errors. PMID:28194208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28369959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28369959"><span>Phenolic compounds, antioxidant potential and antiproliferative potential of 10 <span class="hlt">common</span> edible flowers from China assessed using a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis <span class="hlt">process</span> combined with cellular assays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Weisu; Mao, Shuqin; Zhang, Liuquan; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Zhou, Fei; Zhao, Yajing; Li, Maiquan</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Phenolic compounds could be sensitive to digestive conditions, thus a simulated in vitro digestion-dialysis <span class="hlt">process</span> and cellular assays was used to determine phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials of 10 <span class="hlt">common</span> edible flowers from China and their functional components. Gallic acid, ferulic acid, and rutin were widely present in these flowers, which demonstrated various antioxidant capacities (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CAA values) and antiproliferative potentials measured by the MTT method. Rosa rugosa, Paeonia suffruticosa and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited the best antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials against HepG2, A549 and SGC-7901 cell lines, except that Osmanthus fragrans was not the best against SGC-7901 cells. The in vitro digestion-dialysis <span class="hlt">process</span> decreased the antioxidant potential by 33.95-90.72% and the antiproliferative potential by 13.22-87.15%. Following the in vitro digestion-dialysis <span class="hlt">process</span>, phenolics were probably responsible for antioxidant (R 2 = 0.794-0.924, P < 0.01) and antiproliferative (R 2 = 0.408-0.623, P < 0.05) potential. Moreover, gallic acid may be responsible for the antioxidant potential of seven flowers rich in edible flowers. The antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of 10 edible flowers revealed a clear decrease after digestion and dialysis along with the reduction of phenolics. Nevertheless, they still had considerable antioxidant and antiproliferative potential, which merited further investigation in in vivo studies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=er&pg=5&id=EJ971381','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=er&pg=5&id=EJ971381"><span>Linguistic Competences of Learners of Dutch as a Second Language at the B1 and B2 Levels of Speaking Proficiency of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> for Languages (CEFR)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hulstijn, Jan H.; Schoonen, Rob; de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study examines the associations between the speaking proficiency of 181 adult learners of Dutch as a second language and their linguistic competences. Performance in eight speaking tasks was rated on a scale of communicative adequacy. After extrapolation of these ratings to the Overall Oral Production scale of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.766D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.766D"><span>Computer <span class="hlt">processing</span> of Mars Odyssey THEMIS IR imaging, MGS MOLA altimetry and Mars Express stereo imaging to locate Airy-0, the Mars prime meridian <span class="hlt">reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duxbury, Thomas; Neukum, Gerhard; Smith, David E.; Christensen, Philip; Neumann, Gregory; Albee, Arden; Caplinger, Michael; Seregina, N. V.; Kirk, Randolph L.</p> <p></p> <p>The small crater Airy-0 was selected from Mariner 9 images to be the <span class="hlt">reference</span> for the Mars prime meridian. Initial analyses were made in year 2000 to tie Viking Orbiter and Mars Orbiter Camera images of Airy-0 to the evolving Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter global digital terrain model to improve the location accuracy of Airy-0. Based upon this tie and radiometric tracking of landers / rovers from earth, new expressions for the Mars spin axis direction, spin rate and prime meridian epoch value were produced to define the orientation of the Martian surface in inertial space over time. Now that the Mars Global Surveyor mission and the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter global digital terrain model are complete, a more exhaustive study has been performed to determine the location of Airy-0 relative to the global terrain grid. THEMIS IR image cubes of the Airy and Gale crater regions were tied to the global terrain grid using precision stereo photogrammetric image <span class="hlt">processing</span> techniques. The Airy-0 location was determined to be within 50 meters of the currently defined IAU prime meridian, with this offset at the limiting absolute accuracy of the global terrain grid. Additional outputs of this study were a controlled multi-band photomosaic of Airy, precision alignment and geometric models of the ten THEMIS IR bands and a controlled multi-band photomosaic of Gale crater used to validate the Mars Surface Laboratory operational map products supporting their successful landing on Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22749892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22749892"><span>Effects of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold on mood, psychomotor performance, the encoding of new information, speed of working memory and semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Andrew P</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Previous research has shown that people with the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold report a more negative mood and psychomotor slowing. Recent research suggests that memory speed may also be impaired. This was examined in the study reported here. A prospective design was used and all participants (N=200; half male, half female; mean age 21 years, range 18-30 years) carried out a baseline session when healthy. The test battery involved mood rating, simple and choice reaction time, verbal reasoning and semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Volunteers returned when they developed an upper respiratory tract illness (URTI) and repeated the test battery. If they remained healthy they were recalled as a control. One hundred and eighty-nine participants completed the study and 48 developed URTIs and 141 were in the healthy control group. Symptoms and signs suggested that those who were ill had colds rather than influenza. The results showed that those with colds reported lower alertness, a more negative mood, and psychomotor slowing. They were also slower at encoding new information and slower on the verbal reasoning and semantic <span class="hlt">processing</span> tasks. The magnitude of the mood changes associated with being ill were correlated with symptom severity. The performance changes were not correlated with symptom severity, sleep duration or mood changes. Further research is now needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the behavioral malaise associated with URTIs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27362912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27362912"><span>Electronic health record interventions at the point of care improve documentation of care <span class="hlt">processes</span> and decrease orders for genetic tests <span class="hlt">commonly</span> ordered by nongeneticists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scheuner, Maren T; Peredo, Jane; Tangney, Kelly; Schoeff, Diane; Sale, Taylor; Lubick-Goldzweig, Caroline; Hamilton, Alison; Hilborne, Lee; Lee, Martin; Mittman, Brian; Yano, Elizabeth M; Lubin, Ira M</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>To determine whether electronic health record (EHR) tools improve documentation of pre- and postanalytic care <span class="hlt">processes</span> for genetic tests ordered by nongeneticists. We conducted a nonrandomized, controlled, pre-/postintervention study of EHR point-of-care tools (informational messages and template report) for three genetic tests. Chart review assessed documentation of genetic testing <span class="hlt">processes</span> of care, with points assigned for each documented item. Multiple linear and logistic regressions assessed factors associated with documentation. Preimplementation, there were no significant site differences (P > 0.05). Postimplementation, mean documentation scores increased (5.9 (2.1) vs. 5.0 (2.2); P = 0.0001) and records with clinically meaningful documentation increased (score >5: 59 vs. 47%; P = 0.02) at the intervention versus the control site. Pre- and postimplementation, a score >5 was positively associated with abnormal test results (OR = 4.0; 95% CI: 1.8-9.2) and trainee provider (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.6). Postimplementation, a score >5 was also positively associated with intervention site (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-5.1) and specialty clinic (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). There were also significantly fewer tests ordered after implementation (264/100,000 vs. 204/100,000; P = 0.03), with no significant change at the control site (280/100,000 vs. 257/100,000; P = 0.50). EHR point-of-care tools improved documentation of genetic testing <span class="hlt">processes</span> and decreased utilization of genetic tests <span class="hlt">commonly</span> ordered by nongeneticists.Genet Med 19 1, 112-120.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/minimum-risk-pesticides/commonly-consumed-food-commodities','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/minimum-risk-pesticides/commonly-consumed-food-commodities"><span><span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Consumed Food Commodities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Commonly</span> consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or <span class="hlt">processed</span> commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=museum+AND+museum&pg=5&id=EJ1129099','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=museum+AND+museum&pg=5&id=EJ1129099"><span>Finding <span class="hlt">Common</span> Ground with the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moisan, Heidi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the journey of museum educators at the Chicago History Museum in understanding the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards and implementing them in our work with the school audience. The <span class="hlt">process</span> raised questions about our teaching philosophy and our responsibility to our audience. Working with colleagues inside and outside of our…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRE..119.2471D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRE..119.2471D"><span>The location of Airy-0, the Mars prime meridian <span class="hlt">reference</span>, from stereo photogrammetric <span class="hlt">processing</span> of THEMIS IR imaging and digital elevation data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duxbury, T. C.; Christensen, P.; Smith, D. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Kirk, R. L.; Caplinger, M. A.; Albee, A. A.; Seregina, N. V.; Neukum, G.; Archinal, B. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The small crater Airy-0 was selected from Mariner 9 images to be the <span class="hlt">reference</span> for the Mars prime meridian. Initial analyses in the year 2000 tied Viking Orbiter and Mars Orbiter Camera images of Airy-0 to the evolving Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter global digital terrain model to update the location of Airy-0. Based upon this tie and radiometric tracking of landers/rovers from Earth, new expressions for the Mars spin axis direction, spin rate, and prime meridian epoch value were produced to define the orientation of the Martian surface in inertial space over time. Since the Mars Global Surveyor mission and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter global digital terrain model were completed some time ago, a more exhaustive study has been performed to determine the accuracy of the Airy-0 location and orientation of Mars at the standard epoch. Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) IR image cubes of the Airy and Gale crater regions were tied to the global terrain grid using precision stereo photogrammetric image <span class="hlt">processing</span> techniques. The Airy-0 location was determined to be about 0.001° east of its predicted location using the currently defined International Astronomical Union (IAU) prime meridian location. Information on this new location and how it was derived will be provided to the NASA Mars Exploration Program Geodesy and Cartography Working Group for their assessment. This NASA group will make a recommendation to the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements to update the expression for the Mars spin axis direction, spin rate, and prime meridian location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26939686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26939686"><span>Selected problems with boron determination in water treatment <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Part I: comparison of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> methods for ICP-MS and ICP-OES determinations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kmiecik, Ewa; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Wątor, Katarzyna; Bodzek, Michał</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to compare the two <span class="hlt">reference</span> methods for the determination of boron in water samples and further assess the impact of the method of preparation of samples for analysis on the results obtained. Samples were collected during different desalination <span class="hlt">processes</span>, ultrafiltration and the double reverse osmosis system, connected in series. From each point, samples were prepared in four different ways: the first was filtered (through a membrane filter of 0.45 μm) and acidified (using 1 mL ultrapure nitric acid for each 100 mL of samples) (FA), the second was unfiltered and not acidified (UFNA), the third was filtered but not acidified (FNA), and finally, the fourth was unfiltered but acidified (UFA). All samples were analysed using two analytical methods: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results obtained were compared and correlated, and the differences between them were studied. The results show that there are statistically significant differences between the concentrations obtained using the ICP-MS and ICP-OES techniques regardless of the methods of sampling preparation (sample filtration and preservation). Finally, both the ICP-MS and ICP-OES methods can be used for determination of the boron concentration in water. The differences in the boron concentrations obtained using these two methods can be caused by several high-level concentrations in selected whole-water digestates and some matrix effects. Higher concentrations of iron (from 1 to 20 mg/L) than chromium (0.02-1 mg/L) in the samples analysed can influence boron determination. When iron concentrations are high, we can observe the emission spectrum as a double joined and overlapping peak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21828','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/21828"><span>No. 1 and No. 2 <span class="hlt">Common</span> red oak yields: similar part sizes when gang-ripping is used to <span class="hlt">process</span> boards with crook</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Charles J. Gatchell; Charles J. Gatchell</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Computer simulation was used to gang rip No. 1 and No. 2 <span class="hlt">Common</span> red oak boards before and after removal of crook. While No. 1 <span class="hlt">Common</span> produced slightly more total yield, the part yields were very similar. No. 1 <span class="hlt">Common</span> was superior only in yielding 75-inch-long pieces. Either grade is an excellent choice for the furniture and cabinet industries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28221857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28221857"><span>Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Carrying Virulence-Attenuating Mutations in Internalin A Are <span class="hlt">Commonly</span> Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Food <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Plant and Retail Environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>VAN Stelten, A; Roberts, A R; Manuel, C S; Nightingale, K K</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Listeria monocytogenes is a human foodborne pathogen that may cause an invasive disease known as listeriosis in susceptible individuals. Internalin A (InlA; encoded by inlA) is a virulence factor that facilitates crossing of host cell barriers by L. monocytogenes . At least 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inlA that result in a premature stop codon (PMSC) have been described worldwide. SNPs leading to a PMSC in inlA have been shown to be causally associated with attenuated virulence. L. monocytogenes pathogens carrying virulence-attenuating (VA) mutations in inlA have been <span class="hlt">commonly</span> isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) foods but rarely have been associated with human disease. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of VA SNPs in inlA among L. monocytogenes from environments associated with RTE food production and handling. More than 700 L. monocytogenes isolates from RTE food <span class="hlt">processing</span> plant (n = 409) and retail (n = 319) environments were screened for the presence of VA SNPs in inlA. Overall, 26.4% of isolates from RTE food <span class="hlt">processing</span> plant and 32.6% of isolates from retail environments carried a VA mutation in inlA. Food contact surfaces sampled at retail establishments were significantly (P < 0.0001) more likely to be contaminated by a L. monocytogenes isolate carrying a VA mutation in inlA (56% of 55 isolates) compared with nonfood contact surfaces (28% of 264 isolates). Overall, a significant proportion of L. monocytogenes isolated from RTE food production and handling environments have reduced virulence. These data will be useful in the revision of current and the development of future risk assessments that incorporate strain-specific virulence parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5297882','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5297882"><span>Nutritional and Digestive Properties of Protein Isolates Extracted from the Muscle of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Carp Using pH‐Shift <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tian, Yuanyong; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Chunhong; Zhang, Long; Liu, Jinyang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract This study details the nutritional and digestive properties of protein isolates that are extracted from carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) muscle using pH shifting methods. Alkaline (ALPI) and acid (ACPI) protein isolates exhibit higher protein yields (87.6%, 76.3%, respectively). In addition to the high recovery of myofibrillar protein, a portion of the water‐soluble proteins is also recovered. The moisture contents of ACPI and ALPI are 85.5% and 88.5%, respectively, and the crude protein contents of these two fractions are 83.20% and 83.0%, respectively, both contents of which are higher than those for fresh muscle. Most part of the ash and fat are removed in the separation <span class="hlt">process</span>. The protein isolation is also found to be lighter and whiter than the fresh muscle and there is no difference between amino acid content of protein isolation and that of fresh muscle. The maximum solubility of water washed surimi is 73.21%, while solubility of ACPI‐2 and ALPI‐2 (pH 7.0) are 66.67% and 62.08%, respectively. The digestibility of ALPI and ACPI is improved after being treated with chymotrypsin, which is about 7–8 times as that of fresh muscle. The results indicate that the protein isolates have better nutritional and digestive properties than the fresh muscle does in food <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Practical Applications <span class="hlt">Common</span> carp is a lower additional value fish that exists in large amount in China. This study investigates nutritional and digestive properties of protein from carp extracted by pH shifting methods. According to the obtained data in this study, pH shifting method is a good protein recovery method that can effectively remove bone spurs, skin, fat and other impurities. In addition, sarcoplasmic proteins can also be recovered. The nutritional properties of protein isolates of carp were suitable for supplementing as an ingredient for human consumption. The pH‐shift <span class="hlt">process</span> greatly improves the protein digestibility. Therefore, there are broad application</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7067429','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7067429"><span>Aluminum <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sadoway, D.R.</p> <p>1988-08-16</p> <p>A stable <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the <span class="hlt">process</span> of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866683','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866683"><span>Aluminum <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sadoway, Donald R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A stable <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the <span class="hlt">process</span> of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3275147','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3275147"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> cold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have two to three infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within 1 week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for <span class="hlt">common</span> cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants for short-term and for long-term relief, decongestants plus antihistamines, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges). PMID:21406124</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2907967','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2907967"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> cold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have 2-3 infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within a week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for <span class="hlt">common</span> cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants (norephedrine, oxymetazoline, or pseudoephedrine), decongestants plus antihistamine, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges). PMID:19450292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406124"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> cold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arroll, Bruce</p> <p>2011-03-16</p> <p>Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have two to three infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within 1 week, but coughs often persist for longer. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for <span class="hlt">common</span> cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 21 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants for short-term and for long-term relief, decongestants plus antihistamines, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19450292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19450292"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> cold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arroll, Bruce</p> <p>2008-06-09</p> <p>Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have 2-3 infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within a week, but coughs often persist for longer. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for <span class="hlt">common</span> cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to May 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants (norephedrine, oxymetazoline, or pseudoephedrine), decongestants plus antihistamine, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28580884','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28580884"><span>Specific and <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> as mediators of the long-term effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy integrated with motivational interviewing for generalized anxiety disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Constantino, Michael J; Westra, Henny A; Antony, Martin M; Coyne, Alice E</p> <p>2017-06-05</p> <p>A trial of psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) demonstrated that motivational interviewing (MI) integrated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) outperformed CBT alone on clients' worry reduction across a 12-month follow-up. In the present study, we hypothesized and tested that less client resistance and greater client-perceived therapist empathy (specific foci of MI) would account for MI's additive effect. Exploratory analyses assessed whether the <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processes</span> of homework completion and therapeutic alliance quality mediated the treatment effect. Clients with GAD were randomized to 15 sessions of MI-CBT (n = 42) or CBT alone (n = 43). Worry was assessed throughout treatment and follow-up. Observers rated resistance at midtreatment, and clients reported on perceived therapist empathy, alliance, and homework completion throughout treatment. Mediation was tested with bootstrapping methods. Expectedly, MI-CBT clients evidenced less resistance and perceived greater therapist empathy, each of which related to lower 12-month worry. However, when both variables were tested simultaneously, only resistance remained a significant mediator of treatment. No indirect effects through homework completion or alliance emerged. Reducing client resistance may be a theory-consistent mechanism through which integrative MI-CBT promotes superior long-term improvement than traditional CBT when treating GAD. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: This study further supports the long-term clinical benefit of integrating MI into CBT when treating the highly prevalent and historically difficult-to-treat condition of GAD. In particular, it points to the theory-specific mechanism of MI (helping to reduce/resolve patients' in-treatment resistance) as accounting for the integrative treatment's additive effect on worry reduction across a follow-up period. Therapists using CBT to treat patients with GAD should be trained to incorporate MI principles</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911570','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/911570"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Control System Vulnerability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trent Nelson</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability <span class="hlt">common</span> to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed <span class="hlt">common</span> to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a <span class="hlt">common</span> attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a <span class="hlt">process</span> generally <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25204274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25204274"><span>International <span class="hlt">reference</span> preparations for standardization of biological medicinal products.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Minor, P</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>International standards are prepared as materials assigned an arbitrary unitage for a biological activity by the Expert Committee on Biological Standardization of the World Health Organization. Working <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials are calibrated against international standards giving a <span class="hlt">common</span> unit of measurement between laboratories. The <span class="hlt">references</span> are assessed by a collaborative study including all relevant assays rather than by a single <span class="hlt">reference</span> method as in the SI (Le Système international d'unités) system and the unitage assigned is an arbitrary value derived from a consensus of all valid methods. The <span class="hlt">process</span> has proved valuable in assaying the activity of therapeutic biological medicines and in standardizing certain types of diagnostics. Issues arise with maintaining the unit when the primary <span class="hlt">reference</span> must be replaced and to some extent in assessing the commutability of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> with real life analytes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=337315&keyword=Ethics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=337315&keyword=Ethics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Updating Regulations for Human Subjects Research: The New <span class="hlt">Common</span> Rule Has arrived! What Changes Are Coming?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The “<span class="hlt">Common</span> Rule” <span class="hlt">refers</span> to the federal regulations that govern research involving human subjects. These regulations have been largely unchanged since 1981, while the research they cover has continued to evolve. After a 6-year rulemaking <span class="hlt">process</span>, the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Rule was ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Language+AND+Assessment+AND+Practice&pg=6&id=EJ1031718','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Language+AND+Assessment+AND+Practice&pg=6&id=EJ1031718"><span>Putting the <span class="hlt">Common</span> European Framework of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Good Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>North, Brian</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper recapitulates the aims of the CEFR and highlights three aspects of good practice in exploiting it: firstly, taking as a starting point the real-world language ability that is the aim of all modern language learners; secondly, the exploitation of good descriptors as transparent learning objectives in order to involve and empower the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=relativity+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ398251','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=relativity+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ398251"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frames and Relativity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Swartz, Clifford</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Stresses the importance of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames and noninertial <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames. Provides examples of <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames with diagrams. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9397816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9397816"><span>Checking <span class="hlt">references</span>: tips for reviewers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biancuzzo, M</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>When I was a new reviewer, I was uncertain if I should check some, all, or none of the <span class="hlt">references</span> in the manuscript. I was equally uncertain, however, if anyone was ultimately accountable for this responsibility. Reviewers must assume responsibility for checking <span class="hlt">references</span> because "the most critical part of the review <span class="hlt">process</span> is to check the accuracy of the content." (Brooks-Brunn, 1993, p. 4). The reviewer's three main responsibilities include checking for (1) a <span class="hlt">reference</span> for every citation (2) accuracy of <span class="hlt">reference</span> content (3) accuracy of cited material (Kirchhoff, 1995).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/osteoglophonic-dysplasia','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/osteoglophonic-dysplasia"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: osteoglophonic dysplasia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... <span class="hlt">referred</span> to in the medical literature as a tower-shaped skull , or a relatively mild version of ... receptors are involved in important <span class="hlt">processes</span> such as cell division, regulation of cell growth and maturation, formation ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Common+AND+source&pg=6&id=EJ1119257','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Common+AND+source&pg=6&id=EJ1119257"><span>Does <span class="hlt">Common</span> Enrollment Work?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carpenter, Dick M., II; Clayton, Grant</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this article, researchers Dick M. Carpenter II and Grant Clayton explore <span class="hlt">common</span> enrollment systems (CESs)--how they work and what school leaders can learn from districts that have implemented CESs. Denver, New Orleans, and Newark (New Jersey) have rolled out this centralized enrollment <span class="hlt">process</span> for all district-run and charter schools in their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732514','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732514"><span>The work of the European Union <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation <span class="hlt">process</span> of feed additives in the European Union: a review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED352007.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED352007.pdf"><span>Semantics-Based <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Resolution in Technical Text <span class="hlt">Processing</span>: An Exploration of Using the WordNet Database in the Computerized Comprehensibility System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kieras, David E.</p> <p></p> <p>The Computerized Comprehensibility System (CCS) provides an automated copy editing function, generating a mark-up of a draft of a technical document by simulating the simpler comprehension <span class="hlt">processes</span> of a human reader, and then criticizing the text when these simple <span class="hlt">processes</span> cannot successfully comprehend the material. A key CCS function is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=seed&pg=4&id=EJ1106964','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=seed&pg=4&id=EJ1106964"><span>Comprehending Text versus Reading Words in Young Readers with Varying Reading Ability: Distinct Patterns of Functional Connectivity from <span class="hlt">Common</span> <span class="hlt">Processing</span> Hubs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Aboud, Katherine S.; Bailey, Stephen K.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Cutting, Laurie E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Skilled reading depends on recognizing words efficiently in isolation ("word-level <span class="hlt">processing</span>"; "WL") and extracting meaning from text ("discourse-level <span class="hlt">processing</span>"; "DL"); deficiencies in either result in poor reading. FMRI has revealed consistent overlapping networks in word and passage reading, as well as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25388778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25388778"><span>Adaptive <span class="hlt">common</span> average filtering for myocontrol applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rehbaum, Hubertus; Farina, Dario</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The use of electromyography (EMG) for the control of upper-limb prostheses has received great interest in neurorehabilitation engineering since decades. Important advances have been performed in the development of machine learning algorithms for myocontrol. This paper describes a novel adaptive filter for EMG preprocessing to be applied as conditioning stage for optimal subsequent information extraction. The aim of this filter is to improve both the quality (signal-to-noise ratio) and the selectivity of the EMG recordings. The filter is based on the classic <span class="hlt">common</span> average <span class="hlt">reference</span> (CAR), often used in EEG <span class="hlt">processing</span>. However, while CAR is stationary, the proposed filter, which is <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as adaptive <span class="hlt">common</span> average <span class="hlt">reference</span> (ACAR), is signal-dependent and its spatial transfer function is adapted over time. The ACAR filter is evaluated in this study for noise reduction and selectivity. Furthermore, it is proven that its application improves the performance of both pattern recognition and regression methods for myoelectric control. It is concluded that the proposed novel filter for EMG conditioning is a useful preprocessing tool in myocontrol applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27769786','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27769786"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and distinct brain regions in both parietal and frontal cortex support symbolic and nonsymbolic number <span class="hlt">processing</span> in humans: A functional neuroimaging meta-analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sokolowski, H Moriah; Fias, Wim; Mousa, Ahmad; Ansari, Daniel</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In recent years, there has been substantial growth in neuroimaging studies investigating neural correlates of symbolic (e.g. Arabic numerals) and non-symbolic (e.g. dot arrays) number <span class="hlt">processing</span>. At present it remains contested whether number is represented abstractly, or if number representations in the brain are format-dependent. In order to quantitatively evaluate the available neuroimaging evidence, we used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to conduct quantitative meta-analyses of the results reported in 57 neuroimaging papers. Consistent with the existence of an abstract representation of number in the brain, conjunction analyses revealed overlapping activation for symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers in frontal and parietal lobes. Consistent with the notion of format-dependent activation, contrast analyses demonstrated anatomically distinct fronto-parietal activation for symbolic and non-symbolic <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Therefore, symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are subserved by format-dependent and abstract neural systems. Moreover, the present results suggest that regions across the parietal cortex, not just the intraparietal sulcus, are engaged in both symbolic and non-symbolic number <span class="hlt">processing</span>, challenging the notion that the intraparietal sulcus is the key region for number <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Additionally, our analyses indicate that regions in the frontal cortex subserve magnitude representations rather than non-numerical cognitive <span class="hlt">processes</span> associated with number tasks, thereby highlighting the importance of considering both frontal and parietal regions as important for number <span class="hlt">processing</span>. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=thc&pg=3&id=ED260736','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=thc&pg=3&id=ED260736"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Service Policy Statement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Young, William F.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">reference</span> service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage <span class="hlt">reference</span> service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy <span class="hlt">refers</span> only to <span class="hlt">reference</span> service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Services Division.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170007855','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170007855"><span>Design and Principles Enabling the Space <span class="hlt">Reference</span> FOM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moeller, Bjoern; Dexter, Dan; Madden, Michael; Crues, Edwin Z.; Garro, Alfredo; Skuratovskiy, Anton</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A first complete draft of the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) Space <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Federation Object Model (FOM) has now been produced. This paper provides some insights into its capabilities and discusses the opportunity for reuse in other domains. The focus of this first version of the standard is execution control, time management and coordinate systems, well-known <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames, as well as some basic support for physical entities. The biggest part of the execution control is the coordinated start-up <span class="hlt">process</span>. This <span class="hlt">process</span> contains a number of steps, including checking of required federates, handling of early versus late joiners, sharing of federation wide configuration data and multi-phase initialization. An additional part of Execution Control is the coordinated and synchronized transition between Run mode, Freeze mode and Shutdown. For time management, several time lines are defined, including real-time, scenario time, High Level Architecture (HLA) logical time and physical time. A strategy for mixing simulations that use different time steps is introduced, as well as an approach for finding <span class="hlt">common</span> boundaries for fully synchronized freeze. For describing spatial information, a mechanism with a set of <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames is specified. Each <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame has a position and orientation related to a parent <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame. This makes it possible for federates to perform calculations in <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames that are convenient to them. An operation on the Moon can be performed using lunar coordinates whereas an operation on Earth can be performed using Earth coordinates. At the same time, coordinates in one <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame have an unambiguous relationship to a coordinate in another <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame. While the Space <span class="hlt">Reference</span> FOM is originally being developed for Space operations, the authors believe that many parts of it can be reused for any simulation that has a focus on physical <span class="hlt">processes</span> with one or more coordinate systems, and require high</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4945471','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4945471"><span>Comprehending text versus reading words in young readers with varying reading ability: Distinct patterns of functional connectivity from <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">processing</span> hubs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aboud, Katherine S.; Bailey, Stephen K.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Cutting, Laurie E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Skilled reading depends on recognizing words efficiently in isolation (word-level <span class="hlt">processing</span>; WL) and extracting meaning from text (discourse-level <span class="hlt">processing</span>; DL); deficiencies in either result in poor reading. FMRI has revealed consistent overlapping networks in word and passage reading, as well as unique regions for DL <span class="hlt">processing</span>, however less is known about how WL and DL <span class="hlt">processes</span> interact. Here we examined functional connectivity from seed regions derived from where BOLD signal overlapped during word and passage reading in 38 adolescents ranging in reading ability, hypothesizing that even though certain regions support word- and higher-level language, connectivity patterns from overlapping regions would be task modulated. Results indeed revealed that the left-lateralized semantic and working memory (WM) seed regions showed task-dependent functional connectivity patterns: during DL <span class="hlt">processes</span>, semantic and WM nodes all correlated with the left angular gyrus, a region implicated in semantic memory/coherence building. In contrast, during WL, these nodes coordinated with a traditional WL area (left occipitotemporal region). Additionally, these WL and DL findings were modulated by decoding and comprehension abilities, respectively, with poorer abilities correlating with decreased connectivity. Findings indicate that key regions may uniquely contribute to multiple levels of reading; we speculate that these connectivity patterns may be especially salient for reading outcomes and intervention response. PMID:27147257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=process+AND+image&pg=3&id=EJ977777','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=process+AND+image&pg=3&id=EJ977777"><span>Objectification in <span class="hlt">Common</span> Sense Thinking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Markova, Ivana</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In epistemologies of both scientific and <span class="hlt">common</span> sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge <span class="hlt">refers</span> to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24885085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24885085"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span>-garden experiment to quantify evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span> in copepods: the case of emamectin benzoate resistance in the parasitic sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ljungfeldt, Lina Eva Robin; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Glover, Kevin Alan</p> <p>2014-05-19</p> <p>The development of pesticide resistance represents a global challenge to food production. Specifically for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, parasitic sea lice and their developing resistance to delousing chemicals is challenging production. In this study, seventeen full sibling families, established from three strains of Lepeophtheirus salmonis displaying differing backgrounds in emamectin benzoate (EB) tolerance were produced and quantitatively compared under a <span class="hlt">common</span>-garden experimental design. Lice surviving to the preadult stage were then exposed to EB and finally identified through the application of DNA parentage testing. With the exception of two families (19 and 29%), survival from the infectious copepod to preadult stage was very similar among families (40-50%). In contrast, very large differences in survival following EB exposure were observed among the families (7.9-74%). Family survival post EB exposure was consistent with the EB tolerance characteristics of the strains from which they were established and no negative effect on infection success were detected in association with increased EB tolerance. Two of the lice families that displayed reduced sensitivity to EB were established from a commercial farm that had previously used this chemical. This demonstrates that resistant alleles were present on this farm even though the farm had not reported treatment failure. To our knowledge, this represents the first study where families of any multi-cellular parasite have been established and compared in performance under communal rearing conditions in a <span class="hlt">common</span>-garden experiment. The system performed in a predictable manner and permitted, for the first time, elucidation of quantitative traits among sea lice families. While this experiment concentrated on, and provided a unique insight into EB sensitivity among lice families, the experimental design represents a novel methodology to experimentally address both resistance development and other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057923','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057923"><span>A <span class="hlt">common</span>-garden experiment to quantify evolutionary <span class="hlt">processes</span> in copepods: the case of emamectin benzoate resistance in the parasitic sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The development of pesticide resistance represents a global challenge to food production. Specifically for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, parasitic sea lice and their developing resistance to delousing chemicals is challenging production. In this study, seventeen full sibling families, established from three strains of Lepeophtheirus salmonis displaying differing backgrounds in emamectin benzoate (EB) tolerance were produced and quantitatively compared under a <span class="hlt">common</span>-garden experimental design. Lice surviving to the preadult stage were then exposed to EB and finally identified through the application of DNA parentage testing. Results With the exception of two families (19 and 29%), survival from the infectious copepod to preadult stage was very similar among families (40-50%). In contrast, very large differences in survival following EB exposure were observed among the families (7.9-74%). Family survival post EB exposure was consistent with the EB tolerance characteristics of the strains from which they were established and no negative effect on infection success were detected in association with increased EB tolerance. Two of the lice families that displayed reduced sensitivity to EB were established from a commercial farm that had previously used this chemical. This demonstrates that resistant alleles were present on this farm even though the farm had not reported treatment failure. Conclusions To our knowledge, this represents the first study where families of any multi-cellular parasite have been established and compared in performance under communal rearing conditions in a <span class="hlt">common</span>-garden experiment. The system performed in a predictable manner and permitted, for the first time, elucidation of quantitative traits among sea lice families. While this experiment concentrated on, and provided a unique insight into EB sensitivity among lice families, the experimental design represents a novel methodology to experimentally address both resistance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ASSL..352..233W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ASSL..352..233W"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Envelope Evolution Redux</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webbink, Ronald F.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> envelopes form in dynamical time scale mass exchange, when the envelope of a donor star engulfs a much denser companion, and the core of the donor plus the dense companion star spiral inward through this dissipative envelope. As conceived by Paczynski and Ostriker, this <span class="hlt">process</span> must be responsible for the creation of short-period binaries with degenerate components, and, indeed, it has proven capable of accounting for short-period binaries containing one white dwarf component. However, attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of close double white dwarfs have proven more problematic, and point to the need for enhanced systemic mass loss, either during the close of the first, slow episode of mass transfer that produced the first white dwarf, or during the detached phase preceding the final, <span class="hlt">common</span> envelope episode. The survival of long-period interacting binaries with massive white dwarfs, such as the recurrent novae T CrB and RS Oph, also presents interpretative difficulties for simple energetic treatments of <span class="hlt">common</span> envelope evolution. Their existence implies that major terms are missing from usual formulations of the energy budget for <span class="hlt">common</span> envelope evolution. The most plausible missing energy term is the energy released by recombination in the <span class="hlt">common</span> envelope, and, indeed, a simple reformulation the energy budget explicitly including recombination resolves this issue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26033297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26033297"><span>The Value of Quality Improvement <span class="hlt">Process</span> in the Detection and Correction of <span class="hlt">Common</span> Errors in Echocardiographic Hemodynamic Parameters in a Busy Echocardiography Laboratory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fanari, Zaher; Choudhry, Usman I; Reddy, Vivek K; Eze-Nliam, Chete; Hammami, Sumaya; Kolm, Paul; Weintraub, William S; Marshall, Erik S</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Accurate assessment of cardiac structures, ventricular function, and hemodynamics is essential for any echocardiographic laboratory. Quality improvement (QI) <span class="hlt">processes</span> described by the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and the Intersocietal Commission (IAC) should be instrumental in reaching this goal. All patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) followed by cardiac catheterization within 24 hours at Christiana Care Health System in 2011 and 2012 were identified, with 126 and 133 cases, respectively. Hemodynamic parameters of diastolic function and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) on TTE correlated poorly with catheterization in 2011. An educational <span class="hlt">process</span> was developed and implemented at quarterly QI meetings based on ASE and IAC recommendations to target frequently encountered errors and provide methods for improved performance. The hemodynamic parameters were then reexamined in 2012 postintervention. Following the QI <span class="hlt">process</span>, there was significant improvement in the correlation between invasive and echocardiographic hemodynamic measurements in both systolic and diastolic function, and PASP. This reflected in significant better correlations between echo and cath LVEF [R = 0.88, ICC = 0.87 vs. R = 0.85, ICC = 0.85; P < 0.001], average E/E' and of left ventricle end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) [R = 0.62 vs. R = 0.09, P = 0.006] and a better correlation for PASP [R = 0.77, ICC = 0.77 vs. R = 0.30, ICC = 0.31; P = 0.05] in 2012 compared to 2011. The QI <span class="hlt">process</span>, as recommended by ASE and IAC, can allow for identification as well as rectification of quality issues in a large regional academic medical center hospital. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23151732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23151732"><span>Design development scopes towards occupational wellness of women workers: specific <span class="hlt">reference</span> to local agro based food <span class="hlt">processing</span> industries in NE India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhattacharyya, Nandita; Chakrabarti, Debkumar</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Women workers constitute one of the most vulnerable segments of the country's labour force. They often face different workplace health challenges than men do. They are engaged in a range of work that extends from heavy, monotonous, repetitive jobs, which are in many times experienced with low-paid and involves in long hours of work. Women's workplace health problems are frequently compounded by getting more of the same at home--the "double jeopardy" of domestic work. Specific issues to improve the workers motivation leading to enhancement of productivity and improving occupational health and safety were addressed. Context specific application of ergonomics principles were studied in the <span class="hlt">process</span> of designing of work related equipment of local fruit <span class="hlt">processing</span> units, as well as in tea industry, covering 180 subjects selected purposively. Ergonomic risk factors prevailed among the workers associates productivity and relevant health issues were quantified using QEC, RULA. NMQ was used to gather data on prevalence of CTDs among the workers. Pineapple peeling, tea leaves plucking were found highly labour intensive, done manually. Postures scores found were very high. WRMSDs were prevalent among the workers. Scope for ergonomic design intervention was observed to improve productivity and occupational health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19384714','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19384714"><span>Virtual <span class="hlt">reference</span>: chat with us!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lapidus, Mariana; Bond, Irena</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Virtual chat services represent an exciting way to provide patrons of medical libraries with instant <span class="hlt">reference</span> help in an academic environment. The purpose of this article is to examine the implementation, marketing <span class="hlt">process</span>, use, and development of a virtual <span class="hlt">reference</span> service initiated at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and its three-campus libraries. In addition, this paper will discuss practical recommendations for the future improvement of the service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bird+AND+species&pg=6&id=EJ720668','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bird+AND+species&pg=6&id=EJ720668"><span>Reach for <span class="hlt">Reference</span>. Four Recent <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Books</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Safford, Barbara Ripp</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school <span class="hlt">reference</span> collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan <span class="hlt">Reference</span>/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4888899','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4888899"><span><span class="hlt">References</span> for Haplotype Imputation in the Big Data Era</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Wenzhi; Xu, Wei; Li, Qiling; Ma, Li; Song, Qing</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Imputation is a powerful in silico approach to fill in those missing values in the big datasets. This <span class="hlt">process</span> requires a <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel, which is a collection of big data from which the missing information can be extracted and imputed. Haplotype imputation requires ethnicity-matched <span class="hlt">references</span>; a mismatched <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel will significantly reduce the quality of imputation. However, currently existing big datasets cover only a small number of ethnicities, there is a lack of ethnicity-matched <span class="hlt">references</span> for many ethnic populations in the world, which has hampered the data imputation of haplotypes and its downstream applications. To solve this issue, several approaches have been proposed and explored, including the mixed <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel, the internal <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel and genotype-converted <span class="hlt">reference</span> panel. This review article provides the information and comparison between these approaches. Increasing evidence showed that not just one or two genetic elements dictate the gene activity and functions; instead, cis-interactions of multiple elements dictate gene activity. Cis-interactions require the interacting elements to be on the same chromosome molecule, therefore, haplotype analysis is essential for the investigation of cis-interactions among multiple genetic variants at different loci, and appears to be especially important for studying the <span class="hlt">common</span> diseases. It will be valuable in a wide spectrum of applications from academic research, to clinical diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27274952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/strd/index.html','NISTDBS'); return false;" href="http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/strd/index.html"><span>Statistical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Datasets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://srdata.nist.gov/gateway/gateway?search=keyword">National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Statistical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Datasets is also supported by the Standard <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing <span class="hlt">reference</span> datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EP%26S...69...22N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EP%26S...69...22N"><span>Rupture <span class="hlt">process</span> of the main shock of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with special <span class="hlt">reference</span> to damaging ground motions: waveform inversion with empirical Green's functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nozu, Atsushi; Nagasaka, Yosuke</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this study, the rupture <span class="hlt">process</span> of the main shock of the Kumamoto earthquake, particularly the generation of strong ground motions in the frequency range relevant to structural damage, was investigated based on the inversion of strong ground motions. Strong-motion records in the near-source region were mainly utilized because the authors were interested in the generation mechanism of damaging ground motions in the near-source region. Empirical Green's functions (EGFs) were applied to avoid uncertainty in the subsurface structure model. Four cases of inversions with different combinations of small events were used to investigate the dependence of the inversion results on the selection of the small events. It was found that the dependence of the final slip distribution and peak slip velocity distribution on the selection of the EGF events is small. The results clearly indicate that a region of significantly large slip and slip velocity existed approximately 15 km northeast of the hypocenter. However, no "asperity" was observed between the hypocenter and Mashiki. Thus, it is not appropriate to conclude that the large-amplitude pulse-like ground motion in Mashiki was generated by the forward-directivity effect associated with the rupture of an asperity. As far as the source effect is concerned, the ground motion in Mashiki cannot be interpreted as the worst case scenario. On the other hand, the rupture of the "asperity" 15 km northeast of the hypocenter should have caused significantly large ground motions in regions close to the asperity. The significant damage of highway bridges in the region can potentially be attributed to the rupture of the asperity. The result of this study was compared with an inversion result obtained from numerical Green's functions for a layered half-space. The two results share the main features in spite of the difference of the Green's functions and stations used. Therefore, it can be concluded that these two source models capture the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...208.4004W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...208.4004W"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Envelope Evolution Redux</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webbink, Ronald F.</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> envelopes form in dynamical time scale mass exchange, when the envelope of a donor star engulfs a much denser companion, and the core of the donor plus the dense companion star spiral inward through this dissipative envelope. As conceived by Paczynski and Ostriker, this <span class="hlt">process</span> must be responsible for the creation of short-period binaries with degenerate components, but elementary energy conservation arguments fail to account for the survival of the longer-period examples of these compact binaries. Those longer-period binaries are still allowed by angular momentum conservation, but their existence implies that major terms are missing from usual formulations of the energy budget for <span class="hlt">common</span> envelope evolution. The most plausible missing energy term is the energy released by recombination in the <span class="hlt">common</span> envelope. We reformulate the energy budget for <span class="hlt">common</span> envelope evolution accordingly, and explore the consequences for the formation of short-period binaries containing white dwarf components.This work is supported in part by NSF grant AST 0406726 to the University of Illinois.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890004880','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890004880"><span>Space station <span class="hlt">commonality</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station <span class="hlt">Commonality</span> Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the <span class="hlt">commonality</span> aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials <span class="hlt">processing</span> platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and <span class="hlt">commonality</span>. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware <span class="hlt">commonality</span>, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26075021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26075021"><span>Self-reported psychopathic traits among non-<span class="hlt">referred</span> Finnish adolescents: psychometric properties of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory and the Antisocial <span class="hlt">Process</span> Screening Device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oshukova, Svetlana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttila, Riikka; Tani, Pekka; Aronen, Eeva T; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaivosoja, Matti; Lindberg, Nina</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In general psychiatric services, cost-benefit screening instruments for psychopathic traits in adolescents are needed. The aim of the present study was to study the psychometric properties of the Finnish versions of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the Antisocial <span class="hlt">Process</span> Screening Device (APSD-SR) in community youth. As gender-specific differences exist in psychopathic traits, we analyzed the data separately in girls and boys. The YPI and the APSD-SR were administered to 372 9th graders (174 boys and 198 girls) with a mean age of 15.06 years (SD 0.28). Cronbach's alphas were used to study internal consistency. The factor structures of the self-assessments were studied using both Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In both self-assessments, boys scored significantly higher in the total scores, Interpersonal and Affective dimension scores as well as in most sub-dimensions. In the YPI, the alpha values for total and dimensional scores ranged from 0.55 to 0.91 in boys and from 0.74 to 0.89 in girls and, in the APSD-SR, respectively, from 0.38 to 0.78 and from 0.29 to 0.78. In CFA, the three-factor model produced poor fit for both self-assessments. For the ten sub-dimensions of the YPI, the PCA suggested two factors. Extending the model into three components showed sub-dimension loadings according to the original dimensions. For the APSD-SR, the PCA revealed a five-factor structure in the male sample and a six-factor one in the female group. When limiting the model to a three factor- model, we obtained a structure, which resembled the original dimensions. Both the YPI and the APSD-SR are promising tools of screening for psychopathic features in Finnish community youth. The YPI turned out to be slightly better than the APSD- SR in both reliability and factor structure. However, the original three-factor models did not find support. Both self-assessments were somewhat weak for tapping the callous-unemotional traits</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=household+AND+finance&pg=7&id=EJ1047566','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=household+AND+finance&pg=7&id=EJ1047566"><span>No <span class="hlt">Common</span> Opinion on the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a <span class="hlt">common</span> set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED282265.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED282265.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Failures. Technical Report No. 398.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goodman, Bradley A.</p> <p></p> <p>In order to build robust natural language <span class="hlt">processing</span> systems that can detect and recover from miscommunication, the investigation of how people communicate and how they recover from problems in communication described in this artificial intelligence report focused on <span class="hlt">reference</span> problems which a listener may have in determining what or whom a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2145123','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2145123"><span>Remedies for <span class="hlt">Common</span> Cold Symptoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miller, Penny F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold. To simplify the product selection <span class="hlt">process</span> for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms. PMID:21234087</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/22979','DOTNTL'); return false;" href="https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/22979"><span>Guide to listing <span class="hlt">references</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do">DOT National Transportation Integrated Search</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The introduction of listing <span class="hlt">references</span>. It introduces the <span class="hlt">reference</span> of printed sources, CD-ROMs, websites, unpublished papers and program manuals, tapes, or other documentation for models. Meanwhile, it describes some examples to use Chicago Manual o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Department+AND+shopping&pg=3&id=ED284556','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Department+AND+shopping&pg=3&id=ED284556"><span>Academic Library <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Batt, Fred</p> <p></p> <p>This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library <span class="hlt">reference</span> services provides an overview of the major <span class="hlt">reference</span> approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of <span class="hlt">reference</span> services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA061681','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA061681"><span><span class="hlt">Process</span> Models of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> in Context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1978-10-01</p> <p>Paso Ttmn, Texas: "The manager of a nudist park complains that a hole was cut In the wall surrounding, the camp. Police are looking Into It," The need...concept for "it." The humor comes from the Incongruity of the interpretations that: 1) the police are looKinr, into thr nudist park, or g) the police</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24182847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24182847"><span>Using high-performance ¹H NMR (HP-qNMR®) for the certification of organic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials under accreditation guidelines--describing the overall <span class="hlt">process</span> with focus on homogeneity and stability assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weber, Michael; Hellriegel, Christine; Rueck, Alexander; Wuethrich, Juerg; Jenks, Peter</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Quantitative NMR spectroscopy (qNMR) is gaining interest across both analytical and industrial research applications and has become an essential tool for the content assignment and quantitative determination of impurities. The key benefits of using qNMR as measurement method for the purity determination of organic molecules are discussed, with emphasis on the ability to establish traceability to "The International System of Units" (SI). The work describes a routine certification procedure from the point of view of a commercial producer of certified <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials (CRM) under ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO Guide 34 accreditation, that resulted in a set of essential <span class="hlt">references</span> for (1)H qNMR measurements, and the relevant application data for these substances are given. The overall <span class="hlt">process</span> includes specific selection criteria, pre-tests, experimental conditions, homogeneity and stability studies. The advantages of an accelerated stability study over the classical stability-test design are shown with respect to shelf-life determination and shipping conditions. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066019"><span>[Errors in Peruvian medical journals <span class="hlt">references</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huamaní, Charles; Pacheco-Romero, José</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">References</span> are fundamental in our studies; an adequate selection is asimportant as an adequate description. To determine the number of errors in a sample of <span class="hlt">references</span> found in Peruvian medical journals. We reviewed 515 scientific papers <span class="hlt">references</span> selected by systematic randomized sampling and corroborated <span class="hlt">reference</span> information with the original document or its citation in Pubmed, LILACS or SciELO-Peru. We found errors in 47,6% (245) of the <span class="hlt">references</span>, identifying 372 types of errors; the most frequent were errors in presentation style (120), authorship (100) and title (100), mainly due to spelling mistakes (91). <span class="hlt">References</span> error percentage was high, varied and multiple. We suggest systematic revision of <span class="hlt">references</span> in the editorial <span class="hlt">process</span> as well as to extend the discussion on this theme. <span class="hlt">references</span>, periodicals, research, bibliometrics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.marchofdimes.org/baby/common-nicu-equipment.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.marchofdimes.org/baby/common-nicu-equipment.aspx"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> NICU Equipment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... care unit (NICU) > <span class="hlt">Common</span> NICU equipment <span class="hlt">Common</span> NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... understand how they can help your baby. What equipment is <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used in the NICU? Providers use ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7035527','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7035527"><span>High frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kronberg, J.W.</p> <p>1994-05-31</p> <p>A high frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869330','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869330"><span>High frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kronberg, James W.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A high frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5029567','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5029567"><span>Optical voltage <span class="hlt">reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.</p> <p>1994-04-26</p> <p>An optical voltage <span class="hlt">reference</span> for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical <span class="hlt">reference</span> apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage <span class="hlt">reference</span> through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869263','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869263"><span>Optical voltage <span class="hlt">reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Rankin, Richard; Kotter, Dale</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>An optical voltage <span class="hlt">reference</span> for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical <span class="hlt">reference</span> apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage <span class="hlt">reference</span> through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=business+AND+green&pg=7&id=EJ995923','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=business+AND+green&pg=7&id=EJ995923"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Career Technical Core: <span class="hlt">Common</span> Standards, <span class="hlt">Common</span> Vision for CTE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Green, Kimberly</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) <span class="hlt">Common</span> Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5629563','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5629563"><span>X-ray data <span class="hlt">processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental <span class="hlt">processes</span> involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a <span class="hlt">common</span> scale are discussed, with particular <span class="hlt">reference</span> to the most <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used software in the field. PMID:28899925</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1095440','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1095440"><span>Sensor Characteristics <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement <span class="hlt">process</span> and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194208"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> and distinct neural correlates of facial emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span> in social anxiety disorder and Williams syndrome: A systematic review and voxel-based meta-analysis of functional resonance imaging studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Binelli, C; Subirà, S; Batalla, A; Muñiz, A; Sugranyés, G; Crippa, J A; Farré, M; Pérez-Jurado, L; Martín-Santos, R</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WS) are two conditions which seem to be at opposite ends in the continuum of social fear but show compromised abilities in some overlapping areas, including some social interactions, gaze contact and <span class="hlt">processing</span> of facial emotional cues. The increase in the number of neuroimaging studies has greatly expanded our knowledge of the neural bases of facial emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span> in both conditions. However, to date, SAD and WS have not been compared. We conducted a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies comparing SAD and WS cases to healthy control participants (HC) using facial emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span> paradigms. Two researchers conducted comprehensive PubMed/Medline searches to identify all fMRI studies of facial emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span> in SAD and WS. The following search key-words were used: "emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span>"; "facial emotion"; "social anxiety"; "social phobia"; "Williams syndrome"; "neuroimaging"; "functional magnetic resonance"; "fMRI" and their combinations, as well as terms specifying individual facial emotions. We extracted spatial coordinates from each study and conducted two separate voxel-wise activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses, one for SAD and one for WS. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: 17 studies of SAD and five of WS. We found evidence for both <span class="hlt">common</span> and distinct patterns of neural activation. Limbic engagement was <span class="hlt">common</span> to SAD and WS during facial emotion <span class="hlt">processing</span>, although we observed opposite patterns of activation for each disorder. Compared to HC, SAD cases showed hyperactivation of the amygdala, the parahippocampal gyrus and the globus pallidus. Compared to controls, participants with WS showed hypoactivation of these regions. Differential activation in a number of regions specific to either condition was also identified: SAD cases exhibited greater activation of the insula, putamen, the superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal regions and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25475636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25475636"><span>Bacterial genome <span class="hlt">reference</span> databases: progress and challenges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Slezak, Tom</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Accurate and sensitive detection of microbes against a complex background is a problem <span class="hlt">common</span> to multiple aspects of human health, such as vaccines and other biologicals safety, blood safety, and diagnosing infectious diseases in humans or other hosts. The microbes in question could be bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitical. To defend against such a broad array of microbes of potential safety concern, we need more than single-target polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Technologies such as highly-multiplexed PCR, broad-spectrum DNA/RNA microarrays, and next-generation sequencing are all potentiallycapable to provide increased protection against microbial contamination. Regulatory <span class="hlt">processes</span> are currently struggling to keep up with rapid advances in all of these technologies, each of which is firmly based upon nucleic acid sequencing resulting in generation of megabases of data. A major question is the level of quality required for genomic data and metadata for the <span class="hlt">reference</span> databases that are needed to allow these technologies to be developed, validated, and then used for front-line protection of human health. The background of this general problem is discussed and one example of an ongoing effort to establish quality levels for a bacterial genome <span class="hlt">reference</span> database is presented. © PDA, Inc. 2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810017894','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810017894"><span>Thermocouple, multiple junction <span class="hlt">reference</span> oven</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leblanc, L. P. (Inventor)</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>An improved oven for maintaining the junctions of a plurality of <span class="hlt">reference</span> thermocouples at a <span class="hlt">common</span> and constant temperature is described. The oven is characterized by a cylindrical body defining a heat sink with axially extended-cylindrical cavity a singularized heating element which comprises a unitary cylindrical heating element consisting of a resistance heating coil wound about the surface of metallic spool with an axial bore defined and seated in the cavity. Other features of the oven include an annular array of radially extended bores defined in the cylindrical body and a plurality of <span class="hlt">reference</span> thermocouple junctions seated in the bores in uniformly spaced relation with the heating element, and a temperature sensing device seated in the axial bore for detecting temperature changes as they occur in the spool and circuit to apply a voltage across the coil in response to detected drops in temperatures of the spool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED456855.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED456855.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Collection Development Policy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nebraska Univ., Kearney.</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this policy is to outline those principles that guide the development of the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Collection at the Calvin T. Ryan Library, University of Nebraska at Kearney. It clarifies, records, and makes public the basic principles that the members of the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Department believe should be applied in adding items to or withdrawing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=technology+AND+affecting+AND+social+AND+skills&pg=4&id=EJ481953','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=technology+AND+affecting+AND+social+AND+skills&pg=4&id=EJ481953"><span>California's <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Crisis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Childers, Thomas A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Social and economic issues affecting the vitality of public libraries in California are discussed. A 1993 study by the California State Library identified diminishing <span class="hlt">reference</span> skills and <span class="hlt">reference</span> collections, reduced funding which impacted staffing, increased demand, technology change, and language/culture issues as contributing factors to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=virtual+AND+reference+AND+services&pg=2&id=EJ708038','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=virtual+AND+reference+AND+services&pg=2&id=EJ708038"><span>Rethinking Virtual <span class="hlt">Reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tenopir, Carol</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Virtual <span class="hlt">reference</span> services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online <span class="hlt">reference</span>. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=service+AND+desk+AND+trends&pg=2&id=EJ570533','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=service+AND+desk+AND+trends&pg=2&id=EJ570533"><span>Working the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Desk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Genz, Marcella D.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Examines historical reasons for the <span class="hlt">reference</span> desk and workers to establish how <span class="hlt">reference</span> work has been circumscribed, describes how it has evolved, and attempts to define perimeters between tasks and duties of paraprofessionals and professionals. Highlights the Williamson Report (1923) on training for library services and considers how practices…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Article+AND+periodical&pg=6&id=EJ330153','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Article+AND+periodical&pg=6&id=EJ330153"><span>Automated Periodical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellefsen, David</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Describes public library <span class="hlt">reference</span> service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select <span class="hlt">references</span>, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=plan+AND+Marketing&pg=6&id=EJ508695','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=plan+AND+Marketing&pg=6&id=EJ508695"><span>Marketing <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Norman, O. Gene</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Relates the marketing concept to library <span class="hlt">reference</span> services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to <span class="hlt">reference</span> services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950011177','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950011177"><span>A standard satellite control <span class="hlt">reference</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Golden, Constance</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes a Satellite Control <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Model that provides the basis for an approach to identify where standards would be beneficial in supporting space operations functions. The background and context for the development of the model and the approach are described. A <span class="hlt">process</span> for using this <span class="hlt">reference</span> model to trace top level interoperability directives to specific sets of engineering interface standards that must be implemented to meet these directives is discussed. Issues in developing a 'universal' <span class="hlt">reference</span> model are also identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........39B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........39B"><span>How <span class="hlt">Common</span> is <span class="hlt">Common</span> Use Facilities at Airports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barbeau, Addison D.</p> <p></p> <p>This study looked at <span class="hlt">common</span> use airports across the country and at the implementation of <span class="hlt">common</span> use facailities at airports. <span class="hlt">Common</span> use consists of several elements that maybe installed at an airport. One of the elements is the self-service kiosks that allow passengers to have a faster check-in <span class="hlt">process</span>, therefore moving them more quickly within the airport. Another element is signage and the incorporation of each airline's logo. Another aspect of <span class="hlt">common</span> useis an airport regaining control of terminal gates by reducing the number of gates that are exclusively leased to a specific air carrier. This research focused on the current state of the <span class="hlt">common</span> use facilities across the United States and examines the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. The research entailed interviews with personnel at a wide range of airports and found that each airport is in a different stage of implementation; some have fully implemented the <span class="hlt">common</span> use concept while others are in the beginning stages of implementation. The questions were tailored to determine what the advantages and disadvantages are of a <span class="hlt">common</span> use facility. The most <span class="hlt">common</span> advantages reported included flexibility and cost. In the commom use system the airport reserves the right to move any airline to a different gate at any time for any reason. In turn, this helps reduce gates delays at that facility. For the airports that were interviewed no major disadvantages were reported. One down side of <span class="hlt">common</span> use facilities for the airport involved is the major capital cost that is required to move to a <span class="hlt">common</span> use system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14593153','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14593153"><span>Information science. Going, going, gone: lost Internet <span class="hlt">references</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dellavalle, Robert P; Hester, Eric J; Heilig, Lauren F; Drake, Amanda L; Kuntzman, Jeff W; Graber, Marla; Schilling, Lisa M</p> <p>2003-10-31</p> <p>The use of Internet <span class="hlt">references</span> in academic literature is <span class="hlt">common</span>, and Internet <span class="hlt">references</span> are frequently inaccessible. The extent of Internet referencing and Internet <span class="hlt">reference</span> activity in medical or scientific publications was systematically examined in more than 1000 articles published between 2000 and 2003 in the New England Journal of Medicine, The Journal of the American Medical Association, and Science. Internet <span class="hlt">references</span> accounted for 2.6% of all <span class="hlt">references</span> (672/25548) and in articles 27 months old, 13% of Internet <span class="hlt">references</span> were inactive. Publishers, librarians, and readers need to reassess policies, archiving systems, and other resources for addressing Internet <span class="hlt">reference</span> attrition to prevent further information loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 1290.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES <span class="hlt">REFERRED</span> TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 1290.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES <span class="hlt">REFERRED</span> TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 1290.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES <span class="hlt">REFERRED</span> TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 1290.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES <span class="hlt">REFERRED</span> TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1060507.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1060507.pdf"><span>Uncertainty in <span class="hlt">Reference</span> and Information Service</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>VanScoy, Amy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: Uncertainty is understood as an important component of the information seeking <span class="hlt">process</span>, but it has not been explored as a component of <span class="hlt">reference</span> and information service. Method: Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to examine the practitioner perspective of <span class="hlt">reference</span> and information service for eight academic research…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol6-sec1290-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 1290.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES <span class="hlt">REFERRED</span> TO U.S. DISTRICT COURTS § 1290.1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/microphthalmia','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/microphthalmia"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: microphthalmia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... of genome-wide SNP homozygosity mapping in small pedigrees to identify new mutations in VSX2 causing recessive ... 2009 Oct 28. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=139171&keyword=NDT&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=139171&keyword=NDT&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>EPA QUICK <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> GUIDES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA Quick <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1166943','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1166943"><span>Value of Information <span class="hlt">References</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morency, Christina</p> <p>2014-12-12</p> <p>This file contains a list of relevant <span class="hlt">references</span> on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020281','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110020281"><span>Enterprise <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of <span class="hlt">references</span>, but no mechanisms to share <span class="hlt">reference</span> libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which <span class="hlt">references</span> are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized <span class="hlt">reference</span> management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user <span class="hlt">reference</span> management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own <span class="hlt">reference</span> management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise <span class="hlt">reference</span> library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing <span class="hlt">reference</span> material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ITCom..42..233C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ITCom..42..233C"><span>Frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> in VSAT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheah, Jonathon Y. C.</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>A low cost technique of frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> distribution within a VSAT network is discussed. This technique allows the use of a modestly frequency stable oscillator as the master frequency <span class="hlt">reference</span> in the hub of a star-connected VSAT network. The need for extremely frequency stable OCXOs in VSATs is completely avoided. This technique was successfully incorporated in the early commercial VSAT networks. It contributes partially to the low cost nature of some of the VSAT networks available today.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866884','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866884"><span>Membrane <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Redey, Laszlo; Bloom, Ira D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a <span class="hlt">reference</span> material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872869','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872869"><span>Precision displacement <span class="hlt">reference</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.</p> <p>2000-02-22</p> <p>A precision displacement <span class="hlt">reference</span> system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating <span class="hlt">reference</span> disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6342106','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6342106"><span>Membrane <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.</p> <p>1988-01-21</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a <span class="hlt">reference</span> material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900017969','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900017969"><span>Knowledge representation for <span class="hlt">commonality</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yeager, Dorian P.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Domain-specific knowledge necessary for <span class="hlt">commonality</span> analysis falls into two general classes: <span class="hlt">commonality</span> constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the <span class="hlt">Commonality</span> Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10186060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10186060"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Man anatomical model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cristy, M.</p> <p>1994-10-01</p> <p>The 70-kg Standard Man or <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for an adult male and an adult female. Other <span class="hlt">reference</span> values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although <span class="hlt">reference</span> values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Man document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-bill/3992?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22department+AND+energy%22%5D%7D&r=72','CONGRESS-111'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-bill/3992?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22department+AND+energy%22%5D%7D&r=72"><span>To amend the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000 to provide compensation for certain persons injured in the course of employment at the Feed Materials Production Center (<span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as "Fernald") or the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor in Ohio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=111">THOMAS, 111th Congress</a></p> <p>Rep. Driehaus, Steve [D-OH-1</p> <p>2009-11-03</p> <p>House - 01/04/2010 <span class="hlt">Referred</span> to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/senate-bill/1800?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22department+AND+energy%22%5D%7D&r=71','CONGRESS-111'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/senate-bill/1800?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22department+AND+energy%22%5D%7D&r=71"><span>A bill to amend the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000 to provide compensation for certain persons injured in the course of employment at the Feed Materials Production Center (<span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as "Fernald") or the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor in Ohio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=111">THOMAS, 111th Congress</a></p> <p>Sen. Brown, Sherrod [D-OH</p> <p>2009-10-20</p> <p>Senate - 10/20/2009 Read twice and <span class="hlt">referred</span> to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-concurrent-resolution/328?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22houses+AND+built%22%5D%7D&r=53','CONGRESS-111'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-concurrent-resolution/328?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22houses+AND+built%22%5D%7D&r=53"><span>Expressing the sense of the Congress regarding the successful and substantial contributions of the amendments to the patent and trademark laws that were initially enacted in 1980 by Public Law 96-517 (<span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as the "Bayh-Dole Act") on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of its enactment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=111">THOMAS, 111th Congress</a></p> <p>Rep. Conyers, John, Jr. [D-MI-14</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>Senate - 11/17/2010 Received in the Senate and <span class="hlt">referred</span> to the Committee on the Judiciary. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22theory+of+management%22&pg=6&id=EJ235787','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22theory+of+management%22&pg=6&id=EJ235787"><span>Participative Management: Three <span class="hlt">Common</span> Problems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wadia, Maneck S.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The theory of participative management is sound, but in practice it has been misunderstood. Three <span class="hlt">common</span> problems are that some managers (1) often view the technique as an exclusive tool, (2) confuse it with democratization, and (3) consciously or unconsciously manipulate the <span class="hlt">process</span> for their own benefit. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2479..169R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2479..169R"><span>Time <span class="hlt">reference</span> system of the VLT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ravensbergen, Martin; Wirenstrand, Krister</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The generation and distribution of an accurate time signal has been the cause of some technical difficulties in the past. Modern telescopes with their distributed computer architecture have increased this problem even more. Since the availability of the Global Positioning System (GPS), the generation of an accurate time signal of isolated telescope sites is not a problem any more. However, distribution of a time signal with a high accuracy to all computers is still an issue. The IRIG-B code, which is <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used, is not adequate if accuracy requirements are in the 10 microsecond range. Also, synchronization of software <span class="hlt">processes</span> in one computer and in different computers must be solved. This paper presents the design that is adopted for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). An overview of the requirements of the time <span class="hlt">reference</span> system (TRS) is given. These requirements have been defined on the basis of experiences with the timing system of the ESO NTT telescope. The hardware components are described with the emphasis on the distribution and the decoding module in the computers. As timing is vital in a `real time' software environment, the operating system and application software requirements have driven the TRS requirements from the beginning of the definition. This has led to a TRS system that supports the software needs on time synchronization between <span class="hlt">processes</span>, even in different computers. A description is given about the software implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1994107','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1994107"><span>Traceability, <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Systems and Result Comparability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Panteghini, Mauro</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The standardisation of measurements is of high priority in laboratory medicine, its purpose being to achieve closer comparability of results obtained using routine measurement procedures. At present, there is international cooperation in developing <span class="hlt">reference</span> measurement systems (<span class="hlt">reference</span> methods, <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials, and <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratory networks) for analytes of clinical significance. These <span class="hlt">reference</span> systems will reduce, wherever possible, measurement uncertainty and promote the comparability of results. The implementation of measurement traceability through the <span class="hlt">reference</span> system provides one of the most important tools that supports the standardisation <span class="hlt">process</span> in laboratory medicine. It aims to achieve result comparability regardless of the measurement procedure (test kit) and the clinical laboratory where analyses are carried out. The aim of this review is to discuss some concepts related to the achievement of standardisation by the implementation of a metrologically-correct measurement system and to provide some examples that illustrate the complexity of this approach and the impact of these activities on patient care. PMID:17909614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940007230','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940007230"><span>NASCAP programmer's <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual and user's guide. It is designed as a <span class="hlt">reference</span> to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864772','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864772"><span>Multifunctional <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A multifunctional, low mass <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5039836','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5039836"><span>Multifunctional <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.</p> <p>1981-12-30</p> <p>A multifunctional, low mass <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=336742','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=336742"><span>THE CONCEPT OF <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> CONDITION, REVISITED ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ecological assessments of aquatic ecosystems depend on the ability to compare current conditions against some expectation of how they could be in the absence of significant human disturbance. The concept of a ‘‘<span class="hlt">reference</span> condition’’ is often used to describe the standard or benchmark against which current condition is compared. If assessments are to be conducted consistently, then a <span class="hlt">common</span> understanding of the definitions and complications of <span class="hlt">reference</span> condition is necessary. A 2006 paper (Stoddard et al., 2006, Ecological Applications 16:1267-1276) made an early attempt at codifying the <span class="hlt">reference</span> condition concept; in this presentation we will revisit the points raised in that paper (and others) and examine how our thinking has changed in a little over 10 years.Among the issues to be discussed: (1) the “moving target” created when <span class="hlt">reference</span> site data are used to set thresholds in large scale assessments; (2) natural vs. human disturbance and their effects on <span class="hlt">reference</span> site distributions; (3) circularity and the use of biological data to assist in <span class="hlt">reference</span> site identification; (4) using site-scale (in-stream or in-lake) measurements vs. landscape-level human activity to identify <span class="hlt">reference</span> conditions. Ecological assessments of aquatic ecosystems depend on the ability to compare current conditions against some expectation of how they could be in the absence of significant human disturbance. The concept of a ‘‘<span class="hlt">reference</span> condition’’ is often use</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=core&pg=4&id=EJ1012105','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=core&pg=4&id=EJ1012105"><span>Simplifying the ELA <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core; Demystifying Curriculum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schmoker, Mike; Jago, Carol</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The English Language Arts (ELA) <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards ([CCSS], 2010) could have a transformational effect on American education. Though the <span class="hlt">process</span> seems daunting, one can begin immediately integrating the essence of the ELA <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core in every subject area. This article shows how one could implement the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core and create coherent,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=malaria+AND+causes&id=EJ884779','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=malaria+AND+causes&id=EJ884779"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span>-Dependent Sympathy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Small, Deborah A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of <span class="hlt">reference</span> dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hospitality+AND+hotel&pg=6&id=ED363708','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hospitality+AND+hotel&pg=6&id=ED363708"><span>Hospitality Services <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Book.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">reference</span> book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=virtual+AND+reference+AND+services&id=EJ678212','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=virtual+AND+reference+AND+services&id=EJ678212"><span>Virtual <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brewer, Sally</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable <span class="hlt">reference</span> resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=britannica&pg=2&id=EJ627300','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=britannica&pg=2&id=EJ627300"><span>Multimedia <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Tools.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Holzberg, Carol S.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Star+AND+Wars&pg=2&id=EJ588316','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Star+AND+Wars&pg=2&id=EJ588316"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Collections and Standards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Winkel, Lois</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Reviews six <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gujarati&pg=2&id=ED016194','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gujarati&pg=2&id=ED016194"><span>A GUJARATI <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> GRAMMAR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>CARDONA, GEORGE</p> <p></p> <p>THIS <span class="hlt">REFERENCE</span> GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Barden&pg=3&id=EJ783545','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Barden&pg=3&id=EJ783545"><span>The Unreliability of <span class="hlt">References</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barden, Dennis M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's <span class="hlt">references</span> to ensure that they know…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/40931','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/40931"><span>NED-2 <span class="hlt">reference</span> guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Mark J. Twery; Peter D. Knopp; Scott A. Thomasma; Donald E. Nute</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This is the <span class="hlt">reference</span> guide for NED-2, which is the latest version of NED, a forest ecosystem management decision support system. This software is part of a family of software products intended to help resource managers develop goals, assess current and future conditions, and produce sustainable management plans for forest properties. Designed for stand-alone Windows-...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=directory+AND+data+AND+sources&pg=3&id=EJ137544','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=directory+AND+data+AND+sources&pg=3&id=EJ137544"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Sources for Nursing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nursing Outlook, 1976</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The ninth revision (including a Canadian supplement) of a list of nursing <span class="hlt">reference</span> works lists items in the following sections: abstract journals, audiovisuals, bibliographies, dictionaries, directories, drug lists and pharmacologies, educational programs, histories, indexes, legal guides, library administration and organization, research grants,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=indonesian+AND+grammar&pg=4&id=ED066992','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=indonesian+AND+grammar&pg=4&id=ED066992"><span>Tagalog <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Grammar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schachter, Paul; Otanes, Fe T.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">reference</span> text of Tagalog grammar provides extensive description with illustrative examples of the language. Language classification and grammatical analysis are predicated on principles of transformational generative grammar. Seven categories of materials include: (1) pronunciation, (2) basic sentence structure, (3) nominals and their…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://store.elsevier.com/The-Encyclopedia-of-Mass-Spectrometry/isbn-9780080438047/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://store.elsevier.com/The-Encyclopedia-of-Mass-Spectrometry/isbn-9780080438047/"><span>Isotope <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Coplen, Tyler B.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. International distribution of light element isotopic <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gems&pg=3&id=EJ786482','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gems&pg=3&id=EJ786482"><span>Best <span class="hlt">Reference</span> 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Coutts, Brian E.; LaGuardia, Cheryl</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Reading <span class="hlt">reference</span> sources, whether on paper or on the screen, often leads to enlightened thinking, especially for library patrons. In an earlier age, enlightened monarchs surrounded themselves with leading intellectuals and patronized the arts. Today, people have the advantage of the world's collected wisdom at their fingertips in the form of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=types+AND+algorithm&pg=3&id=EJ784196','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=types+AND+algorithm&pg=3&id=EJ784196"><span>Generating Multimodal <span class="hlt">References</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal <span class="hlt">referring</span> expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA259535','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA259535"><span>MIT Scheme <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>their Butterfly Scheme <span class="hlt">Reference</span>, and to Margaret O’Connell for translating it from BBN’s text-formatting language to ours. Special thanks to Richard ... Stallman , Bob Chassell, and Brian Fox, all of the Free Software Foundation, for creating and maintaining the Texinfo formatting language in which this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030011421&hterms=SBR&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSBR','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030011421&hterms=SBR&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSBR"><span>Shuttle <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This collection of shuttle <span class="hlt">reference</span> data contains the following information: shuttle abort history, shuttle abort modes, abort decisions, space shuttle rendezvous maneuvers, space shuttle main engines, space shuttle solid rocket boosters, hold-down posts, SRB (solid rocket boosters) ignition, electrical power distribution, hydraulic power units, thrust vector control, SBR rate gyro assemblies, SBR separation and Space Shuttle Super Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910021307','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910021307"><span>International <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The International <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=foreign+AND+affairs&pg=4&id=EJ620143','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=foreign+AND+affairs&pg=4&id=EJ620143"><span>Digital <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mon, Lorri</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the increasing demand for digital <span class="hlt">reference</span> services from government Web sites via email, and describes a partnership between the Government Printing Office and the federal depository library at the University of Illinois at Chicago to create electronic access to the Department of State Foreign Affairs Network (DOSFAN). (Author/LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/10872','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/10872"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Pine Shoot Beetle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Robert A. Haack; Daniel Kucera; Steven Passoa</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">common</span> (or larger) pine shoot beetle, Tomicus (=Blastophagus) piniperda (L.), was discovered near Cleveland, Ohio in July 1992. As of this writing, it is now in six states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Adults of the <span class="hlt">common</span> pine shoot beetle are cylindrical and range from 3 to 5 mm in length (about the size of a match head). Their...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28212426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28212426"><span>Sustainability of <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we <span class="hlt">refer</span> to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5315376','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5315376"><span>Sustainability of <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kamijo, Yoshio</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we <span class="hlt">refer</span> to as “capitalism,” affects human nature for utilizing <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of <span class="hlt">common</span> pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies. PMID:28212426</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-bill/6086?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22retaining+AND+walls%22%5D%7D&r=2','CONGRESS-111'); return false;" href="https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/house-bill/6086?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22retaining+AND+walls%22%5D%7D&r=2"><span>To amend the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Investment Company Act of 1940, and the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 to provide for certain disclosures under section 552 of title 5, United States Code, (<span class="hlt">commonly</span> <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as the Freedom of Information Act), and for other purposes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://thomas.loc.gov/home/LegislativeData.php?&n=BSS&c=111">THOMAS, 111th Congress</a></p> <p>Rep. Towns, Edolphus [D-NY-10</p> <p>2010-08-10</p> <p>House - 08/10/2010 <span class="hlt">Referred</span> to House Oversight and Government Reform (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.3717, which became Public Law 111-257 on 10/5/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/osteoarthritis','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/osteoarthritis"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: osteoarthritis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... as cardiovascular disease. Osteoarthritis is most <span class="hlt">common</span> in middle age or late adulthood, because the cartilage at ... percent of adults in the United States. In middle age it affects more women than men, but ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/porphyria','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/porphyria"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: porphyria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... control breathing become paralyzed. Acute porphyrias include acute intermittent porphyria and ALAD deficiency porphyria . Two other forms ... the disease never experience signs or symptoms. Acute intermittent porphyria is the most <span class="hlt">common</span> form of acute ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720012067','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720012067"><span>A stellar tracking <span class="hlt">reference</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klestadt, B.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>A stellar attitude <span class="hlt">reference</span> system concept for satellites was studied which promises to permit continuous precision pointing of payloads with accuracies of 0.001 degree without the use of gyroscopes. It is accomplished with the use of a single, clustered star tracker assembly mounted on a non-orthogonal, two gimbal mechanism, driven so as to unwind satellite orbital and orbit precession rates. A set of eight stars was found which assures the presence of an adequate inertial <span class="hlt">reference</span> on a continuous basis in an arbitrary orbit. Acquisition and operational considerations were investigated and inherent <span class="hlt">reference</span> redundancy/reliability was established. Preliminary designs for the gimbal mechanism, its servo drive, and the star tracker cluster with its associated signal <span class="hlt">processing</span> were developed for a baseline sun-synchronous, noon-midnight orbit. The functions required of the onboard computer were determined and the equations to be solved were found. In addition detailed error analyses were carried out, based on structural, thermal and other operational considerations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SOIL....3..113A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SOIL....3..113A"><span>Decision support for the selection of <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bürge, Alexandra; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The classical approach of using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer is based on the comparison between stable <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites and sites affected by soil redistribution <span class="hlt">processes</span>; it enables the derivation of soil erosion and deposition rates. The method is associated with potentially large sources of uncertainty with major parts of this uncertainty being associated with the selection of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites. We propose a decision support tool to Check the Suitability of <span class="hlt">reference</span> Sites (CheSS). <span class="hlt">Commonly</span>, the variation among 137Cs inventories of spatial replicate <span class="hlt">reference</span> samples is taken as the sole criterion to decide on the suitability of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> inventory. Here we propose an extension of this procedure using a repeated sampling approach, in which the <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites are resampled after a certain time period. Suitable <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites are expected to present no significant temporal variation in their decay-corrected 137Cs depth profiles. Possible causes of variation are assessed by a decision tree. More specifically, the decision tree tests for (i) uncertainty connected to small-scale variability in 137Cs due to its heterogeneous initial fallout (such as in areas affected by the Chernobyl fallout), (ii) signs of erosion or deposition <span class="hlt">processes</span> and (iii) artefacts due to the collection, preparation and measurement of the samples; (iv) finally, if none of the above can be assigned, this variation might be attributed to <q>turbation</q> <span class="hlt">processes</span> (e.g. bioturbation, cryoturbation and mechanical turbation, such as avalanches or rockfalls). CheSS was exemplarily applied in one Swiss alpine valley where the apparent temporal variability called into question the suitability of the selected <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites. In general we suggest the application of CheSS as a first step towards a comprehensible approach to test for the suitability of <span class="hlt">reference</span> sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2884180','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2884180"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications☆</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schneeweiss, Sebastian</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented <span class="hlt">reference</span> drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a <span class="hlt">common</span> reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a <span class="hlt">process</span> of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented <span class="hlt">reference</span> drug programs, and others are considering</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26555275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26555275"><span>With <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The choice of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being <span class="hlt">commonly</span> selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing <span class="hlt">reference</span> gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes were screened. Fewer <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising <span class="hlt">reference</span> genes before conducting gene expression studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050229951','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050229951"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Badging and Access Control System (CBACS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dischinger, Portia</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation presents NASA's <span class="hlt">Common</span> Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to <span class="hlt">common</span> infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. <span class="hlt">Common</span> Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the <span class="hlt">common</span> infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant <span class="hlt">processes</span>, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3901442','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3901442"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> variable immunodeficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tam, Jonathan S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a <span class="hlt">common</span> primary immunodeficiency characterized by a failure in B-cell differentiation with defective immunoglobulin production. Affected patients are uniquely susceptible to recurrent infection with encapsulated organisms and have an increased propensity for the development of inflammatory and autoimmune manifestations. The diagnosis of CVID is <span class="hlt">commonly</span> delayed and the underlying cause of the disorder is not understood. Replacement antibody therapy reduces the risk of serious infections. However, optimal treatment regimens for the uncommon manifestations associated with this disease, such as granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, require further research. PMID:23883805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=burn&pg=2&id=EJ1019126','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=burn&pg=2&id=EJ1019126"><span>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core: Far from Home</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Toscano, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this opinion piece, Michael Toscano writes that his criticism of the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards ultimately has very little to do with their innate quality, but rather that their relation to other social spheres is disordered. He <span class="hlt">refers</span> to the full reordering of American education away from families and local communities--which he states are…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=charles+AND+m.+AND+reigeluth&pg=6&id=EJ379107','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=charles+AND+m.+AND+reigeluth&pg=6&id=EJ379107"><span>Teaching <span class="hlt">Common</span> Errors in Applying a Procedure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marcone, Stephen; Reigeluth, Charles M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Discusses study that investigated whether or not the teaching of matched examples and nonexamples in the form of <span class="hlt">common</span> errors could improve student performance in undergraduate music theory courses. Highlights include hypotheses tested, pretests and posttests, and suggestions for further research with different age groups. (19 <span class="hlt">references</span>)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10170607','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10170607"><span>OSH technical <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to <span class="hlt">reference</span> DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866280','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866280"><span>Alignment <span class="hlt">reference</span> device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Patton, Gail Y.; Torgerson, Darrel D.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An alignment <span class="hlt">reference</span> device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1324296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1324296"><span>Open SHMEM <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Implementation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pritchard, Howard; Curtis, Anthony; Welch, Aaron</p> <p>2016-05-12</p> <p>OpenSHMEM is an effort to create a specification for a standardized API for parallel programming in the Partitioned Global Address Space. Along with the specification the project is also creating a <span class="hlt">reference</span> implementation of the API. This implementation attempts to be portable, to allow it to be deployed in multiple environments, and to be a starting point for implementations targeted to particular hardware platforms. It will also serve as a springboard for future development of the API.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B8D1F4382-424A-492E-8D2E-ADC046140BBB%7D','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://edg.epa.gov/metadata/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B8D1F4382-424A-492E-8D2E-ADC046140BBB%7D"><span>Toxicity <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Toxicity <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested public to search and download thousands of animal toxicity testing results for hundreds of chemicals that were previously found only in paper documents. Currently, there are 474 chemicals in ToxRefDB, primarily the data rich pesticide active ingredients, but the number will continue to expand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=health&pg=4&id=EJ1122392','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=health&pg=4&id=EJ1122392"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Mental Health Issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This chapter provides an overview of <span class="hlt">common</span> student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045435','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045435"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> clay and shale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Virta, R.L.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of <span class="hlt">common</span> clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/pages/Common-Conditions-in-Newborns.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/pages/Common-Conditions-in-Newborns.aspx"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Conditions in Newborns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... that new bone is forming to mend the injury. Muscle weakness is another <span class="hlt">common</span> birth injury, caused during labor by pressure or stretching of the nerves attached to the muscles. These muscles, usually weakened on one side of ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Arrhythmia/SymptomsDiagnosisMonitoringofArrhythmia/Common-Tests-for-Arrhythmia_UCM_301988_Article.jsp','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Arrhythmia/SymptomsDiagnosisMonitoringofArrhythmia/Common-Tests-for-Arrhythmia_UCM_301988_Article.jsp"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Tests for Arrhythmia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... help your doctor diagnose an arrhythmia. View an animation of arrhythmia . <span class="hlt">Common</span> Tests for Arrhythmia Holter monitor ( ... Privacy Policy Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Target Heart Rates ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/press-releases/2016/genomic-data-commons-launch','NCI'); return false;" href="https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/press-releases/2016/genomic-data-commons-launch"><span>Genomic Data <span class="hlt">Commons</span> launches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Genomic Data <span class="hlt">Commons</span> (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000583.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000583.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> symptoms during pregnancy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... keep your gums healthy Swelling, Varicose Veins, and Hemorrhoids Swelling in your legs is <span class="hlt">common</span>. You may ... In your rectum, veins that swell are called hemorrhoids. To reduce swelling: Raise your legs and rest ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=petroleum+AND+engineering&pg=6&id=EJ088519','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=petroleum+AND+engineering&pg=6&id=EJ088519"><span>Barry <span class="hlt">Commoner</span> Assails Petrochemicals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chemical and Engineering News, 1973</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Discusses <span class="hlt">Commoner</span>'s ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19303718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19303718"><span>Accuracy of <span class="hlt">references</span> in burns journals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Benna, Sammy; Rajgarhia, Prachi; Ahmed, Safraz; Sheikh, Zeeshan</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>To study the incidence and risk factors for citation and quotation errors in two major burns surgery journals. 120 <span class="hlt">references</span> were randomly selected from original articles published in the following two journals - January to December 2006 issues of Burns and Journal of Burn Care & Research. For each <span class="hlt">reference</span>, the ease of retrieval on PubMed and the presence of citation errors were noted. Two independent observers analysed each <span class="hlt">reference</span> for quotation errors. The characteristics of the root article, that is, type of study, author numbers, number of <span class="hlt">references</span> and article word count were noted. Of the 120 selected <span class="hlt">references</span>, 117 <span class="hlt">referred</span> to articles from indexed medical journals published in English. Among these, 4 articles could not be retrieved due to fatal citation errors (3.3%). A further 12 citation errors were noted giving a total citation error rate of 13.3% (95% CI: 6.74-19.93%). Of the 117 <span class="hlt">references</span> analysed, the quotation error rate was 13.7% (95% CI: 8.6-19.5%) half of which were major errors. There was no significant association between the combined error rate per article and the journal (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.861, type of study (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.717), author numbers (Spearman's rho=0.197, p=0.423), article length (Spearman's rho=0.118, p=0.705) or <span class="hlt">references</span> per article (Spearman's rho=0.229, p=0.189). Significant numbers of citation and quotation errors still appear in current burns literature. Incorrect spelling of author names and partial omissions of article titles were the two most <span class="hlt">common</span> errors. No observable underlying factors were identified in this study. The present results serve as a reminder to authors, editors and peer reviewers for more care of citation accuracy when striving for their <span class="hlt">common</span> goal of scientific excellence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044870','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044870"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> clay and shale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Virta, R.L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The article discusses the latest developments in the global <span class="hlt">common</span> clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that <span class="hlt">common</span> clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030658','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030658"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> clay and shale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Virta, R.L.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>At present, 150 companies produce <span class="hlt">common</span> clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for <span class="hlt">common</span> clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21327374','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21327374"><span>Categorizing entities by <span class="hlt">common</span> role.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goldwater, Micah B; Markman, Arthur B</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Many categories group together entities that play a <span class="hlt">common</span> role across situations. For example, guest and host <span class="hlt">refer</span> to complementary roles in visiting situations and, thus, are role-governed categories (A. B. Markman & Stilwell, Journal of Experiment & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 13, 329-358, 2001). However, categorizing an entity by role is one of many possible classification strategies. This article examines factors that promote role-governed categorization over thematic-relation-based categorization (Lin & Murphy, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130, 3-28, 2001). In Experiments 1a and 1b, we demonstrate that the use of novel category labels facilitates role-governed categorization. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we demonstrate that analogical comparison facilitates role-governed categorization. In Experiments 1b and 2b, we show that these facilitatory factors induce a general sensitivity to role information, as opposed to only promoting role-governed categorization on an item-by-item basis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESASP.701E..32H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ESASP.701E..32H"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Specifications for SAVOIR Avionics Elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hult, Torbjorn; Lindskog, Martin; Roques, Remi; Planche, Luc; Brunjes, Bernhard; Dellandrea, Brice; Terraillon, Jean-Loup</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Space industry and Agencies have been recognizing already for quite some time the need to raise the level of standardisation in the spacecraft avionics systems in order to increase efficiency and reduce development cost and schedule. This also includes the aspect of increasing competition in global space business, which is a challenge that European space companies are facing at all stages of involvement in the international markets.A number of initiatives towards this vision are driven both by the industry and ESA’s R&D programmes. However, today an intensified coordination of these activities is required in order to achieve the necessary synergy and to ensure they converge towards the shared vision. It has been proposed to federate these initiatives under the <span class="hlt">common</span> Space Avionics Open Interface Architecture (SAVOIR) initiative. Within this initiative, the approach based on <span class="hlt">reference</span> architectures and building blocks plays a key role.Following the principles outlined above, the overall goal of the SAVOIR is to establish a streamlined onboard architecture in order to standardize the development of avionics systems for space programmes. This reflects the need to increase efficiency and cost-effectiveness in the development <span class="hlt">process</span> as well as account the trend towards more functionality implemented by the onboard building blocks, i.e. HW and SW components, and more complexity for the overall space mission objectives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19700000510','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19700000510"><span>Technique for analyzing human respiratory <span class="hlt">process</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, F. F.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Electronic system /MIRACLE 2/ places frequency and gas flow rate of the respiratory <span class="hlt">process</span> within a <span class="hlt">common</span> frame of <span class="hlt">reference</span> to render them comparable and compatible with ''real clock time.'' Numerous measurements are accomplished accurately on a strict one-minute half-minute, breath-by-breath, or other period basis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23190389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23190389"><span>Disrupted fine-scale population <span class="hlt">processes</span> in fragmented landscapes despite large-scale genetic connectivity for a widespread and <span class="hlt">common</span> cooperative breeder: the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harrisson, Katherine A; Pavlova, Alexandra; Amos, J Nevil; Takeuchi, Naoko; Lill, Alan; Radford, James Q; Sunnucks, Paul</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Understanding how habitat fragmentation affects population <span class="hlt">processes</span> (e.g. dispersal) at different spatial scales is of critical importance to conservation. We assessed the effects of habitat fragmentation on dispersal and regional and fine-scale population structure in a currently widespread and <span class="hlt">common</span> cooperatively breeding bird species found across south-eastern Australia, the superb fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus. Despite its relative abundance and classification as an urban tolerant species, the superb fairy-wren has declined disproportionately from low tree-cover agricultural landscapes across the Box-Ironbark region of north-central Victoria, Australia. Loss of genetic connectivity and disruption to its complex social system may be associated with the decline of this species from apparently suitable habitat in landscapes with low levels of tree cover. To assess whether reduced structural connectivity has had negative consequences for genetic connectivity in the superb fairy-wren, we used a landscape-scale approach to compare patterns of genetic diversity and gene flow at large (landscape/regional) and fine (site-level) spatial scales. In addition, using genetic distances, for each sex, we tested landscape models of decreased dispersal through treeless areas (isolation-by-resistance) while controlling for the effect of isolation-by-distance. Landscape models indicated that larger-scale gene flow across the Box-Ironbark region was constrained by distance rather than by lack of structural connectivity. Nonetheless, a pattern of isolation-by-resistance for males (the less-dispersive sex) and lower genetic diversity and higher genetic similarity within sites in low-cover fragmented landscapes indicated disruption to fine-scale gene flow mechanisms and/or mating systems. Although loss of structural connectivity did not appear to impede gene flow at larger spatial scales, fragmentation appeared to affect fine-scale population <span class="hlt">processes</span> (e.g. local gene flow mechanisms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27191942','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27191942"><span>Motion-based nearest vector metric for <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame selection in the perception of motion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agaoglu, Mehmet N; Clarke, Aaron M; Herzog, Michael H; Ögmen, Haluk</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We investigated how the visual system selects a <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame for the perception of motion. Two concentric arcs underwent circular motion around the center of the display, where observers fixated. The outer (target) arc's angular velocity profile was modulated by a sine wave midflight whereas the inner (<span class="hlt">reference</span>) arc moved at a constant angular speed. The task was to report whether the target reversed its direction of motion at any point during its motion. We investigated the effects of spatial and figural factors by systematically varying the radial and angular distances between the arcs, and their relative sizes. We found that the effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame decreases with increasing radial- and angular-distance measures. Drastic changes in the relative sizes of the arcs did not influence motion reversal thresholds, suggesting no influence of stimulus form on perceived motion. We also investigated the effect of <span class="hlt">common</span> velocity by introducing velocity fluctuations to the <span class="hlt">reference</span> arc as well. We found no effect of whether or not a <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame has a constant motion. We examined several form- and motion-based metrics, which could potentially unify our findings. We found that a motion-based nearest vector metric can fully account for all the data reported here. These findings suggest that the selection of <span class="hlt">reference</span> frames for motion <span class="hlt">processing</span> does not result from a winner-take-all <span class="hlt">process</span>, but instead, can be explained by a field whose strength decreases with the distance between the nearest motion vectors regardless of the form of the moving objects.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770012112','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770012112"><span>Magnetic heading <span class="hlt">reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garner, H. D. (Inventor)</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>This invention employs a magnetometer as a magnetic heading <span class="hlt">reference</span> for a vehicle such as a small aircraft. The magnetometer is mounted on a directional dial in the aircraft in the vicinity of the pilot such that it is free to turn with the dial about the yaw axis of the aircraft. The invention includes a circuit for generating a signal proportional to the northerly turning error produced in the magnetometer due to the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field. This generated signal is then subtracted from the output of the magnetometer to compensate for the northerly turning error.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA190382','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA190382"><span>Argus <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Manual.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>Atomic-Array, Atomic-Record, and AtomicVariant 30 6.4. Guardian Types 31 6.5. Hander and Creator Types 32 I -1. -~ ’ Table of Contents 6.6. Image 32... Creator Calls 44 8.4.1. Semantics of Creator Calls 44 9. Expressions 47 9.1. Literals 47 9.2. Variables 47 9.3. Parameters 47 9.4. Equated Identifiers 47...9.5. Equate Module <span class="hlt">References</span> 47 9.6. Self 48 9.7. Procedure, Iterator, and Creator Names 48 9.8. Bind 48 9.9. Procedure Calls 50 9.10. Handler Calls</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NDS...120..291P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NDS...120..291P"><span>Nuclear Science <span class="hlt">References</span> Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The Nuclear Science <span class="hlt">References</span> (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920024066&hterms=civilization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcivilization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920024066&hterms=civilization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcivilization"><span>SEI <span class="hlt">reference</span> mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weary, Dwayne</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Information is given in viewgraph form on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The goal of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> mission is to expand the human presence to the moon and Mars in order to enhance our understanding of the universe, to seek terrestrial benefits from this exploration, and to establish the beginnings of a sustainable spacefaring civilization. Topics covered here include a phased definition of initial programmatic milestones and follow-on capabilities, near-term mission strategy, a lunar mission timeline, and a Mars mission timeline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14959','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/14959"><span>Ceramic <span class="hlt">Processing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>EWSUK,KEVIN G.</p> <p>1999-11-24</p> <p>Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from <span class="hlt">common</span> metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include <span class="hlt">common</span> household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also <span class="hlt">referred</span> to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the <span class="hlt">processing</span> tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor <span class="hlt">process</span> deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and <span class="hlt">processing</span> to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12517470','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12517470"><span>The <span class="hlt">common</span> cold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heikkinen, Terho; Järvinen, Asko</p> <p>2003-01-04</p> <p>Despite great advances in medicine, the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold continues to be a great burden on society in terms of human suffering and economic losses. Of the several viruses that cause the disease, the role of rhinoviruses is most prominent. About a quarter of all colds are still without proven cause, and the recent discovery of human metapneumovirus suggests that other viruses could remain undiscovered. Research into the inflammatory mechanisms of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold has elucidated the complexity of the virus-host relation. Increasing evidence is also available for the central role of viruses in predisposing to complications. New antivirals for the treatment of colds are being developed, but optimum use of these agents would require rapid detection of the specific virus causing the infection. Although vaccines against many respiratory viruses could also become available, the ultimate prevention of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold seems to remain a distant aim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ric..rept.....L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ric..rept.....L"><span>Power system <span class="hlt">commonality</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Littman, Franklin D.</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>A limited top level study was completed to determine the <span class="hlt">commonality</span> of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high <span class="hlt">commonality</span> was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high <span class="hlt">commonality</span> power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for <span class="hlt">commonality</span> between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9831E..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9831E..04M"><span><span class="hlt">Commonality</span> based interoperability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moulton, Christine L.; Hepp, Jared J.; Harrell, John</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>What interoperability is and why the Army wants it between systems is easily understood. Enabling multiple systems to work together and share data across boundaries in a co-operative manner will benefit the warfighter by allowing for easy access to previously hard-to-reach capabilities. How to achieve interoperability is not as easy to understand due to the numerous different approaches that accomplish the goal. <span class="hlt">Commonality</span> Based Interoperability (CBI) helps establish how to achieve the goal by extending the existing interoperability definition. CBI is not an implementation, nor is it an architecture; it is a definition of interoperability with a foundation of establishing <span class="hlt">commonality</span> between systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015733','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015733"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failure Modes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>High technology industries with high failure costs <span class="hlt">commonly</span> use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to <span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10123634','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10123634"><span>Coal data: A <span class="hlt">reference</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>This report, Coal Data: A <span class="hlt">Reference</span>, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A <span class="hlt">Reference</span> was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012781','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012781"><span>Photogrammetry Toolbox <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Specialized photogrammetric and image <span class="hlt">processing</span> MATLAB functions useful for wind tunnel and other ground-based testing of aerospace structures are described. These functions include single view and multi-view photogrammetric solutions, basic image <span class="hlt">processing</span> to determine image coordinates, 2D and 3D coordinate transformations and least squares solutions, spatial and radiometric camera calibration, epipolar relations, and various supporting utility functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=magnet&pg=3&id=EJ1025032','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=magnet&pg=3&id=EJ1025032"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Magnets, Unexpected Polarities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Olson, Mark</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets <span class="hlt">common</span> to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2328145','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2328145"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Dermatoses of Infancy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gora, Irv</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more <span class="hlt">common</span> rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267297</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21267297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21267297"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> dermatoses of infancy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gora, I</p> <p>1986-09-01</p> <p>Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more <span class="hlt">common</span> rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014677','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014677"><span>Solving <span class="hlt">Common</span> Mathematical Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Luz, Paul L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some <span class="hlt">common</span> mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045436','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045436"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> clay and shale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Virta, R.L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and <span class="hlt">common</span> clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED064942.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED064942.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Carrier Services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate <span class="hlt">common</span> carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED136798.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED136798.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Carrier Services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign <span class="hlt">common</span> carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=controversy+AND+artificial+AND+intelligence&id=ED281499','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=controversy+AND+artificial+AND+intelligence&id=ED281499"><span>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Command Language.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fayen, Emily Gallup</p> <p></p> <p>A <span class="hlt">common</span> command language has been proposed for use by systems designers and those developing new user interfaces. There is controversy over the appropriateness of a standard command language, and those who are working in artificial intelligence believe that natural language interfaces will make it unnecessary for users to learn such a language,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+power&pg=7&id=EJ716881','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+power&pg=7&id=EJ716881"><span>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Denominator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Grimes, Nikki</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>An author and a poet Nikki Grimes uses her art to reach across differences such as race and culture, and show the <span class="hlt">commonality</span> of human experience. She uses the power of her poetry to break down racial barriers, shatter cultural stereotypes, and forge community.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18770653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18770653"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> conversion factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>This appendix presents tables of some of the more <span class="hlt">common</span> conversion factors for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=thomas+AND+jefferson&id=EJ1033725','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=thomas+AND+jefferson&id=EJ1033725"><span>Navagating the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McShane, Michael Q.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article presents a debate over the <span class="hlt">Common</span> Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mntb.book..439Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mntb.book..439Y"><span>Use of Genomic DNA as <span class="hlt">Reference</span> in DNA Microarrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Yunfeng</p> <p></p> <p>DNA microarray has become a mainstream technology to explore gene expression profiles, identify novel genes involved in a biological <span class="hlt">process</span> of interest and predict their function, and determine biomarkers that are relevant to a given phenotype or disease. Typical two-channel microarray studies use an experimental design called the complementary DNA (cDNA) <span class="hlt">reference</span> method, in which samples from test and control conditions are compared directly on a microarray slide. A substantial limitation of this strategy is that it is nearly impossible to compare data between experiments because the <span class="hlt">reference</span> sample composition is subjected to changes at the level of experimental design and thereby not consistent from one experiment to another. Using genomic DNA as <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> will effectively overcome this limitation. This chapter describes detailed methods to prepare genomic DNA of high quality, label with fluorescent dye, co-hybridize with cDNA samples, and the subsequent data analyses. In addition, notes are provided to help the readers to obtain optimal results using the procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22436747-nuclear-science-references-database','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22436747-nuclear-science-references-database"><span>Nuclear Science <span class="hlt">References</span> Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pritychenko, B., E-mail: pritychenko@bnl.gov; Běták, E.; Singh, B.</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>The Nuclear Science <span class="hlt">References</span> (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energymore » Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009832','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840009832"><span>PASCAL/48 <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Knight, J. C.; Hamm, R. W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>PASCAL/48 is a programming language for the Intel MCS-48 series of microcomputers. In particular, it can be used with the Intel 8748. It is designed to allow the programmer to control most of the instructions being generated and the allocation of storage. The language can be used instead of ASSEMBLY language in most applications while allowing the user the necessary degree of control over hardware resources. Although it is called PASCAL/48, the language differs in many ways from PASCAL. The program structure and statements of the two languages are similar, but the expression mechanism and data types are different. The PASCAL/48 cross-compiler is written in PASCAL and runs on the CDC CYBER NOS system. It generates object code in Intel hexadecimal format that can be used to program the MCS-48 series of microcomputers. This <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual defines the language, describes the predeclared procedures, lists error messages, illustrates use, and includes language syntax diagrams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7164560','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7164560"><span>Long life <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.</p> <p>1989-04-04</p> <p>An external, <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6742161','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6742161"><span>Long life <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.</p> <p>1987-07-30</p> <p>An external, <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866903','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866903"><span>Long life <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Yonco, Robert M.; Nagy, Zoltan</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>An external, <span class="hlt">reference</span> electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6412033','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6412033"><span>Geochemical engineering <span class="hlt">reference</span> manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Owen, L.B.; Michels, D.E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The following topics are included in this manual: physical and chemical properties of geothermal brine and steam, scale and solids control, <span class="hlt">processing</span> spent brine for reinjection, control of noncondensable gas emissions, and goethermal mineral recovery. (MHR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/keratoconus','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/keratoconus"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: keratoconus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... thought that a disruption in one of these <span class="hlt">processes</span>, in combination with an environmental trigger, may lead ... Institute: Facts About the Cornea and Corneal Disease Educational Resources (6 links) Disease InfoSearch: Keratoconus Johns Hopkins ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hypochondroplasia','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/hypochondroplasia"><span>Genetics Home <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: hypochondroplasia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... of short-limbed dwarfism. This condition affects the conversion of cartilage into bone (a <span class="hlt">process</span> called ossification), ... Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Surgery and Rehabilitation Related ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/24644','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/24644"><span>Chapter 4 - The LANDFIRE Prototype Project <span class="hlt">reference</span> database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>John F. Caratti</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This chapter describes the data compilation <span class="hlt">process</span> for the Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Prototype Project (LANDFIRE Prototype Project) <span class="hlt">reference</span> database (LFRDB) and explains the <span class="hlt">reference</span> data applications for LANDFIRE Prototype maps and models. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> database formed the foundation for all LANDFIRE tasks. All products generated by the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec21-21.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec21-21.pdf"><span>1 CFR 21.21 - General requirements: <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">reference</span> is to regulations promulgated by an agency with the exclusive legal authority to regulate in a... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General requirements: <span class="hlt">References</span>. 21.21 Section..., AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General <span class="hlt">References</span> § 21...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec21-21.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec21-21.pdf"><span>1 CFR 21.21 - General requirements: <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">reference</span> is to regulations promulgated by an agency with the exclusive legal authority to regulate in a... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements: <span class="hlt">References</span>. 21.21 Section..., AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General <span class="hlt">References</span> § 21...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec21-21.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec21-21.pdf"><span>1 CFR 21.21 - General requirements: <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">reference</span> is to regulations promulgated by an agency with the exclusive legal authority to regulate in a... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true General requirements: <span class="hlt">References</span>. 21.21 Section..., AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General <span class="hlt">References</span> § 21...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec21-21.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec21-21.pdf"><span>1 CFR 21.21 - General requirements: <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">reference</span> is to regulations promulgated by an agency with the exclusive legal authority to regulate in a... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General requirements: <span class="hlt">References</span>. 21.21 Section..., AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General <span class="hlt">References</span> § 21...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec21-21.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec21-21.pdf"><span>1 CFR 21.21 - General requirements: <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">reference</span> is to regulations promulgated by an agency with the exclusive legal authority to regulate in a... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true General requirements: <span class="hlt">References</span>. 21.21 Section..., AND <span class="hlt">PROCESSING</span> OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General <span class="hlt">References</span> § 21...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IAUJD..16E..24Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IAUJD..16E..24Z"><span>Accurate Optical <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Catalogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zacharias, N.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on <span class="hlt">reference</span> star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky <span class="hlt">reference</span> catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29363061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29363061"><span>Social effects on <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, Jonathan W; Costabile, Kristi A; Cherep, Lucia A</p> <p>2018-01-23</p> <p>The presence of another person in a spatial scene has been shown to induce spontaneous perspective taking. This investigation presents two experiments exploring whether the presence of another person affects <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame selection when representing object locations in memory. Participants studied objects from one view and later performed judgments of relative direction, which tested retrieval of the remembered layout from several imagined perspectives. Without another person in the scene during learning, participants selected a <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame aligned with the studied view. The mere presence of the experimenter at a different perspective during learning did not affect <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame selection. Requiring participants to <span class="hlt">process</span> object locations from the experimenter's view during learning led to the selection of a <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame aligned with the experimenter. However, the same effect also occurred when participants <span class="hlt">processed</span> object locations from the perspective of a wooden box. In sum, the presence of another person during learning did not affect <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame selection, and participants adopted a nonegocentric <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame whether the nonegocentric perspective was occupied by a person or an object.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017wfc..rept...23M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017wfc..rept...23M"><span>WFC3/UVIS: Bias <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Files Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McKay, M.; Baggett, S.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>We created and delivered new superbias <span class="hlt">reference</span> files for the WFC3/UVIS channel and analyzed the data for temporal variation in the residual two-dimensional bias structure. Previously, the pipeline only provided superbias <span class="hlt">reference</span> files for 2009 to 2010 in which the 2010 file was used for all the following years. We updated the 2009 and 2010 <span class="hlt">reference</span> files and created new <span class="hlt">reference</span> files for 2009 to 2016. The files were constructed from stacks of standard bias frames taken from 2009-2016. Statistics of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> files were calculated and plotted as a function of time to display any significant changes in the data. The difference between the previous and current superbias files is 0.02 electrons for 2009 and 0.04 electrons for 2010. The analysis shows that the overall residual bias level gradually increased by 0.16 electrons from 2009 - 2016. In this report, we briefly discuss the <span class="hlt">process</span> we used to generate the bias <span class="hlt">reference</span> files, the <span class="hlt">process</span> to check for significant changes in the biases and results of the analysis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhTea..51..454O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhTea..51..454O"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Magnets, Unexpected Polarities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olson, Mark</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets <span class="hlt">common</span> to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational contexts. This leads students, in my experience, to frequently and erroneously attribute magnetic poles based on geometric associations rather than actual observed behavior. This polarity discrepancy can provide teachers the opportunity to engage students in authentic inquiry about objects in their daily experiences. I've found that investigation of the magnetic polarities of <span class="hlt">common</span> magnets provides a productive context for students in which to develop valuable and authentic scientific inquiry practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23691913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23691913"><span>Management of <span class="hlt">common</span> fractures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walker, Jennie</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The incidence of fractures increases with advancing age partly due to the presence of multiple comorbidities and increased risk of falls. <span class="hlt">Common</span> fracture sites in older people include femoral neck, distal radius and vertebral bodies. Nurses have an important role in caring for older patients who have sustained fractures, not only to maximise function and recovery, but as part of a team to minimise the morbidity and mortality associated with fractures in this group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870020436','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870020436"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> drive unit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Common</span> Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA239343','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA239343"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Prototyping Language</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>extent not tolerable for widespread , large-scale prototyping. 1-4 <span class="hlt">Common</span> Prototyping System Draft Nov 11, 1988 16:59 Requirement: [Encapsulation] PS...reasons for abandoning the Ada computation model in favor of other models seen as better suited to prototyping. * Those having experience with...PS were ill- suited to production programming because AC was not suited for building maintain- able and modifiable prototypes, it would fail as a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022340','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150022340"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failure Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of <span class="hlt">common</span> cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a <span class="hlt">common</span> cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160007009','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160007009"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failure Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of <span class="hlt">common</span> cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a <span class="hlt">common</span> cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4076876','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4076876"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> Anorectal Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most <span class="hlt">common</span> anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24987313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24987313"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> anorectal disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most <span class="hlt">common</span> anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2370448','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2370448"><span>Diagnosing <span class="hlt">Common</span> Skin Eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Enta, Tom</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The skin reacts to various insults in a limited number of ways. For this reason the etiologic diagnosis of a simple eruption may require some scrutiny on the part of the examiner. Only when a true diagnosis is arrived at, will the treatment be effective or successful. The author provides several examples of <span class="hlt">commonly</span> seen eruptions and discusses their differential features. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:20468760</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996chep.conf..668T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996chep.conf..668T"><span><span class="hlt">Common</span> HEP UNIX Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taddei, Arnaud</p> <p></p> <p>After it had been decided to design a <span class="hlt">common</span> user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a <span class="hlt">common</span> user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a <span class="hlt">common</span> user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23135802"><span>'Historicising <span class="hlt">common</span> sense'.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Millstone, Noah</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have <span class="hlt">common</span> ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and '<span class="hlt">common</span> sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : <span class="hlt">common</span> sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930062466&hterms=Factory+Software&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DFactory%2BSoftware','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930062466&hterms=Factory+Software&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DFactory%2BSoftware"><span>A <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture for the component factory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this <span class="hlt">reference</span> architecture, discusses the instantiation <span class="hlt">process</span>, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the <span class="hlt">reference</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19538344','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19538344"><span>The <span class="hlt">common</span> patterns of nature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frank, S A</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>We typically observe large-scale outcomes that arise from the interactions of many hidden, small-scale <span class="hlt">processes</span>. Examples include age of disease onset, rates of amino acid substitutions and composition of ecological communities. The macroscopic patterns in each problem often vary around a characteristic shape that can be generated by neutral <span class="hlt">processes</span>. A neutral generative model assumes that each microscopic <span class="hlt">process</span> follows unbiased or random stochastic fluctuations: random connections of network nodes; amino acid substitutions with no effect on fitness; species that arise or disappear from communities randomly. These neutral generative models often match <span class="hlt">common</span> patterns of nature. In this paper, I present the theoretical background by which we can understand why these neutral generative models are so successful. I show where the classic patterns come from, such as the Poisson pattern, the normal or Gaussian pattern and many others. Each classic pattern was often discovered by a simple neutral generative model. The neutral patterns share a special characteristic: they describe the patterns of nature that follow from simple constraints on information. For example, any aggregation of <span class="hlt">processes</span> that preserves information only about the mean and variance attracts to the Gaussian pattern; any aggregation that preserves information only about the mean attracts to the exponential pattern; any aggregation that preserves information only about the geometric mean attracts to the power law pattern. I present a simple and consistent informational framework of the <span class="hlt">common</span> patterns of nature based on the method of maximum entropy. This framework shows that each neutral generative model is a special case that helps to discover a particular set of informational constraints; those informational constraints define a much wider domain of non-neutral generative <span class="hlt">processes</span> that attract to the same neutral pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=tardiness&pg=5&id=EJ578072','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=tardiness&pg=5&id=EJ578072"><span>Comparison of Students <span class="hlt">Referred</span> and Not <span class="hlt">Referred</span> for Special Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gottlieb, Jay; Weinberg, Sharon</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Examined whether there are differences between low-achieving students <span class="hlt">referred</span> and those not <span class="hlt">referred</span> for special education. Found that differences reflected factors external to the child: the propensity of his or her teacher to <span class="hlt">refer</span>, family mobility, and tardiness. (Author/LPP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3589705','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3589705"><span>Phenotyping <span class="hlt">common</span> beans for adaptation to drought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. <span class="hlt">Common</span> bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve <span class="hlt">common</span> bean for drought tolerance, <span class="hlt">referring</span> to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of <span class="hlt">common</span> bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23507928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23507928"><span>Phenotyping <span class="hlt">common</span> beans for adaptation to drought.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beebe, Stephen E; Rao, Idupulapati M; Blair, Matthew W; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Common</span> beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. <span class="hlt">Common</span> bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve <span class="hlt">common</span> bean for drought tolerance, <span class="hlt">referring</span> to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of <span class="hlt">common</span> bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28849871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28849871"><span>Heated, humidified air for the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Meenu; Singh, Manvi; Jaiswal, Nishant; Chauhan, Anil</p> <p>2017-08-29</p> <p>Heated, humidified air has long been used by people with the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and that heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. This is an update of a review last published in 2013. To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold by comparing symptoms, viral shedding, and nasal resistance. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to February 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to 24 February 2017), Embase (1990 to 24 February 2017), and Current Contents (1998 to 24 February 2017). We also searched World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) (8 March 2017) and ClinicalTrials.gov (8 March 2017) as well as <span class="hlt">reference</span> lists of included studies. Randomised controlled trials using heated water vapour in participants with the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold or experimentally induced <span class="hlt">common</span> cold were eligible for inclusion. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Three review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion of potential studies identified from the search. We recorded the selection <span class="hlt">process</span> in sufficient detail to complete a PRISMA flow diagram. We used a data collection form for study characteristics and outcome data that was developed and used for previous versions of this review. Two review authors independently extracted data, and a third review author resolved any disagreements. We used Review Manager 5 software to analyse data. We included six trials from five publications involving a total of 387 participants. We included no new studies in this 2017 update. The 'Risk of bias' assessment suggested an unclear risk of bias in the domain of randomisation and a low risk of bias in performance, detection, attrition, and reporting.It was uncertain whether heated, humidified air provides symptomatic relief for the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold, as the fixed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+psychology&id=EJ1139542','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+psychology&id=EJ1139542"><span>Core <span class="hlt">References</span> in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present study was to identify the core <span class="hlt">references</span> in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the <span class="hlt">common</span> <span class="hlt">references</span> in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arabic+AND+sex&pg=4&id=EJ404010','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arabic+AND+sex&pg=4&id=EJ404010"><span>Language and Women's Place with Special <span class="hlt">Reference</span> to Arabic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Abd-el-Jawad, Hassan R. S.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Aspects of naming conventions and terms of <span class="hlt">reference</span> and address <span class="hlt">common</span> in Jordan are investigated. These linguistic features exhibit a certain amount of pro-male and anti-female bias and the dominant social and cultural values and beliefs. (30 <span class="hlt">references</span>) (Author/VWL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24657593','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24657593"><span>Rats exhibit <span class="hlt">reference</span>-dependent choice behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhatti, Mehwish; Jang, Hyeran; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Human preferences depend on whether a chosen outcome appears to be a loss or a gain compared with what had been expected, i.e., in comparison to a <span class="hlt">reference</span> point. Because <span class="hlt">reference</span> dependence has such a strong influence on human decision-making, it is important to uncover its origins, which will in turn help delineate the underlying mechanisms. It remains unknown whether rats use <span class="hlt">reference</span> points in decision-making, and yet, the study of rats could help address the question of whether <span class="hlt">reference</span> dependence is evolutionarily conserved among mammals and could provide a nonhuman animal model to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this important cognitive <span class="hlt">process</span>. The aim of the current study was to determine whether rats show <span class="hlt">reference</span>-dependent choice behavior. We developed a novel paradigm by modifying the "T" maze by installing "pockets" to the left and right of the "T" stem that held reward pellets so rats would potentially develop <span class="hlt">reference</span> values for each option prior to choice. We found that the rats were indeed sensitive to the way alternatives were presented. That is, they exhibited <span class="hlt">reference</span>-dependent choice behavior by avoiding the choice option framed as a loss (e.g., having four reward pellets in the pocket, but receiving only one), at least under conditions with certain outcomes and clear differences between the <span class="hlt">reference</span> and outcome quantities. Despite the small number of rats in this study, this species-level capacity suggests that <span class="hlt">reference</span> dependence in general and loss aversion in particular may be conserved traits that evolved at or before the emergence of mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSMSA34A..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSMSA34A..02B"><span>International <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere - 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B. W.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>The International <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI), a joint project of COSPAR and URSI, is a widely used standard for ionospheric parameters currently undergoing registration with ISO as a technical specification. We will describe the 2006 Version of the model highlighting the many improvements and new additions including new options for the electron density in the topside and in the D-region, a model for the electron temperature distribution in the plasmasphere, a greatly improved representation of the topside ion composition, and the probability of spread F occurrence. In addition to introducing the latest version of the model, we will also give a status report on modeling efforts that are now underway with the goal of future IRI updates, e.g., a new representation of the topside electron density profile based on the vary-Chap formalism and on data from topside sounders and IMAGE/RPI, and a full description of the solar cycle variation of plasma temperatures in the topside based on a large compilation of satellite in situ measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26971953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26971953"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> in human and non-human primate communication: What does it take to <span class="hlt">refer</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sievers, Christine; Gruber, Thibaud</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The concept of functional <span class="hlt">reference</span> has been used to isolate potentially referential vocal signals in animal communication. However, its relatedness to the phenomenon of <span class="hlt">reference</span> in human language has recently been brought into question. While some researchers have suggested abandoning the concept of functional <span class="hlt">reference</span> altogether, others advocate a revision of its definition to include contextual cues that play a role in signal production and perception. Empirical and theoretical work on functional <span class="hlt">reference</span> has also put much emphasis on how the receiver understands the referential signal. However, <span class="hlt">reference</span>, as defined in the linguistic literature, is an action of the producer, and therefore, any definition describing <span class="hlt">reference</span> in non-human animals must also focus on the producer. To successfully determine whether a signal is used to <span class="hlt">refer</span>, we suggest an approach from the field of pragmatics, taking a closer look at specific situations of signal production, specifically at the factors that influence the production of a signal by an individual. We define the concept of signaller's <span class="hlt">reference</span> to identify intentional acts of <span class="hlt">reference</span> produced by a signaller independently of the communicative modality, and illustrate it with a case study of the hoo vocalizations produced by wild chimpanzees during travel. This novel framework introduces an intentional approach to referentiality. It may therefore permit a closer comparison of human and non-human animal referential behaviour and underlying cognitive <span class="hlt">processes</span>, allowing us to identify what may have emerged solely in the human lineage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=NEWS+AND+FRAME+AND+ANALYSIS&id=EJ970707','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=NEWS+AND+FRAME+AND+ANALYSIS&id=EJ970707"><span>Reframing Student Affairs Leadership: An Analysis of Organizational Frames of <span class="hlt">Reference</span> and Locus of Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tull, Ashley; Freeman, Jerrid P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Examined in this study were the identified frames of <span class="hlt">reference</span> and locus of control used by 478 student affairs administrators. Administrator responses were examined to identify frames of <span class="hlt">reference</span> most <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used and their preference order. Locus of control most <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used and the relationship between frames of <span class="hlt">reference</span> and locus of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED130056.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED130056.pdf"><span>Consumer Education <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Manual.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. State Agency for Title I.</p> <p></p> <p>This manual contains information for consumer education, which is defined as the <span class="hlt">process</span> of imparting to an individual the skills, concepts, knowledges, and insights required to help each person evolve his or her own values, evaluate alternative choices in the marketplace, manage personal resources effectively, and obtain the best buys for his or…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042365','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042365"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and <span class="hlt">commonality</span> of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the <span class="hlt">reference</span> avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate <span class="hlt">commonality</span>. The second core concept is to employ extensive <span class="hlt">commonality</span> between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing <span class="hlt">reference</span> designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a <span class="hlt">reference</span> avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/327053','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/327053"><span>ENRAF gauge <span class="hlt">reference</span> level calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford</p> <p>1997-02-06</p> <p>This document describes the method for calculating <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The <span class="hlt">reference</span> level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10796517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10796517"><span>Antibiotics for the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arroll, B; Kenealy, T</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">common</span> cold is caused by viruses which cannot be helped by antibiotics. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics for the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Family Medicine Database, and <span class="hlt">reference</span> lists of articles, and we contacted principal investigators. The most recent search was in December 1998. Randomised trials comparing any antibiotic therapy with placebo in acute upper respiratory tract infections. Both reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results: Seven trials involving 2056 people aged between six months and 49 years were included. The overall quality of the included trials was variable. People receiving antibiotics did not do better in terms of cure or improvement than those on placebo (odds ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 1.28 fixed effects model). One study found a significant benefit for antibiotics compared with placebo for runny nose (clear or purulent). The only other study to evaluate purulent nasal discharge found no significant benefit for antibiotics. Only one study reported work time lost with 22% of those on antibiotic treatment and 25% of those on placebo but this was not significant. Patients treated with antibiotics had a significant increase in side effects (odds ratio 2.72, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 7.27, random effects model). There is not enough evidence of important benefits from the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections with antibiotics and there is a significant increase in adverse effects associated with antibiotic use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=recipes&pg=6&id=ED534863','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=recipes&pg=6&id=ED534863"><span>Fundamentals of Managing <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Collections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Singer, Carol A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Whether a library's <span class="hlt">reference</span> collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for <span class="hlt">reference</span> collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, <span class="hlt">reference</span> librarians will learn:…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Internet+AND+Public+AND+Library&pg=2&id=EJ588247','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Internet+AND+Public+AND+Library&pg=2&id=EJ588247"><span>Web <span class="hlt">Reference</span>: A Virtual Reality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Foster, Janet</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Presents ideas and strategies to enhance digital <span class="hlt">reference</span> services available via the Internet in public libraries. Describes print publications which include Web <span class="hlt">reference</span> columns; subject guides, both print and online; and the resources of the Internet Public Library and other virtual <span class="hlt">reference</span> desks. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22intellectual+capital%22&pg=6&id=EJ697417','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22intellectual+capital%22&pg=6&id=EJ697417"><span>Knowledge Management and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gandhi, Smiti</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for <span class="hlt">reference</span> work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for <span class="hlt">reference</span> services, and reviews various KM initiatives for <span class="hlt">reference</span> services.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ArtSa..52...49K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ArtSa..52...49K"><span>Application of the Undifferenced GNSS Precise Positioning in Determining Coordinates in National <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frames</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krzan, Grzegorz; Stępniak, Katarzyna</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>In high-accuracy positioning using GNSS, the most <span class="hlt">common</span> solution is still relative positioning using double-difference observations of dual-frequency measurements. An increasingly popular alternative to relative positioning are undifferenced approaches, which are designed to make full use of modern satellite systems and signals. Positions referenced to global International Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ITRF2008) obtained from Precise Point Positioning (PPP) or Undifferenced (UD) network solutions have to be transformed to national (regional) <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame, which introduces additional bases related to the transformation <span class="hlt">process</span>. In this paper, satellite observations from two test networks using different observation time series were <span class="hlt">processed</span>. The first test concerns the positioning accuracy from <span class="hlt">processing</span> one year of dual-frequency GPS observations from 14 EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations using NAPEOS 3.3.1 software. The results were transformed into a national <span class="hlt">reference</span> frame (PL-ETRF2000) and compared to positions from an EPN cumulative solution, which was adopted as the true coordinates. Daily observations were <span class="hlt">processed</span> using PPP and UD multi-station solutions to determine the final accuracy resulting from satellite positioning, the transformation to national coordinate systems and Eurasian intraplate plate velocities. The second numerical test involved similar <span class="hlt">processing</span> strategies of post-<span class="hlt">processing</span> carried out using different observation time series (30 min., 1 hour, 2 hours, daily) and different classes of GNSS receivers. The centimeter accuracy of results presented in the national coordinate system satisfies the requirements of many surveying and engineering applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.1199G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.1199G"><span><span class="hlt">Reference</span> solar spectra: how do they compare in the UV?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gueymard, C.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> spectra covering all (or nearly all) the solar spectrum and integrating to at least 95% of the solar constant are needed in a variety of disciplines. Due to current experimental limitations these spectra are not monolithic but are rather composites that need to be assembled from a mix of space measurements, ground observatory measurements, and solar models. Depending on the sources of data used in each waveband and various scaling factors, these <span class="hlt">reference</span> spectra may differ substantially. The focus is here on those historic spectra that have reached standard or pseudo-standard status [ASTM, Colina, Kurucz, Smith & Gottlieb, Thekaekara, and Wehrli]. The UV part of each of these spectra are compared to that of a recently published <span class="hlt">reference</span> spectrum (Gueymard, 2004), to a UV spectrum measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory with a Brewer spectrophotometer (Gröbner and Kerr, 2001), and to the latest measured data from the SORCE satellite with the SIM and SOLSTICE instruments. In particular, it is found that the Gueymard and Gröbner spectra are in almost perfect agreement over the whole spectral range of the latter (295--355 nm), at their <span class="hlt">common</span> resolution of 0.5 nm. In comparison, the older Wehrli spectrum shows noticeable differences. The relationship between the experimental wavelength accuracy and the absolute accuracy of these spectra is discussed in detail. In the UV, it is argued that wavelength accuracy is the dominant source of error in the most recent spectra, although absolute calibration generally becomes the dominant factor when considering relaxed resolutions (e.g., > 5 nm). The <span class="hlt">process</span> of deriving <span class="hlt">reference</span> spectra is now being standardized by ISO (Tobiska and Nusinov, 2000; ISO, 2002). This initiative opens the door to the development of more dependable and intercomparable spectra. In particular, the derivation of the recent Gueymard spectrum and how it respects the ISO guidelines are discussed in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19370435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19370435"><span>Delusions of <span class="hlt">reference</span>: a new theoretical model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Startup, Mike; Bucci, Sandra; Langdon, Robyn</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Although delusions of <span class="hlt">reference</span> are one of the most <span class="hlt">common</span> psychotic symptoms, they have been the focus of little research, possibly because they have been considered to be integral to persecutory delusions. Evidence has now emerged that there are two kinds of delusion of <span class="hlt">reference</span>. One of these, referential delusions of communication, which involves beliefs that others are communicating in subtle, nonverbal ways, is the focus of this paper. We present a new model designed to account for the four crucial aspects of the phenomenology of these delusions: (1) that neutral stimuli are experienced as having personal significance; (2) that the neutral stimuli are experienced as communicating a message nonverbally; (3) that the content of the message concerns the self; (4) that the experience of a self-<span class="hlt">referent</span> communication is believed rather than being dismissed as implausible. We used PsycINFO and Scopus, using the term "delusion* of <span class="hlt">reference</span>", to search for publications with a bearing on our model. The amount of research we found that was designed to test aspects of this model is small but other published research appears to provide some support for its various steps. Much of this research was not explicitly intended to provide an account of delusions of <span class="hlt">reference</span> but its relevance nevertheless seems clear. There is preliminary support for the plausibility of our model but much additional research is needed. We conclude by summarising what we consider to be the main desiderata.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12137610','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12137610"><span>Antibiotics for the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arroll, B; Kenealy, T</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">common</span> cold is considered to be caused by viruses and it has long been believed that antibiotics have no role in treating this condition. In many countries doctors will often prescribe antibiotics for the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold in the belief that they may prevent secondary bacterial infection and in some cases to respond to patient demand. There is also increasing concern over the resistance of <span class="hlt">common</span> bacteria to <span class="hlt">commonly</span> used antibiotics. A crucial step in reducing the use of antibiotics for the <span class="hlt">common</span> cold is to examine the evidence to see if there is any benefit or if there is benefit for some subgroups or symptom constellations. (1) To determine the efficacy of antibiotics in comparison with placebo in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections (<span class="hlt">common</span> colds) in terms of the proportion of patients in whom the clinical outcome was considered to be a reduction in general symptoms and specific nasopharyngeal symptoms. (2) To determine whether there are significant adverse outcomes associated with antibiotic therapy for patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute upper respiratory tract infection. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Family Medicine Database, and <span class="hlt">reference</span> lists of articles, and we contacted principal investigators. The most recent search was in May 2001 SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing any antibiotic therapy with placebo in acute upper respiratory tract infections with less than 7 days of symptoms Both reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. All analyses used fixed effects unless otherwise stated Main results: Nine trials involving 2249 (2157 analysed) people aged between two months and 79 years (and adults with no upper age limit) years were included. The overall quality of the included trials was variable. People receiving antibiotics did not do better in terms of lack of cure or persistence of symptoms than those on placebo (odds ratio 0.8, 95% confidence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol1-sec93-1.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title32-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title32-vol1-sec93-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 93.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 93.1 Section 93.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF <span class="hlt">PROCESS</span>; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol1-sec93-1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title32-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title32-vol1-sec93-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 93.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 93.1 Section 93.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF <span class="hlt">PROCESS</span>; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol1-sec93-1.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title32-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title32-vol1-sec93-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 93.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 93.1 Section 93.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF <span class="hlt">PROCESS</span>; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol1-sec93-1.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title32-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title32-vol1-sec93-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 93.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 93.1 Section 93.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF <span class="hlt">PROCESS</span>; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol1-sec93-1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title32-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title32-vol1-sec93-1.pdf"><span>32 CFR 93.1 - <span class="hlt">References</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">References</span>. 93.1 Section 93.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF <span class="hlt">PROCESS</span>; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Date+AND+seed&id=ED133437','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Date+AND+seed&id=ED133437"><span>A <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Unit on Home Vegetable Gardening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCully, James S., Comp.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Designed to provide practical, up-to-date, basic information on home gardening for vocational agriculture students with only a limited knowledge of vegetable gardening, this <span class="hlt">reference</span> unit includes step-by-step procedures for planning, planting, cultivating, harvesting, and <span class="hlt">processing</span> vegetables in a small plot. Topics covered include plot…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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