Science.gov

Sample records for process improvement cpi

  1. The BET bromodomain inhibitor CPI203 improves lenalidomide and dexamethasone activity in in vitro and in vivo models of multiple myeloma by blockade of Ikaros and MYC signaling.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Tania; Rodríguez, Vanina; Lozano, Ester; Mena, Mari-Pau; Calderón, Marcos; Rosiñol, Laura; Martínez, Antonio; Tovar, Natalia; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Bladé, Joan; Roué, Gaël; de Larrea, Carlos Fernández

    2017-10-01

    Most patients with multiple myeloma treated with current therapies, including immunomodulatory drugs, eventually develop relapsed/refractory disease. Clinical activity of lenalidomide relies on degradation of Ikaros and the consequent reduction in IRF4 expression, both required for myeloma cell survival and involved in the regulation of MYC transcription. Thus, we sought to determine the combinational effect of an MYC-interfering therapy with lenalidomide/dexamethasone. We analyzed the potential therapeutic effect of the combination of the BET bromodomain inhibitor CPI203 with the lenalidomide/dexamethasone regimen in myeloma cell lines. CPI203 exerted a dose-dependent cell growth inhibition in cell lines, indeed in lenalidomide/dexamethasone-resistant cells (median response at 0.5 μM: 65.4%), characterized by G1 cell cycle blockade and a concomitant inhibition of MYC and Ikaros signaling. These effects were potentiated by the addition of lenalidomide/dexamethasone. Results were validated in primary plasma cells from patients with multiple myeloma co-cultured with the mesenchymal stromal cell line stromaNKtert. Consistently, the drug combination evoked a 50% reduction in cell proliferation and correlated with basal Ikaros mRNA expression levels (P=0.04). Finally, in a SCID mouse xenotransplant model of myeloma, addition of CPI203 to lenalidomide/dexamethasone decreased tumor burden, evidenced by a lower glucose uptake and increase in the growth arrest marker GADD45B, with simultaneous downregulation of key transcription factors such as MYC, Ikaros and IRF4. Taken together, our data show that the combination of a BET bromodomain inhibitor with a lenalidomide-based regimen may represent a therapeutic approach to improve the response in relapsed/refractory patients with multiple myeloma, even in cases with suboptimal prior response to immunomodulatory drugs. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  2. Progress in CPI Microwave Tube Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Bohlen, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    CPI continues its role as a leading supplier of state-of-the-art, high-power microwave tubes; from linear beam, velocity- and density-modulated devices, to high frequency gyro-devices. Klystrons are the device-of-choice for many high-power microwave applications, and can provide multi-megawatts to multi-kilowatts of power from UHF to W-band, respectively. A number of recent and on-going developments will be described. At UHF frequencies, the inductive output tube (IOT) has replaced the klystron for terrestrial NTSC and HDTV broadcast, due to its high efficiency and linearity, and is beginning to see use in scientific applications requiring 300 kW or less. Recent advances have enabled use well into L-band. CPI has developed a number of multiple-beam amplifiers. The VKL-8301 multiple-beam klystron (MBK) was built for the TESLA V/UV and x-ray FEL projects, and is a candidate RF source for the International Linear Collider (ILC). We have also contributed to the development of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) high-power fundamental-mode S-band MBK. The VHP-8330B multiple-beam, high-order mode (HOM) IOT shows great promise as a compact, CW UHF source for high power applications. These topics will be discussed, along with CPI's development capabilities for new and novel applications. Most important is our availability to provide design and fabrication services to organizations requiring CPI's manufacturing and process control infrastructure to build and test state-of-the-art devices.

  3. Further characterization of Closed Pore Insulation (CPI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russak, M.; Feldman, C.

    1973-01-01

    The thermophysical and mechanical properties of closed pore insulation (CPI) were measured after exposure to 25 simulated reentry thermal cycles. In addition, mechanical properties were obtained at elevated temperatures before and after cycling. The properties of CPI were not compromised by the cycling. High temperature creep studies were done on three CPI compositions (4, 8, and 12 Wt% CoO additive). CPI-4 had the best creep resistance at temperatures up to 1363 K.

  4. CPI-17-deficient smooth muscle of chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Toshio; Polzin, Atsuko N; Eto, Masumi

    2004-01-01

    Ca2+ sensitivity of arterial contractility is governed by regulating myosin phosphatase activity in response to agonist stimuli. CPI-17, a myosin phosphatase inhibitor phosphoprotein, is phosphorylated concomitantly with agonist-induced contractile Ca2+ sensitization in mammalian artery. CPI-17 has not been detected in chicken artery, but is readily detectable in pigeon artery. To evaluate a role of CPI-17, we compared contractility of the arteries of ‘CPI-17-deficient’ chicken with those of CPI-17-rich rabbit and pigeon, and studied the effect of CPI-17-reconstitution in chicken artery. Other major regulatory/contractile proteins for Ca2+ sensitization are expressed in both chicken and rabbit arteries. Agonists, such as an α1-agonist and endothelin-1, produced significant contraction in arteries of all species under physiological Ca2+-containing conditions. Depletion of Ca2+ abolished these contractions in chicken but partially inhibited them in rabbit and pigeon arteries. Unlike CPI-17-rich tissues, chicken arteries exerted little Ca2+ sensitization in response to α1-agonist or endothelin-1. GTPγS produced a slight Ca2+ sensitizing effect in chicken artery, but this was significantly smaller compared with CPI-17-rich tissues. A PKC activator (PDBu) did not generate but rather reduced a contraction in both intact and α-toxin-permeabilized chicken artery in contrast to a large contraction in CPI-17-rich arteries. Myosin light chain phosphorylation was reduced by PDBu in chicken but elevated in rabbit artery. Addition of recombinant CPI-17 into β-escin-permeabilized chicken artery restored PDBu-induced and enhanced GTPγS-induced Ca2+ sensitization. Thus, CPI-17 is essential for G protein/PKC-mediated Ca2+ sensitization in smooth muscle. PMID:15090608

  5. Criterion Validity of the WAIS-IV Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI).

    PubMed

    Logue, Erin; Scarisbrick, David M; Thaler, Nicholas S; Mahoney, James J; Block, Cady K; Adams, Russell; Scott, James

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to validate the Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) against similar, well-established measures of attention and processing speed. Additionally, the sensitivity of the CPI and Attention Index of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and their ability to differentiate among clinical groups were compared. The first objective was accomplished by calculating correlation coefficients between the CPI and similar attention and processing speed measures. The second objective was accomplished using a clinical group of 25 individuals with Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores of less than or equal to 23 matched to a non-clinical group of 43 participants with MMSE scores of 30, all derived from the original sample. The CPI correlated in expected ways with other measures of attention and processing speed (magnitude of r = .19-.77). ANCOVA, receiver operating characteristic, and discriminant function analyses suggested that the CPI is superior to the RBANS Attention Index in differentiating between clinical and non-clinical groups. These findings provide support for convergent validity and criterion-related concurrent validity for the CPI.

  6. CPI distribution and cutoff values for duo kinship testing.

    PubMed

    Pu, Chang-En; Linacre, Adrian

    2007-10-31

    DNA-based tests commonly use 13 STR (short tandem repeat) loci in human identification and paternity testing--the Combined DNA Index System or CODIS. Its average degree of accuracy of paternity identification is greater than 0.9999 under the circumstance of a mother, a child and a putative father. However, the possibility of false inclusions increases under circumstances such as [1] only two members of a family group are available--a duo case during determination of paternity or [2] identification of human remains while only one living relative is present. In Taiwan, the National Unidentified Human Remains Database uses the CODIS 13 STR for the identification of family members. Two or more reference samples in the DNA database have been found to share one allele at all loci tested. Then the Combined Paternity Index (CPI) is used to determine and provide an estimate of kinship in such cases. Combining 499,500 sets of DNA data for the 13 STR CODIS loci, totally 431 (0.086%) cases are false inclusions where all 13 loci shared at least one allele. Simulated partial DNA profiles (not all 13 loci yielded results) were created to mimic the mutation and degradation process. All 431 real duo cases were analyzed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity. This report provided four kinship-matching situations with CPI cutoff values when the number of allele-sharing loci exceeded 11. CPI values greater or lesser than the suggested cutoff point will provide a greater degree of confidence in determining whether two samples are derived from first-degree relatives.

  7. WISC-IV GAI and CPI in Psychoeducational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Dawn; McTaggart, Breanne; Saklofske, Donald H.; Janzen, Troy

    2011-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) are two index scores that can be calculated for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Canadian Edition (WISC-IV[superscript CDN]). The GAI comprises the verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning subtests and reflects reasoning abilities. The CPI includes the…

  8. WISC-IV GAI and CPI in Psychoeducational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Dawn; McTaggart, Breanne; Saklofske, Donald H.; Janzen, Troy

    2011-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) are two index scores that can be calculated for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Canadian Edition (WISC-IV[superscript CDN]). The GAI comprises the verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning subtests and reflects reasoning abilities. The CPI includes the…

  9. Importance of carbohydrate positioning in the recognition of mutated CPY for ER-associated degradation.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Zlatka; Wolf, Dieter H

    2005-04-01

    In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), N-linked glycans (N-glycans) function as signals to recruit the lectin chaperones involved in protein folding, quality control and ER-associated degradation. We undertook a systematic study of the four N-glycans of mutated carboxypeptidase yscY (CPY*) to determine whether there are positional differences between the glycans in ER-associated degradation. We constructed hypoglycosylated CPY* variants containing one, two or three N-glycans in various combinations and studied their degradation kinetics. We found that the four carbohydrate chains on CPY* are not equal in their signaling function: presence of the Asn368-linked glycan is necessary and sufficient for efficient degradation of CPY*. We also analysed the involvement of the ER lectins Htm1p and Cne1p (yeast calnexin) in the glycan-based recognition process with respect to number and position of N-glycans. We observed that Htm1p function depends on the presence of N-glycans in general but that there is no positional preference for a particular glycan. Cne1p, however, is selective with respect to substrate, and participates in the quality control only of some underglycosylated variants. For cases in which both lectins are involved, Cne1p and Htm1p play competing roles in targeting the substrate for degradation: loss of Cne1p accelerates degradation, whereas loss of Htm1p stabilizes the substrate.

  10. Performance Improvement Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance improvement processes. In "Never the Twain Shall Meet?: A Glimpse into High Performance Work Practices and Downsizing" (Laurie J. Bassi, Mark E. Van Buren) evidence from a national cross-industry of more than 200 establishments is used to demonstrate that high-performance…

  11. Performance Improvement Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance improvement processes. In "Never the Twain Shall Meet?: A Glimpse into High Performance Work Practices and Downsizing" (Laurie J. Bassi, Mark E. Van Buren) evidence from a national cross-industry of more than 200 establishments is used to demonstrate that high-performance…

  12. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    PubMed

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it.

  13. NXY 059: CPI 22, NXY 059G.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    NXY 059 [CPI 22, NXY 059G], a nitrone with free radical trapping properties, has potential in the treatment of ischaemic stroke.This profile has been selected from R&D Insight, a pharmaceutical intelligence database produced by Adis International Ltd. NXY 059 is based on Centaur Pharmaceuticals' proprietary Nitrone-Related Therapeutics (NRT) technology. A generic form of NXY 059, NXY 059G, has been synthesised. On 12 December 2002, Centaur Pharmaceuticals was acquired by, and integrated into, Renovis. AstraZeneca has exclusive worldwide rights to NXY 059, under a licence from Centaur Pharmaceuticals; the licensing agreement is continuing with Renovis. Renovis will receive a significant milestone payment and retains a co-promotion option for NXY 059 in the US. In addition, Renovis is entitled to royalties on profits from worldwide sales of the drug once commercialised. Centaur received a cash payment of $US1.25 million, and up to 30% of Renovis stock in exchange for these assets. In May 2003, AstraZeneca announced the initiation of two major phase III pivotal clinical trials to determine the effect of NXY 059 on disability and neurological recovery in acute ischemic stroke patients. The trials, known as the SAINT (Stroke-Acute-Ischaemic-NXY-Treatment) trials, will compare the efficacy and safety of a 72-hour intravenous infusion of NXY 059 given within 6 hours of the onset of symptoms vs placebo. The studies will enrol >3000 patients. The SAINT I trial will involve 200 centres across 24 countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and South Africa. The SAINT II trial will involve patients from approximately 150 sites in the US, Canada and South America. AstraZeneca is evaluating NXY 059 in a phase I clinical study in the US. Phase III trials of NXY 059 have begun in the UK and Sweden for the treatment of stroke. In November 2000, Centaur Pharmaceuticals announced that the Japanese regulatory authorities approved AstraZeneca's regulatory filings for phase I clinical studies

  14. Improving Metal Casting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  15. Improving Metal Casting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  16. DPDR-CPI, a server that predicts Drug Positioning and Drug Repositioning via Chemical-Protein Interactome

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Heng; Zhang, Ping; Cao, Xi Hang; Du, Dizheng; Ye, Hao; Huang, Hui; Li, Can; Qin, Shengying; Wan, Chunling; Shi, Leming; He, Lin; Yang, Lun

    2016-01-01

    The cost of developing a new drug has increased sharply over the past years. To ensure a reasonable return-on-investment, it is useful for drug discovery researchers in both industry and academia to identify all the possible indications for early pipeline molecules. For the first time, we propose the term computational “drug candidate positioning” or “drug positioning”, to describe the above process. It is distinct from drug repositioning, which identifies new uses for existing drugs and maximizes their value. Since many therapeutic effects are mediated by unexpected drug-protein interactions, it is reasonable to analyze the chemical-protein interactome (CPI) profiles to predict indications. Here we introduce the server DPDR-CPI, which can make real-time predictions based only on the structure of the small molecule. When a user submits a molecule, the server will dock it across 611 human proteins, generating a CPI profile of features that can be used for predictions. It can suggest the likelihood of relevance of the input molecule towards ~1,000 human diseases with top predictions listed. DPDR-CPI achieved an overall AUROC of 0.78 during 10-fold cross-validations and AUROC of 0.76 for the independent validation. The server is freely accessible via http://cpi.bio-x.cn/dpdr/. PMID:27805045

  17. DPDR-CPI, a server that predicts Drug Positioning and Drug Repositioning via Chemical-Protein Interactome.

    PubMed

    Luo, Heng; Zhang, Ping; Cao, Xi Hang; Du, Dizheng; Ye, Hao; Huang, Hui; Li, Can; Qin, Shengying; Wan, Chunling; Shi, Leming; He, Lin; Yang, Lun

    2016-11-02

    The cost of developing a new drug has increased sharply over the past years. To ensure a reasonable return-on-investment, it is useful for drug discovery researchers in both industry and academia to identify all the possible indications for early pipeline molecules. For the first time, we propose the term computational "drug candidate positioning" or "drug positioning", to describe the above process. It is distinct from drug repositioning, which identifies new uses for existing drugs and maximizes their value. Since many therapeutic effects are mediated by unexpected drug-protein interactions, it is reasonable to analyze the chemical-protein interactome (CPI) profiles to predict indications. Here we introduce the server DPDR-CPI, which can make real-time predictions based only on the structure of the small molecule. When a user submits a molecule, the server will dock it across 611 human proteins, generating a CPI profile of features that can be used for predictions. It can suggest the likelihood of relevance of the input molecule towards ~1,000 human diseases with top predictions listed. DPDR-CPI achieved an overall AUROC of 0.78 during 10-fold cross-validations and AUROC of 0.76 for the independent validation. The server is freely accessible via http://cpi.bio-x.cn/dpdr/.

  18. Understand the air-pollution laws that affect CPI plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 promise to further refine and strengthen air-pollution control. The resulting Clean Air Act has a more direct and pervasive impact on our everyday lives than any other environmental law. The Act: establishes health-based air-quality standards; provides for the preparation, approval, and enforcement of state implementation plans to meet the air-quality standards; and provides for the control of new emissions that have the potential to endanger public health. It also provides for the control of new sources of emissions of hazardous air pollutants, for the prevention of significant deterioration of clean air areas, for the reduction of emissions from automobile and other mobile sources, and for the control of acid ran. Finally, the Act provides for permit programs and civil and criminal enforcement. Compliance with the Clean Air Act and the regulations and standards established under it must be integrated into the design and operation of every chemical process industries (CPI) plant. This article provides a brief overview of the Clean Air Act's various air-quality programs.

  19. [Consistent presentation of medical images based on CPI integration profile].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; An, Ji-ye; Chen, Zhong-yong; Lu, Xu-dong; Duan, Hui-long

    2007-11-01

    Because of different display parameters and other factors, digital medical images present different display states in different section offices of a hospital. Based on CPI integration profile of IHE, this paper implements the consistent presentation of medical images, and it is helpful for doctors to carry out medical treatments of teamwork.

  20. Next Generation Software Process Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    Maturity Model . The scope of this work is to use organizationally improved software processes on a small scale software product developed by the U.S...Army. The goal is to establish process improvement based on the Capability Maturity Model .

  1. An improved plating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, John C.

    1994-01-01

    An alternative to the immersion process for the electrodeposition of chromium from aqueous solutions on the inside diameter (ID) of long tubes is described. The Vessel Plating Process eliminates the need for deep processing tanks, large volumes of solutions, and associated safety and environmental concerns. Vessel Plating allows the process to be monitored and controlled by computer thus increasing reliability, flexibility and quality. Elimination of the trivalent chromium accumulation normally associated with ID plating is intrinsic to the Vessel Plating Process. The construction and operation of a prototype Vessel Plating Facility with emphasis on materials of construction, engineered and operational safety and a unique system for rinse water recovery are described.

  2. Role of CPI-17 in restoring skin homoeostasis in cutaneous field of cancerization: effects of topical application of a film-forming medical device containing photolyase and UV filters.

    PubMed

    Puig-Butillé, Joan Anton; Malvehy, Josep; Potrony, Miriam; Trullas, Carles; Garcia-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquin; Puig, Susana

    2013-07-01

    Cutaneous field of cancerization (CFC) is caused in part by the carcinogenic effect of the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers CPD and 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PPs). Photoreactivation is carried out by photolyases which specifically recognize and repair both photoproducts. The study evaluates the molecular effects of topical application of a film-forming medical device containing photolyase and UV filters on the precancerous field in AK from seven patients. Skin improvement after treatment was confirmed in all patients by histopathological and molecular assessment. A gene set analysis showed that skin recovery was associated with biological processes involved in tissue homoeostasis and cell maintenance. The CFC response was associated with over-expression of the CPI-17 gene, and a dependence on the initial expression level was observed (P = 0.001). Low CPI-17 levels were directly associated with pro-inflammatory genes such as TNF (P = 0.012) and IL-1B (P = 0.07). Our results suggest a role for CPI-17 in restoring skin homoeostasis in CFC lesions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Magnetic Particle Process Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, R.R.

    2002-08-13

    The magnetic particle testing process is performed to find linear, surface and near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic test materials. A wet fluorescent method is used at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). This method employs a liquid carrier mixed with iron oxide particles in suspension, and the particles used in the method are coated with a fluorescent dye to make them visible under a black light. The process in its current state employs the use of a tank of liquid solution of a mineral oil carrier with iron oxide particles in suspension. The change to the use of an aerosol delivery system with the same material reduces the amount of waste involved in the process while preserving the sensitivity of the testing, shortens the flowtime for the test, and saves labor and material costs.

  4. Why Process Improvement Training Fails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Dawei; Betts, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying reasons why providing process improvement training, by itself, may not be sufficient to achieve the desired outcome of improved processes; and to attempt a conceptual framework of management training for more effective improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Two similar units within…

  5. Why Process Improvement Training Fails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Dawei; Betts, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying reasons why providing process improvement training, by itself, may not be sufficient to achieve the desired outcome of improved processes; and to attempt a conceptual framework of management training for more effective improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Two similar units within…

  6. Comparison of simple additive weighting (SAW) and composite performance index (CPI) methods in employee remuneration determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlitasari, L.; Suhartini, D.; Benny

    2017-01-01

    The process of determining the employee remuneration for PT Sepatu Mas Idaman currently are still using Microsoft Excel-based spreadsheet where in the spreadsheet there is the value of criterias that must be calculated for every employee. This can give the effect of doubt during the assesment process, therefore resulting in the process to take much longer time. The process of employee remuneration determination is conducted by the assesment team based on some criterias that have been predetermined. The criteria used in the assessment process are namely the ability to work, human relations, job responsibility, discipline, creativity, work, achievement of targets, and absence. To ease the determination of employee remuneration to be more efficient and effective, the Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) method is used. SAW method can help in decision making for a certain case, and the calculation that generates the greatest value will be chosen as the best alternative. Other than SAW, also by using another method was the CPI method which is one of the calculating method in decision making based on performance index. Where SAW method was more faster by 89-93% compared to CPI method. Therefore it is expected that this application can be an evaluation material for the need of training and development for employee performances to be more optimal.

  7. Cyber Physical Intelligence for Oil Spills (CPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lary, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences estimate 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into global waters every year. The effects of these spills include dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water. Deepwater horizon cost approximately $50 billion and severely challenged response capabilities. In such large spills optimizing a coordinated response is a particular challenge. This challenge can be met in a revolutionary new way by using an objectively optimized Cyber Physical Decision Making System (CPS) for rapid response products and a framework for objectively optimized decision-making in an uncertain environment. The CPS utilizes machine learning for the processing of the massive real-time streams of Big Data from comprehensive hyperspectral remote sensing acquired by a team of low-cost robotic aerial vehicles, providing a real-time aerial view and stream of hyperspectral imagery from the near UV to the thermal infrared, and a characterization of oil thickness, oil type and oil weathering. The objective decision making paradigm is modeled on the human brain and provides the optimal course trajectory for response vessels to achieve the most expeditious cleanup of oil spills using the available resources. In addition, oil spill cleanups often involve surface oil burns that can lead to air quality issues. The aerial vehicles comprehensively characterize air quality in real-time, streaming location, temperature, pressure, humidity, the abundance of 6 criterion pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and H2S) and the full size distribution of airborne particulates. This CPS can be readily applied to other systems in agriculture, water conversation, monitoring of stream quality, air quality, diagnosing risk of wild fires, etc..

  8. NCCDS configuration management process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    By concentrating on defining and improving specific Configuration Management (CM) functions, processes, procedures, personnel selection/development, and tools, internal and external customers received improved CM services. Job performance within the section increased in both satisfaction and output. Participation in achieving major improvements has led to the delivery of consistent quality CM products as well as significant decreases in every measured CM metrics category.

  9. Use of the CPI structural scales in Taiwan college graduates.

    PubMed

    Ying, Y W

    1990-01-01

    The study examines the usefulness of the CPI vector scales in a cross-cultural setting. These scales assessing degree of internality (v.1), norm-abiding tendency (v.2) and self-actualization (v.3) were administered to a group of 215 recently college graduated Taiwan men and women. The Taiwan sample was found to be more norm-abiding and less actualized than American college students. This difference is discussed in the context of varying cultural values. Based on the raw scale scores, personality type and actualization level of the students were determined. Appropriateness of U.S. derived cutoff scores for determining type and actualization for this group is discussed.

  10. Waste Management Process Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, J.; Borden, G.; Rangel, G. R.

    2002-02-25

    The Bechtel Hanford-led Environmental Restoration Contractor team's Waste Management Process Improvement Project is working diligently with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office to improve the waste management process to meet DOE's need for an efficient, cost-effective program for the management of dangerous, low-level and mixed-low-level waste. Additionally the program must meet all applicable regulatory requirements. The need for improvement was highlighted when a change in the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project's waste management practices resulted in a larger amount of waste being generated than the waste management organization had been set up to handle.

  11. Application Process Improvement Yields Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holesovsky, Jan Paul

    1995-01-01

    After a continuing effort to improve its grant application process, the department of medical microbiology and immunology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is submitting many more applications and realizing increased funding. The methods and strategy used to make the process more efficient and effective are outlined. (Author/MSE)

  12. Application Process Improvement Yields Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holesovsky, Jan Paul

    1995-01-01

    After a continuing effort to improve its grant application process, the department of medical microbiology and immunology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is submitting many more applications and realizing increased funding. The methods and strategy used to make the process more efficient and effective are outlined. (Author/MSE)

  13. Smooth muscle-selective CPI-17 expression increases vascular smooth muscle contraction and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wen; Xie, Zhongwen; Liu, Shu; Calderon, Lindsay E.; Guo, Zhenheng

    2013-01-01

    Recent data revealed that protein kinase C-potentiated myosin phosphatase inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17), a myosin phosphatase inhibitory protein preferentially expressed in smooth muscle, is upregulated/activated in several diseases but whether this CPI-17 increase plays a causal role in pathologically enhanced vascular smooth muscle contractility and blood pressure remains unclear. To address this possibility, we generated a smooth muscle-specific CPI-17 transgenic mouse model (CPI-17-Tg) and demonstrated that the CPI-17 transgene was selectively expressed in smooth muscle-enriched tissues, including mesenteric arteries. The isometric contractions in the isolated second-order branch of mesenteric artery helical strips from CPI-17-Tg mice were significantly enhanced compared with controls in response to phenylephrine, U-46619, serotonin, ANG II, high potassium, and calcium. The perfusion pressure increases in isolated perfused mesenteric vascular beds in response to norepinephrine were also enhanced in CPI-17-Tg mice. The hypercontractility was associated with increased phosphorylation of CPI-17 and 20-kDa myosin light chain under basal and stimulated conditions. Surprisingly, the protein levels of rho kinase 2 and protein kinase Cα/δ were significantly increased in CPI-17-Tg mouse mesenteric arteries. Radiotelemetry measurements demonstrated that blood pressure was significantly increased in CPI-17-Tg mice. However, no vascular remodeling was detected by morphometric analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that increased CPI-17 expression in smooth muscle promotes vascular smooth muscle contractility and increases blood pressure, implicating a pathological significant role of CPI-17 upregulation. PMID:23604714

  14. Transgenic sugarcane overexpressing CaneCPI-1 negatively affects the growth and development of the sugarcane weevil Sphenophorus levis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Vanessa Karine; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Chakravarthi, Mohan; Ribeiro, Carolina; Chabregas, Sabrina Moutinho; Falco, Maria Cristina; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic sugarcane expressing CaneCPI-1 exhibits resistance to Sphenophorus levis larvae. Transgenic plants have widely been used to improve resistance against insect attack. Sugarcane is an economically important crop; however, great losses are caused by insect attack. Sphenophorus levis is a sugarcane weevil that digs tunnels in the stem base, leading to the destruction of the crop. This insect is controlled inefficiently by chemical insecticides. Transgenic plants expressing peptidase inhibitors represent an important strategy for impairing insect growth and development. Knowledge of the major peptidase group present in the insect gut is critical when choosing the most effective inhibitor. S. levis larvae use cysteine peptidases as their major digestive enzymes, primarily cathepsin L-like activity. In this study, we developed transgenic sugarcane plants that overexpress sugarcane cysteine peptidase inhibitor 1 (CaneCPI-1) and assessed their potential through feeding bioassays with S. levis larvae. Cystatin overexpression in the transgenic plants was evaluated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, RT-qPCR, and immunoblot assays. A 50% reduction of the average weight was observed in larvae that fed on transgenic plants in comparison to larvae that fed on non-transgenic plants. In addition, transgenic sugarcane exhibited less damage caused by larval attack than the controls. Our results suggest that the overexpression of CaneCPI-1 in sugarcane is a promising strategy for improving resistance against this insect.

  15. Process mapping: A user-friendly tool for process improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, M. L.; Levine, L. O.

    1993-09-01

    Process maps aid administrative process improvement efforts by documenting processes in a rigorous yet understandable way. Icons, graphics, and text support process documentation, analysis, and improvement.

  16. Unfair competition governs the interaction of pCPI-17 with myosin phosphatase (PP1-MYPT1).

    PubMed

    Filter, Joshua J; Williams, Byron C; Eto, Masumi; Shalloway, David; Goldberg, Michael L

    2017-04-07

    The small phosphoprotein pCPI-17 inhibits myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). Current models postulate that during muscle relaxation, phosphatases other than MLCP dephosphorylate and inactivate pCPI-17 to restore MLCP activity. We show here that such hypotheses are insufficient to account for the observed rapidity of pCPI-17 inactivation in mammalian smooth muscles. Instead, MCLP itself is the critical enzyme for pCPI-17 dephosphorylation. We call the mutual sequestration mechanism through which pCPI-17 and MLCP interact inhibition by unfair competition: MLCP protects pCPI-17 from other phosphatases, while pCPI-17 blocks other substrates from MLCP's active site. MLCP dephosphorylates pCPI-17 at a slow rate that is nonetheless both sufficient and necessary to explain the speed of pCPI-17 dephosphorylation and the consequent MLCP activation during muscle relaxation.

  17. Quality improvement tools and processes.

    PubMed

    Lau, Catherine Y

    2015-04-01

    The Model for Improvement and the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle is a popular quality improvement (QI) tool for health care providers to successfully lead QI projects and redesign care processes. This tool has several distinct components that must be addressed in sequence to organize and critically evaluate improvement activities. Unlike other health sciences clinical research, QI projects and research are based on dynamic hypotheses that develop into observable, serial tests of change with continuous collection and feedback of performance data to stakeholders.

  18. 39 CFR 3010.12 - Source of CPI-U data for purposes of annual limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source of CPI-U data for purposes of annual... FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Rate Adjustments for Rates of General Applicability (Type 1-A and 1-B Rate Adjustments) § 3010.12 Source of CPI-U data for purposes of annual limitation. The...

  19. The CPI Subscales as Predictors of Parental Coping with Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupst, Mary Jo; Schulman, Jerome L.

    1981-01-01

    Determined the role of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) in prediction of parental coping with leukemia. None of the standard CPI subscales was a significant predictor of coping. Coping with the specific situation may be a better predictor of later coping with a similar situation than more global assessments. (Author)

  20. The CPI Subscales as Predictors of Parental Coping with Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupst, Mary Jo; Schulman, Jerome L.

    1981-01-01

    Determined the role of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) in prediction of parental coping with leukemia. None of the standard CPI subscales was a significant predictor of coping. Coping with the specific situation may be a better predictor of later coping with a similar situation than more global assessments. (Author)

  1. Improving Learners' Research Process Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, T. K.; Hunter, L.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Seagroves, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Professional Development Program (PDP) supports participants as they design inquiry activities that help learners improve their research process skills. These skills include the cognitive or reasoning skills that scientists and engineers use while doing research; for example, making a testable hypothesis, coordinating results from multiple experiments, or identifying and evaluating tradeoffs. Past work in the PDP indicated that additional support was needed to help participants design instructional activities that would teach these important skills. A new workshop was therefore developed for the 2009 PDP cycle, entitled "Improving Learners' Process Skills." In this workshop, participants worked in small groups to define specific science and engineering skills found in four past PDP activity designs. Participants distinguished between "simple tasks" and "authentic inquiry" activities that learners could perform as demonstration of the skill. Through this new workshop, participants were able to explicitly discuss ways in which individual process skills are unique or inter-related. In addition, by identifying a "simple task," participants were able to pinpoint areas in which their own designs could be improved to better focus on authentic inquiry tasks. In 2010, the workshop was slightly modified to help participants reconnect the research process skills with the activity content. In addition, the idea of using generic and context-specific scaffolds was also introduced. To make the participants feel like they were contributing to the PDP community, four activity designs actively being worked on in the 2010 cycle were used. Based on participant feedback, this "Improving Learners' Process Skills" workshop should be strongly considered for future returning participants.

  2. WAIS-IV GAI and CPI discrepancies in multiple sclerosis and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    J Ryan, Joseph; Kreiner, David S; Glass Umfleet, Laura; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Myers-Fabian, Allison

    2016-10-25

    We examined relationships between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) in two clinical samples. The mean pattern produced by 42 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 47 with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was the same, GAI > CPI. This pattern occurred in 61.9% and 78.7% of the protocols of patients with MS or TBI, respectively. The MS sample earned a significantly larger CPI mean than did patients with TBI. The group means did not differ on the GAI. Patients with TBI had significantly larger GAI-CPI discrepancy score means than those with MS. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis assessed the ability of GAI-CPI discrepancies to differentiate the samples. The area under curve (AUC) was 0.67, 95% [0.55, 0.78], which indicated low accuracy in terms of group classification.

  3. Unconscious processes improve lie detection.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Marc-André; Greifeneder, Rainer; Scharmach, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The capacity to identify cheaters is essential for maintaining balanced social relationships, yet humans have been shown to be generally poor deception detectors. In fact, a plethora of empirical findings holds that individuals are only slightly better than chance when discerning lies from truths. Here, we report 5 experiments showing that judges' ability to detect deception greatly increases after periods of unconscious processing. Specifically, judges who were kept from consciously deliberating outperformed judges who were encouraged to do so or who made a decision immediately; moreover, unconscious thinkers' detection accuracy was significantly above chance level. The reported experiments further show that this improvement comes about because unconscious thinking processes allow for integrating the particularly rich information basis necessary for accurate lie detection. These findings suggest that the human mind is not unfit to distinguish between truth and deception but that this ability resides in previously overlooked processes.

  4. Improved process for COS conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlap, M.K.; Galstaun, L.S.

    1982-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that the hydrolysis of COS in crude gas streams from coal or heavy oil partial-oxidation gasifiers is more economically accomplished after a partial extraction of H/sub 2/S. While the system appears attractive with about 75 percent of the H/sub 2/S extracted before COS hydrolysis, detailed studies may show that the optimum pre-extraction may be higher or lower than this case. Other optimization studies may produce further improvements in the proposed process. 3 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Dephosphorylation of the two regulatory components of myosin phosphatase, MBS and CPI17.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Norio; Niiro, Naohisa; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2002-03-27

    Dephosphorylation of the two key regulatory factors of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP), CPI17 and MBS (myosin binding subunit) of MLCP was studied. While Thr38 phosphorylated CPI17 is quite susceptible to protein phosphatases, phosphorylated MBS was highly resistant to dephosphorylation. Type 2A, 2B and 2C protein phosphatases (PP2A, PP2B and PP2C), but not type 1 (PP1), dephosphorylated CPI17. The majority of the CPI17 phosphatase activity in smooth muscle was attributed to PP2A and PP2C. Phospholipids inhibited dephosphorylation of MBS and arachidonic acid (AA) inhibited PP2A activity against both MBS and CPI17, raising the possibility that AA favors the preservation of active MLCP. Consistently, while the phosphorylation of CPI17 was promptly decreased when the agonist was removed, the phosphorylation of MBS was unchanged in intact smooth muscle fiber. The results suggest that MBS phosphorylation mediated regulation of MLCP is not suitable for regulating rapid change in myosin phosphorylation. On the other hand, phosphorylated CPI17 is readily dephosphorylated thus likely to play a role in regulating fast phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle in cells.

  6. Catalysts for improved fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, R.L.; Inbody, M.A.

    2000-09-01

    This report covers our technical progress on fuel processing catalyst characterization for the specific purpose of hydrogen production for proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These development efforts support DOE activities in the development of compact, transient capable reformers for on-board hydrogen generation starting from candidate fuels. The long-term objective includes increased durability and lifetime, in addition to smaller volume, improved performance, and other specifications required meeting fuel processor goals. The technical barriers of compact fuel processor size, transient capability, and compact, efficient thermal management all are functions of catalyst performance. Significantly, work at LANL now tests large-scale fuel processors for performance and durability, as influenced by fuels and fuel constituents, and complements that testing with micro-scale catalyst evaluation which is accomplished under well controlled conditions.

  7. Validation of the Revised Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT CPI): Version 2006.

    PubMed

    Roach, Kathryn E; Frost, Jody S; Francis, Nora J; Giles, Scott; Nordrum, Jon T; Delitto, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Based on changes in core physical therapy documents and problems with the earlier version, the Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT CPI): Version 1997 was revised to create the PT CPI: Version 2006. The purpose of this study was to validate the PT CPI: Version 2006 for use with physical therapist students as a measure of clinical performance. This was a combined cross-sectional and prospective study. A convenience sample of physical therapist students from the United States and Canada participated in this study. The PT CPI: Version 2006 was used to collect CPI item-level data from the clinical instructor about student performance at midterm and final evaluation periods in the clinical internship. Midterm evaluation data were collected from 196 students, and final evaluation data were collected from 171 students. The students who participated in the study had a mean age of 24.8 years (SD=2.3, range=21-41). Sixty-seven percent of the participants were from programs in the United States, and 33% were from Canada. The PT CPI: Version 2006 demonstrated good internal consistency, and factor analysis with varimax rotation produced a 3-factor solution explaining 94% of the variance. Construct validity was supported by differences in CPI item scores between students on early compared with final clinical experiences. Validity also was supported by significant score changes from midterm to final evaluations for students on both early and final internships and by fair to moderate correlations between prior clinical experience and remaining course work. This study did not examine rater reliability. The results support the PT CPI: Version 2006 as a valid measure of physical therapist student clinical performance.

  8. Lean Manufacturing Principles Improving the Targeting Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    targeting process, specifically the adaptability of the process. The thesis will analyze a proven business improvement model ( Lean Manufacturing ), compare...areas of improvement in the adaptability of the process. Thus, the problem statement is as follows: Can Lean Manufacturing methods employed by modern businesses improve identified weaknesses in the targeting process?

  9. Improved television signal processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, R. Y.

    1967-01-01

    Digital system processes spacecraft television pictures by converting images sensed on a photostorage vidicon to pulses which can be transmitted by telemetry. This system can be applied in the processing of medical X ray photographs and in electron microscopy.

  10. Comparison of Dental Explorers and CPI-probes in Diagnosing Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Yoichi; Maki, Yoshinobu; Kagami, Noriaki; Satou, Ryouichi; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to compare efficiency in detecting suspected caries requiring observation (CO) and decayed teeth (DT) between dental explorers and Community Periodontal Index (CPI)-probes in school dental examinations and evaluate the effect of their respective use on Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index scores. A total of 126 elementary and high school students were examined. All the clinical findings were obtained by a pair of trained dentists examining each student at routine annual school dental examinations. A dental explorer or CPI-probe and dental mirror were used for the examination. One dentist used the dental explorer, while the other used the CPI-probe. The choice of which instrument to use by the first dentist to examine the student was made at random. A comparison of the explorers and CPI-probes revealed that the numbers of patients and permanent teeth classified as CO were greater with the former in 6th-grade elementary and high school students (p<0.05). The Kappa value for CO and DT was 0.560 for 6th-grade elementary school and 0.846 for high school students. All DMFT scores were higher with the explorers than with the CPI-probes in the 6th-grade elementary school students. No significant difference was observed between the explorers and CPI-probes in any of the DMFT scores in any group, however. The present results indicate that as long as the low rate of caries in Japanese school children is maintained, the epidemiological data on this disease should not show any significant change if a CPI-probe is used instead of an explorer in school dental examinations.

  11. Benchmarking: A Process for Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peischl, Thomas M.

    One problem with the outcome-based measures used in higher education is that they measure quantity but not quality. Benchmarking, or the use of some external standard of quality to measure tasks, processes, and outputs, is partially solving that difficulty. Benchmarking allows for the establishment of a systematic process to indicate if outputs…

  12. Case Studies in Continuous Process Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, A.

    1997-01-01

    This study focuses on improving the SMT assembly process in a low-volume, high-reliability environment with emphasis on fine pitch and BGA packages. Before a process improvement is carried out, it is important to evaluate where the process stands in terms of process capability.

  13. The Power of Process Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield-Sonn, James W.; Morgan, Sandra; Sumukadas, Narendar

    2004-01-01

    Over the last several decades many systematic management approaches, such as Total Quality Management, aimed at improving organizational performance and employee satisfaction have captured organizations' attention. Given their origins in statistics, operations management, and engineering, many of the concepts and techniques are technical. When…

  14. The Power of Process Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield-Sonn, James W.; Morgan, Sandra; Sumukadas, Narendar

    2004-01-01

    Over the last several decades many systematic management approaches, such as Total Quality Management, aimed at improving organizational performance and employee satisfaction have captured organizations' attention. Given their origins in statistics, operations management, and engineering, many of the concepts and techniques are technical. When…

  15. Model-based software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zettervall, Brenda T.

    1994-01-01

    The activities of a field test site for the Software Engineering Institute's software process definition project are discussed. Products tested included the improvement model itself, descriptive modeling techniques, the CMM level 2 framework document, and the use of process definition guidelines and templates. The software process improvement model represents a five stage cyclic approach for organizational process improvement. The cycles consist of the initiating, diagnosing, establishing, acting, and leveraging phases.

  16. Lansat MSS, Radiometric Processing Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunier, Sebastien; Salgues, Germain; Gascon, Ferran; Biaasutti, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The reprocessing campaigns of Landsat European Space Agency (ESA) data archive have been initiated since 3 years [1]. As part of this project, the processing algorithms have been upgraded. This article focuses on the radiometric processing of historical data observed with the Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS) instruments on board Landsat 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.The Landsat MSS data have been recorded data from 1972 up to 1990. The MSS instruments have been designed with four visible bands covering the near / infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, allowing the spatial sampling of our Earth surface at 60 meter.The current calibration method has shown some limitations in case of data observed out of mid latitude areas, where the Earth surface is bright because of desert or snow. The resulting image data suffers from saturations and is not fit for the potential application purposes.Although, when saturation exist, further investigations have shown that the radiometry of the raw data involved in the production of the Level 1 images is generally correct. As consequences, experiments have been undertaken to adapt the current processing in order to produce image data saturation free products.

  17. CPI motif interaction is necessary for capping protein function in cells

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Marc; McConnell, Patrick; Schafer, Dorothy A.; Cooper, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Capping protein (CP) has critical roles in actin assembly in vivo and in vitro. CP binds with high affinity to the barbed end of actin filaments, blocking the addition and loss of actin subunits. Heretofore, models for actin assembly in cells generally assumed that CP is constitutively active, diffusing freely to find and cap barbed ends. However, CP can be regulated by binding of the ‘capping protein interaction' (CPI) motif, found in a diverse and otherwise unrelated set of proteins that decreases, but does not abolish, the actin-capping activity of CP and promotes uncapping in biochemical experiments. Here, we report that CP localization and the ability of CP to function in cells requires interaction with a CPI-motif-containing protein. Our discovery shows that cells target and/or modulate the capping activity of CP via CPI motif interactions in order for CP to localize and function in cells. PMID:26412145

  18. Multifamily Housing Rehabilitation Process Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Marshall L.; Francisco, Abby; Roberts, Sydney G.

    2016-03-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC, (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface) on the rehabilitation of 418 low-income rental multifamily apartments located at 14 different properties in Georgia (Climate Zones 2-4). These 22-year old, individually-metered units were arranged in rowhouse or townhouse style units. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, who partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide. In 2012, over $100 million was allocated in grants and loans. Due to the unique financing mechanism as well as long-term ownership requirements, property owners are especially motivated to invest in upgrades that will increase durability and tenant retention. These buildings represent a large stock of rural affordable housing that have the potential for significant energy and cost savings for property owners and tenants. Southface analyzed the energy upgrade potential of one stereotypical property in the Rea Ventures portfolio. This study will provide insight into the most cost-effective, implementable energy efficiency and durability upgrades for this age multifamily housing, having an enormous impact not only on the portfolio of Rea Ventures but on the vast USDA and larger Federal portfolio. Additionally, Southface will identify gaps in the current capital needs assessment process, examine available audit and simulation tools and protocols, and evaluate additional auditor training or certification needs.

  19. Improved process control alarm operation.

    PubMed

    Bristol, E H

    2001-01-01

    Alarms are the main connection from the automation to the operator, when addressing process operation outside of its normal function. They are often as much a source of operator overload and consternation as help. Better engineering of the relative role of the operator and automation would materially help overcome the difficulties. Expert systems have been proposed as a solution. But Expert systems are really another form of automation. There remains that aspect of the alarms, which must address our inability to cover and understand a possibly larger domain of the operation not appropriate to traditional controls or present-day automation. Appropriate tools for this domain must support operator discretion and initiative. The paper suggests a set of such general, computer science based, tools requiring only the most basic configuration. They are viewed as implemented on top of those properly detailed alarm displays and interlocks, which reflect the more formal plant operating policies. They include: (a) Various forms of alarm logging and trending; (b) Short, automatically generated, word summaries of alarm activity, which allow low level data to propagate to the highest levels, including: one word and priority summaries; (c) Causal alarm pattern analyses that help the operator to predict or diagnose alarm behavior; (d) Automatic adaptation of alarms and alarm limits to varying process situations; (e) Uniform use of alarm policies to simplify alarm configuration.

  20. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, U.B.; Gazula, G.K.M.; Hasham, A.

    1996-06-18

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements. 6 figs.

  1. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, Uday B.; Gazula, Gopala K. M.; Hasham, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

  2. Multifamily Housing Rehabilitation Process Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Marshall L.; Francisco, Abby; Roberts, Sydney G.

    2016-03-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface)—a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Partnership for Home Innovation Building America research team—to rehabilitate 418 low-income multifamily rental apartments located at 14 properties in Georgia (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zones 2–4). These 22-year-old units with individual utility meters were arranged in row house or townhouse style. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, which partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide; this housing includes more than 14,000 existing multifamily housing developments. In 2012, more than $100 million in grants and loans were allocated for that purpose.

  3. Process correlation analysis model for process improvement identification.

    PubMed

    Choi, Su-jin; Kim, Dae-Kyoo; Park, Sooyong

    2014-01-01

    Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practices. Process areas and their elements (goals and practices) are often correlated due to the iterative nature of software development process. However, in the current practice, correlations of process elements are often overlooked in the development of an improvement plan, which diminishes the efficiency of the plan. This is mainly attributed to significant efforts and the lack of required expertise. In this paper, we present a process correlation analysis model that helps identify correlations of process elements from the results of process assessment. This model is defined based on CMMI and empirical data of improvement practices. We evaluate the model using industrial data.

  4. Vibrator improves spark erosion cutting process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrall, L. R.

    1966-01-01

    Variable frequency mechanical vibrator improves spark erosion cutting process. The vibration of the cutting tip permits continual flushing away of residue around the cut area with nondestructive electric transformer oil during the cutting process.

  5. Getting Results: Improving Process & People Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnegan, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the application of performance technology to improve the performance of people and processes and shows ways to extend the influence of the performance analyst to investigate and improve core processes within an organization. Describes the performance analysis model and presents four case studies based on hospital performance issues. (LRW)

  6. The Haloprotease CPI Produced by the Moderately Halophilic Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas ruthenica Is Secreted by the Type II Secretion Pathway▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Mellado, Encarnación; Pugsley, Anthony P.; Francetic, Olivera; Ventosa, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The gene (cpo) encoding the extracellular protease CPI produced by the moderately halophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas ruthenica CP76 was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was analyzed. The cpo gene encodes a 733-residue protein showing sequence similarity to metalloproteases of the M4 family. The type II secretion apparatus was shown to be responsible for secretion of the haloprotease CPI. PMID:19376897

  7. Use of Process Improvement Tools in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Rawson, James V; Kannan, Amogha; Furman, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Process improvement techniques are common in manufacturing and industry. Over the past few decades these principles have been slowly introduced in select health care settings. This article reviews the Plan, Do, Study, and Act cycle, Six Sigma, the System of Profound Knowledge, Lean, and the theory of constraints. Specific process improvement tools in health care and radiology are presented in the order the radiologist is likely to encounter them in an improvement project. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification Method in Software Process Improvement Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Akihiro; Kataoka, Nobuhiro

    With the prevalence of CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) that is developed in the United States and the international standardization model of Software Process Assessment ISO/IEC 15504, SPI (Software Process Improvement) based on Software Process Assessment is gaining ground in Japan as well. One of the objectives in SPI is to prevent the occurrence of errors in the downstream process by thorough process management in the upstream process. In order to implement the SPI from such viewpoints, this paper suggests the method to analyze Problem Reports developed in the testing process of a project, to specify software bugs existent in leading processes and to identify the SPI in the upstream process. By means of Problem Reports that is capable of externalization and is used in testing processes, knowledge that has not been externalized will be specified as Defect Cluster. Furthermore, deliverables in each process will be identified from the properties of Defect Cluster to implement the SPI, which is of the essence, by identifying processes causing trouble. In the project that was the analytical target, there were 608 Problem Reports in its testing process. As a result of the analysis, it was found that by identifying processes in the upper process to improve with the techniques recommended in this paper, about 13% of cases causing trouble could be prevented from occurring, which will contribute to productivity improvement due to a decrease in the number of rework processes.

  9. CPI revision provides more accuracy in the medical care services component.

    PubMed

    Ford, I K; Sturm, P

    1988-04-01

    This revision, as in the past, enabled the Bureau to update medical care service expenditure weights in the CPI, including a more complete allocation of health insurance premiums. Instead of keeping the portion of premiums that go to benefits under health insurance, the expenditure weight for each benefit category has been added to the appropriate out-of-pocket expense. The unpublished health insurance item represents only the retained earnings portion of premiums paid by households. The specific item categories included in medical care services have also been updated and expanded. A study conducted during the developmental phase of the revision indicated that the Bureau should expand the eligible priced rates for physicians in the CPI to include not only the "self-pay" rate, but also other categories of payment as well. Another study indicated that the direct pricing of health insurance is not feasible because of the difficulty of factoring out from premium changes the effect of utilization levels and modified coverage. In pricing medical care service items, as with other item categories in the CPI, BLS attempts to exclude from price movement the effect of quality changes. However, some quality changes are difficult to assess or are not readily identified, for example, a change in the ratio of nurses to patients, and such changes may be reflected as part of the price change movement in the CPI.

  10. Dexmedetomidine-Induced Contraction Involves CPI-17 Phosphorylation in Isolated Rat Aortas

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Baik, Jiseok; Hong, Jeong-Min; Oh, Jiah; Han, Jeong Yeol; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, produces vasoconstriction, which leads to transiently increased blood pressure. The goal of this study was to investigate specific protein kinases and the associated cellular signal pathways responsible for the increased calcium sensitization induced by dexmedetomidine in isolated rat aortas, with a particular focus on phosphorylation-dependent inhibitory protein of myosin phosphatase (CPI-17). The effect of Y-27632 and chelerythrine on the dexmedetomidine-induced intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension were assessed using fura-2-loaded aortic strips. The effects of rauwolscine, Y-27632, chelerythrine, and ML-7 hydrochloride on the dexmedetomidine-induced phosphorylation of CPI-17 or of the 20-kDa regulatory light chain of myosin (MLC20) were investigated in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. The effects of rauwolscine, Y-27632, and chelerythrine on the membrane translocation of Rho-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation induced by dexmedetomidine were assessed. Y-27632 and chelerythrine each reduced the slopes of the [Ca2+]i-tension curves of dexmedetomidine-induced contraction, and Y-27632 more strongly reduced these slopes than did chelerythrine. Rauwolscine, Y-27632, chelerythrine, and ML-7 hydrochloride attenuated the dexmedetomidine-induced phosphorylation of CPI-17 and MLC20. Taken together, these results suggest that dexmedetomidine-induced contraction involves calcium sensitization, which appears to be mediated by CPI-17 phosphorylation via Rho-kinase or PKC. PMID:27706026

  11. Dexmedetomidine-Induced Contraction Involves CPI-17 Phosphorylation in Isolated Rat Aortas.

    PubMed

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Baik, Jiseok; Hong, Jeong-Min; Oh, Jiah; Han, Jeong Yeol; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2016-09-30

    Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, produces vasoconstriction, which leads to transiently increased blood pressure. The goal of this study was to investigate specific protein kinases and the associated cellular signal pathways responsible for the increased calcium sensitization induced by dexmedetomidine in isolated rat aortas, with a particular focus on phosphorylation-dependent inhibitory protein of myosin phosphatase (CPI-17). The effect of Y-27632 and chelerythrine on the dexmedetomidine-induced intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and tension were assessed using fura-2-loaded aortic strips. The effects of rauwolscine, Y-27632, chelerythrine, and ML-7 hydrochloride on the dexmedetomidine-induced phosphorylation of CPI-17 or of the 20-kDa regulatory light chain of myosin (MLC20) were investigated in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. The effects of rauwolscine, Y-27632, and chelerythrine on the membrane translocation of Rho-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation induced by dexmedetomidine were assessed. Y-27632 and chelerythrine each reduced the slopes of the [Ca(2+)]i-tension curves of dexmedetomidine-induced contraction, and Y-27632 more strongly reduced these slopes than did chelerythrine. Rauwolscine, Y-27632, chelerythrine, and ML-7 hydrochloride attenuated the dexmedetomidine-induced phosphorylation of CPI-17 and MLC20. Taken together, these results suggest that dexmedetomidine-induced contraction involves calcium sensitization, which appears to be mediated by CPI-17 phosphorylation via Rho-kinase or PKC.

  12. Improving a Dental School's Clinic Operations Using Lean Process Improvement.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Fonda G; Cunningham, Larry L; Turner, Sharon P; Lindroth, John; Ray, Deborah; Khan, Talib; Yates, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    The term "lean production," also known as "Lean," describes a process of operations management pioneered at the Toyota Motor Company that contributed significantly to the success of the company. Although developed by Toyota, the Lean process has been implemented at many other organizations, including those in health care, and should be considered by dental schools in evaluating their clinical operations. Lean combines engineering principles with operations management and improvement tools to optimize business and operating processes. One of the core concepts is relentless elimination of waste (non-value-added components of a process). Another key concept is utilization of individuals closest to the actual work to analyze and improve the process. When the medical center of the University of Kentucky adopted the Lean process for improving clinical operations, members of the College of Dentistry trained in the process applied the techniques to improve inefficient operations at the Walk-In Dental Clinic. The purpose of this project was to reduce patients' average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time from over four hours to three hours within 90 days. Achievement of this goal was realized by streamlining patient flow and strategically relocating key phases of the process. This initiative resulted in patient benefits such as shortening average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time by over an hour, improving satisfaction by 21%, and reducing negative comments by 24%, as well as providing opportunity to implement the electronic health record, improving teamwork, and enhancing educational experiences for students. These benefits were achieved while maintaining high-quality patient care with zero adverse outcomes during and two years following the process improvement project.

  13. SEL's Software Process-Improvement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin; McGarry, Frank; Page, Jerry; Waligora, Sharon; Pajerski, Rose

    1995-01-01

    The goals and operations of the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is reviewed. For nearly 20 years the SEL has worked to understand, assess, and improve software and the development process within the production environment of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The SEL was established in 1976 with the goals of reducing: (1) the defect rate of delivered software, (2) the cost of software to support flight projects, and (3) the average time to produce mission-support software. After studying over 125 projects of FDD, the results have guided the standards, management practices, technologies, and the training within the division. The results of the studies have been a 75 percent reduction in defects, a 50 percent reduction in cost, and a 25 percent reduction in development time. Over time the goals of SEL have been clarified. The goals are now stated as: (1) Understand baseline processes and product characteristics, (2) Assess improvements that have been incorporated into the development projects, (3) Package and infuse improvements into the standard SEL process. The SEL improvement goal is to demonstrate continual improvement of the software process by carrying out analysis, measurement and feedback to projects with in the FDD environment. The SEL supports the understanding of the process by study of several processes including, the effort distribution, and error detection rates. The SEL assesses and refines the processes. Once the assessment and refinement of a process is completed, the SEL packages the process by capturing the process in standards, tools and training.

  14. LWR improvement in EUV resist process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Chawon; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Sumin; Na, Hai-Sub; Park, Chang-Min; Park, Cheolhong; Cho, Kyoung-Yong

    2011-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the most effective way to print sub-30 nm features. The roughness of both the resist sidewall (line width roughness [LWR]) and resist top must be overcome soon for EUVL to be implemented. Currently, LWR can vary by about 1 nm according to the recipe used. We have characterized two promising techniques to improve LWR, an EUV rinse/TBAH process and an implant process, and demonstrated their efficacy. After cleaning inspection (ACI), LWR was improved with both the rinse and implant processes. After development inspection (ADI), LWR improved (0.12 nm, 2.4%) and ACI LWR improved (0.1 nm, 2.0% improvement) after using the EUV rinse process. ADI and ACI LWR improvement (0.45 nm, 9.1%, and 0.3 nm, 6.9%, respectively) was demonstrated with the EUV rinse/TBAH process. ADI LWR improvement (0.5 nm, 8.1%) and ACI LWR improvement (-0.5 nm, -16.9%) were characterized with the implant process. Critical dimension (CD) showed similar changes through pitch after the EUV rinse or TBAH process, but the degree of change depended on the initial pattern size giving CD difference of 2 nm between 30 nm HP and 50 nm HP after the implant process. For this technique, the dependence of CD change on pattern size must be minimized. Further extensive studies with rinse or implant are strongly encouraged for continued LWR improvement and real process implementation in EUVL. Demonstrating <2.2 nm LWR after pattern transfer is important in EUVL and needs to be pursued using various technical approaches. Initial resist LWR is important in assessing LWR improvements with additional process techniques. An initial EUV LWR < ~5.0 nm is required to properly assess the validity of the technique. Further study is required to improve ADI LWR and maintain better LWR after etch with advanced EUV rinse materials. Defects also need to be confirmed following the EUV rinse and TBAH developer. Further developing the implant process should focus on LWR improvement at low

  15. Centralized oversight for clinical performance improvement: a pilot initiative at the Lexington VAMC.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Richard W; Ford, Mary Ann; Neely, Jodie; Hower, Judith M

    2003-02-01

    In July 2000 the Lexington Veterans Affairs Medical Center (Lexington, Ky) centralized oversight of clinical performance improvement (CPI) activities by creating an office of clinical operations (OCO) to improve patient care and operational efficiency. The OCO was designed to eliminate redundancy of effort, correct resource underuse and overuse, and improve the communication of change initiatives and successes. Before 2000 no formal process existed for creating interdisciplinary CPI teams. Lack of organizational oversight for CPI activities had also led to duplication of effort, mixed accountability, and difficulty in remaining focused on organizational goals. CREATING THE OCO: OCO staff have led and facilitated numerous projects, all of which involved interdisciplinary teams consisting of physician and nurse leaders, users, and support staff. The OCO has also developed a utilization management plan for the entire medical center. The OCO formally interfaces with three major arenas of medical center operation: clinical processes, patient safety, and cost-efficiency. A major effort of OCO staff has been to learn about data availability and access and to determine how data can be used in a meaningful way to benefit CPI project teams. The creation of the OCO precipitated the typical cultural integration problems that are often encountered with the introduction of new organizational entities that lack existing turf.

  16. Nuclear localization of CPI-17, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, affects histone H3 phosphorylation and corresponds to proliferation of cancer and smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Masumi; Kirkbride, Jason A.; Chugh, Rishika; Karikari, Nana Kofi; Kim, Jee In

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Non-canonical roles of the myosin phosphatase inhibitor (CPI-17) were studied. •CPI-17 is localized in the nucleus of hyperplastic cancer and smooth muscle cells. •CPI-17 Ser12 phosphorylation may regulate the nuclear import. •CPI-17 regulates histone H3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation. •The nuclear CPI-17-PP1 axis plays a proliferative role in cells. -- Abstract: CPI-17 (C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor, 17 kDa) is a cytoplasmic protein predominantly expressed in mature smooth muscle (SM) that regulates the myosin-associated PP1 holoenzyme (MLCP). Here, we show CPI-17 expression in proliferating cells, such as pancreatic cancer and hyperplastic SM cells. Immunofluorescence showed that CPI-17 was concentrated in nuclei of human pancreatic cancer (Panc1) cells. Nuclear accumulation of CPI-17 was also detected in the proliferating vascular SM cell culture and cells at neointima of rat vascular injury model. The N-terminal 21-residue tail domain of CPI-17 was necessary for the nuclear localization. Phospho-mimetic Asp-substitution of CPI-17 at Ser12 attenuated the nuclear import. CPI-17 phosphorylated at Ser12 was not localized at nuclei, suggesting a suppressive role of Ser12 phosphorylation in the nuclear import. Activated CPI-17 bound to all three isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in Panc1 nuclear extracts. CPI-17 knockdown in Panc1 resulted in dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10 and Thr11, whereas it had no effects on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and merlin, the known targets of MLCP. In parallel, CPI-17 knockdown suppressed Panc1 proliferation. We propose that CPI-17 accumulated in the nucleus through the N-terminal tail targets multiple PP1 signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation.

  17. Low-cost silicon process development. Phase 4: Process improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, E.; Newman, C.

    1981-01-01

    Three project tasks include process improvement studies, kinetic studies, and process economic studies. Process improvement studies in a miniplant focused on the correlation of current miniplant yield results with prior laboratory scale work. The silicon product reactor was operated in the thermal disproportionation mode and successfully processed 35 kilograms of tribromosilane. The yield during the test ranged from 75 to 85% of theoretical. The experimental apparatus for use in the determination of the decomposition rate of tribromosilane was assembled, tested and placed into service. The computer code, REPORT, for plant daily operations data keeping is given.

  18. Software Engineering Program: Software Process Improvement Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide experience-based guidance in implementing a software process improvement program in any NASA software development or maintenance community. This guidebook details how to define, operate, and implement a working software process improvement program. It describes the concept of the software process improvement program and its basic organizational components. It then describes the structure, organization, and operation of the software process improvement program, illustrating all these concepts with specific NASA examples. The information presented in the document is derived from the experiences of several NASA software organizations, including the SEL, the SEAL, and the SORCE. Their experiences reflect many of the elements of software process improvement within NASA. This guidebook presents lessons learned in a form usable by anyone considering establishing a software process improvement program within his or her own environment. This guidebook attempts to balance general and detailed information. It provides material general enough to be usable by NASA organizations whose characteristics do not directly match those of the sources of the information and models presented herein. It also keeps the ideas sufficiently close to the sources of the practical experiences that have generated the models and information.

  19. Urethane foam process improvements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    A study was completed to evaluate the foam molding process for environmental and technical improvements. The investigation led to a replacement for chlorinated solvent usage, a potential permanent mold release coating, improved tooling design, and shrinkage characterization of foams filled with varying levels of aluminum oxide.

  20. Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-08

    solutions that protect, treat, and optimize the health and performance of the total force; 2) improve the quality of patient care in the MHS by improving... Quality and Safety. 60 Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes 13 Defense Health Board Navy The Navy Surgeon General, also...in how the MHS is approaching health care administration, such as the movement toward value-based health care, adoption of core quality performance

  1. School Climate Improvement: Leadership and Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Eugene R.

    Subtitled "Five Case Studies and Three Snapshots," this book illustrates what occurs in measurable terms when participants in the schooling process work cooperatively to improve school climate. In addition, the activities that are described reflect how to achieve the climate objectives of the schooling process--satisfaction and productivity. The…

  2. Activating clinical trials: a process improvement approach.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Diego A; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Yalcin, Ali; Zayas-Castro, José L; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2016-02-24

    The administrative process associated with clinical trial activation has been criticized as costly, complex, and time-consuming. Prior research has concentrated on identifying administrative barriers and proposing various solutions to reduce activation time, and consequently associated costs. Here, we expand on previous research by incorporating social network analysis and discrete-event simulation to support process improvement decision-making. We searched for all operational data associated with the administrative process of activating industry-sponsored clinical trials at the Office of Clinical Research of the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. We limited the search to those trials initiated and activated between July 2011 and June 2012. We described the process using value stream mapping, studied the interactions of the various process participants using social network analysis, and modeled potential process modifications using discrete-event simulation. The administrative process comprised 5 sub-processes, 30 activities, 11 decision points, 5 loops, and 8 participants. The mean activation time was 76.6 days. Rate-limiting sub-processes were those of contract and budget development. Key participants during contract and budget development were the Office of Clinical Research, sponsors, and the principal investigator. Simulation results indicate that slight increments on the number of trials, arriving to the Office of Clinical Research, would increase activation time by 11 %. Also, incrementing the efficiency of contract and budget development would reduce the activation time by 28 %. Finally, better synchronization between contract and budget development would reduce time spent on batching documentation; however, no improvements would be attained in total activation time. The presented process improvement analytic framework not only identifies administrative barriers, but also helps to devise and evaluate potential improvement scenarios. The strength

  3. Process Improvement for Interinstitutional Research Contracting.

    PubMed

    Varner, Michael; Logan, Jennifer; Bjorklund, Todd; Whitfield, Jesse; Reed, Peggy; Lesher, Laurie; Sikalis, Amy; Brown, Brent; Drollinger, Sandy; Larrabee, Kristine; Thompson, Kristie; Clark, Erin; Workman, Michael; Boi, Luca

    2015-08-01

    Sponsored research increasingly requires multiinstitutional collaboration. However, research contracting procedures have become more complicated and time consuming. The perinatal research units of two colocated healthcare systems sought to improve their research contracting processes. The Lean Process, a management practice that iteratively involves team members in root cause analyses and process improvement, was applied to the research contracting process, initially using Process Mapping and then developing Problem Solving Reports. Root cause analyses revealed that the longest delays were the individual contract legal negotiations. In addition, the "business entity" was the research support personnel of both healthcare systems whose "customers" were investigators attempting to conduct interinstitutional research. Development of mutually acceptable research contract templates and language, chain of custody templates, and process development and refinement formats decreased the Notice of Grant Award to Purchase Order time from a mean of 103.5 days in the year prior to Lean Process implementation to 45.8 days in the year after implementation (p = 0.004). The Lean Process can be applied to interinstitutional research contracting with significant improvement in contract implementation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Adhesive properties of LARC-CPI, a new semi-crystalline polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Havens, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    As part of an effort on high temperature structural resins for aerospace applications, a new family of polyimides containing carbon and ether connecting groups between aromatic rings were prepared. Several of these polyimides were semicrystalline. One polyimide, designated LARC-CPI, with a glass transition temperature of 222 C and a crystalline melt temperature of 350 C, was evaluated in the form of an adhesive, film, and molding. Unoriented films exhibited excellent resistance to solvents and strong bases and high tensile properties. Compact tension specimens gave very high fracture toughness values. Titanium tensile shear specimens provided exceptional strength under a variety of test conditions. The chemistry and the physical and mechanical properties of LARC-CPI are discussed.

  5. An integrated approach for prioritized process improvement.

    PubMed

    Vanteddu, Gangaraju; McAllister, Charles D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated framework to simultaneously identify and improve healthcare processes that are important from the healthcare provider's and patient's perspectives. A modified quality function deployment (QFD) chart is introduced to the field of healthcare quality assurance. A healthcare service example is used to demonstrate the utility of the proposed chart. The proposed framework is versatile and can be used in a wide variety of healthcare quality improvement contexts, wherein, two different perspectives are needed to be considered for identifying and improving critical healthcare processes. The modified QFD chart used in conjunction with the stacked Pareto chart will facilitate the identification of key performance metrics from the patient's and the hospital's perspectives. Subsequently, the chief contributory factors at different levels are identified in a very efficient manner. Healthcare quality improvement professionals will be able to use the proposed modified QFD chart in association with stacked Pareto chart for effective quality assurance.

  6. Improving Process Heating System Performance v3

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-11

    Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry is a development of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) and the Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA). The AMO and IHEA undertook this project as part of an series of sourcebook publications developed by AMO on energy-consuming industrial systems, and opportunities to improve performance. Other topics in this series include compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, steam systems, and motors and drives

  7. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Buckwalter, Jr., Charles Q.

    1981-01-01

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  8. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

    1980-01-28

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  9. CPI-17 drives oncogenic Ras signaling in human melanomas via Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Riecken, Lars Björn; Zoch, Ansgar; Wiehl, Ulrike; Reichert, Sabine; Scholl, Ingmar; Cui, Yan; Ziemer, Mirjana; Anderegg, Ulf; Hagel, Christian; Morrison, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactive Ras signaling has strong oncogenic effects causing several different forms of cancer. Hyperactivity is frequently induced by mutations within Ras itself, which account for up to 30% of all human cancers. In addition, hyperactive Ras signaling can also be triggered independent of Ras by either mutation or by misexpression of various upstream regulators and immediate downstream effectors. We have previously reported that C-kinase potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17) can drive Ras activity and promote tumorigenic transformation by inhibition of the tumor suppressor Merlin. We now describe an additional element of this oncogenic mechanism in the form of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) protein family, which exhibits opposing roles in Ras activity control. Thus, CPI-17 drives Ras activity and tumorigenesis in a two-fold way; inactivation of the tumor suppressor merlin and activation of the growth promoting ERM family. The in vivo significance of this oncogenic switch is highlighted by demonstrating CPI-17's involvement in human melanoma pathogenesis. PMID:27793041

  10. Nuclear localization of CPI-17, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, affects histone H3 phosphorylation and corresponds to proliferation of cancer and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Eto, Masumi; Kirkbride, Jason A; Chugh, Rishika; Karikari, Nana Kofi; Kim, Jee In

    2013-04-26

    CPI-17 (C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor, 17kDa) is a cytoplasmic protein predominantly expressed in mature smooth muscle (SM) that regulates the myosin-associated PP1 holoenzyme (MLCP). Here, we show CPI-17 expression in proliferating cells, such as pancreatic cancer and hyperplastic SM cells. Immunofluorescence showed that CPI-17 was concentrated in nuclei of human pancreatic cancer (Panc1) cells. Nuclear accumulation of CPI-17 was also detected in the proliferating vascular SM cell culture and cells at neointima of rat vascular injury model. The N-terminal 21-residue tail domain of CPI-17 was necessary for the nuclear localization. Phospho-mimetic Asp-substitution of CPI-17 at Ser12 attenuated the nuclear import. CPI-17 phosphorylated at Ser12 was not localized at nuclei, suggesting a suppressive role of Ser12 phosphorylation in the nuclear import. Activated CPI-17 bound to all three isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in Panc1 nuclear extracts. CPI-17 knockdown in Panc1 resulted in dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10 and Thr11, whereas it had no effects on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and merlin, the known targets of MLCP. In parallel, CPI-17 knockdown suppressed Panc1 proliferation. We propose that CPI-17 accumulated in the nucleus through the N-terminal tail targets multiple PP1 signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation.

  11. Longitudinal study of Consumer Price Index (CPI) trends in core and non-core foods in Australia.

    PubMed

    Burns, Cate; Sacks, Gary; Gold, Lisa

    2008-10-01

    This study examined trends in the price of healthy and less-healthy foods from 1989 to 2007 using the Australian Consumer Price Index (CPI). CPI food expenditure classes were classified as 'core' or 'non-core'. Trends in the CPI were analysed to examine the rise in prices of core compared with non-core foods. On average, the CPI for core foods has risen at a slightly higher, though not statistically significant, rate than non-core foods. Furthermore, selected groupings reveal interesting patterns. 'Bread' has risen in price significantly more than 'cakes and biscuits', and 'milk' has risen in price significantly more than 'soft drinks, waters and juices'. This investigation of food price trends reveals notable differences between core and non-core foods. This should be investigated further to determine the extent to which this contributes to the higher prevalence of diet-related diseases in low socio-economic groups.

  12. Improved sulfur removal processes evaluated for IGCC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    An inherent advantage of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) electric power generation is the ability to easily remove and recover sulfur. During the last several years, a number of new, improved sulfur removal and recovery processes have been commercialized. An assessment is given of alternative sulfur removal processes for IGCC based on the Texaco coal gasifier. The Selexol acid gas removal system, Claus sulfur recovery, and SCOT tail gas treating are currently used in Texaco-based IGCC. Other processes considered are: Purisol, Sulfinol-M, Selefning, 50% MDEA, Sulften, and LO-CAT. 2 tables.

  13. Ventilation equations for improved exothermic process control.

    PubMed

    McKernan, John L; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    Exothermic or heated processes create potentially unsafe work environments for an estimated 5-10 million American workers each year. Excessive heat and process contaminants have the potential to cause acute health effects such as heat stroke, and chronic effects such as manganism in welders. Although millions of workers are exposed to exothermic processes, insufficient attention has been given to continuously improving engineering technologies for these processes to provide effective and efficient control. Currently there is no specific occupational standard established by OSHA regarding exposure to heat from exothermic processes, therefore it is important to investigate techniques that can mitigate known and potential adverse occupational health effects. The current understanding of engineering controls for exothermic processes is primarily based on a book chapter written by W. C. L. Hemeon in 1955. Improvements in heat transfer and meteorological theory necessary to design improved process controls have occurred since this time. The research presented involved a review of the physical properties, heat transfer and meteorological theories governing buoyant air flow created by exothermic processes. These properties and theories were used to identify parameters and develop equations required for the determination of buoyant volumetric flow to assist in improving ventilation controls. Goals of this research were to develop and describe a new (i.e. proposed) flow equation, and compare it to currently accepted ones by Hemeon and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Numerical assessments were conducted to compare solutions from the proposed equations for plume area, mean velocity and flow to those from the ACGIH and Hemeon. Parameters were varied for the dependent variables and solutions from the proposed, ACGIH, and Hemeon equations for plume area, mean velocity and flow were analyzed using a randomized complete block statistical

  14. DDI-CPI, a server that predicts drug-drug interactions through implementing the chemical-protein interactome.

    PubMed

    Luo, Heng; Zhang, Ping; Huang, Hui; Huang, Jialiang; Kao, Emily; Shi, Leming; He, Lin; Yang, Lun

    2014-07-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may cause serious side-effects that draw great attention from both academia and industry. Since some DDIs are mediated by unexpected drug-human protein interactions, it is reasonable to analyze the chemical-protein interactome (CPI) profiles of the drugs to predict their DDIs. Here we introduce the DDI-CPI server, which can make real-time DDI predictions based only on molecular structure. When the user submits a molecule, the server will dock user's molecule across 611 human proteins, generating a CPI profile that can be used as a feature vector for the pre-constructed prediction model. It can suggest potential DDIs between the user's molecule and our library of 2515 drug molecules. In cross-validation and independent validation, the server achieved an AUC greater than 0.85. Additionally, by investigating the CPI profiles of predicted DDI, users can explore the PK/PD proteins that might be involved in a particular DDI. A 3D visualization of the drug-protein interaction will be provided as well. The DDI-CPI is freely accessible at http://cpi.bio-x.cn/ddi/.

  15. Mask process simulation for mask quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Nobuyasu; Goto, So; Tsunoda, Dai; Shin, So-Eun; Lee, Sukho; Shon, Jungwook; Park, Jisoong

    2015-10-01

    Demand for mask process correction (MPC) is growing facing the 14nm era. We have developed model based MPC and can generate mask contours by using this mask process model. This mask process model consists of EB (development) and etch, which employs a threshold (level set) model and a variable bias model respectively. The model calibration tool accepts both CD measurement results and SEM images. The simulation can generate mask image (contour), runs with distributed computing resources, and has scalable performance. The contour simulation shows the accuracy of the MPC correction visually and provides comprehensive information about hot spots in mask fabrication. Additionally, it is possible to improve lithography simulation quality by providing a simulated mask contour. In this paper, accuracy and computational performance of mask process simulation are shown. The focus is on the difference between the calibration methods using CDs or images.

  16. Mask tuning for process window improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttgereit, Ute; Birkner, Robert; Graitzer, Erez; Cohen, Avi; Triulzi, Benedetta; Romeo, Carmelo

    2011-03-01

    For the next years optical lithography stays at 193nm with a numerical aperture of 1.35. Mask design becomes more complex, mask and lithography specifications tighten. The k1 factor comes close to 0.25 which leads to a tremendously increased Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF). This means that CD errors on mask are getting highly amplified on wafer. Process control becomes more important than ever. Accurate process control is a key factor to success to maintain a high yield in chip production. One key parameter to ensure a high and reliable functionality for any integrated circuit is the critical dimension uniformity (CDU). There are different contributors which impact the intra-field CD performance at wafer such as mask CD uniformity, scanner fingerprint, resist process etc. In the present work we focus on improvement of mask CD signature which is one of the main contributors to intra-field CD uniformity. The mask CD uniformity has been measured by WLCD32 which measures the CD based on proven aerial image technology. Based on this CD input the CD uniformity was corrected by CDC200TM and afterwards verified by WLCD32 measurement. The CDC200TM tool utilizes an ultrafast femto-second laser to write intra-volume shading elements (Shade-In ElementsTM) inside the bulk material of the mask. By adjusting the density of the shading elements, the light transmission through the mask is locally changed in a manner that improves wafer CDU when the corrected mask is printed. Additionally, the impact of the improved CD uniformity on the lithography process window was investigated. Goal of the work is to establish a process flow for mask CD uniformity improvement based on mask CD metrology by WLCD32 and mask CD uniformity control by CDC200TM and to verify its impact on the lithography process window. The proposed process flow will be validated by wafer prints. It was shown that the WLCD32 has an excellent correlation to wafer data and an outstanding CD repeatability. It provides

  17. Process Improvement in a Radically Changing Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varga, Denise M.; Wilson, Barbara M.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes how the NASA Glenn Research Center planned and implemented a process improvement effort in response to a radically changing environment. As a result of a presidential decision to redefine the Agency's mission, many ongoing projects were canceled and future workload would be awarded based on relevance to the Exploration Initiative. NASA imposed a new Procedural Requirements standard on all future software development, and the Center needed to redesign its processes from CMM Level 2 objectives to meet the new standard and position itself for CMMI. The intended audience for this presentation is systems/software developers and managers in a large, research-oriented organization that may need to respond to imposed standards while also pursuing CMMI Maturity Level goals. A set of internally developed tools will be presented, including an overall Process Improvement Action Item database, a formal inspection/peer review tool, metrics collection spreadsheet, and other related technologies. The Center also found a need to charter Technical Working Groups (TWGs) to address particular Process Areas. In addition, a Marketing TWG was needed to communicate the process changes to the development community, including an innovative web site portal.

  18. CPY Document

    Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

    ... orr:i ~~~~~el:~:~~n~:n~a~:sr~~~~: espeially paUenls ... Other Important Safety Information Abuse of methylphenidate can lead 10 ... This Is normal. ...

  19. New process technologies improve IGBT module efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Motto, E.R.; Donlon, J.F.; Mori, Satoshi; Iida, Takahiko

    1995-12-31

    New process technologies are extending the application range of IGBT modules. A 1,400V IGBT with significantly improved efficiency has been developed using an optimized epitaxial (punch-through) process. This new 1,400V device has a square turn-off switching SOA making it suitable for 575/600 VAC inverter applications. A very low saturation voltage 250V IGBT has been developed using a trench gate structure. This new 250V device offers significant size and efficiency advantages in battery powered applications including fork lift truck and UPS inverters.

  20. Design Process Improvement for Electric CAR Harness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawatdee, Thiwarat; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    In an automobile parts design company, the customer satisfaction is one of the most important factors for product design. Therefore, the company employs all means to focus its product design process based on the various requirements of customers resulting in high number of design changes. The objective of this research is to improve the design process of the electric car harness that effects the production scheduling by using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as the main tools. FTA is employed for root cause analysis and FMEA is used to ranking a High Risk Priority Number (RPN) which is shows the priority of factors in the electric car harness that have high impact to the design of the electric car harness. After the implementation, the improvements are realized significantly since the number of design change is reduced from 0.26% to 0.08%.

  1. Improving Competition: Reforming the Requirements Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    45 Defense AT&L: July-August 2016 Improving Competition Reforming the Requirements Process Roy Wood, Ph.D. Wood is the Acting Vice President...many would argue that more change is needed. Real competition is the single most powerful tool available to the Department to drive productivity ...Grail of defense acqui­ sitions. Competition is believed to lower costs to the custom­ ers, incentivize productivity and efficiency, and spur innova­

  2. Software process improvement for the medical industry.

    PubMed

    McCaffery, Fergal; Donnelly, Peter; McFall, Donald; Wilkie, Frederick George

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes a software process improvement framework, structured to ensure regulatory compliance for the software developed in medical devices. Software is becoming an increasingly important aspect of medical devices and medical device regulation. Medical devices can only be marketed if compliance and approval from the appropriate regulatory bodies of the Food and Drug Administration (US requirement), and the European Commission under its Medical Device Directives (CE marking requirement) is achieved.

  3. Maximizing your Process Improvement ROI through Harmonization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie...Mellon University ,Software Engineering Institute (SEI),Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY...process improvement approaches such organizations need to consider: The 1 st white paper addresses the benefits of a harmonized approach when

  4. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  5. Improved Process for Fabricating Carbon Nanotube Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, R.; Nguyen, C.; Cassell, A.; Delzeit, L.; Meyyappan, M.; Han, Jie

    2003-01-01

    An improved process has been developed for the efficient fabrication of carbon nanotube probes for use in atomic-force microscopes (AFMs) and nanomanipulators. Relative to prior nanotube tip production processes, this process offers advantages in alignment of the nanotube on the cantilever and stability of the nanotube's attachment. A procedure has also been developed at Ames that effectively sharpens the multiwalled nanotube, which improves the resolution of the multiwalled nanotube probes and, combined with the greater stability of multiwalled nanotube probes, increases the effective resolution of these probes, making them comparable in resolution to single-walled carbon nanotube probes. The robust attachment derived from this improved fabrication method and the natural strength and resiliency of the nanotube itself produces an AFM probe with an extremely long imaging lifetime. In a longevity test, a nanotube tip imaged a silicon nitride surface for 15 hours without measurable loss of resolution. In contrast, the resolution of conventional silicon probes noticeably begins to degrade within minutes. These carbon nanotube probes have many possible applications in the semiconductor industry, particularly as devices are approaching the nanometer scale and new atomic layer deposition techniques necessitate a higher resolution characterization technique. Previously at Ames, the use of nanotube probes has been demonstrated for imaging photoresist patterns with high aspect ratio. In addition, these tips have been used to analyze Mars simulant dust grains, extremophile protein crystals, and DNA structure.

  6. Improving Reliability of a Residency Interview Process

    PubMed Central

    Serres, Michelle L.; Gundrum, Todd E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To improve the reliability and discrimination of a pharmacy resident interview evaluation form, and thereby improve the reliability of the interview process. Methods. In phase 1 of the study, authors used a Many-Facet Rasch Measurement model to optimize an existing evaluation form for reliability and discrimination. In phase 2, interviewer pairs used the modified evaluation form within 4 separate interview stations. In phase 3, 8 interviewers individually-evaluated each candidate in one-on-one interviews. Results. In phase 1, the evaluation form had a reliability of 0.98 with person separation of 6.56; reproducibly, the form separated applicants into 6 distinct groups. Using that form in phase 2 and 3, our largest variation source was candidates, while content specificity was the next largest variation source. The phase 2 g-coefficient was 0.787, while confirmatory phase 3 was 0.922. Process reliability improved with more stations despite fewer interviewers per station—impact of content specificity was greatly reduced with more interview stations. Conclusion. A more reliable, discriminating evaluation form was developed to evaluate candidates during resident interviews, and a process was designed that reduced the impact from content specificity. PMID:24159209

  7. Improvement of focus accuracy on processed wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashibata, Satomi; Komine, Nobuhiro; Fukuhara, Kazuya; Koike, Takashi; Kato, Yoshimitsu; Hashimoto, Kohji

    2013-04-01

    As feature size shrinkage in semiconductor device progress, process fluctuation, especially focus strongly affects device performance. Because focus control is an ongoing challenge in optical lithography, various studies have sought for improving focus monitoring and control. Focus errors are due to wafers, exposure tools, reticles, QCs, and so on. Few studies are performed to minimize the measurement errors of auto focus (AF) sensors of exposure tool, especially when processed wafers are exposed. With current focus measurement techniques, the phase shift grating (PSG) focus monitor 1) has been already proposed and its basic principle is that the intensity of the diffraction light of the mask pattern is made asymmetric by arranging a π/2 phase shift area on a reticle. The resist pattern exposed at the defocus position is shifted on the wafer and shifted pattern can be easily measured using an overlay inspection tool. However, it is difficult to measure shifted pattern for the pattern on the processed wafer because of interruptions caused by other patterns in the underlayer. In this paper, we therefore propose "SEM-PSG" technique, where the shift of the PSG resist mark is measured by employing critical dimension-scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) to measure the focus error on the processed wafer. First, we evaluate the accuracy of SEM-PSG technique. Second, by applying the SEM-PSG technique and feeding the results back to the exposure, we evaluate the focus accuracy on processed wafers. By applying SEM-PSG feedback, the focus accuracy on the processed wafer was improved from 40 to 29 nm in 3σ.

  8. Improving Algorithm for Automatic Spectra Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rackovic, K.; Nikolic, S.; Kotrc, P.

    2009-09-01

    Testing and improving of the computer program for automatic processing (flat-fielding) of a great number of solar spectra obtained with the horizontal heliospectrograph HSFA2 has been done. This program was developed in the Astronomical Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in Ondřejov. An irregularity in its work has been discovered, i.e. the program didn't work for some of the spectra. To discover a cause of this error an algorithm has been developed, and a program for examination of the parallelism of reference hairs crossing the spectral slit on records of solar spectra has been made. The standard methods for data processing have been applied-calculating and analyzing higher-order moments of distribution of radiation intensity. The spectra with the disturbed parallelism of the reference hairs have been eliminated from further processing. In order to improve this algorithm of smoothing of spectra, isolation and removal of the harmonic made by a sunspot with multiple elementary transformations of ordinates (Labrouste's transformations) are planned. This project was accomplished at the first summer astronomy practice of students of the Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Serbia in 2007 in Ondřejov.

  9. Improved FGD dewatering process cuts solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Moer, C.; Fernandez, J.; Carraro, B.

    2009-08-15

    In 2007, Duke Energy's W.H. Zimmer Station set out to advance the overall performance of its flue gas desulfurization (FGD) dewatering process. The plant implemented a variety of measures, including upgrading water-solids separation, improving polymer program effectiveness and reliability, optimizing treatment costs, reducing solid waste sent to the landfill, decreasing labor requirements, and maintaining septic-free conditions in clarifiers. The changes succeeded in greatly reducing solid waste generation and achieving total annual savings of over half a million dollars per year. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Westinghouse modular grinding process - improvement for follow on processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrmann, Henning

    2013-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. The resins can be in bead or powdered form. For waste treatment of spent IX resins, two methods are basically used: Direct immobilization (e.g. with cement, bitumen, polymer or High Integrity Container (HIC)); Thermal treatment (e.g. drying, oxidation or pyrolysis). Bead resins have some properties (e.g. particle size and density) that can have negative impacts on following waste treatment processes. Negative impacts could be: Floatation of bead resins in cementation process; Sedimentation in pipeline during transportation; Poor compaction properties for Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC). Reducing the particle size of the bead resins can have beneficial effects enhancing further treatment processes and overcoming prior mentioned effects. Westinghouse Electric Company has developed a modular grinding process to crush/grind the bead resins. This modular process is designed for flexible use and enables a selective adjustment of particle size to tailor the grinding system to the customer needs. The system can be equipped with a crusher integrated in the process tank and if necessary a colloid mill. The crusher reduces the bead resins particle size and converts the bead resins to a pump able suspension with lower sedimentation properties. With the colloid mill the resins can be ground to a powder. Compared to existing grinding systems this equipment is designed to minimize radiation exposure of the worker during operation and maintenance. Using the crushed and/or ground bead resins has several beneficial effects like facilitating cementation process and recipe development, enhancing oxidation of resins, improving the Hot Resin Supercompaction volume reduction performance. (authors)

  11. Modifying the Toyota Production System for continuous performance improvement in an academic children's hospital.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, F Bruder; Hendricks, James; Hagan, Patrick; DelBeccaro, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The Toyota Production System (TPS) has become a successful model for improving efficiency and eliminating errors in manufacturing processes. In an effort to provide patients and families with the highest quality clinical care, our academic children's hospital has modified the techniques of the TPS for a program in continuous performance improvement (CPI) and has expanded its application to educational and research programs. Over a period of years, physicians, nurses, residents, administrators, and hospital staff have become actively engaged in a culture of continuous performance improvement. This article provides background into the methods of CPI and describes examples of how we have applied these methods for improvement in clinical care, resident teaching, and research administration.

  12. Ir-CPI, a coagulation contact phase inhibitor from the tick Ixodes ricinus, inhibits thrombus formation without impairing hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Decrem, Yves; Rath, Géraldine; Blasioli, Virginie; Cauchie, Philippe; Robert, Séverine; Beaufays, Jérôme; Frère, Jean-Marie; Feron, Olivier; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Dessy, Chantal; Vanhamme, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Blood coagulation starts immediately after damage to the vascular endothelium. This system is essential for minimizing blood loss from an injured blood vessel but also contributes to vascular thrombosis. Although it has long been thought that the intrinsic coagulation pathway is not important for clotting in vivo, recent data obtained with genetically altered mice indicate that contact phase proteins seem to be essential for thrombus formation. We show that recombinant Ixodes ricinus contact phase inhibitor (Ir-CPI), a Kunitz-type protein expressed by the salivary glands of the tick Ixodes ricinus, specifically interacts with activated human contact phase factors (FXIIa, FXIa, and kallikrein) and prolongs the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in vitro. The effects of Ir-CPI were also examined in vivo using both venous and arterial thrombosis models. Intravenous administration of Ir-CPI in rats and mice caused a dose-dependent reduction in venous thrombus formation and revealed a defect in the formation of arterial occlusive thrombi. Moreover, mice injected with Ir-CPI are protected against collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism. Remarkably, the effective antithrombotic dose of Ir-CPI did not promote bleeding or impair blood coagulation parameters. To conclude, our results show that a contact phase inhibitor is an effective and safe antithrombotic agent in vivo. PMID:19808248

  13. Improving medical personnel selection and appointment processes.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Mark L; Ramsey, Wayne P; Chan, Christopher C A

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to argue that processes for selecting and appointing medically qualified personnel in some healthcare organizations may be limited, especially those that emphasize qualifications rather than expanding the criteria to include practice scope, person-organization fit and capability to function within a healthcare team. The paper is based on the authors' experiences and a literature review. Selection based purely on academic merit, advanced clinical training, skills and professional achievements may not address other essential selection criteria. Medical personnel need to possess competencies such as ability to give high quality care and work constructively in a clinical team; communication skills; willingness to actively participate in quality and safety programs; teaching ability; management and leadership skills; and support institutional values and corporate aims. These attributes are often over-looked and cannot be assumed from academic merit and achievements. The study's conclusions are based on the authors' experiences and literature review. Future studies may wish to examine selection technique efficacy and outcomes empirically. Better medical personnel selection and appointment processes are likely to reduce unnecessary costs associated with poorly-made appointments, improve patient outcomes and may have a formative role encouraging medical personnel to take a broader view of their healthcare organization roles. The authors challenge selection panel members to consider non-traditional with normal selection criteria for medical appointments. Nine recommendations for enhancing selection processes are provided.

  14. IT Solution to Improve the Permitting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, Mary

    2013-02-14

    Over the past decade Houston has taken significant strides to implement and promote sustainability. Currently the City of Houston’s Green Building Resource Center stands testament to the determination of city officials to make Houston truly green. Houston was named a Solar America City by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 and is part of the Texas Solar Collaboration as part of the DOE Rooftop Challenge Grant. In that time, Houston has made significant progress in addressing the challenges associated with installing solar in the City. One of the challenges related to soft costs of solar are the time and associated costs related to the permitting process. From 2000 to 2010, the Houston area has witnessed unprecedented growth, with the population increasing by nearly 700,000. The City of Houston is working to address the needs of this growing population, including building the new One-Stop Code and Permitting building. The Houston Permitting Center opened in June 2011. It combines the majority of the City of Houston's permitting and licensing into one place with a mission to help customers achieve their goals while complying with the City’s regulations. The stated mission “requires a continuous pursuit of improving the customer experience. Providing excellent service, streamlining business processes, implementing innovative technologies, and proactively engaging customers are all cornerstones of this philosophy.”

  15. Improved Sasol Fischer-Tropsch processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, B.

    1995-12-31

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes can be used to produce either a light syncrude and light olefins or to produce heavy waxy hydrocarbons. The syncrude can be refined to environmentally friendly gasoline and diesel and the heavy hydrocarbons to specialty waxes or if hydrocracked, and/or isomerized, to produce excellent diesel, lube oils and a naphtha which is ideal feedstock for cracking. Over the last few years much better reactor systems have been developed for both high temperature FT (HTFT) and low temperature FT (LTFT). For HTFT the Sasol Advanced Synthol (SAS) reactor with solid-gas fluidization was developed. This gives very much the same product spectra as the CFB reactors, but does it much more effectively and cheaply. For LTFT, the Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate (SSPD) reactor, of the bubble column type, was developed which is a significant improvement on the tubular fixed bed (TFB) reactor used in the Arge process. The SSPD reactor can make products with the same carbon distribution as the TFB reactor with Schulz-Flory distribution alpha values 0,95 and higher. It has greater flexibility with respect to product distribution. The paper describes both reactors, and the integration of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with coal gasification.

  16. Steam Pressure-Reducing Station Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Mark D; Christopher, Timothy W; Oland, C Barry

    2011-06-01

    The Facilities and Operations (F&O) Directorate is sponsoring a continuous process improvement (CPI) program. Its purpose is to stimulate, promote, and sustain a culture of improvement throughout all levels of the organization. The CPI program ensures that a scientific and repeatable process exists for improving the delivery of F&O products and services in support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Management Systems. Strategic objectives of the CPI program include achieving excellence in laboratory operations in the areas of safety, health, and the environment. Identifying and promoting opportunities for achieving the following critical outcomes are important business goals of the CPI program: improved safety performance; process focused on consumer needs; modern and secure campus; flexibility to respond to changing laboratory needs; bench strength for the future; and elimination of legacy issues. The Steam Pressure-Reducing Station (SPRS) Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, which is under the CPI program, focuses on maintaining and upgrading SPRSs that are part of the ORNL steam distribution network. This steam pipe network transports steam produced at the ORNL steam plant to many buildings in the main campus site. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project promotes excellence in laboratory operations by (1) improving personnel safety, (2) decreasing fuel consumption through improved steam system energy efficiency, and (3) achieving compliance with applicable worker health and safety requirements. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project being performed by F&O is helping ORNL improve both energy efficiency and worker safety by modifying, maintaining, and repairing SPRSs. Since work began in 2006, numerous energy-wasting steam leaks have been eliminated, heat losses from uninsulated steam pipe surfaces have been reduced, and deficient pressure retaining components have been replaced. These improvements helped ORNL

  17. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching.

    PubMed

    Tieges, Zoë; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G; Lorist, Monicque M; Richard Ridderinkhof, K

    2006-08-01

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials (e.g. AB) compared to task-repeat trials (e.g. BB); mixing costs refer to longer RTs in task-repeat trials compared to single-task trials. In a double-blind, within-subjects experiment, two caffeine doses (3 and 5mg/kg body weight) and a placebo were administered to 18 coffee drinkers. Both caffeine doses reduced switch costs compared to placebo. Event-related brain potentials revealed a negative deflection developing within the preparatory interval, which was larger for switch than for repeat trials. Caffeine increased this switch-related difference. These results suggest that coffee consumption improves task-switching performance by enhancing anticipatory processing such as task set updating, presumably through the neurochemical effects of caffeine on the dopamine system.

  18. Value-driven process management: using value to improve processes.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, S A; Christensen, R T

    2000-08-01

    Every firm can be viewed as consisting of various processes. These processes affect everything that the firm does from accepting orders and designing products to scheduling production. In many firms, the management of processes often reflects considerations of efficiency (cost) rather than effectiveness (value). In this article, we introduce a well-structured process for managing processes that begins not with the process, but rather with the customer and the product and the concept of value. This process progresses through a number of steps which include issues such as defining value, generating the appropriate metrics, identifying the critical processes, mapping and assessing the performance of these processes, and identifying long- and short-term areas for action. What makes the approach presented in this article so powerful is that it explicitly links the customer to the process and that the process is evaluated in term of its ability to effectively serve the customers.

  19. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Rossen

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media. The most significant progress during this period was made on Tasks 1 and 3. Research on Task 1 focused on selecting and characterizing a surfactant/polymer formulation for initial experiments. The two (high-quality and low-quality) strong-foam regimes were identified from steady-state coreflood data for the formulation without polymer, for comparison with behavior with polymer. This formulation showed unconventional behavior in the low-quality regime in that pressure gradient decreases at increasing liquid injection rate. Such behavior was not seen in most previous studies of foam, but it is consistent with dense-CO{sub 2} foam data recently obtained in our laboratory. We are considering the significance of the unconventional trend in the data and proceeding with initial experiments with polymer. Research on Task 3 focused on foam generation at limited pressure gradient in sandpacks. In these experiments liquid injection rate and pressure drop across the core are held fixed, and gas injection rate responds to creation and properties of foam. Initial experiments included three permeabilities (1.2, 3.6 and 5 darcy), three surfactant concentrations (0.12, 1.2 and 2.4 wt%) and two liquid injection rates (1.29 and 2.76 ft/day). Separating experimental artifacts from physical phenomena in these experiments is difficult and an ongoing process.

  20. A Phase II Clinical Trial of CPI-613 in Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Timothy S.; Petty, William J.; Bonomi, Marcelo; Alistar, Angela; Lamar, Zanetta S.; Isom, Scott; Chan, Michael D.; Miller, Antonius A.; Ruiz, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a common lung cancer which presents with extensive stage disease at time of diagnosis in two-thirds of patients. For treatment of advanced disease, traditional platinum doublet chemotherapy induces response rates up to 80% but with few durable responses. CPI-613 is a novel anti-cancer agent that selectively inhibits the altered form of mitochondrial energy metabolism in tumor cells. Methods We evaluated CPI-613 with a single-arm, open-label phase II study in patients with relapsed or refractory SCLC. CPI-613 was given at a dose of 3,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 4 of weeks 1–3 of 4 week cycle. The primary outcome was response rate as assessed by CT imaging using RECIST v1.1 criteria. Secondary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. Twelve patients were accrued (median age 57yo) who had previously received between 1 and 4 lines of chemotherapy (median 1) for SCLC with a treatment-free interval of less than 60 days in 9 of the 12 patients. Results No complete or partial responses were seen. Ten patients (83%) progressed as best response and 2 (17%) were not evaluable for response. Median time to progression was 1.7 months (range 0.7 to 1.8 months). Eleven patients (92%) died with median overall survival of 4.3 months (range 1.2 to 18.2 months). The study was closed early due to lack of efficacy. Of note, three out of three patients who progressed after CPI-613 and were subsequently treated with standard topotecan then demonstrated treatment response with survival for 18.2, 7.4, and 5.1 months. We conducted laboratory studies which found synergy in-vitro for CPI-613 with topotecan. Conclusions Single agent CPI-613 had no efficacy in this study. Further study of CPI 613 in combination with a topoisomerase inhibitor is warranted. PMID:27732654

  1. Continuous Improvement Process: Principles and Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    Manufacturing. New York: John Wiley. 1984. Hickman, Craig and Michael Silva. Creating Excellence. New York: New American Library. 1984. Imai , Masaaki ...continuous improvement is nicely captured in the Japanese concept of Kaizen , which means "continuous improvement by doing little things better, and setting and...technology, and at a fraction of the cost. In Japan, Kaizen , an organized and disciplined approach to promoting small improvement, has evolved. Kaizen

  2. The bromodomain and extra-terminal inhibitor CPI203 enhances the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin on human neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, C; Laddha, S V; Tang, L; Vosburgh, E; Levine, A J; Normant, E; Sandy, P; Harris, C R; Chan, C S; Xu, E Y

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous c-MYC (MYC) has been reported to be a potential pharmacological target to trigger ubiquitous tumor regression of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) and lung tumors. Recently inhibitors of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family proteins have shown antitumor effects through the suppression of MYC in leukemia and lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated the antitumor activity of a BET protein bromodomain inhibitor (BETi) CPI203 as a single agent and in combination with rapamycin in human PanNETs. We found that exposure of human PanNET cell lines to CPI203 led to downregulation of MYC expression, G1 cell cycle arrest and nearly complete inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, overexpression of MYC suppressed the growth inhibition caused by CPI203 and knockdown of MYC phenocopied the effects of CPI203 treatment. These findings indicate that suppression of MYC contributed to the antiproliferative effects of BETi inhibition in human PanNET cells. Importantly, CPI203 treatment enhanced the antitumor effects of rapamycin in PanNET cells grown in monolayer and in three-dimensional cell cultures, as well as in a human PanNET xenograft model in vivo. Furthermore, the combination treatment attenuated rapamycin-induced AKT activation, a major limitation of rapamycin therapy. Collectively, our data suggest that targeting MYC with a BETi may increase the therapeutic benefits of rapalogs in human PanNET patients. This provides a novel clinical strategy for PanNETs, and possibly for other tumors as well. PMID:25299775

  3. Nitric oxide-induced biphasic mechanism of vascular relaxation via dephosphorylation of CPI-17 and MYPT1.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Toshio; Semba, Shingo; Huh, Yang Hoon; Kitazawa, Kazuyo; Eto, Masumi

    2009-07-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) from endothelium is a major mediator of vasodilatation through cGMP/PKG signals that lead to a decrease in Ca(2+) concentration. In addition, NO-mediated signals trigger an increase in myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity. To evaluate the mechanism of NO-induced relaxation through MLCP deinhibition, we compared time-dependent changes in Ca(2+), myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and contraction to changes in phosphorylation levels of CPI-17 at Thr38, RhoA at Ser188, and MYPT1 at Ser695, Thr696 and Thr853 in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced relaxation in denuded rabbit femoral artery. During phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction, SNP reduced CPI-17 phosphorylation to a minimal value within 15 s, in parallel with decreases in Ca(2+) and MLC phosphorylation, followed by a reduction of contractile force having a latency period of about 15 s. MYPT1 phosphorylation at Ser695, the PKG-target site, increased concurrently with relaxation. Phosphorylation of RhoA, MYPT1 Thr696 and Thr853 differed significantly at 5 min but not within 1 min of SNP exposure. Inhibition of Ca(2+) release delayed SNP-induced relaxation while inhibition of Ca(2+) channel, BK(Ca) channel or phosphodiesterase-5 did not. Pretreatment of resting artery with SNP suppressed an increase in Ca(2+), contractile force and phosphorylation of MLC, CPI-17, MYPT1 Thr696 and Thr853 at 10 s after PE stimulation, but had no effect on phorbol ester-induced CPI-17 phosphorylation. Together, these results suggest that NO production suppresses Ca(2+) release, which causes an inactivation of PKC and rapid CPI-17 dephosphorylation as well as MLCK inactivation, resulting in rapid MLC dephosphorylation and relaxation.

  4. Improving drug manufacturing with process analytical technology.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Licinia O; Alves, Teresa P; Cardoso, Joaquim P; Menezes, José C

    2006-01-01

    Within the process analytical technology (PAT) framework, as presented in the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines, the aim is to design, develop and operate processes consistently to ensure a pre-defined level of quality at the end of the manufacturing process. Three PAT implementation scenarios can be envisaged. Firstly, PAT could be used in its most modest version (in an almost non-PAT manner) to simply replace an existing quality control protocol (eg, using near-infrared spectroscopy for an in-process quality control, such as moisture content). Secondly, the use of in-process monitoring and process analysis could be integrated to enhance process understanding and operation for an existing industrial process. Thirdly, PAT could be used extensively and exclusively throughout development, scale-up and full-scale production of a new product and process. Although the first type of implementations are well known, reports of the second and third types remain scarce. Herein, results obtained from PAT implementations of the second and third types are described for two industrial processes for preparing bulk active pharmaceutical ingredients, demonstrating the benefits in terms of increased process understanding and process control.

  5. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Rossen

    2004-06-14

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research will lay the groundwork for more applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media. Significant progress was made during this period on all three Tasks. Regarding Task 1, we continued comparisons of foam behavior in sandpacks with and without polymer and oil. As in our previous results, decane was moderately destabilizing to foam. Xanthan polymer did not stabilize foam in the presence of decane in this case. Rather, it appears to have destabilized foam, so that pressure gradient decreased in spite of the increase in aqueous-phase viscosity. Research on Task 2 included the first shake-down experiments with our new apparatus for gas-phase tracer tests for direct measurement of trapped-gas saturation with foam. In addition, we began to analyze CT images of gas-phase tracer in foam displacements, which offers an independent measure of trapped-gas fraction and insights into the roles of convection of tracer in flowing gas and diffusion into trapped gas. Research on Task 3 included foam generation experiments in heterogeneous sandpacks and beadpacks and modeling of discontinuous changes in state such as foam generation. The experiments found the same three regimes (coarse foam, strong foam, and intermediate regime) in heterogeneous sandpacks previously identified in homogeneous porous media. One implication is that there may be a minimum flow rate required for foam generation in even heterogeneous porous media. The dynamics in SAG foam processes in heterogeneous media are complex

  6. An improved approach for process monitoring in laser material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Hans-Georg; Pütsch, Oliver; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Process monitoring is used in many different laser material processes due to the demand for reliable and stable processes. Among different methods, on-axis process monitoring offers multiple advantages. To observe a laser material process it is unavoidable to choose a wavelength for observation that is different to the one used for material processing, otherwise the light of the processing laser would outshine the picture of the process. By choosing a different wavelength, lateral chromatic aberration occurs in not chromatically corrected optical systems with optical scanning units and f-Theta lenses. These aberrations lead to a truncated image of the process on the camera or the pyrometer, respectively. This is the reason for adulterated measurements and non-satisfying images of the process. A new approach for solving the problem of field dependent lateral chromatic aberration in process monitoring is presented. Therefore, the scanner-based optical system is reproduced in a simulation environment, to predict the occurring lateral chromatic aberrations. In addition, a second deflecting system is integrated into the system. By using simulation, a predictive control is designed that uses the additional deflecting system to introduce reverse lateral deviations in order to compensate the lateral effect of chromatic aberration. This paper illustrates the concept and the implementation of the predictive control, which is used to eliminate lateral chromatic aberrations in process monitoring, the simulation on which the system is based the optical system as well as the control concept.

  7. Nursing process approach improves receivables management.

    PubMed

    Dias, K; Stockamp, D

    1992-09-01

    The "nursing process" is a systematic decision-making approach to problem solving based on open-system theory. This theory assumes that there is an on-going interchange between all system components. Components cannot be viewed in isolation, because decisions regarding one component will affect other components. Receivables management is similar to the nursing process, in that it involves constant diagnosis, assessment, and intervention in the work in process during all phases of the receivables cycle. In experiments that applied the nursing process concept to the management of accounts receivable in several hospitals, gross days in accounts receivable were reduced and cash flow was increased.

  8. Costs and Benefits of Software Process Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    peer reviews, the website "Newsgroup", the maintenance of the SmartNet database, the generation of reports that give the status of the software...option to enable/disable 15-JUL-1997 learning in SN-submit Improve performance of 15-JUL-1997 findEarliestFit function and update of unit...information in schedulers??? 64 612-C 5 - Improved learning /Black hole problem (All) 760-C 158-H 5 - Complete Reimplementation of schedule monitor

  9. Cold plasma processing to improve food safety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold plasma is an antimicrobial process being developed for application as a food processing technology. This novel intervention is the subject of an expanding research effort by groups around the world. A variety of devices can be used to generate cold plasma and apply it to the food commodity bein...

  10. Improving Learning Processes: Principles, Strategies and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Philip

    This guide, which examines the relationship between learning processes and learning outcomes, is aimed at senior managers, quality managers, and others at colleges and other post-16 learning providers in the United Kingdom. It is intended to help them define the key processes undertaken by learning providers, understand the critical relationships…

  11. A Total Quality Leadership Process Improvement Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    air- craft, then it is unlikely that a major quality concern would be processing travel orders for personnel. However, if the business is a travel ... agency , it may be entirely appropriate to optimize travel processing procedures. Whenever possible, it is best to establish goals that will provide a STOP

  12. Improving profitability of the delayed coking process

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenborn, W.J.B.; Jansen, H.R.; Hanke, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    The delayed coking process is the predominant process used in the refining industry to upgrade low value vacuum resid to higher valued liquid products. The petroleum coke produced is almost always an unwanted by-product which has a significantly lower value. In the delayed coking process, ''Conoco Delayed Coking Technology'' can play an important role in maximizing the profitability of the coking unit. The authors briefly discuss the basic sections of the delayed coking process. In the typical delayed coking process, resid feed is combined with recycle and rapidly heated in a furnace. It is then transferred to a coke drum where the coking reactions continue to completion. As coke is formed in the drum, the cracked products leave and are cooled and separated in the fractionator.

  13. Inhibition of myosin/moesin phosphatase by expression of the phosphoinhibitor protein CPI-17 alters microfilament organization and retards cell spreading.

    PubMed

    Eto, M; Wong, L; Yazawa, M; Brautigan, D L

    2000-07-01

    Cell migration and cytokinesis require reorganization of the cytoskeleton, involving phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins such as myosin II and moesin. Myosin and moesin bind directly to a regulatory subunit of myosin/moesin phosphatase (MMP) that contains a protein type-1 phosphatase (PP1) catalytic subunit. Here we examined the role of MMP in cytoskeletal dynamics using a phosphorylation-dependent inhibitor protein specific for MMP, called CPI-17. Fibroblasts do not express CPI-17, making them a null background to study effects of expression. Wild type CPI-17 in rat embryo fibroblasts caused (1) abnormal accumulation of cortical F-actin fibers, distinct from the stress fibers induced by expression of active RhoA; (2) progressive contraction of cell area, leaving behind filamentous extensions that stained for F-actin and moesin, but not myosin; and (3) significantly retarded spreading of fibroblasts on fibronectin with elevated myosin II light chain phosphorylation. A phosphorylation site mutant CPI-17(T38A) and inhibitor-2 (Inh2), another PP1-specific inhibitor protein, served as controls and did not elicit these same responses when expressed at the same level as CPI-17. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase by ML-9 prevented the abnormal accumulation of cortical microfilaments by CPI-17, but did not reverse shrinkage in area, whereas kinase inhibitors HA1077 and H7 prevented CPI-17-induced changes in microfilament distribution and cell contraction. These results highlight the physiological importance of myosin/moesin phosphatase regulation to dynamic remodeling of the cytoskeleton.

  14. GATA-6 and NF-κB Activate CPI-17 Gene Transcription and Regulate Ca2+ Sensitization of Smooth Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Ettickan; Hypolite, Joseph A.; Zderic, Stephen A.; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Malkowicz, Bruce; Liou, Hsiou-Chi; Wein, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC)-potentiated inhibitory protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17) inhibits myosin light chain phosphatase, altering the levels of myosin light chain phosphorylation and Ca2+ sensitivity in smooth muscle. In this study, we characterized the CPI-17 promoter and identified binding sites for GATA-6 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). GATA-6 and NF-κB upregulated CPI-17 expression in cultured human and mouse bladder smooth muscle (BSM) cells in an additive manner. CPI-17 expression was decreased upon GATA-6 silencing in cultured BSM cells and in BSM from NF-κB knockout (KO) mice. Moreover, force maintenance by BSM strips from KO mice was decreased compared with the force maintenance of BSM strips from wild-type mice. GATA-6 and NF-κB overexpression was associated with CPI-17 overexpression in BSM from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-induced bladder hypertrophy and in a mouse model of bladder outlet obstruction. Thus, aberrant expression of NF-κB and GATA-6 deregulates CPI-17 expression and the contractile function of smooth muscle. Our data provide insight into how GATA-6 and NF-κB mediate CPI-17 transcription, PKC-mediated signaling, and BSM remodeling associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with BPH. PMID:23275439

  15. Bootstrapping Process Improvement Metrics: CMMI Level 4 Process Improvement Metrics in a Level 3 World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Lewicki, Scott; Morgan, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The measurement techniques for organizations which have achieved the Software Engineering Institutes CMMI Maturity Levels 4 and 5 are well documented. On the other hand, how to effectively measure when an organization is Maturity Level 3 is less well understood, especially when there is no consistency in tool use and there is extensive tailoring of the organizational software processes. Most organizations fail in their attempts to generate, collect, and analyze standard process improvement metrics under these conditions. But at JPL, NASA's prime center for deep space robotic exploration, we have a long history of proving there is always a solution: It just may not be what you expected. In this paper we describe the wide variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques we have been implementing over the last few years, including the various approaches used to communicate the results to both software technical managers and senior managers.

  16. Bootstrapping Process Improvement Metrics: CMMI Level 4 Process Improvement Metrics in a Level 3 World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus; Lewicki, Scott; Morgan, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The measurement techniques for organizations which have achieved the Software Engineering Institutes CMMI Maturity Levels 4 and 5 are well documented. On the other hand, how to effectively measure when an organization is Maturity Level 3 is less well understood, especially when there is no consistency in tool use and there is extensive tailoring of the organizational software processes. Most organizations fail in their attempts to generate, collect, and analyze standard process improvement metrics under these conditions. But at JPL, NASA's prime center for deep space robotic exploration, we have a long history of proving there is always a solution: It just may not be what you expected. In this paper we describe the wide variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques we have been implementing over the last few years, including the various approaches used to communicate the results to both software technical managers and senior managers.

  17. Performance Results of CMMI-Based Process Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    improve MIEL scheduling and tracking of process compliance [ Primavera 06a]. • Improvements in MIEL validation processes have brought them more business...2004 via their enhanced inspection process, EPMS, and Teamplay [ Primavera 06b]. • Major audit process improvements took place in 2005. • The results...Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1998. [ Primavera 06a] Primavera Systems, Inc. Industry Solutions: High Tech/Telecom. http://www.primavera.com

  18. A Quality Improvement Customer Service Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messina, Robert C., Jr.; And Others

    To develop a college-wide resolution process for dealing with student concerns, Burlington County College, in New Jersey, undertook a planning effort involving the faculty, student, staff, and administrator senates in the college's governance system. Rather than appoint an administrator to lead the project, a member of the staff senate was…

  19. Improved process for synthesizing anilinosilane compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunnavant, W. R.; Markle, R. A.

    1970-01-01

    New process gives good yields of anilinosilane compounds that can be readily isolated in a high state of purity. S-collidine is used as an HCl acceptor. Silane compounds can be melt-condensed with aromatic diols to provide high molecular weight polyaryloxysilane materials that are of importance in polymer technology.

  20. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  1. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  2. Improved corn protein (zein) extrusion processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melt processing using a single and twin screw extruder has been carried out on zein where extrusion temperatures were varied between 100ºC and 300ºC. In addition, melt reprocessing (up to seven times) of zein was undertaken using a single screw extruder. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and t...

  3. Manufacturability improvements in EUV resist processing toward NXE:3300 processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yuhei; Matsunaga, Koichi; Shimoaoki, Takeshi; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Nafus, Kathleen; Foubert, Philippe; Goethals, Anne-Marie; Shimura, Satoru

    2014-03-01

    As the design rule of semiconductor process gets finer, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology is aggressively studied as a process for 22nm half pitch and beyond. At present, the studies for EUV focus on manufacturability. It requires fine resolution, uniform, smooth patterns and low defectivity, not only after lithography but also after the etch process. In the first half of 2013, a CLEAN TRACKTM LITHIUS ProTMZ-EUV was installed at imec for POR development in preparation of the ASML NXE:3300. This next generation coating/developing system is equipped with state of the art defect reduction technology. This tool with advanced functions can achieve low defect levels. This paper reports on the progress towards manufacturing defectivity levels and latest optimizations towards the NXE:3300 POR for both lines/spaces and contact holes at imec.

  4. The SILC School Improvement Planning Process. The SILC Road.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Special Education Services Unit.

    This guide outlines a school-improvement process to help schools develop an information system that improves services to students and their families. It looks at ways to build a leadership team that can orchestrate the work of families, school professionals, administrators, and students through the school-improvement process. It describes how to…

  5. Nonprofit, payload process improvement through lean management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Melissa

    Organizations that are successful and competitive long-term have learned to efficiently utilize their resources, such as money, people, facilities, and time. Over the last half-century, there have been a variety of theories and techniques put forth on how to do this. One recent theory applied in the aerospace industry is Lean Management (LM), which emphasizes a customer focus and a rigorous elimination of activities that do not add value from the customer's perspective. LM has not, until now, been evaluated for small, nonprofit, one-off production organizations (NOPOs). Previous research on LM focused on for-profit companies and large-scale production organizations, producing relatively similar products repetitively (e.g. automobiles, commercial satellites, aircraft, and launch vehicles). One-off production organizations typically create one-of-a-kind products. The purpose of this research is to examine the applicability of LM to a NOPO. LM will improve resource utilization and thereby competitiveness, as well as exploring a new area of knowledge and research. The research methodology consists of conducting case studies, formal and informal interviews, observation and analysis in order to assess whether and how LM may be beneficial. The research focuses on one particular NOPO, BioServe Space Technologies (BST): a nonprofit, payload development organization. Additional NOPOs were interviewed in order to draw more generalized conclusions about LM benefits. The research demonstrates that LM is applicable to NOPOs, thus providing a tool to improve efficiency and competitiveness. Results from this research are guidelines for payload development organizations to implement LM, and highlighting potential LM weaknesses. A major conclusion is that LM needs some minor modifications to be applicable and useful to NOPOs, particularly in terms of value stream mapping. The LM implementation roadmap developed for NOPOs introduces customized metrics, as well as including standard

  6. Improved processing for silver halide pulse holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Viktor N.; Son, Jung-Young; Grinevitskaya, Olga V.; Lee, Hyuk-Soo; Choi, Yong-Jin

    1996-04-01

    Using of an improved developer with optical latensification allowed to significantly increase exposure sensitivity of currently in use silver halide materials. Transmission large-scale holograms (30 X 40 cm2) of diffused objects have been recorded under pulse exposure of about 6.5 X 10-6 J/cm2 for VRP and of about 2 X 10-6 J/cm2 for Agfa-Gavaert 8E56HD, in both cases without appreciable contrast deterioration. Results of the first experiments on pulse reflection holography are also discussed.

  7. MECHANISTIC STUDIES OF IMPROVED FOAM EOR PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Rossen

    2005-03-16

    The objective of this research is to widen the application of foam to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by investigating fundamental mechanisms of foams in porous media. This research is to lay the groundwork for more-applied research on foams for improved sweep efficiency in miscible gas, steam and surfactant-based EOR. Task 1 investigates the pore-scale interactions between foam bubbles and polymer molecules. Task 2 examines the mechanisms of gas trapping, and interaction between gas trapping and foam effectiveness. Task 3 investigates mechanisms of foam generation in porous media.

  8. Lecture Notes on Software Process Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    also available from Research Acess, Inc.. 3400 Forbes Avenue, Suits -102, Piftburgh, PA 15213 Use of any tradem-,"•, i.. ; 14, ,o-: is not intended...Tech. Rep. CMU/SEI-92-TR-22). Pittsburgh, Pa .: Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 1992. Fowler9O Fowler, P.; & Rifkin, S...Software Engineering Process Group Guide (Tech. Rep. CMU/SEI-90-TR-24, ADA235639). Pittsburgh, Pa .: Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon

  9. Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for Software Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Robert Y.

    2000-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Avionic Systems Division's implementation of the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for improvements in the software development process. The presentation reviews the process involved in implementing the model and the benefits of using CMM to improve the software development process.

  10. Expert systems and the CPI product substitution review: A needs analysis for the US Bureau of Labor Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Arrowood, L.F.; Tonn, B.E.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents recommendations relative to the use of expert systems and machine learning techniques by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to substantially automate product substitution decisions associated with the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Thirteen commercially available, PC-based expert system shells have received in-depth evaluations. Various machine learning techniques were also reviewed. Two recommendations are given: (1) BLS should use the expert system shell LEVEL5 OBJECT and establish a software development methodology for expert systems; and (2) BLS should undertake a small study to evaluate the potential of machine learning techniques to create and maintain the approximately 350 ELI-specific knowledge bases to be used in CPI product substitution review.

  11. Expert systems and the CPI product substitution review: A needs analysis for the US Bureau of Labor Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Arrowood, L.F.; Tonn, B.E.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents recommendations relative to the use of expert systems and machine learning techniques by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to substantially automate product substitution decisions associated with the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Thirteen commercially available, PC-based expert system shells have received in-depth evaluations. Various machine learning techniques were also reviewed. Two recommendations are given: (1) BLS should use the expert system shell LEVEL5 OBJECT and establish a software development methodology for expert systems; and (2) BLS should undertake a small study to evaluate the potential of machine learning techniques to create and maintain the approximately 350 ELI-specific knowledge bases to be used in CPI product substitution review.

  12. Nutritional improvement of plant foods by non-thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Knorr, D; Ade-Omowaye, B I O; Heinz, V

    2002-05-01

    As a result of the increasing consumer demand for minimally-processed fresh-like food products with high sensory and nutritional qualities, there is a growing interest in non-thermal processes for food processing and preservation. Key advanced technologies such as high-pressure processing, pulsed electric fields, dense gases and ultrasound are being applied to develop gentle but targeted processes to further improve the quality and safety of processed foods. These technologies also offer the potential for improving existing processes as well as for developing new process options. Furthermore, by adding new process dimensions (such as hydrostatic pressure, electric fields, ultrasonics, supercritical CO2) to the conventional process variables of temperature and time, they facilitate enlargement of the availability of unit operations. These operations might be applied effectively in unique combination processes, or as subsequent processing tools in more-targeted and subsequently less-intensive processes for food preservation and modification than the currently-applied processes.

  13. Titanium nanostructural surface processing for improved biocompatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-C.; Lee, S.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Shyng, Y.-C.; Ou, K.-L.

    2006-10-23

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incident x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to evaluate the effect of titanium hydride on the formation of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} on Ti during anodization. Nano-titanium-hydride was formed cathodically before anodizing and served as a sacrificial nanoprecipitate during anodization. Surface oxidation occurred and a multinanoporous structure formed after cathodic pretreatments followed by anodization treatment. The sacrificial nanoprecipitate is directly dissolved and the Ti transformed to nanoporous TiO{sub 2} by anodization. The formation of sacrificial nanoprecipitates by cathodic pretreatment and of the multinanostructure by anodization is believed to improve biocompatibility, thereby promoting osseointegration.

  14. Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

    2005-12-09

    In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  15. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

    2004-04-28

    In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

  16. Using reengineering to improve "customer visit processes".

    PubMed

    Salois-Swallow, D

    1997-01-01

    Much of informatics has been concerned with computer systems. Informatics took a broader view during the Fifth International Nursing Informatics Symposium Post Conference in Austin (1994) as Henry et al, captured the essence of informatics as being "imperative for assessing the quality of care provided and analyzing effectiveness of nursing interventions across settings and population". At York Central Hospital (YCH), Ontario, we realized the need to work differently, to keep what's good about what we do and still meet the changed needs of health care. We also realized it's about getting everyone close to the patient. We used a reengineering process to help us achieve that goal. This paper describes how models and techniques commonly used in reengineering can be used for assessing and analyzing the quality and effectiveness of the service provided to the client.

  17. DRAR-CPI: a server for identifying drug repositioning potential and adverse drug reactions via the chemical–protein interactome

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Heng; Chen, Jian; Shi, Leming; Mikailov, Mike; Zhu, Huang; Wang, Kejian; He, Lin; Yang, Lun

    2011-01-01

    Identifying new indications for existing drugs (drug repositioning) is an efficient way of maximizing their potential. Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is one of the leading causes of death among hospitalized patients. As both new indications and ADRs are caused by unexpected chemical–protein interactions on off-targets, it is reasonable to predict these interactions by mining the chemical–protein interactome (CPI). Making such predictions has recently been facilitated by a web server named DRAR-CPI. This server has a representative collection of drug molecules and targetable human proteins built up from our work in drug repositioning and ADR. When a user submits a molecule, the server will give the positive or negative association scores between the user’s molecule and our library drugs based on their interaction profiles towards the targets. Users can thus predict the indications or ADRs of their molecule based on the association scores towards our library drugs. We have matched our predictions of drug–drug associations with those predicted via gene-expression profiles, achieving a matching rate as high as 74%. We have also successfully predicted the connections between anti-psychotics and anti-infectives, indicating the underlying relevance of anti-psychotics in the potential treatment of infections, vice versa. This server is freely available at http://cpi.bio-x.cn/drar/. PMID:21558322

  18. Scoring of the Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT-CPI): Analysis of 7 Years of Use

    PubMed Central

    Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina P.; McQuarrie, Arlis M.; Sheppard, M. Suzanne; Scudds, Rhonda J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The aims of this study were to (1) describe the completion rates of the 24 performance criteria (PCs) from the Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT-CPI) by clinical instructors; (2) evaluate change in PC visual analogue scores (VAS) with students' clinical experience; and (3) evaluate scoring patterns over time. Methods: Final VAS scores for 208 physiotherapy (PT) students (seven cohorts) from 1,039 clinical placements between 2001 and 2008 were analyzed. Completion rates were calculated for each PC. Kruskal-Wallis tests evaluated differences in VAS scores between cohorts. Friedman's tests were used to compare VAS scores for each PC over time. Results: Completion rates were above 90% for 18 PCs. Data from the seven cohorts were combined. All PC scores showed significant change from 10 to 15 weeks and from 15 to 20 weeks of clinical experience (p≤0.001). Although differences in scores decreased over time, 19 PCs showed significant differences between 20 and 25 weeks, and 11 PCs showed significant differences between 25 and 31 weeks of clinical experience (p<0.01). Conclusions: Certain PCs had lower completion rates. The PT-CPI was used consistently by clinical instructors to evaluate student performance over time. A continual progression in acquisition of clinical competencies was illustrated by PT-CPI scoring patterns as students advanced through their PT education programme. PMID:21359047

  19. Process capability improvement through DMAIC for aluminum alloy wheel machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, P. Srinivasa; Babu, B. Surendra

    2017-07-01

    This paper first enlists the generic problems of alloy wheel machining and subsequently details on the process improvement of the identified critical-to-quality machining characteristic of A356 aluminum alloy wheel machining process. The causal factors are traced using the Ishikawa diagram and prioritization of corrective actions is done through process failure modes and effects analysis. Process monitoring charts are employed for improving the process capability index of the process, at the industrial benchmark of four sigma level, which is equal to the value of 1.33. The procedure adopted for improving the process capability levels is the define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) approach. By following the DMAIC approach, the C p, C pk and C pm showed signs of improvement from an initial value of 0.66, -0.24 and 0.27, to a final value of 4.19, 3.24 and 1.41, respectively.

  20. Applications of process improvement techniques to improve workflow in abdominal imaging.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Eric Peter

    2016-03-01

    Major changes in the management and funding of healthcare are underway that will markedly change the way radiology studies will be reimbursed. The result will be the need to deliver radiology services in a highly efficient manner while maintaining quality. The science of process improvement provides a practical approach to improve the processes utilized in radiology. This article will address in a step-by-step manner how to implement process improvement techniques to improve workflow in abdominal imaging.

  1. A Phase I Study of the First-in-Class Anti-Mitochondrial Metabolism Agent, CPI-613, in Patients with Advanced Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Timothy S.; Lee, King; Luddy, John; Maturo, Claudia; Rodriguez, Robert; Isom, Scott; Miller, Lance D.; Stadelman, Kristin M.; Levitan, Denise; Hurd, David; Ellis, Leslie R.; Harrelson, Robin; Manuel, Megan; Dralle, Sarah; Lyerly, Susan; Powell, Bayard L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The lipoate derivative CPI-613 is a first-in-class agent that targets mitochondrial metabolism. This study determined the effects of CPI-613 on mitochondrial function and defined the maximally tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PKs), and safety in patients with relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies. Experimental Design Human leukemia cell lines were exposed to CPI-613 and mitochondrial function was assayed. A phase I trial was conducted in which CPI-613 was given as a 2-hour infusion on days 1 and 4 for 3 weeks every 28 days. Results CPI-613 inhibited mitochondrial respiration of human leukemia cells consistent with the proposed mechanism of action. In the phase I trial, 26 patients were enrolled. CPI-613 was well tolerated with no marrow suppression observed. When the infusion time was shortened to 1 hour renal failure occurred in 2 patients. At 3780 mg/m2, there were 2 dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). At a dose of 2940 mg/m2 over 2 hours, no DLTs were observed, establishing this as the MTD. Renal failure occurred in a total of 4 patients and resolved in all but 1, who chose hospice care. CPI-613 has a triphasic elimination with an alpha half-life of ~1.34 hours. Of 21 evaluable, heavily pretreated, patients, 4 achieved an objective response and 2 achieved prolonged stabilization of disease for a clinical benefit rate of 29%. Following drug exposure, gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from responders demonstrated immune activation. Conclusion CPI-613 inhibits mitochondrial function and demonstrates activity in a heavily pretreated cohort of patients. PMID:25165100

  2. Integrating practices' change processes into improving quality of depression care.

    PubMed

    Main, Deborah S; Graham, Deborah; Nutting, Paula A; Nease, Donald E; Dickinson, W Perry; Gallagher, Kaia

    2009-07-01

    Primary care practices would benefit from improved understanding of how to make and sustain fundamental changes in their delivery systems. An improvement collaborative project was conducted in 2005 to not only improve the quality of depression care but help participating practices adopt and adapt more effective change processes to implement improved depression care. In a follow-up to an article on the project's impact in terms of measurable, sustained improvements in depression care, an exploratory qualitative study was conducted to examine primary care practices' adoption of effective change processes. Qualitative data were collected from 16 primary care practices participating in the National Depression Management Leadership Initiative's Improving Depression Care project. A multistep process of qualitative analysis was used to identify exemplar practices, and a constant comparative method was applied to identify salient features that influenced adoption of change processes associated with improvements in depression care during the course of the 18-month project. The participating practices showed considerable variability in terms of the improvements they made in depression care and corresponding adoption of change processes to help make these and other improvements. Nearly all practices that showed the greatest improvements in depression care also adopted more effective processes for change, with several features associated with exemplar practices able to improve depression care and change processes. These findings support the thesis that successful quality improvement efforts should address both clinical content and change processes. They also add to the literature on the impact of improvement collaborative projects, which to date have demonstrated mixed effects in a variety of chronic diseases, including depression.

  3. An integrated business approach to process improvement and HIPAA compliance.

    PubMed

    Vegoda, Paul R; Abramson, Carl N

    2003-01-01

    The authors present a proven approach to identify entity-specific changes needed for improvement and for HIPAA compliance. MAPP, a Management Action Planning Process, unlike surveys or checklists, identifies projects that enable compliance and achieve long-term enterprise process improvement.

  4. Results of a Process for Improving Chapter 1 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billig, Shelley H.; And Others

    Between 1985 and 1988, the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Center developed, refined, and disseminated a research-based process for improving local compensatory education programs. Known as the Chapter 1 Improvement Process (CHIP), the effort combined knowledge from five research areas into a year-long,…

  5. Environmental Data Flow Six Sigma Process Improvement Savings Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, Karen S

    2015-05-20

    An overview of the Environmental Data Flow Six Sigma improvement project covers LANL’s environmental data processing following receipt from the analytical laboratories. The Six Sigma project identified thirty-three process improvements, many of which focused on cutting costs or reducing the time it took to deliver data to clients.

  6. Improving the Trainee Socialization Process in Basic Combat Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    ARI Research Note 2011-02 Improving the Trainee Socialization Process in Basic Combat Training M. Glenn Cobb U.S. Army Research...October 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improving the Trainee Socialization Process in Basic Combat Training 5a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER W91WAW-07-C...Ellen Kinzer, Technical Publication Specialist 703.545.4225 ii iii Research Note 2011-02 Improving the Trainee Socialization

  7. Significant improvement in the thermal annealing process of optical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzenstein, Patrice; Zarubin, Mikhail

    2017-05-01

    Thermal annealing performed during process improves the quality of the roughness of optical resonators reducing stresses at the periphery of their surface thus allowing higher Q-factors. After a preliminary realization, the design of the oven and the electronic method were significantly improved thanks to nichrome resistant alloy wires and chopped basalt fibers for thermal isolation during the annealing process. Q-factors can then be improved.

  8. Process improvement as an investment: Measuring its worth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Jeletic, Kellyann

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses return on investment (ROI) generated from software process improvement programs. It details the steps needed to compute ROI and compares these steps from the perspective of two process improvement approaches: the widely known Software Engineering Institute's capability maturity model and the approach employed by NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The paper then describes the specific investments made in the SEL over the past 18 years and discusses the improvements gained from this investment by the production organization in the SEL.

  9. [Sustainable process improvement with application of 'lean philosophy'].

    PubMed

    Rouppe van der Voort, Marc B V; van Merode, G G Frits; Veraart, Henricus G N

    2013-01-01

    Process improvement is increasingly being implemented, particularly with the aid of 'lean philosophy'. This management philosophy aims to improve quality by reducing 'wastage'. Local improvements can produce negative effects elsewhere due to interdependence of processes. An 'integrated system approach' is required to prevent this. Some hospitals claim that this has been successful. Research into process improvement with the application of lean philosophy has reported many positive effects, defined as improved safety, quality and efficiency. Due to methodological shortcomings and lack of rigorous evaluations it is, however, not yet possible to determine the impact of this approach. It is, however, obvious that the investigated applications are fragmentary, with a dominant focus on the instrumental aspect of the philosophy and a lack of integration in a total system, and with insufficient attention to human aspects. Process improvement is required to achieve better and more goal-oriented healthcare. To achieve this, hospitals must develop integrated system approaches that combine methods for process design with continuous improvement of processes and with personnel management. It is crucial that doctors take the initiative to guide and improve processes in an integral manner.

  10. GOCI Level-2 Processing Improvements and Cloud Motion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The Ocean Biology Processing Group has been working with the Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) to process geosynchronous ocean color data from the GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Instrument) aboard the COMS (Communications, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite). The level-2 processing program, l2gen has GOCI processing as an option. Improvements made to that processing are discussed here as well as a discussion about cloud motion effects.

  11. Process safety improvement--quality and target zero.

    PubMed

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The "plan, do, check, act" improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given.

  12. High-energy ion processing of materials for improved hardcoatings

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Rhoades, R.L.; Oliver, W.C.; Riester, L.; Tsui, T.Y.

    1994-02-01

    Research has been directed toward use of economically viable ion processing strategies for production and improvement of hardcoatings. Processing techniques were high-energy ion implantation and electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma processing. Subject materials were boron suboxides, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, CoCrMo alloy (a Stellite{trademark}), and electroplated Cr. These materials may be regarded either as coatings themselves (which might be deposited by thermal spraying, plasma processing, etc.) or in some cases, as substrates whose surfaces can be improved. hardness and other properties in relation to process variables are reported.

  13. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James G.; Hayden, H. Wayne; Angelini, Peter; Moore, Robert E.; Headrick, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  14. Effects of Process and Human Performance Improvement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Alvero, Alicia M.; Austin, John

    2006-01-01

    Organizational performance is a function of many variables, two of which are work process factors and human performance factors. Our study compared the effects of changing a work process versus human performance improvement techniques and the combined effects of combing both techniques. A 2 (manual vs electronic process) x 2 (with vs without…

  15. Pseudoinverse Decoding Process in Delay-Encoded Synthetic Transmit Aperture Imaging.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Kolios, Michael C; Xu, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, we proposed a new method to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the prebeamformed radio-frequency data in synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging: the delay-encoded STA (DE-STA) imaging. In the decoding process of DE-STA, the equivalent STA data were obtained by directly inverting the coding matrix. This is usually regarded as an ill-posed problem, especially under high noise levels. Pseudoinverse (PI) is usually used instead for seeking a more stable inversion process. In this paper, we apply singular value decomposition to the coding matrix to conduct the PI. Our numerical studies demonstrate that the singular values of the coding matrix have a special distribution, i.e., all the values are the same except for the first and last ones. We compare the PI in two cases: complete PI (CPI), where all the singular values are kept, and truncated PI (TPI), where the last and smallest singular value is ignored. The PI (both CPI and TPI) DE-STA processes are tested against noise with both numerical simulations and experiments. The CPI and TPI can restore the signals stably, and the noise mainly affects the prebeamformed signals corresponding to the first transmit channel. The difference in the overall enveloped beamformed image qualities between the CPI and TPI is negligible. Thus, it demonstrates that DE-STA is a relatively stable encoding and decoding technique. Also, according to the special distribution of the singular values of the coding matrix, we propose a new efficient decoding formula that is based on the conjugate transpose of the coding matrix. We also compare the computational complexity of the direct inverse and the new formula.

  16. Parents' Perspectives on How to Improve the Childhood Vaccination Process.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Tracy A; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Chou, Cathy; Ray, G Thomas; Wittenberg, Eve

    2017-03-01

    Few national studies have asked parents how to improve the childhood vaccination process. We surveyed a nationally representative online panel of parents on how to improve this process, rationales for nonstandard approaches, and alternatives to the standard schedule. Twelve percent of the 1222 respondents reported using nonstandard approaches: 3.2% used a specific schedule, 6.0% had no specific schedule, and 2.5% declined all vaccinations. The most common rationales were that too many vaccines are given at once, and discomfort with vaccine ingredients. Regarding how to improve the process, parents using the standard schedule most often said nothing could be improved (51%), or better vaccine information (22%). Those using nonstandard approaches most often would have liked more choice (40%) or better vaccine information (26%). Parents' experiences with the vaccination process could be improved by offering information prior to visits, giving more information about side effects, and allowing more flexibility about vaccine scheduling.

  17. Teaching the NIATx Model of Process Improvement as an Evidence-Based Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Alyson C.; Rieckmann, Traci; Fitzgerald, Maureen M.; Gustafson, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Process Improvement (PI) is an approach for helping organizations to identify and resolve inefficient and ineffective processes through problem solving and pilot testing change. Use of PI in improving client access, retention and outcomes in addiction treatment is on the rise through the teaching of the Network for the Improvement of Addiction…

  18. Teaching the NIATx Model of Process Improvement as an Evidence-Based Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Alyson C.; Rieckmann, Traci; Fitzgerald, Maureen M.; Gustafson, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Process Improvement (PI) is an approach for helping organizations to identify and resolve inefficient and ineffective processes through problem solving and pilot testing change. Use of PI in improving client access, retention and outcomes in addiction treatment is on the rise through the teaching of the Network for the Improvement of Addiction…

  19. Software process improvement in the NASA software engineering laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin

    1994-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) was established in 1976 for the purpose of studying and measuring software processes with the intent of identifying improvements that could be applied to the production of ground support software within the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SEL has three member organizations: NASA/GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). The concept of process improvement within the SEL focuses on the continual understanding of both process and product as well as goal-driven experimentation and analysis of process change within a production environment.

  20. Health-care process improvement decisions: a systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Walley, Paul; Silvester, Kate; Mountford, Shaun

    2006-01-01

    The paper seeks to investigate decision-making processes within hospital improvement activity, to understand how performance measurement systems influence decisions and potentially lead to unsuccessful or unsustainable process changes. A longitudinal study over a 33-month period investigates key events, decisions and outcomes at one medium-sized hospital in the UK. Process improvement events are monitored using process control methods and by direct observation. The authors took a systems perspective of the health-care processes, ensuring that the impacts of decisions across the health-care supply chain were appropriately interpreted. The research uncovers the ways in which measurement systems disguise failed decisions and encourage managers to take a low-risk approach of "symptomatic relief" when trying to improve performance metrics. This prevents many managers from trying higher risk, sustainable process improvement changes. The behaviour of the health-care system is not understood by many managers and this leads to poor analysis of problem situations. Measurement using time-series methodologies, such as statistical process control are vital for a better understanding of the systems impact of changes. Senior managers must also be aware of the behavioural influence of similar performance measurement systems that discourage sustainable improvement. There is a risk that such experiences will tarnish the reputation of performance management as a discipline. Recommends process control measures as a way of creating an organization memory of how decisions affect performance--something that is currently lacking.

  1. The continuous improvement process and ergonomics in ultrasound department.

    PubMed

    Coffin, Carolyn T

    2013-01-01

    Continuous improvement processes, such as Lean, Six Sigma and Quality Control Circles, have been implemented in the manufacturing industries in an effort to increase productivity, eliminate waste, and engage employees in problem solving. These processes can be adapted to the healthcare sector as medical facilities strive to improve the patient experience, increase financial returns, and improve worker safety and morale. In the ultrasound department, productivity can be improved and the quality of patient care can be ensured by standardizing exam protocols and decreasing work related musculoskeletal disorders among sonography professionals. This article summarizes the more commonly used continuous improvement processes and provides a description of how one method might be applied to the ultrasound department.

  2. CM Process Improvement and the International Space Station Program (ISSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Ginny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Configuration Management (CM) process improvements planned and undertaken for the International Space Station Program (ISSP). It reviews the 2004 findings and recommendations and the progress towards their implementation.

  3. Sustaining Operational Resiliency: A Process Improvement Approach to Security Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    5 2 Operational Resiliency Defined....................................................................6 2.1 What is Resiliency...30 4.3.5 Increasing levels of competency............................................... 30 5 A Process Improvement Framework for...mission.................................. 19 Figure 5 : Foundation for operational resiliency ..................................................... 21

  4. Ergonomics and simulation tools for service & industrial process improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, A.; García, M.

    2012-04-01

    Human interaction within designed processes is a really important factor in how efficiently any process will operate. How a human will function in relation to a process is not easy to predict. All the ergonomic considerations traditionally have been evaluated outside of the 3D product design. Nowadays technologies of 3D process design and simulation tools give us this opportunity from the earliest stages of the design process. Also they can be used to improve current process in order to increase human comfort, productivity and safety. This work shows a methodology using 3D design and simulation tools to improve industrial and service process. This methodology has as an objective the detection, evaluation, control of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs).

  5. Reengineering a surgical service line: focusing on core process improvement.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D L; Pestotnik, S L; Coons, M C; Lelis, J W

    1997-01-01

    Integrating principles from a variety of theory has led to the development of a conceptual framework for reengineering in a clinical care delivery setting to improve the value of services provided to the customer. A conceptual framework involving the identification of three high level core processes to reengineer can provide clarity and focus for clinicians to begin directing reengineering efforts. Those core processes are: clinical management of the patient's medical needs, patient operational processes to support the clinical processes, and administrative decision-making processes to support the implementation of the clinical and operational processes. Improvement in any one of these areas has the potential to increase value, but the concurrent targeting of these core processes for reengineering has provided a synergy that has accelerated the achievement of the desired outcomes in the area of surgical services.

  6. Evaluating Fidelity to a Modified NIATx Process Improvement Strategy for Improving HIV Services in Correctional Facilities.

    PubMed

    Pankow, Jennifer; Willett, Jennifer; Yang, Yang; Swan, Holly; Dembo, Richard; Burdon, William M; Patterson, Yvonne; Pearson, Frank S; Belenko, Steven; Frisman, Linda K

    2017-04-24

    In a study aimed at improving the quality of HIV services for inmates, an organizational process improvement strategy using change teams was tested in 14 correctional facilities in 8 US states and Puerto Rico. Data to examine fidelity to the process improvement strategy consisted of quantitative ratings of the structural and process components of the strategy and qualitative notes that explicate challenges in maintaining fidelity to the strategy. Fidelity challenges included (1) lack of communication and leadership within change teams, (2) instability in team membership, and (3) issues with data utilization in decision-making to implement improvements to services delivery.

  7. Ergonomics oriented to processes becomes a tool for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Getty, R L; Getty, J M

    1999-01-01

    A holistic view is essential for quality initiatives such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Standard No. ISO 9001:1994 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1994), Concurrent Engineering, Business Reengineering, and Business Process Improvement. The challenge is knowing how to transition from this theoretical concept to implementation. The relationship between quality interest and an ergonomics program will be the focus of this discussion. An ergonomics oriented improvement program includes (a) ergonomics or fitting the job to the person; (b) integration of operations management, safety engineering, medical management, and employees as co-owners of the process; (c) the emphasis of ergonomic precepts in the engineering of new processes and improvement of current processes; and (d) the emphasis of employees taking responsibility for their own well being and the improvement of their work environment. The parallel between the continuous improvement process delineated by the quality-system requirements in Standard No. ISO 9001:1994 (ISO, 1994) and the improvement contributions of ergonomics are very revealing (Getty, Abbott, & Getty, 1995). It is the contention of this approach that if the precepts of ergonomics were applied to the work environment, it would support the objective of world class quality and productivity, resulting in improved global competitiveness of businesses.

  8. Performance Improvement/HPT Model: Guiding the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessinger, Joan Conway; Moseley, James L.; Van Tiem, Darlene M.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary is part of an ongoing dialogue that began in the October 2011 special issue of "Performance Improvement"--Exploring a Universal Performance Model for HPT: Notes From the Field. The performance improvement/HPT (human performance technology) model represents a unifying process that helps accomplish successful change, create…

  9. Performance Improvement/HPT Model: Guiding the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessinger, Joan Conway; Moseley, James L.; Van Tiem, Darlene M.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary is part of an ongoing dialogue that began in the October 2011 special issue of "Performance Improvement"--Exploring a Universal Performance Model for HPT: Notes From the Field. The performance improvement/HPT (human performance technology) model represents a unifying process that helps accomplish successful change, create…

  10. Design of launch systems using continuous improvement process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify a systematic process for improving ground operations for future launch systems. This approach is based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) continuous improvement process. While the continuous improvement process is normally identified with making incremental changes to an existing system, it can be used on new systems if they use past experience as a knowledge base. In the case of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the Space Shuttle operations provide many lessons. The TQM methodology used for this paper will be borrowed from the United States Air Force 'Quality Air Force' Program. There is a general overview of the continuous improvement process, with concentration on the formulation phase. During this phase critical analyses are conducted to determine the strategy and goals for the remaining development process. These analyses include analyzing the mission from the customers point of view, developing an operations concept for the future, assessing current capabilities and determining the gap to be closed between current capabilities and future needs and requirements. A brief analyses of the RLV, relative to the Space Shuttle, will be used to illustrate the concept. Using the continuous improvement design concept has many advantages. These include a customer oriented process which will develop a more marketable product and a better integration of operations and systems during the design phase. But, the use of TQM techniques will require changes, including more discipline in the design process and more emphasis on data gathering for operational systems. The benefits will far outweigh the additional effort.

  11. Improving the medical records department processes by lean management

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Ketabi, Saeedeh; Sadeghian, Akram; Saghaeinnejad-Isfahani, Sakine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lean management is a process improvement technique to identify waste actions and processes to eliminate them. The benefits of Lean for healthcare organizations are that first, the quality of the outcomes in terms of mistakes and errors improves. The second is that the amount of time taken through the whole process significantly improves. Aims: The purpose of this paper is to improve the Medical Records Department (MRD) processes at Ayatolah-Kashani Hospital in Isfahan, Iran by utilizing Lean management. Materials and Methods: This research was applied and an interventional study. The data have been collected by brainstorming, observation, interview, and workflow review. The study population included MRD staff and other expert staff within the hospital who were stakeholders and users of the MRD. Statistical Analysis Used: The MRD were initially taught the concepts of Lean management and then formed into the MRD Lean team. The team then identified and reviewed the current processes subsequently; they identified wastes and values, and proposed solutions. Results: The findings showed that the MRD units (Archive, Coding, Statistics, and Admission) had 17 current processes, 28 wastes, and 11 values were identified. In addition, they offered 27 comments for eliminating the wastes. Conclusion: The MRD is the critical department for the hospital information system and, therefore, the continuous improvement of its services and processes, through scientific methods such as Lean management, are essential. Originality/Value: The study represents one of the few attempts trying to eliminate wastes in the MRD. PMID:26097862

  12. Improving the medical records department processes by lean management.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Sima; Ketabi, Saeedeh; Sadeghian, Akram; Saghaeinnejad-Isfahani, Sakine

    2015-01-01

    Lean management is a process improvement technique to identify waste actions and processes to eliminate them. The benefits of Lean for healthcare organizations are that first, the quality of the outcomes in terms of mistakes and errors improves. The second is that the amount of time taken through the whole process significantly improves. The purpose of this paper is to improve the Medical Records Department (MRD) processes at Ayatolah-Kashani Hospital in Isfahan, Iran by utilizing Lean management. This research was applied and an interventional study. The data have been collected by brainstorming, observation, interview, and workflow review. The study population included MRD staff and other expert staff within the hospital who were stakeholders and users of the MRD. The MRD were initially taught the concepts of Lean management and then formed into the MRD Lean team. The team then identified and reviewed the current processes subsequently; they identified wastes and values, and proposed solutions. The findings showed that the MRD units (Archive, Coding, Statistics, and Admission) had 17 current processes, 28 wastes, and 11 values were identified. In addition, they offered 27 comments for eliminating the wastes. The MRD is the critical department for the hospital information system and, therefore, the continuous improvement of its services and processes, through scientific methods such as Lean management, are essential. The study represents one of the few attempts trying to eliminate wastes in the MRD.

  13. Improving operational anodising process performance using simulation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Liong, Choong-Yeun Ghazali, Syarah Syahidah

    2015-10-22

    The use of aluminium is very widespread, especially in transportation, electrical and electronics, architectural, automotive and engineering applications sectors. Therefore, the anodizing process is an important process for aluminium in order to make the aluminium durable, attractive and weather resistant. This research is focused on the anodizing process operations in manufacturing and supplying of aluminium extrusion. The data required for the development of the model is collected from the observations and interviews conducted in the study. To study the current system, the processes involved in the anodizing process are modeled by using Arena 14.5 simulation software. Those processes consist of five main processes, namely the degreasing process, the etching process, the desmut process, the anodizing process, the sealing process and 16 other processes. The results obtained were analyzed to identify the problems or bottlenecks that occurred and to propose improvement methods that can be implemented on the original model. Based on the comparisons that have been done between the improvement methods, the productivity could be increased by reallocating the workers and reducing loading time.

  14. Improving operational anodising process performance using simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liong, Choong-Yeun; Ghazali, Syarah Syahidah

    2015-10-01

    The use of aluminium is very widespread, especially in transportation, electrical and electronics, architectural, automotive and engineering applications sectors. Therefore, the anodizing process is an important process for aluminium in order to make the aluminium durable, attractive and weather resistant. This research is focused on the anodizing process operations in manufacturing and supplying of aluminium extrusion. The data required for the development of the model is collected from the observations and interviews conducted in the study. To study the current system, the processes involved in the anodizing process are modeled by using Arena 14.5 simulation software. Those processes consist of five main processes, namely the degreasing process, the etching process, the desmut process, the anodizing process, the sealing process and 16 other processes. The results obtained were analyzed to identify the problems or bottlenecks that occurred and to propose improvement methods that can be implemented on the original model. Based on the comparisons that have been done between the improvement methods, the productivity could be increased by reallocating the workers and reducing loading time.

  15. The Physiological Functions and Structural Determinants of Catalytic Bias in the [FeFe]-Hydrogenases CpI and CpII of Clostridium pasteurianum Strain W5

    DOE PAGES

    Therien, Jesse B.; Artz, Jacob H.; Poudel, Saroj; ...

    2017-07-12

    Here, the first generation of biochemical studies of complex, iron-sulfur-cluster-containing [FeFe]-hydrogenases and Mo-nitrogenase were carried out on enzymes purified from Clostridium pasteurianum (strain W5). Previous studies suggested that two distinct [FeFe]-hydrogenases are expressed differentially under nitrogen-fixing and non-nitrogen-fixing conditions. As a result, the first characterized [FeFe]-hydrogenase (CpI) is presumed to have a primary role in central metabolism, recycling reduced electron carriers that accumulate during fermentation via proton reduction. A role for capturing reducing equivalents released as hydrogen during nitrogen fixation has been proposed for the second hydrogenase, CpII. Biochemical characterization of CpI and CpII indicated CpI has extremely high hydrogenmore » production activity in comparison to CpII, while CpII has elevated hydrogen oxidation activity in comparison to CpI when assayed under the same conditions. This suggests that these enzymes have evolved a catalytic bias to support their respective physiological functions. Using the published genome of C. pasteurianum (strain W5) hydrogenase sequences were identified, including the already known [NiFe]-hydrogenase, CpI, and CpII sequences, and a third hydrogenase, CpIII was identified in the genome as well. Quantitative real-time PCR experiments were performed in order to analyze transcript abundance of the hydrogenases under diazotrophic and non-diazotrophic growth conditions. There is a markedly reduced level of CpI gene expression together with concomitant increases in CpII gene expression under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Structure-based analyses of the CpI and CpII sequences reveal variations in their catalytic sites that may contribute to their alternative physiological roles. This work demonstrates that the physiological roles of CpI and CpII are to evolve and to consume hydrogen, respectively, in concurrence with their catalytic activities in vitro, with Cp

  16. The process of managerial control in quality improvement initiatives.

    PubMed

    Slovensky, D J; Fottler, M D

    1994-11-01

    The fundamental intent of strategic management is to position an organization with in its market to exploit organizational competencies and strengths to gain competitive advantage. Competitive advantage may be achieved through such strategies as low cost, high quality, or unique services or products. For health care organizations accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, continually improving both processes and outcomes of organizational performance--quality improvement--in all operational areas of the organization is a mandated strategy. Defining and measuring quality and controlling the quality improvement strategy remain problematic. The article discusses the nature and processes of managerial control, some potential measures of quality, and related information needs.

  17. A Study on Improving Information Processing Abilities Based on PBL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Du Gyu; Lee, JaeMu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined an instruction method for the improvement of information processing abilities in elementary school students. Current elementary students are required to develop information processing abilities to create new knowledge for this digital age. There is, however, a shortage of instruction strategies for these information processing…

  18. Electronic Timekeeping: North Dakota State University Improves Payroll Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Ronald J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    North Dakota State University has adopted automated timekeeping to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of payroll processing. The microcomputer-based system accurately records and computes employee time, tracks labor distribution, accommodates complex labor policies and company pay practices, provides automatic data processing and reporting,…

  19. Using Quality Function Deployment To Improve Academic Advising Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrows, Richard; Murray, Bruce

    1997-01-01

    Quality Function Deployment, a set of concepts and tools used in manufacturing engineering to link consumer needs with product design, can also improve academic advising systems and processes. The technique promotes structured, logical examination of students' advising needs and their relationship to advising system design, processes, methods,…

  20. Why Is Leading School Improvement Such a Difficult Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    Leading meaningful school improvement and reform has proven to be a difficult process. This article looks at some of the interactive, contextual variables that lend to the complexity of this challenge. These include complexities inherent in schools, in change processes and in the leadership role itself.

  1. Software Process Improvement Journey: IBM Australia Application Management Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    See Section 5.1.2) - Client Relationship Management ( CRM ) processes-specifically, Solution Design and Solution Delivery - Worldwide Project Management ...plex systems life-cycle management , rapid solutions development, custom development, package selection and implementation, maintenance, minor...CarnegieMellon ___ Software Engineering Institute Software Process Improvement Journey: IBM Australia Application Management Services Robyn Nichols

  2. Electrical Storm Simulation to Improve the Learning Physics Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez Muñoz, Miriam; Jiménez Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Gutiérrez de Mesa, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This work is part of a research project whose main objective is to understand the impact that the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has on the teaching and learning process on the subject of Physics. We will show that, with the use of a storm simulator, physics students improve their learning process on one hand they understand…

  3. Improved molding process ensures plastic parts of higher tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heier, W. C.

    1968-01-01

    Single molding process ensures that plastic parts /of a given mechanical design/ produced from a conventional thermosetting molding compound will have a maximum tensile strength. The process can also be used for other thermosetting compounds to produce parts with improved physical properties.

  4. Training improves visual processing speed and generalizes to untrained functions

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Maria; Ludwig, Karin; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Voss, Stephanie; Sterzer, Philipp; Hesselmann, Guido; Polat, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Studies show that manipulating certain training features in perceptual learning determines the specificity of the improvement. The improvement in abnormal visual processing following training and its generalization to visual acuity, as measured on static clinical charts, can be explained by improved sensitivity or processing speed. Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in a clutter, fundamentally limits conscious visual perception. Although it was largely considered absent in the fovea, earlier studies report foveal crowding upon very brief exposures or following spatial manipulations. Here we used GlassesOff's application for iDevices to train foveal vision of young participants. The training was performed at reading distance based on contrast detection tasks under different spatial and temporal constraints using Gabor patches aimed at testing improvement of processing speed. We found several significant improvements in spatio-temporal visual functions including near and also non-trained far distances. A remarkable transfer to visual acuity measured under crowded conditions resulted in reduced processing time of 81 ms, in order to achieve 6/6 acuity. Despite a subtle change in contrast sensitivity, a robust increase in processing speed was found. Thus, enhanced processing speed may lead to overcoming foveal crowding and might be the enabling factor for generalization to other visual functions. PMID:25431233

  5. EUV process improvement with novel litho track hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Harold; Harumoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Yuji; Kaneyama, Koji; Pieczulewski, Charles; Asai, Masaya

    2017-03-01

    Currently, there are many developments in the field of EUV lithography that are helping to move it towards increased HVM feasibility. Targeted improvements in hardware design for advanced lithography are of interest to our group specifically for metrics such as CD uniformity, LWR, and defect density. Of course, our work is focused on EUV process steps that are specifically affected by litho track performance, and consequently, can be improved by litho track design improvement and optimization. In this study we are building on our experience to provide continual improvement for LWR, CDU, and Defects as applied to a standard EUV process by employing novel hardware solutions on our SOKUDO DUO coat develop track system. Although it is preferable to achieve such improvements post-etch process we feel, as many do, that improvements after patterning are a precursor to improvements after etching. We hereby present our work utilizing the SOKUDO DUO coat develop track system with an ASML NXE:3300 in the IMEC (Leuven, Belgium) cleanroom environment to improve aggressive dense L/S patterns.

  6. Lean methodology for performance improvement in the trauma discharge process.

    PubMed

    O'Mara, Michael Shaymus; Ramaniuk, Aliaksandr; Graymire, Vickie; Rozzell, Monica; Martin, Stacey

    2014-07-01

    High-volume, complex services such as trauma and acute care surgery are at risk for inefficiency. Lean process improvement can reduce health care waste. Lean allows a structured look at processes not easily amenable to analysis. We applied lean methodology to the current state of communication and discharge planning on an urban trauma service, citing areas for improvement. A lean process mapping event was held. The process map was used to identify areas for immediate analysis and intervention-defining metrics for the stakeholders. After intervention, new performance was assessed by direct data evaluation. The process was completed with an analysis of effect and plans made for addressing future focus areas. The primary area of concern identified was interservice communication. Changes centering on a standardized morning report structure reduced the number of consult questions unanswered from 67% to 34% (p = 0.0021). Physical therapy rework was reduced from 35% to 19% (p = 0.016). Patients admitted to units not designated to the trauma service had 1.6 times longer stays (p < 0.0001). The lean process lasted 8 months, and three areas for new improvement were identified: (1) the off-unit patients; (2) patients with length of stay more than 15 days contribute disproportionately to length of stay; and (3) miscommunication exists around patient education at discharge. Lean process improvement is a viable means of health care analysis. When applied to a trauma service with 4,000 admissions annually, lean identifies areas ripe for improvement. Our inefficiencies surrounded communication and patient localization. Strategies arising from the input of all stakeholders led to real solutions for communication through a face-to-face morning report and identified areas for ongoing improvement. This focuses resource use and identifies areas for improvement of throughput in care delivery.

  7. Process Improvement For Inter-Institutional Research Contracting

    PubMed Central

    Varner, Michael; Logan, Jennifer; Bjorklund, Todd; Whitfield, Jesse; Reed, Peggy; Lesher, Laurie; Sikalis, Amy; Brown, Brent; Drollinger, Sandy; Larrabee, Kristine; Thompson, Kristie; Clark, Erin; Workman, Michael; Boi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sponsored research increasingly requires multi-institutional collaboration. However, research contracting procedures have become more complicated and time-consuming. The perinatal research units of two co-located healthcare systems sought to improve their research contracting processes. METHODS The Lean Process, a management practice that iteratively involves team members in root cause analyses and process improvement, was applied to the research contracting process, initially using Process Mapping and then developing Problem Solving Reports. RESULTS Root Cause Analyses revealed that the longest delays were the individual contract legal negotiations. In addition, the ‘business entity’ was the research support personnel of both healthcare systems whose ‘customers’ were investigators attempting to conduct inter-institutional research. Development of mutually acceptable research contract templates and language, chain of custody templates, and process development and refinement formats decreased the Notice of Grant Award to Purchase Order time from a mean of 103.5 days in the year prior to LEAN Process implementation to 45.8 days in the year after implementation (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS The Lean Process can be applied to inter-institutional research contracting with significant improvement in contract implementation. PMID:26083433

  8. Improving the environmental sustainability of a waste processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Tom; Watson, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes how the level of environmental sustainability at the Solid Waste Processing plant at Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) Harwell was measured and improved. It provides reasons to improve environmental performance in an organisation, states best practice on how improvement should be conducted, and gives first-hand experience on how changes were implemented. In this paper sustainability is defined as 'meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'. A baseline for environmental sustainability was created, by looking at multiple attributes. From this, a matrix was created to show how the baseline environmental performance compared to best practice, and a gap analysis was performed. Results from this analysis showed areas for potential systematic improvement, and actions were created. Nearly all actions were implemented within one year, and environmental sustainability improved significantly. Most improvements cost no money to implement, and the few that did had to pass criteria in a business case. Results from a company-wide survey showed that the vast majority of employees felt that environmental issues were important, and that they were willing to help improve performance. Environmental awareness training was given to everyone in the department, and individuals were given measurable improvement targets. A focus group was set up and met regularly to agree improvements and monitor results. Environmental performance was publicised regularly to highlight successes and seek further engagement and improvement. Improvement ideas were encouraged and managed in a transparent way which showed clear prioritisation and accountability. The culture of environmental improvement changed visibly and results at the end of the first year showed that electricity consumption had reduced by 12.5%, and gas consumption had reduced by 7.3%. In less than two years over UK Pound 60,000 was saved on utility

  9. Improvements in renal replacement therapy practice patterns in estonia.

    PubMed

    Kõlvald, Külli; Pechter, Ulle; Luman, Merike; Ilmoja, Madis; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai

    2014-01-01

    The clinical performance indicators (CPI) are important tools to assess and improve the quality of renal replacement therapy (RRT). The aim of the current study was to compare the results of a longitudinal set of CPI in RRT patients and to determine the extent to which the guidelines for anaemia, calcium phosphate management and other CPI are met in Estonian renal centres. A long-term retrospective, observational, cross-sectional CPI analysis was undertaken in RRT patients from 2007 to 2011. The following CPI set of well-designed measures based on good evidence was analysed: anaemia management variables, laboratory analyses of mineral metabolism, nutritional status variables and dialysis adequacy variables. Relatively small changes in the analysed mean CPI values were noticed during the study period. In the course of the study, we noticed an improvement in anaemia control, but not all centres achieved the standard of >80% of the dialysis patients with a haemoglobin (Hb) level >100 g/l. There was a trend of decreasing Hb concentrations below 125 g/l in both haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In 2011, hyperphosphataemia was present in 58% of the HD and 47% of the PD patients, whereas centre differences varied between 50 and 60% of both the HD and PD patients. HD adequacy was achieved in 77% of the HD patients. An improvement in the data collection was noticed, and the analysis of CPI allows renal centres to assess and compare their practices with others. The collection and evaluation of CPI of RRT patients is an important improvement and significantly increases the awareness of nephrologists.

  10. A process improvement model for software verification and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John; Sabolish, George

    1994-01-01

    We describe ongoing work at the NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Facility to establish a process improvement model for software verification and validation (V&V) organizations. This model, similar to those used by some software development organizations, uses measurement-based techniques to identify problem areas and introduce incremental improvements. We seek to replicate this model for organizations involved in V&V on large-scale software development projects such as EOS and Space Station. At the IV&V Facility, a university research group and V&V contractors are working together to collect metrics across projects in order to determine the effectiveness of V&V and improve its application. Since V&V processes are intimately tied to development processes, this paper also examines the repercussions for development organizations in large-scale efforts.

  11. A process improvement model for software verification and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John; Sabolish, George

    1994-01-01

    We describe ongoing work at the NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) Facility to establish a process improvement model for software verification and validation (V&V) organizations. This model, similar to those used by some software development organizations, uses measurement-based techniques to identify problem areas and introduce incremental improvements. We seek to replicate this model for organizations involved in V&V on large-scale software development projects such as EOS and space station. At the IV&V Facility, a university research group and V&V contractors are working together to collect metrics across projects in order to determine the effectiveness of V&V and improve its application. Since V&V processes are intimately tied to development processes, this paper also examines the repercussions for development organizations in large-scale efforts.

  12. Development and Processing Improvement of Aerospace Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisagor, W. Barry; Bales, Thomas T.

    2007-01-01

    This final report, in multiple presentation format, describes a comprehensive multi-tasked contract study to improve the overall property response of selected aerospace alloys, explore further a newly-developed and registered alloy, and correlate the processing, metallurgical structure, and subsequent properties achieved with particular emphasis on the crystallographic orientation texture developed. Modifications to plate processing, specifically hot rolling practices, were evaluated for Al-Li alloys 2195 and 2297, for the recently registered Al-Cu-Ag alloy, 2139, and for the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, 7050. For all of the alloys evaluated, the processing modifications resulted in significant improvements in mechanical properties. Analyses also resulted in an enhanced understanding of the correlation of processing, crystallographic texture, and mechanical properties.

  13. Improvement of radiology services based on the process management approach.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Creusa Sayuri Tahara; Rozenfeld, Henrique; Costa, Janaina Mascarenhas Hornos; Magon, Maria de Fátima de Andrade; Mascarenhas, Yvone Maria

    2011-06-01

    The health sector requires continuous investments to ensure the improvement of products and services from a technological standpoint, the use of new materials, equipment and tools, and the application of process management methods. Methods associated with the process management approach, such as the development of reference models of business processes, can provide significant innovations in the health sector and respond to the current market trend for modern management in this sector (Gunderman et al. (2008) [4]). This article proposes a process model for diagnostic medical X-ray imaging, from which it derives a primary reference model and describes how this information leads to gains in quality and improvements. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving sparse representation algorithms for maritime video processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. N.; Nichols, J. M.; Waterman, J. R.; Olson, C. C.; Judd, K. P.

    2012-06-01

    We present several improvements to published algorithms for sparse image modeling with the goal of improving processing of imagery of small watercraft in littoral environments. The first improvement is to the K-SVD algorithm for training over-complete dictionaries, which are used in sparse representations. It is shown that the training converges significantly faster by incorporating multiple dictionary (i.e., codebook) update stages in each training iteration. The paper also provides several useful and practical lessons learned from our experience with sparse representations. Results of three applications of sparse representation are presented and compared to the state-of-the-art methods; image compression, image denoising, and super-resolution.

  15. Redesigning the ICU nursing discharge process: a quality improvement study.

    PubMed

    Chaboyer, Wendy; Lin, Frances; Foster, Michelle; Retallick, Lorraine; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Richards, Brent

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of a redesigned intensive care unit (ICU) nursing discharge process on ICU discharge delay, hospital mortality, and ICU readmission within 72 hours. A quality improvement study using a time series design and statistical process control analysis was conducted in one Australian general ICU. The primary outcome measure was hours of discharge delay per patient discharged alive per month, measured for 15 months prior to, and for 12 months after the redesigned process was implemented. The redesign process included appointing a change agent to facilitate process improvement, developing a patient handover sheet, requesting ward staff to nominate an estimated transfer time, and designing a daily ICU discharge alert sheet that included an expected date of discharge. A total of 1,787 ICU discharges were included in this study, 1,001 in the 15 months before and 786 in the 12 months after the implementation of the new discharge processes. There was no difference in in-hospital mortality after discharge from ICU or ICU readmission within 72 hours during the study period. However, process improvement was demonstrated by a reduction in the average patient discharge delay time of 3.2 hours (from 4.6 hour baseline to 1.0 hours post-intervention). Involving both ward and ICU staff in the redesign process may have contributed to a shared situational awareness of the problems, which led to more timely and effective ICU discharge processes. The use of a change agent, whose ongoing role involved follow-up of patients discharged from ICU, may have helped to embed the new process into practice. ©2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Business process quality management: a step beyond continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Ardabell, T R; Turjanica, M A; Mastorovich, M J; Hirschman, V

    1995-08-01

    Customer demands and financial pressures have forced hospitals to reassess the quality of their services and the efficiency with which they are delivered. A number of institutions have turned to continuous quality improvement methods to help streamline specific processes. For institutions to survive, however, they must look beyond specific processes to broader issues of scope of practice. One hospital's use of Juran's BPQM framework helped position the institution for future economic demands.

  17. Continuous Process Improvement at Tinker Air Logistics Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    task on the same machine . Their solution was to place a simple steel bar into the machine that prevented the lathing material from catching fire...shop-level elements were more advanced in lean production and process improvements than others. Examination of processes in two squadrons allowed...management and in accordance with company goals and objectives” (Badurdeen & Gregory, 50, 2012). Thus in advanced lean environments, floor level

  18. Improved virus purification processes for vaccines and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Nestola, Piergiuseppe; Peixoto, Cristina; Silva, Ricardo R J S; Alves, Paula M; Mota, José P B; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2015-05-01

    The downstream processing of virus particles for vaccination or gene therapy is becoming a critical bottleneck as upstream titers keep improving. Moreover, the growing pressure to develop cost-efficient processes has brought forward new downstream trains. This review aims at analyzing the state-of-the-art in viral downstream purification processes, encompassing the classical unit operations and their recent developments. Emphasis is given to novel strategies for process intensification, such as continuous or semi-continuous systems based on multicolumn technology, opening up process efficiency. Process understanding in the light of the pharmaceutical quality by design (QbD) initiative is also discussed. Finally, an outlook of the upcoming breakthrough technologies is presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Improved Bulletin Generation Using an Iterative Processing Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinkard, M.; Ballard, S.; Encarnacao, A. V.; Heck, S.; Draelos, T.; Chael, E. P.; Young, C. J.; Brogan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic seismic event bulletins are generally produced by performing two sequential processing steps: first station processing to find signal detections, then network processing to form events. This processing paradigm differs significantly from that applied by human analysts. Analysts bring to bear considerable human intuition acquired during the processing of past events and use that to iteratively reprocess data resulting in a significantly improved bulletin. Our Iterative Processing Framework (IPF) attempts to mimic analyst behavior during automatic bulletin generation. After a first pass through signal detection and signal association, the resulting events are compared to historical information with the goal of identifying expected signals which are missing from the set of signals currently available, or which are present but erroneous in some respect. Waveform data is reprocessed to improve the set of available signal detections and signal association is repeated when changes are made. The process is repeated until stability is achieved. IPF also introduces seismic events detected using waveform correlation into automatic processing prior to signal association, which can significantly reduce the number of signal detections available to confuse the automatic signal associator. We present results comparing IPF to traditional methods.

  20. Improving patient access at a movement disorder clinic by participating in a Process Improvement Program

    PubMed Central

    Goodridge, Alan; Woodhouse, Douglas; Barbour, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Our multi-disciplinary neurology team were dissatisfied with long access times for consultation for new referrals. We participated in a rapid process improvement workshop and a structured improvement process. Over a six-month period we were able to reduce our access time for initial appointment for patients with suspected movement disorders from 133 to 20 days. We implemented a ‘carousel’ multi-disciplinary appointment and a standardised clinic form that improved the flow of patients and that we estimate will save 150 hours of physician time and 320 hours of administrative time per year. PMID:26734164

  1. Customers First: Using Process Improvement To Improve Service Quality and Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Catherine A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes steps in a process-improvement project for reserve book services at the University of Arizona Library: (1) plan--identify process boundaries and customer requirements, gather/analyze data, prioritize problems; (2) do--encourage divergent thinking, reach convergent thinking, find solutions; (3) check--pilot solutions, compare costs; and…

  2. Gas-Jet Cooling Would Improve Czochralski Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudukovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Srivastava, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Controlled cooling by jets of gas improves growth of single crystals of silocon by Czochralski process, according to study. Rate of cooling by jets joins temperature of crucible and pulling rate as input variable of process adjusted to achieve required diameter of crystal and shape of crystal/melt interface. Critical parameters of growing crystal, output variables of Czochralski process controlled via two or all three of input variables. One input variable, usually speed, held constant while other two adjusted to achieve required diameter and interface.

  3. Improving Logistics Processes in Industry Using Web Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jánošík, Ján; Tanuška, Pavol; Václavová, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the concept of a system that takes advantage of web technologies and integrates them into the management process and management of internal stocks which may relate to external applications and creates the conditions to transform a Computerized Control of Warehouse Stock (CCWS) in the company. The importance of implementing CCWS is in the elimination of the claims caused by the human factor, as well as to allow the processing of information for analytical purposes and their subsequent use to improve internal processes. Using CCWS in the company would also facilitate better use of the potential tools Business Intelligence and Data Mining.

  4. Improving Group Processes in Transdisciplinary Case Studies for Sustainability Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansmann, Ralf; Crott, Helmut W.; Mieg, Harald A.; Scholz, Roland W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Deficient group processes such as conformity pressure can lead to inadequate group decisions with negative social, economic, or environmental consequences. The study aims to investigate how a group technique (called INFO) improves students' handling of conformity pressure and their collective judgments in the context of a…

  5. Improving Group Processes in Transdisciplinary Case Studies for Sustainability Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansmann, Ralf; Crott, Helmut W.; Mieg, Harald A.; Scholz, Roland W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Deficient group processes such as conformity pressure can lead to inadequate group decisions with negative social, economic, or environmental consequences. The study aims to investigate how a group technique (called INFO) improves students' handling of conformity pressure and their collective judgments in the context of a…

  6. Metal-finishing processes: surface-finish improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-08-01

    This module is designed to provide the student with the following information: a basic understanding of the role finishing operations play in the manufacture of parts; some basic concepts of surface characteristics; a basic knowledge of surface improvement processes; and an understanding of the technical challenges posed by surface finish requirements.

  7. Improving Work Processes by Making the Invisible Visible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Arthur; Hoyles, Celia; Kent, Phillip; Noss, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, companies are taking part in process improvement programmes, which brings about a growing need for employees to interpret and act on data representations. We have carried out case studies in a range of companies to identify the existence and need of what we call "techno-mathematical literacies" (TmL): functional mathematical…

  8. Exploring Group Communication and Productivity Improvement: Using an Experiential Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Mary Y.; Mandeville, David E.

    Engineering students at Oklahoma State University used an experiential process (the ACME Basket Exercise) to develop an understanding of how quality and productivity can be improved. The exercise simulates a traditional production organization in the classroom and mirrors the efforts, the successes, and the frustrations of individuals and work…

  9. Developing a Quality Improvement Process to Optimize Faculty Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merillat, Linda; Scheibmeir, Monica

    2016-01-01

    As part of a major shift to embed quality improvement processes within a School of Nursing at a medium-sized Midwestern university, a faculty enrichment program using a Plan-Do-Act-Study design was implemented. A central focus for the program was the development and maintenance of an online faculty resource center identified as "My Faculty…

  10. Improving Process Writing with the Use Authentic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    bin Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Noor; Yusoff, Nurahimah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses on how process writing is improved with the use of authentic assessment in an English Language classroom. Eleven primary school children from Year 4 in a rural school in Sabah are the participants of the study. Data were collected by observing them during the English Language lessons and at the end of the series of…

  11. Cross Domain Rule Set Verification Tools and Process Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Martin Liedy Cobham Analytic Solutions Kelly Djahandari Northrop Grumman Corporation July 2010 Final Report Distribution A...Cross Domain Rule Set Verification Tools and Process Improvements Charles McElveen, Martin Liedy Kelly Djahandari Lance Call Cobham ...residual inference risks. ABOUT THE AUTHORS Charles McElveen, CISSP, ISSEP, is a Senior Security Engineer at Cobham Analytic Solutions with over

  12. Developing lettuce with improved quality for processed salads.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce is increasingly consumed as minimally processed salads. Cultivars grown for this market may require breeding for improved shelf-life and resistance to physiological defects such as tipburn (TB). Tipburn is a calcium deficiency related defect causing necrosis on the leaf margins, typically on...

  13. Improving the Learning Process in the Latest Prefabricated School Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Oriol; Oliva, Josep-Manuel; Maas, Sandra-Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000 hundreds of school centers have been constructed in Catalonia using industrialized technologies. These centers are modern, useful, educational edifices built using advantageous prefabricated technologies that improve the building process and reduce the environmental impact of the building. This article analyses whether these…

  14. GREENING OF OXIDATION CATALYSIS THROUGH IMPROVED CATALYST AND PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory


    Greening of Oxidation Catalysis Through Improved Catalysts and Process Design
    Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas Becker, and Raymond Smith

    United State Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W...

  15. GREENING OF OXIDATION CATALYSIS THROUGH IMPROVED CATALYST AND PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory


    Greening of Oxidation Catalysis Through Improved Catalysts and Process Design
    Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas Becker, and Raymond Smith

    United State Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W...

  16. RDI Advising Model for Improving the Teaching-Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Fuente, Jesus; Lopez-Medialdea, Ana Maria

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Advising in Educational Psychology from the perspective of RDI takes on a stronger investigative, innovative nature. The model proposed by De la Fuente et al (2006, 2007) and Education & Psychology (2007) was applied to the field of improving teaching-learning processes at a school. Hypotheses were as follows: (1) interdependence…

  17. Numerical Processing Efficiency Improved in Experienced Mental Abacus Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yunqi; Geng, Fengji; Hu, Yuzheng; Du, Fenglei; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Experienced mental abacus (MA) users are able to perform mental arithmetic calculations with unusual speed and accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether their extraordinary gains in mental arithmetic ability are accompanied by an improvement in numerical processing efficiency. To address this question, the present study, using a numerical…

  18. Numerical Processing Efficiency Improved in Experienced Mental Abacus Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yunqi; Geng, Fengji; Hu, Yuzheng; Du, Fenglei; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Experienced mental abacus (MA) users are able to perform mental arithmetic calculations with unusual speed and accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether their extraordinary gains in mental arithmetic ability are accompanied by an improvement in numerical processing efficiency. To address this question, the present study, using a numerical…

  19. Process Improvement Education with Professionals in the Addiction Treatment Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermacher, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Continuing education is being provided to professionals in the addiction treatment field to help them develop skills in process improvement and better meet the needs and requests they encounter. Access and retention of individuals seeking addiction treatment have been two of the greatest challenges addiction treatment professionals face.…

  20. Process Improvement Education with Professionals in the Addiction Treatment Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermacher, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Continuing education is being provided to professionals in the addiction treatment field to help them develop skills in process improvement and better meet the needs and requests they encounter. Access and retention of individuals seeking addiction treatment have been two of the greatest challenges addiction treatment professionals face.…

  1. RDI Advising Model for Improving the Teaching-Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Fuente, Jesus; Lopez-Medialdea, Ana Maria

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Advising in Educational Psychology from the perspective of RDI takes on a stronger investigative, innovative nature. The model proposed by De la Fuente et al (2006, 2007) and Education & Psychology (2007) was applied to the field of improving teaching-learning processes at a school. Hypotheses were as follows: (1) interdependence…

  2. Software quality and process improvement in scientific simulation codes

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosiano, J.; Webster, R.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the quest to develope better simulation code quality through process modeling and improvement. This study is based on the experience of the authors and interviews with ten subjects chosen from simulation code development teams at LANL. This study is descriptive rather than scientific.

  3. The Role of Evaluation in the School Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Ronald A.; Beach, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Although evaluation serves many purposes in education, there is virtually unanimous agreement that evaluation is a critical component of all school improvement processes. Hamilton et al. (2003) asserted that "assessment and evaluation should be built into reform programs from the outset" (p. 26). Kimball, Lander, and Thorn (2010)…

  4. Process improvements using the NCMS electrical testing methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Goldammer, S.E.; Tucker, D.R.

    1997-06-01

    The conductor analysis electrical testing method uses the artwork patterns and equipment developed by the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) Printed Wiring Board Imaging Team. These patterns and electrical test methods are used to evaluate new or improve existing printed wiring board processes.

  5. Improving the Learning Process in the Latest Prefabricated School Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Oriol; Oliva, Josep-Manuel; Maas, Sandra-Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000 hundreds of school centers have been constructed in Catalonia using industrialized technologies. These centers are modern, useful, educational edifices built using advantageous prefabricated technologies that improve the building process and reduce the environmental impact of the building. This article analyses whether these…

  6. Organizational management practices for achieving software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandt, Ronald Kirk

    2004-01-01

    The crisis in developing software has been known for over thirty years. Problems that existed in developing software in the early days of computing still exist today. These problems include the delivery of low-quality products, actual development costs that exceed expected development costs, and actual development time that exceeds expected development time. Several solutions have been offered to overcome out inability to deliver high-quality software, on-time and within budget. One of these solutions involves software process improvement. However, such efforts often fail because of organizational management issues. This paper discusses business practices that organizations should follow to improve their chances of initiating and sustaining successful software process improvement efforts.

  7. Organizational management practices for achieving software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandt, Ronald Kirk

    2004-01-01

    The crisis in developing software has been known for over thirty years. Problems that existed in developing software in the early days of computing still exist today. These problems include the delivery of low-quality products, actual development costs that exceed expected development costs, and actual development time that exceeds expected development time. Several solutions have been offered to overcome out inability to deliver high-quality software, on-time and within budget. One of these solutions involves software process improvement. However, such efforts often fail because of organizational management issues. This paper discusses business practices that organizations should follow to improve their chances of initiating and sustaining successful software process improvement efforts.

  8. The operations manual: a mechanism for improving the research process.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Ann; Wyman, Jean F; Peters, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    The development and use of an operations manual has the potential to improve the capacity of nurse scientists to address the complex, multifaceted issues associated with conducting research in today's healthcare environment. An operations manual facilitates communication, standardizes training and evaluation, and enhances the development and standard implementation of clear policies, processes, and protocols. A 10-year review of methodology articles in relevant nursing journals revealed no attention to this topic. This article will discuss how an operations manual can improve the conduct of research methods and outcomes for both small-scale and large-scale research studies. It also describes the purpose and components of a prototype operations manual for use in quantitative research. The operations manual increases reliability and reproducibility of the research while improving the management of study processes. It can prevent costly and untimely delays or errors in the conduct of research.

  9. Monitoring and Improving the Reliability of Plasma Spray Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauer, Georg; Rauwald, Karl-Heinz; Mücke, Robert; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Monitoring and improving of process reliability are prevalent issues in thermal spray technology. They are intended to accomplish specific quality characteristics by controlling the process. For this, implicit approaches are in demand to rapidly conclude on relevant coating properties, i.e., they are not directly measured, but it is assumed that the monitored variables are in fact suggestive for them. Such monitoring can be performed in situ (during the running process) instead of measuring coating characteristics explicitly (directly) and ex situ (after the process). Implicit approaches can be based on extrinsic variables (set from outside) as well as on intrinsic parameters (internal, not directly adjustable) having specific advantages and disadvantages, each. In this work, the effects of atmospheric plasma spray process variables are systemized in process schemes. On this basis, different approaches to contribute to improved process reliability are described and assessed paying particular attention to in-flight particle diagnostics. Finally, a new test applying spray bead analysis is introduced and first results are presented.

  10. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.; Adam, Jennifer C.; Bolster, Diogo; Gochis, David J.; Hooper, Richard P.; Kumar, Mukesh; Leung, L. Ruby; Mackay, D. Scott; Maxwell, Reed M.; Shen, Chaopeng; Swenson, Sean C.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-08-21

    Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale models, such as the land components of Earth System Models (ESMs), do not yet represent the terrestrial water cycle in a fully integrated manner or resolve the finer-scale processes that can dominate large-scale water budgets. This paper reviews the current representation of hydrologic processes in ESMs and identifies the key opportunities for improvement. This review suggests that (1) the development of ESMs has not kept pace with modeling advances in hydrology, both through neglecting key processes (e.g., groundwater) and neglecting key aspects of spatial variability and hydrologic connectivity; and (2) many modeling advances in hydrology can readily be incorporated into ESMs and substantially improve predictions of the water cycle. Accelerating modeling advances in ESMs requires comprehensive hydrologic benchmarking activities, in order to systematically evaluate competing modeling alternatives, understand model weaknesses, and prioritize model development needs. This demands stronger collaboration, both through greater engagement of hydrologists in ESM development and through more detailed evaluation of ESM processes in research watersheds. Advances in the representation of hydrologic process in ESMs can substantially improve energy, carbon and nutrient cycle prediction capabilities through the fundamental role the water cycle plays in regulating these cycles.

  11. Processing of YBCO superconductors for improved levitation force

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Zhong, W.

    1993-05-01

    One objective of the ANL superconductor program is to develop improved processing methods for production of YBCO superconductors with higher levitation forces suitable for low-friction, superconductor/permanent-magnet bearings and flywheel-energy-storage applications. From the standpoint of these applications, melt-processed bulk YBCO superconductors are of considerable interest. Levitation force and flux-pinning properties depend on microstructural features of the superconductors. We have added several chemical species to YBCO to alter the microstructure and have used a seeding technique to induce crystallization during melt processing. In this paper, we discuss the effects of various process parameters, additives, and a seeding technique on the properties of melt-processed bulk YBCO samples and compare the results with solid-state-sintered superconductors.

  12. Using A3 thinking to improve the STAT medication process.

    PubMed

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Chase, Valerie J; Mack, Megan; Conroy, Meghan K; Belanger, Karen; Zawol, Debbie; Corr, Karen M; Fowler, Karen E; Viglianti, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Although the term STAT conveys a sense of urgency, it is sometimes used to circumvent a system that may be too slow to accomplish tasks in a timely manner. We describe a quality-improvement project undertaken by a US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital to improve the STAT medication process. We adapted A3 Thinking, a problem-solving process common in Lean organizations, to our problem. In the discovery phase, a color-coded flow map of the existing process was constructed, and a real-time STAT order was followed in a modified "Go to the Gemba" exercise. In the envisioning phase, the team brainstormed to come up with as many improvement ideas as possible, which were then prioritized based on the anticipated effort and impact. The team then identified initial experiments to be carried out in the experimentation phase; each experiment followed a standard Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle. On average, the number of STAT medications ordered per month decreased by 9.5%. The average time from STAT order entry to administration decreased by 21%, and time from medication delivery to administration decreased by 26%. Improvements were also made in technician awareness of STAT medications and nurse notification of STAT medication delivery. Adapting A3 Thinking for process improvement was a low-cost/low-tech option for a VA facility. The A3 Thinking process led to a better understanding of the meaning of STAT across disciplines, and promoted a collaborative culture in which other hospital-wide problems may be addressed in the future. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Improvements in process performance for immersion technology high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafus, K.; Shimoaoki, T.; Enomoto, M.; Shite, H.; Otsuka, T.; Kosugi, H.; Shibata, T.; Mallmann, J.; Maas, R.; Verspaget, C.; van der Heijden, E.; van Setten, E.; Finders, J.; Wang, S.; Boudou, N.; Zoldesi, C.

    2009-03-01

    Through collaborative efforts ASML and TEL are continuously improving the process performance for the LITHIUS Pro -i/ TWINSCAN XT:1900Gi litho cluster. In previous work from this collaboration, TEL and ASML have investigated the CDU and defectivity performance for the 45nm node with high through put processing. CDU performance for both memory and logic illumination conditions were shown to be on target for ITRS roadmap specifications. Additionally, it was shown that the current defect metrology is able to measure the required defect size of 30nm with a 90% capture rate. For the target through put of 180wph, no added impact to defectivity was seen from the multi-module processing on the LITHIUS Pro -i, using a topcoat resist process. For increased productivity, a new bevel cut strategy was investigated and shown to have no adverse impact while increasing the usable wafer surface. However, with the necessity of double patterning for at least the next technology node, more stringent requirements are necessary to prevent, in the worst case, doubling of the critical dimension variation and defectivity. In this work, improvements in process performance with regards to critical dimension uniformity and defectivity are investigated to increase the customer's productivity and yield for whichever double patterning scheme is utilized. Specifically, TEL has designed, evaluated and proven the capability of the latest technology hardware for post exposure bake and defect reduction. For the new post exposure bake hardware, process capability data was collected for 40nm CD targets. For defectivity reduction, a novel concept in rinse technology and processing was investigated on hydrophobic non top coat resists processes. Additionally, improvements to reduce micro bridging were evaluated. Finally bevel rinse hardware to prevent contamination of the immersion scanner was tested.

  14. Process-Improvement Cost Model for the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Dyas, Sheila R; Greenfield, Eric; Messimer, Sherri; Thotakura, Swati; Gholston, Sampson; Doughty, Tracy; Hays, Mary; Ivey, Richard; Spalding, Joseph; Phillips, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a simplified, activity-based costing approach for hospital emergency departments (EDs) to use with Lean Six Sigma cost-benefit analyses. The cost model complexity is reduced by removing diagnostic and condition-specific costs, thereby revealing the underlying process activities' cost inefficiencies. Examples are provided for evaluating the cost savings from reducing discharge delays and the cost impact of keeping patients in the ED (boarding) after the decision to admit has been made. The process-improvement cost model provides a needed tool in selecting, prioritizing, and validating Lean process-improvement projects in the ED and other areas of patient care that involve multiple dissimilar diagnoses.

  15. Lean Participative Process Improvement: Outcomes and Obstacles in Trauma Orthopaedics

    PubMed Central

    New, Steve; Hadi, Mohammed; Pickering, Sharon; Robertson, Eleanor; Morgan, Lauren; Griffin, Damian; Collins, Gary; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Catchpole, Ken; McCulloch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effectiveness of a “systems” approach using Lean methodology to improve surgical care, as part of a programme of studies investigating possible synergy between improvement approaches. Setting A controlled before-after study using the orthopaedic trauma theatre of a UK Trust hospital as the active site and an elective orthopaedic theatre in the same Trust as control. Participants All staff involved in surgical procedures in both theatres. Interventions A one-day “lean” training course delivered by an experienced specialist team was followed by support and assistance in developing a 6 month improvement project. Clinical staff selected the subjects for improvement and designed the improvements. Outcome Measures We compared technical and non-technical team performance in theatre using WHO checklist compliance evaluation, “glitch count” and Oxford NOTECHS II in a sample of directly observed operations, and patient outcome (length of stay, complications and readmissions) for all patients. We collected observational data for 3 months and clinical data for 6 months before and after the intervention period. We compared changes in measures using 2-way analysis of variance. Results We studied 576 cases before and 465 after intervention, observing the operation in 38 and 41 cases respectively. We found no significant changes in team performance or patient outcome measures. The intervention theatre staff focused their efforts on improving first patient arrival time, which improved by 20 minutes after intervention. Conclusions This version of “lean” system improvement did not improve measured safety processes or outcomes. The study highlighted an important tension between promoting staff ownership and providing direction, which needs to be managed in “lean” projects. Space and time for staff to conduct improvement activities are important for success. PMID:27124012

  16. Lean Participative Process Improvement: Outcomes and Obstacles in Trauma Orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    New, Steve; Hadi, Mohammed; Pickering, Sharon; Robertson, Eleanor; Morgan, Lauren; Griffin, Damian; Collins, Gary; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Catchpole, Ken; McCulloch, Peter

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a "systems" approach using Lean methodology to improve surgical care, as part of a programme of studies investigating possible synergy between improvement approaches. A controlled before-after study using the orthopaedic trauma theatre of a UK Trust hospital as the active site and an elective orthopaedic theatre in the same Trust as control. All staff involved in surgical procedures in both theatres. A one-day "lean" training course delivered by an experienced specialist team was followed by support and assistance in developing a 6 month improvement project. Clinical staff selected the subjects for improvement and designed the improvements. We compared technical and non-technical team performance in theatre using WHO checklist compliance evaluation, "glitch count" and Oxford NOTECHS II in a sample of directly observed operations, and patient outcome (length of stay, complications and readmissions) for all patients. We collected observational data for 3 months and clinical data for 6 months before and after the intervention period. We compared changes in measures using 2-way analysis of variance. We studied 576 cases before and 465 after intervention, observing the operation in 38 and 41 cases respectively. We found no significant changes in team performance or patient outcome measures. The intervention theatre staff focused their efforts on improving first patient arrival time, which improved by 20 minutes after intervention. This version of "lean" system improvement did not improve measured safety processes or outcomes. The study highlighted an important tension between promoting staff ownership and providing direction, which needs to be managed in "lean" projects. Space and time for staff to conduct improvement activities are important for success.

  17. Statistical process management: An essential element of quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. R.

    Successful quality improvement requires a balanced program involving the three elements that control quality: organization, people and technology. The focus of the SPC/SPM User's Group is to advance the technology component of Total Quality by networking within the Group and by providing an outreach within Westinghouse to foster the appropriate use of statistic techniques to achieve Total Quality. SPM encompasses the disciplines by which a process is measured against its intrinsic design capability, in the face of measurement noise and other obscuring variability. SPM tools facilitate decisions about the process that generated the data. SPM deals typically with manufacturing processes, but with some flexibility of definition and technique it accommodates many administrative processes as well. The techniques of SPM are those of Statistical Process Control, Statistical Quality Control, Measurement Control, and Experimental Design. In addition, techniques such as job and task analysis, and concurrent engineering are important elements of systematic planning and analysis that are needed early in the design process to ensure success. The SPC/SPM User's Group is endeavoring to achieve its objectives by sharing successes that have occurred within the member's own Westinghouse department as well as within other US and foreign industry. In addition, failures are reviewed to establish lessons learned in order to improve future applications. In broader terms, the Group is interested in making SPM the accepted way of doing business within Westinghouse.

  18. Information Technology Process Improvement Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Process Owners and Process Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamp, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    There is information available in the literature that discusses information technology (IT) governance and investment decision making from an executive-level perception, yet there is little information available that offers the perspective of process owners and process managers pertaining to their role in IT process improvement and investment…

  19. Information Technology Process Improvement Decision-Making: An Exploratory Study from the Perspective of Process Owners and Process Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamp, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    There is information available in the literature that discusses information technology (IT) governance and investment decision making from an executive-level perception, yet there is little information available that offers the perspective of process owners and process managers pertaining to their role in IT process improvement and investment…

  20. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  1. Image processing for improved eye-tracking accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, J. B.; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Video cameras provide a simple, noninvasive method for monitoring a subject's eye movements. An important concept is that of the resolution of the system, which is the smallest eye movement that can be reliably detected. While hardware systems are available that estimate direction of gaze in real-time from a video image of the pupil, such systems must limit image processing to attain real-time performance and are limited to a resolution of about 10 arc minutes. Two ways to improve resolution are discussed. The first is to improve the image processing algorithms that are used to derive an estimate. Off-line analysis of the data can improve resolution by at least one order of magnitude for images of the pupil. A second avenue by which to improve resolution is to increase the optical gain of the imaging setup (i.e., the amount of image motion produced by a given eye rotation). Ophthalmoscopic imaging of retinal blood vessels provides increased optical gain and improved immunity to small head movements but requires a highly sensitive camera. The large number of images involved in a typical experiment imposes great demands on the storage, handling, and processing of data. A major bottleneck had been the real-time digitization and storage of large amounts of video imagery, but recent developments in video compression hardware have made this problem tractable at a reasonable cost. Images of both the retina and the pupil can be analyzed successfully using a basic toolbox of image-processing routines (filtering, correlation, thresholding, etc.), which are, for the most part, well suited to implementation on vectorizing supercomputers.

  2. Image processing for improved eye-tracking accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, J. B.; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Video cameras provide a simple, noninvasive method for monitoring a subject's eye movements. An important concept is that of the resolution of the system, which is the smallest eye movement that can be reliably detected. While hardware systems are available that estimate direction of gaze in real-time from a video image of the pupil, such systems must limit image processing to attain real-time performance and are limited to a resolution of about 10 arc minutes. Two ways to improve resolution are discussed. The first is to improve the image processing algorithms that are used to derive an estimate. Off-line analysis of the data can improve resolution by at least one order of magnitude for images of the pupil. A second avenue by which to improve resolution is to increase the optical gain of the imaging setup (i.e., the amount of image motion produced by a given eye rotation). Ophthalmoscopic imaging of retinal blood vessels provides increased optical gain and improved immunity to small head movements but requires a highly sensitive camera. The large number of images involved in a typical experiment imposes great demands on the storage, handling, and processing of data. A major bottleneck had been the real-time digitization and storage of large amounts of video imagery, but recent developments in video compression hardware have made this problem tractable at a reasonable cost. Images of both the retina and the pupil can be analyzed successfully using a basic toolbox of image-processing routines (filtering, correlation, thresholding, etc.), which are, for the most part, well suited to implementation on vectorizing supercomputers.

  3. Process improvement exploration: mapping multimedia production process to CMMI-DEV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChienWin; Kamaruddin, Noraida; Daud, Nor Izyani; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

    2013-03-01

    Multimedia takes improvement of multiple computing technologies to incorporate data from a wide variety of resources, without involving users to know how and where the data is encoded and stored. By reason of Multimedia applications interact with users with numerous diverse techniques and incorporate into strong applications that greatly extend the range and strength of applications, the production process are often complicated and complex. Production of such applications requires both process- and product-based quality assurance. Apparently, there are no universally accepted technical production standards. Consequently, Multimedia applications have sometimes diminished the quality of the end product, increased costs, delayed completion and failure. The focus is on the mapping between the current practices of multimedia production process and one of universal process improvement framework, Capability Maturity Model Integration for Development (CMMI-DEV). It shows that how current practices of multimedia production process address the Engineering Process Areas of CMMI-DEV. For each of the relevant process areas, it then explores how current practices can contribute to achieve the specific goals of that process area. This is practical for organizations that have their plan-driven process based on the CMMI-DEV model and are planning to improve the current practices of multimedia production process or to assist organization to define an innovative multimedia production process cycle based on CMMI-DEV practices.

  4. Ontario's emergency department process improvement program: the experience of implementation.

    PubMed

    Rotteau, Leahora; Webster, Fiona; Salkeld, Erin; Hellings, Chelsea; Guttmann, Astrid; Vermeulen, Marian J; Bell, Robert S; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Rowe, Brian H; Nigam, Amit; Schull, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, Lean manufacturing principles have been applied to health care quality improvement efforts to improve wait times. In Ontario, an emergency department (ED) process improvement program based on Lean principles was introduced by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care as part of a strategy to reduce ED length of stay (LOS) and to improve patient flow. This article aims to describe the hospital-based teams' experiences during the ED process improvement program implementation and the teams' perceptions of the key factors that influenced the program's success or failure. A qualitative evaluation was conducted based on semistructured interviews with hospital implementation team members, such as team leads, medical leads, and executive sponsors, at 10 purposively selected hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Sites were selected based, in part, on their changes in median ED LOS following the implementation period. A thematic framework approach as used for interviews, and a standard thematic coding framework was developed. Twenty-four interviews were coded and analyzed. The results are organized according to participants' experience and are grouped into four themes that were identified as significantly affecting the implementation experience: local contextual factors, relationship between improvement team and support players, staff engagement, and success and sustainability. The results demonstrate the importance of the context of implementation, establishing strong relationships and communication strategies, and preparing for implementation and sustainability prior to the start of the project. Several key factors were identified as important to the success of the program, such as preparing for implementation, ensuring strong executive support, creation of implementation teams based on the tasks and outcomes of the initiative, and using multiple communication strategies throughout the implementation process. Explicit incorporation of these factors into the

  5. Intranasal inhalation of oxytocin improves face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Bate, Sarah; Cook, Sarah J; Duchaine, Bradley; Tree, Jeremy J; Burns, Edwin J; Hodgson, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is characterised by a severe lifelong impairment in face recognition. In recent years it has become clear that DP affects a substantial number of people, yet little work has attempted to improve face processing in these individuals. Intriguingly, recent evidence suggests that intranasal inhalation of the hormone oxytocin can improve face processing in unimpaired participants, and we investigated whether similar findings might be noted in DP. Ten adults with DP and 10 matched controls were tested using a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind within-subject experimental design (AB-BA). Each participant took part in two testing sessions separated by a 14-25 day interval. In each session, participants inhaled 24 IU of oxytocin or placebo spray, followed by a 45 min resting period to allow central oxytocin levels to plateau. Participants then completed two face processing tests: one assessing memory for a set of newly encoded faces, and one measuring the ability to match simultaneously presented faces according to identity. Participants completed the Multidimensional Mood Questionnaire (MMQ) at three points in each testing session to assess the possible mood-altering effects of oxytocin and to control for attention and wakefulness. Statistical comparisons revealed an improvement for DP but not control participants on both tests in the oxytocin condition, and analysis of scores on the MMQ indicated that the effect cannot be attributed to changes in mood, attention or wakefulness. This investigation provides the first evidence that oxytocin can improve face processing in DP, and the potential neural underpinnings of the findings are discussed alongside their implications for the treatment of face processing disorders.

  6. Improving dimensional accuracy of SLS processed part using Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Rong; Wu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Jianping

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents experimental investigations on influence of important process parameters: laser power, scan speed, layer thickness, hatching space along with their interactions on dimensional accuracy of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) processed pro-coated sand mold. It is observed that dimensional error is dominant along length and width direction of built mold. Optimum parameters setting to minimize percentage change in length and width of standard test specimen have been found out using Taguchi's parameter design. Optimum process conditions are obtained by analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to understand the significance of process variables affecting dimension accuracy. Scan speed and hatching space are found to be most significant process variables influencing the dimension accuracy in length and width. And laser power and layer thickness are less influence on the dimension accuracy. The optimum processing parameters are attained in this paper: laser power 11 W; scan speed 1200 mm/s; layer thickness 0.5 mm and hatching space 0.25 mm. It has been shown that, on average, the dimensional accuracy under this processing parameters combination could be improved by approximately up to 25% compared to other processing parameters combinations.

  7. Improving dimensional accuracy of SLS processed part using Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Rong; Wu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Jianping

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents experimental investigations on influence of important process parameters: laser power, scan speed, layer thickness, hatching space along with their interactions on dimensional accuracy of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) processed pro-coated sand mold. It is observed that dimensional error is dominant along length and width direction of built mold. Optimum parameters setting to minimize percentage change in length and width of standard test specimen have been found out using Taguchi's parameter design. Optimum process conditions are obtained by analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to understand the significance of process variables affecting dimension accuracy. Scan speed and hatching space are found to be most significant process variables influencing the dimension accuracy in length and width. And laser power and layer thickness are less influence on the dimension accuracy. The optimum processing parameters are attained in this paper: laser power 11 W; scan speed 1200 mm/s; layer thickness 0.5 mm and hatching space 0.25 mm. It has been shown that, on average, the dimensional accuracy under this processing parameters combination could be improved by approximately up to 25% compared to other processing parameters combinations.

  8. Advanced thermometrics for fossil power plant process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, R.L.; Weiss, J.M.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1996-04-30

    Improved temperature measurements in fossil power plants can reduce heat rate and uncertainties in power production efficiencies, extend the life of plant components, reduce maintenance costs, and lessen emissions. Conventional instruments for measurement of combustion temperatures, steam temperatures, and structural component temperatures can be improved by better specification, in situ calibration, signal processing, and performance monitoring. Innovative instruments can enhance, augment, or replace conventional instruments. Several critical temperatures can be accessed using new methods that were impossible with conventional instruments. Such instruments include high temperature resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermometric phosphors, inductive thermometry, and ultrasonic thermometry.

  9. Improved Process control of wood waste fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Process Control Solutions, Inc.

    2004-01-30

    This project's principal aim was the conceptual and feasibility stage development of improved process control methods for wood-waste-fired water-tube boilers operating in industrial manufacturing applications (primarily pulp and paper). The specific objectives put forth in the original project proposal were as follows: (1) fully characterize the wood-waste boiler control inter-relationships and constraints through data collection and analysis; (2) design an improved control architecture; (3) develop and test an appropriate control and optimization algorithm; and (4) develop and test a procedure for reproducing the approach and deriving the benefits on similar pulp and paper wood-waste boilers. Detailed tasks were developed supporting these objectives.

  10. Holistic processing improves change detection but impairs change identification.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Katherine M; Kahan, Todd A

    2014-10-01

    It has been just over a century since Gestalt psychologists described the factors that contribute to the holistic processing of visually presented stimuli. Recent research indicates that holistic processing may come at a cost; specifically, the perception of holistic forms may reduce the visibility of constituent parts. In the present experiment, we examined change detection and change identification accuracy with Kanizsa rectangle patterns that were arranged to either form a Gestalt whole or not. Results from an experiment with 62 participants support this trade-off in processing holistic forms. Holistic processing improved the detection of change but obstructed its identification. Results are discussed in terms of both their theoretical significance and their application in areas ranging from baggage screening and the detection of changes in radiological images to the systems that are used to generate composite images of perpetrators on the basis of eyewitness reports.

  11. Repetitive dynamic stereo test improved processing time in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Schoemann, Micha Daniel; Lochmann, Matthias; Paulus, Jan; Michelson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Current studies revealed the importance of perceptual training for the treatment of amblyopia. To improve stereo vision on a higher level, visual tasks have to be completed within a limited time window like in repetitive visual function tests. "Processing time" as the reaction time in which the absence or presence of depth was identified correctly, is of better predictive value for perceiving the depth than the stereo threshold only. To examine the long-term effects of repetitive dynamic testing of stereopsis on processing time. 15 male soccer athletes (13.3±3.2 years) underwent twelve sessions of a 15 minutes repetitive dynamic stereovision training over a period of six weeks, presented on a polarized 3D-TV in a four-alternative forced choice setup. We measured the response time of correct identified visual tasks of 11, 22, 44, 55, 66, 77 and 88arcsecs disparity before, after six sessions, after twelve sessions and after six month without testing. As response time is the sum of stereo processing time plus the motor reaction time, we defined the difference between the response times at 11 and 88arcsecs as "stereo processing time at 11arcsecs". A Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was conducted between the testing sessions to evaluate significant changes in response time and stereo processing time. After six sessions the mean stereo processing time at 11arcsecs decreased significantly from 804.4 ms to 403.7 ms (Z = -2.499, p = 0.012). Six months after the last training the stereo processing time at 11arcsecs remained at the level of the last session. Our results suggest that repetitive testing of stereovision is effective in improving processing time of stereoscopic tasks in young male athletes significantly long-term.

  12. Process improvement of knives production in a small scale industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Muktasim, Irfan

    2017-06-01

    Small scale industry that produces several kinds of knive should increase its capacity due to the demand from the market. Qualitatively, this case study consisted of formulating the problems, collecting and analyzing the necessary data, and determining the possible recommendations for the improvement. While the current capacity is only 9 (nine), it is expected that 20 units of knife will produced per month. The processes sequence are: profiling (a), truing (b), beveling (c), heat treatment (d), polishing (e), assembly (f), sharpening (g) and finishing (h). The first process (a) is held by out-house vendor company while other steps from (b) to (g) are executed by in-house vendor. However, there is a high dependency upon the high skilled operator who executes the in -house processes that are mostly held manually with several unbalance successive tasks, where the processing time of one or two tasks require longer duration than others since the operation is merely relied on the operator's skill. The idea is the improvement or change of the profiling and beveling process. Due to the poor surface quality and suboptimal hardness resulted from the laser cut machine for profiling, it is considered to subst itute this kind of process with wire cut that is capable to obtain good surface quality with certain range levels of roughness. Through simple cutting experiments on the samples, it is expected that the generated surface quality is adequate to omit the truing process (b). In addition, the cutting experiments on one, two, and four test samples resulted the shortest time that was obtained through four pieces in one cut. The technical parameters were set according to the recommendation of machine standard as referred to samples condition such as thickness and path length that affect ed the rate of wear. Meanwhile, in order to guarantee the uniformity of knife angles that are formed through beveling process (c), a grinding fixture was created. This kind of tool diminishes the

  13. Improvement of hospital processes through business process management in Qaem Teaching Hospital: A work in progress.

    PubMed

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Doosty, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    In a world of continuously changing business environments, organizations have no option; however, to deal with such a big level of transformation in order to adjust the consequential demands. Therefore, many companies need to continually improve and review their processes to maintain their competitive advantages in an uncertain environment. Meeting these challenges requires implementing the most efficient possible business processes, geared to the needs of the industry and market segments that the organization serves globally. In the last 10 years, total quality management, business process reengineering, and business process management (BPM) have been some of the management tools applied by organizations to increase business competiveness. This paper is an original article that presents implementation of "BPM" approach in the healthcare domain that allows an organization to improve and review its critical business processes. This project was performed in "Qaem Teaching Hospital" in Mashhad city, Iran and consists of four distinct steps; (1) identify business processes, (2) document the process, (3) analyze and measure the process, and (4) improve the process. Implementing BPM in Qaem Teaching Hospital changed the nature of management by allowing the organization to avoid the complexity of disparate, soloed systems. BPM instead enabled the organization to focus on business processes at a higher level.

  14. Improvement of hospital processes through business process management in Qaem Teaching Hospital: A work in progress

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Doosty, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    In a world of continuously changing business environments, organizations have no option; however, to deal with such a big level of transformation in order to adjust the consequential demands. Therefore, many companies need to continually improve and review their processes to maintain their competitive advantages in an uncertain environment. Meeting these challenges requires implementing the most efficient possible business processes, geared to the needs of the industry and market segments that the organization serves globally. In the last 10 years, total quality management, business process reengineering, and business process management (BPM) have been some of the management tools applied by organizations to increase business competiveness. This paper is an original article that presents implementation of “BPM” approach in the healthcare domain that allows an organization to improve and review its critical business processes. This project was performed in “Qaem Teaching Hospital” in Mashhad city, Iran and consists of four distinct steps; (1) identify business processes, (2) document the process, (3) analyze and measure the process, and (4) improve the process. Implementing BPM in Qaem Teaching Hospital changed the nature of management by allowing the organization to avoid the complexity of disparate, soloed systems. BPM instead enabled the organization to focus on business processes at a higher level. PMID:25540784

  15. Improving night sky star image processing algorithm for star sensors.

    PubMed

    Arbabmir, Mohammad Vali; Mohammadi, Seyyed Mohammad; Salahshour, Sadegh; Somayehee, Farshad

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the night sky star image processing algorithm, consisting of image preprocessing, star pattern recognition, and centroiding steps, is improved. It is shown that the proposed noise reduction approach can preserve more necessary information than other frequently used approaches. It is also shown that the proposed thresholding method unlike commonly used techniques can properly perform image binarization, especially in images with uneven illumination. Moreover, the higher performance rate and lower average centroiding estimation error of near 0.045 for 400 simulated images compared to other algorithms show the high capability of the proposed night sky star image processing algorithm.

  16. Post-processing for improving hyperspectral anomaly detection accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jee-Cheng; Jiang, Chi-Ming; Huang, Chen-Liang

    2015-10-01

    Anomaly detection is an important topic in the exploitation of hyperspectral data. Based on the Reed-Xiaoli (RX) detector and a morphology operator, this research proposes a novel technique for improving the accuracy of hyperspectral anomaly detection. Firstly, the RX-based detector is used to process a given input scene. Then, a post-processing scheme using morphology operator is employed to detect those pixels around high-scoring anomaly pixels. Tests were conducted using two real hyperspectral images with ground truth information and the results based on receiver operating characteristic curves, illustrated that the proposed method reduced the false alarm rates of the RXbased detector.

  17. Intelligent process mapping through systematic improvement of heuristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ieumwananonthachai, Arthur; Aizawa, Akiko N.; Schwartz, Steven R.; Wah, Benjamin W.; Yan, Jerry C.

    1992-01-01

    The present system for automatic learning/evaluation of novel heuristic methods applicable to the mapping of communication-process sets on a computer network has its basis in the testing of a population of competing heuristic methods within a fixed time-constraint. The TEACHER 4.1 prototype learning system implemented or learning new postgame analysis heuristic methods iteratively generates and refines the mappings of a set of communicating processes on a computer network. A systematic exploration of the space of possible heuristic methods is shown to promise significant improvement.

  18. Processes for quality improvements in radiation oncology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, T J; Urie, Marcia; Ulin, Kenneth; Laurie, Fran; Yorty, Jeffrey; Hanusik, Richard; Kessel, Sandy; Jodoin, Maryann Bishop; Osagie, Gani; Cicchetti, M Giulia; Pieters, Richard; McCarten, Kathleen; Rosen, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Quality assurance in radiotherapy (RT) has been an integral aspect of cooperative group clinical trials since 1970. In early clinical trials, data acquisition was nonuniform and inconsistent and computational models for radiation dose calculation varied significantly. Process improvements developed for data acquisition, credentialing, and data management have provided the necessary infrastructure for uniform data. With continued improvement in the technology and delivery of RT, evaluation processes for target definition, RT planning, and execution undergo constant review. As we move to multimodality image-based definitions of target volumes for protocols, future clinical trials will require near real-time image analysis and feedback to field investigators. The ability of quality assurance centers to meet these real-time challenges with robust electronic interaction platforms for imaging acquisition, review, archiving, and quantitative review of volumetric RT plans will be the primary challenge for future successful clinical trials.

  19. Reservoir continuous process improvement six sigma methodology implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, A.L.

    1996-12-01

    The six sigma methodology adopted by AlliedSignal Inc. for implementing continuous improvement activity was applied to a new manufacturing assignment for Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). The responsibility for reservoir development/production was transferred from Rocky Flats to FM&T. Pressure vessel fabrication was new to this facility. No fabrication history for this type of product existed in-house. Statistical tools such as process mapping, failure mode and effects analysis, and design of experiments were used to define and fully characterize the machine processes to be used in reservoir production. Continuous improvement with regard to operating efficiencies and product quality is an ongoing activity at FM&T.

  20. A novel Glycine soja cysteine proteinase inhibitor GsCPI14, interacting with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK, regulated plant tolerance to alkali stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Yang, Shanshan; Sun, Mingzhe; Wang, Sunting; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Dan; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Zhao, Chaoyue; Wang, Xuedong; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-05-01

    It has been well demonstrated that cystatins regulated plant stress tolerance through inhibiting the cysteine proteinase activity under environmental stress. However, there was limited information about the role of cystatins in plant alkali stress response, especially in wild soybean. Here, in this study, we focused on the biological characterization of a novel Glycine soja cystatin protein GsCPI14, which interacted with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK and positively regulated plant alkali stress tolerance. The protein-protein interaction between GsCBRLK and GsCPI14 was confirmed by using split-ubiquitin based membrane yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Expression of GsCPI14 was greatly induced by salt, ABA and alkali stress in G. soja, and GsCBRLK overexpression (OX) in Glycine max promoted the stress induction of GmCPI14 expression under stress conditions. Furthermore, we found that GsCPI14-eGFP fusion protein localized in the entire Arabidopsis protoplast and onion epidermal cell, and GsCPI14 showed ubiquitous expression in different tissues of G. soja. In addition, we gave evidence that the GST-GsCPI14 fusion protein inhibited the proteolytic activity of papain in vitro. At last, we demonstrated that OX of GsCPI14 in Arabidopsis promoted the seed germination under alkali stress, as evidenced by higher germination rates. GsCPI14 transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings also displayed better growth performance and physiological index under alkali stress. Taken together, results presented in this study demonstrated that the G. soja cysteine proteinase inhibitor GsCPI14 interacted with the calcium/calmodulin-binding receptor-like kinase GsCBRLK and regulated plant tolerance to alkali stress.

  1. [Improving inpatient pharmacoterapeutic process by Lean Six Sigma methodology].

    PubMed

    Font Noguera, I; Fernández Megía, M J; Ferrer Riquelme, A J; Balasch I Parisi, S; Edo Solsona, M D; Poveda Andres, J L

    2013-01-01

    Lean Six Sigma methodology has been used to improve care processes, eliminate waste, reduce costs, and increase patient satisfaction. To analyse the results obtained with Lean Six Sigma methodology in the diagnosis and improvement of the inpatient pharmacotherapy process during structural and organisational changes in a tertiary hospital. 1.000 beds tertiary hospital. prospective observational study. The define, measure, analyse, improve and control (DMAIC), were deployed from March to September 2011. An Initial Project Charter was updated as results were obtained. 131 patients with treatments prescribed within 24h after admission and with 4 drugs. safety indicators (medication errors), and efficiency indicators (complaints and time delays). Proportion of patients with a medication error was reduced from 61.0% (25/41 patients) to 55.7% (39/70 patients) in four months. Percentage of errors (regarding the opportunities for error) decreased in the different phases of the process: Prescription: from 5.1% (19/372 opportunities) to 3.3% (19/572 opportunities); Preparation: from 2.7% (14/525 opportunities) to 1.3% (11/847 opportunities); and administration: from 4.9% (16/329 opportunities) to 3.0% (13/433 opportunities). Nursing complaints decreased from 10.0% (2119/21038 patients) to 5.7% (1779/31097 patients). The estimated economic impact was 76,800 euros saved. An improvement in the pharmacotherapeutic process and a positive economic impact was observed, as well as enhancing patient safety and efficiency of the organization. Standardisation and professional training are future Lean Six Sigma candidate projects. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved numerical techniques for processing Monte Carlo thermal scattering data

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E; Rose, P

    1980-01-01

    As part of a Thermal Benchmark Validation Program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Nuclear Data Center has been calculating thermal reactor lattices using the SAM-F Monte Carlo Computer Code. As part of this program a significant improvement has been made in the adequacy of the numerical procedures used to process the thermal differential scattering cross sections for hydrogen bound in H/sub 2/O.

  3. Improved Processing, Analysis and Use of Historical Photography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    orthophoto used for control. Munitions ranges are outlined and labeled in yellow. The 1951 black and white orthophoto mosaic was developed from 11...Analysis and Use of Historical Photography October 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Improved Processing, Analysis and Use of Historical Photography 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  4. Improving hospital efficiency: a process model of organizational change commitments.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Amit; Huising, Ruthanne; Golden, Brian R

    2014-02-01

    Improving hospital efficiency is a critical goal for managers and policy makers. We draw on participant observation of the perioperative coaching program in seven Ontario hospitals to develop knowledge of the process by which the content of change initiatives to increase hospital efficiency is defined. The coaching program was a change initiative involving the use of external facilitators with the goal of increasing perioperative efficiency. Focusing on the role of subjective understandings in shaping initiatives to improve efficiency, we show that physicians, nurses, administrators, and external facilitators all have differing frames of the problems that limit efficiency, and propose different changes that could enhance efficiency. Dynamics of strategic and contested framing ultimately shaped hospital change commitments. We build on work identifying factors that enhance the success of change efforts to improve hospital efficiency, highlighting the importance of subjective understandings and the politics of meaning-making in defining what hospitals change.

  5. Process improvements for ultrathick photoresist using a broadband stepper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Capsuto, Elliott S.

    2001-09-01

    There are a number of new lithographic applications that require the use of ultra-thick photoresists. Extremely large structure heights and high aspect ratios are often necessary for electroplating processes. In this situation it is important for the height of the patterned photoresist to exceed the plating height. Two of the main applications for thick photoresist are micromachining and advanced packaging. Ultra-thick photoresists are used in packaging to define the size and location of the bonds for bump bonding, while in micromachining the photoresist is used to define fluidic chambers and electroforming molds. At photoresist thickness greater than 15 microns, standard lithographic techniques become difficult in terms of performance and productivity. The bake, exposure and develop times increase dramatically as the photoresist thickness climbs. The estimated total process time for a 15 micron photoresist is approximately three times greater than that of a 1 micron photoresist. For thick films the develop time on the wafer track becomes the throughput limiter for the entire lithography cell. Therefore, reducing develop time for thick photoresist processes is critical to enhancing the lithography cell cost of ownership. In this paper we will focus on the developer chemistry and process to improve both performance and productivity for a 15 micron thick photoresist. We evaluate process changes in both normality and surfactant level of the developer. Cross sectional analysis, contrast curves, process linearity and process windows are used to establish the lithographic capabilities. It is clear that a developer and process for a thin photoresist is not necessarily optimum for a thick photoresist process. The implementation of an ultra-thick photoresist becomes more feasible in a manufacturing environment after optimizing developer chemistry and process conditions.

  6. Improved outcomes found after implementing a systematic evaluation and program improvement process for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cass, Anne; Shaw, Tambi; Ehman, Melissa; Young, Jan; Flood, Jennifer; Royce, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    California's state and local tuberculosis (TB) programs collaborated to develop the Tuberculosis Indicators Project (TIP), a program evaluation and improvement process. In TIP, local and state staff review data, identify program gaps, implement plans to improve local TB program performance, and evaluate outcomes. After 10 years of project implementation, indicator performance changes and patient outcomes were measured. Eighty-seven percent of participating programs showed a performance increase in targeted indicators after three years compared with 57% of comparison groups. Statistically significant performance change was more common in the intervention local health departments (LHDs) than in comparison groups. The most notable performance changes were in the contact investigation and case management indicators. These results indicate that this systematic evaluation and program improvement project was associated with improved LHD TB control performance and may be useful to inform improvement projects in other public health programs.

  7. A DMAIC approach for process capability improvement an engine crankshaft manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, G. V. S. S.; Rao, P. Srinivasa

    2014-05-01

    The define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) approach is a five-strata approach, namely DMAIC. This approach is the scientific approach for reducing the deviations and improving the capability levels of the manufacturing processes. The present work elaborates on DMAIC approach applied in reducing the process variations of the stub-end-hole boring operation of the manufacture of crankshaft. This statistical process control study starts with selection of the critical-to-quality (CTQ) characteristic in the define stratum. The next stratum constitutes the collection of dimensional measurement data of the CTQ characteristic identified. This is followed by the analysis and improvement strata where the various quality control tools like Ishikawa diagram, physical mechanism analysis, failure modes effects analysis and analysis of variance are applied. Finally, the process monitoring charts are deployed at the workplace for regular monitoring and control of the concerned CTQ characteristic. By adopting DMAIC approach, standard deviation is reduced from 0.003 to 0.002. The process potential capability index ( C P) values improved from 1.29 to 2.02 and the process performance capability index ( C PK) values improved from 0.32 to 1.45, respectively.

  8. Applications of polybenzoxazines for improvement in processability and property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Lin

    Polybenzoxazines obtained from the polymerization of benzoxazine monomers or oligomers has been used for various applications: to simplify the technology adopted for protection, to improve the processability of high performance material and to replace the environmental hazards in resins. Novel siloxane-containing benzoxazine oligomers with benzoxazine rings in the main chain have been synthesized and mixed with octasilane polyhedral silsesquioxane (OctaSilane POSS) and glass sphere to form a thermo-oxidatively stable coating on a carbon/carbon composite after polymerization and baking. The coating method is very simple and inexpensive compared with the conventional approaches, such as chemical vapor deposition. The effectiveness of the coating has also been demonstrated. A new class of benzoxazine-containing monomers, namely bis(benzoxazinemaleimide)s have been synthesized to improve the poor processability of bismaleimides. A new approach of using high boiling point nonpolar solvent has been developed to prepare the monomer, which is difficult to synthesize using the traditional method of synthesizing benzoxazines. In the meantime, by the combination of two types of polymers: benzoxazine and bismaleimides, high thermally stable thermosets with high Tg have been obtained. Benzoxazine monomers have also been introduced into vinyl ester resins to replace styrene for environmental concern. With the incorporation of allyl-containing benzoxazines, the dynamic mechanical property and the thermal stability of the resins have been improved, while the processability of the resin is maintained.

  9. The economic valuation of improved process plant decision support technology.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas C

    2007-06-01

    How can investments that would potentially improve a manufacturing plant's decision process be economically justified? What is the value of "better information," "more flexibility," or "improved integration" and the technologies that provide these effects? Technology investments such as improved process modelling, new real time historians and other databases, "smart" instrumentation, better data analysis and visualization software, and/or improved user interfaces often include these benefits as part of their valuation. How are these "soft" benefits to be converted to a quantitative economic return? Quantification is important if rational management decisions are to be made about the correct amount of money to invest in the technologies, and which technologies to choose among the many available ones. Modelling the plant operational decision cycle-detect, analyse, forecast, choose and implement--provides a basis for this economic quantification. In this paper a new economic model is proposed for estimation of the value of decision support investments based on their effect upon the uncertainty in forecasting plant financial performance. This model leads to quantitative benefit estimates that have a realistic financial basis. An example is presented demonstrating the application of the method.

  10. TRMM Data Improvement as Part of the GPM Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich F.; Ji, Y.; Kwiatkowski, J.; Kelley, O.; Stout, J.; Woltz, L.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has a long standing commitment to the improvement of its mission datasets. Indeed, data reprocessing is always built into the plans, schedule and budget for the mission data processing system. However, in addition to these ongoing mission reprocessing, NASA also supports a final reprocessing of all the data for a mission upon its completion (known as Phase F). TRMM Phase F started with the end of the TRMM mission in June of 2015. This last reprocessing has two overall goals: improvement of the TRMM mission data products; incorporation of the 17+ years of TRMM data into the ongoing NASA/JAXA GPM data processing. The first goal guarantees that the latest algorithms used for precipitation retrievals will also be used in reprocessing the TRMM data. The second goal ensures that as GPM algorithms are improved, the entire TRMM data will always be reprocessed with each GPM reprocessing. In essence TRMM becomes another of the GPM constellation satellites. This paper will concentrate on presenting the improvements to TMI level 1 data including calibration, geolocation, and emissive antenna corrections. It will describe the format changes that will occur how the TMI level 1C product will be intercalibrated using GMI as the reference calibration. It will also provide an overview of changes in the precipitation radar products as well as the combined TMIPR product.

  11. How to Improve Process Models for Better ISO/IEC 15504 Process Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Michel; Renault, Alain; Cortina, Stéphane

    Since the evolution of SPICE towards a generic standard for process assessment in 2003, there have been an increasing number of initiatives aiming to propose Process Reference Models (PRM) and Process Assessment Models (PAM) in various fields of activity. Although these process models are the basis of any process assessment, the related ISO/IEC 15504-2:2003 requirements are not very strict and can be variously interpreted. Enhancing these requirements would improve both the intrinsic quality of process models and their added-value from the user standpoint. The current revision of the standard is an opportunity to bring an answer to issues that were raised by the experienced developers and users of ISO/IEC 15504 compliant process models. This paper proposes parts of an answer to some of these issues and motivates them through their direct impact on the process model relevance from the beneficiaries' point of view.

  12. Ethnographic process evaluation of a quality improvement project to improve transitions of care for older people

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Elizabeth; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Tarrant, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Quality improvement projects to address transitions of care across care boundaries are increasingly common but meet with mixed success for reasons that are poorly understood. We aimed to characterise challenges in a project to improve transitions for older people between hospital and care homes. Design Independent process evaluation, using ethnographic observations and interviews, of a quality improvement project. Setting and participants An English hospital and two residential care homes for older people. Data 32 hours of non-participant observations and 12 semistructured interviews with project members, hospital and care home staff. Results A hospital-based improvement team sought to reduce unplanned readmissions from residential care homes using interventions including a community-based geriatric team that could be accessed directly by care homes and a communication tool intended to facilitate transfer of information between homes and hospital. Only very modest (if any) impacts of these interventions on readmission rates could be detected. The process evaluation identified multiple challenges in implementing interventions and securing improvement. Many of these arose because of lack of consensus on the nature of the problem and the proper solutions: while the hospital team was keen to reduce readmissions and saw the problems as lying in poor communication and lack of community-based support for care homes, the care home staff had different priorities. Care home staff were unconvinced that the improvement interventions were aligned with their needs or addressed their concerns, resulting in compromised implementation. Conclusions Process evaluations have a valuable role in quality improvement. Our study suggests that a key task for quality improvement projects aimed at transitions of care is that of developing a shared view of the problem to be addressed. A more participatory approach could help to surface assumptions, interpretations and interests

  13. How much further can lithography process windows be improved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Mary Ann; Lin, Qin; Calderas, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Utilizing thin photoresist layers for successful pattern transfer has gained acceptance as the lithography process of record, primarily due to the incorporation of silicon-containing hardmask (HM) layers for added etching resistance. Our work includes understanding the impact of HfO2 and ZrO2 nanocrystal additives incorporated into spin-on HM materials. The goal is to quantify both etch selectivity and the improvements in the lithography process windows with the addition of HfO2 nanocrystals into various types of polymers. Conventional 193-nm photoresists and spin-on carbon materials were selected as references for etch selectivity calculations. Results indicate there are process window advantages with improvements in the depth of focus (DOF) and overall pattern collapse margins. In addition, the ability to quantify line width roughness (LWR) as a function of resolution has been accomplished for these HM materials, and results show low levels of LWR are achievable. Overall lithography process margins are positive for DOF, exposure latitude (EL), LWR, and pattern collapse with the incorporation of HfO2-enhanced HM coatings for etch protection.

  14. GSFC specification electronic data processing magnetic recording tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinari, D. F.; Perry, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The design requirements are given for magnetic oxide coated, electronic data processing tape, wound on reels. Magnetic recording tape types covered by this specification are intended for use on digital tape transports using the Non-Return-to-Zero-change-on-ones (NRZI) recording method for recording densities up to and including 800 characters per inch (cpi) and the Phase-Encoding (PE) recording method for a recording density of 1600 cpi.

  15. The trauma report nurse: a trauma triage process improvement project.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Lisa; Fahje, Carol; Immermann, Carol; Elsbernd, Terri

    2014-09-01

    Accurate trauma triage is imperative to facilitate appropriate resource mobilization for severely injured trauma patients. A critical window of opportunity exists to prevent secondary injury or death. Timely assessment with a multidisciplinary trauma team is essential to facilitate rapid diagnosis and treatment. However, consistent and accurate trauma triage proved daunting at our institution, resulting in instances of undertriage. A process improvement strategy aimed at improving trauma triage accuracy was implemented. An innovative role, the trauma report nurse (TRN), was created and became the trauma nurse expert. The TRN was responsible for assigning a trauma triage level to all incoming adult and pediatric trauma patients. In parallel, improvements were made to the prehospital report format, increasing standardization and clarifying hand-off verbiage. Undertriage rates dropped from 14% to 4.8%. Qualitative data demonstrated acceptance and support of the TRN role among physicians, nurses and nursing and ancillary staff. Designating trauma triage to an ED registered nurse proved to reduce undertriage rates. By providing staff education, infrastructure improvements, and leadership support, the role continues to thrive, resulting in improved care for severely injured trauma patients. Copyright © 2014 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Organic photovoltaic cells: from performance improvement to manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hongseok; Park, Hui Joon; Guo, L Jay

    2015-05-20

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have been pursued as a next generation power source due to their light weight, thin, flexible, and simple fabrication advantages. Improvements in OPV efficiency have attracted great attention in the past decade. Because the functional layers in OPVs can be dissolved in common solvents, they can be manufactured by eco-friendly and scalable printing or coating technologies. In this review article, the focus is on recent efforts to control nanomorphologies of photoactive layer and discussion of various solution-processed charge transport and extraction materials, to maximize the performance of OPV cells. Next, recent works on printing and coating technologies for OPVs to realize solution processing are reviewed. The review concludes with a discussion of recent advances in the development of non-traditional lamination and transfer method towards highly efficient and fully solution-processed OPV.

  17. Improving the process of process modelling by the use of domain process patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschmider, Agnes; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2015-01-01

    The use of business process models has become prevalent in a wide area of enterprise applications. But while their popularity is expanding, concerns are growing with respect to their proper creation and maintenance. An obvious way to boost the efficiency of creating high-quality business process models would be to reuse relevant parts of existing models. At this point, however, limited support exists to guide process modellers towards the usage of appropriate model content. In this paper, a set of content-oriented patterns is presented, which is extracted from a large set of process models from the order management and manufacturing production domains. The patterns are derived using a newly proposed set of algorithms, which are being discussed in this paper. The authors demonstrate how such Domain Process Patterns, in combination with information on their historic usage, can support process modellers in generating new models. To support the wider dissemination and development of Domain Process Patterns within and beyond the studied domains, an accompanying website has been set up.

  18. Process potential screening - an instrument to improve business processes in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, F; Ammenwerth, E; Haux, R

    2006-01-01

    Hospitals are increasingly under pressure to optimize their processes. So far, an instrument to systematically identify the potentials for improvement of a given business process is missing. The aim of this project is to develop such an instrument. Initially, central aspects of the quality of a hospital process were identified on the basis of a systematic literature review. Secondary to that, criteria to measure quality aspects were defined: More than 300 criteria from medical and business informatics, economics and quality management publications were gathered and systematically aggregated. As a result, the Process Potential Screening (PPS) instrument was developed. The PPS is a matrix containing two axes: Axis I comprises 30 quality aspects referring to results, execution and control of hospital processes. Axis II comprises 16 quality criteria (e.g., customer satisfaction, time). The PPS displays approximately 400 relevant combinations of those quality aspects and quality criteria that help to identify potentials for improvement of a given hospital process. It utilizes different methods for the measurement of the criteria and for application by way of individuals or groups. In using the PPS, relevant potentials for improvement were identified in ten typical hospital processes. The instrument's practicability must now be examined in further studies by the final target group (e.g., quality or project managers, and the staff responsible for processes).

  19. Electrochromic Windows: Process and Fabrication Improvements for Lower Total Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2007-03-31

    The overall goal with respect to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to achieve significant national energy savings through maximized penetration of EC windows into existing markets so that the largest cumulative energy reduction can be realized. The speed with which EC windows can be introduced and replace current IGU's (and current glazings) is clearly a strong function of cost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate possible improvements to the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazing products to facilitate both process and fabrication improvements resulting in lower overall costs. The project was split into four major areas dealing with improvements to the electrochromic layer, the capping layer, defect elimination and general product improvements. Significant advancements have been made in each of the four areas. These can be summarized as follows: (1) Plasma assisted deposition for the electrochromic layer was pursued, and several improvements made to the technology for producing a plasma beam were made. Functional EC devices were produced using the new technology, but there are still questions to be answered regarding the intrinsic properties of the electrochromic films produced by this method. (2) The capping layer work was successfully implemented into the existing SageGlass{reg_sign} product, thereby providing a higher level of transparency and somewhat lower reflectivity than the 'standard' product. (3) Defect elimination is an ongoing effort, but this project spurred some major defect reduction programs, which led to significant improvements in yield, with all the implicit benefits afforded. In particular, major advances were made in the development of a new bus bar application process aimed at reducing the numbers of 'shorts' developed in the finished product, as well as making dramatic improvements in the methods used for tempering the glass, which had previously been seen to produce a defect which appeared as a pinhole. (4) Improvements have

  20. Improving quality of care in substance abuse treatment using five key process improvement principles

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kim A.; Green, Carla A.; Ford, James H.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Gustafson, David H.; McCarty, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Process and quality improvement techniques have been successfully applied in health care arenas, but efforts to institute these strategies in alcohol and drug treatment are underdeveloped. The Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) teaches participating substance abuse treatment agencies to use process improvement strategies to increase client access to, and retention in, treatment. NIATx recommends five principles to promote organizational change: 1) Understand and involve the customer; 2) Fix key problems; 3) Pick a powerful change leader; 4) Get ideas from outside the organization; and 5) Use rapid-cycle testing. Using case studies, supplemented with cross-agency analyses of interview data, this paper profiles participating NIATx treatment agencies that illustrate application of each principle. Results suggest that the most successful organizations integrate and apply most, if not all, of the five principles as they develop and test change strategies. PMID:22282129

  1. How to improve patient satisfaction when patients are already satisfied: a continuous process-improvement approach.

    PubMed

    Friesner, Dan; Neufelder, Donna; Raisor, Janet; Bozman, Carl S

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a methodology that measures improvement in customer satisfaction scores when those scores are already high and the production process is slow and thus does not generate a large amount of useful data in any given time period. The authors used these techniques with data from a midsized rehabilitation institute affiliated with a regional, nonprofit medical center. Thus, this article functions as a case study, the findings of which may be applicable to a large number of other healthcare providers that share both the mission and challenges faced by this facility. The methodology focused on 2 factors: use of the unique characteristics of panel data to overcome the paucity of observations and a dynamic benchmarking approach to track process variability over time. By focusing on these factors, the authors identify some additional areas for process improvement despite the institute's past operational success.

  2. Managerial process improvement: a lean approach to eliminating medication delivery.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Aftab; Stewart, LaShonda M; Rivers, Patrick A; Munchus, George

    2015-01-01

    Statistical evidence shows that medication errors are a major cause of injuries that concerns all health care oganizations. Despite all the efforts to improve the quality of care, the lack of understanding and inability of management to design a robust system that will strategically target those factors is a major cause of distress. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Achieving optimum organizational performance requires two key variables; work process factors and human performance factors. The approach is that healthcare administrators must take in account both variables in designing a strategy to reduce medication errors. However, strategies that will combat such phenomena require that managers and administrators understand the key factors that are causing medication delivery errors. The authors recommend that healthcare organizations implement the Toyota Production System (TPS) combined with human performance improvement (HPI) methodologies to eliminate medication delivery errors in hospitals. Despite all the efforts to improve the quality of care, there continues to be a lack of understanding and the ability of management to design a robust system that will strategically target those factors associated with medication errors. This paper proposes a solution to an ambiguous workflow process using the TPS combined with the HPI system.

  3. Does attentional training improve numerical processing in developmental dyscalculia?

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Henik, Avishai

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a deficit in attention was found in those with pure developmental dyscalculia (DD). Accordingly, the present study aimed to examine the influence of attentional training on attention abilities, basic numerical abilities, and arithmetic in participants who were diagnosed as having DD. Nine university students diagnosed as having DD (IQ and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and nine matched controls participated in attentional training (i.e., video game training). First, training modulated the orienting system; after training, the size of the validity effect (i.e., effect of valid vs. invalid) decreased. This effect was comparable in the two groups. Training modulated abnormalities in the attention systems of those with DD, that is, it reduced their enlarged congruity effect (i.e., faster responding when flanking arrows pointed to the same location as a center arrow). Second, in relation to the enumeration task, training reduced the reaction time of the DD group in the subitizing range but did not change their smaller-than-normal subitizing range. Finally, training improved performance in addition problems in both the DD and control groups. These results imply that attentional training does improve most of the attentional deficits of those with DD. In contrast, training did not improve the abnormalities of the DD group in arithmetic or basic numerical processing. Thus, in contrast to the domain-general hypothesis, the deficits in attention among those with DD and the deficits in numerical processing appear to originate from different sources.

  4. Improving the health of Missouri communities: a process approach.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Alewine, S

    1997-12-01

    It is important to note that while many states have communities involved in processes similar to CHART, few, if any, offer a team of professionals to support these initiatives, and none have a statewide partnership that is as committed to the process as Missouri does. The relationship between the key partner organizations is a unique phenomenon, and is certainly a key success factor for the process. CHART is an active member of the Coalition for Healthier Cities and Communities, a national network that exists as a multi-sector partnership to service the widespread communities movement in the U.S. The Coalition serves as both a link to resources, and as a voice for policy and action. The issues and concerns, as well as the successes, of Missouri communities are carried to this national Coalition to present a unified voice for communities nationwide. CHART is an innovative approach to empowered community development. It provides communities the opportunity to participate in the process of change. The CHART process provides a vehicle for communities to take charge of the future, to determine locally how issues are addressed, and to set a course that assures improved health, quality of life, and sustainable community systems for the 21st century.

  5. Photomask cleaning process improvement to minimize ArF haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Michael; McDonald, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Growth of "haze" defects on photomasks exposed in ArF lithography is recognized as a serious problem. Haze defects that have grown to detectable sizes can be analysed in situ by techniques such as EDX or Raman, but to analyze at the photomask manufacturing stage requires extraction of residues by solution in DI water. The effect of extraction conditions, including surface area and material, water volume, time, and temperature, has been studied. A standard method to compare residual ion levels is proposed. Various methods for reducing residual ion levels from the photomask cleaning process have been published. These include SPM reduction, oxygen plasma, SC1 dilution, Megasonic agitation, hot rinse, UV exposure, thermal bake, ozone water, ozone gas, and hydrogenated water. Critical parameters for the cleaning process, besides residual ion levels and contamination removal efficiency, include CD shift, AR/chrome damage, scatter bar damage, and on phase shift masks, the change in phase and transmission. An optimized process combining conventional and novel techniques is described. Data is presented to show the importance of controlling all resist strip and clean processes, not just the final clean. It has achieved sulphate levels of 0.2ng/cm2 (well below the critical level for haze growth), as well as improved results for the other critical parameters. This process has been demonstrated to allow ArF exposure of large numbers of wafers without the appearance of haze defects.

  6. Improvement of the LARED-H post-processing cod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin

    2011-10-01

    The two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code LARED-H is developed to simulate hohlraums in ICF. The radiation transport is modelled through radiative heat conduction method. Experimentally measured radiation fluxes are calculated with a post-processing code solving multi-group transfer equations along appointed lines with absorption and emission coefficients coming from LARED-H simulations. Compared with hohlraum experiments, peak temperatures through the laser entrance hole and the 2-4 keV Au M-band fractions gave by the post-processing code are underestimated. The radiation transport model difference between LARED-H and its post-processing code is found to be the reason. Because the level populations coming from LARED-H simulations are not solved coupling with the multi-group equations in post-processing runnings, the post-processing code will give more radiation absorption and depress the net x-ray emission in laser spots finally. To solve this problem, the net x-ray emission of LARED-H simulations is included in the multi-group transfer equations. We find improved agreement between experiments and simulations using this new model.

  7. Great Safety Performance: an improvement process using leading indicators.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Dianne; Roithmayr, Tony

    2004-12-01

    The Great Safety Performance model uses leading indicators to drive injury prevention and provides a process to improve a company's safety outcomes by maximizing the conditions for safety within the workplace. The model asserts that leaders and workers need to jointly create conditions whereby everyone will know what to do, be able to do it, be equipped to do it, want to do it, and experience interactions that support safe performance in their job duties. These factors are referred to as the conditions for great performance. The Great Safety Performance model can serve as a vehicle to quantify, document, and demonstrate the efforts a company invests to create a safe workplace with safe work practices. By using the Great Safety Performance model, organizations can design and implement a variety of high leverage improvement initiatives specific to their business situations.

  8. Image-plane processing for improved computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The proper combination of optical design with image plane processing, as in the mechanism of human vision, which allows to improve the performance of sensor array imaging systems for edge detection and location was examined. Two dimensional bandpass filtering during image formation, optimizes edge enhancement and minimizes data transmission. It permits control of the spatial imaging system response to tradeoff edge enhancement for sensitivity at low light levels. It is shown that most of the information, up to about 94%, is contained in the signal intensity transitions from which the location of edges is determined for raw primal sketches. Shading the lens transmittance to increase depth of field and using a hexagonal instead of square sensor array lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation improves edge information about 10%.

  9. Image-plane processing for improved computer vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Park, S. K.; Samms, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The proper combination of optical design with image plane processing, as in the mechanism of human vision, which allows to improve the performance of sensor array imaging systems for edge detection and location was examined. Two dimensional bandpass filtering during image formation, optimizes edge enhancement and minimizes data transmission. It permits control of the spatial imaging system response to tradeoff edge enhancement for sensitivity at low light levels. It is shown that most of the information, up to about 94%, is contained in the signal intensity transitions from which the location of edges is determined for raw primal sketches. Shading the lens transmittance to increase depth of field and using a hexagonal instead of square sensor array lattice to decrease sensitivity to edge orientation improves edge information about 10%.

  10. Improving operating room productivity via parallel anesthesia processing.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael J; Subramanian, Arun; Curry, Timothy B; Kor, Daryl J; Moran, Steven L; Rohleder, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    Parallel processing of regional anesthesia may improve operating room (OR) efficiency in patients undergoes upper extremity surgical procedures. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether performing regional anesthesia outside the OR in parallel increases total cases per day, improve efficiency and productivity. Data from all adult patients who underwent regional anesthesia as their primary anesthetic for upper extremity surgery over a one-year period were used to develop a simulation model. The model evaluated pure operating modes of regional anesthesia performed within and outside the OR in a parallel manner. The scenarios were used to evaluate how many surgeries could be completed in a standard work day (555 minutes) and assuming a standard three cases per day, what was the predicted end-of-day time overtime. Modeling results show that parallel processing of regional anesthesia increases the average cases per day for all surgeons included in the study. The average increase was 0.42 surgeries per day. Where it was assumed that three cases per day would be performed by all surgeons, the days going to overtime was reduced by 43 percent with parallel block. The overtime with parallel anesthesia was also projected to be 40 minutes less per day per surgeon. Key limitations include the assumption that all cases used regional anesthesia in the comparisons. Many days may have both regional and general anesthesia. Also, as a case study, single-center research may limit generalizability. Perioperative care providers should consider parallel administration of regional anesthesia where there is a desire to increase daily upper extremity surgical case capacity. Where there are sufficient resources to do parallel anesthesia processing, efficiency and productivity can be significantly improved. Simulation modeling can be an effective tool to show practice change effects at a system-wide level.

  11. Cross-Functional Team Processes and Patient Functional Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Lichtenstein, Richard; Jinnett, Kimberly; Wells, Rebecca; Zazzali, James; Liu, Dawei

    2005-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that higher levels of participation and functioning in cross-functional psychiatric treatment teams will be related to improved patient outcomes. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data were collected during the period 1992–1999. The study was conducted in 40 teams within units treating seriously mentally ill patients in 16 Veterans Affairs hospitals across the U.S. Study Design A longitudinal, multilevel analysis assessed the relationship between individual- and team-level variables and patients' ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) over time. Team data were collected in 1992, 1994, and 1995. The number of times patient data were collected was dependent on the length of time the patient was treated and varied from 1 to 14 between 1992 and 1999. Key variables included: patients' ADL scores (the dependent variable); measures of team participation and team functioning; the number of days from baseline on which a patient's ADLs were assessed; and several control variables. Data Collection Methods Team data were obtained via self-administered questionnaires distributed to staff on the study teams. Additional team data were obtained via questionnaires completed by unit directors contemporaneously with the staff survey. Patient data were collected by trained clinicians at regular intervals using a standard assessment instrument. Principal Findings Results indicated that patients treated in teams with higher levels of staff participation experienced greater improvement in ADL over time. No differences in ADL change were noted for patients treated in teams with higher levels of team functioning. Conclusions Findings support our premise that team process has important implications for patient outcomes. The results suggest that the level of participation by the team as a whole may be a more important process attribute, in terms of patient improvements in ADLs, than the team's smooth functioning. These findings indicate the

  12. Cross-functional team processes and patient functional improvement.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Lichtenstein, Richard; Jinnett, Kimberly; Wells, Rebecca; Zazzali, James; Liu, Dawei

    2005-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that higher levels of participation and functioning in cross-functional psychiatric treatment teams will be related to improved patient outcomes. Primary data were collected during the period 1992-1999. The study was conducted in 40 teams within units treating seriously mentally ill patients in 16 Veterans Affairs hospitals across the U.S. A longitudinal, multilevel analysis assessed the relationship between individual- and team-level variables and patients' ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) over time. Team data were collected in 1992, 1994, and 1995. The number of times patient data were collected was dependent on the length of time the patient was treated and varied from 1 to 14 between 1992 and 1999. Key variables included: patients' ADL scores (the dependent variable); measures of team participation and team functioning; the number of days from baseline on which a patient's ADLs were assessed; and several control variables. Team data were obtained via self-administered questionnaires distributed to staff on the study teams. Additional team data were obtained via questionnaires completed by unit directors contemporaneously with the staff survey. Patient data were collected by trained clinicians at regular intervals using a standard assessment instrument. Results indicated that patients treated in teams with higher levels of staff participation experienced greater improvement in ADL over time. No differences in ADL change were noted for patients treated in teams with higher levels of team functioning. Findings support our premise that team process has important implications for patient outcomes. The results suggest that the level of participation by the team as a whole may be a more important process attribute, in terms of patient improvements in ADLs, than the team's smooth functioning. These findings indicate the potential appropriateness of managerial interventions to encourage member investment in team processes.

  13. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  14. Improving quality of care in substance abuse treatment using five key process improvement principles.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Kim A; Green, Carla A; Ford, James H; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Gustafson, David H; McCarty, Dennis

    2012-07-01

    Process and quality improvement techniques have been successfully applied in health care arenas, but efforts to institute these strategies in alcohol and drug treatment are underdeveloped. The Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) teaches participating substance abuse treatment agencies to use process improvement strategies to increase client access to, and retention in, treatment. NIATx recommends five principles to promote organizational change: (1) understand and involve the customer, (2) fix key problems, (3) pick a powerful change leader, (4) get ideas from outside the organization, and (5) use rapid cycle testing. Using case studies, supplemented with cross-agency analyses of interview data, this paper profiles participating NIATx treatment agencies that illustrate successful applications of each principle. Results suggest that organizations can successfully integrate and apply the five principles as they develop and test change strategies, improving access and retention in treatment, and agencies' financial status. Upcoming changes requiring increased provision of behavioral health care will result in greater demand for services. Treatment organizations, already struggling to meet demand and client needs, will need strategies that improve the quality of care they provide without significantly increasing costs. The five NIATx principles have potential for helping agencies achieve these goals.

  15. Reliably Addressing "What Matters" Through a Quality Improvement Process.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Patricia A

    2016-02-01

    Oncology nurses have a critical role in mitigating the intense vulnerability, loss of control, and fear of the unknown that characterizes the experiences of patients with cancer and their family members. Reliably inquiring about the issues that are at the forefront for patients and their loved ones can encourage a deeper dialogue-where nurses can understand and address the issues that are most important to them. A practical quality improvement approach can help to ensure that processes are in place to assist nurses in devoting time to reliably inquire about "what matters" to each patient at every encounter.

  16. Process Improvement Through Tool Integration in Aero-Mechanical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Emerging capabilities in commercial design tools promise to significantly improve the multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary design and analysis coverage for aerospace mechanical engineers. This paper explores the analysis process for two example problems of a wing and flap mechanical drive system and an aircraft landing gear door panel. The examples begin with the design solid models and include various analysis disciplines such as structural stress and aerodynamic loads. Analytical methods include CFD, multi-body dynamics with flexible bodies and structural analysis. Elements of analysis data management, data visualization and collaboration are also included.

  17. Process Improvement Through Tool Integration in Aero-Mechanical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Emerging capabilities in commercial design tools promise to significantly improve the multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary design and analysis coverage for aerospace mechanical engineers. This paper explores the analysis process for two example problems of a wing and flap mechanical drive system and an aircraft landing gear door panel. The examples begin with the design solid models and include various analysis disciplines such as structural stress and aerodynamic loads. Analytical methods include CFD, multi-body dynamics with flexible bodies and structural analysis. Elements of analysis data management, data visualization and collaboration are also included.

  18. Silver Nanowire Embedded Colorless Polyimide Heater for Wearable Chemical Sensors: Improved Reversible Reaction Kinetics of Optically Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Kim, Sang-Joon; Jang, Ji-Soo; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Il-Doo

    2016-09-14

    Optically reduced graphene oxide (ORGO) sheets are successfully integrated on silver nanowire (Ag NW)-embedded transparent and flexible substrate. As a heating element, Ag NWs are embedded in a colorless polyimide (CPI) film by covering Ag NW networks using polyamic acid and subsequent imidization. Graphene oxide dispersed aqueous solution is drop-coated on the Ag NW-embedded CPI (Ag NW-CPI) film and directly irradiated by intense pulsed light to obtain ORGO sheets. The heat generation property of Ag NW-CPI film is investigated by applying DC voltage, which demonstrates unprecedentedly reliable and stable characteristics even in dynamic bending condition. To demonstrate the potential application in wearable chemical sensors, NO2 sensing characteristic of ORGO is investigated with respect to the different heating temperature (22.7-71.7 °C) of Ag NW-CPI film. The result reveals that the ORGO sheets exhibit high sensitivity of 2.69% with reversible response/recovery sensing properties and minimal deviation of baseline resistance of around 1% toward NO2 molecules when the temperature of Ag NW-CPI film is 71.7 °C. This work first demonstrates the improved reversible NO2 sensing properties of ORGO sheets on flexible and transparent Ag NW-CPI film assisted by Ag NW heating networks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Capturing User Needs to Improve Processes at EOSDIS Data Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofinowski, E. J.; Boquist, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2004 the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has conducted an annual comprehensive survey of user satisfaction using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). Customer satisfaction ratings for EOSDIS consistently rate better than the overall government ratings. As part of the survey users are asked to submit comments concerning their experiences and interests. These user comments provide valuable insight into the effect of data center processes on users' experiences. Although user satisfaction has remained high, their preferences have changed with the rapid advances in web-based services. This analysis investigates the correlation between user comments, process changes or capability improvements at the individual data centers, and whether the changes at the data centers and web sites show a corresponding increase in user satisfaction. We will evaluate the comments in the areas of Product Search, Product Selection and Order, Delivery, Product Quality and Customer Support.

  20. Process approach in developing or improvement of student information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskowska, Małgorzata

    2015-02-01

    An aim of research described in the article was to evaluate usefulness of the university information system, which precedes its reorganization. The study was conducted among representatives of all stakeholders - system users: candidates, students and university authorities. A need of system users expressed in the study: change of the approach in its construction - from purely information to procedural, it is consistent with a current process approach in systems design, intensified by the fashionable service oriented architecture (SOA). This thread was developed by conducting literature research and analysis of student information systems best practices. As a result the processes were selected and described, which implementation may assist the university system. Research result can be used by system designers for its improvement.

  1. Improving Rehabilitation Effectiveness by Enhancing the Creative Process

    PubMed Central

    Pitney, William A.; Bunton, Edwin E.

    1995-01-01

    Creativity is a tacit component of a rehabilitation program that must be exercised by a clinician to avoid stagnation of rehabilitative innovation. Enhancing creativity can improve rehabilitation effectiveness but requires a conscious effort on the part of a clinician. There are many components to encouraging the creative process, but few authors have grouped them into a single step-by-step process. The authors of this paper have developed the CLEAR method to enhancing creativity. This method represents a summation of various strategies offered in the literature and comprises five steps: 1) challenging old routines, 2) learning new attitudes, 3) enlisting idea-generation exercises, 4) assessing the new idea for safety, and 5) revising the idea so that it is safe and suitable for rehabilitation. ImagesFig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4. PMID:16558347

  2. Radiation processing to improve the quality of fishery products.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, V; Doke, S N; Thomas, P

    1999-09-01

    Extensive investigations, worldwide, in the last 4 decades have shown the benefits of radiation processing for the preservation and microbial quality improvement of seafoods. In the present review, the various factors determining the quality of seafoods are first presented. The basic principles underlying the effects of ionizing radiation and specific effects on food constituents such as proteins, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, and tissue enzymes are discussed. Data on radiation processing of seafoods are reported and discussed with respect to shelf life enhancement under refrigeration by control of bacteria causing spoilage, radiation sensitivity of pathogenic microorganisms and parasites of public health significance and their elimination in fresh and frozen fishery products, control of insect disinfestation in dried fishery products, influence of irradiation on nutritional and sensory quality attributes, detection of irradiation treatment, economics, and international status.

  3. Study on the impact of the initialization process on the phase change memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Kun; Rao, Feng; Song, Zhitang; Lv, Shilong; Zhu, Min; Wu, Liangcai; Liu, Bo; Feng, Songlin

    2013-05-01

    The set processes of T-shape phase change memory (PCRAM) cell are compared to study the change caused by the initialization. After the initialization, PCRAM cell shows lower Vth and minor resistances than those of the 1st operation, which can be explained by the reduction of contact resistance caused by the formation of the crystalline phase change material interface (CPI) near the electrodes. The temperature transition regions between the programmed region and the electrodes preserve the CPI after its formation in the initial operation. Thus, we suggest the formation of CPI is the key role for the initialization.

  4. Low-cost-silicon-process development. Phase IV: process improvement. Second quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Giraudi, R. V.; Newman, C. G.

    1981-04-01

    A number of promising techniques for improving the overall yield and economics of the tribromosilane based process to produce solar cell grade silicon is investigated. The current work is aimed at the identification of an optimum process and the characterization of that process through mini-plant operation and analysis. The three project tasks include process improvement studies, kinetic studies, and process economic studies. During this second quarter reporting period process improvement studies continued in the mini-plant, focusing on the correlation of current mini-plant yield results with prior laboratory scale work. Silicon bromination in the synthesis unit and tribromosilane purification in the distillation unit proceeded efficiently and without complication during this reporting period. Tribromosilane yields in the synthesis unit were low due to unobtainable higher reaction temperatures. Initial polycrystalline silicon production studies have indicated consistent yields of 85%. The laboratory scale static bulb reactor system was calibrated by observing the decomposition of t-butyl chloride. These results compared very well to results obtained by previous investigators for the same decomposition. Upon the conclusion of the calibration tests, the tribromosilane decomposition rate study was initiated. Two decompositions were completed and it was concluded that the reaction order can not be determined at this time. A free space reactor apparatus was assembled and tribromosilane decompositions, as a function of dilution in argon, was studied.

  5. Focused process improvement events: sustainability of impact on process and performance in an academic radiology department.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Lawson, Kirk; Ally, Rosina; Chen, David; Donno, Frank; Rittberg, Steven; Rodriguez, Joan; Recht, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate sustainability of impact of rapid, focused process improvement (PI) events on process and performance within an academic radiology department. Our department conducted PI during 2011 and 2012 in CT, MRI, ultrasound, breast imaging, and research billing. PI entailed participation by all stakeholders, facilitation by the department chair, collection of baseline data, meetings during several weeks, definition of performance metrics, creation of an improvement plan, and prompt implementation. We explore common themes among PI events regarding initial impact and durability of changes. We also assess performance in each area pre-PI, immediately post-PI, and at the time of the current study. All PI events achieved an immediate improvement in performance metrics, often entailing both examination volumes and on-time performance. IT-based solutions, process standardization, and redefinition of staff responsibilities were often central in these changes, and participants consistently expressed improved internal leadership and problem-solving ability. Major environmental changes commonly occurred after PI, including a natural disaster with equipment loss, a change in location or services offered, and new enterprise-wide electronic medical record system incorporating new billing and radiology informatics systems, requiring flexibility in the PI implementation plan. Only one PI team conducted regular post-PI follow-up meetings. Sustained improvement was frequently, but not universally, observed: in the long-term following initial PI, measures of examination volume showed continued progressive improvements, whereas measures of operational efficiency remained stable or occasionally declined. Focused PI is generally effective in achieving performance improvement, although a changing environment influences the sustainability of impact. Thus, continued process evaluation and ongoing workflow modifications are warranted. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology

  6. Process Improvement of Reactive Dye Synthesis Using Six Sigma Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwanich, Thanapat; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    This research focuses on the problem occurred in the reactive dye synthesis process of a global manufacturer in Thailand which producing various chemicals for reactive dye products to supply global industries such as chemicals, textiles and garments. The product named “Reactive Blue Base” is selected in this study because it has highest demand and the current chemical yield shows a high variation, i.e. yield variation of 90.4% - 99.1% (S.D. = 2.405 and Cpk = -0.08) and average yield is 94.5% (lower than the 95% standard set by the company). The Six Sigma concept is applied aiming at increasing yield and reducing variation of this process. This approach is suitable since it provides a systematic guideline with five improvement phases (DMAIC) to effectively tackle the problem and find the appropriate parameter settings of the process. Under the new parameter settings, the process yield variation is reduced to range between 96.5% - 98.5% (S.D. = 0.525 and Cpk = 1.83) and the average yield is increased to 97.5% (higher than the 95% standard set by the company).

  7. Soda ash improves lead removal in lime precipitation process

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, D.Y.; Riddell, M.D.R.; Bonamico, B.

    1982-01-01

    Both laboratory-scale and plant-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using soda ash as a supplemental chemical in the existing lime neutralization-sedimentation process. The purpose was to improve the efficiency of lead removal from a metal finishing wastewater by taking advantage of the lower solubility of lead carbonate. Plant-scale studies indicated that addition of soda ash at about 2 mg Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ per mg Pb and at a pH between 8 and 11.5 reduced lead content in the settled effluent consistently to less than 0.3 mg/l. This is considerably lower than the 0.5 mg/1 specified in the sewer use ordinance. After about one year's operation, this modified lime neutralization-sedimentation process has been found to be more stable and reliable, and requires less attendance than the simple lime process. The process can also now be operated at a lower pH (minimum: 7.0) with the addition of soda ash, which has resulted in a lower amount of sludge production, lower lime usage and significantly lower manpower requirements.

  8. Improvement of Landfill Leachate Biodegradability with Ultrasonic Process

    PubMed Central

    Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Roodbari, Ali Akbar; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Nasseri, Simin; Dehghani, Mohammad Hadil; Alimohammadi, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Landfills leachates are known to contain recalcitrant and/or non-biodegradable organic substances and biological processes are not efficient in these cases. A promising alternative to complete oxidation of biorecalcitrant leachate is the use of ultrasonic process as pre-treatment to convert initially biorecalcitrant compounds to more readily biodegradable intermediates. The objectives of this study are to investigate the effect of ultrasonic process on biodegradability improvement. After the optimization by factorial design, the ultrasonic were applied in the treatment of raw leachates using a batch wise mode. For this, different scenarios were tested with regard to power intensities of 70 and 110 W, frequencies of 30, 45 and 60 KHz, reaction times of 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes and pH of 3, 7 and 10. For determining the effects of catalysts on sonication efficiencies, 5 mg/l of TiO2 and ZnO have been also used. Results showed that when applied as relatively brief pre-treatment systems, the sonocatalysis processes induce several modifications of the matrix, which results in significant enhancement of its biodegradability. For this reason, the integrated chemical–biological systems proposed here represent a suitable solution for the treatment of landfill leachate samples. PMID:22829863

  9. Agonist-induced changes in the phosphorylation of the myosin- binding subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase and CPI17, two regulatory factors of myosin light chain phosphatase, in smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Niiro, Naohisa; Koga, Yasuhiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) enhances smooth muscle contraction at a constant [Ca2+]. There are two components, myosin-binding subunit of MLCP (MBS) and CPI17, thought to be responsible for the inhibition of MLCP by external stimuli. The phosphorylation of MBS at Thr-641 and of CPI17 at Thr-38 inhibits the MLCP activity in vitro. Here we determined the changes in the phosphorylation of MBS and CPI17 after agonist stimulation in intact as well as permeabilized smooth muscle strips using phosphorylation-site-specific antibodies as probes. The CPI17 phosphorylation transiently increased after agonist stimulation in both alpha-toxin skinned and intact fibres. The time course of the increase in CPI17 phosphorylation after stimulation correlated with the increase in myosin regulatory light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. The increase in CPI17 phosphorylation was significantly diminished by Y27632, a Rho kinase inhibitor, and GF109203x, a protein kinase C inhibitor, suggesting that both the protein kinase C and Rho kinase pathways influence the change in CPI17 phosphorylation. On the other hand, a significant level of MBS phosphorylation at Thr-641, an inhibitory site, was observed in the resting state for both skinned and intact fibres and the agonist stimulation did not significantly alter the MBS phosphorylation level at Thr-641. While the removal of the agonist markedly decreased MLC phosphorylation and induced relaxation, the phosphorylation of MBS was unchanged, while CPI17 phosphorylation markedly diminished. These results strongly suggest that the phosphorylation of CPI17 plays a more significant role in the agonist-induced increase in myosin phosphorylation and contraction of smooth muscle than MBS phosphorylation in the Ca2+-independent activation mechanism of smooth muscle contraction. PMID:12296769

  10. Kaizen: a method of process improvement in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Gregory H; McCoin, Nicole Streiff; Lescallette, Richard; Russ, Stephan; Slovis, Corey M

    2009-12-01

    Recent position statements from health care organizations have placed a strong emphasis on continuous quality improvement (CQI). CQI finds many of its roots in kaizen, which emphasizes small, low-cost, low-risk improvements. Based on the successful Kaizen Programs at organizations such as Toyota, the authors thought the emergency department (ED) would be an ideal environment to benefit from such a program. The authors sought to create a CQI program using a suggestion-based model that did not require a large time commitment, was easy to implement, and had the potential to empower all physicians in the department. It would not take the place of other improvement efforts, but instead augment them. The hypothesis was that such a program would foster sustainable engagement of emergency physicians in system improvement efforts and lead to a continuous stream of low-cost implementable system improvement interventions. A CQI program was created for the physician staff of the Department of Emergency Medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, focusing on a suggestion-based model using kaizen philosophy. Lectures teaching kaizen philosophy were presented. Over the past 4 years, a methodology was developed utilizing a Web-based application, the Kaizen Tracker, which aids in the submission and implementation of suggestions that are called kaizen initiatives (KIs). The characteristics of the KIs submitted, details regarding resident and faculty participation, and the effectiveness of the Kaizen Tracker were retrospectively reviewed. There were 169, 105, and 101 KIs placed in the postimplementation calendar years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Seventy-six percent of KIs submitted thus far have identified a "process problem." Fifty-three percent of KIs submitted have led to operational changes within the ED. Ninety-three percent of the resident physicians entered at least one KI, and 73% of these residents submitted more than one KI. Sixty-nine percent of the

  11. Process window improvement on 45nm technology non volatile memory by CD uniformity improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttgereit, Ute; Birkner, Robert; Graitzer, Erez; Cohen, Avi; Triulzi, Benedetta; Romeo, Carmelo

    2010-09-01

    For the next years optical lithography stays at 193nm with a numerical aperture of 1.35. Mask design becomes more complex, mask and lithography specification tighten and process control becomes more important than ever. Accurate process control is a key factor to success to maintain a high yield in chip production. One of the key parameters necessary to assure a good and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit is the Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU). There are different contributors which impact the total wafer CDU: mask CD uniformity, scanner repeatability, resist process, lens fingerprint, wafer topography etc. In this work we focus on improvement of intra-field CDU at wafer level by improving the mask CD signature using a CDC200TM tool from Carl Zeiss SMS. The mask layout used is a line and space dark level of a 45nm node Non Volatile Memory (NVM). A prerequisite to improve intra-field CDU at wafer level is to characterize the mask CD signature precisely. For CD measurement on mask the newly developed wafer level CD metrology tool WLCD32 of Carl Zeiss SMS was used. The WLCD32 measures CD based on proven aerial imaging technology. The WLCD32 measurement data show an excellent correlation to wafer CD data. For CDU correction the CDC200TM tool is used which utilizes an ultrafast femto-second laser to write intra-volume shading elements (Shade-In ElementsTM) inside the bulk material of the mask. By adjusting the density of the shading elements, the light transmission through the mask is locally changed in a manner that improves wafer CDU when the corrected mask is printed. In the present work we will demonstrate a closed loop process of WLCD32 and CDC200TM to improve mask CD signature as one of the main contributors to intra-field wafer CDU. Furthermore we will show that the process window will be significantly enlarged by improvement of intra-field CDU. An increase of 20% in exposure latitude was observed.

  12. A symbolic methodology to improve disassembly process design.

    PubMed

    Rios, Pedro; Blyler, Leslie; Tieman, Lisa; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Millions of end-of-life electronic components are retired annually due to the proliferation of new models and their rapid obsolescence. The recovery of resources such as plastics from these goods requires their disassembly. The time required for each disassembly and its associated cost is defined by the operator's familiarity with the product design and its complexity. Since model proliferation serves to complicate an operator's learning curve, it is worthwhile to investigate the benefits to be gained in a disassembly operator's preplanning process. Effective disassembly process design demands the application of green engineering principles, such as those developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A), which include regard for product complexity, structural commonality, separation energy, material value, and waste prevention. This paper introduces the concept of design symbolsto help the operator more efficiently survey product complexity with respect to location and number of fasteners to remove a structure that is common to all electronics: the housing. With a sample of 71 different computers, printers, and monitors, we demonstrate that appropriate symbols reduce the total disassembly planning time by 13.2 min. Such an improvement could well make efficient the separation of plastic that would otherwise be destined for waste-to-energy or landfill. The symbolic methodology presented may also improve Design for Recycling and Design for Maintenance and Support.

  13. An improved processing sequence for uncorrelated Chirp sonar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baradello, Luca

    2014-12-01

    Chirp sonar systems can be used to obtain high resolution seismic reflection images of the sub-seafloor during marine surveys. The exact knowledge of the Chirp signature allows the use of deterministic algorithms to process the data, similarly to that applied to Vibroseis data on land. Here, it is described an innovative processing sequence to be applied to uncorrelated Chirp data, which can improve vertical and lateral resolution compared to conventional methods. It includes application of a Wiener filter to transform a frequency-modulated sweep into a minimum-phase pulse sequence. In this way, the data become causal and can undergo predictive deconvolution to reduce ringing and enhance vertical resolution. Afterwards, FX-deconvolution and Stolt migration can be applied to obtain an improved imaging of the subsurface. The result of this procedure is a seismic reflection image with higher resolution than traditional ones, which are normally represented using the envelope function of the signal. This technique can be particularly useful for engineering-geotechnical surveys and archaeological investigations that require a fine detail imaging of the uppermost meters of the sub-seafloor.

  14. Improving Model Performance through Process-Based Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T.; Kuo, K.; Schmidt, G. A.; Bauer, M. P.; Oloso, A. O.

    2013-12-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models -- most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted. We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  15. Improving Emergency Department Door to Doctor Time and Process Reliability

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Mazen J.; El-Eid, Ghada R.; Saliba, Miriam; Jabbour, Rima; Hitti, Eveline A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of using lean management methods on improving emergency department door to doctor times at a tertiary care hospital. We performed a before and after study at an academic urban emergency department with 49,000 annual visits after implementing a series of lean driven interventions over a 20 month period. The primary outcome was mean door to doctor time and the secondary outcome was length of stay of both admitted and discharged patients. A convenience sample from the preintervention phase (February 2012) was compared to another from the postintervention phase (mid-October to mid-November 2013). Individual control charts were used to assess process stability. Postintervention there was a statistically significant decrease in the mean door to doctor time measure (40.0 minutes ± 53.44 vs 25.3 minutes ± 15.93 P < 0.001). The postintervention process was more statistically in control with a drop in the upper control limits from 148.8 to 72.9 minutes. Length of stay of both admitted and discharged patients dropped from 2.6 to 2.0 hours and 9.0 to 5.5 hours, respectively. All other variables including emergency department visit daily volumes, hospital occupancy, and left without being seen rates were comparable. Using lean change management techniques can be effective in reducing door to doctor time in the Emergency Department and improving process reliability. PMID:26496278

  16. CD and defect improvement challenges for immersion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehara, Keisuke; Ema, Tatsuhiko; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Nakagawa, Seiji; Ishitani, Seiji; Morita, Akihiko; Kim, Jeonghun; Kanaoka, Masashi; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2009-03-01

    The intention of this study is to develop an immersion lithography process using advanced track solutions to achieve world class critical dimension (CD) and defectivity performance in a state of the art manufacturing facility. This study looks at three important topics for immersion lithography: defectivity, CD control, and wafer backside contamination. The topic of defectivity is addressed through optimization of coat, develop, and rinse processes as well as implementation of soak steps and bevel cleaning as part of a comprehensive defect solution. Develop and rinse processing techniques are especially important in the effort to achieve a zero defect solution. Improved CD control is achieved using a biased hot plate (BHP) equipped with an electrostatic chuck. This electrostatic chuck BHP (eBHP) is not only able to operate at a very uniform temperature, but it also allows the user to bias the post exposure bake (PEB) temperature profile to compensate for systematic within-wafer (WiW) CD non-uniformities. Optimized CD results, pre and post etch, are presented for production wafers. Wafer backside particles can cause focus spots on an individual wafer or migrate to the exposure tool's wafer stage and cause problems for a multitude of wafers. A basic evaluation of the cleaning efficiency of a backside scrubber unit located on the track was performed as a precursor to a future study examining the impact of wafer backside condition on scanner focus errors as well as defectivity in an immersion scanner.

  17. Enhancement of MS Signal Processing For Improved Cancer Biomarker Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Qian

    Technological advances in proteomics have shown great potential in detecting cancer at the earliest stages. One way is to use the time of flight mass spectroscopy to identify biomarkers, or early disease indicators related to the cancer. Pattern analysis of time of flight mass spectra data from blood and tissue samples gives great hope for the identification of potential biomarkers among the complex mixture of biological and chemical samples for the early cancer detection. One of the keys issues is the pre-processing of raw mass spectra data. A lot of challenges need to be addressed: unknown noise character associated with the large volume of data, high variability in the mass spectroscopy measurements, and poorly understood signal background and so on. This dissertation focuses on developing statistical algorithms and creating data mining tools for computationally improved signal processing for mass spectrometry data. I have introduced an advanced accurate estimate of the noise model and a half-supervised method of mass spectrum data processing which requires little knowledge about the data.

  18. Biohydrogen Production: Strategies to Improve Process Efficiency through Microbial Routes

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2), a clean energy carrier with high-energy yields; upon the combustion of H2, H2O is the only major by-product. In recent decades, the attractive and renewable characteristics of H2 led us to develop a variety of biological routes for the production of H2. Based on the mode of H2 generation, the biological routes for H2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. Thus, this review primarily focuses on the evaluation of the biological routes for the production of H2. In particular, we assess the efficiency and feasibility of these bioprocesses with respect to the factors that affect operations, and we delineate the limitations. Additionally, alternative options such as bioaugmentation, multiple process integration, and microbial electrolysis to improve process efficiency are discussed to address industrial-level applications. PMID:25874756

  19. Biohydrogen production: strategies to improve process efficiency through microbial routes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Kuppam; Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-04-14

    The current fossil fuel-based generation of energy has led to large-scale industrial development. However, the reliance on fossil fuels leads to the significant depletion of natural resources of buried combustible geologic deposits and to negative effects on the global climate with emissions of greenhouse gases. Accordingly, enormous efforts are directed to transition from fossil fuels to nonpolluting and renewable energy sources. One potential alternative is biohydrogen (H2), a clean energy carrier with high-energy yields; upon the combustion of H2, H2O is the only major by-product. In recent decades, the attractive and renewable characteristics of H2 led us to develop a variety of biological routes for the production of H2. Based on the mode of H2 generation, the biological routes for H2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. Thus, this review primarily focuses on the evaluation of the biological routes for the production of H2. In particular, we assess the efficiency and feasibility of these bioprocesses with respect to the factors that affect operations, and we delineate the limitations. Additionally, alternative options such as bioaugmentation, multiple process integration, and microbial electrolysis to improve process efficiency are discussed to address industrial-level applications.

  20. Process improvement for regulatory analyses of custom-blend fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical testing of custom-blend fertilizers is essential to ensure that the products meet the formulation requirements. For purposes of proper crop nutrition and consumer protection, regulatory oversight promotes compliance and particular attention to blending and formulation specifications. Analyses of custom-blend fertilizer products must be performed and reported within a very narrow window in order to be effective. The Colorado Department of Agriculture's Biochemistry Laboratory is an ISO 17025 accredited facility and conducts analyses of custom-blend fertilizer products primarily during the spring planting season. Using the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) process, the Biochemistry Laboratory has reduced turnaround times from as much as 45 days to as little as 3 days. The LSS methodology focuses on waste reduction through identifying: non-value-added steps, unneeded process reviews, optimization of screening and confirmatory analyses, equipment utilization, nonessential reporting requirements, and inefficient personnel deployment. Eliminating these non-value-added activities helped the laboratory significantly shorten turnaround time and reduce costs. Key improvement elements discovered during the LSS process included: focused sample tracking, equipment redundancy, strategic supply stocking, batch size optimization, critical sample paths, elimination of nonessential QC reviews, and more efficient personnel deployment.

  1. Improving health care, Part 4: Concepts for improving any clinical process.

    PubMed

    Batalden, P B; Mohr, J J; Nelson, E C; Plume, S K

    1996-10-01

    One promising method for streamlining the generation of "good ideas" is to formulate what are sometimes called change concepts-general notions or approaches to change found useful in developing specific ideas for changes that lead to improvement. For example, in current efforts to reduce health care costs by discounting provider charges, the underlying generic concept is "reducing health care costs," and the specific idea is "discounting provider charges." Short-term gains in health care cost reduction can occur by pursuing discounts. After some time, however, limits to such reduction in costs are experienced. Persevering and continuing to travel down the "discounting provider charges" path is less likely to produce further substantial improvement than returning to the basic concept of "reducing health care costs." An interdisciplinary team aiming to reduce costs while improving quality of care for patients in need of hip joint replacement generated ideas for changing "what's done (process) to get better results." After team members wrote down their improvement ideas, they deduced the underlying change concepts and used them to generate even more ideas for improvement. Such change concepts include reordering the sequence of steps (preadmission physical therapy "certification"), eliminating failures at hand-offs between steps (transfer of information from physician's office to hospital), and eliminating a step (epidural pain control). Learning about making change, encouraging change, managing the change within and across organizations, and learning from the changes tested will characterize the sustainable, thriving health systems of the future.

  2. Optimum Thread Rolling Process That Improves SCC Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    A.R. Kephart

    2001-10-29

    Accelerated testing in environments aggressive for the specific material have shown that fastener threads that are rolled after strengthening heat treatments have improved resistance to SCC initiation. For example, intergranular SCC was produced in one day when machined (cut) threads of high strength steel (ASTM A193 B-7 and A354 Grade 8) were exposed to an aggressive aqueous environment containing 8 weight % boiling ammonium nitrate and stressed to about 40% of the steel's yield strength (120 ksi, 827 MPa). In similar testing conditions, fasteners that had threads rolled before heat-treatment (quench and temper) had similar susceptibility to SCC. However, threads rolled after strengthening, exhibited no SCC after a week of exposure, even when stressed to 100% of the B-7 alloy yield strength. Similarly, intergranular SCC was produced in less than one day when machined (cut) threads of nickel-base alloys (X-750 and aged 625) were exposed to an aggressive 750 F doped steam environment (containing 100 ppm of chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate and a controlled hydrogen overpressure) and stressed to about 80% of the alloy yield strength (117 ksi, 807 MPa). In similar testing conditions, threads rolled after strengthening exhibited no SCC after 50 days of exposure. This beneficial effect of the optimum thread rolling process (i.e., threads rolled after strengthening) is due to the retention of large residual compressive stresses in the thread roots (notches) which mitigate the applied notch tensile stresses resulting from joint design pre-loads. use of these material specific aggressive environments can provide an accelerated test to verify that threads were produced by the optimum thread rolling process. These tests could support fastener acceptance criteria or failure analysis of fasteners with unknown or uncertain manufacturing processes. The optimum process effects may not always be detected by more conventional methods (e.g., metallography or hardness testing).

  3. Rapid Process Optimization: A Novel Process Improvement Methodology to Innovate Health Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Bookman, Kelly; Birznieks, Derek B; Leeret, Robert; Koehler, April; Planck, Shauna; Zane, Richard

    2016-03-26

    Health care systems have utilized various process redesign methodologies to improve care delivery. This article describes the creation of a novel process improvement methodology, Rapid Process Optimization (RPO). This system was used to redesign emergency care delivery within a large academic health care system, which resulted in a decrease: (1) door-to-physician time (Department A: 54 minutes pre vs 12 minutes 1 year post; Department B: 20 minutes pre vs 8 minutes 3 months post), (2) overall length of stay (Department A: 228 vs 184; Department B: 202 vs 192), (3) discharge length of stay (Department A: 216 vs 140; Department B: 179 vs 169), and (4) left without being seen rates (Department A: 5.5% vs 0.0%; Department B: 4.1% vs 0.5%) despite a 47% increased census at Department A (34 391 vs 50 691) and a 4% increase at Department B (8404 vs 8753). The novel RPO process improvement methodology can inform and guide successful care redesign.

  4. Improvement in the degradation resistance of LDPE for radiochemical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharescu, Traian; Pleşa, Ilona; Jipa, Silviu

    2014-01-01

    The effect of rosemary extract on radiochemical stability of low density polyethylene was studied by chemiluminescence, FT-IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry after γ(137Cs)-irradiation at processing low doses (10 and 20 kGy) in respect of pristine material. The additive concentrations (1, 2 and 5 wt%) induced a significant improvement in radiation stability, especially at high temperatures, for example 200 °C, which is proved chiefly by lower values of chemiluminescence intensities. The comparison of neat and rosemary-modified LDPE samples has revealed the protection action of this natural extract, which delays efficiently the propagation of oxidative degradation in γ-exposed polyethylene. The most evident proof for antioxidative protection efficiency promoted by rosemary is the smooth changes in hydroxyl and carbonyl indexes calculated on LDPE/5 wt% rosemary samples at all exposure doses.

  5. Androgens Induce Nongenomic Stimulation of Colonic Contractile Activity through Induction of Calcium Sensitization and Phosphorylation of LC20 and CPI-17

    PubMed Central

    González-Montelongo, María C.; Marín, Raquel; Gómez, Tomás; Marrero-Alonso, Jorge; Díaz, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We show that androgens, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), acutely (∼40 min) provoke the mechanical potentiation of spontaneous and agonist-induced contractile activity in mouse colonic longitudinal smooth muscle. The results using flutamide, finasteride, cycloheximide, and actinomycin D indicate that androgen-induced potentiation is dependent on androgen receptors, requires reduction of testosterone to DHT, and occurs independently of transcriptional and translational events. Using permeabilized colonic smooth muscle preparations, we could demonstrate that mechanical potentiation is entirely due to calcium sensitization of contractile machinery. In addition, DHT (10 nm) increased phosphorylation of both 20-kDa myosin light chain (LC20) [regulatory myosin light chain, (MLC)] and CPI-17 (an endogenous inhibitor of MLC phosphatase). Paralleling these findings, inhibition of Rho-associated Rho kinase (ROK) and/or protein kinase C (PKC) with, respectively, Y27632 and chelerythrine, prevented LC20 phosphorylation and abolished calcium sensitization. In addition, inhibition of ROK prevents CPI-17 phosphorylation, indicating that ROK is located upstream PKC-mediated CPI-17 modulation in the signalling cascade. Additionally, androgens induce a rapid activation of RhoA and its translocation to the plasma membrane to activate ROK. The results demonstrate that androgens induce sensitization of colonic smooth muscle to calcium through activation of ROK, which in turn, activates PKC to induce CPI-17 phosphorylation. Activation of this pathway induces a potent steady stimulation of LC20 by inhibiting MLC phosphatase and displacing the equilibrium of the regulatory subunit towards its phosphorylated state. This is the first demonstration that colonic smooth muscle is a physiological target for androgen hormones, and that androgens modulate force generation of smooth muscle contractile machinery through nongenomic calcium sensitization pathways. PMID:20207835

  6. Improving participant comprehension in the informed consent process.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Elizabeth; Larson, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    To critically analyze studies published within the past decade about participants' comprehension of informed consent in clinical research and to identify promising intervention strategies. Integrative review of literature. The Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Inclusion criteria included studies (a) published between January 1, 1996 and January 1, 2007, (b) designed as descriptive or interventional studies of comprehension of informed consent for clinical research, (c) conducted in nonpsychiatric adult populations who were either patients or volunteer participants, (d) written in English, and (e) published in peer-reviewed journals. Of the 980 studies identified, 319 abstracts were screened, 154 studies were reviewed, and 23 met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies (57%) were descriptive, and 10 (43%) were interventional. Interventions tested included simplified written consent documents, multimedia approaches, and the use of a trained professional (consent educator) to assist in the consent process. Collectively, no single intervention strategy was consistently associated with improved comprehension. Studies also varied in regard to the definition of comprehension and the tools used to measure it. Despite increasing regulatory scrutiny, deficiencies still exist in participant comprehension of the research in which they participate, as well as differences in how comprehension is measured and assessed. No single intervention was identified as consistently successful for improving participant comprehension, and results indicated that any successful consent process should at a minimum include various communication modes and is likely to require one-to-one interaction with someone knowledgeable about the study.

  7. Management Systems, Patient Quality Improvement, Resource Availability, and Substance Abuse Treatment Quality

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Dail; Roman, Paul M; Blum, Terry C

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships among general management systems, patient-focused quality management/continuous process improvement (TQM/CPI) processes, resource availability, and multiple dimensions of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Data Sources/Study Setting Data are from a nationally representative sample of 221 SUD treatment centers through the National Treatment Center Study (NTCS). Study Design The design was a cross-sectional field study using latent variable structural equation models. The key variables are management practices, TQM/continuous quality improvement (CQI) practices, resource availability, and treatment center performance. Data Collection Interviews and questionnaires provided data from treatment center administrative directors and clinical directors in 2007–2008. Principal Findings Patient-focused TQM/CQI practices fully mediated the relationship between internal management practices and performance. The effects of TQM/CQI on performance are significantly larger for treatment centers with higher levels of staff per patient. Conclusions Internal management practices may create a setting that supports implementation of specific patient-focused practices and protocols inherent to TQM/CQI processes. However, the positive effects of internal management practices on treatment center performance occur through use of specific patient-focused TQM/CPI practices and have more impact when greater amounts of supporting resources are present. PMID:22098342

  8. Management systems, patient quality improvement, resource availability, and substance abuse treatment quality.

    PubMed

    Fields, Dail; Roman, Paul M; Blum, Terry C

    2012-06-01

    To examine the relationships among general management systems, patient-focused quality management/continuous process improvement (TQM/CPI) processes, resource availability, and multiple dimensions of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Data are from a nationally representative sample of 221 SUD treatment centers through the National Treatment Center Study (NTCS). The design was a cross-sectional field study using latent variable structural equation models. The key variables are management practices, TQM/continuous quality improvement (CQI) practices, resource availability, and treatment center performance. Interviews and questionnaires provided data from treatment center administrative directors and clinical directors in 2007-2008. Patient-focused TQM/CQI practices fully mediated the relationship between internal management practices and performance. The effects of TQM/CQI on performance are significantly larger for treatment centers with higher levels of staff per patient. Internal management practices may create a setting that supports implementation of specific patient-focused practices and protocols inherent to TQM/CQI processes. However, the positive effects of internal management practices on treatment center performance occur through use of specific patient-focused TQM/CPI practices and have more impact when greater amounts of supporting resources are present. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Aerospace structural design process improvement using systematic evolutionary structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert Michael

    2000-10-01

    A multidisciplinary team tasked with an aircraft design problem must understand the problem requirements and metrics to produce a successful design. This understanding entails not only knowledge of what these requirements and metrics are, but also how they interact, which are most important (to the customer as well as to aircraft performance), and who in the organization can provide pertinent knowledge for each. In recent years, product development researchers and organizations have developed and successfully applied a variety of tools such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to coordinate multidisciplinary team members. The effectiveness of these methods, however, depends on the quality and fidelity of the information that team members can input. In conceptual aircraft design, structural information is of lower quality compared to aerodynamics or performance because it is based on experience rather than theory. This dissertation shows how advanced structural design tools can be used in a multidisciplinary team setting to improve structural information generation and communication through a systematic evolution of structural detail. When applied to conceptual design, finite element-based structural design tools elevate structural information to the same level as other computationally supported disciplines. This improved ability to generate and communicate structural information enables a design team to better identify and meet structural design requirements, consider producibility issues earlier, and evaluate structural concepts. A design process experiment of a wing structural layout in collaboration with an industrial partner illustrates and validates the approach.

  10. Sheet Hydroforming Process Numerical Model Improvement Through Experimental Results Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, Papadia; Antonio, Del Prete; Alfredo, Anglani

    2010-06-01

    The increasing application of numerical simulation in metal forming field has helped engineers to solve problems one after another to manufacture a qualified formed product reducing the required time [1]. Accurate simulation results are fundamental for the tooling and the product designs. The wide application of numerical simulation is encouraging the development of highly accurate simulation procedures to meet industrial requirements. Many factors can influence the final simulation results and many studies have been carried out about materials [2], yield criteria [3] and plastic deformation [4,5], process parameters [6] and their optimization. In order to develop a reliable hydromechanical deep drawing (HDD) numerical model the authors have been worked out specific activities based on the evaluation of the effective stiffness of the blankholder structure [7]. In this paper after an appropriate tuning phase of the blankholder force distribution, the experimental activity has been taken into account to improve the accuracy of the numerical model. In the first phase, the effective capability of the blankholder structure to transfer the applied load given by hydraulic actuators to the blank has been explored. This phase ended with the definition of an appropriate subdivision of the blankholder active surface in order to take into account the effective pressure map obtained for the given loads configuration. In the second phase the numerical results obtained with the developed subdivision have been compared with the experimental data of the studied model. The numerical model has been then improved, finding the best solution for the blankholder force distribution.

  11. Microwave processing improvements for methane conversion to ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfield, R.; Ott, K.; Nelson, E.; Anderson, G.; Chen, Dye-Zone; Dyer, T.; Thomas, J.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project`s objective was to investigate microwave enhanced catalysis. Published work by others had demonstrated improved selectivity in microwave-driven catalytic conversion of 2-methylpentane to its isomers. We reproduced their experiment, discovering that there is no improvement in selectivity using microwaves. The selectivity at a given conversion was the same for both microwave heated and conventionally heated catalyst beds. Meetings with the authors of the previously published work led to the conjecture that their catalyst was not being prepared properly, leading to anomalously low selectivity for their conventional heating runs. An optical temperature diagnostic suitable for use on a microwave applicator was developed and characterized in this project. This pyrometer can measure the temperature of small scale features on the catalyst bed, and it has a fast response that can follow the rapid heating often encountered in a microwave processing system. The behavior of the microwave applicator system was studied, and theoretical models were developed to yield insight about the stability and control of the system.

  12. Technology for defectivity improvement in resist coating and developing process in EUV lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, Yuya; Shiozawa, Takahiro; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Shite, Hideo; Ichinomiya, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Masashi; Nafus, Kathleen; Demand, Marc; Foubert, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology is getting closer to high volume manufacturing phase every year. In order to enhance the yield in EUV lithography process, further improvement of defectivity is required at the moment. In this paper, optimized rinse and new dispense system (NDS) have been applied to a 24nm contact hole (CH) pattern in order to achieve defect reduction. As a result, the optimized rinse reduced approximately 70 % of residue defects. In addition, NDS for coating process exhibited 80 % defect reduction in particles in the coating films of material such as SOC, SOG, and resist.

  13. Improved Statistical Signal Processing of Nonstationary Random Processes Using Time-Warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisdom, Scott Thomas

    A common assumption used in statistical signal processing of nonstationary random signals is that the signals are locally stationary. Using this assumption, data is segmented into short analysis frames, and processing is performed using these short frames. Short frames limit the amount of data available, which in turn limits the performance of statistical estimators. In this thesis, we propose a novel method that promises improved performance for a variety of statistical signal processing algorithms. This method proposes to estimate certain time-varying parameters of nonstationary signals and then use this estimated information to perform a time-warping of the data that compensates for the time-varying parameters. Since the time-warped data is more stationary, longer analysis frames may be used, which improves the performance of statistical estimators. We first examine the spectral statistics of two particular types of nonstationary random processes that are useful for modeling ship propeller noise and voiced speech. We examine the effect of time-varying frequency content on these spectral statistics, and in addition show that the cross-frequency spectral statistics of these signals contain significant additional information that is not usually exploited using a stationary assumption. This information, combined with our proposed method, promises improvements for a wide variety of applications in the future. We then describe and test an implementation of our time-warping method, the fan-chirp transform. We apply our method to two applications, detection of ship noise in a passive sonar application and joint denoising and dereverberation of speech. Our method yields improved results for both applications compared to conventional methods.

  14. Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitor Processing Improvements. Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Unruh, Troy Casey; Daw, Joshua Earl; Ahamad Al Rashdan

    2016-01-29

    could be performed in an MFC hot cell, further reducing the time and expense of lengthy decontaminations prior to processing. Sections of this report provide a general description of resistivity techniques currently used to infer peak irradiation temperature from silicon carbide temperature monitors along with some representative data, the proposed concepts to improve the process of analyzing irradiated SiC temperature monitors, the completed efforts to prove the proposed concepts, and future activities. The efforts detailed here succeeded in designing and developing a real-time automated SiC resistivity measurement system, and performed two initial test runs. Activities carried out include the assembly and integration of the system hardware; the design and development of a preliminary monitor fixture; the design of a technique to automate the data analysis and processing; the development of the communication, coordination, and user software; and the execution and troubleshooting of test run experiments using the box furnace. Although the automation system performed as required, the designed fixture did not succeed in establishing the needed electrical contacts with the SiC monitor.

  15. Process Improvements to Biomass Pretreatment of Fuels and Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-05-30

    MBI, a 501c(3) company focusing on de-risking and scaling up bio-based technologies, has teamed with Michigan State University and the Idaho National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate process improvements to the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment process. The logistical hurdles of biomass handling are well known, and the regional depot concept - in which small, distributed bioprocessing operations collect, preprocess, and densify biomass before shipping to a centralized refinery - is a promising alternative to centralized collection. AFEXTM (AFEX is a trademark of MBI) has unique features among pretreatments that would make it desirable as a pretreatment prior to densification at the depot scale. MBI has developed a novel design, using a packed bed reactor for the AFEX process that can be scaled down economically to the depot scale at a lower capital cost as compared to the traditional design (Pandia type reactor). Thus, the purpose of this project was to develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and improve this novel design The key challenges are the recovery of ammonia, consistent and complete pretreatment performance, and the overall throughput of the reactor. In this project an engineering scale packed bed AFEX system with 1-ton per day capacity was installed at MBI’s building. The system has been operational since mid-2013. During that time, MBI has demonstrated the robustness, reliability, and consistency of the process. To date, nearly 500 runs have been performed in the reactors. There have been no incidences of plugging (i.e., inability to remove ammonia from biomass after the treatment), nor has there been any instance of a major ammonia release into the atmosphere. Likewise, the sugar released via enzyme hydrolysis has remained consistent throughout these runs. Our economic model shows a 46% reduction in AFEX capital cost at the 100 ton/day scale compared to the traditional design of AFEX (Pandia type reactor). The key performance factors were

  16. Energy tax price tag for CPI: $1. 2 billion, jobs, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1993-03-03

    If President Clinton's proposed energy tax had been fully in place last year, it would have cost the US chemical industry an additional $1.2 billion and 9,900 jobs, according to Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA; Washington) estimates. It also would have driven output down 3% and prices up 5%, CMA says. Allen Lenz, CMA director/trade and economics, says the increase in production costs that would accompany the tax will not be shared by foreign competitors, cannot be neutralized with higher border taxes because of existing trade agreements, and provides another reason to move production offshore. Worse, the US chemical industry's generally impressive trade surplus declined by $2.5 billion last year, and a further drop is projected for this year. The margin of error gets thinner all the time as competition increases, Lenz says. We're not concerned only with the chemical industry, but the rest of US-based manufacturing because they taken half our output, he adds. One problem is the energy intensiveness of the chemical process industries-a CMA report says that 55% of the cost of producing ethylene glycol is energy related. And double taxation of such things as coproducts returned for credit to oil refineries could add up to $115 million/year, the report says.

  17. Multisensory Training Improves Auditory Spatial Processing following Bilateral Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Isaiah, Amal; Vongpaisal, Tara; King, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) partially restore hearing to the deaf by directly stimulating the inner ear. In individuals fitted with CIs, lack of auditory experience due to loss of hearing before language acquisition can adversely impact outcomes. For example, adults with early-onset hearing loss generally do not integrate inputs from both ears effectively when fitted with bilateral CIs (BiCIs). Here, we used an animal model to investigate the effects of long-term deafness on auditory localization with BiCIs and approaches for promoting the use of binaural spatial cues. Ferrets were deafened either at the age of hearing onset or as adults. All animals were implanted in adulthood, either unilaterally or bilaterally, and were subsequently assessed for their ability to localize sound in the horizontal plane. The unilaterally implanted animals were unable to perform this task, regardless of the duration of deafness. Among animals with BiCIs, early-onset hearing loss was associated with poor auditory localization performance, compared with late-onset hearing loss. However, performance in the early-deafened group with BiCIs improved significantly after multisensory training with interleaved auditory and visual stimuli. We demonstrate a possible neural substrate for this by showing a training-induced improvement in the responsiveness of auditory cortical neurons and in their sensitivity to interaural level differences, the principal localization cue available to BiCI users. Importantly, our behavioral and physiological evidence demonstrates a facilitative role for vision in restoring auditory spatial processing following potential cross-modal reorganization. These findings support investigation of a similar training paradigm in human CI users. PMID:25122908

  18. Modeling of Glass Making Processes for Improved Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas P. Seward III

    2003-03-31

    The overall goal of this project was to develop a high-temperature melt properties database with sufficient reliability to allow mathematical modeling of glass melting and forming processes for improved product quality, improved efficiency and lessened environmental impact. It was initiated by the United States glass industry through the NSF Industry/University Center for Glass Research (CGR) at Alfred University [1]. Because of their important commercial value, six different types/families of glass were studied: container, float, fiberglass (E- and wool-types), low-expansion borosilicate, and color TV panel glasses. CGR member companies supplied production-quality glass from all six families upon which we measured, as a function of temperature in the molten state, density, surface tension, viscosity, electrical resistivity, infrared transmittance (to determine high temperature radiative conductivity), non-Newtonian flow behavior, and oxygen partial pres sure. With CGR cost sharing, we also studied gas solubility and diffusivity in each of these glasses. Because knowledge of the compositional dependencies of melt viscosity and electrical resistivity are extremely important for glass melting furnace design and operation, these properties were studied more fully. Composition variations were statistically designed for all six types/families of glass. About 140 different glasses were then melted on a laboratory scale and their viscosity and electrical resistivity measured as a function of temperature. The measurements were completed in February 2003 and are reported on here. The next steps will be (1) to statistically analyze the compositional dependencies of viscosity and electrical resistivity and develop composition-property response surfaces, (2) submit all the data to CGR member companies to evaluate the usefulness in their models, and (3) publish the results in technical journals and most likely in book form.

  19. Improving energy audit process and report outcomes through planning initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprau Coulter, Tabitha L.

    Energy audits and energy models are an important aspect of the retrofit design process, as they provide project teams with an opportunity to evaluate a facilities current building systems' and energy performance. The information collected during an energy audit is typically used to develop an energy model and an energy audit report that are both used to assist in making decisions about the design and implementation of energy conservation measures in a facility. The current lack of energy auditing standards results in a high degree of variability in energy audit outcomes depending on the individual performing the audit. The research presented is based on the conviction that performing an energy audit and producing a value adding energy model for retrofit buildings can benefit from a revised approach. The research was divided into four phases, with the initial three phases consisting of: 1.) process mapping activity - aimed at reducing variability in the energy auditing and energy modeling process. 2.) survey analysis -- To examine the misalignment between how industry members use the top energy modeling tools compared to their intended use as defined by software representatives. 3.) sensitivity analysis -- analysis of the affect key energy modeling inputs are having on energy modeling analysis results. The initial three phases helped define the need for an improved energy audit approach that better aligns data collection with facility owners' needs and priorities. The initial three phases also assisted in the development of a multi-criteria decision support tool that incorporates a House of Quality approach to guide a pre-audit planning activity. For the fourth and final research phase explored the impacts and evaluation methods of a pre-audit planning activity using two comparative energy audits as case studies. In each case, an energy audit professionals was asked to complete an audit using their traditional methods along with an audit which involved them first

  20. Process improvements in the production of silicon immersion gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Cynthia B.; Kidder, Benjamin; Grigas, Michelle; Griesmann, Ulf; Wilson, Daniel W.; Muller, Richard E.; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-07-01

    We have explored a number of lithographic techniques and improvements to produce the resist lines that then define the grating groove edges of silicon immersion gratings. In addition to our lithographic process using contact printing with photomasks, which is our primary technique for the production of immersion gratings, we explored two alternative fabrication methods, direct-write electron beam and photo-lithography. We have investigated the application of antireflection (AR) coatings during our contact printing lithography method to reduce the effect of Fizeau fringes produced by the contact of the photomask on the photoresist surface. This AR coating reduces the amplitude of the periodic errors by a factor of 1.5. Electron beam (e-beam) patterning allows us to manufacture gratings that can be used in first order, with groove spacing down to 0.5 micrometer or smaller (2,000 grooves/mm), but could require significant e-beam write times of up to one week to pattern a full-sized grating. The University of Texas at Austin silicon diffractive optics group is working with Jet Propulsion Laboratory to develop an alternate e-beam method that employs chromium liftoff to reduce the write time by a factor of 10. We are working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology using laser writing to explore the possibility of creating very high quality gratings without the errors introduced during the contact-printing step. Both e-beam and laser patterning bypass the contact photolithography step and directly write the lines in photoresist on our silicon substrates, but require increased cost, time, and process complexity.

  1. Improvement of electron beam shape control in radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, A.; Fang, R.; Kuntz, F.

    1994-05-01

    The development of radiation processing using electron accelerators requires good control of the treatment parameters to improve the dosimetry quality. Especially, the analysis of the shape of the scanned electron beam that interacts with the product, is of prime necessity. A Multiwire Beam Shape Analyser (MBSA) has been developed by the AERIAL Laboratory in order to insure good monitoring of the scanning length and uniformity. This device consists of an aluminum beam-stop covered with a mesh of individually insulated stainless steel wires, placed under the scanning cone. The current generated by the impact of the electron beam on each wire is converted into voltage. After pulse shaping and multiplexing of the different channels, the beam profile can be displayed on an oscilloscope or on a PC screen. A prototype is now operating on an experimental irradiation plant based on a 2.5 MeV /300 W Van de Graaff electron accelerator. It allows almost continuous visualization of the beam profile (between two conveyor passes) and its response was compared to classical film dosimeters (Gafchromic, FWT 60.00). Considering FWHM and homogeneous treatment regions of the profiles, MBSA and the dosimeters give similar responses and variations remain lower than ± 12%. The acquisition of an electrical signal corresponding to the beam profile in air constitutes the original aspect of the MBSA and is in keeping with the general pattern of continuous control and automation of the irradiation processes. Hereafter, much work has to be done to adapt this device to an industrial use (higher energy, high power electron beams, non-destructive measurements…).

  2. Improving occupational health care for construction workers: a process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the process of a job-specific workers’ health surveillance (WHS) in improving occupational health care for construction workers. Methods From January to July 2012 were 899 bricklayers and supervisors invited for the job-specific WHS at three locations of one occupational health service throughout the Netherlands. The intervention aimed at detecting signs of work-related health problems, reduced work capacity and/or reduced work functioning. Measurements were obtained using a recruitment record and questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The process evaluation included the following: reach (attendance rate), intervention dose delivered (provision of written recommendations and follow-up appointments), intervention dose received (intention to follow-up on advice directly after WHS and remembrance of advice three months later), and fidelity (protocol adherence). The workers scored their increase in knowledge from 0–10 with regard to health status and work ability, their satisfaction with the intervention and the perceived (future) effect of such an intervention. Program implementation was defined as the mean score of reach, fidelity, and intervention dose delivered and received. Results Reach was 9% (77 workers participated), fidelity was 67%, the intervention dose delivered was 92 and 63%, and the intervention dose received was 68 and 49%. The total programme implementation was 58%. The increases in knowledge regarding the health status and work ability of the workers after the WHS were graded as 7.0 and 5.9, respectively. The satisfaction of the workers with the entire intervention was graded as 7.5. The perceived (future) effects on health status were graded as 6.3, and the effects on work ability were graded with a 5.2. The economic recession affected the workers as well as the occupational health service that enacted the implementation. Conclusions Programme implementation was acceptable. Low reach, limited protocol adherence and

  3. Improving antibiotic adherence in treatment of acute upper respiratory infections: a quality improvement process.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Rittu; Mahmood, Maryam; Alweis, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25 million people in the United States visit their primary care physician each year for acute respiratory infections (ARI). They are a common cause of unnecessary prescription of antibiotics; despite well-validated national treatment guidelines, around 73% of adults with ARI are prescribed antibiotics in the United States. Inappropriate use of antibiotics has profound implications. Our aim was to increase adherence to antibiotic guidelines for treatment of ARI in an internal medicine outpatient practice. We used a package of active and passive interventions to improve physician awareness of treatment guidelines; these included short sessions of didactic teaching, antibiotic guidelines posters in patient examination rooms and staff areas, clinical decision support (CDS) tools integrated into the electronic medical record system, guideline adherence report cards for providers, and reiteration of CDS tool use and guideline adherence at monthly group meetings. Process measures were the rate of use of CDS tools for the management of ARI and patient callbacks within 72 h for the same issue. Outcome measures were compliance with antibiotic prescribing guidelines. Our low-cost interventions led to a significant improvement in ARI treatment guideline adherence. There was improvement in compliance with treatment guidelines for sinusitis (90.90% vs. 57.58%, p<0.001), pharyngitis (64.28% vs. 25.00%, p=0.003), upper respiratory infection (96.18% vs. 73.68%, p=0.008), and the aggregated measure of ARI (91.25% vs. 78.6%, p<0.001). Rate of CDS tool usage was 40.5% with a 72-h callback rate of 0.05%. Simple, low-cost interventions can improve appropriate antibiotic use for ARI and change the prescribing habits of providers in an outpatient setting. Provider and patient education is a vital component of antibiotic stewardship. Simple interventions for common outpatient conditions can have a positive impact on patient outcomes and reduce unnecessary healthcare costs.

  4. Improving Efficiency of Aluminium Sacrificial Anode Using Cold Work Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Ann, Chang Tai

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium is one of the preferred materials to be used as sacrificial anode for carbon steel protection. The efficiency of these can be low due to the formation of oxide layer which passivate the anodes. Currently, to improve its efficiency, there are efforts using a new technique called surface modifications. The objective of this research is to study corrosion mechanism of aluminium sacrificial anode which has been processed by cold work. The cold works are applied by reducing the thickness of aluminium sacrificial anodes at 20% and 40% of thickness reduction. The cathodic protection experiments were performed by immersion of aluminium connected to carbon steel cylinder in 3% NaCl solutions. Visual inspections using SEM had been conducted during the experiments and corrosion rate data were taken in every week for 8 weeks of immersion time. Corrosion rate data were measured using weight loss and linear polarization technique (LPR). From the results, it is observed that cold worked aluminium sacrificial anode have a better corrosion performance. It shows higher corrosion rate and lower corrosion potential. The anodes also provided a long functional for sacrificial anode before it stop working. From SEM investigation, it is shown that cold works have changed the microstructure of anodes which is suspected in increasing corrosion rate and cause de-passivate of the surface anodes.

  5. Biofunctionalization of titanium surfaces for osseintegration process improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla, P.; Godoy, M.; Salvagni, E.; Rodríguez, D.; Gil, F. J.

    2010-11-01

    This study aims to improve the osseointegration of titanium implants through surface immobilization of peptides that induce a beneficial biological response. This was carried out biofunctionalizating titanium surfaces by silanization and subsequent covalent binding of a peptide with a sequence that promotes cell adhesion. Objective: The development of a new technique of immobilization of oligopeptides on the surface of titanium by using 3-chloropropyltrietoxisilane (CPTES) as bonding agent between the surface of titanium and the peptide. Materials and methods: A physicochemical characterization of the surfaces through the techniques of XPS, ToF-SIMS and contact angle was performed. Also cell adhesion studies have been conducted to evaluate in vitro biological response. Results: Through the process of silanization the titanium surface is completely covered with CPTES, which allows the subsequent accession of oligopeptides. The cell adhesion results show a higher cell adhesion and cell extension on biofunctionalized samples. Conclusions: We developed a system of covalent binding of oligopeptides on titanium surfaces that can modify the biological response of the attached cells.

  6. Improvements in opti-chromic dosimeters for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpherys, K. C.; Kantz, A. D.

    "Opti-Chromic" dosimeters consisting of radiachromic dye in flourinated polymer tubing have been introduced as a dosimetry system in the range from 10 1 to 5 × 10 4 Gy. Batches of "Opti-Chromic" dosimeters have been produced to evaluate performance under large scale industrial conditions. A systematic study was undertaken to determine the effect of various dosimeter parameters on radiation sensitivity, shelf life, and response characteristics at the higher absorbed doses. These parameters were (A) Type of flourinated polymer tubing; (B) Organic solvent used to activate the radiachromic dye; (C) Concentration of radiachromic dye; (D) Additives to provide proper viscosity, color stability, and high-dose response. Prototype batches were produced and experimental dosimeters exposed to a range of absorbed doses and the response measured as a function of shelf life and dose. The results of the study are presented, and an improved formulation recommended for application to Food Processing. Other formulations may be of value in specific requirements of sensitivity or temperature.

  7. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOEpatents

    Tran, T.N.

    1999-08-24

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area. 12 figs.

  8. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Thanh Nhon

    1999-01-01

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area.

  9. Strategy for improvement of enteropeptidase efficiency in tag removal processes.

    PubMed

    Gasparian, Marine E; Bychkov, Maxim L; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P

    2011-10-01

    Enteropeptidase (synonym: enterokinase, EC 3.4.21.9) is a heterodimeric serine protease of the intestinal brush border that activates trypsinogen by highly specific cleavage of the trypsinogen activation peptide following the sequence (Asp)(4)-Lys. It has also great biotechnological interest because of the unique substrate specificity of the serine protease domain. The high degree of specificity exhibited by enteropeptidase makes it a suitable reagent for cleaving recombinant proteins to remove affinity or other tags. However often unwanted cleavages elsewhere in the protein occurred during cleavage of fusions when high amount of enzyme is required. In this study we have improved the efficiency of fusion proteins cleavage by enteropeptidase by substitution of the Lys residue by Arg in specific cleavage sequence (Asp)(4)-Lys. We have demonstrated that 3-6-fold lower amounts of the catalytic subunit of human and bovine enteropeptidase is required for 95% cleavage of Trx/TRAIL and Trx/FGF-2 fusions with (Asp)(4)-Arg cleavage sequence in comparison to native sequence (Asp)(4)-Lys. As a result, reduced amount of non-specifically cleaved peptide fragments were observed during cleavage of (Asp)(4)-Lys/Arg mutated fusions. These findings overcome limitations of enteropeptidase in tag removal processes during recombinant proteins purification and extend its commercial benefit in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  10. Improving flavonoid extraction from Ginkgo biloba leaves by prefermentation processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiahong; Cao, Fuliang; Su, Erzheng; Wu, Caie; Zhao, Linguo; Ying, Ruifeng

    2013-06-19

    This paper presents a prefermentation treatment method involving fungi to improve flavonoid extraction from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba . The fungi employed for this treatment were screened from the soil present under an ancient ginkgo tree. Seventy-six strains belonging to 23 genera were isolated and identified by a molecular identification method employing 18S rDNA sequences. Thirty-three strains grew well using ginkgo leaves as the growth medium. One strain, Gyx086, with higher extracted yield of flavonoids and more similar to the control, was finally selected for prefermentation processing. The major fermentation factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for the highest total falvonoid yield were 27.8 °C for temperature, 64.2% for moisture content, and 61 h for fermentation time. Under the optimal condition, a actual total flavonoid yield of 27.59 ± 0.52 mg/g dry weight culture sample was obtained, which was about 70% higher than that of unfermented gingko leaf samples.

  11. Improved automatic tuning of PID controller for stable processes.

    PubMed

    Kumar Padhy, Prabin; Majhi, Somanath

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents an improved automatic tuning method for stable processes using a modified relay in the presence of static load disturbances and measurement noise. The modified relay consists of a standard relay in series with a PI controller of unity proportional gain. The integral time constant of the PI controller of the modified relay is chosen so as to ensure a minimum loop phase margin of 30( composite function). A limit cycle is then obtained using the modified relay. Hereafter, the PID controller is designed using the limit cycle output data. The derivative time constant is obtained by maintaining the above mentioned loop phase margin. Minimizing the distance of Nyquist curve of the loop transfer function from the imaginary axis of the complex plane gives the proportional gain. The integral time constant of the PID controller is set equal to the integral time constant of the PI controller of the modified relay. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified by simulation results.

  12. Benefits of CMM-Based Software Process Improvement: Executive Summary of Initial Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    on the capability maturity model (CMM). We report the cost and business value of improvement efforts, as well as the yearly improvement in productivity...organizations are summarized. We end with conclusions about the results of software process improvement (SPI) efforts. Business value, Software process assessment, Capability maturity model , Software process improvement, Empirical data.

  13. IMPROVING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS RELIABILITY TO ENHANCE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable development includes the recovery of resources from industrial manufacturing processes. One valuable resource that can often be purified and reused is process wastewater. Typically, pollutants are removed from process wastewater using physical, chemical, and biologica...

  14. IMPROVING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS RELIABILITY TO ENHANCE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable development includes the recovery of resources from industrial manufacturing processes. One valuable resource that can often be purified and reused is process wastewater. Typically, pollutants are removed from process wastewater using physical, chemical, and biologica...

  15. Improvements to the Processing and Characterization of Needled Composite Laminates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    that mode I fracture toughness improves up to 270% compared to non- needled baseline material. In-plane compressive strength of needled material... fracture toughness improves up to 270% compared to non-needled baseline material. In-plane compressive strength of needled material improves by up to 475...Affordable Reparable Airframe Program [4]. Several examples are found in the literature of needled/felted carbon-carbon (C/C) composites for high

  16. Transforming Lepidopteran Insect Cells for Improved Protein Processing and Expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The lepidopteran insect cells used with the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) are capable of synthesizing and accurately processing foreign proteins. However, proteins expressed in baculovirus-infected cells often fail to be completely processed, or are not processed in a manner that meet...

  17. Interface management: effective communication to improve process safety.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian; Berger, Scott

    2006-03-31

    Failure to successfully communicate maintenance activities, abnormal conditions, emergency response procedures, process hazards, and hundreds of other items of critical information can lead to disaster, regardless of the thoroughness of the process safety management system. Therefore, a well-functioning process safety program depends on maintaining successful communication interfaces between each involved employee or stakeholder and the many other employees or stakeholders that person must interact with. The authors discuss a process to identify the critical "Interfaces" between the many participants in a process safety management system, and then to establish a protocol for each critical interface.

  18. Improved Consolidation Process for Producing Ceramic Waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, Harry C.; Hash, Mark C.

    1998-07-24

    A process for the consolidation and containment of solid or semisolid hazardous waste, which process comprises closing an end of a circular hollow cylinder, filling the cylinder with the hazardous waste, and then cold working the cylinder to reduce its diameter while simultaneously compacting the waste. The open end of the cylinder can be sealed prior to or after the cold working process. The preferred method of cold working is to draw the sealed cylinder containing the hazardous waste through a plurality of dies to simultaneously reduce the diameter of the tube while compacting the waste. This process provides a quick continuous process for consolidating hazardous waste, including radioactive waste.

  19. Closing the Loop on a Continuous Program Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Vickie; Booth, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The WebBSIT, a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, is a fully online degree offered through a consortium of five University System of Georgia institutions. This paper begins by summarizing the change management system developed for continuous program improvement. Analysis of data should drive improvement, closing the loop. The balance…

  20. Closing the Loop on a Continuous Program Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Vickie; Booth, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The WebBSIT, a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, is a fully online degree offered through a consortium of five University System of Georgia institutions. This paper begins by summarizing the change management system developed for continuous program improvement. Analysis of data should drive improvement, closing the loop. The balance…

  1. Improve processes on healthcare: current issues and future trends.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jason C H; Dolan, Matt; Lin, Binshan

    2004-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is a critical resource for improving today's business competitiveness. However, many healthcare providers do not proactively manage or improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their services with IT. Survival in a competitive business environment demands continuous improvements in quality and service, while rigorously maintaining core values. Electronic commerce continues its development, gaining ground as the preferred means of business transactions. Embracing e-healthcare and treating IT as a strategic tool to improve patient safety and the quality of care enables healthcare professionals to benefit from technology formerly used only for management purposes. Numerous improvement initiatives, introduced by both the federal government and the private sector, seek to better the status quo in IT. This paper examines the current IT climate using an enhanced "Built to Last" model, and comments on future IT strategies within the healthcare industry.

  2. Orienting and Onboarding Clinical Nurse Specialists: A Process Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Mayra G; Watt, Jennifer L; Falder-Saeed, Karie; Lewis, Brennan; Patton, Lindsey

    Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) have a unique advanced practice role. This article describes a process useful in establishing a comprehensive orientation and onboarding program for a newly hired CNS. The project team used the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists core competencies as a guide to construct a process for effectively onboarding and orienting newly hired CNSs. Standardized documents were created for the orientation process including a competency checklist, needs assessment template, and professional evaluation goals. In addition, other documents were revised to streamline the orientation process. Standardizing the onboarding and orientation process has demonstrated favorable results. As of 2016, 3 CNSs have successfully been oriented and onboarded using the new process. Unique healthcare roles require special focus when onboarding and orienting into a healthcare system. The use of the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists core competencies guided the project in establishing a successful orientation and onboarding process for newly hired CNSs.

  3. The theory, practice, and future of process improvement in general thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Richard K

    2014-01-01

    Process improvement, in its broadest sense, is the analysis of a given set of actions with the aim of elevating quality and reducing costs. The tenets of process improvement have been applied to medicine in increasing frequency for at least the last quarter century including thoracic surgery. This review outlines the theory underlying process improvement, the currently available data sources for process improvement and possible future directions of research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Unified Modelling Language (UML) as a process-modelling technique for clinical-research process improvement.

    PubMed

    Kumarapeli, P; De Lusignan, S; Ellis, T; Jones, B

    2007-03-01

    The Primary Care Data Quality programme (PCDQ) is a quality-improvement programme which processes routinely collected general practice computer data. Patient data collected from a wide range of different brands of clinical computer systems are aggregated, processed, and fed back to practices in an educational context to improve the quality of care. Process modelling is a well-established approach used to gain understanding and systematic appraisal, and identify areas of improvement of a business process. Unified modelling language (UML) is a general purpose modelling technique used for this purpose. We used UML to appraise the PCDQ process to see if the efficiency and predictability of the process could be improved. Activity analysis and thinking-aloud sessions were used to collect data to generate UML diagrams. The UML model highlighted the sequential nature of the current process as a barrier for efficiency gains. It also identified the uneven distribution of process controls, lack of symmetric communication channels, critical dependencies among processing stages, and failure to implement all the lessons learned in the piloting phase. It also suggested that improved structured reporting at each stage - especially from the pilot phase, parallel processing of data and correctly positioned process controls - should improve the efficiency and predictability of research projects. Process modelling provided a rational basis for the critical appraisal of a clinical data processing system; its potential maybe underutilized within health care.

  5. Condylar axis position, as determined by the occlusion and measured by the CPI instrument, and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Crawford, S D

    1999-04-01

    The importance of occlusion as an etiologic factor in signs and symptoms of TMD has been a source of controversy. Very few studies have examined occlusion-dictated condylar position using instrumentation, and none has compared an ideal sample against an untreated control. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between condylar axis position as determined by the occlusion and signs and symptoms of TMD, using the condylar position indicator (CPI). A sample of subjects with ideal occlusions, defined as centric relation approximating centric occlusion, was compared with a control sample of untreated subjects. The comparison was based on written patient histories, clinical exams, and CPI measurements. The ideal sample of 30 subjects was selected from a population that had undergone full-mouth reconstruction using gnathologic principles that included centric relation (CR) being coincident with centric occlusion (CO). The control group consisted of 30 untreated subjects from the general population and was matched with the ideal sample with regard to sex. A duplicate written exam was given to the subjects in the ideal sample to assess symptoms prior to treatment. The CR bite registration technique developed by Roth was used. When the pre- and posttreatment examination scores of the ideal sample were compared, an 84% reduction in symptoms was found after treatment. A high correlation (p<.001) between signs and symptoms of TMD and CPI values was documented. Since condylar axis position is dictated upon closure of the dentition into maximum intercuspation and since condylar axis position was shown in this study to be strongly correlated with TMD symptomatology, it can be concluded that a statistically significant relationship exists between occlusion-dictated condylar position and symptoms of TMD.

  6. Distributed collaborative team effectiveness: measurement and process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R.; Hihn, J.; Wilkinson, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement methodology developed for assessing the readiness, and identifying opportunities for improving the effectiveness, of distributed collaborative design teams preparing to conduct a coccurent design session.

  7. Identification of a Benzoisoxazoloazepine Inhibitor (CPI-0610) of the Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal (BET) Family as a Candidate for Human Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Brian K; Gehling, Victor S; Hewitt, Michael C; Vaswani, Rishi G; Côté, Alexandre; Leblanc, Yves; Nasveschuk, Christopher G; Bellon, Steve; Bergeron, Louise; Campbell, Robert; Cantone, Nico; Cooper, Michael R; Cummings, Richard T; Jayaram, Hariharan; Joshi, Shivangi; Mertz, Jennifer A; Neiss, Adrianne; Normant, Emmanuel; O'Meara, Michael; Pardo, Eneida; Poy, Florence; Sandy, Peter; Supko, Jeffrey; Sims, Robert J; Harmange, Jean-Christophe; Taylor, Alexander M; Audia, James E

    2016-02-25

    In recent years, inhibition of the interaction between the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) family of chromatin adaptors and acetyl-lysine residues on chromatin has emerged as a promising approach to regulate the expression of important disease-relevant genes, including MYC, BCL-2, and NF-κB. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a potent and selective benzoisoxazoloazepine BET bromodomain inhibitor that attenuates BET-dependent gene expression in vivo, demonstrates antitumor efficacy in an MV-4-11 mouse xenograft model, and is currently undergoing human clinical trials for hematological malignancies (CPI-0610).

  8. Impact of Continuous Education About Oral Hygiene on the Changes of CPI-index for 12-15-year-old Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Deljo, Emsudina; Babacic, Rafeta; Meskovic, Belma; Grabus, Jasmina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontal diseases are becoming ever growing problem, not only for stomatology, but also for medicine overall, as the final result from this disease is loss of the teeth. The main cause for the emergence of the periodontal disease is bacterial activity from dental plaque. CPI index / Community Periodontal Index is recommended from the World Health Organization for epidemiological research, and for its application, graded probe WHO for periodontal tissue, which on the top has a ball with radius of 0.5mm, is essential. The purpose of the research: The purpose of the research was to determine the status of periodontal tissue for the sixth, seventh and eighth-grade students, and to examine if continuous education about oral hygiene has a direct impact on the change on the value of CPI-index. The examinees and methods: The examinees and methods of research: during the research 300 schoolchildren (1994, 1995 and 1996 generations, (100 schoolchildren of each generation)) were examined, and these were split into three groups. In the first group, there was no education, in the second group at the beginning of the research a session was held on proper tooth - brushing and importance of oral hygiene and in the third group continuous sessions were held in the period of six months, as per pre-determined timetable (i.e. at the beginning, after seven days, after one month, after three months). The schoolchildren were examined and their CPI - index was determined at the beginning and the end of the research. The result: The result of the research has been shown in a tabular and graphic form. For the schoolchildren, where there was a continuous education about the importance of the oral hygiene, the values of CPI - index have significantly changed. Conclusion: The status of periodontal tissue for the sixth-, seventh and eighth-grade schoolchildren is unacceptable, but the continuous education about the importance of the oral hygiene is giving very good results in

  9. Intermediate Information Processing. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartor, Beth

    This course curriculum is intended for community college instructors and administrators to use in implementing an intermediate information processing course. A student's course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required texts, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class…

  10. Principles of Information Processing. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Gloria

    This course curriculum is intended for community college instructors and administrators to use in implementing a principles of information processing course. A student's course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required texts, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class…

  11. Tools for the Improvement of Organizational Learning Processes in Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Weerd-Nederhof, Petra C.; Pacitti, Bernice J.; da Silva Gomes, Jorge F.; Pearson, Alan W.

    2002-01-01

    From case studies of organizational learning in research and development companies, learning tools or mechanisms were identified: job rotation, innovation process planning, and product innovation project review. Organizational learning involved parallel rather than linear processes of information acquisition, distribution, and interpretation and…

  12. The Facilities Audit. A Process for Improving Facilities Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Harvey H.

    The problems of deferred maintenance and decaying campus infrastructure have troubled higher education for the past two decades. This book, designed to be a tool for facilities managers, describes a process for inspecting and reporting conditions of buildings and infrastructure. The audit process is meant to be a routine part of maintenance…

  13. Tools for the Improvement of Organizational Learning Processes in Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Weerd-Nederhof, Petra C.; Pacitti, Bernice J.; da Silva Gomes, Jorge F.; Pearson, Alan W.

    2002-01-01

    From case studies of organizational learning in research and development companies, learning tools or mechanisms were identified: job rotation, innovation process planning, and product innovation project review. Organizational learning involved parallel rather than linear processes of information acquisition, distribution, and interpretation and…

  14. Neurofeedback training of gamma band oscillations improves perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Salari, Neda; Büchel, Christian; Rose, Michael

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a noninvasive electroencephalography-based neurofeedback method is applied to train volunteers to deliberately increase gamma band oscillations (40 Hz) in the visual cortex. Gamma band oscillations in the visual cortex play a functional role in perceptual processing. In a previous study, we were able to demonstrate that gamma band oscillations prior to stimulus presentation have a significant influence on perceptual processing of visual stimuli. In the present study, we aimed to investigate longer lasting effects of gamma band neurofeedback training on perceptual processing. For this purpose, a feedback group was trained to modulate oscillations in the gamma band, while a control group participated in a task with an identical design setting but without gamma band feedback. Before and after training, both groups participated in a perceptual object detection task and a spatial attention task. Our results clearly revealed that only the feedback group but not the control group exhibited a visual processing advantage and an increase in oscillatory gamma band activity in the pre-stimulus period of the processing of the visual object stimuli after the neurofeedback training. Results of the spatial attention task showed no difference between the groups, which underlines the specific role of gamma band oscillations for perceptual processing. In summary, our results show that modulation of gamma band activity selectively affects perceptual processing and therefore supports the relevant role of gamma band activity for this specific process. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the eligibility of gamma band oscillations as a valuable tool for neurofeedback applications.

  15. The Facilities Audit. A Process for Improving Facilities Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Harvey H.

    The problems of deferred maintenance and decaying campus infrastructure have troubled higher education for the past two decades. This book, designed to be a tool for facilities managers, describes a process for inspecting and reporting conditions of buildings and infrastructure. The audit process is meant to be a routine part of maintenance…

  16. Symmetric Phase Only Filtering for Improved DPIV Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    2006-01-01

    The standard approach in Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) data processing is to use Fast Fourier Transforms to obtain the cross-correlation of two single exposure subregions, where the location of the cross-correlation peak is representative of the most probable particle displacement across the subregion. This standard DPIV processing technique is analogous to Matched Spatial Filtering, a technique commonly used in optical correlators to perform the crosscorrelation operation. Phase only filtering is a well known variation of Matched Spatial Filtering, which when used to process DPIV image data yields correlation peaks which are narrower and up to an order of magnitude larger than those obtained using traditional DPIV processing. In addition to possessing desirable correlation plane features, phase only filters also provide superior performance in the presence of DC noise in the correlation subregion. When DPIV image subregions contaminated with surface flare light or high background noise levels are processed using phase only filters, the correlation peak pertaining only to the particle displacement is readily detected above any signal stemming from the DC objects. Tedious image masking or background image subtraction are not required. Both theoretical and experimental analyses of the signal-to-noise ratio performance of the filter functions are presented. In addition, a new Symmetric Phase Only Filtering (SPOF) technique, which is a variation on the traditional phase only filtering technique, is described and demonstrated. The SPOF technique exceeds the performance of the traditionally accepted phase only filtering techniques and is easily implemented in standard DPIV FFT based correlation processing with no significant computational performance penalty. An "Automatic" SPOF algorithm is presented which determines when the SPOF is able to provide better signal to noise results than traditional PIV processing. The SPOF based optical correlation processing

  17. Improving our understanding of the remote sensing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calabrese, M. A.; Murphy, R. E.; Heydorn, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Plans for two fundamental research programs aimed at improving an understanding of the physics and mathematics of remote sensing are discussed. The first program, Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Research Program, is concerned with developing the capability to determine biophysical attributes of terrestrial scenes through an improved understanding of the relationships between those properties and remotely sensed radiation. The research issues in the second program, Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis, are discussed with reference to the following five categories: preprocessing, digital image representation, object scene inference, computational structures, and continuing studies.

  18. Improving process performance in Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Manco, G. L.

    2011-01-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a relatively new process in which a sheet clamped along the borders is progressively deformed through a hemispherical tool. The tool motion is CNC controlled and the path is designed using a CAD-CAM approach, with the aim to reproduce the final shape contour such as in the surface milling. The absence of a dedicated setup and the related high flexibility is the main point of strength and the reason why several researchers focused their attentions on the ISF process. On the other hand the process slowness is the most relevant drawback which reduces a wider industrial application. In the paper, a first attempt to overcome this process limitation is presented taking into account a relevant speed increasing respect to the values currently used.

  19. Improving process performance in Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Manco, G. L.

    2011-01-17

    Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a relatively new process in which a sheet clamped along the borders is progressively deformed through a hemispherical tool. The tool motion is CNC controlled and the path is designed using a CAD-CAM approach, with the aim to reproduce the final shape contour such as in the surface milling. The absence of a dedicated setup and the related high flexibility is the main point of strength and the reason why several researchers focused their attentions on the ISF process.On the other hand the process slowness is the most relevant drawback which reduces a wider industrial application. In the paper, a first attempt to overcome this process limitation is presented taking into account a relevant speed increasing respect to the values currently used.

  20. Intro to PS-PVD Processing for Improved Engine Performance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Bryan Harder at the Glenn Research Center in Cleveland describes a process that NASA Aeronautics is developing to successfully deposit coatings on composite materials to be used as component...

  1. An Improvement in Thermal Modelling of Automated Tape Placement Process

    SciTech Connect

    Barasinski, Anaies; Leygue, Adrien; Poitou, Arnaud; Soccard, Eric

    2011-01-17

    The thermoplastic tape placement process offers the possibility of manufacturing large laminated composite parts with all kinds of geometries (double curved i.e.). This process is based on the fusion bonding of a thermoplastic tape on a substrate. It has received a growing interest during last years because of its non autoclave abilities.In order to control and optimize the quality of the manufactured part, we need to predict the temperature field throughout the processing of the laminate. In this work, we focus on a thermal modeling of this process which takes in account the imperfect bonding existing between the different layers of the substrate by introducing thermal contact resistance in the model. This study is leaning on experimental results which inform us that the value of the thermal resistance evolves with temperature and pressure applied on the material.

  2. An Improvement in Thermal Modelling of Automated Tape Placement Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barasinski, Anaïs; Leygue, Adrien; Soccard, Eric; Poitou, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    The thermoplastic tape placement process offers the possibility of manufacturing large laminated composite parts with all kinds of geometries (double curved i.e.). This process is based on the fusion bonding of a thermoplastic tape on a substrate. It has received a growing interest during last years because of its non autoclave abilities. In order to control and optimize the quality of the manufactured part, we need to predict the temperature field throughout the processing of the laminate. In this work, we focus on a thermal modeling of this process which takes in account the imperfect bonding existing between the different layers of the substrate by introducing thermal contact resistance in the model. This study is leaning on experimental results which inform us that the value of the thermal resistance evolves with temperature and pressure applied on the material.

  3. Method for processing XCP data with improved accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Zhang, Qisheng; Zhao, Xiao; Zhang, Qimao; Liu, Shenghui; Li, Shuhan; Yuan, Zhenzhong

    2017-05-01

    An expendable current profiler (XCP) is a device used for monitoring ocean currents. In this study, we focus on the technology available for processing XCP data and propose a more accurate method for calculating the current velocity from the nanovolt-scale current-induced electric field measured using an XCP. In order to confirm the accuracy of the proposed data processing method, a sea test was performed in the South China Sea region, wherein, for the first time in China, ocean current and electric-field data were collected from the sea surface to a depth of 1000 m using an XCP. The current-data processing method described herein was used to determine the eastward and northward relative velocity components of the current from the measured data, which were then compared with the current data obtained using an acoustic Doppler current profiler, in order verify the accuracy of the measurements as well as that of the data processing method.

  4. Improved process for epitaxial deposition of silicon on prediffused substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. G.; Halsor, J. L.; Word, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    Process for fabricating integrated circuits uniformly deposits silicon epitaxially on prediffused substrates without affecting the sublayer diffusion pattern. Two silicon deposits from different sources, and deposited at different temperatures, protect the sublayer pattern from the silicon tetrachloride reaction.

  5. Improved method for Faraday current sensor data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, José A.; Perciante, César D.; Lagos, Alejandro; Frins, Erna M.

    2001-11-01

    There are several practical problems that have made difficult the prompt application of Faraday current sensors in industrial environments. Two of them are the multiplicative noise generated by mechanical vibrations and the normalization of the output signal. In this paper we propose a logarithmical processing and a posterior bandpass filtering of the sensor data in order to solve simultaneously both issues. Experimental results demonstrating the viability of the procedure and a comparison with standard processing methods are presented.

  6. Practical Software Measurement: Measuring for Process Management and Improvement,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    modify the processes so as to better meet business needs. • Assess the impacts and benefits gained, and compare these to the costs of changes made to...of control methods, and these causes were called assignable. Walter A. Shewhart, 1931 Variations due to assignable causes have marked impacts on...product characteristics and other measures of process performance.3 These impacts create significant changes in the patterns of variation. This is

  7. An Improved Effective Cost Review Process for Value Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Joo, D. S.; Park, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    Second-look value engineering (VE) is an approach that aims to lower the costs of products for which target costs are not being met during the production stage. Participants in second-look VE typically come up with a variety of ideas for cost cutting, but the outcomes often depend on their levels of experience, and not many good alternatives are available during the production stage. Nonetheless, good ideas have been consistently generated by VE experts. This paper investigates past second-look VE cases and the thinking processes of VE experts and proposes a cost review process as a systematic means of investigating cost-cutting ideas. This cost review process includes the use of an idea checklist and a specification review process. In addition to presenting the process, this paper reports on its feasibility, based on its introduction into a VE training course as part of a pilot study. The results indicate that the cost review process is effective in generating ideas for later analysis. PMID:25580459

  8. An improved effective cost review process for value engineering.

    PubMed

    Joo, D S; Park, J I

    2014-01-01

    Second-look value engineering (VE) is an approach that aims to lower the costs of products for which target costs are not being met during the production stage. Participants in second-look VE typically come up with a variety of ideas for cost cutting, but the outcomes often depend on their levels of experience, and not many good alternatives are available during the production stage. Nonetheless, good ideas have been consistently generated by VE experts. This paper investigates past second-look VE cases and the thinking processes of VE experts and proposes a cost review process as a systematic means of investigating cost-cutting ideas. This cost review process includes the use of an idea checklist and a specification review process. In addition to presenting the process, this paper reports on its feasibility, based on its introduction into a VE training course as part of a pilot study. The results indicate that the cost review process is effective in generating ideas for later analysis.

  9. A Conceptual Process Model for Improving Youth Science Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Tom; Hodnett, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Improving youth science comprehension in the United States is imperative to reverse current trends in student achievement and to meet an expected shortage of scientists in the future. This lag in achievement scores and need for future scientists is a problem. One challenge is to link inquiry-based learning and experiential education with…

  10. A Conceptual Process Model for Improving Youth Science Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Tom; Hodnett, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Improving youth science comprehension in the United States is imperative to reverse current trends in student achievement and to meet an expected shortage of scientists in the future. This lag in achievement scores and need for future scientists is a problem. One challenge is to link inquiry-based learning and experiential education with…

  11. Revamping State Monitoring Process: A Means of Program Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higashino, Fukue S.

    In 1981, when Chapter 1 replaced Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I and with the advent of the effective schools movement, the Hawaii state administrators of Chapter 1 made a long term commitment to program improvement, especially in the area of instruction and quality delivery of services to the target students. In this program…

  12. Improving the Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering Requirements (SABER) Delivery Order Award Process: Results of a Process Improvement Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    worker confidence, smart technology investment, and improved customer service. These points are explained below. Part of Manager’s Job. Managers must...AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ►. t AFIT/GCM/LSP/91S-2 IMPROVING THE...THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Systems and Logistics of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air University In Partial Fulfillment

  13. Environmental process improvement feasibility study and demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodger L.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final product of an environmental study conducted by Western Commercial Space Center, Inc. under contract to Tennessee-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. The purpose of this investigation is to accurately document the current environmental and permitting processes associated with commercial space launch activity at Vandenberg AFB, and make recommendations to streamline those processes. The particular areas of interest focus on: identifying applicable Federal, state, and local laws, Department of Defense directives, and Air force regulations; defining the environmental process on Vandenberg AFB and how it relates with other agencies, including Federal and state regulatory agencies; and defining the air quality permit process. Study investigation results are applied to an example Pilot Space Launch Vehicle (PSLV) planning to launch from Vandenberg AFB. The PSLV space hardware is analyzed with respect to environmental and permitting issues associated with vehicle processing, facilities required (existing or new), and launch. The PSLV verified the earlier findings of the study and gave insight into streamlining recommendations.

  14. Plasma process control for improved PEO coatings on magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Riyad Omran

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is a high voltage plasma-assisted oxidation process uses an environmentally-friendly aqueous electrolyte to oxidize the metal surfaces to form ceramic oxide coatings which impart a high corrosion and wear resistance. One of the main advantages of PEO process is that it can be applied to treat samples with complex shapes, and surfaces with different composition and microstructure. The PEO process of Mg alloys is strongly influenced by such parameters as electrolyte composition and concentration, current or voltage applied and substrate alloy. Generally, these parameters have a direct influence on the discharging behavior. The discharges play an essential role in the formation and resulting composition of the 3-layer oxide structure. A detailed knowledge of the coating mechanisms is extremely important in order to produce a desired coating quality to reach the best performance of the PEO coatings in terms of corrosion resistance and tribological properties (wear rate, COF). During PEO processing of magnesium, some of the metal cations are transferred outwards from the substrate and react with anions to form ceramic coatings. Also, due to the high electric field in the discharge channels, oxygen anions transfer towards the magnesium substrate and react with Mg2+ cations to form a ceramic coating. Although, in general, PEO coating of Mg alloys produces the three-layered structure, the relative proportions of the three-layers are strongly influenced by the PEO processing parameters. In PEO process, the ceramic coating grows inwards to the alloy substrate and outwards to the coating surface simultaneously. For the coating growth, there are three simultaneous processes taking place, namely the electrochemical, the plasma chemical reactions and thermal diffusion. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed for the discharge characterization by following the substrate and electrolyte element present in the plasma discharge during the

  15. WCSC environmental process improvement study and demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawlick, Joseph F., Jr.; Severo, Orlando C.

    1993-01-01

    CSTAR's objective to develop commercial infrastructure is multi-faceted and includes diverse elements of the orbital and suborbital missions. Goals to this eight-month project with the WCSC are aimed at simplifying the environmental assessment, approval, and licensing process for commercial users. Included in this overarching set of goals are two specific processes: (1) air pollution control, and (2) the environmental assessment mechanism. Resolution of the potentially user unfriendly aspects of these environmentally sensitive criteria are readily transferable to other ranges where commercial space activity will be supported.

  16. IMPROVING (SOFTWARE) PATENT QUALITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Arti K.

    2014-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that patent quality, particularly in the area of software, needs improvement. This Article argues that even an agency as institutionally constrained as the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“PTO”) could implement a portfolio of pragmatic, cost-effective quality improvement strategies. The argument in favor of these strategies draws upon not only legal theory and doctrine but also new data from a PTO software examination unit with relatively strict practices. Strategies that resolve around Section 112 of the patent statute could usefully be deployed at the initial examination stage. Other strategies could be deployed within the new post-issuance procedures available to the agency under the America Invents Act. Notably, although the strategies the Article discusses have the virtue of being neutral as to technology, they are likely to have a very significant practical impact in the area of software. PMID:25221346

  17. IMPROVING (SOFTWARE) PATENT QUALITY THROUGH THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS.

    PubMed

    Rai, Arti K

    2013-11-24

    The available evidence indicates that patent quality, particularly in the area of software, needs improvement. This Article argues that even an agency as institutionally constrained as the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office ("PTO") could implement a portfolio of pragmatic, cost-effective quality improvement strategies. The argument in favor of these strategies draws upon not only legal theory and doctrine but also new data from a PTO software examination unit with relatively strict practices. Strategies that resolve around Section 112 of the patent statute could usefully be deployed at the initial examination stage. Other strategies could be deployed within the new post-issuance procedures available to the agency under the America Invents Act. Notably, although the strategies the Article discusses have the virtue of being neutral as to technology, they are likely to have a very significant practical impact in the area of software.

  18. Improved PCA + LDA Applies to Gastric Cancer Image Classification Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Lan; Lv, Wenya; Zhang, Xu; Meng, Xiuming

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are two most widely used pattern recognition methods in the field of feature extraction,while PCA + LDA is often used in image recognition.Here,we apply PCA + LDA to gastric cancer image feature classification, but the traditional PCA + LDA dimension reduction method has good effect on the training sample dimensionality and clustering, the effect on test samples dimension reduction and clustering is very poor, that is, the traditional PCA + LDA exists Generalization problem on the test samples. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an improved PCA + LDA method, which mainly considers from the LDA transform; improves the traditional PCA + LDA;increase the generalization performance of LDA on test samples and increases the classification accuracy on test samples. The experiment proves that the method can achieve good clustering.

  19. Prewarming in a pediatric hospital: process improvement through interprofessional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Tveit, Cheryl; Belew, John; Noble, Cindy

    2015-02-01

    A quality improvement project intended to promote maintenance of normothermia through active prewarming was carried out at a pediatric specialty hospital. An alternative active, forced-air warming product (Bair Paws warming gowns) was trialed in place of the existing active warming product (Bair Hugger blankets). Converting to the new product was intended to improve patient and staff compliance with prewarming recommendations. The alternative forced air active warming product was favored by both staff and patients, and the rate of compliance with this practice nearly doubled following the change in product. Extensive interprofessional collaboration and problem solving were required to go from an idea to a fully implemented change. The project demonstrated the importance of collaboration among various disciplines and the positive impact interprofessional collaboration can have on compliance with practice changes. Copyright © 2015 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Survey of Commonly Applied Methods for Software Process Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    may be overly optimistic, which may result in the 󈨞 percent syndrome * wherein they claim to be 90 percent done for the last 50 percent of the...Management, 13, 1-10, 1987. [Abdel-Hamid 88]Abdel-Hamid, T. K., "Understanding the 󈨞% Syndrome ’ in Software Project Management: A Simulation-Based Case...of mixed expertise and functional responsibilities to improve communication and foster cross- pollination of ideas. Concurrent engineering is a commonly

  1. Building Inclusive Processes for School Improvement: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaiz, Pilar; Escarbajal, Andrés; Guirao, José Manuel; Martínez, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study carried out in a nursery and primary school in order to ascertain the level of self-assessment undertaken by teachers with respect to their educational processes using the "ACADI" instrument, "School-based self-assessment of diversity awareness from an inclusive approach." The objective was to…

  2. 3 CFR - Improving the Federal Recruitment and Hiring Process

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... highly qualified individuals from seeking and obtaining jobs in the Federal Government. I therefore call... civilian workforce. Americans must be able to apply for Federal jobs through a commonsense hiring process... requirement that applicants respond to essay-style questions when submitting their initial...

  3. Improving Virtual Team Collaboration Outcomes through Collaboration Process Structuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittman, Dawn R.; Hawkes, Mark; Deokar, Amit V.; Sarnikar, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    The ability to collaborate in a virtual team is a necessary skill set for today's knowledge workers and students to be effective in their work. Past research indicates that knowledge workers and students need to establish a formal process to perform work, develop clear goals and objectives, and facilitate better communication among team members.…

  4. Improvement of Information Processing Quality in Preproduction Engineering Efficiency Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakanovskaya, L. N.; Chekardovskaya, I. A.

    2016-10-01

    The article has considered the method of obtaining, analyzing and processing of expert information using modern software environment of MATLAB computer mathematics that will allow increasing the efficiency of decisions about the expected economic performances (the desired profitability and the desired output of products).

  5. Incorporation of Monolignol Conjugates into Lignin for Improved Processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lignin remains one of the most significant barriers to the efficient utilization of cellulosic substrates, either for pulping or for biofuels production. Now that monomer substitution in the lignification process is now well authenticated in various transgenic plants, it is opportune to begin explor...

  6. Communicating with Parents: Understanding the Process, Improving Your Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Communication is the exchange of information, ideas and/or feelings from one person to another. The goal of communication is understanding. Without understanding, there is no communication. The communication process consists of verbal and nonverbal communication and listening. The spoken word is self-explanatory. Communication problems between…

  7. Improving the Complaint Process for Sexuality Exploited Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitalny, Gloria

    Four sexually exploited clients shared their experiences in invoking the complaint process against their former therapists. They wanted to stop the therapist from practicing and harming others, to receive some acknowledgement that they had been harmed, and to obtain some kind of recompense. If the therapist was unable to admit his or her error,…

  8. Simulation modeling: a powerful tool for process improvement.

    PubMed

    Boxerman, S B

    1996-01-01

    Simulation modeling provides an efficient means of examining the operation of a system under a variety of alternative conditions. This tool can potentially enhance a benchmarking project by providing a means for evaluating proposed modifications to the system or process under study.

  9. Improving the Evaluation and Feedback Process for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Bobby

    2009-01-01

    The continually changing role of the principal has created a complex position of leadership requiring more data for more skills than traditional methods of evaluation or feedback can provide. The purpose of this article is to question the process of providing beneficial and meaningful feedback for educational leaders so that they can reach their…

  10. Improving Cognitive Processes in Preschool Children: The COGEST Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayoral-Rodríguez, Silvia; Timoneda-Gallart, Carme; Pérez-Álvarez, Federico; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that pre-school children's cognitive functions can be developed by virtue of a training tool named COGENT (Cognitive Enhancement Training). We assumed that COGENT (COGEST in Spain) which is embedded in speech and language, will enhance the core cognitive processes that are…

  11. Breeding lettuce for improved fresh-cut processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce is a widely grown vegetable that is used to make fresh-cut salads, which are popular with consumers due to their convenience. Production and processing of fresh-cut lettuce is continually evolving, offering more products and becoming more efficient. Breeding new lettuce cultivars specialized...

  12. Improving Cognitive Processes in Preschool Children: The COGEST Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayoral-Rodríguez, Silvia; Timoneda-Gallart, Carme; Pérez-Álvarez, Federico; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that pre-school children's cognitive functions can be developed by virtue of a training tool named COGENT (Cognitive Enhancement Training). We assumed that COGENT (COGEST in Spain) which is embedded in speech and language, will enhance the core cognitive processes that are…

  13. Improving Virtual Team Collaboration Outcomes through Collaboration Process Structuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittman, Dawn R.; Hawkes, Mark; Deokar, Amit V.; Sarnikar, Surendra

    2010-01-01

    The ability to collaborate in a virtual team is a necessary skill set for today's knowledge workers and students to be effective in their work. Past research indicates that knowledge workers and students need to establish a formal process to perform work, develop clear goals and objectives, and facilitate better communication among team members.…

  14. Students Can Improve by Studying Their Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates how coaching students to think about their study processes and to monitor their learning can really pay off. Grazyna Niezgoda, a veteran instructor at New York City College of Technology, is reviewing an algebra quiz in front of a crowded section of developmental mathematics--a noncredit course for students who have failed…

  15. Building Inclusive Processes for School Improvement: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaiz, Pilar; Escarbajal, Andrés; Guirao, José Manuel; Martínez, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study carried out in a nursery and primary school in order to ascertain the level of self-assessment undertaken by teachers with respect to their educational processes using the "ACADI" instrument, "School-based self-assessment of diversity awareness from an inclusive approach." The objective was to…

  16. Using Automation to Improve the Flight Software Testing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.; Bartholomew, Maureen O.

    2001-01-01

    One of the critical phases in the development of a spacecraft attitude control system (ACS) is the testing of its flight software. The testing (and test verification) of ACS flight software requires a mix of skills involving software, knowledge of attitude control, and attitude control hardware, data manipulation, and analysis. The process of analyzing and verifying flight software test results often creates a bottleneck which dictates the speed at which flight software verification can be conducted. In the development of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft ACS subsystem, an integrated design environment was used that included a MAP high fidelity (HiFi) simulation, a central database of spacecraft parameters, a script language for numeric and string processing, and plotting capability. In this integrated environment, it was possible to automate many of the steps involved in flight software testing, making the entire process more efficient and thorough than on previous missions. In this paper, we will compare the testing process used on MAP to that used on other missions. The software tools that were developed to automate testing and test verification will be discussed, including the ability to import and process test data, synchronize test data and automatically generate HiFi script files used for test verification, and an automated capability for generating comparison plots. A summary of the benefits of applying these test methods on MAP will be given. Finally, the paper will conclude with a discussion of re-use of the tools and techniques presented, and the ongoing effort to apply them to flight software testing of the Triana spacecraft ACS subsystem.

  17. Using Automation to Improve the Flight Software Testing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.; Bartholomew, Maureen O.; McComas, David C.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the critical phases in the development of a spacecraft attitude control system (ACS) is the testing of its flight software. The testing (and test verification) of ACS flight software requires a mix of skills involving software, attitude control, data manipulation, and analysis. The process of analyzing and verifying flight software test results often creates a bottleneck which dictates the speed at which flight software verification can be conducted. In the development of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft ACS subsystem, an integrated design environment was used that included a MAP high fidelity (HiFi) simulation, a central database of spacecraft parameters, a script language for numeric and string processing, and plotting capability. In this integrated environment, it was possible to automate many of the steps involved in flight software testing, making the entire process more efficient and thorough than on previous missions. In this paper, we will compare the testing process used on MAP to that used on previous missions. The software tools that were developed to automate testing and test verification will be discussed, including the ability to import and process test data, synchronize test data and automatically generate HiFi script files used for test verification, and an automated capability for generating comparison plots. A summary of the perceived benefits of applying these test methods on MAP will be given. Finally, the paper will conclude with a discussion of re-use of the tools and techniques presented, and the ongoing effort to apply them to flight software testing of the Triana spacecraft ACS subsystem.

  18. Improving clinical trial accrual by streamlining the referral process.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Lawrence B; Oates, James C; Kamen, Diane L

    2015-01-01

    Poor accrual rates impede clinical trial efficiency and significantly contribute to development costs for new interventions. Many providers recognize investigational treatments are their patients' best opportunities for improvement, but operational clinical burdens impede providers' awareness of, and ability to leverage, such opportunities. We aimed to develop a new workflow for non-intrusively apprising providers of trial opportunities for their patients and enabling providers to efficiently refer potential trial candidates to study teams for preliminary eligibility review. We developed a small information system to monitor institutional systems, identify patients potentially eligible for ongoing clinical trials, and give providers a non-intrusive, one-click method to refer such patients to study teams for preliminary eligibility vetting. In 18 months of pilot experience, providers invited study teams to vet 11% of 1844 patients found potentially eligible for 38 trials registered with the system. Seventy-nine patients were conservatively estimated to be accrued. Accrual rates were boosted for several trials. Results of a survey indicated most users were satisfied with the system. Providers' time constraints impede their pursuit of investigational opportunities for their patients. In pilot experience, our novel approach to facilitating such pursuits yielded improved accrual, benefiting trials and presumably patients, too. Our approach may bear particular fruit for cross-disciplinary referrals for screening. Systems for assisting providers in making investigational opportunities available to their patients may benefit from careful attention to provider workflow and time constraints. Our system might further benefit from improved patient/trial matching and shorter messages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving the theoretical underpinnings of process-based hydrologic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Schaefli, Bettina; Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Samaniego, Luis; Luce, Charles H.; Jackson, Bethanna M.; Freer, Jim E.; Arnold, Jeffrey R.; Moore, R. Dan; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Ceola, Serena

    2016-03-01

    In this Commentary, we argue that it is possible to improve the physical realism of hydrologic models by making better use of existing hydrologic theory. We address the following questions: (1) what are some key elements of current hydrologic theory; (2) how can those elements best be incorporated where they may be missing in current models; and (3) how can we evaluate competing hydrologic theories across scales and locations? We propose that hydrologic science would benefit from a model-based community synthesis effort to reframe, integrate, and evaluate different explanations of hydrologic behavior, and provide a controlled avenue to find where understanding falls short.

  20. Achieving Success via Multi-Model Process Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Mellon University page 19 Lean Tactics: Kaizen Events Kaizen - Make people’s jobs easier by taking them apart, studying them, and making improvements...KAI” - take apart and make anew • “ZEN” - think, make good the actions of others, do good deeds and help others Kaizen tips (VAL, M&A, QPM, CAR...business - Requires firm understanding of the “before” state - “Just do it” Projects - Kaizen event with rollout plan • required use of Six Sigma

  1. Caffeine improves left hemisphere processing of positive words.

    PubMed

    Kuchinke, Lars; Lux, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    A positivity advantage is known in emotional word recognition in that positive words are consistently processed faster and with fewer errors compared to emotionally neutral words. A similar advantage is not evident for negative words. Results of divided visual field studies, where stimuli are presented in either the left or right visual field and are initially processed by the contra-lateral brain hemisphere, point to a specificity of the language-dominant left hemisphere. The present study examined this effect by showing that the intake of caffeine further enhanced the recognition performance of positive, but not negative or neutral stimuli compared to a placebo control group. Because this effect was only present in the right visual field/left hemisphere condition, and based on the close link between caffeine intake and dopaminergic transmission, this result points to a dopaminergic explanation of the positivity advantage in emotional word recognition.

  2. Improving convergence rates for low pressure material processing calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Moen, C.D.

    1996-12-01

    An enhanced solution strategy for the SIMPLER algorithm is presented for low pressure heat and mass transport calculations with applications in material processing. The accurate solution of highly diffusive flows requires an inflow boundary condition that preserves chemical species mass fluxes. The flux-preserving inflow boundary condition contains a scaling problem that causes the species equations to converge very slowly when using the standard SIMPLER algorithm. A gradient algorithm, coupled to a line-relaxation method, accelerates the convergence of the linear problem. Reformulation of the pressure-correction boundary conditions ensures that continuity is preserved in each finite volume at each iteration. The boundary condition scaling problem is demonstrated with a simple linear model problem. The enhanced solution strategy is implemented in a baseline computer code that is used to solve the multicomponent Navier-Stokes equations on a generalized, multiple-block grid system. Convergence rate acceleration factors of up to 100 are demonstrated for several material processing example problems.

  3. Leading a change process to improve health service delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Bahamon, Claire; Dwyer, Joseph; Buxbaum, Ann

    2006-01-01

    In the fields of health and development, donors channel multiple resources into the design of new practices and technologies, as well as small-scale programmes to test them. But successful practices are rarely scaled up to the level where they beneficially impact large, impoverished populations. An effective process for change is to use the experiences of new practices gained at the programme level for full-scale implementation. To make an impact, new practices need to be applied, and supported by management systems, at many organizational levels. At every level, potential implementers and likely beneficiaries must first recognize some characteristics that would benefit them in the new practices. An effective change process, led by a dedicated internal change agent, comprises several well-defined phases that successively broaden and institutionalize the use of new practices. PMID:16917654

  4. Processed bovine cartilage: an improved biosynthetic implant for contour defects

    SciTech Connect

    Ersek, R.A.; Hart, W.G. Jr.; Greer, D.; Beisang, A.A.; Flynn, P.J.; Denton, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    Irradiated human cartilage has been found to be a superior implant material for correction of contour defects; however, availability problems have prevented this material from gaining wide acceptance. Implantation of processed irradiated bovine cartilage in primates and rabbits, as described here, provides strong evidence that this material performs like irradiated allograft cartilage antigenically and has certain cosmetic advantages over allograft cartilage. Our studies in primates have shown that there is no systemically measurable antibody-antigen reaction, either cellular or noncellular, to irradiated processed bovine cartilage. Neither primary nor second-set provocative implantations produced any measurable rejection. In rabbits, composite grafts of two pieces of irradiated bovine cartilage adjacent to each other were also well tolerated, with no measurable absorption and with capsule formation typical of a foreign body reaction to an inert object.

  5. Direct extrusion process analysis with proposed numerical modeling improvements - product quality, process parameters, and microstructure prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pari, Luigi, Jr.

    2009-11-01

    A numerical modeling and simulation analysis was performed on the hot-direct extrusion process with the finite element modeling (FEM) software package, DEFORM(TM) 3-D for three case studies. The research demonstrated that a commercially available, industry-accepted numerical simulation software package can predict the material response and microstructure development with simple simulated state variables (i.e. strain, strain rate, and temperature) and easily measured initial material characteristics (e.g. grain diameter). The predicted state variables provided insight into sources for limited extrudate quality, aided in processing improvements, and were the primary variables used to predict material response. The analysis began with studying the influence of tool misalignment and the degree of billet upset on extrudate dimensional quality, measured in terms of tube eccentricity, for a copper tube case study. Under ideal upset and tool alignment conditions, the simulated eccentricity was minimized. If the mandrel had a misalignment that was within tolerance, the eccentricity initially was minor in comparison to the eccentricity produced toward the end of extrusion. Consequently, through the use of DEFORM(TM) 3-D the extrusion mechanics were understood and sources for tube eccentricity were identified. In the second case study, a flow stress model was developed as a function of the state variables for an as-cast homogenized magnesium alloy. The modeled flow stress curve reasonably agreed with experimental compression flow stress data. The model was then implemented into DEFORM(TM) 3-D to utilize the simulated state variables to examine the extrusion of an automobile structural component. It was concluded that once the initial material characteristics are accounted for in the flow stress model it will more accurately and efficiently predict the flow stress response for the actual material being considered than a generic experimental flow stress-based material library

  6. Matrix Wings: Continuous Process Improvement an Operator Can Love

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    demands of mission-oriented duties. Ideally, new methods should simply reorganize those duties into a more streamlined structure . Fall 2016 | 11 Matrix ...fundamental shortcoming of hierarchical structures . That is a prime reason for designing matrix or- ganizations: to overcome poor horizontal...wing structure and key processes 14 | Air & Space Power Journal Briding Redesigning the Wing as a Matrix Organization If a wing commander were to

  7. Improving Tools and Processes in Mechanical Design Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative product development projects in the aerospace and defense industry are held hostage to high cost and risk due to poor alignment of collaborative design tools and processes. This impasse can be broken if companies will jointly develop implementation approaches and practices in support of high value working arrangements. The current tools can be used to better advantage in many situations and there is reason for optimism that tool vendors will provide significant support.

  8. Improving Tools and Processes in Mechanical Design Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative product development projects in the aerospace and defense industry are held hostage to high cost and risk due to poor alignment of collaborative design tools and processes. This impasse can be broken if companies will jointly develop implementation approaches and practices in support of high value working arrangements. The current tools can be used to better advantage in many situations and there is reason for optimism that tool vendors will provide significant support.

  9. An improved processible acetylene-terminated polyimide for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, A. L.; Naselow, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    The newest member of a family of thermosetting acetylene-substituted polyimide oligomers is HR600P. This oligomer is the isoimide version of the oligomer known as HR600P and Thermid 600. Although both types of material yield the same heat resistant end products after cure, HR600P has much superior processing characteristics. This attributed to its lower melting temperature (160 + or - 10 C, 320 + or - 20 F) in contrast to 202 C (396 F) for Thermid MC-600, its longer gel time at its processing temperature (16 to 30 minutes bvs 3 minutes), and its excellent solubility in low boiling solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, glymes, or 4:1 methyl ethyl ketone/toluene mixtures. These advantages provide more acceptable coating and impregnation procedures, allow for more complete removal at lower temperatures, provide a longer pot life or working time, and allow composite structure fabrication in conventional autoclaves used for epoxy composite curing. The excellent processing characteristics of HR600P allow its use in large area laminated structures, structural composites, and molding compositions.

  10. Process improvement by cycle time reduction through Lean Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva, R.; patan, Mahamed naveed khan; lakshmi pavan kumar, Mane; Purusothaman, M.; pitchai, S. Antony; Jegathish, Y.

    2017-05-01

    In present world, every customer needs their products to get on time with good quality. Presently every industry is striving to satisfy their customer requirements. An aviation concern trying to accomplish continuous improvement in all its projects. In this project the maintenance service for the customer is analyzed. The maintenance part service is split up into four levels. Out of it, three levels are done in service shops and the fourth level falls under customer’s privilege to change the parts in their aircraft engines at their location. An enhancement for electronics initial provisioning (eIP) is done for fourth level. Customers request service shops to get their requirements through Recommended Spare Parts List (RSPL) by eIP. To complete this RSPL for one customer, it takes 61.5 hours as a cycle time which is very high. By mapping current state VSM and takt time, future state improvement can be done in order to reduce cycle time using Lean tools such as Poke-Yoke, Jidoka, 5S, Muda etc.,

  11. Early diving behaviour in juvenile penguins: improvement or selection processes

    PubMed Central

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Bost, Charles-André

    2016-01-01

    The early life stage of long-lived species is critical to the viability of population, but is poorly understood. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether juveniles are less efficient foragers than adults as has been hypothesized. We measured changes in the diving behaviour of 17 one-year-old king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus at Crozet Islands (subantartic archipelago) during their first months at sea, using miniaturized tags that transmitted diving activity in real time. We also equipped five non-breeder adults with the same tags for comparison. The data on foraging performance revealed two groups of juveniles. The first group made shallower and shorter dives that may be indicative of early mortality while the second group progressively increased their diving depths and durations, and survived the first months at sea. This surviving group of juveniles required the same recovery durations as adults, but typically performed shallower and shorter dives. There is thereby a relationship between improved diving behaviour and survival in young penguins. This long period of improving diving performance in the juvenile life stage is potentially a critical period for the survival of deep avian divers and may have implications for their ability to adapt to environmental change. PMID:27484650

  12. Early diving behaviour in juvenile penguins: improvement or selection processes.

    PubMed

    Orgeret, Florian; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bost, Charles-André

    2016-08-01

    The early life stage of long-lived species is critical to the viability of population, but is poorly understood. Longitudinal studies are needed to test whether juveniles are less efficient foragers than adults as has been hypothesized. We measured changes in the diving behaviour of 17 one-year-old king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus at Crozet Islands (subantartic archipelago) during their first months at sea, using miniaturized tags that transmitted diving activity in real time. We also equipped five non-breeder adults with the same tags for comparison. The data on foraging performance revealed two groups of juveniles. The first group made shallower and shorter dives that may be indicative of early mortality while the second group progressively increased their diving depths and durations, and survived the first months at sea. This surviving group of juveniles required the same recovery durations as adults, but typically performed shallower and shorter dives. There is thereby a relationship between improved diving behaviour and survival in young penguins. This long period of improving diving performance in the juvenile life stage is potentially a critical period for the survival of deep avian divers and may have implications for their ability to adapt to environmental change. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. An integrated approach to improving the parallel applications development process

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Craig E; Watson, Gregory R; Tibbitts, Beth R

    2009-01-01

    The development of parallel applications is becoming increasingly important to a broad range of industries. Traditionally, parallel programming was a niche area that was primarily exploited by scientists trying to model extremely complicated physical phenomenon. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that continued hardware performance improvements through clock scaling and feature-size reduction are simply not going to be achievable for much longer. The hardware vendor's approach to addressing this issue is to employ parallelism through multi-processor and multi-core technologies. While there is little doubt that this approach produces scaling improvements, there are still many significant hurdles to be overcome before parallelism can be employed as a general replacement to more traditional programming techniques. The Parallel Tools Platform (PTP) Project was created in 2005 in an attempt to provide developers with new tools aimed at addressing some of the parallel development issues. Since then, the introduction of a new generation of peta-scale and multi-core systems has highlighted the need for such a platform. In this paper, we describe some of the challenges facing parallel application developers, present the current state of PTP, and provide a simple case study that demonstrates how PTP can be used to locate a potential deadlock situation in an MPI code.

  14. Improving the Software Development Process Using Testability Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Keith W.

    1991-01-01

    Software testability is the the tendency of code to reveal existing faults during random testing. This paper proposes to take software testability predictions into account throughout the development process. These predictions can be made from formal specifications, design documents, and the code itself. The insight provided by software testability is valuable during design, coding, testing, and quality assurance. We further believe that software testability analysis can play a crucial role in quantifying the likelihood that faults are not hiding after testing does not result in any failures for the current version.

  15. Process, not product: investigating recommendations for improving citizen science "success".

    PubMed

    Freitag, Amy; Pfeffer, Max J

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science programs are increasingly popular for a variety of reasons, from public education to new opportunities for data collection. The literature published in scientific journals resulting from these projects represents a particular perspective on the process. These articles often conclude with recommendations for increasing "success". This study compared these recommendations to those elicited during interviews with program coordinators for programs within the United States. From this comparison, success cannot be unilaterally defined and therefore recommendations vary by perspective on success. Program coordinators tended to have more locally-tailored recommendations specific to particular aspects of their program mission.

  16. Harnessing graphics processing units for improved neuroimaging statistics.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Anders; Villani, Mattias; Laconte, Stephen M

    2013-09-01

    Simple models and algorithms based on restrictive assumptions are often used in the field of neuroimaging for studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging, voxel based morphometry, and diffusion tensor imaging. Nonparametric statistical methods or flexible Bayesian models can be applied rather easily to yield more trustworthy results. The spatial normalization step required for multisubject studies can also be improved by taking advantage of more robust algorithms for image registration. A common drawback of algorithms based on weaker assumptions, however, is the increase in computational complexity. In this short overview, we will therefore present some examples of how inexpensive PC graphics hardware, normally used for demanding computer games, can be used to enable practical use of more realistic models and accurate algorithms, such that the outcome of neuroimaging studies really can be trusted.

  17. Engineering an improved acellular nerve graft via optimized chemical processing.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Terry W; Liu, Stephen Y; Schmidt, Christine E

    2004-01-01

    The long-term goal of our research is to engineer an acellular nerve graft for clinical nerve repair and for use as a model system with which to study nerve-extracellular matrix interactions during nerve regeneration. To develop this model acellular nerve graft we (1) examined the effects of detergents on peripheral nerve tissue, and (2) used that knowledge to create a nerve graft devoid of cells with a well-preserved extracellular matrix. Using histochemistry and Western analysis, the impact of each detergent on cellular and extracellular tissue components was determined. An optimized protocol was created with the detergents Triton X-200, sulfobetaine-16, and sulfobetaine-10. This study represents the most comprehensive examination to date of the effects of detergents on peripheral nerve tissue morphology and protein composition. Also presented is an improved chemical decellularization protocol that preserves the internal structure of native nerve more than the predominant current protocol.

  18. 76 FR 41246 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... holders on improving opportunities for stake holder involvement on endangered species' consultations. The... groups; pesticide users and growers; pest consultants; State, local and Tribal governments; academia...

  19. Energy codes and the building design process: Opportunities for improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.; Rigler, E.J.

    1994-05-01

    The Energy Policy Act (EPAct), passed by Congress in 1992, requires states to adopt building energy codes for new commercial buildings that meet or exceed the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and Illuminating Engineers Society of North America (IES) Standard 90.1-1989 by October 24, 1994. In response to EPAct many states will be adopting a state-wide energy code for the first time. Understanding the role of stakeholders in the building design process is key to the successful implementation of these codes. In 1993, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a survey of architects and designers to determine how much they know about energy codes, to what extent energy-efficiency concerns influence the design process, and how they convey information about energy-efficient designs and products to their clients. Findings of the PNL survey, together with related information from a survey by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) and other reports, are presented in this report. This information may be helpful for state and utility energy program managers and others who will be involved in promoting the adoption and implementation of state energy codes that meet the requirements of EPAct.

  20. Sediment sampling and processing methods in Hungary, and possible improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamas, Eniko Anna; Koch, Daniel; Varga, Gyorgy

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the monitoring of sediment processes is unquestionable: sediment balance of regulated rivers suffered substantial alterations in the past century, affecting navigation, energy production, fish habitats and floodplain ecosystems alike; infiltration times to our drinking water wells have shortened, exposing them to an eventual pollution event and making them vulnerable; and sediment-attached contaminants accumulate in floodplains and reservoirs, threatening our healthy environment. The changes in flood characteristics and rating curves of our rivers are regularly being researched and described, involving state-of-the-art measurement methods, modeling tools and traditional statistics. Sediment processes however, are much less known. Unlike the investigation of flow processes, sediment-related research is scarce, which is partly due to the outdated methodology and poor database background in the specific field. Sediment-related data, information and analyses form an important and integral part of Civil engineering in relation to rivers all over the world. In relation to the second largest river of Europe, the Danube, it is widely known in expert community and for long discussed at different expert forums that the sediment balance of the river Danube has changed drastically over the past century. Sediment monitoring on the river Danube started as early as the end of the 19th century, with scattered measurements carried out. Regular sediment sampling was developed in the first half of the 20th century all along the river, with different station density and monitoring frequencies in different countries. After the first few decades of regular sampling, the concept of (mainly industrial) development changed along the river and data needs changed as well, furthermore the complicated and inexact methods of sampling bed load on the alluvial reach of the river were not developed further. Frequency of suspended sediment sampling is very low along the river

  1. Improving the Representation of Estuarine Processes in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Whitney, M. M.; Bryan, F.; Tseng, Y. H.

    2016-12-01

    The exchange of freshwater between the rivers and estuaries and the open ocean represents a unique form of scale-interaction in the climate system. The local variability in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle is integrated by rivers over potentially large drainage basins (up to semi-continental scales), and is then imposed on the coastal ocean at the scale of a river mouth. Appropriately treating riverine freshwater discharge into the oceans in Earth system models is a challenging problem. Commonly, the river runoff is discharged into the ocean models with zero salinity and arbitrarily distributed either horizontally or vertically over several grid cells. Those approaches entirely neglect estuarine physical processes that modify river inputs before they reach the open ocean. A physically based Estuary Box Model (EBM) is developed to parameterize the mixing processes in estuaries. The EBM has a two-layer structure representing the mixing processes driven by tides and shear flow within the estuaries. It predicts the magnitude of the mixing driven exchange flow, bringing saltier lower-layer shelf water into the estuary to mix with river water prior to discharge to the upper-layer open ocean. The EBM has been tested against observations and high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of the Columbia River estuary, showing excellent agreement in the predictions of the strength of the exchange flow and the salinity of the discharged water, including modulation with the spring-neap tidal cycle. The EBM is implemented globally at every river discharge point of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In coupled ocean-sea ice experiments driven by CORE surface forcing, the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the coastal ocean is increased globally compared to the standard model, contributing to a decrease in coastal stratification. The SSS near the mouths of some of the largest rivers is decreased due to the reduction in the area over which riverine fresh water is discharged. The

  2. Improving the Representation of Cryospheric Processes in Land Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. P.; Nijssen, B.; Lundquist, J. D.; Luce, C. H.; Musselman, K. N.; Wayand, N. E.; Ou, M.; Lapo, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Land modeling in cold regions is especially challenging. Key modeling problems relate to the large heterogeneity in snow, frozen soils, and in energy and mass fluxes, the complex interactions between snow and vegetation, the prevalence of ultra-stable atmospheric conditions, and the tight coupling between hydrology and thermodynamics. This presentation will summarize recent developments in the SUMMA framework to address land modeling problems in cold regions. We will discuss (1) new modeling approaches to represent spatial heterogeneity in snow accumulation and melt; (2) integrative modeling approaches to represent the myriad controls on canopy snow; (3) alternative parameterizations of turbulence under stable conditions; and (4) robust numerical methods to effectively and efficiently solve the coupled state equations for hydrology and thermodynamics. We will also discuss the major sources of uncertainty in the representation of cold region processes in land models, possible avenues to reduce this uncertainty, and major research and data needs.

  3. Nurse manager perceptions of the impact of process improvements by nurses.

    PubMed

    Yee, Tracy; Needleman, Jack; Pearson, Marjorie; Parkerton, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Approaches in assessment of process improvements by nurses are a timely issue, given a growing focus on changes in care delivery. Nineteen semistructured phone interviews with nurse managers whose units participated in a process improvement intervention were completed. The most prominent among assessment strategies was observation. Other strategies included quantitative data measurement, informal and formal feedback, and auditing processes. Understanding how nurses are evaluating interventions may contribute to improved measurement in the future.

  4. Processed wastewater sludge for improvement of mechanical properties of concretes.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Díaz, Carlos; Martínez-Barrera, Gonzalo; Gencel, Osman; Bernal-Martínez, Lina A; Brostow, Witold

    2011-08-15

    Two problems are addressed simultaneously. One is the utilisation of sludge from the treatment of wastewater. The other is the modification of the mechanical properties of concrete. The sludge was subjected to two series of treatments. In one series, coagulants were used, including ferrous sulphate, aluminium sulphate or aluminium polyhydroxychloride. In the other series, an electrochemical treatment was applied with several starting values of pH. Then, concretes consisting of a cement matrix, silica sand, marble and one of the sludges were developed. Specimens without sludge were prepared for comparison. Curing times and aggregate concentrations were varied. The compressive strength, compressive strain at yield point, and static and dynamic elastic moduli were determined. Diagrams of the compressive strength and compressive strain at the yield point as a function of time passed through the minima as a function of time for concretes containing sludge; therefore, the presence of sludge has beneficial effects on the long term properties. Some morphological changes caused by the presence of sludge are seen in scanning electron microscopy. A way of utilising sludge is thus provided together with a way to improve the compressive strain at yield point of concrete. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving incidence of code status documentation through process and discipline.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Marcus A; Taniguchi, Cynthia B; Hoverman, J Russell

    2015-03-01

    Documentation of a patient's preferred code status is a critical outcome of advance care planning. Although there is agreement that code status is valuable information, little progress has been made to increase the incidence of documented code status within the medical record in an outpatient setting. Incidence of code status documentation in the community oncology setting has not been studied. In April 2013, the US Oncology Network and McKesson Specialty Health launched a new advance care planning initiative for the purpose of promoting conversations between clinicians and patients regarding end-of-life care preferences. The program-My Choices, My Wishes-provides a systematic approach for learning about and documenting a patient's values and goals for care in the electronic health record. Code status documentation is one of several program performance measures. During the 14-month period from August 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014, collective sites participating in My Choices, My Wishes included discrete code status documentation within the medical record for 5,467 patients with metastatic disease. Although much work remains, early results show promise for improvement in incidence of code status documentation within health records in the outpatient setting.

  6. Improved reconstructions of random media using dilation and erosion processes.

    PubMed

    Zachary, Chase E; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-11-01

    By using the most sensitive two-point correlation functions introduced to date, we reconstruct the microstructures of two-phase random media with heretofore unattained accuracy. Such media arise in a host of contexts, including porous and composite media, ecological structures, biological media, and astrophysical structures. The aforementioned correlation functions are special cases of the so-called canonical n-point correlation function H(n) and generalize the ones that have been recently employed to advance our ability to reconstruct complex microstructures [Y. Jiao, F. H. Stillinger, and S. Torquato, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 17634 (2009)]. The use of these generalized correlation functions is tantamount to dilating or eroding a reference phase of the target medium and incorporating the additional topological information of the modified media, thereby providing more accurate reconstructions of percolating, filamentary, and other topologically complex microstructures. We apply our methods to a multiply connected "donut" medium and a dilute distribution of "cracks" (a set of essentially zero measure), demonstrating improved accuracy in both cases with implications for higher-dimensional and biconnected two-phase systems. The high information content of the generalized two-point correlation functions suggests that it would be profitable to explore their use to characterize the structural and physical properties of not only random media, but also molecular systems, including structural glasses.

  7. Innovative surface NMR signal processing to significantly improve data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyer, F. M.; Hertrich, M.; Greenhalgh, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR) is a relatively new geophysical technique primarily used for water detection in the shallow subsurface. Magnetic fields arising from current pulses in a surface loop antenna penetrate the subsurface and interact with the hydrogen protons of liquid water. Among the various geophysical methods, surface NMR is unique in that it is directly sensitive to water molecules. Hence it has the powerful potential to quantitatively map the water distribution with depth. The signal measurement relies on the principle of induction that creates a weak voltage in the range of nV to a few μV in the surface receiver loop. However, the record is obscured by (i) man-made, industrial, and cultural (harmonic) noise such as power-lines and railway tracks, (ii) spike events (incoherent noise), and (iii) atmospheric background noise (random). Extreme hardware requirements and the weakness of the signal cause the records to be heavily noise contaminated in general. As a consequence, efficient noise suppression techniques are required to extract the weak surface NMR signal, i.e. stacking, loop design, and digital post-processing. In this study, we present a state-of-the-art workflow for full time series NMR data processing. As a first step, random spike events are removed from all records. Reference channels are further used to create a shaping filter by which the noise component in signal record is largely reduced. In the latter stage, signal extraction is performed using digital quadrature detection with an additional phase correction. The filter design is based on a least-squares approach using different input channels. This multi-dimensional Wiener filter method allows for a multi-channel noise reduction. Today, state-of-the-art full bandwidth multi-channel recording systems offer the possibility to record four channels simultaneously. Therefore, it is possible to use up to three reference channels for noise attenuation. By analyzing the optimal

  8. Gaussian Process Regression Plus Method for Localization Reliability Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kehan; Meng, Zhaopeng; Own, Chung-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Location data are among the most widely used context data in context-aware and ubiquitous computing applications. Many systems with distinct deployment costs and positioning accuracies have been developed over the past decade for indoor positioning. The most useful method is focused on the received signal strength and provides a set of signal transmission access points. However, compiling a manual measuring Received Signal Strength (RSS) fingerprint database involves high costs and thus is impractical in an online prediction environment. The system used in this study relied on the Gaussian process method, which is a nonparametric model that can be characterized completely by using the mean function and the covariance matrix. In addition, the Naive Bayes method was used to verify and simplify the computation of precise predictions. The authors conducted several experiments on simulated and real environments at Tianjin University. The experiments examined distinct data size, different kernels, and accuracy. The results showed that the proposed method not only can retain positioning accuracy but also can save computation time in location predictions. PMID:27483276

  9. Gaussian Process Regression Plus Method for Localization Reliability Improvement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehan; Meng, Zhaopeng; Own, Chung-Ming

    2016-07-29

    Location data are among the most widely used context data in context-aware and ubiquitous computing applications. Many systems with distinct deployment costs and positioning accuracies have been developed over the past decade for indoor positioning. The most useful method is focused on the received signal strength and provides a set of signal transmission access points. However, compiling a manual measuring Received Signal Strength (RSS) fingerprint database involves high costs and thus is impractical in an online prediction environment. The system used in this study relied on the Gaussian process method, which is a nonparametric model that can be characterized completely by using the mean function and the covariance matrix. In addition, the Naive Bayes method was used to verify and simplify the computation of precise predictions. The authors conducted several experiments on simulated and real environments at Tianjin University. The experiments examined distinct data size, different kernels, and accuracy. The results showed that the proposed method not only can retain positioning accuracy but also can save computation time in location predictions.

  10. IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES THROUGH THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts are currently underway at the USEPA to develop information technology applications to improve the environmental performance of the chemical process industry. These efforts include the use of genetic algorithms to optimize different process options for minimal environmenta...

  11. IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES THROUGH THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts are currently underway at the USEPA to develop information technology applications to improve the environmental performance of the chemical process industry. These efforts include the use of genetic algorithms to optimize different process options for minimal environmenta...

  12. Improving preanalytic processes using the principles of lean production (Toyota Production System).

    PubMed

    Persoon, Thomas J; Zaleski, Sue; Frerichs, Janice

    2006-01-01

    The basic technologies used in preanalytic processes for chemistry tests have been mature for a long time, and improvements in preanalytic processes have lagged behind improvements in analytic and postanalytic processes. We describe our successful efforts to improve chemistry test turnaround time from a central laboratory by improving preanalytic processes, using existing resources and the principles of lean production. Our goal is to report 80% of chemistry tests in less than 1 hour and to no longer recognize a distinction between expedited and routine testing. We used principles of lean production (the Toyota Production System) to redesign preanalytic processes. The redesigned preanalytic process has fewer steps and uses 1-piece flow to move blood samples through the accessioning, centrifugation, and aliquoting processes. Median preanalytic processing time was reduced from 29 to 19 minutes, and the laboratory met the goal of reporting 80% of chemistry results in less than 1 hour for 11 consecutive months.

  13. Multi-sensor data processing method for improved satellite retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xingwang

    2017-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing has provided massive data that improve the overall accuracy and extend the time series of environmental studies. In reflective solar bands, satellite data are related to land surface properties via radiative transfer (RT) equations. These equations generally include sensor-related (calibration coefficients), atmosphere-related (aerosol optical thickness) and surface-related (surface reflectance) parameters. It is an ill-posed problem to solve three parameters with only one RT equation. Even if there are two RT equations (dual-sensor data), the problem is still unsolvable. However, a robust solution can be obtained when any two parameters are known. If surface and atmosphere are known, sensor intercalibration can be performed. For example, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) was calibrated to the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in Fan and Liu (2014) [Fan, X., and Liu, Y. (2014). Quantifying the relationship between intersensor images in solar reflective bands: Implications for intercalibration. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 52(12), 7727-7737.]. If sensor and surface are known, atmospheric data can be retrieved. For example, aerosol data were retrieved using tandem TERRA and AQUA MODIS images in Fan and Liu (2016a) [Fan, X., and Liu, Y. (2016a). Exploiting TERRA-AQUA MODIS relationship in the reflective solar bands for aerosol retrieval. Remote Sensing, 8(12), 996.]. If sensor and atmosphere are known, data consistency can be obtained. For example, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data were intercalibrated among coarse-resolution sensors in Fan and Liu (2016b) [Fan, X., and Liu, Y. (2016b). A global study of NDVI difference among moderate-resolution satellite sensors. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 121, 177-191.], and among fine-resolution sensors in Fan and Liu (2017) [Fan, X., and Liu, Y. (2017). A generalized model for intersensor NDVI

  14. Process Improvement Teams: A TQM Strategy for Improving Community College Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Robbie Lee; And Others

    The three principle elements of Total Quality Management (TQM) are a focus on customers; an attitude of continuous improvement of a system; and the involvement of everyone within an organization. At Delaware County Community College (DCCC) in Media, Pennsylvania, the first phase of implementing TQM focused on educating top management for the…

  15. Wood-Beaver modification improves fatty acid process for tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The original Herter process uses fatty acids as a solvent to recover bitumen from a tar sand. An improvement to the original process, known as the Beaver-Herter process, utilizes short-chain alcohols as a cosolvent to enhance the phase separation steps and to improve the saponification and desaponification reactions. The latest modification, known as the Wood-Beaver process, judiciously utilizes phase behavior to further improve the recovery of the fatty acids from the solvated mixture at greatly reduced chemical costs. This paper describes the latest modified process, discusses a conceptual design for a demonstration plant, and summarizes the equipment costs. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  16. The use of statistical process control to improve the accuracy of turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarciuc, Cristian

    2016-11-01

    The present work deals with the turning process improvement using means of statistical process control. The approach on improvement is related to the fact that several methods are used in order to achieve quality defined by technical specifications. The experimental data is collected during identical and successive manufacturing processes of turning of an electrical motor shaft. The initial process presents some difficulties because many machined parts are nonconforming as a consequence of reduced precision of turning. The article is using data collected in turning process, presented through histograms and control charts, to improve the accuracy in order to reduce scrap.

  17. Applying Process Improvement Methods to Clinical and Translational Research: Conceptual Framework and Case Examples

    PubMed Central

    Daudelin, Denise H.; Selker, Harry P.; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing appreciation that process improvement holds promise for improving the quality and efficiency across the translational research continuum but frameworks for such programs are not often described. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework and case examples of a Research Process Improvement Program implemented at Tufts CTSI. To promote research process improvement, we developed online training seminars, workshops, and in-person consultation models to describe core process improvement principles and methods, demonstrate the use of improvement tools, and illustrate the application of these methods in case examples. We implemented these methods, as well as relational coordination theory, with junior researchers, pilot funding awardees, our CTRC, and CTSI resource and service providers. The program focuses on capacity building to address common process problems and quality gaps that threaten the efficient, timely and successful completion of clinical and translational studies. PMID:26332869

  18. Applying Process Improvement Methods to Clinical and Translational Research: Conceptual Framework and Case Examples.

    PubMed

    Daudelin, Denise H; Selker, Harry P; Leslie, Laurel K

    2015-12-01

    There is growing appreciation that process improvement holds promise for improving quality and efficiency across the translational research continuum but frameworks for such programs are not often described. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework and case examples of a Research Process Improvement Program implemented at Tufts CTSI. To promote research process improvement, we developed online training seminars, workshops, and in-person consultation models to describe core process improvement principles and methods, demonstrate the use of improvement tools, and illustrate the application of these methods in case examples. We implemented these methods, as well as relational coordination theory, with junior researchers, pilot funding awardees, our CTRC, and CTSI resource and service providers. The program focuses on capacity building to address common process problems and quality gaps that threaten the efficient, timely and successful completion of clinical and translational studies. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Performance improvements of binary diffractive structures via optimization of the photolithography and dry etch processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Kevin; Leonard, Jerry; Jones, Richard D.

    2010-08-01

    Increasingly stringent requirements on the performance of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) used in wafer scanner illumination systems are driving continuous improvements in their associated manufacturing processes. Specifically, these processes are designed to improve the output pattern uniformity of off-axis illumination systems to minimize degradation in the ultimate imaging performance of a lithographic tool. In this paper, we discuss performance improvements in both photolithographic patterning and RIE etching of fused silica diffractive optical structures. In summary, optimized photolithographic processes were developed to increase critical dimension uniformity and featuresize linearity across the substrate. The photoresist film thickness was also optimized for integration with an improved etch process. This etch process was itself optimized for pattern transfer fidelity, sidewall profile (wall angle, trench bottom flatness), and across-wafer etch depth uniformity. Improvements observed with these processes on idealized test structures (for ease of analysis) led to their implementation in product flows, with comparable increases in performance and yield on customer designs.

  20. Framework for continuous performance improvement in small drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Bereskie, Ty; Haider, Husnain; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Continuous performance improvement (CPI) can be a useful approach to overcome water quality problems impacting small communities. Small drinking water systems (SDWSs) struggle to meet regulatory requirements and often lack the economic and human resource flexibility for immediate improvement. A CPI framework is developed to provide SDWS managers and operators an approach to gauge their current performance against similar systems and to track performance improvement from the implementation of the new technologies or innovations into the future. The proposed CPI framework incorporates the use of a water quality index (WQI) and functional performance benchmarking to evaluate and compare drinking water quality performance of an individual water utility against that of a representative benchmark. The results are then used to identify and prioritize the most vulnerable water quality indicators and subsequently identify and prioritize performance improvement strategies. The proposed CPI framework has been demonstrated using data collected from SDWSs in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada and using the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) WQI.

  1. Improved understanding of physics processes in pedestal structure, leading to improved predictive capability for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groebner, R. J.; Chang, C. S.; Hughes, J. W.; Maingi, R.; Snyder, P. B.; Xu, X. Q.; Boedo, J. A.; Boyle, D. P.; Callen, J. D.; Canik, J. M.; Cziegler, I.; Davis, E. M.; Diallo, A.; Diamond, P. H.; Elder, J. D.; Eldon, D. P.; Ernst, D. R.; Fulton, D. P.; Landreman, M.; Leonard, A. W.; Lore, J. D.; Osborne, T. H.; Pankin, A. Y.; Parker, S. E.; Rhodes, T. L.; Smith, S. P.; Sontag, A. C.; Stacey, W. M.; Walk, J.; Wan, W.; Wang, E. H.-J.; Watkins, J. G.; White, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Yan, Z.; Belli, E. A.; Bray, B. D.; Candy, J.; Churchill, R. M.; Deterly, T. M.; Doyle, E. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Joseph, I.; Kinsey, J. E.; LaBombard, B.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lin, Z.; Lipschultz, B. L.; Liu, C.; Ma, Y.; McKee, G. R.; Ponce, D. M.; Rost, J. C.; Schmitz, L.; Staebler, G. M.; Sugiyama, L. E.; Terry, J. L.; Umansky, M. V.; Waltz, R. E.; Wolfe, S. M.; Zeng, L.; Zweben, S. J.

    2013-09-01

    Joint experiment/theory/modelling research has led to increased confidence in predictions of the pedestal height in ITER. This work was performed as part of a US Department of Energy Joint Research Target in FY11 to identify physics processes that control the H-mode pedestal structure. The study included experiments on C-Mod, DIII-D and NSTX as well as interpretation of experimental data with theory-based modelling codes. This work provides increased confidence in the ability of models for peeling-ballooning stability, bootstrap current, pedestal width and pedestal height scaling to make correct predictions, with some areas needing further work also being identified. A model for pedestal pressure height has made good predictions in existing machines for a range in pressure of a factor of 20. This provides a solid basis for predicting the maximum pedestal pressure height in ITER, which is found to be an extrapolation of a factor of 3 beyond the existing data set. Models were studied for a number of processes that are proposed to play a role in the pedestal ne and Te profiles. These processes include neoclassical transport, paleoclassical transport, electron temperature gradient turbulence and neutral fuelling. All of these processes may be important, with the importance being dependent on the plasma regime. Studies with several electromagnetic gyrokinetic codes show that the gradients in and on top of the pedestal can drive a number of instabilities.

  2. Improvement of the operational performance of SRF cavities via in situ helium processing and waveguide vacuum processing

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, C.E.; Drury, M.; Rao, M.G.; Nguyen-Tuong, V.

    1997-06-01

    The useful performance range of the superconducting rf (SRF) cavities in the CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab is frequently limited by electron field emission and derived phenomena. Improvements are required to support future operation of the accelerator at higher than 5 GeV. Twelve operational cryomodules have been successfully processed to higher useful operating gradients via rf-helium processing. Progress against field emission was evidenced by improved high-field Q, reduced x-ray production and greatly reduced incidence of arcing at the cold ceramic window. There was no difficulty reestablishing beamline vacuum following the processing. Cavities previously limited to 4-6 MV/m are now operating stably at 6-9 MV/m. By applying a pulsed-rf processing technique, we have also improved the pressure stability of the thermal transition region of the input waveguide for several cavities.

  3. Process Improvement for Next Generation Space Flight Vehicles: MSFC Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housch, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lessons learned from process improvement for Next Generation Space Flight Vehicles. The contents include: 1) Organizational profile; 2) Process Improvement History; 3) Appraisal Preparation; 4) The Appraisal Experience; 5) Useful Tools; and 6) Is CMMI working?

  4. State Board of Education Guidelines for a School Improvement Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Beginning with the 2003-2004 school year, school districts are required to assure the State Board of Education (SBE) that each school in their district has in place a school improvement plan/process (SIP) that includes a continuous improvement process. This assurance is noted on the Minimum Basic Education Requirement Compliance Report, that…

  5. A Controlled Agitation Process for Improving Quality of Canned Green Beans during Agitation Thermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anika; Pratap Singh, Anubhav; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-06-01

    This work introduces the concept of a controlled agitation thermal process to reduce quality damage in liquid-particulate products during agitation thermal processing. Reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) was used as the agitation thermal process. In order to reduce the impact of agitation, a new concept of "stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperature" was proposed. Green beans were processed in No. 2 (307×409) cans filled with liquids of various consistency (0% to 2% CMC) at various frequencies (1 to 3 Hz) of RA-TP using a full-factorial design and heat penetration results were collected. Corresponding operator's process time to impart a 10-min process lethality (Fo ) and agitation time (AT) were calculated using heat penetration results. Accordingly, products were processed again by stopping agitations as per 3 agitation regimes, namely; full time agitation, equilibration time agitation, and partial time agitation. Processed products were photographed and tested for visual quality, color, texture, breakage of green beans, turbidity, and percentage of insoluble solids in can liquid. Results showed that stopping agitations after sufficient development of cold-spot temperatures is an effective way of reducing product damages caused by agitation (for example, breakage of beans and its leaching into liquid). Agitations till one-log temperature difference gave best color, texture and visual product quality for low-viscosity liquid-particulate mixture and extended agitations till equilibration time was best for high-viscosity products. Thus, it was shown that a controlled agitation thermal process is more effective in obtaining high product quality as compared to a regular agitation thermal process.

  6. Inhibition of plant-pathogenic fungi by the barley cystatin Hv-CPI (gene Icy) is not associated with its cysteine-proteinase inhibitory properties.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M; López-Solanilla, E; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, P; Carbonero, P; Díaz, I

    2003-10-01

    The recombinant barley cystatin Hv-CPI inhibited the growth of three phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum graminicola, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina) and the saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma viride. Several mutants of barley cystatin were generated by polymerase chain reaction approaches and both their antifungal and their cysteine-proteinase inhibitory properties investigated. Point mutants R38-->G, Q63-->L, and Q63-->P diminished their capacity for inhibiting papain and cathepsin B, retaining their antifungal properties. However, mutant C68-->G was more active for papain and cathepsin B than the wild type. These results indicate that in addition to the consensus cystatin-reactive site, Q63-V64-V65-A66-G67, the A37-R38-F39-A40-V41 region, common to all cereal cystatins, and the C68 residue are important for barley cystatin activity. On the other hand, the K92-->P mutant is inactive as a fungicide, but still retains measurable inhibitory activity for papain and cathepsin B. Against B. cinerea, the antifungal effect of Hv-CPI and of its derived mutants does not always correlate with their activities as proteinase inhibitors, because the Q63-->P mutant is inactive as a cystatin, while still inhibiting fungal growth, and the K92-->P mutant shows the reciprocal effects. These data indicate that inhibition of plant-pathogenic fungi by barley cystatin is not associated with its cysteine-proteinase inhibitory activity. Moreover, these results are corroborated by the absence of inhibition of intra- and extramycelia-proteinase activities by barley cystatin and by other well-known inhibitors of cysteine-proteinase activity in the fungal zymograms of B. cinerea.

  7. Teaching Processes To Improve Both Higher As Well As Lower Mental Process Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soled, Suzanne Wegener

    A major purpose of this research was to measure the effect of four different teaching processes on lower and higher mental process achievement. Two separate studies, one in science and one in mathematics, involved approximately 100 seventh grade students in four classrooms in a public junior high school in a middle-income neighborhood, and 85…

  8. Getting Inside the Instructional Process: A Collaborative Diagnostic Process for Improving College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Colleen R.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a diagnostic technique called the Collaborative Analysis and Action Planning Process (CAP), which focuses on patterns of behaviors that are produced, interpreted, and responded to by college teachers and students during a lesson. The steps involved in the CAP process are described, and a 16-item reference list is included. (Author/JL)

  9. Deployment of lean six sigma in care coordination: an improved discharge process.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Susan Ellen; Hamilton, Karen Marie; Paynter, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a quality improvement project to reduce readmissions in the Medicare population related to heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and pneumonia. The article describes a systematic approach to the discharge process aimed at improving transitions of care from hospital to post-acute care, utilizing Lean Six Sigma methodology. Inpatient acute care hospital. A coordinated discharge process, which includes postdischarge follow-up, can reduce avoidable readmissions. Implications for The quality improvement project demonstrated the significant role case management plays in preventing costly readmissions and improving outcomes for patients through better transitions of care from the hospital to the community. By utilizing Lean Six Sigma methodology, hospitals can focus on eliminating waste in their current processes and build more sustainable improvements to deliver a safe, quality, discharge process for their patients. Case managers are leading this effort to improve care transitions and assure a smoother transition into the community postdischarge..

  10. Product and Process Improvement Using Mixture-Process Variable Designs and Robust Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Narinder S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Naes, Tormod

    2009-04-01

    The quality of an industrial product depends on the raw material proportions and the process variable levels, both of which need to be taken into account in designing a product. This article presents a case study from the food industry in which both kinds of variables were studied by combining a constrained mixture experiment design and a central composite process variable design. Based on the natural structure of the situation, a split-plot experiment was designed and models involving the raw material proportions and process variable levels (separately and combined) were fitted. Combined models were used to study: (i) the robustness of the process to variations in raw material proportions, and (ii) the robustness of the raw material recipes with respect to fluctuations in the process variable levels. Further, the expected variability in the robust settings was studied using the bootstrap.

  11. Comprehensive School Improvement and Planning Process 1985-86. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    During 1985-86, its first year, the Comprehensive School Improvement and Planning process (CSIP) operated in 156 of 392 New York City schools identified by the State Education Department's Comprehensive Assessment Report (CAR) as most in need of improvement. CSIP offers a holistic approach to school improvement and planning, and is designed to…

  12. Use of Electronic Nurse Reminders to Improve Documentation: A Process Improvement for a Comprehensive Stroke Center.

    PubMed

    Lear, Christy L; Walters, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    Nurses on a neurological step-down unit were challenged to switch from documenting assessments by hand to documenting by using a highly technological, electronic format. Upon the switch to electronic documentation, it was discovered through a chart audit that neurological assessments were not being documented properly. The purpose of this project was to implement Care Organizer, an electronic nurse reminder tool, on a neurological step-down unit and to evaluate the tool's ability to assist RNs in documentation of neurological assessments. Fifty patients' charts were audited for documentation of neurological assessments. Thirty-two RNs completed an anonymous demographic survey and were provided with eight training sessions related to utilization of Care Organizer. The RNs were asked to complete an evaluation of the tool 2 weeks after training and again at 1 month after training. A second chart audit was conducted at 1 month to assess for improvement of documentation 1 month after training. Preimplementation/postimplementation chart audits revealed improvements in documentation of neurological assessments in seven of eight criteria examined. Nurses admitted discomfort with Care Organizer and verbalized concerns that it was not convenient and/or user-friendly. Most admitted that with collaboration between information technology department and nursing, the tool could be further developed to become more applicable to nurses.

  13. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines. I - Process development for injection molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.; Trela, Walter

    1989-01-01

    Alternate processing methods have been investigated as a means of improving the mechanical properties of injection-molded SiC. Various mixing processes (dry, high-sheer, and fluid) were evaluated along with the morphology and particle size of the starting beta-SiC powder. Statistically-designed experiments were used to determine significant effects and interactions of variables in the mixing, injection molding, and binder removal process steps. Improvements in mechanical strength can be correlated with the reduction in flaw size observed in the injection molded green bodies obtained with improved processing methods.

  14. Analysis of CMM - Based Appraisal for Internal Process Improvement (CBA IPI) Assessment Feedback

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    assessment team mem- bers, and Lead Assessors who are interested in learning about other assessors ’ experiences in order to improve their own...Internal Process Improvement (CBA IPI) Assessment Feedback Donna K. Dunaway, PhD Michele Baker November 2001 Pittsburgh, PA 15213...3890 Analysis of CMM®-Based Appraisal for Internal Process Improvement (CBA IPI) Assessment Feedback CMU/SEI-2001-TR-021 ESC-TR

  15. After the Appraisal: A Systematic Survey of Process Improvement, its Benefits, and Factors that Influence Success.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-01

    assessor training: Members of the CBA Project. CMM-Based Appraisal for Internal Process Improvement (CBA IPI) Lead Assessor’s Guide v1.0. Pittsburgh...possible about why some improvement efforts are more successful than others 3. to learn more about the relationship between process maturity and...for more guidance, mentoring, and assistance in implementing the improvements suggested by the appraisals. We need to learn more about how to make

  16. Quality Improvement under Nursing Home Compare: The Association between Changes in Process and Outcome Measures

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Rachel M.; Konetzka, R. Tamara; Kim, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Changes in resident outcomes may be driven by many factors, including changes in nursing home care processes. Understanding what processes, if any, lead to successful improvements in resident outcomes could create a stronger case for the continued use of these outcome measures in nursing home report cards. Objective To test the extent to which improvements in outcomes of care are explained by changes in nursing home processes, a setting where, to our knowledge, this link has not been previously studied. Research Design/Measures We describe facility-level changes in resident processes and outcomes before and after outcomes were publicly reported. We then assess the extent to which the changes in outcomes are associated with changes in nursing home processes of care, using the public release of information on nursing home outcomes as a source of variation in nursing home outcomes to identify the process-outcome relationship. Subjects All 16,623 U.S. nursing homes included in public reporting from 2000 to 2009 in OSCAR and the nursing home Minimum Data Set Results Of the 5 outcome measures examined, only improvements in the percentage of nursing home residents in moderate or severe pain were associated with changes in nursing home processes of care. Furthermore, these changes in the measured process of care explained only a small part of the overall improvement in pain prevalence. Conclusions A large portion of the improvements in nursing home outcomes were not associated with changes in measured processes of care suggesting that processes of care typically measured in nursing homes do little to improve nursing home performance on outcome measures. Developing quality measures that are related improved patient outcomes would likely benefit quality improvement. Understanding the mechanism behind improvements in nursing home outcomes is key to successfully achieving broad quality improvements across nursing homes. PMID:23756645

  17. Development of Outer Surface Irradiated Laser Stress Improvement Process (L-SIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Noriaki Sugimoto; Hironori Onitsuka; Koji Okimura; Takahiro Ohta; Kazuhiko Kamo

    2006-07-01

    Improvement of residual stress is effective in a countermeasure to deal with the stress corrosion cracks in pipe welds. A irradiated laser stress improvement process (L-SIP) will be introduced as a method to improve residual stress inside steel pipes. This work method is to improve inner surface residual stress from tensile stress to compressive stress by irradiating laser beam around the welds of steel pipe and utilizing the temperature differences between inner and outer surface. (authors)

  18. A Prototype for the Support of Integrated Software Process Development and Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porrawatpreyakorn, Nalinpat; Quirchmayr, Gerald; Chutimaskul, Wichian

    An efficient software development process is one of key success factors for quality software. Not only can the appropriate establishment but also the continuous improvement of integrated project management and of the software development process result in efficiency. This paper hence proposes a software process maintenance framework which consists of two core components: an integrated PMBOK-Scrum model describing how to establish a comprehensive set of project management and software engineering processes and a software development maturity model advocating software process improvement. Besides, a prototype tool to support the framework is introduced.

  19. Approaches to Improving the Senior-Vocational-School Textbook Review-and-Approval Process in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chun-Chin

    Stakeholders in Taiwan's process for reviewing and approving senior vocational school (SVS) textbooks were surveyed to identify ways of improving the process. The questionnaire contained items examining respondents' demographic characteristics, their opinions of Taiwan's existing SVS textbook review and approval process, and suggestions for…

  20. [Process management in the hospital pharmacy for the improvement of the patient safety].

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, R; Perelló-Juncá, A; Parès-Marimòn, R M; Serrais-Benavente, J; Ferrandez-Martí, D; Sala-Robinat, R; Camacho-Calvente, A; Campabanal-Prats, C; Solà-Anderiu, I; Sanchez-Caparrós, S; Gonzalez-Estrada, J; Martinez-Olalla, P; Colomer-Palomo, J; Perez-Mañosas, R; Rodríguez-Gallego, D

    2013-01-01

    To define a process management model for a hospital pharmacy in order to measure, analyse and make continuous improvements in patient safety and healthcare quality. In order to implement process management, Igualada Hospital was divided into different processes, one of which was the Hospital Pharmacy. A multidisciplinary management team was given responsibility for each process. For each sub-process one person was identified to be responsible, and a working group was formed under his/her leadership. With the help of each working group, a risk analysis using failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed, and the corresponding improvement actions were implemented. Sub-process indicators were also identified, and different process management mechanisms were introduced. The first risk analysis with FMEA produced more than thirty preventive actions to improve patient safety. Later, the weekly analysis of errors, as well as the monthly analysis of key process indicators, permitted us to monitor process results and, as each sub-process manager participated in these meetings, also to assume accountability and responsibility, thus consolidating the culture of excellence. The introduction of different process management mechanisms, with the participation of people responsible for each sub-process, introduces a participative management tool for the continuous improvement of patient safety and healthcare quality. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.