The clinical practice developmental model: the transition process.
Nuccio, S A; Lingen, D; Burke, L J; Kramer, A; Ladewig, N; Raaum, J; Shearer, B
1996-12-01
The authors report their hospital's experience in replicating Benner's novice-to-expert clinical nursing practice model, called the Clinical Practice Developmental Model. The authors describe the outcomes of an exploratory, qualitative study conducted to understand staff nurses' perceptions of their transition experience from a traditional clinical ladder for advancement and recognition to the theoretically based clinical practice developmental model. The findings of this study identify critical factors that influenced nurses' perceptions and describe positive and negative outcomes of transition. Specific recommendations to facilitate organizational changes for the nurse executive and the individual nurse are discussed. PMID:8968322
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Field implementation of conceptual state-and-transition models will benefit from explicit representations of spatial patterns of vegetation, soils and topography and the hydrological/eolian processes that link them. Here, we introduce the concept "spatial pattern of transition” (SPOT) as a means to ...
Teacher in Transition: A Model of One Teacher's Change Process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mahurt, Sarah Fleming
Change in teaching practice is a popular theme in literacy education. A case study examined the nature of the change process in a teacher in a large Caribbean island school district who made a personal decision to change instructional practices from skills-based methods to whole language methods. Through data collection and analysis, a metaphor,…
Transit Model Fitting in Processing Four Years of Kepler Science Data: New Features and Performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jie; Burke, Christopher; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Quintana, Elisa; Rowe, Jason; Seader, Shawn; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph
2015-08-01
We present new transit model fitting features and performance of the latest release (9.3, March 2015) of the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) Pipeline, which will be used for the final processing of four years of Kepler science data later this year. Threshold Crossing Events (TCEs), which represent transiting planet detections, are generated by the Transiting Planet Search (TPS) component of the pipeline and subsequently processed in the Data Validation (DV) component. The transit model is used in DV to fit TCEs and derive parameters that are used in various diagnostic tests to validate the planet detections. The standard limb-darkened transit model includes five fit parameters: transit epoch time (i.e. central time of first transit), orbital period, impact parameter, ratio of planet radius to star radius and ratio of semi-major axis to star radius. In the latest Kepler SOC pipeline codebase, the light curve of the target for which a TCE is generated is also fitted by a trapezoidal transit model with four parameters: transit epoch time, depth, duration and ratio of ingress time to duration. The fitted trapezoidal transit model is used in the diagnostic tests when the fit with the standard transit model fails or when the fit is not performed, e.g. for suspected eclipsing binaries. Additional parameters, such as the equilibrium temperature and effective stellar flux (i.e. insolation) of the planet candidate, are derived from the transit model fit parameters to characterize pipeline candidates for the search of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone. The uncertainties of all derived parameters are updated in the latest codebase to account for the propagated errors of the fit parameters as well as the uncertainties in stellar parameters. The results of the transit model fitting for the TCEs identified by the Kepler SOC Pipeline are included in the DV reports and one-page report summaries, which are accessible by the science community at NASA Exoplanet Archive
Performance of Transit Model Fitting in Processing Four Years of Kepler Science Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jie; Burke, Christopher J.; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Quintana, Elisa V.; Rowe, Jason; Seader, Shawn; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.
2014-06-01
We present transit model fitting performance of the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) Pipeline in processing four years of science data, which were collected by the Kepler spacecraft from May 13, 2009 to May 12, 2013. Threshold Crossing Events (TCEs), which represent transiting planet detections, are generated by the Transiting Planet Search (TPS) component of the pipeline and subsequently processed in the Data Validation (DV) component. The transit model is used in DV to fit TCEs and derive parameters that are used in various diagnostic tests to validate planetary candidates. The standard transit model includes five fit parameters: transit epoch time (i.e. central time of first transit), orbital period, impact parameter, ratio of planet radius to star radius and ratio of semi-major axis to star radius. In the latest Kepler SOC pipeline codebase, the light curve of the target for which a TCE is generated is initially fitted by a trapezoidal model with four parameters: transit epoch time, depth, duration and ingress time. The trapezoidal model fit, implemented with repeated Levenberg-Marquardt minimization, provides a quick and high fidelity assessment of the transit signal. The fit parameters of the trapezoidal model with the minimum chi-square metric are converted to set initial values of the fit parameters of the standard transit model. Additional parameters, such as the equilibrium temperature and effective stellar flux of the planet candidate, are derived from the fit parameters of the standard transit model to characterize pipeline candidates for the search of Earth-size planets in the Habitable Zone. The uncertainties of all derived parameters are updated in the latest codebase to take into account for the propagated errors of the fit parameters as well as the uncertainties in stellar parameters. The results of the transit model fitting of the TCEs identified by the Kepler SOC Pipeline, including fitted and derived parameters, fit goodness metrics and
Generalized Hammersley Process and Phase Transition for Activated Random Walk Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rolla, Leonardo T.
2008-12-01
* ACTIVATED RANDOM WALK MODEL * This is a conservative particle system on the lattice, with a Markovian continuous-time evolution. Active particles perform random walks without interaction, and they may as well change their state to passive, then stopping to jump. When particles of both types occupy the same site, they all become active. This model exhibits phase transition in the sense that for low initial densities the system locally fixates and for high densities it keeps active. Though extensively studied in the physics literature, the matter of giving a mathematical proof of such phase transition remained as an open problem for several years. In this work we identify some variables that are sufficient to characterize fixation and at the same time are stochastically monotone in the model's parameters. We employ an explicit graphical representation in order to obtain the monotonicity. With this method we prove that there is a unique phase transition for the one-dimensional finite-range random walk. Joint with V. Sidoravicius. * BROKEN LINE PROCESS * We introduce the broken line process and derive some of its properties. Its discrete version is presented first and a natural generalization to the continuum is then proposed and studied. The broken lines are related to the Young diagram and the Hammersley process and are useful for computing last passage percolation values and finding maximal oriented paths. For a class of passage time distributions there is a family of boundary conditions that make the process stationary and reversible. One application is a simple proof of the explicit law of large numbers for last passage percolation with exponential and geometric distributions. Joint with V. Sidoravicius, D. Surgailis, and M. E. Vares.
Limited ability driven phase transitions in the coevolution process in Axelrod's model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bing; Han, Yuexing; Chen, Luonan; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2009-04-01
We study the coevolution process in Axelrod's model by taking into account of agents' abilities to access information, which is described by a parameter α to control the geographical range of communication. We observe two kinds of phase transitions in both cultural domains and network fragments, which depend on the parameter α. By simulation, we find that not all rewiring processes pervade the dissemination of culture, that is, a very limited ability to access information constrains the cultural dissemination, while an exceptional ability to access information aids the dissemination of culture. Furthermore, by analyzing the network characteristics at the frozen states, we find that there exists a stage at which the network develops to be a small-world network with community structures.
The Application of Global Kinetic Models to HMX Beta-Delta Transition and Cookoff Processes
Wemhoff, A P; Burnham, A K; Nichols III, A L
2006-12-07
The reduction of the number of reactions in kinetic models for both the HMX beta-delta phase transition and thermal cookoff provides an attractive alternative to traditional multi-stage kinetic models due to reduced calibration effort requirements. In this study, we use the LLNL code ALE3D to provide calibrated kinetic parameters for a two-reaction bidirectional beta-delta HMX phase transition model based on Sandia Instrumented Thermal Ignition (SITI) and Scaled Thermal Explosion (STEX) temperature history curves, and a Prout-Tompkins cookoff model based on One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) data. Results show that the two-reaction bidirectional beta-delta transition model presented here agrees as well with STEX and SITI temperature history curves as a reversible four-reaction Arrhenius model, yet requires an order of magnitude less computational effort. In addition, a single-reaction Prout-Tompkins model calibrated to ODTX data provides better agreement with ODTX data than a traditional multi-step Arrhenius model, and can contain up to 90% less chemistry-limited time steps for low-temperature ODTX simulations. Manual calibration methods for the Prout-Tompkins kinetics provide much better agreement with ODTX experimental data than parameters derived from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements at atmospheric pressure. The predicted surface temperature at explosion for STEX cookoff simulations is a weak function of the cookoff model used, and a reduction of up to 15% of chemistry-limited time steps can be achieved by neglecting the beta-delta transition for this type of simulation. Finally, the inclusion of the beta-delta transition model in the overall kinetics model can affect the predicted time to explosion by 1% for the traditional multi-step Arrhenius approach, while up to 11% using a Prout-Tompkins cookoff model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bray, Bethany C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Collins, Linda M.
2010-01-01
To understand one developmental process, it is often helpful to investigate its relations with other developmental processes. Statistical methods that model development in multiple processes simultaneously over time include latent growth curve models with time-varying covariates, multivariate latent growth curve models, and dual trajectory models.…
Models for transition clinics.
Carrizosa, Jaime; An, Isabelle; Appleton, Richard; Camfield, Peter; Von Moers, Arpad
2014-08-01
Transition is a purposeful, planned process that addresses the medical, psychosocial, educational, and vocational needs of adolescents and young adults with chronic medical conditions, as they advance from a pediatric and family-centered to an adult, individual focused health care provider. This article describes some of the models for transition clinics or services for epilepsy in five countries (Canada, France, Colombia, Germany, and the United Kingdom). These models include joint adult and pediatric clinics, algorithm-driven service, and a check list system in the context of pediatric care. Evaluation of these models is limited, and it is not possible to choose an optimal program. The attitude and motivation of health care providers may be the most important elements. PMID:25209087
Dynamics model of the IBR-2M pulsed reactor for analysis of fast transition processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pepelyshev, Yu. N.; Popov, A. K.; Sumkhuu, D.; Sangaa, D.
2015-05-01
A nonlinear model of the IBR-2M pulsed reactor dynamics relating values of variables at discreet instants of time (when power pulses appear) is developed on the basis of the MATLAB program system. The tests of the model by simulating calculated processes in the IBR-2M reactor proved the correctness of the model. A tentative estimate of the transfer coefficient for the linear part of the automatic regulator is obtained.
PyTransit: Transit light curve modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parviainen, Hannu
2015-05-01
PyTransit implements optimized versions of the Giménez and Mandel & Agol transit models for exoplanet transit light-curves. The two models are implemented natively in Fortran with OpenMP parallelization, and are accessed by an object-oriented python interface. PyTransit facilitates the analysis of photometric time series of exoplanet transits consisting of hundreds of thousands of data points, and of multipassband transit light curves from spectrophotometric observations. It offers efficient model evaluation for multicolour observations and transmission spectroscopy, built-in supersampling to account for extended exposure times, and routines to calculate the projected planet-to-star distance for circular and eccentric orbits, transit durations, and more.
Phase transitions in multiplicative competitive processes
Shimazaki, Hideaki; Niebur, Ernst
2005-07-01
We introduce a discrete multiplicative process as a generic model of competition. Players with different abilities successively join the game and compete for finite resources. Emergence of dominant players and evolutionary development occur as a phase transition. The competitive dynamics underlying this transition is understood from a formal analogy to statistical mechanics. The theory is applicable to bacterial competition, predicting novel population dynamics near criticality.
UTM: Universal Transit Modeller
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deeg, Hans J.
2014-12-01
The Universal Transit Modeller (UTM) is a light-curve simulator for all kinds of transiting or eclipsing configurations between arbitrary numbers of several types of objects, which may be stars, planets, planetary moons, and planetary rings. A separate fitting program, UFIT (Universal Fitter) is part of the UTM distribution and may be used to derive best fits to light-curves for any set of continuously variable parameters. UTM/UFIT is written in IDL code and its source is released in the public domain under the GNU General Public License.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, X. D.; Liu, R.; Zheng, L. M.; Ren, Y. P.; Hu, Z. Z.; He, H.
2015-10-01
To have a clear insight into nanocrystal growth from graphite to diamond upon high energy pulsed laser irradiation of graphite suspension, synthesis of ultrafine nanocrystalline diamonds with laser energy set up from 0.3 J to 12 J, repetition rate of 10 Hz has been studied. The method allows synthesizing ultrafine nanocrystalline particles continuously at the ambient temperature and normal pressure. The particle size is shown independent of laser energy, which is ultrafine and ranges in 2-6 nm. The theoretical grown size of nano-diamonds is found in well agreement with the experiment results. Four kinds of production were found: nano-diamond, spherical carbon nano-particles, flocculent amorphous carbon, and graphene nano-ribbon rolls. A solid-vapor-plasma-liquid coexistence model describing phase transition from graphite to diamond induced by nanosecond laser processing was proposed. Graphene nano-ribbon rolls might be the intermediate phase in the conversion from graphite to diamond.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
State and transition models (STMs) are used for communicating about ecosystem change in rangelands and other ecosystems, especially the implications for management. The fundamental premise that rangelands can exhibit multiple states is now widely accepted. The current application of STMs for managem...
Ren, X. D. Liu, R.; Zheng, L. M.; Ren, Y. P.; Hu, Z. Z.; He, H.
2015-10-05
To have a clear insight into nanocrystal growth from graphite to diamond upon high energy pulsed laser irradiation of graphite suspension, synthesis of ultrafine nanocrystalline diamonds with laser energy set up from 0.3 J to 12 J, repetition rate of 10 Hz has been studied. The method allows synthesizing ultrafine nanocrystalline particles continuously at the ambient temperature and normal pressure. The particle size is shown independent of laser energy, which is ultrafine and ranges in 2–6 nm. The theoretical grown size of nano-diamonds is found in well agreement with the experiment results. Four kinds of production were found: nano-diamond, spherical carbon nano-particles, flocculent amorphous carbon, and graphene nano-ribbon rolls. A solid-vapor-plasma-liquid coexistence model describing phase transition from graphite to diamond induced by nanosecond laser processing was proposed. Graphene nano-ribbon rolls might be the intermediate phase in the conversion from graphite to diamond.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sitlington, Patricia L.; Easterday, Joseph R.
The purpose of Project COMPETE is to use previous research and exemplary practices to develop and validate a model and training sequence to assist retarded youth to make the transition from school to employment in the most competitive environment possible. This project working paper describes the process of using existing information sources to…
Hidden percolation transition in kinetic replication process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timonin, P. N.; Chitov, G. Y.
2015-04-01
The one-dimensional kinetic contact process with parallel update is introduced and studied by the mean-field approximation and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Contrary to a more conventional scenario with single active phase for 1d models with Ising-like variables, we find two different adjacent active phases in the parameter space of the proposed model with a second-order transition between them and a multiphase point where the active and the absorbing phases meet. While one of the active phases is quite standard with a smooth average filling of the space-time lattice, the second active phase demonstrates a very subtle (hidden) percolating order which becomes manifest only after certain transformation from the original model. We determine the percolation order parameter for active-active phase transition and discuss such hidden orders in other low-dimensional systems. Our MC data demonstrate finite-size critical and near-critical scaling of the order parameter relaxation for the two phase transitions. We find three independent critical indices for them and conclude that they both belong to the directed percolation universality class.
Exoplanet Transit Database. Reduction and processing of the photometric data of exoplanet transits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poddaný, Stanislav; Brát, Luboš; Pejcha, Ondřej
2010-03-01
We demonstrate the newly developed resource for exoplanet researchers - The Exoplanet Transit Database. This database is designed to be a web application and it is open for any exoplanet observer. It came on-line in September 2008. The ETD consists of three individual sections. One serves for predictions of the transits, the second one for processing and uploading new data from the observers. We use a simple analytical model of the transit to calculate the central time of transit, its duration and the depth of the transit. These values are then plotted into the observed-computed diagrams (O-C), that represent the last part of the application.
Modelling the transitional boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narasimha, R.
1990-01-01
Recent developments in the modelling of the transition zone in the boundary layer are reviewed (the zone being defined as extending from the station where intermittency begins to depart from zero to that where it is nearly unity). The value of using a new non-dimensional spot formation rate parameter, and the importance of allowing for so-called subtransitions within the transition zone, are both stressed. Models do reasonably well in constant pressure 2-dimensional flows, but in the presence of strong pressure gradients further improvements are needed. The linear combination approach works surprisingly well in most cases, but would not be so successful in situations where a purely laminar boundary layer would separate but a transitional one would not. Intermittency-weighted eddy viscosity methods do not predict peak surface parameters well without the introduction of an overshooting transition function whose connection with the spot theory of transition is obscure. Suggestions are made for further work that now appears necessary for developing improved models of the transition zone.
Transition-Independent Decentralized Markov Decision Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, Raphen; Silberstein, Shlomo; Lesser, Victor; Goldman, Claudia V.; Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
There has been substantial progress with formal models for sequential decision making by individual agents using the Markov decision process (MDP). However, similar treatment of multi-agent systems is lacking. A recent complexity result, showing that solving decentralized MDPs is NEXP-hard, provides a partial explanation. To overcome this complexity barrier, we identify a general class of transition-independent decentralized MDPs that is widely applicable. The class consists of independent collaborating agents that are tied up by a global reward function that depends on both of their histories. We present a novel algorithm for solving this class of problems and examine its properties. The result is the first effective technique to solve optimally a class of decentralized MDPs. This lays the foundation for further work in this area on both exact and approximate solutions.
Soil, resilience, and state and transition models
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
State and transition models are based on the assumption that less resilient systems are more susceptible to state changes. The objective of this paper is to show how two different types of soil properties contribute to resilience through their direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes, and ...
Hybrid Percolation Transition in Cluster Merging Processes: Continuously Varying Exponents.
Cho, Y S; Lee, J S; Herrmann, H J; Kahng, B
2016-01-15
Consider growing a network, in which every new connection is made between two disconnected nodes. At least one node is chosen randomly from a subset consisting of g fraction of the entire population in the smallest clusters. Here we show that this simple strategy for improving connection exhibits a more unusual phase transition, namely a hybrid percolation transition exhibiting the properties of both first-order and second-order phase transitions. The cluster size distribution of finite clusters at a transition point exhibits power-law behavior with a continuously varying exponent τ in the range 2<τ(g)≤2.5. This pattern reveals a necessary condition for a hybrid transition in cluster aggregation processes, which is comparable to the power-law behavior of the avalanche size distribution arising in models with link-deleting processes in interdependent networks. PMID:26824550
Application of Glass Transition in Food Processing.
Balasubramanian, S; Devi, Apramita; Singh, K K; Bosco, S J D; Mohite, Ashish M
2016-04-25
The phenomenon of glass transition has been employed to food products to study their stability. It can be applied as an integrated approach along with water activity and physical and chemical changes in food in processing and storage to determine the food stability. Also associated with the changes during agglomeration crystallization, caking, sticking, collapse, oxidation reactions, nonenzymatic browning, and microbial stability of food system. Various techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, etc. have been developed to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg) of food system. Also, various theories have been applied to explain the concept of Tg and its relation to changes in food system. This review summarizes the understanding of concept of glass transition, its measurement, and application in food technology. PMID:25118113
Discontinuous transition in a boundary driven contact process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, A.; Blythe, R. A.; Evans, M. R.
2010-09-01
The contact process is a stochastic process which exhibits a continuous, absorbing state phase transition in the directed percolation (DP) universality class. In this work, we consider a contact process with a bias in conjunction with an active wall. This model exhibits waves of activity emanating from the active wall and, when the system is supercritical, propagating indefinitely as travelling (Fisher) waves. In the subcritical phase the activity is localized near the wall. We study the phase transition numerically and show that certain properties of the system, notably the wave velocity, are discontinuous across the transition. Using a modified Fisher equation to model the system we elucidate the mechanism by which the discontinuity arises. Furthermore we establish relations between properties of the travelling wave and DP critical exponents.
A Latent Transition Model with Logistic Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chung, Hwan; Walls, Theodore A.; Park, Yousung
2007-01-01
Latent transition models increasingly include covariates that predict prevalence of latent classes at a given time or transition rates among classes over time. In many situations, the covariate of interest may be latent. This paper describes an approach for handling both manifest and latent covariates in a latent transition model. A Bayesian…
Transit Model Fitting in the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jie; Burke, C. J.; Jenkins, J. M.; Quintana, E. V.; Rowe, J. F.; Seader, S. E.; Tenenbaum, P.; Twicken, J. D.
2012-05-01
We describe the algorithm and performance of the transit model fitting of the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) Pipeline. Light curves of long cadence targets are subjected to the Transiting Planet Search (TPS) component of the Kepler SOC Pipeline. Those targets for which a Threshold Crossing Event (TCE) is generated in the transit search are subsequently processed in the Data Validation (DV) component. The light curves may span one or more Kepler observing quarters, and data may not be available for any given target in all quarters. Transit model parameters are fitted in DV to transit-like signatures in the light curves of target stars with TCEs. The fitted parameters are used to generate a predicted light curve based on the transit model. The residual flux time series of the target star, with the predicted light curve removed, is fed back to TPS to search for additional TCEs. The iterative process of transit model fitting and transiting planet search continues until no TCE is generated from the residual flux time series or a planet candidate limit is reached. The transit model includes five parameters to be fitted: transit epoch time (i.e. central time of first transit), orbital period, impact parameter, ratio of planet radius to star radius and ratio of semi-major axis to star radius. The initial values of the fit parameters are determined from the TCE values provided by TPS. A limb darkening model is included in the transit model to generate the predicted light curve. The transit model fitting results are used in the diagnostic tests in DV, such as the centroid motion test, eclipsing binary discrimination tests, etc., which helps to validate planet candidates and identify false positive detections. Funding for the Kepler Mission has been provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate.
Phase transitions in contagion processes mediated by recurrent mobility patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balcan, Duygu; Vespignani, Alessandro
2011-07-01
Human mobility and activity patterns mediate contagion on many levels, including the spatial spread of infectious diseases, diffusion of rumours, and emergence of consensus. These patterns however are often dominated by specific locations and recurrent flows and poorly modelled by the random diffusive dynamics generally used to study them. Here we develop a theoretical framework to analyse contagion within a network of locations where individuals recall their geographic origins. We find a phase transition between a regime in which the contagion affects a large fraction of the system and one in which only a small fraction is affected. This transition cannot be uncovered by continuous deterministic models because of the stochastic features of the contagion process and defines an invasion threshold that depends on mobility parameters, providing guidance for controlling contagion spread by constraining mobility processes. We recover the threshold behaviour by analysing diffusion processes mediated by real human commuting data.
The Community Transition Center (CTC) Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coker, Charles C.; Costello, James
This paper describes the Community Transition Center (CTC) model, being tested in six districts in rural Wisconsin. The model is a way of conceptualizing and organizing the employment-related needs of mainstreamed mildly handicapped youths who are exiting secondary schools. The model emphasizes the role of secondary school transition programming,…
Presidential Transition Teams: Fostering a Collaborative Transition Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Artman, Richard B.; Franz, Mark
2009-01-01
Whether hiring a sitting president or one beginning a first presidency, the board of trustees should be keenly interested in ensuring that the new president's first months in office flow as smoothly as possible. Increasing attention has been paid in recent years to the idea of using a transition team to assist the new president. Using a transition…
Phase transitions in Hidden Markov Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bechhoefer, John; Lathouwers, Emma
In Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), a Markov process is not directly accessible. In the simplest case, a two-state Markov model ``emits'' one of two ``symbols'' at each time step. We can think of these symbols as noisy measurements of the underlying state. With some probability, the symbol implies that the system is in one state when it is actually in the other. The ability to judge which state the system is in sets the efficiency of a Maxwell demon that observes state fluctuations in order to extract heat from a coupled reservoir. The state-inference problem is to infer the underlying state from such noisy measurements at each time step. We show that there can be a phase transition in such measurements: for measurement error rates below a certain threshold, the inferred state always matches the observation. For higher error rates, there can be continuous or discontinuous transitions to situations where keeping a memory of past observations improves the state estimate. We can partly understand this behavior by mapping the HMM onto a 1d random-field Ising model at zero temperature. We also present more recent work that explores a larger parameter space and more states. Research funded by NSERC, Canada.
Correcting transit time distributions in coarse MODFLOW-MODPATH models.
Abrams, Daniel
2013-01-01
In low to medium resolution MODFLOW models, the area occupied by sink cells often far exceeds the surface area of the streams they represent. As a result, MODPATH will calculate inaccurate particle traces and transit times. A frequency distribution of transit times for a watershed will also be in error. Such a distribution is used to assess the long-term impact of nonpoint source pollution on surface waters and wells. Although the inaccuracies for individual particles can only be avoided by increased model grid resolution or other advanced modeling techniques, the frequency distribution can be improved by scaling the particle transit times by an adjustment factor during post-processing. PMID:22974377
Semiclassical theory of electronically nonadiabatic transitions in molecular collision processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lam, K. S.; George, T. F.
1979-01-01
An introductory account of the semiclassical theory of the S-matrix for molecular collision processes is presented, with special emphasis on electronically nonadiabatic transitions. This theory is based on the incorporation of classical mechanics with quantum superposition, and in practice makes use of the analytic continuation of classical mechanics into the complex space of time domain. The relevant concepts of molecular scattering theory and related dynamical models are described and the formalism is developed and illustrated with simple examples - collinear collision of the A+BC type. The theory is then extended to include the effects of laser-induced nonadiabatic transitions. Two bound continuum processes collisional ionization and collision-induced emission also amenable to the same general semiclassical treatment are discussed.
A Correlation-Based Transition Model using Local Variables. Part 1; Model Formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menter, F. R.; Langtry, R. B.; Likki, S. R.; Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Volker, S.
2006-01-01
A new correlation-based transition model has been developed, which is based strictly on local variables. As a result, the transition model is compatible with modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approaches, such as unstructured grids and massive parallel execution. The model is based on two transport equations, one for intermittency and one for the transition onset criteria in terms of momentum thickness Reynolds number. The proposed transport equations do not attempt to model the physics of the transition process (unlike, e.g., turbulence models) but from a framework for the implementation of correlation-based models into general-purpose CFD methods.
Modelling of phase transitions: do it yourself
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medved', I.; Huckaby, D. A.; Trník, A.; Valovičová, L'
2013-01-01
We present the basics of a powerful contemporary statistical mechanical technique that can be used by students to explore first-order phase transitions by themselves and for models of their own construction. The technique is a generalization of the well-known Peierls argument and is applicable to various models on a lattice. We illustrate the technique with the help of two simple models that were recently used to simulate phase transitions on surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhailov, A. V.; Lagun, I. M.; Polyakov, E. P.
2013-01-01
Transient heat-conduction processes occurring in the period of thermal decomposition and gasification of a crystalline oxidant — ammonium perchlorate — have been investigated and analyzed on the basis of the developed mathematical model.
Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem
2014-02-01
The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.
Phase Transitions in Models of Bird Flocking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christodoulidi, H.; van der Weele, K.; Antonopoulos, Ch. G.; Bountis, T.
2014-12-01
The aim of the present paper is to elucidate the transition from collective to random behavior exhibited by various mathematical models of bird flocking. In particular, we compare Vicsek's model [Vicsek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226-1229 (1995)] with one based on topological considerations. The latter model is found to exhibit a first order phase transition from flocking to decoherence, as the "noise parameter" of the problem is increased, whereas Vicsek's model gives a second order transition. Refining the topological model in such a way that birds are influenced mostly by the birds in front of them, less by the ones at their sides and not at all by those behind them (because they do not see them), we find a behavior that lies in between the two models. Finally, we propose a novel mechanism for preserving the flock's cohesion, without imposing artificial boundary conditions or attractive forces.
Factors and processes in children's transitive deductions
Wright, Barlow C.; Smailes, Jennifer
2015-01-01
Transitive tasks are important for understanding how children develop socio-cognitively. However, developmental research has been restricted largely to questions surrounding maturation. We asked 6-, 7- and 8-year-olds (N = 117) to solve a composite of five different transitive tasks. Tasks included conditions asking about item-C (associated with the marked relation) in addition to the usual case of asking only about item-A (associated with the unmarked relation). Here, children found resolving item-C much easier than resolving item-A, a finding running counter to long-standing assumptions about transitive reasoning. Considering gender perhaps for the first time, boys exhibited higher transitive scores than girls overall. Finally, analysing in the context of one recent and well-specified theory of spatial transitive reasoning, we generated the prediction that reporting the full series should be easier than deducing any one item from that series. This prediction was not upheld. We discuss amendments necessary to accommodate all our earlier findings. PMID:26635950
Application of epidemic models to phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilge, A. H.; Pekcan, Ö.; Gürol, M. V.
2012-11-01
The Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) models describe the spread of epidemics in a society. In the typical case, the ratio of the susceptible individuals fall from a value S 0 close to 1 to a final value Sf , while the ratio of recovered individuals rise from 0 to Rf = 1 - Sf . The sharp passage from the level zero to the level Rf allows also the modeling of phase transitions by the number of "recovered" individuals R(t) of the SIR or SEIR model. In this article, we model the sol-gel transition for polyacrylamide-sodium alginate (SA) composite with different concentrations of SA as SIR and SEIR dynamical systems by solving the corresponding differential equations numerically and we show that the phase transitions of "classical" and "percolation" types are represented, respectively, by the SEIR and SIR models.
A Process for Transition to Sustainability: Implementation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wooltorton, Sandra; Palmer, Marilyn; Steele, Fran
2011-01-01
This paper reports the outcomes of the second action cycle of an ongoing project at Edith Cowan University (ECU) called "Transition to Sustainability: ECU South West" which is located in a small, single faculty regional university campus. The overall project has comprised three action research cycles, the first of which was the planning cycle…
Modeling continuum of epithelial mesenchymal transition plasticity.
Mandal, Mousumi; Ghosh, Biswajoy; Anura, Anji; Mitra, Pabitra; Pathak, Tanmaya; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy
2016-02-01
Living systems respond to ambient pathophysiological changes by altering their phenotype, a phenomenon called 'phenotypic plasticity'. This program contains information about adaptive biological dynamism. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one such process found to be crucial in development, wound healing, and cancer wherein the epithelial cells with restricted migratory potential develop motile functions by acquiring mesenchymal characteristics. In the present study, phase contrast microscopy images of EMT induced HaCaT cells were acquired at 24 h intervals for 96 h. The expression study of relevant pivotal molecules viz. F-actin, vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin was carried out to confirm the EMT process. Cells were intuitively categorized into five distinct morphological phenotypes. A population of 500 cells for each temporal point was selected to quantify their frequency of occurrence. The plastic interplay of cell phenotypes from the observations was described as a Markovian process. A model was formulated empirically using simple linear algebra, to depict the possible mechanisms of cellular transformation among the five phenotypes. This work employed qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative tools towards illustration and establishment of the EMT continuum. Thus, it provides a newer perspective to understand the embedded plasticity across the EMT spectrum. PMID:26762753
Modeling and Fitting Exoplanet Transit Light Curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millholland, Sarah; Ruch, G. T.
2013-01-01
We present a numerical model along with an original fitting routine for the analysis of transiting extra-solar planet light curves. Our light curve model is unique in several ways from other available transit models, such as the analytic eclipse formulae of Mandel & Agol (2002) and Giménez (2006), the modified Eclipsing Binary Orbit Program (EBOP) model implemented in Southworth’s JKTEBOP code (Popper & Etzel 1981; Southworth et al. 2004), or the transit model developed as a part of the EXOFAST fitting suite (Eastman et al. in prep.). Our model employs Keplerian orbital dynamics about the system’s center of mass to properly account for stellar wobble and orbital eccentricity, uses a unique analytic solution derived from Kepler’s Second Law to calculate the projected distance between the centers of the star and planet, and calculates the effect of limb darkening using a simple technique that is different from the commonly used eclipse formulae. We have also devised a unique Monte Carlo style optimization routine for fitting the light curve model to observed transits. We demonstrate that, while the effect of stellar wobble on transit light curves is generally small, it becomes significant as the planet to stellar mass ratio increases and the semi-major axes of the orbits decrease. We also illustrate the appreciable effects of orbital ellipticity on the light curve and the necessity of accounting for its impacts for accurate modeling. We show that our simple limb darkening calculations are as accurate as the analytic equations of Mandel & Agol (2002). Although our Monte Carlo fitting algorithm is not as mathematically rigorous as the Markov Chain Monte Carlo based algorithms most often used to determine exoplanetary system parameters, we show that it is straightforward and returns reliable results. Finally, we show that analyses performed with our model and optimization routine compare favorably with exoplanet characterizations published by groups such as the
The R-γ transition prediction model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldberg, Uriel C.; Batten, Paul; Peroomian, Oshin; Chakravarthy, Sukumar
2015-01-01
The Rt turbulence closure (Goldberg 2003) is coupled with an intermittency transport equation, γ, to enable prediction of laminar-to-turbulent flow by-pass transition. The model is not correlation-based and is completely topography-parameter-free, thus ready for use in parallelized Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers based on unstructured book-keeping. Several examples compare the R-γ model's performance with experimental data and with predictions by the Langtry-Menter γ-Reθ transition closure (2009). Like the latter, the R-γ model is very sensitive to freestream turbulence levels, limiting its utility for engineering purposes.
Operationalizing resilience using state and transition models
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
In management, restoration, and policy contexts, the notion of resilience can be confusing. Systematic development of conceptual models of ecological state change (state transition models; STMs) can help overcome semantic confusion and promote a mechanistic understanding of resilience. Drawing on ex...
Transitional Employment Experimental Model (TEEM). Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
California State Personnel Board, Sacramento.
The final report of the Transitional Employemnt Experimental Model (TEEM) Project, a research and development project providing a potential model for a large scale manpower absorption program in times of economic need, is presented. One major purpose of the project was to demonstrate the viability of providing suitable job placement for the…
Transition mixing study empirical model report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, R.; White, C.
1988-01-01
The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of a 3-D numerical model generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all tests cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.
A Model of Mental State Transition Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Hua; Jiang, Peilin; Xiao, Shuang; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo
Emotion is one of the most essential and basic attributes of human intelligence. Current AI (Artificial Intelligence) research is concentrating on physical components of emotion, rarely is it carried out from the view of psychology directly(1). Study on the model of artificial psychology is the first step in the development of human-computer interaction. As affective computing remains unpredictable, creating a reasonable mental model becomes the primary task for building a hybrid system. A pragmatic mental model is also the fundament of some key topics such as recognition and synthesis of emotions. In this paper a Mental State Transition Network Model(2) is proposed to detect human emotions. By a series of psychological experiments, we present a new way to predict coming human's emotions depending on the various current emotional states under various stimuli. Besides, people in different genders and characters are taken into consideration in our investigation. According to the psychological experiments data derived from 200 questionnaires, a Mental State Transition Network Model for describing the transitions in distribution among the emotions and relationships between internal mental situations and external are concluded. Further more the coefficients of the mental transition network model were achieved. Comparing seven relative evaluating experiments, an average precision rate of 0.843 is achieved using a set of samples for the proposed model.
A Conceptual Model Facilitating the Transition of Involuntary Migrant Families
Samarasinghe, Kerstin Linnéa
2011-01-01
Refugee families face a complex transition due to the nature of involuntary migration and the process of acculturation. There are several risk factors to the family adaptation process during the transition period, which are sociocontextually environmental dependant. Facilitating a healthy transition for refugee families, therefore, requires the role of nursing to incorporate sociopolitics into the discipline. This paper introduces a sociopolitically oriented and community-driven assessment and intervention model which is based on a family systematic approach. Interventions that aid the families in their acculturation process as well as empowers them to a well-functioning daily life, as per the SARFI model, should be adopted. As such, the future of nursing may provide additional primary health care services for refugee families; this is through a team-led “family nurse” who provides quality care for the family unit in collaboration with other health care professionals and societal authorities. PMID:22191055
Explosive percolation: Unusual transitions of a simple model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastas, N.; Giazitzidis, P.; Maragakis, M.; Kosmidis, K.
In this paper we review the recent advances in explosive percolation, a very sharp phase transition first observed by Achlioptas et al. (2009). There a simple model was proposed, which changed slightly the classical percolation process so that the emergence of the spanning cluster is delayed. This slight modification turns out to have a great impact on the percolation phase transition. The resulting transition is so sharp that it was termed explosive, and it was at first considered to be discontinuous. This surprising fact stimulated considerable interest in “Achlioptas processes”. Later work, however, showed that the transition is continuous (at least for Achlioptas processes on Erdös networks), but with very unusual finite size scaling. We present a review of the field, indicate open “problems” and propose directions for future research.
Phase Transitions in the Quadratic Contact Process on Complex Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varghese, Chris; Durrett, Rick
2013-03-01
The quadratic contact process (QCP) is a natural extension of the well studied linear contact process where a single infected (1) individual can infect a susceptible (0) neighbor and infected individuals are allowed to recover (1 --> 0). In the QCP, a combination of two 1's is required to effect a 0 --> 1 change. We extend the study of the QCP, which so far has been limited to lattices, to complex networks as a model for the change in a population via sexual reproduction and death. We define two versions of the QCP - vertex centered (VQCP) and edge centered (EQCP) with birth events 1 - 0 - 1 --> 1 - 1 - 1 and 1 - 1 - 0 --> 1 - 1 - 1 respectively, where ` -' represents an edge. We investigate the effects of network topology by considering the QCP on regular, Erdős-Rényi and power law random graphs. We perform mean field calculations as well as simulations to find the steady state fraction of occupied vertices as a function of the birth rate. We find that on the homogeneous graphs (regular and Erdős-Rényi) there is a discontinuous phase transition with a region of bistability, whereas on the heavy tailed power law graph, the transition is continuous. The critical birth rate is found to be positive in the former but zero in the latter.
The Work of Cultural Transition: An Emerging Model
Ryba, Tatiana V.; Stambulova, Natalia B.; Ronkainen, Noora J.
2016-01-01
In today’s uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting cultural patterns of meaning remains limited. The transnational industry of sports, in which athletes’ psychological adjustment to cultural transitions has implications for both performance and meaningful life, serves as a backdrop for this article. This study applied the life story method to interviews with 15 professional and semi-professional athletes, focusing particularly on the cultural transition aspect of their transnational athletic careers. The aims of the study were to identify the developmental tasks of cultural transitions and strategies/mechanisms through which cultural transitions were enacted. Three underlying mechanisms of the transition process that assisted athletic career adaptability were social repositioning, negotiation of cultural practices, and meaning reconstruction. Based on the data analyses, a temporal model of cultural transition is proposed. The results of this research provide professionals working in the fields of career counseling and migrant support with a content framework for enhancing migrant workers’ adaptabilities and psychological wellbeing. PMID:27047436
The Work of Cultural Transition: An Emerging Model.
Ryba, Tatiana V; Stambulova, Natalia B; Ronkainen, Noora J
2016-01-01
In today's uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting cultural patterns of meaning remains limited. The transnational industry of sports, in which athletes' psychological adjustment to cultural transitions has implications for both performance and meaningful life, serves as a backdrop for this article. This study applied the life story method to interviews with 15 professional and semi-professional athletes, focusing particularly on the cultural transition aspect of their transnational athletic careers. The aims of the study were to identify the developmental tasks of cultural transitions and strategies/mechanisms through which cultural transitions were enacted. Three underlying mechanisms of the transition process that assisted athletic career adaptability were social repositioning, negotiation of cultural practices, and meaning reconstruction. Based on the data analyses, a temporal model of cultural transition is proposed. The results of this research provide professionals working in the fields of career counseling and migrant support with a content framework for enhancing migrant workers' adaptabilities and psychological wellbeing. PMID:27047436
Modeling Developmental Transitions in Adaptive Resonance Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.
2004-01-01
Neural networks are applied to a theoretical subject in developmental psychology: modeling developmental transitions. Two issues that are involved will be discussed: discontinuities and acquiring qualitatively new knowledge. We will argue that by the appearance of a bifurcation, a neural network can show discontinuities and may acquire…
Stochastic Modeling of Laminar-Turbulent Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Choudhari, Meelan
2002-01-01
Stochastic versions of stability equations are developed in order to develop integrated models of transition and turbulence and to understand the effects of uncertain initial conditions on disturbance growth. Stochastic forms of the resonant triad equations, a high Reynolds number asymptotic theory, and the parabolized stability equations are developed.
A synergetic model for human gait transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdolvahab, Mohammad
2015-09-01
Gait transitions have been considered as bifurcations between states (e.g. walking or running modes) of a nonlinear dynamical system. A top-down synergetic approach to model gait transitions has been adapted from Frank et al. (2009) and applied to two sets of empirical observations. In this approach, it is assumed that the amplitudes of the spatio-temporal modes of locomotion satisfy a generic form of evolution equations that are known to hold for animate and inanimate self-organizing systems. The presented experimental results focus on hysteresis in human walk-to-run and run-to-walk transitions on a treadmill as a function of treadmill inclination and acceleration, the rate at which speed was increased or decreased during experimental trials. The bi-stability in the synergetic model is assumed to account for the hysteretic transitions. Accordingly, the relevant parameters of the model were estimated from the empirical data and the model's efficacy in predicting the observed hysteresis effects was evaluated.
Transition Services Model: Partnership for Student Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearman, Elizabeth; Elliott, Twila; Aborn, Lucinda
2004-01-01
In 1995, the Southwest Special Education Local Plan Area (SELPA) of the Los Angeles County School District, and El Camino College pioneered a partnership to serve students with disabilities on the community college campus. SELPA transition services serve as a model for alliances between community colleges and school districts throughout…
The physician's alternative career transition model: a stepwise approach.
Bernard, S; Moore, D L
1995-03-01
The recent intense focus on marketplace reform has stimulated a reassessment of career planning options for some physicians. These socioeconomic changes have created unique opportunities beyond the traditional arenas of clinical practice and medical management for physicians to leverage their medical degrees and experiences in the business world. This paper presents three case reports of physician executives who have successfully pursued medically related business career options, each following different motivations at various stages of their medical careers. It then discusses the Physicians' Alternative Career Transition (PACT) model developed by the authors to assist other physicians who are considering making transitions into business-related careers. The PACT model is based on four critical steps for practicing physicians to make these transitions successfully: an internal self-evaluation process, an external environmental evaluation process, seeking the best "career match," and securing the career match. PMID:10161175
Transition matrix model for evolutionary game dynamics.
Ermentrout, G Bard; Griffin, Christopher; Belmonte, Andrew
2016-03-01
We study an evolutionary game model based on a transition matrix approach, in which the total change in the proportion of a population playing a given strategy is summed directly over contributions from all other strategies. This general approach combines aspects of the traditional replicator model, such as preserving unpopulated strategies, with mutation-type dynamics, which allow for nonzero switching to unpopulated strategies, in terms of a single transition function. Under certain conditions, this model yields an endemic population playing non-Nash-equilibrium strategies. In addition, a Hopf bifurcation with a limit cycle may occur in the generalized rock-scissors-paper game, unlike the replicator equation. Nonetheless, many of the Folk Theorem results are shown to hold for this model. PMID:27078323
Transition matrix model for evolutionary game dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ermentrout, G. Bard; Griffin, Christopher; Belmonte, Andrew
2016-03-01
We study an evolutionary game model based on a transition matrix approach, in which the total change in the proportion of a population playing a given strategy is summed directly over contributions from all other strategies. This general approach combines aspects of the traditional replicator model, such as preserving unpopulated strategies, with mutation-type dynamics, which allow for nonzero switching to unpopulated strategies, in terms of a single transition function. Under certain conditions, this model yields an endemic population playing non-Nash-equilibrium strategies. In addition, a Hopf bifurcation with a limit cycle may occur in the generalized rock-scissors-paper game, unlike the replicator equation. Nonetheless, many of the Folk Theorem results are shown to hold for this model.
Phase Transitions in Delaunay Potts Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Stefan; Eyers, Michael
2016-01-01
We establish phase transitions for certain classes of continuum Delaunay multi-type particle systems (continuum Potts models) with infinite range repulsive interaction between particles of different type. In one class of the Delaunay Potts models studied the repulsive interaction is a triangle (multi-body) interaction whereas in the second class the interaction is between pairs (edges) of the Delaunay graph. The result for the edge model is an extension of finite range results in Bertin et al. (J Stat Phys 114(1-2):79-100, 2004) for the Delaunay graph and in Georgii and Häggström (Commun Math Phys 181:507-528, 1996) for continuum Potts models to an infinite range repulsion decaying with the edge length. This is a proof of an old conjecture of Lebowitz and Lieb. The repulsive triangle interactions have infinite range as well and depend on the underlying geometry and thus are a first step towards studying phase transitions for geometry-dependent multi-body systems. Our approach involves a Delaunay random-cluster representation analogous to the Fortuin-Kasteleyn representation of the Potts model. The phase transitions manifest themselves in the percolation of the corresponding random-cluster model. Our proofs rely on recent studies (Dereudre et al. in Probab Theory Relat Fields 153:643-670, 2012) of Gibbs measures for geometry-dependent interactions.
Phase transition model for community detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jianshe; Lu, Rui; Jiao, Licheng; Liu, Fang; Yu, Xin; Wang, Da; Sun, Bo
2013-03-01
Motivated by social and biological interactions, a novel type of phase transition model is provided in order to investigate the emergence of the clustering phenomenon in networks. The model has two types of interactions: one is attractive and the other is repulsive. In each iteration, the phase of a node (or an agent) moves toward the average phase of its neighbors and moves away from the average phase of its non-neighbors. The velocities of the two types of phase transition are controlled by two parameters, respectively. It is found that the phase transition phenomenon is closely related to the topological structure of the underlying network, and thus can be applied to identify its communities and overlapping groups. By giving each node of the network a randomly generated initial phase and updating these phases by the phase transition model until they reach stability, one or two communities will be detected according to the nodes’ stable phases, confusable nodes are moved into a set named Of. By removing the detected communities and the nodes in Of, another one or two communities will be detected by an iteration of the algorithm, …. In this way, all communities and the overlapping nodes are detected. Simulations on both real-world networks and the LFR benchmark graphs have verified the efficiency of the proposed scheme.
Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers
Bamberger, C.E.
1988-04-12
A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites. 1 fig., 1 tab.
Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers
Bamberger, Carlos E.
1989-01-01
A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites.
An overview of three main types of simulation approach (explanatory, abstraction, and estimation) is presented, along with a discussion of their capabilities limitations, and the steps required for their validation. A process model being developed through the Forest Response Prog...
Biosphere Process Model Report
J. Schmitt
2000-05-25
To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor
Modeling robot contour processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitney, D. E.; Edsall, A. C.
Robot contour processes include those with contact force like car body grinding or deburring of complex castings, as well as those with little or no contact force like inspection. This paper describes ways of characterizing, identifying, and estimating contours and robot trajectories. Contour and robot are modeled as stochastic processes in order to emphasize that both successive robot cycles and successive industrial workpieces are similar but not exactly the same. The stochastic models can be used to identify the state of a workpiece or process, or to design a filter to estimate workpiece, shape and robot position from robot-based measurements.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grimes, Michael K.
The panel presentation traces the development of and describes the operation of a Brentwood (California) project to prepare approximately 75 severely disabled individuals, ages 12-22, to function in the least restrictive recreation/leisure, vocational, and general community environments. Transition Steering Committee developed such project…
Approaches to retrospective sampling for longitudinal transition regression models
Hunsberger, Sally; Albert, Paul S.; Thoma, Marie
2016-01-01
For binary diseases that relapse and remit, it is often of interest to estimate the effect of covariates on the transition process between disease states over time. The transition process can be characterized by modeling the probability of the binary event given the individual’s history. Designing studies that examine the impact of time varying covariates over time can lead to collection of extensive amounts of data. Sometimes it may be possible to collect and store tissue, blood or images and retrospectively analyze this covariate information. In this paper we consider efficient sampling designs that do not require biomarker measurements on all subjects. We describe appropriate estimation methods for transition probabilities and functions of these probabilities, and evaluate efficiency of the estimates from the proposed sampling designs. These new methods are illustrated with data from a longitudinal study of bacterial vaginosis, a common relapsing-remitting vaginal infection of women of child bearing age.
MODEL UPDATING: TRANSITION FROM RESEARCH TO PRACTICE?
D. C. ZIMMERMAN; F. M. HEMEZ
2000-10-01
This session offers an open forum to discuss issues associated with the transition of nearly two decades of engineering research into computational guided model updating into industry state-of-the-practice. Related technical issues are the model updating technology, model reduction, test-analysis correlation and optimization strategies. The session is organized as follows. Technical presentations review the state-of-the-art in finite element model updating and present examples of industrial applications. The results of a recent survey on the potential and usefulness of the model updating technology are discussed. Panel discussions and interaction with the audience discuss industrial needs, future trends and challenges and why negative model updating results are never discussed within the structural dynamics community.
Engineering models of deflagration-to-detonation transition
Bdzil, J.B.; Son, S.F.
1995-07-01
For the past two years, Los Alamos has supported research into the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in damaged energetic materials as part of the explosives safety program. This program supported both a theory/modeling group and an experimentation group. The goal of the theory/modeling group was to examine the various modeling structures (one-phase models, two-phase models, etc.) and select from these a structure suitable to model accidental initiation of detonation in damaged explosives. The experimental data on low-velocity piston supported DDT in granular explosive was to serve as a test bed to help in the selection process. Three theoretical models have been examined in the course of this study: (1) the Baer-Nunziato (BN) model, (2) the Stewart-Prasad-Asay (SPA) model and (3) the Bdzil-Kapila-Stewart model. Here we describe these models, discuss their properties, and compare their features.
Camera-Model Identification Using Markovian Transition Probability Matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Guanshuo; Gao, Shang; Shi, Yun Qing; Hu, Ruimin; Su, Wei
Detecting the (brands and) models of digital cameras from given digital images has become a popular research topic in the field of digital forensics. As most of images are JPEG compressed before they are output from cameras, we propose to use an effective image statistical model to characterize the difference JPEG 2-D arrays of Y and Cb components from the JPEG images taken by various camera models. Specifically, the transition probability matrices derived from four different directional Markov processes applied to the image difference JPEG 2-D arrays are used to identify statistical difference caused by image formation pipelines inside different camera models. All elements of the transition probability matrices, after a thresholding technique, are directly used as features for classification purpose. Multi-class support vector machines (SVM) are used as the classification tool. The effectiveness of our proposed statistical model is demonstrated by large-scale experimental results.
Microwave sintering process model.
Peng, Hu; Tinga, W R; Sundararaj, U; Eadie, R L
2003-01-01
In order to simulate and optimize the microwave sintering of a silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt toolbits process, a microwave sintering process model has been built. A cylindrical sintering furnace was used containing a heat insulating layer, a susceptor layer, and an alumina tube containing the green toolbit parts between parallel, electrically conductive, graphite plates. Dielectric and absorption properties of the silicon nitride green parts, the tungsten carbide/cobalt green parts, and an oxidizable susceptor material were measured using perturbation and waveguide transmission methods. Microwave absorption data were measured over a temperature range from 20 degrees C to 800 degrees C. These data were then used in the microwave process model which assumed plane wave propagation along the radial direction and included the microwave reflection at each interface between the materials and the microwave absorption in the bulk materials. Heat transfer between the components inside the cylindrical sintering furnace was also included in the model. The simulated heating process data for both silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt samples closely follow the experimental data. By varying the physical parameters of the sintering furnace model, such as the thickness of the susceptor layer, the thickness of the allumina tube wall, the sample load volume and the graphite plate mass, the model data predicts their effects which are helpful in optimizing those parameters in the industrial sintering process. PMID:15323110
Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann
2008-09-01
In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Czocher, Jennifer A.
2016-01-01
This study contributes a methodological tool to reconstruct the cognitive processes and mathematical activities carried out by mathematical modelers. Represented as Modeling Transition Diagrams (MTDs), individual modeling routes were constructed for four engineering undergraduate students. Findings stress the importance and limitations of using…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Langtry, R. B.; Menter, F. R.; Likki, S. R.; Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Volker, S.
2006-01-01
A new correlation-based transition model has been developed, which is built strictly on local variables. As a result, the transition model is compatible with modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods using unstructured grids and massive parallel execution. The model is based on two transport equations, one for the intermittency and one for the transition onset criteria in terms of momentum thickness Reynolds number. The proposed transport equations do not attempt to model the physics of the transition process (unlike, e.g., turbulence models), but form a framework for the implementation of correlation-based models into general-purpose CFD methods.
Unified Model Deformation and Flow Transition Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, Alpheus W.; Liu, Tianshu; Garg, Sanjay; Bell, James H.; Morgan, Daniel G.
1999-01-01
The number of optical techniques that may potentially be used during a given wind tunnel test is continually growing. These include parameter sensitive paints that are sensitive to temperature or pressure, several different types of off-body and on-body flow visualization techniques, optical angle-of-attack (AoA), optical measurement of model deformation, optical techniques for determining density or velocity, and spectroscopic techniques for determining various flow field parameters. Often in the past the various optical techniques were developed independently of each other, with little or no consideration for other techniques that might also be used during a given test. Recently two optical techniques have been increasingly requested for production measurements in NASA wind tunnels. These are the video photogrammetric (or videogrammetric) technique for measuring model deformation known as the video model deformation (VMD) technique, and the parameter sensitive paints for making global pressure and temperature measurements. Considerations for, and initial attempts at, simultaneous measurements with the pressure sensitive paint (PSP) and the videogrammetric techniques have been implemented. Temperature sensitive paint (TSP) has been found to be useful for boundary-layer transition detection since turbulent boundary layers convect heat at higher rates than laminar boundary layers of comparable thickness. Transition is marked by a characteristic surface temperature change wherever there is a difference between model and flow temperatures. Recently, additional capabilities have been implemented in the target-tracking videogrammetric measurement system. These capabilities have permitted practical simultaneous measurements using parameter sensitive paint and video model deformation measurements that led to the first successful unified test with TSP for transition detection in a large production wind tunnel.
Applying Gaussian processes to Spitzer/IRAC transit lightcurves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Thomas
2015-08-01
For the past decade, transit and eclipse measurements made with Spitzer/IRAC have been used to characterize dozens of exoplanet atmospheres. However, lightcurves obtained with IRAC are affected by systematics that swamp the faint atmosphere signals being sought, as the instrument was not designed for ~100ppm photometry over >3hr timescales. Robustly quantifying the degeneracies between these systematics and the planet signal is therefore crucial for obtaining realistic uncertainty estimates, to avoid over-interpreting what the data have to tell us. This is challenging, because the nature of the instrumental systematics are not well-understood from a first principles standpoint. I will describe the application of Gaussian process (GPs) models to this problem, which is a relatively new approach in the exoplanet literature. Specifically, I will present transmission and emission results for the hot Jupiter HD209458b, and summarise how the new GP analysis draws into question a number of previous results, including inferences of strong water absorption in transmission and an inverted pressure-temperature profile for the dayside hemisphere. I will also outline the main challenges in applying GP models to datasets like the IRAC lightcurves, which typically contain well over 1000 data points and exhibit non-stationary systematics.
Intelligent card processing terminal of urban rail transit in Nanjing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Dechuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Song, Yana; He, Tiejun
2011-10-01
In order to improve the compatibility, security and expandability of Automatic Fare Collection System in rail transit, and reduce the maintenance cost, intelligent card processing terminal is proposed in this paper. The operation flow and features of intelligent card processing terminal are analyzed in detailed, and the software and hardware structures and business treatment process are designed. Finally, the security mechanism of intelligent card processing terminal is summarized. The application results shows that Intelligent card processing terminal makes interconnection among lines easier, creates considerable economic efficiency and the social efficiency, and can be widely used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halbe, Johannes; Reusser, Dominik E.; Holtz, Gerog; Stosius, Annette; Kwakkel, Jan; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Avenhaus, Wiebke
2013-04-01
The delineation of transition pathways towards sustainability and the implementation of associated measures are challenged by uncertainty, structural barriers, and conflicts among affected stakeholders. Experiences from other research domains suggest that the effective application of models to tackle these challenges require the explicit consideration of modeling purposes and roles. We present a classification of modeling roles for the analysis and governance of transitions. Models can support understanding of transitions processes, detect barriers and drivers of change, support the exploration of pathways towards sustainability, and help to actively engage relevant stakeholder groups. For each application area, examples are provided from the transition community and related research fields like environmental modeling and integrated assessment.
Facility Will Help Transition Models Into Operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Mohi
2009-02-01
The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Weather Prediction Center (NOAA SWPC), in partnership with the U.S. Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA), is establishing a center to promote and facilitate the transition of space weather models to operations. The new facility, called the Developmental Testbed Center (DTC), will take models used by researchers and rigorously test them to see if they can withstand continued use as viable warning systems. If a model used in a space weather warning system crashes or fails to perform well, severe consequences can result. These include increased radiation risks to astronauts and people traveling on high-altitude flights, national security vulnerabilities from the loss of military satellite communications, and the cost of replacing damaged military and commercial spacecraft.
Modeling the Polycentric Transition of Cities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc
2013-11-01
Empirical evidence suggests that most urban systems experience a transition from a monocentric to a polycentric organization as they grow and expand. We propose here a stochastic, out-of-equilibrium model of the city, which explains the appearance of subcenters as an effect of traffic congestion. We show that congestion triggers the instability of the monocentric regime and that the number of subcenters and the total commuting distance within a city scale sublinearly with its population, predictions that are in agreement with data gathered for around 9000 U.S. cities between 1994 and 2010.
Modeling the polycentric transition of cities.
Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc
2013-11-01
Empirical evidence suggests that most urban systems experience a transition from a monocentric to a polycentric organization as they grow and expand. We propose here a stochastic, out-of-equilibrium model of the city, which explains the appearance of subcenters as an effect of traffic congestion. We show that congestion triggers the instability of the monocentric regime and that the number of subcenters and the total commuting distance within a city scale sublinearly with its population, predictions that are in agreement with data gathered for around 9000 U.S. cities between 1994 and 2010. PMID:24266493
Sabin-to-Mahoney Transition Model of Quasispecies Replication
2009-05-31
Qspp is an agent-based stochastic simulation model of the Poliovirus Sabin-to-Mahoney transition. This code simulates a cell-to-cell model of Poliovirus replication. The model tracks genotypes (virus genomes) as they are replicated in cells, and as the cells burst and release particles into the medium of a culture dish. An inoculum is then taken from the pool of virions and is used to inoculate cells on a new dish. This process repeats. The Sabin genotype comprises the initial inoculum. Nucleotide positions that match the Sabin1 (vaccine strain) and Mahoney (wild type) genotypes, as well as the neurovirulent phenotype (from the literature) are enumerated as constants.
Becoming Counselors through Growth and Learning: The Entry Transition Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagner, Holly H.; Hill, Nicole R.
2015-01-01
This article explored counselor development within the entry transition into counselor education programs using 4 interviews and interpretive dialogues with 8 beginning counselors. Six categories resulted from the authors' grounded theory analysis: Anticipation, Evolving Identity, Growth and Learning, Coping, Choosing to Trust the Process, and…
Adding Structure to the Transition Process to Advanced Mathematical Activity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engelbrecht, Johann
2010-01-01
The transition process to advanced mathematical thinking is experienced as traumatic by many students. Experiences that students had of school mathematics differ greatly to what is expected from them at university. Success in school mathematics meant application of different methods to get an answer. Students are not familiar with logical…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McNeill, Justin
1995-01-01
The Multimission Image Processing Subsystem (MIPS) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has managed transitions of application software sets from one operating system and hardware platform to multiple operating systems and hardware platforms. As a part of these transitions, cost estimates were generated from the personal experience of in-house developers and managers to calculate the total effort required for such projects. Productivity measures have been collected for two such transitions, one very large and the other relatively small in terms of source lines of code. These estimates used a cost estimation model similar to the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Effort Estimation Model. Experience in transitioning software within JPL MIPS have uncovered a high incidence of interface complexity. Interfaces, both internal and external to individual software applications, have contributed to software transition project complexity, and thus to scheduling difficulties and larger than anticipated design work on software to be ported.
Detecting critical state before phase transition of complex systems by hidden Markov model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Rui; Chen, Pei; Li, Yongjun; Chen, Luonan
Identifying the critical state or pre-transition state just before the occurrence of a phase transition is a challenging task, because the state of the system may show little apparent change before this critical transition during the gradual parameter variations. Such dynamics of phase transition is generally composed of three stages, i.e., before-transition state, pre-transition state, and after-transition state, which can be considered as three different Markov processes. Thus, based on this dynamical feature, we present a novel computational method, i.e., hidden Markov model (HMM), to detect the switching point of the two Markov processes from the before-transition state (a stationary Markov process) to the pre-transition state (a time-varying Markov process), thereby identifying the pre-transition state or early-warning signals of the phase transition. To validate the effectiveness, we apply this method to detect the signals of the imminent phase transitions of complex systems based on the simulated datasets, and further identify the pre-transition states as well as their critical modules for three real datasets, i.e., the acute lung injury triggered by phosgene inhalation, MCF-7 human breast cancer caused by heregulin, and HCV-induced dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma.
When University Faculty Retire: A Study of the Transition Process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pappas, John G.; Goodman, Jane
This study examined the retirement transitions of college faculty based on the Schlossberg (1984) model, which suggests that successful coping depends on an evaluation of the retiree's unique situation, the qualities of the individual, the support available, and the strategies employed. A total of 55 emeritus faculty from the College of Education…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laxmanan, V.
1986-01-01
The development of theoretical models which characterize the planar-cellular and cell-dendrite transitions is described. The transitions are analyzed in terms of the Chalmers number, the solute Peclet number, and the tip stability parameter, which correlate microstructural features and processing conditions. The planar-cellular transition is examined using the constitutional supercooling theory of Chalmers et al., (1953) and it is observed that the Chalmers number is between 0 and 1 during dendritic and cellular growth. Analysis of cell-dendrite transition data reveal that the transition occurs when the solute Peclet number goes through a minimum, the primary arm spacings go through a maximum, and the Chalmers number is equal to 1/2. The relation between the tip stability parameter and the solute Peclet number is investigated and it is noted that the tip stability parameter is useful for studying dendritic growth in alloys.
A new model for broadband waveguide to microstrip transition design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ponchak, George E.; Downey, Alan N.
1986-01-01
A new model is presented which permits the prediction of the resonant frequencies created by antipodal finline waveguide to microstrip transitions. The transition is modeled as a tapered transmission line in series with an infinite set of coupled resonant circuits. The resonant circuits are modeled as simple microwave resonant cavities of which the resonant frequencies are easily determined. The model is developed and the resonant frequencies determined for several different transitions. Experimental results are given to confirm the models.
Transitioning GONG data processing to NOAA SWPC operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinard, Alysha; Marble, Andrew R.; Berger, Thomas
2016-05-01
The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, providing 24x7 forecasting and support to critical infrastructure operators around the world. Observations of the conditions on the Sun are crucial for determining when and if a warning is needed. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) operated by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) consists of six ground stations, allowing continuous observations of the Sun. Of particular interest for space weather purposes are the H-alpha images and magnetograms. The H-alpha data are used to identify filaments and their eruptions, to assess active region evolution and plage extent, and to help localize flare locations. The magnetograms are used to identify neutral lines, to examine potential shearing areas and to characterize the magnetic structure of active regions. GONG magnetograms also provide the initial condition for models of solar wind expansion through the heliosphere such as the WSA-Enlil model. Although beyond the scope of current space weather applications, GONG helioseismology products can be used to assess active region emergence on the far side of the Sun and to indicate the flaring potential of a front-side active region. These products are being examined as future tools in flare prediction.NSO has operated GONG as a science facility since 1995 and has provided processed space weather data products to NOAA via for the past several years. In 2014 the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requested that NOAA transition the GONG network to an operational space weather asset in order to ensure the continued flow of critical data for solar wind models. NSO will continue to operate and manage the instruments and sites, but the H-alpha images and 10 minute averaged magnetogram data will be sent directly to SWPC for processing and use in space weather modeling. SWPC will make these data available to NSO and the public via the
Transitioning GONG data processing to NOAA SWPC operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinard, A.; Marble, A.; Hill, F.; Berger, T. E.
2015-12-01
The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, providing 24x7 forecasting and support to critical infrastructure operators around the world. Observations of the conditions on the Sun are crucial for determining when and if a warning is needed. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) operated by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) consists of six ground stations, allowing continuous observations of the Sun. Of particular interest for space weather purposes are the H-alpha images and magnetograms. The H-alpha data are used to identify filaments and their eruptions, to assess active region evolution and plage extent, and to help localize flare locations. The magnetograms are used to identify neutral lines, to examine potential shearing areas and to characterize the magnetic structure of active regions. GONG magnetograms also provide the initial condition for models of solar wind expansion through the heliosphere such as the WSA-Enlil model. Although beyond the scope of current space weather applications, GONG helioseismology products can be used to assess active region emergence on the far side of the Sun and to indicate the flaring potential of a front-side active region. These products are being examined as future tools in flare prediction. NSO has operated GONG as a science facility since 1995 and has provided processed space weather data products to NOAA via public internet connections for the past several years. In 2014 the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requested that NOAA transition the GONG network to an operational space weather asset in order to ensure the continued flow of critical magnetogram data for solar wind models. NSO will continue to operate and manage the instruments and sites, but the H-alpha images and 10 minute averaged magnetogram data will be sent directly to SWPC for processing and use in space weather modeling. SWPC will make these data
Relaxation processes in a lower disorder order transition diblock copolymer
Sanz, Alejandro; Ezquerra, Tiberio A.; Nogales, Aurora
2015-02-14
The dynamics of lower disorder-order temperature diblock copolymer leading to phase separation has been observed by X ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Two different modes have been characterized. A non-diffusive mode appears at temperatures below the disorder to order transition, which can be associated to compositional fluctuations, that becomes slower as the interaction parameter increases, in a similar way to the one observed for diblock copolymers exhibiting phase separation upon cooling. At temperatures above the disorder to order transition T{sub ODT}, the dynamics becomes diffusive, indicating that after phase separation in Lower Disorder-Order Transition (LDOT) diblock copolymers, the diffusion of chain segments across the interface is the governing dynamics. As the segregation is stronger, the diffusive process becomes slower. Both observed modes have been predicted by the theory describing upper order-disorder transition systems, assuming incompressibility. However, the present results indicate that the existence of these two modes is more universal as they are present also in compressible diblock copolymers exhibiting a lower disorder-order transition. No such a theory describing the dynamics in LDOT block copolymers is available, and these experimental results may offer some hints to understanding the dynamics in these systems. The dynamics has also been studied in the ordered state, and for the present system, the non-diffusive mode disappears and only a diffusive mode is observed. This mode is related to the transport of segment in the interphase, due to the weak segregation on this system.
Chaos Theory as a Model for Life Transitions Counseling: Nonlinear Dynamics and Life's Changes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bussolari, Cori J.; Goodell, Judith A.
2009-01-01
Chaos theory is presented for counselors working with clients experiencing life transitions. It is proposed as a model that considers disorder, unpredictability, and lack of control as normal parts of transition processes. Nonlinear constructs from physics are adapted for use in counseling. The model provides a method clients can use to…
A simple hydrodynamic model for transition boiling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joo, Sang W.; Davis, Stephen H.; Bankoff, S. George
2000-01-01
A vertical column of an inviscid fluid, heated uniformly from below through a horizontal rigid bottom, is studied, with focus on the dynamics of the vapour/liquid interface near the three-phase (contact) line. The interfacial motion is induced by the competing effects of liquid feeding from above and evaporative mass loss through the interface. A linearized solution is obtained that describes the location of the contact line. The solution is used to study the transition processes to and from film boiling, where part of the liquid, lying on top of a vapour layer, can spontaneously be drawn downward and touch the heated bottom. Recession or advancement of the contact line then determines whether the film boiling is sustained or broken. It is seen that the correct contact-line dynamics cannot be predicted solely from a global mass balance in the liquid column.
'Biogeneric' developmental processes: drivers of major transitions in animal evolution.
Newman, Stuart A
2016-08-19
Using three examples drawn from animal systems, I advance the hypothesis that major transitions in multicellular evolution often involved the constitution of new cell-based materials with unprecedented morphogenetic capabilities. I term the materials and formative processes that arise when highly evolved cells are incorporated into mesoscale matter 'biogeneric', to reflect their commonality with, and distinctiveness from, the organizational properties of non-living materials. The first transition arose by the innovation of classical cell-adhesive cadherins with transmembrane linkage to the cytoskeleton and the appearance of the morphogen Wnt, transforming some ancestral unicellular holozoans into 'liquid tissues', and thereby originating the metazoans. The second transition involved the new capabilities, within a basal metazoan population, of producing a mechanically stable basal lamina, and of planar cell polarization. This gave rise to the eumetazoans, initially diploblastic (two-layered) forms, and then with the addition of extracellular matrices promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, three-layered triploblasts. The last example is the fin-to-limb transition. Here, the components of a molecular network that promoted the development of species-idiosyncratic endoskeletal elements in gnathostome ancestors are proposed to have evolved to a dynamical regime in which they constituted a Turing-type reaction-diffusion system capable of organizing the stereotypical arrays of elements of lobe-finned fish and tetrapods. The contrasting implications of the biogeneric materials-based and neo-Darwinian perspectives for understanding major evolutionary transitions are discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431521
Simplified modeling of transition to detonation in porous energetic materials
Stewart, D.S. ); Asay, B.W. ); Prasad, K. )
1994-07-01
A simplified model that can predict the transitions from compaction to detonation and shock to detonation is given with the aim of describing experiments in beds of porous HMX. In the case of compaction to detonation, the energy of early impact generates a slowly moving, convective-reactive deflagration that expands near the piston face and evolves in a manner that is characteristic of confined deflagration to detonation transition. A single-phase state variable theory is adopted in contrast to a two-phase axiomatic mixture theory. The ability of the porous material to compact is treated as an endothermic process. Reaction is treated as an exothermic process. The algebraic (Rankine--Hugoniot) steady wave analysis is given for inert compaction waves and steady detonation waves in a piston supported configuration, typical of the experiments carried out in porous HMX. A structure analysis of the steady compaction wave is given. Numerical simulations of deflagration to detonation are carried out for parameters that describe an HMX-like material and compared with the experiments. The simple model predicts the high density plug that is observed in the experiments and suggests that the leading front of the plug is a secondary compaction wave. A shock to detonation transition is also numerically simulated.
Phase transitions in Thirring’s model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campa, Alessandro; Casetti, Lapo; Latella, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Ruffo, Stefano
2016-07-01
In his pioneering work on negative specific heat, Walter Thirring introduced a model that is solvable in the microcanonical ensemble. Here, we give a complete description of the phase-diagram of this model in both the microcanonical and the canonical ensemble, highlighting the main features of ensemble inequivalence. In both ensembles, we find a line of first-order phase transitions which ends in a critical point. However, neither the line nor the point have the same location in the phase-diagram of the two ensembles. We also show that the microcanonical and canonical critical points can be analytically related to each other using a Landau expansion of entropy and free energy, respectively, in analogy with what has been done in (Cohen and Mukamel 2012 J. Stat. Mech. P12017). Examples of systems with certain symmetries restricting the Landau expansion have been considered in this reference, while no such restrictions are present in Thirring’s model. This leads to a phase diagram that can be seen as a prototype for what happens in systems of particles with kinematic degrees of freedom dominated by long-range interactions.
Quantitative modeling of soil genesis processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, E. R.; Knox, R. G.; Kerber, A. G.
1992-01-01
For fine spatial scale simulation, a model is being developed to predict changes in properties over short-, meso-, and long-term time scales within horizons of a given soil profile. Processes that control these changes can be grouped into five major process clusters: (1) abiotic chemical reactions; (2) activities of organisms; (3) energy balance and water phase transitions; (4) hydrologic flows; and (5) particle redistribution. Landscape modeling of soil development is possible using digitized soil maps associated with quantitative soil attribute data in a geographic information system (GIS) framework to which simulation models are applied.
Phase Transitions in Model Active Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redner, Gabriel S.
The amazing collective behaviors of active systems such as bird flocks, schools of fish, and colonies of microorganisms have long amazed scientists and laypeople alike. Understanding the physics of such systems is challenging due to their far-from-equilibrium dynamics, as well as the extreme diversity in their ingredients, relevant time- and length-scales, and emergent phenomenology. To make progress, one can categorize active systems by the symmetries of their constituent particles, as well as how activity is expressed. In this work, we examine two categories of active systems, and explore their phase behavior in detail. First, we study systems of self-propelled spherical particles moving in two dimensions. Despite the absence of an aligning interaction, this system displays complex emergent dynamics, including phase separation into a dense active solid and dilute gas. Using simulations and analytic modeling, we quantify the phase diagram and separation kinetics. We show that this nonequilibrium phase transition is analogous to an equilibrium vapor-liquid system, with binodal and spinodal curves and a critical point. We also characterize the dense active solid phase, a unique material which exhibits the structural signatures of a crystalline solid near the crystal-hexatic transition point, as well as anomalous dynamics including superdiffusive motion on intermediate timescales. We also explore the role of interparticle attraction in this system. We demonstrate that attraction drastically changes the phase diagram, which contains two distinct phase-separated regions and is reentrant as a function of propulsion speed. We interpret this complex situation with a simple kinetic model, which builds from the observed microdynamics of individual particles to a full description of the macroscopic phase behavior. We also study active nematics, liquid crystals driven out of equilibrium by energy-dissipating active stresses. The equilibrium nematic state is unstable in these
Implicit Value Updating Explains Transitive Inference Performance: The Betasort Model
Jensen, Greg; Muñoz, Fabian; Alkan, Yelda; Ferrera, Vincent P.; Terrace, Herbert S.
2015-01-01
Transitive inference (the ability to infer that B > D given that B > C and C > D) is a widespread characteristic of serial learning, observed in dozens of species. Despite these robust behavioral effects, reinforcement learning models reliant on reward prediction error or associative strength routinely fail to perform these inferences. We propose an algorithm called betasort, inspired by cognitive processes, which performs transitive inference at low computational cost. This is accomplished by (1) representing stimulus positions along a unit span using beta distributions, (2) treating positive and negative feedback asymmetrically, and (3) updating the position of every stimulus during every trial, whether that stimulus was visible or not. Performance was compared for rhesus macaques, humans, and the betasort algorithm, as well as Q-learning, an established reward-prediction error (RPE) model. Of these, only Q-learning failed to respond above chance during critical test trials. Betasort’s success (when compared to RPE models) and its computational efficiency (when compared to full Markov decision process implementations) suggests that the study of reinforcement learning in organisms will be best served by a feature-driven approach to comparing formal models. PMID:26407227
Implicit Value Updating Explains Transitive Inference Performance: The Betasort Model.
Jensen, Greg; Muñoz, Fabian; Alkan, Yelda; Ferrera, Vincent P; Terrace, Herbert S
2015-01-01
Transitive inference (the ability to infer that B > D given that B > C and C > D) is a widespread characteristic of serial learning, observed in dozens of species. Despite these robust behavioral effects, reinforcement learning models reliant on reward prediction error or associative strength routinely fail to perform these inferences. We propose an algorithm called betasort, inspired by cognitive processes, which performs transitive inference at low computational cost. This is accomplished by (1) representing stimulus positions along a unit span using beta distributions, (2) treating positive and negative feedback asymmetrically, and (3) updating the position of every stimulus during every trial, whether that stimulus was visible or not. Performance was compared for rhesus macaques, humans, and the betasort algorithm, as well as Q-learning, an established reward-prediction error (RPE) model. Of these, only Q-learning failed to respond above chance during critical test trials. Betasort's success (when compared to RPE models) and its computational efficiency (when compared to full Markov decision process implementations) suggests that the study of reinforcement learning in organisms will be best served by a feature-driven approach to comparing formal models. PMID:26407227
Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition and Glass Transition in a Monoatomic Model System
Xu, Limei; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Stanley, H. Eugene
2010-01-01
We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses. PMID:21614201
A multinomial choice model approach for dynamic driver vision transitions.
Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Wong, Jinn-Tsai
2015-01-01
Exploring the continual process of drivers allocating their attention under varying conditions could be vital for preventing motor vehicle crashes. This study aims to model visual behaviors and to estimate the effects of various contributing factors on driver's vision transitions. A visual attention allocation framework, based on certain contributing attributes related to driving tasks and environmental conditions, has been developed. The associated logit type models for determining driver choices for focal points were successfully formulated and estimated by using naturalistic glance data from the 100-car event database. The results offer insights into driver visual behavior and patterns of visual attention allocation. The three focal points that drivers most frequently rely on and glance at are the forward, left and rear view mirror. The sample drivers were less likely to demonstrate troublesome transition patterns, particularly in mentally demanding situations. Additionally, instead of shifting vision directly between two non-forward focal points, the sample drivers frequently had an intermediate forward glance. Thus, seemingly unrelated paths could be grouped into explanatory patterns of driver attention allocation. Finally, in addition to the vision-transition patterns, the potential pitfalls of such patterns and possible countermeasures to improving safety are illustrated, focusing on situations when drivers are distracted, traveling at high speeds and approaching intersections. PMID:25463950
Human driven transitions in complex model ecosystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harfoot, Mike; Newbold, Tim; Tittinsor, Derek; Purves, Drew
2015-04-01
Human activities have been observed to be impacting ecosystems across the globe, leading to reduced ecosystem functioning, altered trophic and biomass structure and ultimately ecosystem collapse. Previous attempts to understand global human impacts on ecosystems have usually relied on statistical models, which do not explicitly model the processes underlying the functioning of ecosystems, represent only a small proportion of organisms and do not adequately capture complex non-linear and dynamic responses of ecosystems to perturbations. We use a mechanistic ecosystem model (1), which simulates the underlying processes structuring ecosystems and can thus capture complex and dynamic interactions, to investigate boundaries of complex ecosystems to human perturbation. We explore several drivers including human appropriation of net primary production and harvesting of animal biomass. We also present an analysis of the key interactions between biotic, societal and abiotic earth system components, considering why and how we might think about these couplings. References: M. B. J. Harfoot et al., Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic general ecosystem model., PLoS Biol. 12, e1001841 (2014).
Data support for a state-and-transition model: What have we learned?
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
State-and-transition models (STMs) were conceived as a means to synthesize knowledge about alternative plant communities and the processes that lead to transitions among them for specific land areas. STMs that have been developed over the past decade have often been limited by 1) a lack of detail on...
Transition region models for Be stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontenla, J. M.; Rovira, M.; Ringuelet, A. E.
1981-12-01
A preliminary model that reproduces the general characteristics of equivalent widths and profiles of ultraviolet spectral lines corresponding to ions such as C IV, Si IV, and N V which frequently exhibit asymmetric profiles and which are particularly observed in early type objects undergoing mass loss, is presented. The model considers terms due to kinetic and potential energies as well as radiative losses in solving for the energy balance equation. In a first approximation, it is shown how the kinetic energy can account for the heating of the material up to temperatures compatible with the formation of ions like C IV and Si IV by collisional processes. Agreement, at least as to the order of magnitude, between the model and the observations is found if the existence of some kind of braking mechanism is postulated.
GREENSCOPE: Sustainable Process Modeling
EPA researchers are responding to environmental problems by incorporating sustainability into process design and evaluation. EPA researchers are also developing a tool that allows users to assess modifications to existing and new chemical processes to determine whether changes in...
Electronic Relaxation Processes of Transition Metal Atoms in Helium Nanodroplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kautsch, Andreas; Lindebner, Friedrich; Koch, Markus; Ernst, Wolfgang E.
2014-06-01
Spectroscopy of doped superfluid helium nanodroplets (He_N) gives information about the influence of this cold, chemically inert, and least interacting matrix environment on the excitation and relaxation dynamics of dopant atoms and molecules. We present the results from laser induced fluorescence (LIF), photoionization (PI), and mass spectroscopy of Cr and Cu doped He_N. From these results, we can draw a comprehensive picture of the complex behavior of such transition metal atoms in He_N upon photo-excitation. The strong Cr and Cu ground state transitions show an excitation blueshift and broadening with respect to the bare atom transitions which can be taken as indication for the solvation inside the droplet. From the originally excited states the atoms relax to energetically lower states and are ejected from the He_N. The relaxation processes include bare atom spin-forbidden transitions, which clearly bears the signature of the He_N influence. Two-color resonant two-photon ionization (2CR2PI) also shows the formation of bare atoms and small Cr-He_n and Cu-He_n clusters in their ground and metastable states ^c. Currently, Cr dimer excitation studies are in progress and a brief outlook on the available results will be given. C. Callegari and W. E. Ernst, Helium Droplets as Nanocryostats for Molecular Spectroscopy - from the Vacuum Ultraviolet to the Microwave Regime, in Handbook of High-Resolution Spectroscopy, eds. M. Quack and F. Merkt, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2011. A. Kautsch, M. Koch, and W. E. Ernst, J. Phys. Chem. A, 117 (2013) 9621-9625, DOI: 10.1021/jp312336m F. Lindebner, A. Kautsch, M. Koch, and W. E. Ernst, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. (2014) in press, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2013.12.022 M. Koch, A. Kautsch, F. Lackner, and W. E. Ernst, submitted to J. Phys. Chem. A
Thermodynamic model of nonequilibrium phase transitions.
Martyushev, L M; Konovalov, M S
2011-07-01
Within the scope of a thermodynamic description using the maximum entropy production principle, transitions from one nonequilibrium (kinetic) regime to another are considered. It is shown that in the case when power-law dependencies of thermodynamic flux on force are similar for two regimes, only a transition accompanied by a positive jump of thermodynamic flux is possible between them. It is found that the difference in powers of the dependencies of thermodynamic fluxes on forces results in a number of interesting nonequilibrium transitions between kinetic regimes, including the reentrant one with a negative jump of thermodynamic flux. PMID:21867119
Visual Modelling of Learning Processes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Copperman, Elana; Beeri, Catriel; Ben-Zvi, Nava
2007-01-01
This paper introduces various visual models for the analysis and description of learning processes. The models analyse learning on two levels: the dynamic level (as a process over time) and the functional level. Two types of model for dynamic modelling are proposed: the session trace, which documents a specific learner in a particular learning…
Sabin-to-Mahoney Transition Model of Quasispecies Replication
2009-05-31
Qspp is an agent-based stochastic simulation model of the Poliovirus Sabin-to-Mahoney transition. This code simulates a cell-to-cell model of Poliovirus replication. The model tracks genotypes (virus genomes) as they are replicated in cells, and as the cells burst and release particles into the medium of a culture dish. An inoculum is then taken from the pool of virions and is used to inoculate cells on a new dish. This process repeats. The Sabin genotype comprisesmore » the initial inoculum. Nucleotide positions that match the Sabin1 (vaccine strain) and Mahoney (wild type) genotypes, as well as the neurovirulent phenotype (from the literature) are enumerated as constants.« less
Transitional paleointensities from Kauai, Hawaii, and geomagnetic reversal models
Bogue, Scott W.; Coe, Robert S.
1984-01-01
Previously presented paleointensity results from an R-N transition zone in Kauai, Hawaii, show that field intensity dropped from 0. 431 Oe to 0. 101 Oe while the field remained within 30 degree of the reversed axial dipole direction. A recovery in intensity and the main directional change followed this presumably short period of low field strength. As the reversal neared completion, the field has an intensity of 0. 217 Oe while still 40 degree from the final direction. The relationship of paleointensity to field direction during the early part of the reversal thus differs from that toward the end, a feature that only some reversal models are consistent with. For example, a model in which a standing nondipole component persists through the dipole reversal predicts only symmetric intensity patterns. In contrast, zonal flooding models generate suitably complex field behavior if multiple flooding schemes operate during a single reversal or if the flooding process is itself asymmetric.
A random matrix model with localization and ergodic transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravtsov, V. E.; Khaymovich, I. M.; Cuevas, E.; Amini, M.
2015-12-01
Motivated by the problem of many-body localization and the recent numerical results for the level and eigenfunction statistics on the random regular graphs, a generalization of the Rosenzweig-Porter random matrix model is suggested that possesses two transitions. One of them is the Anderson localization transition from the localized to the extended states. The other one is the ergodic transition from the extended non-ergodic (multifractal) states to the extended ergodic states. We confirm the existence of both transitions by computing the two-level spectral correlation function, the spectrum of multifractality f(α ) and the wave function overlap which consistently demonstrate these two transitions.
Transitional Jobs: Background, Program Models, and Evaluation Evidence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bloom, Dan
2010-01-01
The budget for the U.S. Department of Labor for Fiscal Year 2010 includes a total of $45 million to support and study transitional jobs. This paper describes the origins of the transitional jobs models that are operating today, reviews the evidence on the effectiveness of this approach and other subsidized employment models, and offers some…
Topology changing transitions in supersymmetric linear σ-models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryang, Shijong
1995-02-01
We analyze the two-dimensional supersymmetric linear σ-model with U(1) gauge symmetries that includes a Calabi-Yau phase and a possible Landau-Ginzburg phase. We demonstrate the topology changing transitions among the generic vacua of various linear σ-models. In the supersymmetric transition the determinantal contraction naturally arises.
A Parent-Professional Collaboration Model of Transitional Planning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wittenstein, S. H.
1993-01-01
A transitional planning model implemented at St. Joseph's School for the Blind in Jersey City, New Jersey, incorporates a broad conceptualization of transition that includes social skills, independent living skills, and overall competence in adjustment to the community. The model considers parental involvement, advocacy, and leadership as…
Implementation and Validation of a Laminar-to-Turbulent Transition Model in the Wind-US Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denissen, Nicholas A.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.
2008-01-01
A bypass transition model has been implemented in the Wind-US Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. The model is based on the Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model and was built starting from a previous SST-based transition model. Several modifications were made to enable (1) consistent solutions regardless of flow field initialization procedure and (2) fully turbulent flow beyond the transition region. This model is intended for flows where bypass transition, in which the transition process is dominated by large freestream disturbances, is the key transition mechanism as opposed to transition dictated by modal growth. Validation of the new transition model is performed for flows ranging from incompressible to hypersonic conditions.
Transition and Turbulence Modeling for Blunt-Body Wake Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nance, Robert P.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Hassan, H. A.
1997-01-01
This study attempts t o improve the modeling and computational prediction of high- speed transitional wake flows. The recently developed kappa - zeta (Enstrophy) turbulence model is coupled with a newly developed transition prediction method and implemented in an implicit flow solver well-suited to hypersonic flows. In this model, transition onset is determined as part of the solution. Results obtained using the new model for a 70- deg blunted cone/sting geometry demonstrate better agreement with experimental heat- transfer measurements when compared to laminar calculations as well as solutions using the kappa - omega model. Results are also presented for the situation where transition onset is preselected. It is shown that, in this case, results are quite sensitive to location of the transition point.
Hearing loss severity: impaired processing of formant transition duration.
Coez, A; Belin, P; Bizaguet, E; Ferrary, E; Zilbovicius, M; Samson, Y
2010-08-01
Normal hearing listeners exploit the formant transition (FT) detection to identify place of articulation for stop consonants. Neuro-imaging studies revealed that short FT induced less cortical activation than long FT. To determine the ability of hearing impaired listeners to distinguish short and long formant transitions (FT) from vowels of the same duration, 84 mild to severe hearing impaired listeners and 5 normal hearing listeners were asked to detect 10 synthesized stimuli with long (200 ms) or short (40 ms) FT among 30 stimuli of the same duration without FT. Hearing impaired listeners were tested with and without hearing aids. The effect of the difficulty of the task (short/long FT) was analysed as a function of the hearing loss with and without hearing aids. Normal hearing listeners were able to detect every FT (short and long). For hearing impaired listeners, the detection of long FT was better than that of short ones irrespective of their degree of hearing loss. The use of hearing aids improved detection of both kinds of FT; however, the detection of long FT remained much better than the detection of the short ones. The length of FT modified the ability of hearing impaired patients to detect FT. Short FT had access to less cortical processing than long FT and cochlea damages enhanced this specific deficit in short FT brain processing. These findings help to understand the limit of deafness rehabilitation in the time domain and should be taken into account in future devices development. PMID:20600193
Correlated Percolation Models of Jamming and Glass Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeng, Monwhea; Schwarz, Jennifer
2007-03-01
Toninelli, Biroli, and Fisher recently introduced a model of correlated percolation called the Knight model, which they claimed to prove underwent a dynamical glass transition. This transition had novel properties, with a discontinuous jump in the order parameter, but with diverging time scales and correlation lengths. We show that their proof misidentified the critical point, so that these properties are currently unproven for this model. However, we show that these novel properties can in fact be proven for suitably modified models of correlated percolation, with qualitatively similar culling rules. We discuss the features of the models necessary for a rigorous proof to be possible. We also discuss properties of models such as the force balance model and the original Knight model, which appear to undergo novel transitions despite the lack of a rigorous proof of such a transition.
Dynamic network modelling to understand flowering transition and floral patterning.
Davila-Velderrain, J; Martinez-Garcia, J C; Alvarez-Buylla, E R
2016-04-01
Differentiation and morphogenetic processes during plant development are particularly robust. At the cellular level, however, plants also show great plasticity in response to environmental conditions, and can even reverse apparently terminal differentiated states with remarkable ease. Can we understand and predict both robust and plastic systemic responses as a general consequence of the non-trivial interplay between intracellular regulatory networks, extrinsic environmental signalling, and tissue-level mechanical constraints? Flower development has become an ideal model system to study these general questions of developmental biology, which are especially relevant to understanding stem cell patterning in plants, animals, and human disease. Decades of detailed study of molecular developmental genetics, as well as novel experimental techniques for in vivo assays in both wild-type and mutant plants, enable the postulation and testing of experimentally grounded mathematical and computational network dynamical models. Research in our group aims to explain the emergence of robust transitions that occur at the shoot apical meristem, as well as flower development, as the result of the collective action of key molecular components in regulatory networks subjected to intra-organismal signalling and extracellular constraints. Here we present a brief overview of recent work from our group, and that of others, focusing on the use of simple dynamical models to address cell-fate specification and cell-state stochastic dynamics during flowering transition and cell-state transitions at the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana. We also focus on how our work fits within the general field of plant developmental modelling, which is being developed by many others. PMID:27025221
A Simple Model for Complex Dynamical Transitions in Epidemics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Earn, David J. D.; Rohani, Pejman; Bolker, Benjamin M.; Grenfell, Bryan T.
2000-01-01
Dramatic changes in patterns of epidemics have been observed throughout this century. For childhood infectious diseases such as measles, the major transitions are between regular cycles and irregular, possibly chaotic epidemics, and from regionally synchronized oscillations to complex, spatially incoherent epidemics. A simple model can explain both kinds of transitions as the consequences of changes in birth and vaccination rates. Measles is a natural ecological system that exhibits different dynamical transitions at different times and places, yet all of these transitions can be predicted as bifurcations of a single nonlinear model.
Magnetization Processes During FM Transitions of Supercooled Er Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durfee, C. S.; Flynn, C. P.
2000-03-01
FM transitions are generally accompanied by dimensional changes of the crystal lattice. In magnetic films, the in-plane dimensional changes are inhibited by clamping to the substrate, creating a rich variety of phenomena (e.g. supercooling, dislocation formation and motion, bowing of dislocations, and altered magnetization processes), which can be directly observed with x-rays. Here we characterize the magnetization processes exhibited by unstrained Er films. Below the Curie temperature, the film exhibits supercooling, remaining in a metastable non-FM state and only relaxing to the FM state when a magnetic field is applied. This occurs by two distinct processes. The first process, which broadens the x-ray line shape, is nucleation and growth of FM domains. The second, which produces no line broadening, is isotropic magnetization of the entire film. Once magnetized, the film remains in the FM state until the temperature is raised several degrees above the Curie temperature, at which point the film relaxes to the non-FM state via one of these two paths. This process depends on the temperature when the field is removed.
Processed foods and the nutrition transition: evidence from Asia.
Baker, P; Friel, S
2014-07-01
This paper elucidates the role of processed foods and beverages in the 'nutrition transition' underway in Asia. Processed foods tend to be high in nutrients associated with obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: refined sugar, salt, saturated and trans-fats. This paper identifies the most significant 'product vectors' for these nutrients and describes changes in their consumption in a selection of Asian countries. Sugar, salt and fat consumption from processed foods has plateaued in high-income countries, but has rapidly increased in the lower-middle and upper-middle-income countries. Relative to sugar and salt, fat consumption in the upper-middle- and lower-middle-income countries is converging most rapidly with that of high-income countries. Carbonated soft drinks, baked goods, and oils and fats are the most significant vectors for sugar, salt and fat respectively. At the regional level there appears to be convergence in consumption patterns of processed foods, but country-level divergences including high levels of consumption of oils and fats in Malaysia, and soft drinks in the Philippines and Thailand. This analysis suggests that more action is needed by policy-makers to prevent or mitigate processed food consumption. Comprehensive policy and regulatory approaches are most likely to be effective in achieving these goals. PMID:24735161
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janssen, Hans-Karl; Stenull, Olaf
2016-01-01
In co-infections, positive feedback between multiple diseases can accelerate outbreaks. In a recent letter Chen, Ghanbarnejad, Cai, and Grassberger (CGCG) introduced a spatially homogeneous mean-field model system for such co-infections, and studied this system numerically with focus on the possible existence of discontinuous phase transitions. We show that their model coincides in mean-field theory with the homogenous limit of the extended general epidemic process (EGEP). Studying the latter analytically, we argue that the discontinuous transition observed by CGCG is basically a spinodal phase transition and not a first-order transition with phase coexistence. We derive the conditions for this spinodal transition along with predictions for important quantities such as the magnitude of the discontinuity. We also shed light on a true first-order transition with phase coexistence by discussing the EGEP with spatial inhomogeneities.
Correlation-based Transition Modeling for External Aerodynamic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medida, Shivaji
Conventional turbulence models calibrated for fully turbulent boundary layers often over-predict drag and heat transfer on aerodynamic surfaces with partially laminar boundary layers. A robust correlation-based model is developed for use in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations to predict laminar-to-turbulent transition onset of boundary layers on external aerodynamic surfaces. The new model is derived from an existing transition model for the two-equation k-omega Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model, and is coupled with the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. The transition model solves two transport equations for intermittency and transition momentum thickness Reynolds number. Experimental correlations and local mean flow quantities are used in the model to account for effects of freestream turbulence level and pressure gradients on transition onset location. Transition onset is triggered by activating intermittency production using a vorticity Reynolds number criterion. In the new model, production and destruction terms of the intermittency equation are modified to improve consistency in the fully turbulent boundary layer post-transition onset, as well as ensure insensitivity to freestream eddy viscosity value specified in the SA model. In the original model, intermittency was used to control production and destruction of turbulent kinetic energy. Whereas, in the new model, only the production of eddy viscosity in SA model is controlled, and the destruction term is not altered. Unlike the original model, the new model does not use an additional correction to intermittency for separation-induced transition. Accuracy of drag predictions are improved significantly with the use of the transition model for several two-dimensional single- and multi-element airfoil cases over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The new model is able to predict the formation of stable and long laminar separation bubbles on low-Reynolds number airfoils that
Continuous percolation transition in suppressed random cluster growth model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Bappaditya; Santra, S. B.
2016-05-01
A new suppressed cluster growth model on 2D square lattice combining Hoshen-Kopelman and Leath approaches is studied here. The lattice sites are initially occupied randomly with probability (ρ). The empty perimeter sites of the clusters of occupied sites are grown with a cluster size dependent probability. The growth probability is then lowest for the largest cluster and highest for the smallest cluster. At the end of growth process all the cluster related quantities are estimated and they are found to display power law scaling as in percolation transition. However, the values of the critical exponents vary continuously with ρ, the initial seed concentration. At higher values of ρ, the model belongs the percolation universality class.
Glass transition and relaxation processes of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes.
Money, Benson K; Hariharan, K; Swenson, Jan
2012-07-01
This study focus on the effect of δ-Al(2)O(3) nanofillers on the dc-conductivity, glass transition, and dielectric relaxations in the polymer electrolyte (PEO)(4):LiClO(4). The results show that there are three dielectric relaxation processes, α, β, and γ, in the systems, although the structural α-relaxation is hidden in the strong conductivity contribution and could therefore not be directly observed. However, by comparing an enhanced dc-conductivity, by approximately 2 orders of magnitude with 4 wt % δ-Al(2)O(3) added, with a decrease in calorimetric glass transition temperature, we are able to conclude that the dc-conductivity is directly coupled to the hidden α-relaxation, even in the presence of nanofillers (at least in the case of δ-Al(2)O(3) nanofillers at concentrations up to 4 wt %). This filler induced speeding up of the segmental polymer dynamics, i.e., the α-relaxation, can be explained by the nonattractive nature of the polymer-filler interactions, which enhance the "free volume" and mobility of polymer segments in the vicinity of filler surfaces. PMID:22686254
Entropy, chaos, and excited-state quantum phase transitions in the Dicke model.
Lóbez, C M; Relaño, A
2016-07-01
We study nonequilibrium processes in an isolated quantum system-the Dicke model-focusing on the role played by the transition from integrability to chaos and the presence of excited-state quantum phase transitions. We show that both diagonal and entanglement entropies are abruptly increased by the onset of chaos. Also, this increase ends in both cases just after the system crosses the critical energy of the excited-state quantum phase transition. The link between entropy production, the development of chaos, and the excited-state quantum phase transition is more clear for the entanglement entropy. PMID:27575109
Curriculum Outline for Tennessee Transition Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Esch, B. J.
This curriculum outline for the Sevier County, Tennessee, transition program for special needs students provides goals and objectives for the following domains: domestic, vocational, community functioning, and recreation/leisure. The domestic domain covers personal hygiene/grooming, first aid, home nursing, birth control/pregnancy, parenting, drug…
Juban, Audrey; Briançon, Stéphanie; Puel, François
2016-03-30
In the pharmaceutical field, solid-state transitions that may occur during manufacturing of pharmaceuticals are of great importance. The phase transition of a model API, caffeine Form I (CFI), was studied during direct compression process by analysing the impacts of the operating conditions (process and formulation). This work is focused on two formulation parameters: nature of the diluent and impact of the caffeine dilution, and one process parameter: the compression pressure that may impact the phase transition of CFI. Tablets were made from pure CFI and from binary mixture of CFI/diluent (microcrystalline cellulose or anhydrous dicalcium phosphate). A kinetic study performed during six months helped to highlight the influence of these parameters on the CFI transition degree. Results showed a triggering effect of the direct compression process, transformation was higher in tablets than in uncompressed powders. Whatever the pressure applied, CFI transition degree was almost constant and uniformly occurring throughout the tablet volume. Nevertheless, several differences on the evolution of the CFI transition degree were observed between binary mixtures of CFI/diluent. An analysis of the transition mechanism with a stretched exponential law of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model shows that tableting accelerates the polymorphic transition without modifying its mechanism controlled by nucleation only. PMID:26853314
Using the Research and Development in Organisations Model to Improve Transition to High School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ashton, Rebecca
2009-01-01
This article describes the application of the Research and Development in Organisations (RADIO) model to five action research projects carried out in schools around transition processes. The RADIO model is mapped onto all five studies, and adapting the model in order to include greater stakeholder participation is suggested. Reflections are made…
Bizhani, Golnoosh; Paczuski, Maya; Grassberger, Peter
2012-07-01
Discontinuous percolation transitions and the associated tricritical points are manifest in a wide range of both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cooperative phenomena. To demonstrate this, we present and relate the continuous and first-order behaviors in two different classes of models: The first are generalized epidemic processes that describe in their spatially embedded version--either on or off a regular lattice--compact or fractal cluster growth in random media at zero temperature. A random graph version of these processes is mapped onto a model previously proposed for complex social contagion. We compute detailed phase diagrams and compare our numerical results at the tricritical point in d = 3 with field theory predictions of Janssen et al. [Phys. Rev. E 70, 026114 (2004)]. The second class consists of exponential ("Hamiltonian," i.e., formally equilibrium) random graph models and includes the Strauss and the two-star model, where "chemical potentials" control the densities of links, triangles, or two-stars. When the chemical potentials in either graph model are O(logN), the percolation transition can coincide with a first-order phase transition in the density of links, making the former also discontinuous. Hysteresis loops can then be of mixed order, with second-order behavior for decreasing link fugacity, and a jump (first order) when it increases. PMID:23005389
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bizhani, Golnoosh; Paczuski, Maya; Grassberger, Peter
2012-07-01
Discontinuous percolation transitions and the associated tricritical points are manifest in a wide range of both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cooperative phenomena. To demonstrate this, we present and relate the continuous and first-order behaviors in two different classes of models: The first are generalized epidemic processes that describe in their spatially embedded version—either on or off a regular lattice—compact or fractal cluster growth in random media at zero temperature. A random graph version of these processes is mapped onto a model previously proposed for complex social contagion. We compute detailed phase diagrams and compare our numerical results at the tricritical point in d=3 with field theory predictions of Janssen [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.70.026114 70, 026114 (2004)]. The second class consists of exponential (“Hamiltonian,” i.e., formally equilibrium) random graph models and includes the Strauss and the two-star model, where “chemical potentials” control the densities of links, triangles, or two-stars. When the chemical potentials in either graph model are O(logN), the percolation transition can coincide with a first-order phase transition in the density of links, making the former also discontinuous. Hysteresis loops can then be of mixed order, with second-order behavior for decreasing link fugacity, and a jump (first order) when it increases.
Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.
1996-01-01
Processes for the manufacture of advanced metal matrix composites are rapidly approaching maturity in the research laboratory and there is growing interest in their transition to industrial production. However, research conducted to date has almost exclusively focused on overcoming the technical barriers to producing high-quality material and little attention has been given to the economical feasibility of these laboratory approaches and process cost issues. A quantitative cost modeling (QCM) approach was developed to address these issues. QCM are cost analysis tools based on predictive process models relating process conditions to the attributes of the final product. An important attribute, of the QCM approach is the ability to predict the sensitivity of material production costs to product quality and to quantitatively explore trade-offs between cost and quality. Applications of the cost models allow more efficient direction of future MMC process technology development and a more accurate assessment of MMC market potential. Cost models were developed for two state-of-the art metal matrix composite (MMC) manufacturing processes: tape casting and plasma spray deposition. Quality and Cost models are presented for both processes and the resulting predicted quality-cost curves are presented and discussed.
Buck, Edgar C.; Wittman, Richard S.; Skomurski, Frances N.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.
2012-07-17
Assessing the performance of spent (used) nuclear fuel in geological repository requires quantification of time-dependent phenomena that may influence its behavior on a time-scale up to millions of years. A high-level waste repository environment will be a dynamic redox system because of the time-dependent generation of radiolytic oxidants and reductants and the corrosion of Fe-bearing canister materials. One major difference between used fuel and natural analogues, including unirradiated UO2, is the intense radiolytic field. The radiation emitted by used fuel can produce radiolysis products in the presence of water vapor or a thin-film of water (including OH• and H• radicals, O2-, eaq, H2O2, H2, and O2) that may increase the waste form degradation rate and change radionuclide behavior. H2O2 is the dominant oxidant for spent nuclear fuel in an O2 depleted water environment, the most sensitive parameters have been identified with respect to predictions of a radiolysis model under typical conditions. As compared with the full model with about 100 reactions it was found that only 30-40 of the reactions are required to determine [H2O2] to one part in 10–5 and to preserve most of the predictions for major species. This allows a systematic approach for model simplification and offers guidance in designing experiments for validation.
A Symmetrized Basis for Transitions in the Heisenberg Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haydock, Roger; Nex, C. M. M.
2013-03-01
The spin-S Heisenberg model has 2S+1 states on each site, for which there are (2S+1)2 possible transitions between these states. For N sites there are (2S+1)N states and (2S+1)2N transitions between states. This rapid increase in the number of transitions with sites appears to limit calculations to just a few sites. However for transitions induced by spin-spin interactions, we construct a symmetrized basis which only grows as 2N-3, making possible computations for much larger systems. Supported by the Richmond F. Snyder Fund.
Hauth, J.T.; Forslund, C.R.J.; Underwood, J.A.
1994-09-01
In 1990, with the transition from a defense mission to environmental restoration, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site began a significant effort to diagnose, redesign, and implement new safeguards and security (SAS) processes. In 1992 the Security Transition Program Office (STPO) was formed to address the sweeping changes that were being identified. Comprised of SAS and other contractor staff with extensive experience and supported by staff experienced in organizational analysis and work process redesign, STPO undertook a series of tasks designed to make fundamental changes to SAS processes throughout the Hanford Site. The goal of STPO is to align the SAS work and organization with the new Site mission. This report describes the key strategy, tools, methods, and techniques used by STPO to change SAS processes at Hanford. A particular focus of this review is transferring STPO`s experience to other DOE sites and federal agency efforts: that is, to extract, analyze, and provide a critical review of the approach, tools, and techniques used by STPO that will be useful to other DOE sites and national laboratories in transitioning from a defense production mode to environmental restoration and other missions. In particular, what lessons does STPO provide as a pilot study or model for implementing change in other transition activities throughout the DOE complex? More broadly, what theoretical and practical contributions do DOE transition efforts, such as STPO, provide to federal agency streamlining efforts and attempts to {open_quotes}reinvent{close_quotes} government enterprises in the public sector? The approach used by STPO should provide valuable information to those examining their own processes in light of new mission requirements.
Wake interaction effects on the transition process on turbine blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ainsworth, R. W.; Lagraff, J. E.
1987-10-01
The characterization of the nozzle guide vane inlet and exit conditions in the Oxford University Isentropic Light Piston Tunnel fully 3-D annular rotating stage has been undertaken. Measurements included hot wire anemometry and pressure/Mach number distributions. Preparations for the rotor heat transfer instrumentation/data acquisition hardware and software are also in progress. Further development of a numerical model to predict the effects of wake passing and transition is reported. The convection of the wake through the passage is predicted, allowing for estimations of the expected times for which the boundary layer is disturbed by the wake fluid. The new model for the random generation and subsequent growth and convection of the turbulent spots produces a time-resolved prediction of the intermittent heat transfer signals by use of a time-marching procedure. By superimposing the two numerical models it is possible to simulate the measured instantaneous heat transfer characteristics and to estimate the effective average intermittency along the blade surface and compare the results to the measured intermittency values.
Business Process Modeling: Perceived Benefits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Indulska, Marta; Green, Peter; Recker, Jan; Rosemann, Michael
The process-centered design of organizations and information systems is globally seen as an appropriate response to the increased economic pressure on organizations. At the methodological core of process-centered management is process modeling. However, business process modeling in large initiatives can be a time-consuming and costly exercise, making it potentially difficult to convince executive management of its benefits. To date, and despite substantial interest and research in the area of process modeling, the understanding of the actual benefits of process modeling in academia and practice is limited. To address this gap, this paper explores the perception of benefits derived from process modeling initiatives, as reported through a global Delphi study. The study incorporates the views of three groups of stakeholders - academics, practitioners and vendors. Our findings lead to the first identification and ranking of 19 unique benefits associated with process modeling. The study in particular found that process modeling benefits vary significantly between practitioners and academics. We argue that the variations may point to a disconnect between research projects and practical demands.
[Succession in forest coenoses: a model of second-order phase transition].
Isaev, A S; Sukhovol'skiĭ, V G; Buzykin, A I; Ovchinnikova, T M
2009-01-01
The changes of arboreous coenoses composition resulting from natural and anthropogenic impacts are considered. The mathematical model is proposed and verified that describes arboreous cenoses transition from one succession state into another by analogy with phase transition in statistical physics. It is demonstrated that the model is concordant with the data of full-scale observations. The model allows to explain the trend of succession processes and determine the stage of forestation process at which succession transitions should be expected. The analysis of full-scale observations data by means of the proposed approach makes it possible to calculate, for given regions and forest types, the critical values of planting phytomass that, upon being attained, initiate the succession transition. Those values are important to be known for middle- and long-term forecasting of forest cover dynamics. PMID:20063768
The electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model
Blinov, Nikita; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim
2015-07-21
We study the strength of a first-order electroweak phase transition in the Inert Doublet Model (IDM), where particle dark matter (DM) is comprised of the lightest neutral inert Higgs boson. We improve over previous studies in the description and treatment of the finite-temperature effective potential and of the electroweak phase transition. We focus on a set of benchmark models inspired by the key mechanisms in the IDM leading to a viable dark matter particle candidate, and illustrate how to enhance the strength of the electroweak phase transition by adjusting the masses of the yet undiscovered IDM Higgs states. We argue that across a variety of DM masses, obtaining a strong enough first-order phase transition is a generic possibility in the IDM. We find that due to direct dark matter searches and collider constraints, a sufficiently strong transition and a thermal relic density matching the universal DM abundance is possible only in the Higgs funnel regime.
PYTRANSIT: fast and easy exoplanet transit modelling in PYTHON
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parviainen, Hannu
2015-07-01
We present a fast and user friendly exoplanet transit light-curve modelling package PYTRANSIT, implementing optimized versions of the Giménez and Mandel & Agol transit models. The package offers an object-oriented PYTHON interface to access the two models implemented natively in FORTRAN with OpenMP parallelization. A partial OpenCL version of the quadratic Mandel-Agol model is also included for GPU-accelerated computations. The aim of PYTRANSIT is to facilitate the analysis of photometric time series of exoplanet transits consisting of hundreds of thousands of data points, and of multipassband transit light curves from spectrophotometric observations, as a part of a researcher's programming toolkit for building complex, problem-specific analyses.
The folding transition state theory in simple model systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niewieczerzał, Szymon; Cieplak, Marek
2008-06-01
We present the results of an exact analysis of several model free energy landscapes of a protein to clarify the notion of the transition state and the physical meaning of the phi values determined in protein engineering experiments. We argue that a proper search strategy for the transition state in more realistic models should involve identification of a common part of various methods. Two of the models considered involve explicit conformations instead of just points on the free energy axis. These models are minimalistic as they are endowed only with five or 36 states to enumerate folding paths and to identify the transition state easily. Even though they display much of the two-state behavior, the phi values are found not to correspond to the conformation of the transition state.
Immunolocalization of endocan during the endothelial-mesenchymal transition process
Carrillo, L.M.; Arciniegas, E.; Rojas, H.; Ramírez, R.
2011-01-01
Endocan is a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan (DSPG) that has been observed in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells of small and large vessels in lung, kidney, liver, colon, ovary and brain tumors. This DSPG has been implicated in the regulation of cellular activities such as adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Given the important roles played by endocan in such processes, we sought to determine whether this DSPG is present in the chicken embryo aortic wall in embryonic days 12 and 14, when intimal thickening and endothelial transformation are notorious. Immunolabeling of serial paraffin cross-sections revealed endocan immunoreactivity at the endothelium and some mesenchymal cells constituting the intimal thickening but not in the cells arranged in lamellar layers. We also investigated whether endocan was present in monolayers of primary embryonic aortic endothelial cells attached to fibronectin when they were deprived of serum and stimulated with epidermal growth factor. Immunofluorescence determined that in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) condition where separating, detaching, and migrating cells were observed, endocan appeared organized in arrays typical of focal complexes in the leading edge of these cells. In serum-free medium condition in which the endothelial cells displayed a cobblestone appearance, endocan appeared mainly delineating the margin of many cells. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of endocan during the aortic wall remodeling, and provides evidence that suggests a possible contribution of this DSPG in the endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) process. PMID:22201190
Conceptual models of information processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, L. J.
1983-01-01
The conceptual information processing issues are examined. Human information processing is defined as an active cognitive process that is analogous to a system. It is the flow and transformation of information within a human. The human is viewed as an active information seeker who is constantly receiving, processing, and acting upon the surrounding environmental stimuli. Human information processing models are conceptual representations of cognitive behaviors. Models of information processing are useful in representing the different theoretical positions and in attempting to define the limits and capabilities of human memory. It is concluded that an understanding of conceptual human information processing models and their applications to systems design leads to a better human factors approach.
Business process modeling in healthcare.
Ruiz, Francisco; Garcia, Felix; Calahorra, Luis; Llorente, César; Gonçalves, Luis; Daniel, Christel; Blobel, Bernd
2012-01-01
The importance of the process point of view is not restricted to a specific enterprise sector. In the field of health, as a result of the nature of the service offered, health institutions' processes are also the basis for decision making which is focused on achieving their objective of providing quality medical assistance. In this chapter the application of business process modelling - using the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) standard is described. Main challenges of business process modelling in healthcare are the definition of healthcare processes, the multi-disciplinary nature of healthcare, the flexibility and variability of the activities involved in health care processes, the need of interoperability between multiple information systems, and the continuous updating of scientific knowledge in healthcare. PMID:22925789
Modeling nuclear processes by Simulink
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rashid, Nahrul Khair Alang Md
2015-04-01
Modelling and simulation are essential parts in the study of dynamic systems behaviours. In nuclear engineering, modelling and simulation are important to assess the expected results of an experiment before the actual experiment is conducted or in the design of nuclear facilities. In education, modelling can give insight into the dynamic of systems and processes. Most nuclear processes can be described by ordinary or partial differential equations. Efforts expended to solve the equations using analytical or numerical solutions consume time and distract attention from the objectives of modelling itself. This paper presents the use of Simulink, a MATLAB toolbox software that is widely used in control engineering, as a modelling platform for the study of nuclear processes including nuclear reactor behaviours. Starting from the describing equations, Simulink models for heat transfer, radionuclide decay process, delayed neutrons effect, reactor point kinetic equations with delayed neutron groups, and the effect of temperature feedback are used as examples.
Modeling nuclear processes by Simulink
Rashid, Nahrul Khair Alang Md
2015-04-29
Modelling and simulation are essential parts in the study of dynamic systems behaviours. In nuclear engineering, modelling and simulation are important to assess the expected results of an experiment before the actual experiment is conducted or in the design of nuclear facilities. In education, modelling can give insight into the dynamic of systems and processes. Most nuclear processes can be described by ordinary or partial differential equations. Efforts expended to solve the equations using analytical or numerical solutions consume time and distract attention from the objectives of modelling itself. This paper presents the use of Simulink, a MATLAB toolbox software that is widely used in control engineering, as a modelling platform for the study of nuclear processes including nuclear reactor behaviours. Starting from the describing equations, Simulink models for heat transfer, radionuclide decay process, delayed neutrons effect, reactor point kinetic equations with delayed neutron groups, and the effect of temperature feedback are used as examples.
Reversal Transition Records from Intrusions: Implications for the Reversal Process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuller, M. D.; Williams, I. S.
2014-12-01
The nature of reversals of the geomagnetic field and the details of the transition fields remain controversial. However, reversal records from the Agno batholith and Tatoosh intrusion confirm the suggestion of Valet et al., (2012) from studies of lava records, that there is a threefold division in reversal transition directions. In the Agno, the first phase, or precursor, consists of a CCW loop of the VGP moving from high southerly latitude reverse poles to reach North America. The second phase takes the VGP along a half CCW loop from the tip of South America to northern latitudes at the intensity minimum. The third phase, or rebound is a smaller CCW loop and the main intensity recovery begins. The first and third phases appear to be paleosecular variation loops analogous to present London-Paris secular variation loops. The Tatoosh intrusion gives a similar, but less complete record with the VGPs again confined to the East Pacific and the Americas. Away from the reversal region, secular variation loops in the Tatoosh were shown to be comparable in duration to the precursor in the transition record, consistent with the first phase being a paleosecular variation loop in the Agno. Using westward drift estimates from the present field, this should last about1800 years. This gives ~3300 for phase 2, in an intensity low of >16,000 years. A feature of R to N reversal field models is a low latitude magnetic field flux concentration of the same sign as the polar vortex of the south geographic pole. This is followed by northward flux flow, e.g. Shao et al., (1999). The reversal is achieved by northward motion of this flux feature. The feature is locked in longitudinal mantle coordinates and similarly the VGPs in the Agno and Tatoosh records are confined to the longitudes of the eastern Pacific and the Americas. Whether we are approaching a reversal remains to be seen, although judging by these intrusion records the field intensity would need to decrease much further before
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voudouris, P.; Gomopoulos, N.; Le Grand, A.; Hadjichristidis, N.; Floudas, G.; Ediger, M. D.; Fytas, G.
2010-02-01
The primary α-relaxation time (τα) for molecular and polymeric glass formers probed by dielectric spectroscopy and two light scattering techniques (depolarized light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy) relates to the decay of the torsional autocorrelation function computed by molecular dynamics simulation. It is well known that Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy (BLS) operating in gigahertz frequencies probes a fast (10-100 ps) relaxation of the longitudinal modulus M∗. The characteristic relaxation time, irrespective of the fitting procedure, is faster than the α-relaxation which obeys the non-Arrhenius Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. Albeit, this has been noticed, it remains a puzzling finding in glass forming systems. The available knowledge is based only on temperature dependent BLS experiments performed, however, at a single wave vector (frequency). Using a new BLS spectrometer, we studied the phonon dispersion at gigahertz frequencies in molecular [o-terphenyl (OTP)] and polymeric [polyisoprene (PI) and polypropylene (PP)] glass formers. We found that the hypersonic dispersion does relate to the glass transition dynamics but the disparity between the BLS-relaxation times and τα is system dependent. In PI and PP, the former is more than one order of magnitude faster than τα, whereas the two relaxation times become comparable in the case of OTP. The difference between the two relaxation times appears to relate to the "breadth" of the relaxation time distribution function. In OTP the α-relaxation process assumes a virtually single exponential decay at high temperatures well above the glass transition temperature, in clear contrast with the case of the amorphous bulk polymers.
Voudouris, P; Gomopoulos, N; Le Grand, A; Hadjichristidis, N; Floudas, G; Ediger, M D; Fytas, G
2010-02-21
The primary alpha-relaxation time (tau(alpha)) for molecular and polymeric glass formers probed by dielectric spectroscopy and two light scattering techniques (depolarized light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy) relates to the decay of the torsional autocorrelation function computed by molecular dynamics simulation. It is well known that Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy (BLS) operating in gigahertz frequencies probes a fast (10-100 ps) relaxation of the longitudinal modulus M*. The characteristic relaxation time, irrespective of the fitting procedure, is faster than the alpha-relaxation which obeys the non-Arrhenius Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. Albeit, this has been noticed, it remains a puzzling finding in glass forming systems. The available knowledge is based only on temperature dependent BLS experiments performed, however, at a single wave vector (frequency). Using a new BLS spectrometer, we studied the phonon dispersion at gigahertz frequencies in molecular [o-terphenyl (OTP)] and polymeric [polyisoprene (PI) and polypropylene (PP)] glass formers. We found that the hypersonic dispersion does relate to the glass transition dynamics but the disparity between the BLS-relaxation times and tau(alpha) is system dependent. In PI and PP, the former is more than one order of magnitude faster than tau(alpha), whereas the two relaxation times become comparable in the case of OTP. The difference between the two relaxation times appears to relate to the "breadth" of the relaxation time distribution function. In OTP the alpha-relaxation process assumes a virtually single exponential decay at high temperatures well above the glass transition temperature, in clear contrast with the case of the amorphous bulk polymers. PMID:20170250
Variability in Response to Life Transitions: Application of a Transition Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kampfe, Charlene M.
The modified House Model of Social Stress is used to discuss the variability of individual responses to potentially stressful events or transitions. The model graphically depicts the variety of ways people respond to the potentially complex interaction among variables associated with stress. It also depicts the potential relationship among…
A Transitional Care Model Using Faith Community Nurses.
Ziebarth, Deborah; Campbell, Katora P
2016-01-01
The Medicare mandatory readmission reduction program has hospitals scrambling to reduce 30-day readmissions. A Faith Community Nurse (FCN) Transitional Care Model was developed from systematic literature review of predictive factors of readmission and pre- and postdischarge interventions that decrease readmission. The model presents specific FCN care that occurs pre- and posthospital discharge to support the patient in transitioning from one level of care to another, move toward wholistic health, and avoid unnecessary readmission. PMID:27119808
Modeling the Polydomain–Monodomain transition of Liquid Crystal Elastomers
Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Roberts, Tyler F.; Shekhar, Raj; Abbott, Nicholas L.; de Pablo, Juan J.
2015-01-01
We study the mechanism of the polydomain–monodomain transition in liquid crystalline elastomers at the molecular scale. A coarse-grained model is proposed in which mesogens are described as ellipsoidal particles. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine the transition from a polydomain state to a monodomain state in the presence of uniaxial strain. Our model demonstrates soft elasticity, similar to that exhibited by side-chain elastomers in the literature. By analysing the growth dynamics of nematic domains during uniaxial extension, we provide direct evidence that at a molecular level the polydomain–monodomain transition proceeds through cluster rotation and domain growth. PMID:23496448
Model potential calculations of lithium transitions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caves, T. C.; Dalgarno, A.
1972-01-01
Semi-empirical potentials are constructed that have eigenvalues close in magnitude to the binding energies of the valence electron in lithium. The potentials include the long range polarization force between the electron and the core. The corresponding eigenfunctions are used to calculate dynamic polarizabilities, discrete oscillator strengths, photoionization cross sections and radiative recombination coefficients. A consistent application of the theory imposes a modification on the transition operator, but its effects are small for lithium. The method presented can be regarded as a numerical generalization of the widely used Coulomb approximation.
TGF-β induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xenitidis, P.; Seimenis, I.; Kakolyris, S.; Adamopoulos, A.
2015-09-01
Epithelial cells may undergo a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, cells lose their epithelial characteristics and acquire a migratory ability. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling is considered to play an important role in EMT by regulating a set of genes through a gene regulatory network (GRN). This work aims at TGF-β induced EMT GRN modeling using publicly available experimental data (gene expression microarray data). The time-series network identification (TSNI) algorithm was used for inferring the EMT GRN. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and precision-recall (P-R) curves were constructed and the areas under them were used for evaluating the algorithm performance regarding network inference.
Electrophysiological models of neural processing.
Nelson, Mark E
2011-01-01
The brain is an amazing information processing system that allows organisms to adaptively monitor and control complex dynamic interactions with their environment across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Mathematical modeling and computer simulation techniques have become essential tools in understanding diverse aspects of neural processing ranging from sub-millisecond temporal coding in the sound localization circuity of barn owls to long-term memory storage and retrieval in humans that can span decades. The processing capabilities of individual neurons lie at the core of these models, with the emphasis shifting upward and downward across different levels of biological organization depending on the nature of the questions being addressed. This review provides an introduction to the techniques for constructing biophysically based models of individual neurons and local networks. Topics include Hodgkin-Huxley-type models of macroscopic membrane currents, Markov models of individual ion-channel currents, compartmental models of neuronal morphology, and network models involving synaptic interactions among multiple neurons. PMID:21064164
Thermal and Nonthermal Processes on Single Crystal Transition Metal Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xingcai
investigated with polarized light. Photon-induced desorption of CO from oxidized Ni(111) (Chapter 13) is observed to be initiated by substrate interband transition. The photodesorption process is first -order in photon flux and in CO coverage. The cross section is measured to be 5 times 10 ^{-18} cm^2 at a photon energy of 4.1 eV. The appendices list abstracts of additional published results on HCN/Pt(111),(112); HCN + O/Pt(111),(112); HCN + O_2/Pt(111); CN + H(s)/Pd(111); HCN/Pd(111); Azo-methane/Pd(111); Methanol/Pd(111); Dimethyl methyl phosphonate/Pd(111), Ni(111); NO + O,S/Ni(111); Xe/Pt(111), (557), (112).
TRANSIT MODEL FITTING IN THE KEPLER SCIENCE OPERATIONS CENTER PIPELINE: NEW FEATURES AND PERFORMANCE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jie; Burke, C. J.; Jenkins, J. M.; Quintana, E. V.; Rowe, J. F.; Seader, S. E.; Tenenbaum, P.; Twicken, J. D.
2013-10-01
We describe new transit model fitting features and performance of the latest release (9.1, July 2013) of the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) Pipeline. The targets for which a Threshold Crossing Event (TCE) is generated in the Transiting Planet Search (TPS) component of the pipeline are subsequently processed in the Data Validation (DV) component. Transit model parameters are fitted in DV to transit-like signatures in the light curves of the targets with TCEs. The transit model fitting results are used in diagnostic tests in DV, which help to validate planet candidates and identify false positive detections. The standard transit model includes five fit parameters: transit epoch time (i.e. central time of first transit), orbital period, impact parameter, ratio of planet radius to star radius and ratio of semi-major axis to star radius. Light curves for many targets do not contain enough information to uniquely determine the impact parameter, which results in poor convergence performance of the fitter. In the latest release of the Kepler SOC pipeline, a reduced parameter fit is included in DV: the impact parameter is set to a fixed value and the four remaining parameters are fitted. The standard transit model fit is implemented after a series of reduced parameter fits in which the impact parameter is varied between 0 and 1. Initial values for the standard transit model fit parameters are determined by the reduced parameter fit with the minimum chi-square metric. With reduced parameter fits, the robustness of the transit model fit is improved significantly. Diagnostic plots of the chi-square metrics and reduced parameter fit results illustrate how the fitted parameters vary as a function of impact parameter. Essentially, a family of transiting planet characteristics is determined in DV for each Pipeline TCE. Transit model fitting performance of release 9.1 of the Kepler SOC pipeline is demonstrated with the results of the processing of 16 quarters of flight data
Rayner, Keith; Reichle, Erik D.
2010-01-01
Reading is a complex skill involving the orchestration of a number of components. Researchers often talk about a “model of reading” when talking about only one aspect of the reading process (for example, models of word identification are often referred to as “models of reading”). Here, we review prominent models that are designed to account for (1) word identification, (2) syntactic parsing, (3) discourse representations, and (4) how certain aspects of language processing (e.g., word identification), in conjunction with other constraints (e g., limited visual acuity, saccadic error, etc.), guide readers’ eyes. Unfortunately, it is the case that these various models addressing specific aspects of the reading process seldom make contact with models dealing with other aspects of reading. Thus, for example, the models of word identification seldom make contact with models of eye movement control, and vice versa. While this may be unfortunate in some ways, it is quite understandable in other ways because reading itself is a very complex process. We discuss prototypical models of aspects of the reading process in the order mentioned above. We do not review all possible models, but rather focus on those we view as being representative and most highly recognized. PMID:21170142
Thermodynamics and phase transitions in the Overhauser model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duffield, N. G.; Pulé, J. V.
1989-01-01
We analyze the thermodynamics of the Overhauser model and demonstrate rigorously the existence of a phase transition. This is achieved by extending techniques previously developed to treat the BCS model in the quasi-spin formulation. Additionally, we compare the thermodynamics of the quasi-spin and full-trace BCS models. The results are identical up to a temperature rescaling.
Development of one-equation transition/turbulence models
Edwards, J.R.; Roy, C.J.; Blottner, F.G.; Hassan, H.A.
2000-01-14
This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity--transport equation for nonturbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittency function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha. The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the grid-dependence of selected predictions is analyzed.
Analog modelling of obduction processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agard, P.; Zuo, X.; Funiciello, F.; Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Savva, D.
2012-04-01
Obduction corresponds to one of plate tectonics oddities, whereby dense, oceanic rocks (ophiolites) are presumably 'thrust' on top of light, continental ones, as for the short-lived, almost synchronous Peri-Arabic obduction (which took place along thousands of km from Turkey to Oman in c. 5-10 Ma). Analog modelling experiments were performed to study the mechanisms of obduction initiation and test various triggering hypotheses (i.e., plate acceleration, slab hitting the 660 km discontinuity, ridge subduction; Agard et al., 2007). The experimental setup comprises (1) an upper mantle, modelled as a low-viscosity transparent Newtonian glucose syrup filling a rigid Plexiglas tank and (2) high-viscosity silicone plates (Rhodrosil Gomme with PDMS iron fillers to reproduce densities of continental or oceanic plates), located at the centre of the tank above the syrup to simulate the subducting and the overriding plates - and avoid friction on the sides of the tank. Convergence is simulated by pushing on a piston at one end of the model with velocities comparable to those of plate tectonics (i.e., in the range 1-10 cm/yr). The reference set-up includes, from one end to the other (~60 cm): (i) the piston, (ii) a continental margin containing a transition zone to the adjacent oceanic plate, (iii) a weakness zone with variable resistance and dip (W), (iv) an oceanic plate - with or without a spreading ridge, (v) a subduction zone (S) dipping away from the piston and (vi) an upper, active continental margin, below which the oceanic plate is being subducted at the start of the experiment (as is known to have been the case in Oman). Several configurations were tested and over thirty different parametric tests were performed. Special emphasis was placed on comparing different types of weakness zone (W) and the extent of mechanical coupling across them, particularly when plates were accelerated. Displacements, together with along-strike and across-strike internal deformation in all
Phase transition of the one-dimensional coagulation-production process
Odor, Geza
2001-06-01
Recently an exact solution has been found by M. Henkel and H. Hinrichsen [J. Phys. A >34, 1561 (2001)] for the one-dimensional coagulation-production process: 2A{r_arrow}A, A0A{r_arrow}3A with equal diffusion and coagulation rates. This model evolves into the inactive phase independently of the production rate with t{sup {minus}1/2} density decay law. This paper shows that cluster mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations predict a continuous phase transition for higher diffusion/coagulation rates as considered by the exact solution. Numerical evidence is given that the phase transition universality agrees with that of the annihilation-fission model with low diffusions.
Modeled and Observed Transitions Between Rip Currents and Alongshore Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moulton, M.; Elgar, S.; Warner, J. C.; Raubenheimer, B.
2014-12-01
Predictions of rip currents, alongshore currents, and the temporal transitions between these circulation patterns are important for swimmer safety and for estimating the transport of sediments, biota, and pollutants in the nearshore. Here, field observations are combined with hydrodynamic modeling to determine the dominant processes that lead rip currents to turn on and off with changing waves, bathymetry, and tidal elevation. Waves, currents, mean sea levels, and bathymetry were measured near and within five shore-perpendicular channels (on average 2-m deep, 30-m wide) that were dredged with the propellers of a landing craft at different times on a long straight Atlantic Ocean beach near Duck, NC in summer 2012. The circulation was measured for a range of incident wave conditions and channel sizes, and included rapid transitions between strong (0.5 to 1 m/s) rip current jets flowing offshore through the channels and alongshore currents flowing across the channels with no rip currents. Meandering alongshore currents (alongshore currents combined with an offshore jet at the downstream edge of the channel) also were observed. Circulation patterns near and within idealized rip channels simulated with COAWST (a three-dimensional phase-averaged model that couples ROMS and SWAN) are compared with the observations. In addition, the model is used to investigate the hydrodynamic response to a range of wave conditions (angle, height, period) and bathymetries (channel width, depth, and length; tidal elevations; shape of sandbar or terrace). Rip current speeds are largest for the deepest perturbations, and decrease as incident wave angles become more oblique. For obliquely incident waves, the rip currents are shifted in the direction of the alongshore flow, with an increasing shift for increasing alongshore current speed or increasing bathymetric perturbation depth.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abar, Caitlin C.; Maggs, Jennifer L.
2010-01-01
Research indicates that social influences impact college students' alcohol consumption; however, how selection processes may serve as an influential factor predicting alcohol use in this population has not been widely addressed. A model of influence and selection processes contributing to alcohol use across the transition to college was examined…
Lifshitz transition in two-dimensional spin density wave models.
Lin, J.; Materials Science Division
2010-11-09
We argue that both pocket-disappearing and neck-disrupting types of Lifshitz transitions can be realized in two-dimensional spin-density wave models for underdoped cuprates, and study both types of transitions with impurity scattering treated in the self-consistent Born approximation. We first solve for the electron self-energy from the self-consistent equation, and then study the low-temperature electrical conductivity and thermopower. Close to the Lifshitz transition, the thermopower is strongly enhanced. For the pocket-disappearing type, it has a sharp peak while for the neck-disrupting type, it changes sign at the transition, with its absolute value peaked on both sides of the transition. We discuss possible applications to underdoped cuprates.
Student Engagement and Leadership of the Transition Planning Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, James E.; Williams-Diehm, Kendra
2013-01-01
The Council for Exceptional Children's Division on Career Development and Transition (DCDT) has been a longstanding leader and advocate in the field of secondary education for students with disabilities. This paper traces the history of student engagement in transition planning primarily through the lens of DCDT's journal "Career…
Testing a Theoretical Model of Immigration Transition and Physical Activity.
Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok
2015-01-01
The purposes of the study were to develop a theoretical model to explain the relationships between immigration transition and midlife women's physical activity and test the relationships among the major variables of the model. A theoretical model, which was developed based on transitions theory and the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity theory, consists of 4 major variables, including length of stay in the United States, country of birth, level of acculturation, and midlife women's physical activity. To test the theoretical model, a secondary analysis with data from 127 Hispanic women and 123 non-Hispanic (NH) Asian women in a national Internet study was used. Among the major variables of the model, length of stay in the United States was negatively associated with physical activity in Hispanic women. Level of acculturation in NH Asian women was positively correlated with women's physical activity. Country of birth and level of acculturation were significant factors that influenced physical activity in both Hispanic and NH Asian women. The findings support the theoretical model that was developed to examine relationships between immigration transition and physical activity; it shows that immigration transition can play an essential role in influencing health behaviors of immigrant populations in the United States. The NH theoretical model can be widely used in nursing practice and research that focus on immigrant women and their health behaviors. Health care providers need to consider the influences of immigration transition to promote immigrant women's physical activity. PMID:26502554
Kinetic Modeling of Microbiological Processes
Liu, Chongxuan; Fang, Yilin
2012-08-26
Kinetic description of microbiological processes is vital for the design and control of microbe-based biotechnologies such as waste water treatment, petroleum oil recovery, and contaminant attenuation and remediation. Various models have been proposed to describe microbiological processes. This editorial article discusses the advantages and limiation of these modeling approaches in cluding tranditional, Monod-type models and derivatives, and recently developed constraint-based approaches. The article also offers the future direction of modeling researches that best suit for petroleum and environmental biotechnologies.
A process algebra model of QED
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sulis, William
2016-03-01
The process algebra approach to quantum mechanics posits a finite, discrete, determinate ontology of primitive events which are generated by processes (in the sense of Whitehead). In this ontology, primitive events serve as elements of an emergent space-time and of emergent fundamental particles and fields. Each process generates a set of primitive elements, using only local information, causally propagated as a discrete wave, forming a causal space termed a causal tapestry. Each causal tapestry forms a discrete and finite sampling of an emergent causal manifold (space-time) M and emergent wave function. Interactions between processes are described by a process algebra which possesses 8 commutative operations (sums and products) together with a non-commutative concatenation operator (transitions). The process algebra possesses a representation via nondeterministic combinatorial games. The process algebra connects to quantum mechanics through the set valued process and configuration space covering maps, which associate each causal tapestry with sets of wave functions over M. Probabilities emerge from interactions between processes. The process algebra model has been shown to reproduce many features of the theory of non-relativistic scalar particles to a high degree of accuracy, without paradox or divergences. This paper extends the approach to a semi-classical form of quantum electrodynamics.
Social Models: Blueprints or Processes?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Little, Graham R.
1981-01-01
Discusses the nature and implications of two different models for societal planning: (1) the problem-solving process approach based on Karl Popper; and (2) the goal-setting "blueprint" approach based on Karl Marx. (DC)
Keyong Li; Seong-Cheol Kang; I. Ch. Paschalidis
2007-09-01
This paper investigates stochastic processes that are modeled by a finite number of states but whose transition probabilities are uncertain and possibly time-varying. The treatment of uncertain transition probabilities is important because there appears to be a disconnection between the practice and theory of stochastic processes due to the difficulty of assigning exact probabilities to real-world events. Also, when the finite-state process comes as a reduced model of one that is more complicated in nature (possibly in a continuous state space), existing results do not facilitate rigorous analysis. Two approaches are introduced here. The first focuses on processes with one terminal state and the properties that affect their convergence rates. When a process is on a complicated graph, the bound of the convergence rate is not trivially related to that of the probabilities of individual transitions. Discovering the connection between the two led us to define two concepts which we call 'progressivity' and 'sortedness', and to a new comparison theorem for stochastic processes. An optimality criterion for robust optimal control also derives from this comparison theorem. In addition, this result is applied to the case of mission-oriented autonomous robot control to produce performance estimate within a control framework that we propose. The second approach is in the MDP frame work. We will introduce our preliminary work on optimistic robust optimization, which aims at finding solutions that guarantee the upper bounds of the accumulative discounted cost with prescribed probabilities. The motivation here is to address the issue that the standard robust optimal solution tends to be overly conservative.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.
1993-01-01
This theme issue on transitions for individuals with disabilities contains nine papers discussing transition programs and issues. "Transition Issues for the 1990s," by Michael J. Ward and William D. Halloran, discusses self-determination, school responsibility for transition, continued educational engagement of at-risk students, and service…
The improved code TAC maker for modeling of planet transits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kjurkchieva, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Vladev, A.
We present improvements of the code TAC-maker for modeling of planet transits. While the initial version of the code calculated synthetic transits for certain values of the input parameters, the new version TAC-maker 1.1.0 gives a possibility to obtain simultaneously numerous synthetic transits corresponding to chosen ranges of values for each fitted parameter. The most valuable property of the improved version of the code is the ability to obtain the global minimum of χ^{2} in the multidimensional parametric space and to estimate the errors of the searched parameters.
Phase transitions in models of human cooperation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perc, Matjaž
2016-08-01
If only the fittest survive, why should one cooperate? Why should one sacrifice personal benefits for the common good? Recent research indicates that a comprehensive answer to such questions requires that we look beyond the individual and focus on the collective behavior that emerges as a result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and societies. Although undoubtedly driven also by culture and cognition, human cooperation is just as well an emergent, collective phenomenon in a complex system. Nonequilibrium statistical physics, in particular the collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transitions, has already been recognized as very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. Here we briefly review research done in the realm of the public goods game, and we outline future research directions with an emphasis on merging the most recent advances in the social sciences with methods of nonequilibrium statistical physics. By having a firm theoretical grip on human cooperation, we can hope to engineer better social systems and develop more efficient policies for a sustainable and better future.
Role of secondary instability theory and parabolized stability equations in transition modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Hady, Nabil M.; Dinavahi, Surya P.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Zang, Thomas A.
1993-01-01
In modeling the laminar-turbulent transition region, the designer depends largely on benchmark data from experiments and/or direct numerical simulations that are usually extremely expensive. An understanding of the evolution of the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and quantifies in the transport equations like the dissipation and production is essential in the modeling process. The secondary instability theory and the parabolized stability equations method are used to calculate these quantities, which are then compared with corresponding quantities calculated from available direct numerical simulation data for the incompressible boundary-layer flow of laminar-turbulent transition conditions. The potential of the secondary instability theory and the parabolized stability equations approach in predicting these quantities is discussed; results indicate that inexpensive data that are useful for transition modeling in the early stages of the transition region can be provided by these tools.
Transitions in a probabilistic interface growth model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alves, S. G.; Moreira, J. G.
2011-04-01
We study a generalization of the Wolf-Villain (WV) interface growth model based on a probabilistic growth rule. In the WV model, particles are randomly deposited onto a substrate and subsequently move to a position nearby where the binding is strongest. We introduce a growth probability which is proportional to a power of the number ni of bindings of the site i: p_i\\propto n_i^\
Diffraction model of a step-out transition
Chao, A.W.; Zimmermann, F.
1996-06-01
The diffraction model of a cavity, suggested by Lawson, Bane and Sands is generalized to a step out transition. Using this model, the high frequency impedance is calculated explicitly for the case that the transition step is small compared with the beam pipe radius. In the diffraction model for a small step out transition, the total energy is conserved, but, unlike the cavity case, the diffracted waves in the geometric shadow and the pipe region, in general, do not always carry equal energy. In the limit of small step sizes, the impedance derived from the diffraction model agrees with that found by Balakin, Novokhatsky and also Kheifets. This impedance can be used to compute the wake field of a round collimator whose half aperture is much larger than the bunch length, as existing in the SLC final focus.
The remarkable ability of turbulence model equations to describe transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, David C.
1992-01-01
This paper demonstrates how well the k-omega turbulence model describes the nonlinear growth of flow instabilities from laminar flow into the turbulent flow regime. Viscous modifications are proposed for the k-omega model that yield close agreement with measurements and with Direct Numerical Simulation results for channel and pipe flow. These modifications permit prediction of subtle sublayer details such as maximum dissipation at the surface, k approximately y(exp 2) as y approaches 0, and the sharp peak value of k near the surface. With two transition specific closure coefficients, the model equations accurately predict transition for an incompressible flat-plate boundary layer. The analysis also shows why the k-epsilon model is so difficult to use for predicting transition.
Metrics for Business Process Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendling, Jan
Up until now, there has been little research on why people introduce errors in real-world business process models. In a more general context, Simon [404] points to the limitations of cognitive capabilities and concludes that humans act rationally only to a certain extent. Concerning modeling errors, this argument would imply that human modelers lose track of the interrelations of large and complex models due to their limited cognitive capabilities and introduce errors that they would not insert in a small model. A recent study by Mendling et al. [275] explores in how far certain complexity metrics of business process models have the potential to serve as error determinants. The authors conclude that complexity indeed appears to have an impact on error probability. Before we can test such a hypothesis in a more general setting, we have to establish an understanding of how we can define determinants that drive error probability and how we can measure them.
Modeling non-equilibrium phase transitions in isentropically compressed Bi
Kane, J; Smith, R
2005-09-19
We report here on modeling of non-equilibrium phase transitions in Bi samples isentropically compressed to 120 GPa by a ramped drive, which is produced using the Janus laser. In the experiments, the Bi samples are attached to windows of LiF or sapphire, and the velocity history of the sample-window interface is recorded with line VISAR. The 1D response of the targets is modeled using a multiphase Bi EOS, the Andrews-Hayes method for non-equilibrium transitions, and a Boettger-Wallace kinetics model. The pressure drive is deduced by back integration of VISAR data from shots performed with Al samples.
Command Process Modeling & Risk Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meshkat, Leila
2011-01-01
Commanding Errors may be caused by a variety of root causes. It's important to understand the relative significance of each of these causes for making institutional investment decisions. One of these causes is the lack of standardized processes and procedures for command and control. We mitigate this problem by building periodic tables and models corresponding to key functions within it. These models include simulation analysis and probabilistic risk assessment models.
Juban, Audrey; Briancon, Stephanie; Puel, François
2016-11-01
For pharmaceutical industry, understanding solid-phase transition of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) induced by the manufacturing process is a key issue. Caffeine was chosen as a model API since it exhibits a polymorphic transformation during tableting. This study investigated the impact of the compression speed on the phase transition of anhydrous Form I (CFI) into Form II. Tablets were made from pure CFI and binary mixtures of CFI/microcrystalline cellulose, with an electric press well instrumented at three different compression speeds (50, 500 and 4500 mm min(-1)). For each velocity of the mobile punch studied, tablets made from three compression pressures (50, 100 and 200 MPa) were analyzed. The determination of the CFI transition degree was performed using a Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The CFI transition degree was monitored during three months in order to obtain the transformation profile of the API in tablets and in uncompressed powder. The modeling of the profile with a stretched exponential kinetic law (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model) was used for the identification of the transition mechanism. The direct compression process triggered the polymorphic transformation in tablet when a sufficient compression pressure is applied. The velocity of the punch did neither impact the transition degree just after compression nor the transformation profile. The transition mechanism remained driven by nucleation for several operating conditions. Consequently, the punch velocity is not a decisive process parameter for avoiding such phase transition in tableting. As already observed, the compression pressure did not influence the transition whatever the compression speed and the velocity. PMID:27109544
Testing of transition-region models: Test cases and data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singer, Bart A.; Dinavahi, Surya; Iyer, Venkit
1991-01-01
Mean flow quantities in the laminar turbulent transition region and in the fully turbulent region are predicted with different models incorporated into a 3-D boundary layer code. The predicted quantities are compared with experimental data for a large number of different flows and the suitability of the models for each flow is evaluated.
Conformational transitions in random heteropolymer models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blavatska, Viktoria; Janke, Wolfhard
2014-01-01
We study the conformational properties of heteropolymers containing two types of monomers A and B, modeled as self-attracting self-avoiding random walks on a regular lattice. Such a model can describe in particular the sequences of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues in proteins [K. F. Lau and K. A. Dill, Macromolecules 22, 3986 (1989)] and polyampholytes with oppositely charged groups [Y. Kantor and M. Kardar, Europhys. Lett. 28, 169 (1994)]. Treating the sequences of the two types of monomers as quenched random variables, we provide a systematic analysis of possible generalizations of this model. To this end we apply the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth chain-growth algorithm, which allows us to obtain the phase diagrams of extended and compact states coexistence as function of both the temperature and fraction of A and B monomers along the heteropolymer chain.
Conformational transitions in random heteropolymer models.
Blavatska, Viktoria; Janke, Wolfhard
2014-01-21
We study the conformational properties of heteropolymers containing two types of monomers A and B, modeled as self-attracting self-avoiding random walks on a regular lattice. Such a model can describe in particular the sequences of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues in proteins [K. F. Lau and K. A. Dill, Macromolecules 22, 3986 (1989)] and polyampholytes with oppositely charged groups [Y. Kantor and M. Kardar, Europhys. Lett. 28, 169 (1994)]. Treating the sequences of the two types of monomers as quenched random variables, we provide a systematic analysis of possible generalizations of this model. To this end we apply the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth chain-growth algorithm, which allows us to obtain the phase diagrams of extended and compact states coexistence as function of both the temperature and fraction of A and B monomers along the heteropolymer chain. PMID:25669411
Transition modeling of neuropsychiatric impairment in HIV.
Bisaso, Kuteesa R; Mukonzo, Jackson K; Ette, Ene I
2016-06-01
Few studies have reported analyses of neuropsychiatric impairment (NPI) data from HIV patients, in a real world clinical setting with the aim of establishing association between anti-retroviral drug concentrations and NPI development and resolution. No study has modeled the effect of efavirenz exposure beyond the pre-steady state period on the frequency and duration of NPI. The data used consists of 196 HIV patients whose efavirenz pharmacokinetic parameters were previously determined. Neuropsychiatric evaluation was done at baseline, week 2 and week 12. Patients were classified into NORMAL and NPI states. The duration of NPI was further classified as transient (NPI at week 2 but not at week 12), persistent (NPI at week 2 and 12) and delayed (NPI at week 12 but not at week 2). The proportion of patients in each duration category out of the total NPI patients was calculated. A continuous time Markov model was developed in NONMEM 7.3 and used to describe the relationship between efavirenz exposure and the duration of NPI. Monte Carlo simulations with the model were used to describe the effect of efavirenz dose reduction from 600mg to 400mg on the duration of NPI. The model adequately described the data. The influence of efavirenz exposure on the rate of development of NPI decayed with a half-life of 8.4 days. Efavirenz dose reduction to 400mg significantly reduces the duration of NPI, but has no impact on delayed NPI symptoms or efficacy. PMID:27107677
Tinto's Model and Successful College Transitions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tucker, John E.
1999-01-01
Compares the themes of academic and social integration in Tinto's model of college student attrition with the themes of "vision" and "sense of community" as described in a recent ethnographic study. It is argued that vision and sense of community are more useful theoretical considerations in helping address college student retention than is…
Predictive Aspects of a Stochastic Model for Citation Processes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glanzel, W.; Schubert, A.
1995-01-01
A statistical model for citation processes is presented as a particular version of a nonhomogenous birth process. The mean value function and special transition probabilities, which can readily be calculated on the basis of known and estimated parameters, give essential information on the change of citation impact in time. (10 references) (KRN)
Trabelsi, Meriam; Mandart, Elisabeth; Le Grusse, Philippe; Bord, Jean-Paul
2016-01-01
The use of plant protection products enables farmers to maximize economic performance and yields, but in return, the environment and human health can be greatly affected because of their toxicity. There are currently strong calls for farmers to reduce the use of these toxic products for the preservation of the environment and the human health, and it has become urgent to invest in more sustainable models that help reduce these risks. One possible solution is the transition toward agroecological production systems. These new systems must be beneficial economically, socially, and environmentally in terms of human health. There are many tools available, based on a range of indicators, for assessing the sustainability of agricultural systems on conventional farm holdings. These methods are little suitable to agroecological farms and do not measure the performance of agroecological transition farms. In this article, we therefore develop a model for the strategic definition, guidance, and assistance for a transition to agroecological practices, capable of assessing performance of this transition and simulating the consequences of possible changes. This model was built by coupling (i) a decision-support tool and a technico-economic simulator with (ii) a conceptual model built from the dynamics of agroecological practices. This tool is currently being tested in the framework of a Compte d'Affectation Spéciale pour le Développement Agricole et Rural (CASDAR) project (CASDAR: project launched in 2013 by the French Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, on the theme "collective mobilisation for agroecology," http://agriculture.gouv.fr/Appel-a-projets-CASDAR ) using data from farms, most of which are engaged in agroenvironmental process and reducing plant protection treatments since 2008. PMID:26527345
Geometry in Transition: A Model of Emergent Geometry
Delgadillo-Blando, Rodrigo; O'Connor, Denjoe; Ydri, Badis
2008-05-23
We study a three matrix model with global SO(3) symmetry containing at most quartic powers of the matrices. We find an exotic line of discontinuous transitions with a jump in the entropy, characteristic of a 1st order transition, yet with divergent critical fluctuations and a divergent specific heat with critical exponent {alpha}=1/2. The low temperature phase is a geometrical one with gauge fields fluctuating on a round sphere. As the temperature increased the sphere evaporates in a transition to a pure matrix phase with no background geometrical structure. Both the geometry and gauge fields are determined dynamically. It is not difficult to invent higher dimensional models with essentially similar phenomenology. The model presents an appealing picture of a geometrical phase emerging as the system cools and suggests a scenario for the emergence of geometry in the early Universe.
A MATLAB GUI to study Ising model phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thornton, Curtislee; Datta, Trinanjan
We have created a MATLAB based graphical user interface (GUI) that simulates the single spin flip Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. The GUI has the capability to study temperature and external magnetic field dependence of magnetization, susceptibility, and equilibration behavior of the nearest-neighbor square lattice Ising model. Since the Ising model is a canonical system to study phase transition, the GUI can be used both for teaching and research purposes. The presence of a Monte Carlo code in a GUI format allows easy visualization of the simulation in real time and provides an attractive way to teach the concept of thermal phase transition and critical phenomena. We will also discuss the GUI implementation to study phase transition in a classical spin ice model on the pyrochlore lattice.
Numerical study of a disordered model for DNA denaturation transition.
Coluzzi, Barbara
2006-01-01
We numerically study a disordered version of the model for DNA denaturation transition consisting of two interacting self-avoiding walks in three dimensions, which undergoes a first order transition in the homogeneous case. The two possible values epsilonAT and epsilonGC of the interactions between base pairs are taken as quenched random variables distributed with equal probability along the chain. We measure quantities averaged over disorder such as the energy density, the specific heat, and the probability distribution of the loop lengths. When applying the scaling laws used in the homogeneous case we find that the transition seems to be smoother in the presence of disorder, in agreement with general theoretical arguments, although we cannot rule out the possibility of a first order transition. PMID:16486189
Neuroscientific Model of Motivational Process
Kim, Sung-il
2013-01-01
Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Reward-driven approach is the process in which motivation is generated by reward anticipation and selective approach behaviors toward reward. This process recruits the ventral striatum (reward area) in which basic stimulus-action association is formed, and is classified as an automatic motivation to which relatively less attention is assigned. By contrast, value-based decision-making is the process of evaluating various outcomes of actions, learning through positive prediction error, and calculating the value continuously. The striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex (valuation area) play crucial roles in sustaining motivation. Lastly, the goal-directed control is the process of regulating motivation through cognitive control to achieve goals. This consciously controlled motivation is associated with higher-level cognitive functions such as planning, retaining the goal, monitoring the performance, and regulating action. The anterior cingulate cortex (attention area) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (cognitive control area) are the main neural circuits related to regulation of motivation. These three sub processes interact with each other by sending reward prediction error signals through dopaminergic pathway from the striatum and to the prefrontal cortex. The neuroscientific model of motivational process suggests several educational implications with regard to the generation, maintenance, and regulation of motivation to learn in the learning environment. PMID:23459598
Neuroscientific model of motivational process.
Kim, Sung-Il
2013-01-01
Considering the neuroscientific findings on reward, learning, value, decision-making, and cognitive control, motivation can be parsed into three sub processes, a process of generating motivation, a process of maintaining motivation, and a process of regulating motivation. I propose a tentative neuroscientific model of motivational processes which consists of three distinct but continuous sub processes, namely reward-driven approach, value-based decision-making, and goal-directed control. Reward-driven approach is the process in which motivation is generated by reward anticipation and selective approach behaviors toward reward. This process recruits the ventral striatum (reward area) in which basic stimulus-action association is formed, and is classified as an automatic motivation to which relatively less attention is assigned. By contrast, value-based decision-making is the process of evaluating various outcomes of actions, learning through positive prediction error, and calculating the value continuously. The striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex (valuation area) play crucial roles in sustaining motivation. Lastly, the goal-directed control is the process of regulating motivation through cognitive control to achieve goals. This consciously controlled motivation is associated with higher-level cognitive functions such as planning, retaining the goal, monitoring the performance, and regulating action. The anterior cingulate cortex (attention area) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (cognitive control area) are the main neural circuits related to regulation of motivation. These three sub processes interact with each other by sending reward prediction error signals through dopaminergic pathway from the striatum and to the prefrontal cortex. The neuroscientific model of motivational process suggests several educational implications with regard to the generation, maintenance, and regulation of motivation to learn in the learning environment. PMID:23459598
Suggestion for a theoretical model for secondary-tertiary transition in mathematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Megan; Lovric, Miroslav
2008-09-01
One of most notable features of existing body of research in transition seems to be the absence of a theoretical model. The suggestion we present in this paper—to view and understand the high school to university transition in mathematics as a modern-day rite of passage—is an attempt at defining such framework. Although dominantly reflecting North-American reality, we believe that the model could be found useful in other countries as well. Let us emphasize that our model is not new in the sense that it recognizes the transition as such. In this paper, we try to determine whether (and, if so, how) the notion of a rite of passage—which is a well-understood concept in anthropology, as well as in some other disciplines (e.g. culture shock in cultural studies)—can help us understand mathematics transition issues better. Can it help us systematize existing body of research, and enhance our understanding of transition in mathematics; does it point at something new? We believe so, and by elaborating some traditional aspects of rites of passage, we hope to provide a useful lens through which we can examine the process of transition in mathematics, and make suggestions for improved management of some transitional issues.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Field, David; And Others
1992-01-01
Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)
Characterizing Phase Transitions in a Model of Neutral Evolutionary Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scott, Adam; King, Dawn; Bahar, Sonya
2013-03-01
An evolutionary model was recently introduced for sympatric, phenotypic evolution over a variable fitness landscape with assortative mating (Dees & Bahar 2010). Organisms in the model are described by coordinates in a two-dimensional phenotype space, born at random coordinates with limited variation from their parents as determined by a mutation parameter, mutability. The model has been extended to include both neutral evolution and asexual reproduction in Scott et al (submitted). It has been demonstrated that a second order, non-equilibrium phase transition occurs for the temporal dynamics as the mutability is varied, for both the original model and for neutral conditions. This transition likely belongs to the directed percolation universality class. In contrast, the spatial dynamics of the model shows characteristics of an ordinary percolation phase transition. Here, we characterize the phase transitions exhibited by this model by determining critical exponents for the relaxation times, characteristic lengths, and cluster (species) mass distributions. Missouri Research Board; J.S. McDonnell Foundation
Modeling Production Plant Forming Processes
Rhee, M; Becker, R; Couch, R; Li, M
2004-09-22
Engineering has simulation tools and experience in modeling forming processes. Y-12 personnel have expressed interest in validating our tools and experience against their manufacturing process activities such as rolling, casting, and forging etc. We have demonstrated numerical capabilities in a collaborative DOE/OIT project with ALCOA that is nearing successful completion. The goal was to use ALE3D to model Alcoa's slab rolling process in order to demonstrate a computational tool that would allow Alcoa to define a rolling schedule that would minimize the probability of ingot fracture, thus reducing waste and energy consumption. It is intended to lead to long-term collaboration with Y-12 and perhaps involvement with other components of the weapons production complex. Using simulations to aid in design of forming processes can: decrease time to production; reduce forming trials and associated expenses; and guide development of products with greater uniformity and less scrap.
A Model for NASA-KSC's Privatization Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lavelle, Jerome P.; Krumwiede, Dennis W.; Flowers, Jean
1996-01-01
This paper describes a model for government agencies that are considering privatization of all or part of their functions. Privatization encompasses the transitioning of government functions from government run to contractor run. The model developed in this paper is used to analyze the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) decision to privatize space shuttle operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Several specific recommendations are given to KSC as they attempt to operationalize this privatization decision at the Center and to transition to a new relationship with their contractors.
Phase transition of p-adic Ising λ-model
Dogan, Mutlay; Akın, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh
2015-09-18
We consider an interaction of the nearest-neighbors and next nearest-neighbors for the mixed type p-adic λ-model with spin values (−1, +1) on a Cayley tree of order two. In the previous work we have proved the existence of the p-adic Gibbs measure for the model. In this work we have proved the existence of the phase transition occurs for the model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others
1990-01-01
This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition Issues for the 1990s" (William Halloran…
Renewal stochastic processes with correlated events: Phase transitions along time evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velázquez, Jorge; Robledo, Alberto
2011-03-01
We consider renewal stochastic processes generated by nonindependent events from the perspective that their basic distribution and associated generating functions obey the statistical-mechanical structure of systems with interacting degrees of freedom. Based on this fact we look briefly into the less-known case of processes that display phase transitions along time. When the density distribution ψn(t) for the occurrence of the nth event at time t is considered to be a partition function, of a “microcanonical” type for n “degrees of freedom” at fixed “energy” t, one obtains a set of four partition functions of which that for the generating function variable z and Laplace transform variable ɛ, conjugate to n and t, respectively, plays a central role. These partition functions relate to each other in the customary way and in accordance to the precepts of large deviations theory, while the entropy, or Massieu potential, derived from ψn(t) satisfies an Euler relation. We illustrate this scheme first for an ordinary renewal process of events generated by a simple exponential waiting-time distribution ψ(t). Then we examine a process modeled after the so-called Hamiltonian mean-field model that is representative of agents that perform a repeated task with an associated outcome, such as an opinion poll. When a sequence of (many) events takes place in a sufficiently short time the process exhibits clustering of the outcome, but for larger times the process resembles that of independent events. The two regimes are separated by a sharp transition, technically of the second order. Finally we point out the existence of a similar scheme for random-walk processes.
Reversibility in Quantum Models of Stochastic Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gier, David; Crutchfield, James; Mahoney, John; James, Ryan
Natural phenomena such as time series of neural firing, orientation of layers in crystal stacking and successive measurements in spin-systems are inherently probabilistic. The provably minimal classical models of such stochastic processes are ɛ-machines, which consist of internal states, transition probabilities between states and output values. The topological properties of the ɛ-machine for a given process characterize the structure, memory and patterns of that process. However ɛ-machines are often not ideal because their statistical complexity (Cμ) is demonstrably greater than the excess entropy (E) of the processes they represent. Quantum models (q-machines) of the same processes can do better in that their statistical complexity (Cq) obeys the relation Cμ >= Cq >= E. q-machines can be constructed to consider longer lengths of strings, resulting in greater compression. With code-words of sufficiently long length, the statistical complexity becomes time-symmetric - a feature apparently novel to this quantum representation. This result has ramifications for compression of classical information in quantum computing and quantum communication technology.
A Collaborative Process for Planning Transition Services for All Students with Disabilities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aspel, Nellie; Bettis, Gail; Quinn, Pat; Test, David W.; Wood, Wendy M.
1999-01-01
Describes a multilevel interagency transition-planning process which includes three levels: a community-based team, school-level team, and individual-level team. Evaluation data are discussed that indicate consumer satisfaction with the Teaching All Students Skills for Employment and Life Transition planning process. Three case studies are used to…
Study on the Mechanism of the Deflagration to Detonation Transition Process of Explosive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Lan; Dong, Hefei; Pan, Hao; Hu, Xiaomian; Zhu, Jianshi
2014-10-01
We present a numerical study of the mechanisms of the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) process of explosives to assess its thermal stability. We treated the modeling system as a mixture of solid explosives and gaseous reaction products. We utilized a one-dimensional two-phase flow modeling approach with a space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. Simulation results show that in the chemical reaction process a plug area of high density with relatively slow chemical reactions preceeds the new violent reactions and the consequent detonation. We found that steady detonation occurs at the regions where physical characteristics, such as pressure, density, temperature, and velocity, peak simultaneously. These simulation results agree well with high-temperature DDT tube experiments.
Transition to Community-Based Nursing Curriculum: Processes and Outcomes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Joellen B.; Alley, Nancy M.
2002-01-01
The East Tennessee State University nursing school's transition to a community-based nursing curriculum was built on five key concepts: (1) relevance and accountability to health and social needs; (2) meeting of basic health needs through teaching and learning; (3) community experiences throughout the curriculum; (4) interdisciplinary…
Coordinating the Transition Process: The Role of TransCen.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luecking, Richard G.
1988-01-01
To coordinate the planning and delivery of transition services for disabled students in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS), TransCen, Inc., a private not-for-profit corporation, was developed. TransCen's efforts concentrate on four areas: coordination with MCPS, liaison with the business community, program enhancement and technical…
From Music Student to Professional: The Process of Transition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Creech, Andrea; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Duffy, Celia; Morton, Frances; Haddon, Elizabeth; Potter, John; de Bezenac, Christophe; Whyton, Tony; Himonides, Evangelos; Welch, Graham
2008-01-01
This article addresses the question of whether higher education music courses adequately prepare young musicians for the critical transition from music undergraduate to professional. Thematic analyses of interviews with 27 undergraduate and portfolio career musicians representing four musical genres were compared. The evidence suggests that the…
Turbulence and transition modeling for high-speed flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, David C.
1993-01-01
Research conducted during the past three and a half years aimed at developing and testing a turbulence/transition model applicable to high-speed turbulent flows is summarized. The first two years of the project focused on fully turbulent flows, while emphasis shifted to boundary-layer development in the transition region during the final year and a half. A brief summary of research accomplished during the first three years is included and publications that describe research results in greater detail are cited. Research conducted during the final six months of the period of performance is summarized. The primary results of the last six months of the project are elimination of the k-omega model's sensitivity to the freestream value of omega and development of a method for triggering transition at a specified location, independent of the freestream turbulence level.
Skin Friction and Transition Location Measurement on Supersonic Transport Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Goodsell, Aga M.; Olsen, Lawrence E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Flow visualization techniques were used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative skin friction and transition location data in wind tunnel tests performed on two supersonic transport models at Mach 2.40. Oil-film interferometry was useful for verifying boundary layer transition, but careful monitoring of model surface temperatures and systematic examination of the effects of tunnel start-up and shutdown transients will be required to achieve high levels of accuracy for skin friction measurements. A more common technique, use of a subliming solid to reveal transition location, was employed to correct drag measurements to a standard condition of all-turbulent flow on the wing. These corrected data were then analyzed to determine the additional correction required to account for the effect of the boundary layer trip devices.
Doping induced Mott transition in the two dimensional Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sordi, Giovanni; Tremblay, A.-M. S.
2010-03-01
The description of the Mott transition by single-site dynamical mean-field theory is exact in infinite dimensions but, in two dimensions, substantial deviations from those results have been found for the interaction driven transition [1]. In addition, the experimentally relevant transition for layered systems such as the high-Tc cuprates is doping driven. We thus study this transition in the two dimensional Hubbard model on the square lattice using cluster dynamical mean-field theory with continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo in the hybridization expansion [2]. We find that the Mott transition is strongly influenced by the inclusion of short-range antiferromagnetic correlations. Doping of the Mott insulating state occurs gradually in the different momentum sectors, as found in previous studies [3], but in addition we find a first order transition between an incoherent metal and an insulator or between two incoherent metals, depending on interaction strength. Short range spin correlations create a pseudogap in a doping range that increases with interaction. [1] H. Park et al., PRL 101, 186403 (2008) [2] K. Haule, PRB 75, 155113 (2007) [3] E. Gull et al., arXiv:0909.1795 (2009)
Modeling the forest transition: forest scarcity and ecosystem service hypotheses.
Satake, Akiko; Rudel, Thomas K
2007-10-01
An historical generalization about forest cover change in which rapid deforestation gives way over time to forest restoration is called "the forest transition." Prior research on the forest transition leaves three important questions unanswered: (1) How does forest loss influence an individual landowner's incentives to reforest? (2) How does the forest recovery rate affect the likelihood of forest transition? (3) What happens after the forest transition occurs? The purpose of this paper is to develop a minimum model of the forest transition to answer these questions. We assume that deforestation caused by landowners' decisions and forest regeneration initiated by agricultural abandonment have aggregated effects that characterize entire landscapes. These effects include feedback mechanisms called the "forest scarcity" and "ecosystem service" hypotheses. In the forest scarcity hypothesis, forest losses make forest products scarcer, which increases the economic value of forests. In the ecosystem service hypothesis, the environmental degradation that accompanies the loss of forests causes the value of ecosystem services provided by forests to decline. We examined the impact of each mechanism on the likelihood of forest transition through an investigation of the equilibrium and stability of landscape dynamics. We found that the forest transition occurs only when landowners employ a low rate of future discounting. After the forest transition, regenerated forests are protected in a sustainable way if forests regenerate slowly. When forests regenerate rapidly, the forest scarcity hypothesis expects instability in which cycles of large-scale deforestation followed by forest regeneration repeatedly characterize the landscape. In contrast, the ecosystem service hypothesis predicts a catastrophic shift from a forested to an abandoned landscape when the amount of deforestation exceeds the critical level, which can lead to a resource degrading poverty trap. These findings imply
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, K.; Locke, W. W.
2011-12-01
Headwater catchments are partitioned into hillslopes, unchanneled valleys (hollows), and channels. Low order (less than or equal to two) channels comprise most of the stream length in the drainage network so defining where hillslopes end and hollows begin, and where hollows end and channels begin, is important for calibration and verification of hydrologic runoff and sediment production modeling. We test the use of landscape scaling relations to detect flow regimes characteristic of diffusive, concentrated, and incisive runoff, and use these flow regimes as proxies for hillslope, hollow, and channeled landforms. We use LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) of two pairs of headwater catchments in southwest and north-central Montana to develop scaling relations of flowpath length, total stream power, and contributing area. The catchment pairs contrast low versus high drainage density and north versus south aspect. Inflections in scaling relations of contributing area and flowpath length in a single basin (modified Hack's law) and contributing area and total stream power were used to identify hillslope and fluvial process domain transitions. In the modified Hack's law, inflections in the slope of the log-log power law are hypothesized to correspond to changes in flow regime used as proxies for hillslope, hollow, and channeled landforms. Similarly, rate of change of total stream power with contributing area is hypothesized to become constant and then decrease at the hillslope to fluvial domain transition. Power law scaling of frequency-magnitude plots of curvature and an aspect-related parameter were also tested as an indicator of the transition from scale-dependent hillslope length to the scale invariant fluvial domain. Curvature and aspect were calculated at each cell in spectrally filtered DEMs. Spectral filtering by fast Fourier and wavelet transforms enhances detection of fine-scale fluvial features by removing long wavelength topography. Using the
Modeling the impact of roadway emissions in light wind, stable and transition conditions
This paper examines the processes that govern air pollution dispersion under light wind, stable and transition conditions by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model to interpret measurements from a tracer experiment conducted next to US highway 99 in Sacramento in 1981–1982 dur...
Model of Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanda, Hidesada
2001-11-01
For circular pipe flows, a model of transition from laminar to turbulent flow has already been proposed and the minimum critical Reynolds number of approximately 2040 was obtained (Kanda, 1999). In order to prove the validity of the model, another verification is required. Thus, for plane Poiseuille flow, results of previous investigations were studied, focusing on experimental data on the critical Reynolds number Rc, the entrance length, and the transition length. Consequently, concerning the natural transition, it was confirmed from the experimental data that (i) the transition occurs in the entrance region, (ii) Rc increases as the contraction ratio in the inlet section increases, and (iii) the minimum Rc is obtained when the contraction ratio is the smallest or one, and there is no-bellshaped entrance or straight parallel plates. Its value exists in the neighborhood of 1300, based on the channel height and the average velocity. Although, for Hagen-Poiseuille flow, the minimum Rc is approximately 2000, based on the pipe diameter and the average velocity, there seems to be no significant difference in the transition from laminar to turbulent flow between Hagen-Poiseuille flow and plane Poiseuille flow (Kanda, 2001). Rc is determined by the shape of the inlet. Kanda, H., 1999, Proc. of ASME Fluids Engineering Division - 1999, FED-Vol. 250, pp. 197-204. Kanda, H., 2001, Proc. of ASME Fluids Engineering Division - 2001.
Thermoplastic matrix composite processing model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dara, P. H.; Loos, A. C.
1985-01-01
The effects the processing parameters pressure, temperature, and time have on the quality of continuous graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites were quantitatively accessed by defining the extent to which intimate contact and bond formation has occurred at successive ply interfaces. Two models are presented predicting the extents to which the ply interfaces have achieved intimate contact and cohesive strength. The models are based on experimental observation of compression molded laminates and neat resin conditions, respectively. Identified as the mechanism explaining the phenomenon by which the plies bond to themselves is the theory of autohesion (or self diffusion). Theoretical predictions from the Reptation Theory between autohesive strength and contact time are used to explain the effects of the processing parameters on the observed experimental strengths. The application of a time-temperature relationship for autohesive strength predictions is evaluated. A viscoelastic compression molding model of a tow was developed to explain the phenomenon by which the prepreg ply interfaces develop intimate contact.
Modeling Pedagogy for Teachers Transitioning to the Virtual Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Canuel, Michael J.; White, Beverley J.
2014-01-01
This study is a review of the creation and evolution of a professional development program modeled on social constructivist principles and designed for online educators in a virtual high school who transitioned from the conventional classroom to the virtual educational environment. The narrative inquiry focuses on the critical events within the…
Fibrin polymerization as a phase transition wave: A mathematical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lobanov, A. I.
2016-06-01
A mathematical model of fibrin polymerization is described. The problem of the propagation of phase transition wave is reduced to a nonlinear Stefan problem. A one-dimensional discontinuity fitting difference scheme is described, and the results of one-dimensional computations are presented.
Resilience-based application of state-and-transition models
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
We recommend that several conceptual modifications be incorporated into the state-and-transition model (STM) framework to: 1) explicitly link this framework to the concept of ecological resilience, 2) direct management attention away from thresholds and toward the maintenance of state resilience, an...
Practical guidance for developing state-and-transition models
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
State-and-transition models (STMs) are synthetic descriptions of the dynamics of vegetation and surface soils occurring within specific ecological sites. STMs consist of a diagram and narratives that describe the dynamics and its causes. STMs are developed using a broad array of evidence including h...
Spatially-explicit representation of state-and-transition models
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The broad-scale assessment of natural resource conditions (e.g., rangeland health, restoration needs) requires knowledge of their spatial distribution. We argue that creating a database that links state-and-transition models (STMs) to spatial units is a valuable management tool for structuring groun...
Assessment of One- and Two-Equation Turbulence Models for Hypersonic Transitional Flows
ROY,CHRISTOPHER J.; BLOTTNER,FREDERICK G.
2000-01-14
Many Navier-Stokes codes require that the governing equations be written in conservation form with a source term. The Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model was originally developed in substantial derivative form and when rewritten in conservation form, a density gradient term appears in the source term. This density gradient term causes numerical problems and has a small influence on the numerical predictions. Further work has been performed to understand and to justify the neglect of this term. The transition trip term has been included in the one-equation eddy viscosity model of Spalart-Allmaras. Several problems with this model have been discovered when applied to high-speed flows. For the Mach 8 flat plate boundary layer flow with the standard transition method, the Baldwin-Barth and both k-{omega} models gave transition at the specified location. The Spalart-Allmaras and low Reynolds number k-{var_epsilon} models required an increase in the freestream turbulence levels in order to give transition at the desired location. All models predicted the correct skin friction levels in both the laminar and turbulent flow regions. For Mach 8 flat plate case, the transition location could not be controlled with the trip terms as given in the Spalart-Allmaras model. Several other approaches have been investigated to allow the specification of the transition location. The approach that appears most appropriate is to vary the coefficient that multiplies the turbulent production term in the governing partial differential equation for the eddy viscosity (Method 2). When this coefficient is zero, the flow remains laminar. The coefficient is increased to its normal value over a specified distance to crudely model the transition region and obtain fully turbulent flow. While this approach provides a reasonable interim solution, a separate effort should be initiated to address the proper transition procedure associated with the turbulent production term. Also, the transition process
THE HANLE EFFECT OF Ly{alpha} IN A MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODEL OF THE SOLAR TRANSITION REGION
Stepan, J.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Carlsson, M.; Leenaarts, J.
2012-10-20
In order to understand the heating of the solar corona it is crucial to obtain empirical information on the magnetic field in its lower boundary (the transition region). To this end, we need to measure and model the linear polarization produced by scattering processes in strong UV lines, such as the hydrogen Ly{alpha} line. The interpretation of the observed Stokes profiles will require taking into account that the outer solar atmosphere is highly structured and dynamic, and that the height of the transition region may well vary from one place in the atmosphere to another. Here, we report on the Ly{alpha} scattering polarization signals we have calculated in a realistic model of an enhanced network region, resulting from a state-of-the-art radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulation. This model is characterized by spatially complex variations of the physical quantities at transition region heights. The results of our investigation lead us to emphasize that scattering processes in the upper solar chromosphere should indeed produce measurable linear polarization in Ly{alpha}. More importantly, we show that via the Hanle effect the model's magnetic field produces significant changes in the emergent Q/I and U/I profiles. Therefore, we argue that by measuring the polarization signals produced by scattering processes and the Hanle effect in Ly{alpha} and contrasting them with those computed in increasingly realistic atmospheric models, we should be able to decipher the magnetic, thermal, and dynamic structure of the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun.
Apparent Transition Behavior of Widely-Used Turbulence Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2007-01-01
The Spalart-Allmaras and the Menter SST k-omega turbulence models are shown to have the undesirable characteristic that, for fully turbulent computations, a transition region can occur whose extent varies with grid density. Extremely fine two-dimensional grids over the front portion of an airfoil are used to demonstrate the effect. As the grid density is increased, the laminar region near the nose becomes larger. In the Spalart-Allmaras model this behavior is due to convergence to a laminar-behavior fixed point that occurs in practice when freestream turbulence is below some threshold. It is the result of a feature purposefully added to the original model in conjunction with a special trip function. This degenerate fixed point can also cause non-uniqueness regarding where transition initiates on a given grid. Consistent fully turbulent results can easily be achieved by either using a higher freestream turbulence level or by making a simple change to one of the model constants. Two-equation k-omega models, including the SST model, exhibit strong sensitivity to numerical resolution near the area where turbulence initiates. Thus, inconsistent apparent transition behavior with grid refinement in this case does not appear to stem from the presence of a degenerate fixed point. Rather, it is a fundamental property of the k-omega model itself, and is not easily remedied.
Apparent Transition Behavior of Widely-Used Turbulence Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2006-01-01
The Spalart-Allmaras and the Menter SST kappa-omega turbulence models are shown to have the undesirable characteristic that, for fully turbulent computations, a transition region can occur whose extent varies with grid density. Extremely fine two-dimensional grids over the front portion of an airfoil are used to demonstrate the effect. As the grid density is increased, the laminar region near the nose becomes larger. In the Spalart-Allmaras model this behavior is due to convergence to a laminar-behavior fixed point that occurs in practice when freestream turbulence is below some threshold. It is the result of a feature purposefully added to the original model in conjunction with a special trip function. This degenerate fixed point can also cause nonuniqueness regarding where transition initiates on a given grid. Consistent fully turbulent results can easily be achieved by either using a higher freestream turbulence level or by making a simple change to one of the model constants. Two-equation kappa-omega models, including the SST model, exhibit strong sensitivity to numerical resolution near the area where turbulence initiates. Thus, inconsistent apparent transition behavior with grid refinement in this case does not appear to stem from the presence of a degenerate fixed point. Rather, it is a fundamental property of the kappa-omega model itself, and is not easily remedied.
Welding process modelling and control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Romine, Peter L.; Adenwala, Jinen A.
1993-01-01
The research and analysis performed, and software developed, and hardware/software recommendations made during 1992 in development of the PC-based data acquisition system for support of Welding Process Modeling and Control is reported. A need was identified by the Metals Processing Branch of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, for a mobile data aquisition and analysis system, customized for welding measurement and calibration. Several hardware configurations were evaluated and a PC-based system was chosen. The Welding Measurement System (WMS) is a dedicated instrument, strictly for the use of data aquisition and analysis. Although the WMS supports many of the functions associated with the process control, it is not the intention for this system to be used for welding process control.
Transition under noise in the Sznajd model on square lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lima, F. W. S.
2016-08-01
In order to describe the formation of a consensus in human opinion dynamics, in this paper, we study the Sznajd model with probabilistic noise in two dimensions. The time evolution of this system is performed via Monte Carlo simulations. This social behavior model with noise presents a well defined second-order phase transition. For small enough noise q < 0.33 most agents end up sharing the same opinion.
Meson phenomenology and phase transitions in nonlocal chiral quark models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlomagno, J. P.; Gomez Dumm, D.; Pagura, V.; Scoccola, N. N.
2015-07-01
We study the features of nonlocal chiral quark models that include wave function renormalization. Model parameters are determined from meson phenomenology, considering different nonlocal form factor shapes. In this context we analyze the characteristics of the deconfinement and chiral restoration transitions at finite temperature and chemical potential, introducing the couplings of fermions to the Polyakov loop for different Polyakov potentials. The results for various thermodynamical quantities are compared with data obtained from lattice QCD calculations.
Information geometry and quantum phase transitions in the Dicke model.
Dey, Anshuman; Mahapatra, Subhash; Roy, Pratim; Sarkar, Tapobrata
2012-09-01
We study information geometry of the Dicke model, in the thermodynamic limit. The scalar curvature R of the Riemannian metric tensor induced on the parameter space of the model is calculated. We analyze this both with and without the rotating wave approximation, and show that the parameter manifold is smooth even at the phase transition, and that the scalar curvature is continuous across the phase boundary. PMID:23030896
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
State and transition models synthesize and communicate information about alternative states in arid rangelands and other ecosystems but often do not adequately account for processes interacting across a range of temporal and spatial scales. Grassland to shrubland transitions have occurred as patchy ...
The Dipole Model and Phase Transitions in Biological Membranes
Almeida, Silverio P.; Bond, James D.; Ward, Thomas C.
1971-01-01
Assuming the dipole model for a membrane, approximate calculations are made which employ a dipole-dipole interaction energy. The calculations are based upon the assumption of cooperative coupling of membrane polar molecules and make use of the Bragg-Williams approximation. A theoretical estimate is made of the critical temperature at which phase changes might occur in certain biological membranes. Proposals are presented which explain how the dipole transition might relate to the sometimes observed thermal phase transitions in biological membranes. PMID:5134212
Quasi-classical models of transition state absorption or emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Soo-Y.; Pollard, W. Thomas; Mathies, Richard A.
1989-11-01
By making a short-time approximation to the correlation function in the quantum result for transition state absorption (or emission) we obtain the Lorentzian and reflection results as integrals of simple configuration space functions. These and the time-integrated quantum results are used to derive and unify the following descriptions of transition-state absorption: (a) the classical model of Bersohn and Zewail, (b) the time-dependent wave mechanical description by Agrawal, Mohan and Sathyamurthy, (c) the classical trajectory approach by Polanyi and coworkers and (d) the time-independent quantum-mechanical description by Engel, Bacic, Schinke and Shapiro.
Transitioning Space Weather Models Into Operations: The Basic Building Blocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araujo-Pradere, Eduardo A.
2009-10-01
New and improved space weather models that provide real-time or near-real time operational awareness to the long list of customers that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) serves are critically needed. Recognizing this, SWPC recently established a Developmental Testbed Center (DTC [see Kumar, 2009]) at which models will be vetted for operational use. What characteristics should models have if they are to survive this transition? The difficulties around the implementation of real-time models are many. From the stability of the data input (frequently coming from third parties) to the elevated information technology (IT) security atmosphere present everywhere, scientists and developers are confronting a series of challenges in the implementation of their models. Quinn et al. [2009] noted that “the transition challenges are numerous and require ongoing interaction between model developers and users.” However, the 2006 Report of the Assessment Committee for the National Space Weather Program (NSWP; see http://www.nswp.gov/nswp_acreport0706.pdf) found that “there is an absence of suitable connection[s] for ‘academia-to-operations’ knowledge transfer and for the transition of research to operations in general.”
batman: BAsic Transit Model cAlculatioN in Python
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreidberg, Laura
2015-11-01
I introduce batman, a Python package for modeling exoplanet transit and eclipse light curves. The batman package supports calculation of light curves for any radially symmetric stellar limb darkening law, using a new integration algorithm for models that cannot be quickly calculated analytically. The code uses C extension modules to speed up model calculation and is parallelized with OpenMP. For a typical light curve with 100 data points in transit, batman can calculate one million quadratic limb-darkened models in 30 s with a single 1.7 GHz Intel Core i5 processor. The same calculation takes seven minutes using the four-parameter nonlinear limb darkening model (computed to 1 ppm accuracy). Maximum truncation error for integrated models is an input parameter that can be set as low as 0.001 ppm, ensuring that the community is prepared for the precise transit light curves we anticipate measuring with upcoming facilities. The batman package is open source and publicly available at https://github.com/lkreidberg/batman.
Development of a One-Equation Transition/Turbulence Model
EDWARDS,JACK R.; ROY,CHRISTOPHER J.; BLOTTNER,FREDERICK G.; HASSAN,HASSAN A.
2000-09-26
This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity - transport equation for non-turbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan (Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 35, No. 5) is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittence function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, No. 4). The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the spatial accuracy of selected predictions is analyzed.
Estimating transition probabilities among everglades wetland communities using multistate models
Hotaling, A.S.; Martin, J.; Kitchens, W.M.
2009-01-01
In this study we were able to provide the first estimates of transition probabilities of wet prairie and slough vegetative communities in Water Conservation Area 3A (WCA3A) of the Florida Everglades and to identify the hydrologic variables that determine these transitions. These estimates can be used in management models aimed at restoring proportions of wet prairie and slough habitats to historical levels in the Everglades. To determine what was driving the transitions between wet prairie and slough communities we evaluated three hypotheses: seasonality, impoundment, and wet and dry year cycles using likelihood-based multistate models to determine the main driver of wet prairie conversion in WCA3A. The most parsimonious model included the effect of wet and dry year cycles on vegetative community conversions. Several ecologists have noted wet prairie conversion in southern WCA3A but these are the first estimates of transition probabilities among these community types. In addition, to being useful for management of the Everglades we believe that our framework can be used to address management questions in other ecosystems. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.
Phase Transition Behavior in a Neutral Evolution Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Dawn; Scott, Adam; Maric, Nevena; Bahar, Sonya
2014-03-01
The complexity of interactions among individuals and between individuals and the environment make agent based modeling ideal for studying emergent speciation. This is a dynamically complex problem that can be characterized via the critical behavior of a continuous phase transition. Concomitant with the main tenets of natural selection, we allow organisms to reproduce, mutate, and die within a neutral phenotype space. Previous work has shown phase transition behavior in an assortative mating model with variable fitness landscapes as the maximum mutation size (μ) was varied (Dees and Bahar, 2010). Similarly, this behavior was recently presented in the work of Scott et al. (2013), even on a completely neutral landscape, for bacterial-like fission as well as for assortative mating. Here we present another neutral model to investigate the `critical' phase transition behavior of three mating types - assortative, bacterial, and random - in a phenotype space as a function of the percentage of random death. Results show two types of phase transitions occurring for the parameters of the population size and the number of clusters (an analogue of species), indicating different evolutionary dynamics for system survival and clustering. This research was supported by funding from: University of Missouri Research Board and James S. McDonnell Foundation.
Animal models and conserved processes
2012-01-01
Background The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? Methods We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Results Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. Conclusion We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is insufficient for inter
Phase transition in the Sznajd model with independence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sznajd-Weron, K.; Tabiszewski, M.; Timpanaro, A. M.
2011-11-01
We propose a model of opinion dynamics which describes two major types of social influence —conformity and independence. Conformity in our model is described by the so-called outflow dynamics (known as Sznajd model). According to sociologists' suggestions, we introduce also a second type of social influence, known in social psychology as independence. Various social experiments have shown that the level of conformity depends on the society. We introduce this level as a parameter of the model and show that there is a continuous phase transition between conformity and independence.
Model for amorphous aggregation processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stranks, Samuel D.; Ecroyd, Heath; van Sluyter, Steven; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Carver, John A.; von Smekal, Lorenz
2009-11-01
The amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with many phenomena, ranging from the formation of protein wine haze to the development of cataract in the eye lens and the precipitation of recombinant proteins during their expression and purification. While much literature exists describing models for linear protein aggregation, such as amyloid fibril formation, there are few reports of models which address amorphous aggregation. Here, we propose a model to describe the amorphous aggregation of proteins which is also more widely applicable to other situations where a similar process occurs, such as in the formation of colloids and nanoclusters. As first applications of the model, we have tested it against experimental turbidimetry data of three proteins relevant to the wine industry and biochemistry, namely, thaumatin, a thaumatinlike protein, and α -lactalbumin. The model is very robust and describes amorphous experimental data to a high degree of accuracy. Details about the aggregation process, such as shape parameters of the aggregates and rate constants, can also be extracted.
Nonequilibrium Dynamics and Phase Transitions in Holographic Models.
Janik, Romuald A; Jankowski, Jakub; Soltanpanahi, Hesam
2016-08-26
We study the poles of the retarded Green's functions of strongly coupled field theories exhibiting a variety of phase structures from a crossover up to a first order phase transition. These theories are modeled by a dual gravitational description. The poles of the holographic Green's functions appear at the frequencies of the quasinormal modes of the dual black hole background. We establish that near the transition, in all cases considered, the applicability of a hydrodynamic description breaks down already at lower momenta than in the conformal case. We establish the appearance of the spinodal region in the case of the first order phase transition at temperatures for which the speed of sound squared is negative. An estimate of the preferential scale attained by the unstable modes is also given. We additionally observe a novel diffusive regime for sound modes for a range of wavelengths. PMID:27610844
Entanglement driven phase transitions in spin-orbital models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Wen-Long; Oleś, Andrzej M.; Horsch, Peter
2015-08-01
To demonstrate the role played by the von Neumann entropy (vNE) spectra in quantum phase transitions we investigate the one-dimensional anisotropic SU(2)\\otimes {XXZ} spin-orbital model with negative exchange parameter. In the case of classical Ising orbital interactions we discover an unexpected novel phase with Majumdar-Ghosh-like spin-singlet dimer correlations triggered by spin-orbital entanglement (SOE) and having k=π /2 orbital correlations, while all the other phases are disentangled. For anisotropic XXZ orbital interactions both SOE and spin-dimer correlations extend to the antiferro-spin/alternating-orbital phase. This quantum phase provides a unique example of two coupled order parameters which change the character of the phase transition from first-order to continuous. Hereby we have established the vNE spectral function as a valuable tool to identify the change of ground state degeneracies and of the SOE of elementary excitations in quantum phase transitions.
The comfortable driving model revisited: traffic phases and phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knorr, Florian; Schreckenberg, Michael
2013-07-01
We study the spatiotemporal patterns resulting from different boundary conditions for a microscopic traffic model and contrast them with empirical results. By evaluating the time series of local measurements, the local traffic states are assigned to the different traffic phases of Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory. For this classification we use the rule-based FOTO-method, which provides ‘hard’ rules for this assignment. Using this approach, our analysis shows that the model is indeed able to reproduce three qualitatively different traffic phases: free flow (F), synchronized traffic (S), and wide moving jams (J). In addition, we investigate the likelihood of transitions between the three traffic phases. We show that a transition from free flow to a wide moving jam often involves an intermediate transition: first from free flow to synchronized flow and then from synchronized flow to a wide moving jam. This is supported by the fact that the so-called F → S transition (from free flow to synchronized traffic) is much more likely than a direct F → J transition. The model under consideration has a functional relationship between traffic flow and traffic density. The fundamental hypothesis of the three-phase traffic theory, however, postulates that the steady states of synchronized flow occupy a two-dimensional region in the flow-density plane. Due to the obvious discrepancy between the model investigated here and the postulate of the three-phase traffic theory, the good agreement that we found could not be expected. For a more detailed analysis, we also studied vehicle dynamics at a microscopic level and provide a comparison of real detector data with simulated data of the identical highway segment.
Phenomenological theory of the Potts model evaporation-condensation transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibáñez-Berganza, M.
2016-01-01
We present a phenomenological theory describing the finite-size evaporation-condensation transition of the q-state Potts model in the microcanonical ensemble. Our arguments rely on the existence of an exponent σ, relating the surface and the volume of the condensed phase droplet. The evaporation-condensation transition temperature and energy converge to their infinite-size values with the same power, a=(1-σ)/(2-σ) , of the inverse of the system size. For the 2D Potts model we show, by means of efficient simulations up to q = 24 and 10242 sites, that the exponent a is compatible with 1/4, assuming assymptotic finite-size convergence. While this value cannot be addressed by the evaporation-condensation theory developed for the Ising model, it is obtained in the present scheme if σ=2/3 , in agreement with previous theoretical guesses. The connection with the phenomenon of metastability in the canonical ensemble is also discussed.
Early Warning Signals for Critical Transitions: A Generalized Modeling Approach
Lade, Steven J.; Gross, Thilo
2012-01-01
Critical transitions are sudden, often irreversible, changes that can occur in a large variety of complex systems; signals that warn of critical transitions are therefore highly desirable. We propose a new method for early warning signals that integrates multiple sources of information and data about the system through the framework of a generalized model. We demonstrate our proposed approach through several examples, including a previously published fisheries model. We regard our method as complementary to existing early warning signals, taking an approach of intermediate complexity between model-free approaches and fully parameterized simulations. One potential advantage of our approach is that, under appropriate conditions, it may reduce the amount of time series data required for a robust early warning signal. PMID:22319432
Network inoculation: Heteroclinics and phase transitions in an epidemic model.
Yang, Hui; Rogers, Tim; Gross, Thilo
2016-08-01
In epidemiological modelling, dynamics on networks, and, in particular, adaptive and heterogeneous networks have recently received much interest. Here, we present a detailed analysis of a previously proposed model that combines heterogeneity in the individuals with adaptive rewiring of the network structure in response to a disease. We show that in this model, qualitative changes in the dynamics occur in two phase transitions. In a macroscopic description, one of these corresponds to a local bifurcation, whereas the other one corresponds to a non-local heteroclinic bifurcation. This model thus provides a rare example of a system where a phase transition is caused by a non-local bifurcation, while both micro- and macro-level dynamics are accessible to mathematical analysis. The bifurcation points mark the onset of a behaviour that we call network inoculation. In the respective parameter region, exposure of the system to a pathogen will lead to an outbreak that collapses but leaves the network in a configuration where the disease cannot reinvade, despite every agent returning to the susceptible class. We argue that this behaviour and the associated phase transitions can be expected to occur in a wide class of models of sufficient complexity. PMID:27586612
Modeling of Flow Transition Using an Intermittency Transport Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.
1999-01-01
A new transport equation for intermittency factor is proposed to model transitional flows. The intermittent behavior of the transitional flows is incorporated into the computations by modifying the eddy viscosity, mu(sub t), obtainable from a turbulence model, with the intermittency factor, gamma: mu(sub t, sup *) = gamma.mu(sub t). In this paper, Menter's SST model (Menter, 1994) is employed to compute mu(sub t) and other turbulent quantities. The proposed intermittency transport equation can be considered as a blending of two models - Steelant and Dick (1996) and Cho and Chung (1992). The former was proposed for near-wall flows and was designed to reproduce the streamwise variation of the intermittency factor in the transition zone following Dhawan and Narasimha correlation (Dhawan and Narasimha, 1958) and the latter was proposed for free shear flows and was used to provide a realistic cross-stream variation of the intermittency profile. The new model was used to predict the T3 series experiments assembled by Savill (1993a, 1993b) including flows with different freestream turbulence intensities and two pressure-gradient cases. For all test cases good agreements between the computed results and the experimental data are observed.
NASA Trapezoidal Wing Computations Including Transition and Advanced Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, C. L.; Lee-Rausch, E. M.
2012-01-01
Flow about the NASA Trapezoidal Wing is computed with several turbulence models by using grids from the first High Lift Prediction Workshop in an effort to advance understanding of computational fluid dynamics modeling for this type of flowfield. Transition is accounted for in many of the computations. In particular, a recently-developed 4-equation transition model is utilized and works well overall. Accounting for transition tends to increase lift and decrease moment, which improves the agreement with experiment. Upper surface flap separation is reduced, and agreement with experimental surface pressures and velocity profiles is improved. The predicted shape of wakes from upstream elements is strongly influenced by grid resolution in regions above the main and flap elements. Turbulence model enhancements to account for rotation and curvature have the general effect of increasing lift and improving the resolution of the wing tip vortex as it convects downstream. However, none of the models improve the prediction of surface pressures near the wing tip, where more grid resolution is needed.
Information Network Model Query Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Xiaopu
Information Networking Model (INM) [31] is a novel database model for real world objects and relationships management. It naturally and directly supports various kinds of static and dynamic relationships between objects. In INM, objects are networked through various natural and complex relationships. INM Query Language (INM-QL) [30] is designed to explore such information network, retrieve information about schema, instance, their attributes, relationships, and context-dependent information, and process query results in the user specified form. INM database management system has been implemented using Berkeley DB, and it supports INM-QL. This thesis is mainly focused on the implementation of the subsystem that is able to effectively and efficiently process INM-QL. The subsystem provides a lexical and syntactical analyzer of INM-QL, and it is able to choose appropriate evaluation strategies and index mechanism to process queries in INM-QL without the user's intervention. It also uses intermediate result structure to hold intermediate query result and other helping structures to reduce complexity of query processing.
Center for modeling of turbulence and transition: Research briefs, 1993
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W. (Editor)
1994-01-01
This research brief contains the progress reports of the research staff of the Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT) from June 1992 to July 1993. It is also an annual report to the Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion located at Ohio Aerospace Institute and NASA Lewis Research Center. The main objectives of the research activities at CMOTT are to develop, validate, and implement turbulence and transition models for flows of interest in propulsion systems. Currently, our research covers eddy viscosity one- and two-equation models, Reynolds-stress algebraic equation models, Reynolds-stress transport equation models, nonequilibrium multiple-scale models, bypass transition models, joint scalar probability density function models, and Renormalization Group Theory and Direct Interaction Approximation methods. Some numerical simulations (LES and DNS) have also been carried out to support the development of turbulence modeling. Last year was CMOTT's third year in operation. During this period, in addition to the above mentioned research, CMOTT has also hosted the following programs: an eighteen-hour short course on 'Turbulence--Fundamentals and Computational Modeling (Part I)' given by CMOTT at the NASA Lewis Research Center; a productive summer visitor research program that has generated many encouraging results; collaborative programs with industry customers to help improve their turbulent flow calculations for propulsion system designs; a biweekly CMOTT seminar series with speakers from within and without the NASA Lewis Research Center including foreign speakers. In addition, CMOTT members have been actively involved in the national and international turbulence research activities. The current CMOTT roster and organization are listed in Appendix A. Listed in Appendix B are the abstracts of the biweekly CMOTT seminar. Appendix C lists the papers contributed by CMOTT members.
Empirical Validation of Conceptual Climate Models for the Mid-Pleistocene Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallatin, A.; Camp, C. D.
2015-12-01
Conceptual climate models are useful for testing hypotheses regarding the processes underlying observations; but they generally can only qualitatively match the empirical records. Models based on substantially different underlying physics can have comparable correlations with any given observation, thus robust model validation procedures are needed. The Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) is an ideal test case for the development of such procedures because the character and cause of the transition from a dominant 41 kyr cycle in the early Pleistocene to a dominant 100 kyr cycle in the late Pleistocene is poorly understood. Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition, we analyze multiple conceptual models for the MPT which are based on differing physical hypotheses and show how modern time-series-analysis techniques can improve climate-model validation by extracting and comparing subtler features of both the observations and models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, Wolfgang; Solar, Mathieu
We will present results from Molecular Dynamics simulations of a chemically realistic model of 1,4-polybutadiene (PB) chains confined by graphite walls. Relaxation processes in this system are heterogeneous and anisotropic. We will present evidence for a slow additional relaxation process related to chain desorption from the walls. We also study the structural relaxation resolved with respect to the distance from the graphite walls and show the influence of structural changes on the relaxation behavior. The temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation in layers of different thickness near the walls shows no indication of a shift of Tg as a function of thickness when analyzed with a Vogel-Fulcher fit. We explain this by the importance of intramolecular dihedral barriers for the glass transition in PB which dominate over the density changes next to a wall except for a 1 nm thick layer directly at the wall.
Planet formation in transition disks: Modeling, spectroscopy, and theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liskowsky, Joseph Paul
due to either a massive planet accreting the material onto it or via a photoevaporation process whereby the central star's radiation field ejects material from the inner disk out of the bound system in the the interstellar medium. It is presumed that this phase is the last gasp of the planetary disk's evolution before the debris disk stage and before a fully formed solar system evolves. Our work specifically focuses on one object of this transition disk class: HD100546. We add to the understanding of transition disks by showing that a model where ro-vibrational OH emission in the NIR is preferentially emitted along the 'wall' of the disk is consistent with observations, and furthermore that adding an eccentricity to this `wall' component is required to generate the necessary observed line shape. In conjunction with this observation we present supporting material which motivates the usage of such an eccentric wall component in light of predictions of the influence of giant planet formation occurring within the disk.
Extratropical transitioning in the RMS Japan typhoon wind field model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loridan, Thomas; Scherer, Emilie; Khare, Shree
2013-04-01
Given its meridional extent and location within the Pacific basin, Japan is regularly impacted by strong winds from cyclones at different stages of their lifecycle. To quantify the associated risk of damage to properties, catastrophe models such as the ones developed by RMS aim to simulate wind fields from thousands of stochastic storms that extrapolate historical events. In a recent study using 25 years of reanalysis data, Kitabatake (2011) estimated that 40 % of all Pacific tropical cyclones completed their transition as an extra tropical system. From a cat modelling point of view it is the increase in wind field asymmetry observed during these transitioning episodes that is critical, with examples like typhoon Tokage in 2004 showing the potential for damaging gusts on both sides of the storm track. In this context a compromise has to be found between the need for complex numerical models able to simulate wind field variability around the cyclone during its entire evolution, and obvious running time constrains. The RMS wind field model is based on an optimized version of the Willoughby parametric profile (Willoughby et al., 2006) which requires calibration against targets representative of cyclone wind fields throughout their lifecycle. We here present the different sources of data involved in the development of this model. This includes (1) satellite products to characterize wind fields from fully tropical storms, (2) high resolution simulations of key transitioning events using the WRF mesoscale model to complement the database at other stages (i.e. for transitioning and fully extra tropical wind fields), and (3) reanalysis data which can be used with Hart (2003)'s cyclone phase space methodology to provide an estimate of the mean duration of transitioning episodes in the Pacific. Kitabatake, N., 2011: Climatology of extratropical transition of tropical cyclones in the Western North Pacific defined by using cyclone phase space. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 89, 309
Models for a liquid-liquid phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Giovambattista, N.; Malescio, G.; Sadr-Lahijany, M. R.; Scala, A.; Skibinsky, A.; Stanley, H. E.
2002-02-01
We use molecular dynamics simulations to study two- and three-dimensional models with the isotropic double-step potential which in addition to the hard core has a repulsive soft core of larger radius. Our results indicate that the presence of two characteristic repulsive distances (hard core and soft core) is sufficient to explain liquid anomalies and a liquid-liquid phase transition, but these two phenomena may occur independently. Thus liquid-liquid transitions may exist in systems like liquid metals, regardless of the presence of the density anomaly. For 2D, we propose a model with a specific set of hard core and soft core parameters, that qualitatively reproduces the phase diagram and anomalies of liquid water. We identify two solid phases: a square crystal (high density phase), and a triangular crystal (low density phase) and discuss the relation between the anomalies of liquid and the polymorphism of the solid. Similarly to real water, our 2D system may have the second critical point in the metastable liquid phase beyond the freezing line. In 3D, we find several sets of parameters for which two fluid-fluid phase transition lines exist: the first line between gas and liquid and the second line between high-density liquid (HDL) and low-density liquid (LDL). In all cases, the LDL phase shows no density anomaly in 3D. We relate the absence of the density anomaly with the positive slope of the LDL-HDL phase transition line.
Process for preparing high-transition-temperature superconductors in the Nb-Al-Ge system
Giorgi, A.L.; Szklarz, E.G.
1973-01-30
The patent describes a process for preparing superconducting materials in the Nb-Al-Ge system having transition temperatures in excess of 19K. The process comprises premixing powdered constituents, pressing them into a plug, heating the plug to 1,450-1,800C for 30 minutes to an hour under vacuum or an inert atmosphere, and annealing at moderate temperatures for reasonably long times (approximately 50 hours). High transition-temperature superconductors, including those in the Nb3(Al,Ge) system, prepared in accordance with this process exhibit little degradation in the superconducting transition temperature on being ground to -200 mesh powder. (GRA)
Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Individual Transition Planning and Its Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams-Diehm, Kendra L.; Lynch, Patricia S.
2007-01-01
Although increased attention in special education has been given to individual transition planning, little research has been done to assess student opinions and knowledge on this process. The majority of research has focused on "best practice" to ensure quality transition planning for students. This study surveyed 103 students receiving special…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gillis, La Tonya L.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the role that self-determination played in the transition process for young African American women with disabilities who exited high school with a special diploma and participated in a local transition program. Factors under study included the young women's autonomy, self-regulation, psychological…
Theories of Human Development that Enhance an Understanding of the College Transition Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guiffrida, Douglas A.
2009-01-01
Background/Context: Although theories of human development often play a central role in K-12 pedagogical practices, evidence suggests that developmental theories have not been used extensively to understand the college transition process or to develop programs to support students during these transitions. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus…
The Transition Process: Towards Exclusion or Financial Sufficiency. A French-Irish Comparison.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grelet, Yvette; Mansuy, Michele; Thomas, Gwenaelle
Data from longitudinal school leavers' surveys in France and Ireland were compared to determine types of transition pathways leading to unsuccessful conclusions. Focus was on outcomes of the transition process for school leavers unemployed five years after leaving and for employed young people whose earnings did not allow them to be financially…
Nonstationary multistate Coulomb and multistate exponential models for nonadiabatic transitions
Ostrovsky, V. N.
2003-07-01
The nonstationary Schroedinger equation is considered in a finite basis of states. The model Hamiltonian matrix corresponds to a single diabatic potential curve with a Coulombic {approx}1/t time dependence. An arbitrary number of other diabatic potential curves are flat, i.e., time independent and have arbitrary energies. Related states are coupled by constant interactions with the Coulomb state. The resulting nonstationary Schroedinger equation is solved by the method of contour integral. Probabilities of transitions to any other state are obtained as t{yields}{infinity} in a simple analytical form for the case when the Coulomb state is populated initially (at instant of time t{yields}+0). The formulas apply both to the cases when a horizontal diabatic potential curve is crossed by the Coulomb one and to a noncrossing situation. In the limit of weak coupling, the transition probabilities are interpreted in terms of a sequence of pairwise Landau-Zener-type transitions. Mapping of the Coulomb model onto an exactly solvable exponential multistate model is established. For the special two-state case, the well-known Nikitin model is recovered.
Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Stability Modeling at Flight Entry Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartkowicz, Matt; Johnson, Heath; Candler, Graham; Campbell, Charles H.
2009-01-01
State of the art boundary layer stability modeling capabilities are increasingly seeing application to entry flight vehicles. With the advent of user friendly and robust implementations of two-dimensional chemical nonequilibrium stability modeling with the STABL/PSE-CHEM software, the need for flight data to calibrate such analyses capabilities becomes more critical. Recent efforts to perform entry flight testing with the Orbiter geometry related to entry aerothermodynamics and boundary layer transition is allowing for a heightened focus on the Orbiter configuration. A significant advancement in the state of the art can likely be achieved by establishing a basis of understanding for the occurrence of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter due to discrete protruding gap fillers and the nominal distributed roughness of the actual thermal protection system. Recent success in demonstrating centerline two-dimensional stability modeling on the centerline of the Orbiter at flight entry conditions provides a starting point for additional investigations. The more detailed paper will include smooth Orbiter configuration boundary layer stability results for several typical orbiter entry conditions. In addition, the numerical modeling approach for establishing the mean laminar flow will be reviewed and the method for determining boundary layer disturbance growth will be overviewed. In addition, if actual Orbiter TPS surface data obtained via digital surface scans become available, it may be possible to investigate the effects of an as-flown flight configuration on boundary layer transition compared to a smooth CAD reference.
Computer models of social processes: the case of migration.
Beshers, J M
1967-06-01
The demographic model is a program for representing births, deaths, migration, and social mobility as social processes in a non-stationary stochastic process (Markovian). Transition probabilities for each age group are stored and then retrieved at the next appearance of that age cohort. In this way new transition probabilities can be calculated as a function of the old transition probabilities and of two successive distribution vectors.Transition probabilities can be calculated to represent effects of the whole age-by-state distribution at any given time period, too. Such effects as saturation or queuing may be represented by a market mechanism; for example, migration between metropolitan areas can be represented as depending upon job supplies and labor markets. Within metropolitan areas, migration can be represented as invasion and succession processes with tipping points (acceleration curves), and the market device has been extended to represent this phenomenon.Thus, the demographic model makes possible the representation of alternative classes of models of demographic processes. With each class of model one can deduce implied time series (varying parame-terswithin the class) and the output of the several classes can be compared to each other and to outside criteria, such as empirical time series. PMID:21318692
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birky, Alicia K.
2008-10-01
Significant reductions in greenhouse emissions from personal transportation will require a transition to an alternative technology regime based on renewable energy sources. Two bodies of research, the quasi-evolutionary (QE) model and the multi-level perspective (MLP) assert that processes within niches play a fundamental role in such transitions. This research asks whether the description of transitions based on this niche hypothesis and its underlying assumptions is consistent with the historical U.S. transition to motor vehicles at the beginning of the 20th century. Unique to this dissertation is the combination of the perspective of the entrepreneur with co-evolutionary approaches to socio-technical transitions. This approach is augmented with concepts from the industry life-cycle model and with a taxonomy of mechanisms of learning. Using this analytic framework, I examine specifically the role of entrepreneurial behavior and processes within and among firms in the co-evolution of technologies and institutions during the transition to motor vehicles. I find that niche markets played an important role in the development of the technology, institutions, and the industry. However, I also find that the diffusion of the automobile is not consistent with the niche hypothesis in the following ways: (1) product improvements and cost reductions were not realized in niche markets, but were achieved simultaneously with diffusion into mass markets; (2) in addition to learning-by-doing and learning-by-interacting with users, knowledge spillovers and interacting with suppliers were critical in this process; (3) cost reductions were not automatic results of expanding markets, but rather arose from the strategies of entrepreneurs based on personal perspectives and values. This finding supports the use of a behavioral approach with a micro-focus in the analysis of socio-technical change. I also find that the emergence and diffusion of the motor vehicle can only be understood by
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, A. S.; Rybak, I.; Helmig, R.; Gray, W. G.; Miller, C. T.
2012-06-01
This work is the ninth in a series of papers on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in multiscale porous medium systems. A fundamental approach is developed to model the transition region between a two-fluid-phase porous medium system and a single-fluid-phase system, including species transport. A general model formulation is developed along with an entropy inequality to guide the specification of closure relations. The general model formulation and entropy inequality are then used to specify a closed system. The transition region model developed in this work is a generalization and extension of coupling conditions commonly used in sharp interface models. The theoretical framework has multiple areas of potential applicability including terrestrial-atmospheric contact zones, surface water-sediment interface zones, and industrial drying processes.
Modeling of Plasma Spray Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chong H.
1996-10-01
A comprehensive computational model for thermal plasma processes is being developed with sufficient generality and flexibility to apply to a wide variety of present and proposed plasma processing concepts and devices. In our model for gas-particle flows, the gas is represented as a continuous multicomponent chemically reacting gas with temperature-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties. Ions and electrons are considered as separate components or species of the mixture, while ionization and dissociation reactions are treated as chemical reactions. Entrained particles interacting with the plasma are represented by a stochastic particle model in which the velocities, temperatures, sizes, and other characteristics of typical particles are computed simultaneously with the plasma flow. The model in its present form can simulate particle injection, heating, and melting, but not evaporation and condensation. This model is embodied in the LAVA computer code, which has previously been applied to simulate plasma spraying, mixing and demixing of plasma gases, and departures from chemical (ionization/dissociation), thermal, and excitation equilibrium in plasmas. A transient simulation has been performed of stainless steel particles injected into a swirling high-velocity nitrogen-hydrogen plasma jet in air under typical operating conditions for a newly developed high-velocity high-power (HVHP) torch, which produces plasma jets with peak velocities in excess of 3000 m/s. The calculational results show that strong departures from ionization and dissociation equilibrium develop in the downstream region as the chemical reactions freeze out at lower temperatures. The calculational results also show good agreement with experimental data on particle temperature, velocity, and spray pattern, together with important statistical effects associated with distributions in particle properties and injection conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S
Experience Transitioning Models and Data at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Thomas
2016-07-01
The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center has a long history of transitioning research data and models into operations and with the validation activities required. The first stage in this process involves demonstrating that the capability has sufficient value to customers to justify the cost needed to transition it and to run it continuously and reliably in operations. Once the overall value is demonstrated, a substantial effort is then required to develop the operational software from the research codes. The next stage is to implement and test the software and product generation on the operational computers. Finally, effort must be devoted to establishing long-term measures of performance, maintaining the software, and working with forecasters, customers, and researchers to improve over time the operational capabilities. This multi-stage process of identifying, transitioning, and improving operational space weather capabilities will be discussed using recent examples. Plans for future activities will also be described.
Phase transition of the Ising model on a fractal lattice.
Genzor, Jozef; Gendiar, Andrej; Nishino, Tomotoshi
2016-01-01
The phase transition of the Ising model is investigated on a planar lattice that has a fractal structure. On the lattice, the number of bonds that cross the border of a finite area is doubled when the linear size of the area is extended by a factor of 4. The free energy and the spontaneous magnetization of the system are obtained by means of the higher-order tensor renormalization group method. The system exhibits the order-disorder phase transition, where the critical indices are different from those of the square-lattice Ising model. An exponential decay is observed in the density-matrix spectrum even at the critical point. It is possible to interpret that the system is less entangled because of the fractal geometry. PMID:26871057
Phase transition of the Ising model on a fractal lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genzor, Jozef; Gendiar, Andrej; Nishino, Tomotoshi
2016-01-01
The phase transition of the Ising model is investigated on a planar lattice that has a fractal structure. On the lattice, the number of bonds that cross the border of a finite area is doubled when the linear size of the area is extended by a factor of 4. The free energy and the spontaneous magnetization of the system are obtained by means of the higher-order tensor renormalization group method. The system exhibits the order-disorder phase transition, where the critical indices are different from those of the square-lattice Ising model. An exponential decay is observed in the density-matrix spectrum even at the critical point. It is possible to interpret that the system is less entangled because of the fractal geometry.
Novel, discontinuous polaron transition in a two-band model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moeller, Mirko M.; Sawatzky, George A.; Berciu, Mona
The coupling of charge carriers (electrons or holes) to phonons leads to the formation of a polaron, a coherent quasi-particle consisting of the charge carrier and the cloud of phonons surrounding it and moving coherently with it. Here we present exact diagonalization and momentum average approximation results for the single polaron properties of a two-band model with phonon modulated hopping, inspired by the perovskite BaBiO3. For large coupling we find that the ground state momentum changes discontinuously from k = π to k = 0 . Such sharp transitions of the polaron's ground state properties cannot occur in the well-studied models of the Holstein or Fröhlich type in which the carrier-phonon coupling modulates the on-site energies. However, they can occur in models where the carrier-phonon coupling modulates the hopping integrals such as the SSH model for which a similar yet smooth transition of the ground state momentum was recently shown to exist. We compare our findings to the SSH model and point out qualitative differences which we believe to be due to the two band nature of our model versus the single band SSH model. This work was supported by NSERC, QMI and the UBC 4YF.
Modelling gait transition in two-legged animals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto, Carla M. A.; Santos, Alexandra P.
2011-12-01
The study of locomotor patterns has been a major research goal in the last decades. Understanding how intralimb and interlimb coordination works out so well in animals' locomotion is a hard and challenging task. Many models have been proposed to model animal's rhythms. These models have also been applied to the control of rhythmic movements of adaptive legged robots, namely biped, quadruped and other designs. In this paper we study gait transition in a central pattern generator (CPG) model for bipeds, the 4-cells model. This model is proposed by Golubitsky, Stewart, Buono and Collins and is studied further by Pinto and Golubitsky. We briefly resume the work done by Pinto and Golubitsky. We compute numerically gait transition in the 4-cells CPG model for bipeds. We use Morris-Lecar equations and Wilson-Cowan equations as the internal dynamics for each cell. We also consider two types of coupling between the cells: diffusive and synaptic. We obtain secondary gaits by bifurcation of primary gaits, by varying the coupling strengths. Nevertheless, some bifurcating branches could not be obtained, emphasizing the fact that despite analytically those bifurcations exist, finding them is a hard task and requires variation of other parameters of the equations. We note that the type of coupling did not influence the results.
Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, J.
2010-04-01
We have simulated the model of Employment, Production and Consumption (EPC) using Monte Carlo. The EPC model is an agent based model that mimics very basic rules of industrial economy. From the perspective of physics, the nature of the interactions in the EPC model represents multi-agent interactions where the relations among agents follow the key laws for circulation of capital and money. Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic model reveal phase transition in the model economy. The two phases are the phase with full unemployment and the phase with nearly full employment. The economy switches between these two states suddenly as a reaction to a slight variation in the exogenous parameter, thus the system exhibits strong non-linear behavior as a response to the change of the exogenous parameters.
Modeling pellet impact drilling process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.
2016-03-01
The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.
Specificity in Transition State Binding: The Pauling Model Revisited
Amyes, Tina L.; Richard, John P.
2013-01-01
Linus Pauling proposed that the large rate accelerations for enzymes are due to the high specificity of the protein catalyst for binding the reaction transition state. The observation that stable analogs of the transition states for enzymatic reactions often act as tight-binding binding inhibitors provided early support for this simple and elegant proposal. We review experimental results which support the proposal that Pauling’s model provides a satisfactory explanation for the rate accelerations for many heterolytic enzymatic reactions through high energy reaction intermediates, such as proton transfer and decarboxylation. Specificity in transition state binding is obtained when the total intrinsic binding energy of the substrate is significantly larger than the binding energy observed at the Michaelis complex. The results of recent studies to characterize the specificity in binding of the enolate oxygen at the transition state for the 1,3-isomerization reaction catalyzed by ketosteroid isomerase are reviewed. Interactions between pig heart succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase (SCOT) and the nonreacting portions of CoA are responsible for a rate increase of 3 × 1012-fold, which is close to the estimated total 5 × 1013-fold enzymatic rate acceleration. Studies that partition the interactions between SCOT and CoA into their contributing parts are reviewed. Interactions of the protein with the substrate phosphodianion group provide a ca. 12 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for the reactions catalyzed by triosephosphate isomerase, orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase and α-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase. The interactions of these enzymes with the substrate piece phosphite dianion provide a 6 – 8 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for reaction of the appropriate truncated substrate. Enzyme activation by phosphite dianion reflects the higher dianion affinity for binding to the enzyme-transition state complex compared
PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTRAL SIGNATURES OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS OF TRANSITING GIANT EXOPLANETS
Burrows, A.; Spiegel, D. S.; Rauscher, E.; Menou, K. E-mail: dsp@astro.princeton.ed E-mail: kristen@astro.columbia.ed
2010-08-10
Using a three-dimensional general circulation model, we create dynamical model atmospheres of a representative transiting giant exoplanet, HD 209458b. We post-process these atmospheres with an opacity code to obtain transit radius spectra during the primary transit. Using a spectral atmosphere code, we integrate over the face of the planet seen by an observer at various orbital phases and calculate light curves as a function of wavelength and for different photometric bands. The products of this study are generic predictions for the phase variations of a zero-eccentricity giant planet's transit spectrum and of its light curves. We find that for these models the temporal variations in all quantities and the ingress/egress contrasts in the transit radii are small (<1.0%). Moreover, we determine that the day/night contrasts and phase shifts of the brightness peaks relative to the ephemeris are functions of photometric band. The J, H, and K bands are shifted most, while the IRAC bands are shifted least. Therefore, we verify that the magnitude of the downwind shift in the planetary 'hot spot' due to equatorial winds is strongly wavelength dependent. The phase and wavelength dependence of light curves, as well as the associated day/night contrasts, can be used to constrain the circulation regime of irradiated giant planets and to probe different pressure levels of a hot Jupiter atmosphere. We posit that though our calculations focus on models of HD 209458b, similar calculations for other transiting hot Jupiters in low-eccentricity orbits should yield transit spectra and light curves of a similar character.
Joint Modeling of Transitional Patterns of Alzheimer's Disease
Liu, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiao-Hua
2013-01-01
While the experimental Alzheimer's drugs recently developed by pharmaceutical companies failed to stop the progression of Alzheimer's disease, clinicians strive to seek clues on how the patients would be when they visit back next year, based upon the patients' current clinical and neuropathologic diagnosis results. This is related to how to precisely identify the transitional patterns of Alzheimer's disease. Due to the complexities of the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, the condition of the disease is usually characterized by multiple clinical and neuropathologic measurements, including Clinical Dementia Rating (CDRGLOB), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), a score derived from the clinician judgement on neuropsychological tests (COGSTAT), and Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ). In this research article, we investigate a class of novel joint random-effects transition models that are used to simultaneously analyze the transitional patterns of multiple primary measurements of Alzheimer's disease and, at the same time, account for the association between the measurements. The proposed methodology can avoid the bias introduced by ignoring the correlation between primary measurements and can predict subject-specific transitional patterns. PMID:24073268
Energy efficient engine: Turbine transition duct model technology report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leach, K.; Thurlin, R.
1982-01-01
The Low-Pressure Turbine Transition Duct Model Technology Program was directed toward substantiating the aerodynamic definition of a turbine transition duct for the Energy Efficient Engine. This effort was successful in demonstrating an aerodynamically viable compact duct geometry and the performance benefits associated with a low camber low-pressure turbine inlet guide vane. The transition duct design for the flight propulsion system was tested and the pressure loss goal of 0.7 percent was verified. Also, strut fairing pressure distributions, as well as wall pressure coefficients, were in close agreement with analytical predictions. Duct modifications for the integrated core/low spool were also evaluated. The total pressure loss was 1.59 percent. Although the increase in exit area in this design produced higher wall loadings, reflecting a more aggressive aerodynamic design, pressure profiles showed no evidence of flow separation. Overall, the results acquired have provided pertinent design and diagnostic information for the design of a turbine transition duct for both the flight propulsion system and the integrated core/low spool.
Revisiting the nonequilibrium phase transition of the triplet-creation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardozo, G. O.; Fontanari, J. F.
2006-06-01
The nonequilibrium phase transition in the triplet-creation model is investigated using critical spreading and the conservative diffusive contact process. The results support the claim that at high enough diffusion the phase transition becomes discontinuous. As the diffusion probability increases the critical exponents change continuously from the ordinary directed percolation (DP) class to the compact directed percolation (CDP). The fractal dimension of the critical cluster, however, switches abruptly between those two universality classes. Strong crossover effects in both methods make it difficult, if not impossible, to establish the exact location of the tricritical point.
Maya, Leon
1988-05-24
A process for making ammonolytic precursors to nitride and carbonitride ceramics. Extreme reaction conditions are not required and the precursor is a powder-like substance that produces ceramics of improved purity and morphology upon pyrolysis.
The transition process: joint responsibility of nurse educators and employers.
Alex, M R; MacFarlane, M E
1992-01-01
The transition between school and work is a time of critical development for the beginning practitioner. Have nurse neophytes been set up for failure by academics? Are seasoned practitioners and administrators "eating our young" in service settings? What must be done to prepare confident and competent beginning practitioners? What must be done to ensure a working environment that encourages and nurtures the development of young nurses? Results of a brief survey conducted to determine if Canadian university schools of nursing invite feedback about competencies of new graduates, and a review of literature published about the subject, reveal that there is a limited interface in evaluating competencies of new graduates between university schools of nursing and clinical practice agencies. This paper discusses common issues in evaluation of new baccalaureate graduates' performance from the perspective of educators and employers. This paper also discusses issues related to the evaluation of new graduates as they are documented in the literature, findings of the aforementioned survey, and implications of the findings for nurse administrators and nurse educators. PMID:1472512
Respiratory transition in the newborn: a three-phase process.
Hooper, Stuart B; Te Pas, Arjan B; Kitchen, Marcus J
2016-05-01
We propose that the respiratory transition at birth passes through three distinct, but overlapping phases, which reflect different physiological states of the lung. Accordingly, respiratory support given to infants should be optimised to suit the underlying physiological state of the lung as it passes through each phase. During the first phase, the airways are liquid-filled and so no pulmonary gas exchange can occur. Respiratory support should, therefore, be focused on clearing the gas exchange regions of liquid. In the absence of gas exchange, little or no CO2will accumulate within the airways and, therefore, interrupting inflation pressures to allow the lung to deflate and exhale CO2is unnecessary. This is the primary rationale for administering a sustained inflation at birth. During the second phase, the gas exchange regions are mostly cleared of liquid, allowing pulmonary gas exchange to commence. However, the liquid cleared from the airways resides within the tissue during this phase, which increases perialveolar interstitial tissue pressures and the risk of liquid re-entry back into the airways. As a result, respiratory support should be optimised to minimise alveolar re-flooding during expiration, which can be achieved by applying an end-expiratory pressure. The third and final phase occurs when the liquid is eventually cleared from lung tissue. Although gas exchange may be restricted by lung immaturity, injury and inflammation during this phase, considerations of how fetal lung liquid can adversely affect lung function are no longer relevant. PMID:26542877
Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition: Research Briefs, 1995
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
This research brief contains the progress reports of the research staff of the Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT) from July 1993 to July 1995. It also constitutes a progress report to the Institute of Computational Mechanics in Propulsion located at the Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Lewis Research Center. CMOTT has been in existence for about four years. In the first three years, its main activities were to develop and validate turbulence and combustion models for propulsion systems, in an effort to remove the deficiencies of existing models. Three workshops on computational turbulence modeling were held at LeRC (1991, 1993, 1994). At present, CMOTT is integrating the CMOTT developed/improved models into CFD tools which can be used by the propulsion systems community. This activity has resulted in an increased collaboration with the Lewis CFD researchers.
Quantum phase transitions in the Fermi-Bose Hubbard model
Carr, L.D.; Holland, M.J.
2005-09-15
We propose a multiband Fermi-Bose Hubbard model with on-site fermion-boson conversion and general filling factor in three dimensions. Such a Hamiltonian models an atomic Fermi gas trapped in a lattice potential and subject to a Feshbach resonance. We solve this model in the two-state approximation for paired fermions at zero temperature. The problem then maps onto a coupled Heisenberg spin model. In the limit of large positive and negative detuning, the quantum phase transitions in the Bose Hubbard and paired-Fermi Hubbard models are correctly reproduced. Near resonance, the Mott states are given by a superposition of the paired-fermion and boson fields and the Mott-superfluid borders go through an avoided crossing in the phase diagram.
Fluctuation model for structural relaxation and the glass transition
Moynihan, C.T.; Whang, J.H.
1997-12-31
The fluctuation or independently relaxing nanoregion model attributes the distribution of structural relaxation times in a glassforming melt to a physical distribution of nanoregions which vary in their properties. A quantitative test of this model is described, in which parameters derived from relaxational data on B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass are shown to be capable of predicting the anomalous light scattering in the glass transition region. It is also shown that the local inhomogeneities which lead to the distribution of structural relaxation times make only a very minor contribution to the distribution of electrical relaxation times in ionically conducting glasses and melts.
Model for the elastic behavior near intermartensitic transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Liyang; Cullen, James; Wuttig, Manfred
2005-05-01
Transitions between different martensitic states have been observed in Ni0.50Mn0.284Ga0.216 using elastic constant measurements. In this paper, we develop a model to explain the reentrant behavior based on a Landau expansion of the free energy in strain space. Here, we assume that the coefficient of the third-order term as well as the second-order term has significant temperature dependence. This assumption results in a C' versus temperature in good agreement with observation. The model and possible modifications to it are discussed and compared to the elastic constant data.
Phase transitions in a dynamic model of neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shim, G. M.; Choi, M. Y.; Kim, D.
1991-01-01
A dynamic model for neural networks that explicitly takes into account the existence of several time scales without discretizing the time is studied analytically via the use of path integrals. The maximum capacity of the network is found to be that of the Hopfield model divided by 1+a2, with a the ratio of the refractory period to the action-potential duration. We obtain the phase diagram as a function of a, the capacity, and the temperature. The overall phase diagram is rich in structure, exhibiting first-order transitions as well as continuous ones.
Collapse models and perceptual processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlo Ghirardi, Gian; Romano, Raffaele
2014-04-01
Theories including a collapse mechanism have been presented various years ago. They are based on a modification of standard quantum mechanics in which nonlinear and stochastic terms are added to the evolution equation. Their principal merits derive from the fact that they are mathematically precise schemes accounting, on the basis of a unique universal dynamical principle, both for the quantum behavior of microscopic systems as well as for the reduction associated to measurement processes and for the classical behavior of macroscopic objects. Since such theories qualify themselves not as new interpretations but as modifications of the standard theory they can be, in principle, tested against quantum mechanics. Recently, various investigations identifying possible crucial test have been discussed. In spite of the extreme difficulty to perform such tests it seems that recent technological developments allow at least to put precise limits on the parameters characterizing the modifications of the evolution equation. Here we will simply mention some of the recent investigations in this direction, while we will mainly concentrate our attention to the way in which collapse theories account for definite perceptual process. The differences between the case of reductions induced by perceptions and those related to measurement procedures by means of standard macroscopic devices will be discussed. On this basis, we suggest a precise experimental test of collapse theories involving conscious observers. We make plausible, by discussing in detail a toy model, that the modified dynamics can give rise to quite small but systematic errors in the visual perceptual process.
Model reduction and feedback control of transitional channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilak, Milos
This dissertation examines the use of reduced-order models for design of linear feedback controllers for fluid flows. The focus is on transitional channel flow, a canonical shear flow case with a simple geometry yet complex dynamics. Reduced-order models of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, which describe the evolution of perturbations in transitional channel flow, are computed using two methods for snapshot-based balanced truncation, Balanced Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (BPOD) and Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA). The performance of these models in feedback control is evaluated in both linearized and nonlinear Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of channel flow. The first part of the dissertation describes the application of BPOD to very large systems, and the detailed evaluation of the resulting reduced-order models. Exact balanced truncation, a standard method from control theory, is not computationally tractable for very large systems, such as those typically encountered in fluid flow simulations. The BPOD method, introduced by Rowley (2005), provides a close approximation. We first show that the approximation is indeed close by applying the method to a 1-D linear perturbation to channel flow at a single spatial wavenumber pair, for which exact balanced truncation is tractable. Next, as the first application of BPOD to a very high-dimensional linear system, we show that reduced-order BPOD models of a localized 3-D perturbation capture the dynamics very well. Moreover, the BPOD models significantly outperform standard Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) models, as illustrated by a striking example where models using the POD modes that capture most of the perturbation energy fail to capture the perturbation dynamics. Next, reduced-order models of a complete control system for linearized channel flow are obtained using ERA, a computationally efficient method that results in the same reduced-order models as BPOD. Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG
Improved model for the transit entropy of monatomic liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, Duane C.; Chisolm, Eric D.; Bock, Nicolas
2009-05-01
In the original formulation of vibration-transit (V-T) theory for monatomic liquid dynamics, the transit contribution to entropy was taken to be a universal constant, calibrated to the constant-volume entropy of melting. This model suffers two deficiencies: (a) it does not account for experimental entropy differences of ±2% among elemental liquids and (b) it implies a value of zero for the transit contribution to internal energy. The purpose of this paper is to correct these deficiencies. To this end, the V-T equation for entropy is fitted to an overall accuracy of ±0.1% to the available experimental high-temperature entropy data for elemental liquids. The theory contains two nuclear motion contributions: (a) the dominant vibrational contribution Svib(T/θ0) , where T is temperature and θ0 is the vibrational characteristic temperature, and (b) the transit contribution Str(T/θtr) , where θtr is a scaling temperature for each liquid. The appearance of a common functional form of Str for all the liquids studied is a property of the experimental data, when analyzed via the V-T formula. The resulting Str implies the correct transit contribution to internal energy. The theoretical entropy of melting is derived in a single formula applying to normal and anomalous melting alike. An ab initio calculation of θ0 , based on density-functional theory, is reported for liquid Na and Cu. Comparison of these calculations with the above analysis of experimental entropy data provides verification of V-T theory. In view of the present results, techniques currently being applied in ab initio simulations of liquid properties can be employed to advantage in the further testing and development of V-T theory.
Multiple phase transitions in extended hard-core lattice gas models in two dimensions.
Nath, Trisha; Rajesh, R
2014-07-01
We study the k-NN hard-core lattice gas model in which the first k next-nearest-neighbor sites of a particle are excluded from occupation by other particles on a two-dimensional square lattice. This model is the lattice version of the hard-disk system with increasing k corresponding to decreasing lattice spacing. While the hard-disk system is known to undergo a two-step freezing process with increasing density, the lattice model has been known to show only one transition. Here, based on Monte Carlo simulations and high-density expansions of the free energy and density, we argue that for k = 4,10,11,14,⋯, the lattice model undergoes multiple transitions with increasing density. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm the same for k = 4,...,11. This, in turn, resolves an existing puzzle as to why the 4-NN model has a continuous transition against the expectation of a first-order transition. PMID:25122264
Relational Processes in Career Transition: Extending Theory, Research, and Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Motulsky, Sue L.
2010-01-01
A growing body of work in relational theory and career decision making explores how relational processes, not just people's relationships but more broadly their connections to self, others, and society, inform career development and counseling. This article presents the results of a qualitative research study of midlife women in career transition…
Modeling liquid-liquid phase transitions and quasicrystal formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skibinsky, Anna
In this thesis, studies which concern two different subjects related to phase transitions in fluids and crystalline solids are presented. Condensed matter formation, structure, and phase transitions are modeled using molecular dynamics simulations of simple discontinuous potentials with attractive and repulsive interactions. Novel phase diagrams are proposed for quasicrystals, crystals, and liquids. In the first part of the thesis, the formation of a quasicrystal in a two dimensional monodisperse system is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations of hard sphere particles interacting via a two-dimensional square-well potential. It is found that for certain values of the square-well parameters more than one stable crystalline phase can form. By quenching the liquid phase at a very low temperature, an amorphous phase is obtained. When this the amorphous phase is heated, a quasicrystalline structure with five-fold symmetry forms. From estimations of the Helmholtz potentials of the stable crystalline phases and of the quasicrystal, it is concluded that within a specific temperature range, the observed quasicrystal phase can be the stable phase. The second part of the thesis concerns a study of the liquid-liquid phase transition for a single-component system in three dimensions, interacting via an isotropic potential with a repulsive soft-core shoulder at short distance and an attractive well at an intermediate distance. The potential is similar to potentials used to describe such liquid systems as colloids, protein solutions, or liquid metals. It is shown that the phase diagram for such a potential can have two lines of first-order fluid-fluid phase transitions: one separating a gas and a low-density liquid (LDL), and another between the LDL and a high-density liquid (HDL). Both phase transition lines end in a critical point, a gas-LDL critical point and, depending on the potential parameters, either a gas-HDL critical point or a LDL-HDL critical point. A
NUMERICAL MODELING OF FINE SEDIMENT PHYSICAL PROCESSES.
Schoellhamer, David H.
1985-01-01
Fine sediment in channels, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters undergo several physical processes including flocculation, floc disruption, deposition, bed consolidation, and resuspension. This paper presents a conceptual model and reviews mathematical models of these physical processes. Several general fine sediment models that simulate some of these processes are reviewed. These general models do not directly simulate flocculation and floc disruption, but the conceptual model and existing functions are shown to adequately model these two processes for one set of laboratory data.
Investigation of Quantum Phase Transition and Entanglement in Spin Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shik, Hoi Yin
In this thesis, the critical behaviour of concurrence in spin models and its relationship to quantum phase transitions (QPT) are explored. The relation between the ground state entanglement and excited states, in connection with quantum phase transitions, is studied. Besides, a generalization of the Majumdar-Ghosh model [1, 2], studied in my M.Phil research, to finite temperatures is also studied. Firstly, the relationship between quantum entanglement and QPT is studied. In this thesis, concurrence is chosen as the measure of pairwise entanglement. The quantum phase transitions in the XXZ and J1- J2 models are investigated by examining contributions of excited states to the ground state concurrence. The critical behaviour of the concurrence at the quantum critical points is explained by the excited states' contributions. Also, the dependence of the concurrence at the quantum critical points with lattice size is investigated. Secondly, under open boundary conditions, the different quantum phases in the XXZ and J1-J2 models are distinguished by investigating the responses of the end spins to a small perturbation. Meanwhile, the properties of the concurrence of the spin models under different boundary conditions are compared. Finally, the thermodynamic properties of a spin-half ladder system are studied. We find that a completely dimerized state exists in one kind of twoleg spin-half ladder, which has local anti-ferromagnetic ordering and frustration effect at the same time. The system's low-lying excitations can be obtained exactly and this enables us to calculate thermodynamic quantities at low temperatures. Our results also show that a subset of the energy spectrum is a good approximation to the whole spectrum when used in the calculation of specific heat capacities and magnetic susceptibilities, even for the two-leg spin-half ladder without frustration.
Modeling texture transitions in cholesteric liquid crystal droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selinger, Robin; Gimenez-Pinto, Vianney; Lu, Shin-Ying; Selinger, Jonathan; Konya, Andrew
2012-02-01
Cholesteric liquid crystals can be switched reversibly between planar and focal-conic textures, a property enabling their application in bistable displays, liquid crystal writing tablets, e-books, and color switching ``e-skins.'' To explore voltage-pulse induced switching in cholesteric droplets, we perform simulation studies of director dynamics in three dimensions. Electrostatics calculations are solved at each time step using an iterative relaxation method. We demonstrate that as expected, a low amplitude pulse drives the transition from planar to focal conic, while a high amplitude pulse drives the transition from focal conic back to the planar state. We use the model to explore the effects of droplet shape, aspect ratio, and anchoring conditions, with the goal of minimizing both response time and energy consumption.
Dynamical phase transition in the open Dicke model
Klinder, Jens; Keßler, Hans; Wolke, Matthias; Mathey, Ludwig; Hemmerich, Andreas
2015-01-01
The Dicke model with a weak dissipation channel is realized by coupling a Bose–Einstein condensate to an optical cavity with ultranarrow bandwidth. We explore the dynamical critical properties of the Hepp–Lieb–Dicke phase transition by performing quenches across the phase boundary. We observe hysteresis in the transition between a homogeneous phase and a self-organized collective phase with an enclosed loop area showing power-law scaling with respect to the quench time, which suggests an interpretation within a general framework introduced by Kibble and Zurek. The observed hysteretic dynamics is well reproduced by numerically solving the mean-field equation derived from a generalized Dicke Hamiltonian. Our work promotes the understanding of nonequilibrium physics in open many-body systems with infinite range interactions. PMID:25733892
Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.
2015-05-01
We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure P or by turning on an external magnetic field H. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of P and H, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the P, H parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter V = V( P,H) at zero temperature, where V is the "volume", i.e., area of the solitons.
Dynamical phase transition in the open Dicke model.
Klinder, Jens; Keßler, Hans; Wolke, Matthias; Mathey, Ludwig; Hemmerich, Andreas
2015-03-17
The Dicke model with a weak dissipation channel is realized by coupling a Bose-Einstein condensate to an optical cavity with ultranarrow bandwidth. We explore the dynamical critical properties of the Hepp-Lieb-Dicke phase transition by performing quenches across the phase boundary. We observe hysteresis in the transition between a homogeneous phase and a self-organized collective phase with an enclosed loop area showing power-law scaling with respect to the quench time, which suggests an interpretation within a general framework introduced by Kibble and Zurek. The observed hysteretic dynamics is well reproduced by numerically solving the mean-field equation derived from a generalized Dicke Hamiltonian. Our work promotes the understanding of nonequilibrium physics in open many-body systems with infinite range interactions. PMID:25733892
Two Dimensional State Transition of a Swarming Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuang, Yao-Li; Marthaler, Daniel
2005-03-01
A rotating mill is widely seen in swarming patterns of various species, such as ants, fishes, or daphnia. Levine et al. (2000) proposed an individual based model which produces a pair of co- existing clockwise and counter-clockwise mills on top of each other while a unified rotating mill can be achieved by switching the formula of the self-propulsion to an ensemble average. Without changing its fundamental concepts, we modify the model to include a Rayleigh-type self-driving mechanism, which has a cleaner connection to its continuum limit, i.e., macroscopic description, where analysis can be more efficiently done. By varying parameter values, we find that the modified model goes through a three-stage transition from the co-existing state to the unified state. We also compare the numerical results of the model and of its continuum counterpart.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woods, Lee L.; Sylvester, Lorraine; Martin, James E.
2010-01-01
This study examined the effectiveness of a new school to adult life transition planning lesson package titled "Student-Directed Transition Planning". The "Student-Directed Transition Planning" lessons teach transition terms and concepts to provide a means to increase self-determination skills and student participation in transition IEP…
Unified Dark Matter scalar field models with fast transition
Bertacca, Daniele; Bruni, Marco; Piattella, Oliver F.; Pietrobon, Davide E-mail: marco.bruni@port.ac.uk E-mail: davide.pietrobon@jpl.nasa.gov
2011-02-01
We investigate the general properties of Unified Dark Matter (UDM) scalar field models with Lagrangians with a non-canonical kinetic term, looking specifically for models that can produce a fast transition between an early Einstein-de Sitter CDM-like era and a later Dark Energy like phase, similarly to the barotropic fluid UDM models in JCAP01(2010)014. However, while the background evolution can be very similar in the two cases, the perturbations are naturally adiabatic in fluid models, while in the scalar field case they are necessarily non-adiabatic. The new approach to building UDM Lagrangians proposed here allows to escape the common problem of the fine-tuning of the parameters which plague many UDM models. We analyse the properties of perturbations in our model, focusing on the the evolution of the effective speed of sound and that of the Jeans length. With this insight, we can set theoretical constraints on the parameters of the model, predicting sufficient conditions for the model to be viable. An interesting feature of our models is that what can be interpreted as w{sub DE} can be < −1 without violating the null energy conditions.
Werner, Gerhard
2009-04-01
In this theoretical and speculative essay, I propose that insights into certain aspects of neural system functions can be gained from viewing brain function in terms of the branch of Statistical Mechanics currently referred to as "Modern Critical Theory" [Stanley, H.E., 1987. Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Oxford University Press; Marro, J., Dickman, R., 1999. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Lattice Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK]. The application of this framework is here explored in two stages: in the first place, its principles are applied to state transitions in global brain dynamics, with benchmarks of Cognitive Neuroscience providing the relevant empirical reference points. The second stage generalizes to suggest in more detail how the same principles could also apply to the relation between other levels of the structural-functional hierarchy of the nervous system and between neural assemblies. In this view, state transitions resulting from the processing at one level are the input to the next, in the image of a 'bucket brigade', with the content of each bucket being passed on along the chain, after having undergone a state transition. The unique features of a process of this kind will be discussed and illustrated. PMID:19124060
Model of High Temperature Phase Transitions in Metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filippov, E. S.
2016-04-01
On the basis of the assumption of the electron density fluctuation at the band degradation, a calculation parameter (the radius R) of the half-width of the probability distribution over the coordinate R is identified at the level of the maximum electron density fluctuation (at a maximum of the Gaussian function). Based on an analysis of the crystallization process and high polymorphic transformations bcc → fcc, the reasons for the formation of bcc, fcc, hexagonal, and tetragonal structures from the liquid phase, as well as for the high temperature bcc → hcp transition in the solid phase are established using the calculated parameter (the radius R) in the solid and liquid phases.
Analysis of Phase Transition in Traffic Flow based on a New Model of Driving Decision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yu; Shang, Hua-Yan; Lu, Hua-Pu
2011-07-01
Different driving decisions will cause different processes of phase transition in traffic flow. To reveal the inner mechanism, this paper built a new cellular automaton (CA) model, based on the driving decision (DD). In the DD model, a driver's decision is divided into three stages: decision-making, action, and result. The acceleration is taken as a decision variable and three core factors, i.e. distance between adjacent vehicles, their own velocity, and the preceding vehicle's velocity, are considered. Simulation results show that the DD model can simulate the synchronized flow effectively and describe the phase transition in traffic flow well. Further analyses illustrate that various density will cause the phase transition and the random probability will impact the process. Compared with the traditional NaSch model, the DD model considered the preceding vehicle's velocity, the deceleration limitation, and a safe distance, so it can depict closer to the driver preferences on pursuing safety, stability and fuel-saving and has strong theoretical innovation for future studies.
Quantum phase transitional patterns in the SD-pair shell model
Luo Yanan; Meng Xiangfei; Zhang Yu; Pan Feng; Draayer, Jerry P.
2009-07-15
Patterns of shape-phase transition in the proton-neutron coupled systems are studied within the SD-pair shell model. The results show that some transitional patterns in the SD-pair shell model are similar to the U(5)-SU(3) and U(5)-SO(6) transitions with signatures of the critical point symmetry of the interacting boson model.
Transition and separation process in brine channels formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berti, Alessia; Bochicchio, Ivana; Fabrizio, Mauro
2016-02-01
In this paper, we discuss the formation of brine channels in sea ice. The model includes a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the solid-liquid phase change, a diffusion equation of the Cahn-Hilliard kind for the solute dynamics, and the heat equation for the temperature change. The macroscopic motion of the fluid is also considered, so the resulting differential system couples with the Navier-Stokes equation. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.
Development of a Transition Process Scale for High-risk Infant’s Caregiver
YU, Mi
2016-01-01
Background: Transition into parenthood is a major developmental life event and is very significant because development in infanthood is affected by the transition process of mothers parenting an infant. This study aimed to develop the assessment tool for transition process of high risk infant’s caregiver in Korea. Methods: The participants were 246 mothers of premature infant born with gestational age (< 37 weeks) or low birth weight (< 2500 gm), of less than 24 months of age. Preliminary items were derived from transition process scale for parent of children with autism. Factor analysis was performed to test construct validity of the scale, the correlation between transition processes and parenting efficacy was used for testing predictive validity. Results: The final scale was composed of 23 items divided into 5 factors: wandering (7 items), devotion (5 items), acceptance (4 items), denial (4 items), frustration (3 items). The total variance for validity described by the 5 factors was 60.8% and the reliability of the scale was total Cronbach’s α 0.90 and wandering 0.85, devotion 0.78, acceptance 0.72, denial 0.72, and frustration 0.71. Correlation between transition process and parenting efficacy was statistically significant; wandering(r=−0.61, P <.001), devotion (r=−0.60, P<.001), acceptance (r=0.30, P <.001), denial (r=−0.31, P <.001) and frustration (r= −0.27, P <.001). Conclusion: This final assessment scale will be used to investigate high-risk infant caregiver’s transition process and provide basic data for program development to provide differentiated support and care at each process. PMID:27114980
Integrated modelling of transitions in mechanical conditions during casting and heat treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thorborg, J.; Klinkhammer, J.; Heitzer, M.
2015-06-01
The mechanical material behaviour of a cast component changes significantly during casting and heat treatment. The big difference in temperature levels during the different process steps causes different deformation mechanisms to be active. The thermal gradients promote transient stresses that can lead to inelastic deformations, residual stresses and in some cases to defects in the final part. It is a big challenge to make a reasonable transition in the mechanical model, and hence material data, when modelling several different coupled process steps. It is important to use an integrated approach where the transition is included in the full load history of the part. When industrial examples are considered, the sequence of process steps typically also changes the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions significantly e.g. going from being mechanically constrained during casting to being supported point-wise during the heat treatment process. This change includes mapping of results and obtaining equilibrium in a new global system, where the further reaction forces from the supports must be handled with contact conditions to e.g. predict deformations due to gravity during solution heat treatment. The work presented in this paper is focused on modelling the mechanical fields, taking into account the changes in the mechanical material model at different temperature levels, and the transition in mechanical behaviour when the microstructure is changing during the different steps of the heat treatment process. The approach used is based on a unified model where creep effects are considered at high temperature and rate effects are included in general during cooling. Proposals are made to include cooling rate sensitivity, annealing and precipitation hardening via modification of mechanical properties in the different process steps.
Modeling the solid-liquid phase transition in saturated triglycerides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pink, David A.; Hanna, Charles B.; Sandt, Christophe; MacDonald, Adam J.; MacEachern, Ronald; Corkery, Robert; Rousseau, Dérick
2010-02-01
We investigated theoretically two competing published scenarios for the melting transition of the triglyceride trilaurin (TL): those of (1) Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], in which the average state of each TL molecule in the liquid phase is a discotic "Y" conformer whose three chains are dynamically twisted, with an average angle of ˜120° between them, and those of (2) Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid-state conformation of the TL molecule in the liquid phase is a nematic h∗-conformer whose three chains are in a modified "chair" conformation. We developed two competing models for the two scenarios, in which TL molecules are in a nematic compact-chair (or "h") conformation, with extended, possibly all-trans, chains at low-temperatures, and in either a Y conformation or an h∗ conformation in the liquid state at temperatures higher than the phase-transition temperature, T∗=319 K. We defined an h-Y model as a realization of the proposal of Corkery et al. [Langmuir 23, 7241 (2007)], and explored its predictions by mapping it onto an Ising model in a temperature-dependent field, performing a mean-field approximation, and calculating the transition enthalpy ΔH. We found that the most plausible realization of the h-Y model, as applied to the solid-liquid phase transition in TL, and likely to all saturated triglycerides, gave a value of ΔH in reasonable agreement with the experiment. We then defined an alternative h-h∗ model as a realization of the proposal of Cebula et al. [J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69, 130 (1992)], in which the liquid phase exhibits an average symmetry breaking similar to an h conformation, but with twisted chains, to see whether it could describe the TL phase transition. The h-h∗ model gave a value of ΔH that was too small by a factor of ˜3-4. We also predicted the temperature dependence of the 1132 cm-1 Raman band for both models, and performed measurements of the ratios of three TL Raman
Hysteretic transitions in the Kuramoto model with inertia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torcini, Alessandro; Olmi, Simona; Navas, Adrian; Boccaletti, Stefano
2015-03-01
We report finite size numerical investigations and mean field analysis of a Kuramoto model with inertia for fully coupled and diluted systems. In particular, we examine the transition from incoherence to coherence for increasingly large system size and inertia. For sufficiently large inertia the transition is hysteretic and within the hysteretic region clusters of locked oscillators of various sizes and different levels of synchronization coexist. A modification of the mean field theory developed by Tanaka, Lichtenberg, and Oishi allows to derive the synchronization curve associated to each of these clusters. We have also investigated numerically the limits of existence of the coherent and of the incoherent solutions. The minimal coupling required to observe the coherent state is largely independent of the system size and it saturates to a constant value already for moderately large inertia values. The incoherent state is observable up to a critical coupling whose value saturates for large inertia and for finite system sizes, while in the thermodinamic limit this critical value diverges proportionally to the mass. By increasing the inertia the transition becomes more complex, and the synchronization occurs via the emergence of clusters of coherently drifting oscillators. Financial support has been provided by the Italian Ministry of University and Research within the project CRISIS LAB PNR 2011-2013.
Phase transition in a spatial Lotka-Volterra model
Szabo, Gyorgy; Czaran, Tamas
2001-06-01
Spatial evolution is investigated in a simulated system of nine competing and mutating bacterium strains, which mimics the biochemical war among bacteria capable of producing two different bacteriocins (toxins) at most. Random sequential dynamics on a square lattice is governed by very symmetrical transition rules for neighborhood invasions of sensitive strains by killers, killers by resistants, and resistants by sensitives. The community of the nine possible toxicity/resistance types undergoes a critical phase transition as the uniform transmutation rates between the types decreases below a critical value P{sub c} above that all the nine types of strains coexist with equal frequencies. Passing the critical mutation rate from above, the system collapses into one of three topologically identical (degenerated) states, each consisting of three strain types. Of the three possible final states each accrues with equal probability and all three maintain themselves in a self-organizing polydomain structure via cyclic invasions. Our Monte Carlo simulations support that this symmetry-breaking transition belongs to the universality class of the three-state Potts model.
Phase transition in a spatial Lotka-Volterra model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szabó, György; Czárán, Tamás
2001-06-01
Spatial evolution is investigated in a simulated system of nine competing and mutating bacterium strains, which mimics the biochemical war among bacteria capable of producing two different bacteriocins (toxins) at most. Random sequential dynamics on a square lattice is governed by very symmetrical transition rules for neighborhood invasions of sensitive strains by killers, killers by resistants, and resistants by sensitives. The community of the nine possible toxicity/resistance types undergoes a critical phase transition as the uniform transmutation rates between the types decreases below a critical value Pc above that all the nine types of strains coexist with equal frequencies. Passing the critical mutation rate from above, the system collapses into one of three topologically identical (degenerated) states, each consisting of three strain types. Of the three possible final states each accrues with equal probability and all three maintain themselves in a self-organizing polydomain structure via cyclic invasions. Our Monte Carlo simulations support that this symmetry-breaking transition belongs to the universality class of the three-state Potts model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Hirschy, Amy S.; Bremer, Christine D.; Novillo, Walter; Castellano, Marisa; Banister, Aaron
2009-01-01
This paper focuses on transition programs for youth to postsecondary education, broadly considered. It addresses the following questions: (1) What models or programs of transition exist? (2) On what basis can we say one transition program is more effective than another? In other words, how is successful transition defined? (3) How are…
Between the Rock and a Hard Place: The CCMC as a Transit Station Between Modelers and Forecasters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesse, Michael
2009-01-01
The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a US inter-agency activity aiming at research in support of the generation of advanced space weather models. As one of its main functions, the CCMC provides to researchers the use of space science models, even if they are not model owners themselves. The second CCMC activity is to support Space Weather forecasting at national Space Weather Forecasting Centers. This second activity involved model evaluations, model transitions to operations, and the development of draft Space Weather forecasting tools. This presentation will focus on the latter element. Specifically, we will discuss the process of transition research models, or information generated by research models, to Space Weather Forecasting organizations. We will analyze successes as well as obstacles to further progress, and we will suggest avenues for increased transitioning success.
Migration and Marriage: Modeling the Joint Process
Jang, Joy Bohyun; Casterline, John B; Snyder, Anastasia
2016-01-01
Background Previous research on inter-relations between migration and marriage has relied on overly simplistic assumptions about the structure of dependency between the two events. However, there is good reason to posit that each of the two transitions has an impact on the likelihood of the other, and that unobserved common factors may affect both migration and marriage, leading to a distorted impression of the causal impact of one on the other. Objective We will investigate relationships between migration and marriage in the United States using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. We allow for inter-dependency between the two events and examine whether unobserved common factors affect the estimates of both migration and marriage. Methods We estimate a multi-process model in which migration and marriage are considered simultaneously in regression analysis and there is allowance for correlation between disturbances; the latter feature accounts for possible endogeneity between shared unobserved determinants. The model also includes random effects for persons, exploiting the fact that many people experience both events multiple times throughout their lives. Results Unobserved factors appear to significantly influence both migration and marriage, resulting in upward bias in estimates of the effects of each on the other when these shared common factors are not accounted for. Estimates from the multi-process model indicate that marriage significantly increases the hazard of migration while migration does not affect the hazard of marriage. Conclusions Omitting inter-dependency between life course events can lead to a mistaken impression of the direct effects of certain features of each event on the other. PMID:27182198
The Transition from Middle School to High School as a Developmental Process Among Latino Youth
Vasquez-Salgado, Yolanda; Chavira, Gabriela
2014-01-01
The transition from middle school to high school is an important developmental period to investigate because of the negative impact it has on youths’ academics. The purpose of this study was to investigate Latino youths’ academic achievement prior to, during, and after the transition to high school, and gender differences in youths’ achievement over time. School transcripts were obtained for 92 youth. Three latent growth curve models were tested. Youth were stable in achievement throughout middle school, declined in grades during the transition, yet remained stable in high school. Youth with higher achievement in fall of eighth grade declined in the transition at a faster rate than youth who held lower achievement. Girls held higher levels of achievement across each stage in development; boys and girls differed in high school trajectories. Policy makers interested in fostering a successful transition should create programs for both high and low achieving Latino youth. PMID:25202166
An improved model for the transit entropy of monatomic liquids
Wallace, Duane C; Chisolm, Eric D; Bock, Nicolas
2009-01-01
In the original formulation of V-T theory for monatomic liquid dynamics, the transit contribution to entropy was taken to be a universal constant, calibrated to the constant-volume entropy of melting. This model suffers two deficiencies: (a) it does not account for experimental entropy differences of {+-}2% among elemental liquids, and (b) it implies a value of zero for the transit contribution to internal energy. The purpose of this paper is to correct these deficiencies. To this end, the V-T equation for entropy is fitted to an overall accuracy of {+-}0.1% to the available experimental high temperature entropy data for elemental liquids. The theory contains two nuclear motion contributions: (a) the dominant vibrational contribution S{sub vib}(T/{theta}{sub 0}), where T is temperature and {theta}{sub 0} is the vibrational characteristic temperature, and (b) the transit contribution S{sub tr}(T/{theta}{sub tr}), where {theta}{sub tr} is a scaling temperature for each liquid. The appearance of a common functional form of S{sub tr} for all the liquids studied is a property of the experimental data, when analyzed via the V-T formula. The resulting S{sub tr} implies the correct transit contribution to internal energy. The theoretical entropy of melting is derived, in a single formula applying to normal and anomalous melting alike. An ab initio calculation of {theta}{sub 0}, based on density functional theory, is reported for liquid Na and Cu. Comparison of these calculations with the above analysis of experimental entropy data provides verification of V-T theory. In view of the present results, techniques currently being applied in ab initio simulations of liquid properties can be employed to advantage in the further testing and development of V-T theory.
Managing Analysis Models in the Design Process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Briggs, Clark
2006-01-01
Design of large, complex space systems depends on significant model-based support for exploration of the design space. Integrated models predict system performance in mission-relevant terms given design descriptions and multiple physics-based numerical models. Both the design activities and the modeling activities warrant explicit process definitions and active process management to protect the project from excessive risk. Software and systems engineering processes have been formalized and similar formal process activities are under development for design engineering and integrated modeling. JPL is establishing a modeling process to define development and application of such system-level models.
Topological phase transition in the Scheidegger model of river networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oppenheim, Jacob N.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.
2012-08-01
Transport networks are found at the heart of myriad natural systems, yet are poorly understood, except for the case of river networks. The Scheidegger model, in which rivers are convergent random walks, has been studied only in the case of flat topography, ignoring the variety of curved geometries found in nature. Embedding this model on a cone, we find a convergent and a divergent phase, corresponding to few, long basins and many, short basins, respectively, separated by a singularity, indicating a phase transition. Quantifying basin shape using Hacks law l˜ah gives distinct values for h, providing a method of testing our hypotheses. The generality of our model suggests implications for vascular morphology, in particular, differing number and shapes of arterial and venous trees.
Transitioning from Software Requirements Models to Design Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whittle, Jon
2004-01-01
The Scenario Creation and Simulation Process (SCASP) includes the following steps: 1) Write Requirements; 2) Write Use Cases; 3) Prioritize Use Cases; 4) Write Nominal Scenarios; 5) Identify Relationships; 6) Refine/Generalize Scenarios; 7) Transform to State Machines. SCASP provides thorough simulation of use cases before design/implementation, resulting in: 1) Reduced cost; 2) Fewer misunderstandings; 3) Reuse of executable form of use cases. SCASP gives systematic guidelines on how to 1) Separate concerns in use case descriptions; 2) Elicit non-nominal scenarios (alternatives, exceptions, concurrent scenarios, etc.); 3) Transform those scenarios automatically into a set of concurrent state machines; 4) Execute those state machines, i.e., scenario simulation.
Phase Transitions in a Model of Y-Molecules Abstract
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holz, Danielle; Ruth, Donovan; Toral, Raul; Gunton, James
Immunoglobulin is a Y-shaped molecule that functions as an antibody to neutralize pathogens. In special cases where there is a high concentration of immunoglobulin molecules, self-aggregation can occur and the molecules undergo phase transitions. This prevents the molecules from completing their function. We used a simplified model of 2-Dimensional Y-molecules with three identical arms on a triangular lattice with 2-dimensional Grand Canonical Ensemble. The molecules were permitted to be placed, removed, rotated or moved on the lattice. Once phase coexistence was found, we used histogram reweighting and multicanonical sampling to calculate our phase diagram.
Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model
Seymour Katz
2004-12-31
The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).
Dynamic subgrid-scale modeling for high-speed transitional boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
El-Hady, Nabil M.; Zang, Thomas A.; Piomelli, Ugo
1993-01-01
The subgrid scales are modeled dynamically in a large-eddy simulation of transitional boundary-layer flow along a hollow cylinder at a Mach number of 4.5. The behavior of the dynamic-model coefficients, which is determined from local information in the resolved field, is investigated through both an a priori test with direct numerical simulation data for the same case and a complete large-eddy simulation. Both contractions proposed by Germano et al. (1991) and Lilly (1992) are used for the unique determination of the coefficients of the dynamic model, and their results are compared and assessed. The behavior, as well as the energy cascade of the subgridscale field structure, is investigated at various stages of the transition process.
Modeling of transition and surface roughness effects in boundary-layer flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feiereisen, W. J.; Acharya, M.
1986-01-01
Experiments were carried out to examine the influence of three-dimensional, stochastic roughness on the growth of incompressible turbulent boundary layers, as well as the effect of streamwise pressure gradients and freestream turbulence intensity on smooth-wall boundary-layer transition. The modeling of these effects in a two-dimensional boundary-layer computation program was examined with the help of the experiments. A model for surface roughness was developed that relates directly measurable statistical parameters quantifying the roughness geometry to the aerodynamic effects. This model should be valid for a limited class of surfaces found on turbomachinery blading and in other engineering applications. Commonly used criteria for the transition onset performed poorly and presumably need to be modified to account for other factors influencing the process.
Study on the Mechanism of the Deflagration to Detonation Transition Process of Explosive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ying, Yangjun; Hu, Xiaomian; Wei, Lan
2014-03-01
In this paper we presented a numerical study of the mechanisms of the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) process of explosives to assess its thermal stability. We treated the modeling system as a mixture of solid explosives and gaseous reaction products. We utilized a one-dimensional two-phase flow modeling approach with space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. Simulation results show a plug area of high density with relatively slow chemical reactions, whose forward boundary is the fast running shock wave, and rearward boundary is the burning wave.We identified a criterion of steady detonation through a detailed analysis of the characteristics of the reaction process: steady detonation occurs at locations where different physical quantities, such as pressure, density, temperature and velocity, reach peak values simultaneously.We also simulated the high temperature DDT tube experiments of HMX-based high explosive. We found good agreement between the simulation results of detonation velocity and run length determined by the above criterion and the experimental results.
Two Typical Discontinuous Transitions Observed in a Generalized Achlioptas Percolation Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Jian-Quan; Yang, Hong-Chun; Yang, Yu-Ming; Fu, Chuan-Ji; Yang, Chun; Shi, Xiao-Hong; Jia, Xiao
2014-07-01
We extend the Achlioptas percolation (AP) process [Achlioptas et al. Science 323 (2009) 1453] to two generalized Achlioptas percolation processes named GAP1 and GAP2. GAP1 induces a weighted probability factor α in the node sampling process and excludes the intracluster links. Based on GAP1, GAP2 requires m pairs of nodes sampled to add m candidate links that should be residing in 2m different clusters at each step. In the evolution of GAP1, the phase transition can evolve from the continuous to the ‘most explosive’ percolation as the value of the factor α is decreasing to a certain negative number. It indicates that there might be a type of discontinuous transition induced by the probability modulation effect even in the thermodynamic limit, and the most explosive percolation is only one of its extreme cases. We analyze the characteristics of the evolving process of the two-nodes-clusters and the cluster-size distribution at the transformation point for different α the numerical results suggest that there might be a critical value α0 and the phase transition should be discontinuous (α <= α0) or continuous (α > α0). In the evolution of GAP2, twice phase transitions are observed successively and the time duration between them becomes shorter till they amalgamate into the ‘most explosive’ percolation. The first transition is induced by the probability modulation effect analyzed in GAP1, the second transition, induced by the three coexisting giant clusters, is always discontinuous and the maximum jump of order parameter approaches N/3 while the value of the factor α is increasing to 1.4 approximately. In this work, two typical discontinuous transitions induced respectively by the probability modulation and the extended local competition are exhibited in GAP2, which might provide references to analyze the discontinuous phase transition in networks further.
Process modeling and industrial energy use
Howe, S O; Pilati, D A; Sparrow, F T
1980-11-01
How the process models developed at BNL are used to analyze industrial energy use is described and illustrated. Following a brief overview of the industry modeling program, the general methodology of process modeling is discussed. The discussion highlights the important concepts, contents, inputs, and outputs of a typical process model. A model of the US pulp and paper industry is then discussed as a specific application of process modeling methodology. Case study results from the pulp and paper model illustrate how process models can be used to analyze a variety of issues. Applications addressed with the case study results include projections of energy demand, conservation technology assessment, energy-related tax policies, and sensitivity analysis. A subsequent discussion of these results supports the conclusion that industry process models are versatile and powerful tools for energy end-use modeling and conservation analysis. Information on the current status of industry models at BNL is tabulated.
Quantum phase transitions in the Kondo-necklace model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghassemi, Nader; Hemmatiyan, Shayan; Rahimi Movassagh, Mahsa; Kargarian, Mahdi; Rezakhani, Ali T.; Langari, Abdollah
2015-03-01
Kondo-necklace model can describe the magnetic low-energy limit of strongly correlated heavy fermion materials. There exist multiple energy scales in this model corresponding to each phase of the system. Here, we study quantum phase transitions between these different phases, and show the effect of anisotropies in terms of quantum information properties and vanishing energy gap. We employ the perturbative unitary transformations to calculate the energy gap and spin-spin correlations for the model one, two, and three spatial dimensions as well as for the spin ladders. In particular, we show that the method, although being perturbative, can predict the expected quantum critical point by imposing the spontaneous symmetry breaking, which is in good agreement with the results of numerical and Green's function analyses. We also use concurrence, a bipartite entanglement measure, to study the criticality of the model. Absence of singularities in the derivative of the concurrence in 2d and 3d in Kondo-necklace model shows this model has multipartite entanglement. We also discuss the crossover from the one-dimensional to the two-dimensional model via the ladder structure. Sharif University of Technology.
Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam.
Yaroshchuk, Oleg V; Kiselev, Alexei D; Kravchuk, Ruslan M
2008-03-01
We have studied a sequence of anchoring transitions observed in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) sandwiched between hydrophobic polyimide substrates treated with a plasma beam. There is a pronounced continuous transition from a homeotropic to a slightly tilted (nearly planar) alignment with the easy axis parallel to the incidence plane of the plasma beam (the zenithal transition) which takes place as the exposure dose increases. In NLCs with positive dielectric anisotropy, a further increase in the exposure dose results in in-plane reorientation of the easy axis by 90 degrees (the azimuthal transition). This transition occurs through the twofold degenerate alignment characteristic of second-order anchoring transitions. In contrast to the critical behavior of anchoring, the contact angle of the NLC and water on the treated substrates declines monotonically with increasing exposure dose. It follows that the surface concentration of hydrophobic chains decreases continuously. The anchoring transitions under consideration are qualitatively interpreted by using a simple phenomenological model of competing easy axes which is studied by analyzing anchoring diagrams of generalized polar and nonpolar anchoring models. PMID:18517405
Mustard, Thomas J. L.; Wender, Paul A.; Cheong, Paul Ha-Yeon
2015-01-01
The origins of differential catalytic reactivities of four Rh(I) catalysts and their derivatives in the (5 + 2) cycloaddition reaction were elucidated using density functional theory. Computed free energy spans are in excellent agreement with known experimental rates. For every catalyst, the substrate geometries in the transition state remained constant (<0.1 Å RMSD for atoms involved in bond-making and -breaking processes). Catalytic efficiency is shown to be a function of how well the catalyst accommodates the substrate transition state geometry and electronics. This shows that the induced fit model for explaining biological catalysis may be relevant to transition metal catalysis. This could serve as a general model for understanding the origins of efficiencies of catalytic reactions. PMID:26146588
TRANSIT MODEL OF PLANETS WITH MOON AND RING SYSTEMS
Tusnski, Luis Ricardo M.; Valio, Adriana E-mail: avalio@craam.mackenzie.br
2011-12-10
Since the discovery of the first exoplanets, those most adequate for life to begin and evolve have been sought. Due to observational bias, however, most of the discovered planets so far are gas giants, precluding their habitability. However, if these hot Jupiters are located in the habitable zones of their host stars, and if rocky moons orbit them, then these moons may be habitable. In this work, we present a model for planetary transit simulation considering the presence of moons and planetary rings around a planet. The moon's orbit is considered to be circular and coplanar with the planetary orbit. The other physical and orbital parameters of the star, planet, moon, and rings can be adjusted in each simulation. It is possible to simulate as many successive transits as desired. Since the presence of spots on the surface of the star may produce a signal similar to that of the presence of a moon, our model also allows for the inclusion of starspots. The result of the simulation is a light curve with a planetary transit. White noise may also be added to the light curves to produce curves similar to those obtained by the CoRoT and Kepler space telescopes. The goal is to determine the criteria for detectability of moons and/or ring systems using photometry. The results show that it is possible to detect moons with radii as little as 1.3 R{sub Circled-Plus} with CoRoT and 0.3 R{sub Circled-Plus} with Kepler.
Progress in Modeling of Laminar to Turbulent Transition on Turbine Vanes and Blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Frederick F.; Ashpis, David E.
1996-01-01
The progress in modeling of transition on turbine vanes and blades performed under the sponsorship of NASA Lewis Research Center is reviewed. Past work in bypass transition modeling for accurate heat transfer predictions, show that transition onset can be reasonably predicted by modified k - epsilon models, but fall short of predicting transition length. Improvements in the predictions of the transition region itself were made with intermittency models based on turbulent spot dynamics. Needs and proposals for extending the modeling to include wake passing and separation effects are outlined.
Time-dependent Mott transition in the periodic Anderson model with nonlocal hybridization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Felix; Potthoff, Michael
2016-08-01
The time-dependent Mott transition in a periodic Anderson model with off-site, nearest-neighbor hybridization is studied within the framework of nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory. Using the two-site dynamical-impurity approximation, we compute the real-time dynamics of the optimal variational parameter and of different observables initiated by sudden quenches of the Hubbard-U and identify the critical interaction. The time-dependent transition is orbital selective, i.e., in the final state, reached in the long-time limit after the quench to the critical interaction, the Mott gap opens in the spectral function of the localized orbitals only. We discuss the dependence of the critical interaction and of the final-state effective temperature on the hybridization strength and point out the various similarities between the nonequilibrium and the equilibrium Mott transition. It is shown that these can also be smoothly connected to each other by increasing the duration of a U-ramp from a sudden quench to a quasi-static process. The physics found for the model with off-site hybridization is compared with the dynamical Mott transition in the single-orbital Hubbard model and with the dynamical crossover found for the real-time dynamics of the conventional Anderson lattice with on-site hybridization.
Dynamic Linkages Between the Transition Zone & Surface Plate Motions in 2D Models of Subduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.
2012-12-01
Descending subducted slabs affect both plate tectonics at the surface and overall mantle flow (e.g. Conrad and Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2002). For time-dependent numerical models, the potential evolution of these slabs, ranging from immediate penetration into the lower mantle to prior buckling and stagnation, are affected by parameters such as the plate age, the viscosity jump into the lower mantle, the presence of phase transitions, trench motion and the chosen governing equation approximation (e.g. Billen and Hirth, 2007). Similarly, the overall deviatoric stress within the slab, especially where modified by the phase transitions, may explain the uneven distribution of deep earthquakes with depth (e.g. Bina, 1997). Better understanding of these processes may arise from a more realistic 2-D model that is fully-dynamic, with an overriding plate, freely-moving trench, compositionally-layered slab and seven major phase transitions, in addition to using the compressible (TALA) form of the governing equations. Though the thermodynamic parameters of certain phase transitions may be uncertain, this study aims to test the latest data and encourage further mineralogical research. We will present fully-dynamic models, which explore the importance of the phase transitions, especially those that have been previously excluded such as the wadsleyite to ringwoodite and the pyroxene and garnet phase transitions. These phase transitions, coupled with the modeled compositionally distinct crust, harzburgite, and pyrolite lithosphere layers, may produce new large-scale dynamic behavior not seen in past numerical models, as well as stress variations within the slab related to deep slab seismicity. Feedback from the compositionally complex slab to the dynamic trench may provide further insight on the mechanics of slab stagnation and behavior in the upper and lower mantle. Billen, M. I., and G. Hirth, Rheologic controls on slab dynamics, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Geosystems, 8 (Q08012
Multidimensional Data Modeling for Business Process Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansmann, Svetlana; Neumuth, Thomas; Scholl, Marc H.
The emerging area of business process intelligence attempts to enhance the analytical capabilities of business process management systems by employing data warehousing and mining technologies. This paper presents an approach to re-engineering the business process modeling in conformity with the multidimensional data model. Since the business process and the multidimensional model are driven by rather different objectives and assumptions, there is no straightforward solution to converging these models.
Sultan, Nabil; Garziglia, Sébastien; Ruffine, Livio
2016-01-01
Over the past years, several studies have raised concerns about the possible interactions between methane hydrate decomposition and external change. To carry out such an investigation, it is essential to characterize the baseline dynamics of gas hydrate systems related to natural geological and sedimentary processes. This is usually treated through the analysis of sulfate-reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Here, we model sulfate reduction coupled with AOM as a two-dimensional (2D) problem including, advective and diffusive transport. This is applied to a case study from a deep-water site off Nigeria’s coast where lateral methane advection through turbidite layers was suspected. We show by analyzing the acquired data in combination with computational modeling that a two-dimensional approach is able to accurately describe the recent past dynamics of such a complex natural system. Our results show that the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ) is not a vertical barrier for dissolved sulfate and methane. We also show that such a modeling is able to assess short timescale variations in the order of decades to centuries. PMID:27230887
Sultan, Nabil; Garziglia, Sébastien; Ruffine, Livio
2016-01-01
Over the past years, several studies have raised concerns about the possible interactions between methane hydrate decomposition and external change. To carry out such an investigation, it is essential to characterize the baseline dynamics of gas hydrate systems related to natural geological and sedimentary processes. This is usually treated through the analysis of sulfate-reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Here, we model sulfate reduction coupled with AOM as a two-dimensional (2D) problem including, advective and diffusive transport. This is applied to a case study from a deep-water site off Nigeria's coast where lateral methane advection through turbidite layers was suspected. We show by analyzing the acquired data in combination with computational modeling that a two-dimensional approach is able to accurately describe the recent past dynamics of such a complex natural system. Our results show that the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ) is not a vertical barrier for dissolved sulfate and methane. We also show that such a modeling is able to assess short timescale variations in the order of decades to centuries. PMID:27230887
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultan, Nabil; Garziglia, Sébastien; Ruffine, Livio
2016-05-01
Over the past years, several studies have raised concerns about the possible interactions between methane hydrate decomposition and external change. To carry out such an investigation, it is essential to characterize the baseline dynamics of gas hydrate systems related to natural geological and sedimentary processes. This is usually treated through the analysis of sulfate-reduction coupled to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Here, we model sulfate reduction coupled with AOM as a two-dimensional (2D) problem including, advective and diffusive transport. This is applied to a case study from a deep-water site off Nigeria’s coast where lateral methane advection through turbidite layers was suspected. We show by analyzing the acquired data in combination with computational modeling that a two-dimensional approach is able to accurately describe the recent past dynamics of such a complex natural system. Our results show that the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ) is not a vertical barrier for dissolved sulfate and methane. We also show that such a modeling is able to assess short timescale variations in the order of decades to centuries.
Multi-state succession in wetlands: a novel use of state and transition models.
Zweig, C L; Kitchens, W M
2009-07-01
The complexity of ecosystems and mechanisms of succession are often simplified by linear and mathematical models used to understand and predict system behavior. Such models often do not incorporate multivariate, nonlinear feedbacks in pattern and process that include multiple scales of organization inherent within real-world systems. Wetlands are ecosystems with unique, nonlinear patterns of succession due to the regular, but often inconstant, presence of water on the landscape. We develop a general, nonspatial state and transition (S and T) succession conceptual model for wetlands and apply the general framework by creating annotated succession/management models and hypotheses for use in impact analysis on a portion of an imperiled wetland. The S and T models for our study area, Water Conservation Area 3A South (WCA3), Florida, U.S.A., included hydrologic and peat depth values from multivariate analyses and classification and regression trees. We used the freeware Vegetation Dynamics Development Tool as an exploratory application to evaluate our S and T models with different management actions (equal chance [a control condition], deeper conditions, dry conditions, and increased hydrologic range) for three communities: slough, sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), and wet prairie. Deeper conditions and increased hydrologic range behaved similarly, with the transition of community states to deeper states, particularly for sawgrass and slough. Hydrology is the primary mechanism for multi-state transitions within our study period, and we show both an immediate and lagged effect on vegetation, depending on community state. We consider these S and T succession models as a fraction of the framework for the Everglades. They are hypotheses for use in adaptive management, represent the community response to hydrology, and illustrate which aspects of hydrologic variability are important to community structure. We intend for these models to act as a foundation for further
Multi-state succession in wetlands: a novel use of state and transition models
Zweig, Christa L.; Kitchens, Wiley M.
2009-01-01
The complexity of ecosystems and mechanisms of succession are often simplified by linear and mathematical models used to understand and predict system behavior. Such models often do not incorporate multivariate, nonlinear feedbacks in pattern and process that include multiple scales of organization inherent within real-world systems. Wetlands are ecosystems with unique, nonlinear patterns of succession due to the regular, but often inconstant, presence of water on the landscape. We develop a general, nonspatial state and transition (S and T) succession conceptual model for wetlands and apply the general framework by creating annotated succession/management models and hypotheses for use in impact analysis on a portion of an imperiled wetland. The S and T models for our study area, Water Conservation Area 3A South (WCA3), Florida, USA, included hydrologic and peat depth values from multivariate analyses and classification and regression trees. We used the freeware Vegetation Dynamics Development Tool as an exploratory application to evaluate our S and T models with different management actions (equal chance [a control condition], deeper conditions, dry conditions, and increased hydrologic range) for three communities: slough, sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense), and wet prairie. Deeper conditions and increased hydrologic range behaved similarly, with the transition of community states to deeper states, particularly for sawgrass and slough. Hydrology is the primary mechanism for multi-state transitions within our study period, and we show both an immediate and lagged effect on vegetation, depending on community state. We consider these S and T succession models as a fraction of the framework for the Everglades. They are hypotheses for use in adaptive management, represent the community response to hydrology, and illustrate which aspects of hydrologic variability are important to community structure. We intend for these models to act as a foundation for further restoration
An Anderson-like model of the QCD chiral transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giordano, Matteo; Kovács, Tamás G.; Pittler, Ferenc
2016-06-01
We study the problems of chiral symmetry breaking and eigenmode localisation in finite-temperature QCD by looking at the lattice Dirac operator as a random Hamiltonian. We recast the staggered Dirac operator into an unconventional three-dimensional Anderson Hamiltonian ("Dirac-Anderson Hamiltonian") carrying internal degrees of freedom, with disorder provided by the fluctuations of the gauge links. In this framework, we identify the features relevant to chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes in the ordering of the local Polyakov lines, and in the related correlation between spatial links across time slices, thus tying the two phenomena to the deconfinement transition. We then build a toy model based on QCD and on the Dirac-Anderson approach, replacing the Polyakov lines with spin variables and simplifying the dynamics of the spatial gauge links, but preserving the above-mentioned relevant dynamical features. Our toy model successfully reproduces the main features of the QCD spectrum and of the Dirac eigenmodes concerning chiral symmetry breaking and localisation, both in the ordered (deconfined) and disordered (confined) phases. Moreover, it allows us to study separately the roles played in the two phenomena by the diagonal and the off-diagonal terms of the Dirac-Anderson Hamiltonian. Our results support our expectation that chiral symmetry restoration and localisation of the low modes are closely related, and that both are triggered by the deconfinement transition.
Multiscale Modeling of Shock-Induced Phase Transitions in Iron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, Emily; Caspersen, Kyle; Lew, Adrian; Ortiz, Michael
2004-03-01
Multiscale Modeling of Shock-Induced Phase Transitions in Iron Emily Carter, Kyle Caspersen, Adrian Lew and Michael Ortiz We investigate the bcc to hcp phase transition in iron under both pressure and shear. We use DFT to map out the energy landscape of uniformly deformed iron, including its equation of state and its elastic moduli as a function of volume. >From these data we construct a nonlinear-elastic energy density which gives the energy density for arbitrary - not necessarily small - deformations. The energy density contains two wells corresponding to the bcc and hcp phases. We take this multi-well energy density as a basis for the investigation of the effect of shear on the phase diagram of iron. We allow for mixed states consisting alternating lamellae of bcc and hcp phases, and, for each macroscopic deformation, we determine the optimal microstructure of the mixed state by energy minimization using a sequential-lamination algorithm. We find that the superposition of shearing deformation on a volume change has the effect of inducing mixed states of varying spatial complexity, and of markedly lowering the critical transformation pressure. Indeed, we find that shear must be taken into consideration in order to obtain agreement with measured transformation pressures. Finally, we demonstrate how the microstructure model can be integrated into large-scale finite element calculations of shocked iron.
Bifurcation and Spike Adding Transition in Chay-Keizer Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Bo; Liu, Shenquan; Liu, Xuanliang; Jiang, Xiaofang; Wang, Xiaohui
Electrical bursting is an activity which is universal in excitable cells such as neurons and various endocrine cells, and it encodes rich physiological information. As burst delay identifies that the signal integration has reached the threshold at which it can generate an action potential, the number of spikes in a burst may have essential physiological implications, and the transition of bursting in excitable cells is associated with the bifurcation phenomenon closely. In this paper, we focus on the transition of the spike count per burst of the pancreatic β-cells within a mathematical model and bifurcation phenomenon in the Chay-Keizer model, which is utilized to simulate the pancreatic β-cells. By the fast-slow dynamical bifurcation analysis and the bi-parameter bifurcation analysis, the local dynamics of the Chay-Keizer system around the Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation is illustrated. Then the variety of the number of spikes per burst is discussed by changing the settings of a single parameter and bi-parameter. Moreover, results on the number of spikes within a burst are summarized in ISIs (interspike intervals) sequence diagrams, maximum and minimum, and the number of spikes under bi-parameter value changes.
Process Correlation Analysis Model for Process Improvement Identification
Park, Sooyong
2014-01-01
Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practices. Process areas and their elements (goals and practices) are often correlated due to the iterative nature of software development process. However, in the current practice, correlations of process elements are often overlooked in the development of an improvement plan, which diminishes the efficiency of the plan. This is mainly attributed to significant efforts and the lack of required expertise. In this paper, we present a process correlation analysis model that helps identify correlations of process elements from the results of process assessment. This model is defined based on CMMI and empirical data of improvement practices. We evaluate the model using industrial data. PMID:24977170
Jamming transitions in force-based models for pedestrian dynamics.
Chraibi, Mohcine; Ezaki, Takahiro; Tordeux, Antoine; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Schadschneider, Andreas; Seyfried, Armin
2015-10-01
Force-based models describe pedestrian dynamics in analogy to classical mechanics by a system of second order ordinary differential equations. By investigating the linear stability of two main classes of forces, parameter regions with unstable homogeneous states are identified. In this unstable regime it is then checked whether phase transitions or stop-and-go waves occur. Results based on numerical simulations show, however, that the investigated models lead to unrealistic behavior in the form of backwards moving pedestrians and overlapping. This is one reason why stop-and-go waves have not been observed in these models. The unrealistic behavior is not related to the numerical treatment of the dynamic equations but rather indicates an intrinsic problem of this model class. Identifying the underlying generic problems gives indications how to define models that do not show such unrealistic behavior. As an example we introduce a force-based model which produces realistic jam dynamics without the appearance of unrealistic negative speeds for empirical desired walking speeds. PMID:26565291
Jamming transitions in force-based models for pedestrian dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chraibi, Mohcine; Ezaki, Takahiro; Tordeux, Antoine; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Schadschneider, Andreas; Seyfried, Armin
2015-10-01
Force-based models describe pedestrian dynamics in analogy to classical mechanics by a system of second order ordinary differential equations. By investigating the linear stability of two main classes of forces, parameter regions with unstable homogeneous states are identified. In this unstable regime it is then checked whether phase transitions or stop-and-go waves occur. Results based on numerical simulations show, however, that the investigated models lead to unrealistic behavior in the form of backwards moving pedestrians and overlapping. This is one reason why stop-and-go waves have not been observed in these models. The unrealistic behavior is not related to the numerical treatment of the dynamic equations but rather indicates an intrinsic problem of this model class. Identifying the underlying generic problems gives indications how to define models that do not show such unrealistic behavior. As an example we introduce a force-based model which produces realistic jam dynamics without the appearance of unrealistic negative speeds for empirical desired walking speeds.
Exact results for models of multichannel quantum nonadiabatic transitions
Sinitsyn, N. A.
2014-12-11
We consider nonadiabatic transitions in explicitly time-dependent systems with Hamiltonians of the form Hˆ(t)=Aˆ+Bˆt+Cˆ/t, where t is time and Aˆ,Bˆ,Cˆ are Hermitian N × N matrices. We show that in any model of this type, scattering matrix elements satisfy nontrivial exact constraints that follow from the absence of the Stokes phenomenon for solutions with specific conditions at t→–∞. This allows one to continue such solutions analytically to t→+∞, and connect their asymptotic behavior at t→–∞ and t→+∞. This property becomes particularly useful when a model shows additional discrete symmetries. Specifically, we derive a number of simple exact constraints and explicitmore » expressions for scattering probabilities in such systems.« less
Exact results for models of multichannel quantum nonadiabatic transitions
Sinitsyn, N. A.
2014-12-11
We consider nonadiabatic transitions in explicitly time-dependent systems with Hamiltonians of the form Hˆ(t)=Aˆ+Bˆt+Cˆ/t, where t is time and Aˆ,Bˆ,Cˆ are Hermitian N × N matrices. We show that in any model of this type, scattering matrix elements satisfy nontrivial exact constraints that follow from the absence of the Stokes phenomenon for solutions with specific conditions at t→–∞. This allows one to continue such solutions analytically to t→+∞, and connect their asymptotic behavior at t→–∞ and t→+∞. This property becomes particularly useful when a model shows additional discrete symmetries. Specifically, we derive a number of simple exact constraints and explicit expressions for scattering probabilities in such systems.
Dynamic Linkages Between the Transition Zone & Surface Plate Motions in 2D Models of Subduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arredondo, K.; Billen, M. I.
2013-12-01
While slab pull is considered the dominant force controlling plate motion and speed, its magnitude is controlled by slab behavior in the mantle, where tomographic studies show a wide range of possibilities from direct penetration to folding, or stagnation directly above the lower mantle (e.g. Fukao et al., 2009). Geodynamic studies have investigated various parameters, such as plate age and two phase transitions, to recreate observed behavior (e.g. Běhounková and Cízková, 2008). However, past geodynamic models have left out known slab characteristics that may have a large impact on slab behavior and our understanding of subduction processes. Mineral experiments and seismic observations have indicated the existence of additional phase transitions in the mantle transition zone that may produce buoyancy forces large enough to affect the descent of a subducting slab (e.g. Ricard et al., 2005). The current study systematically tests different common assumptions used in geodynamic models: kinematic versus free-slip boundary conditions, the effects of adiabatic heating, viscous dissipation and latent heat, compositional layering and a more complete suite of phase transitions. Final models have a complete energy equation, with eclogite, harzburgite and pyrolite lithosphere compositional layers, and seven composition-dependent phase transitions within the olivine, pyroxene and garnet polymorph minerals. Results show important feedback loops between different assumptions and new behavior from the most complete models. Kinematic models show slab weakening or breaking above the 660 km boundary and between compositional layers. The behavior in dynamic models with a free-moving trench and overriding plate is compared to the more commonly found kinematic models. The new behavior may have important implications for the depth distribution of deep earthquakes within the slab. Though the thermodynamic parameters of certain phase transitions may be uncertain, their presence and
A model for the Delta(1600) resonance and gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition
G. Ramalho, K. Tsushima
2010-10-01
A covariant spectator constituent quark model is applied to study the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition. Two processes are important in the transition: a photon couples to the individual quarks of the Delta(1600) core (quark core), and a photon couples to the intermediate pion-baryon states (pion cloud). While the quark core contributions are estimated assuming Delta(1600) as the first radial excitation of Delta(1232), the pion cloud contributions are estimated based on an analogy with the gamma N -> Delta(1232) transition. To estimate the pion cloud contributions in the gamma N -> Delta(1600) transition, we include the relevant intermediate states, pi-N, pi-Delta, pi-N(1440) and pi-Delta(1600). Dependence on the four-momentum transfer squared, Q2, is predicted for the magnetic dipole transition form factor, GM*(Q2), as well as the helicity amplitudes, A_1/2(Q2) and A_3/2(Q2). The results at Q2=0 are compared with the existing data.
Model for the {Delta}(1600) resonance and {gamma}N{yields}{Delta}(1600) transition
Ramalho, G.; Tsushima, K.
2010-10-01
A covariant spectator constituent quark model is applied to study the {gamma}N{yields}{Delta}(1600) transition. Two processes are important in the transition: a photon couples to the individual quarks of the {Delta}(1600) core (quark core), and a photon couples to the intermediate pion-baryon states (pion cloud). While the quark core contributions are estimated assuming {Delta}(1600) as the first radial excitation of {Delta}(1232), the pion cloud contributions are estimated based on an analogy with the {gamma}N{yields}{Delta}(1232) transition. To estimate the pion cloud contributions in the {gamma}N{yields}{Delta}(1600) transition, we include the relevant intermediate states, {pi}N, {pi}{Delta}, {pi}N(1440) and {pi}{Delta}(1600). Dependence on the four-momentum transfer squared, Q{sup 2}, is predicted for the magnetic dipole transition form factor, G{sub M}*(Q{sup 2}), as well as the helicity amplitudes, A{sub 1/2}(Q{sup 2}) and A{sub 3/2}(Q{sup 2}). The results at Q{sup 2}=0 are compared with the existing data.
The Biological Big Bang model for the major transitions in evolution
Koonin, Eugene V
2007-01-01
Background Major transitions in biological evolution show the same pattern of sudden emergence of diverse forms at a new level of complexity. The relationships between major groups within an emergent new class of biological entities are hard to decipher and do not seem to fit the tree pattern that, following Darwin's original proposal, remains the dominant description of biological evolution. The cases in point include the origin of complex RNA molecules and protein folds; major groups of viruses; archaea and bacteria, and the principal lineages within each of these prokaryotic domains; eukaryotic supergroups; and animal phyla. In each of these pivotal nexuses in life's history, the principal "types" seem to appear rapidly and fully equipped with the signature features of the respective new level of biological organization. No intermediate "grades" or intermediate forms between different types are detectable. Usually, this pattern is attributed to cladogenesis compressed in time, combined with the inevitable erosion of the phylogenetic signal. Hypothesis I propose that most or all major evolutionary transitions that show the "explosive" pattern of emergence of new types of biological entities correspond to a boundary between two qualitatively distinct evolutionary phases. The first, inflationary phase is characterized by extremely rapid evolution driven by various processes of genetic information exchange, such as horizontal gene transfer, recombination, fusion, fission, and spread of mobile elements. These processes give rise to a vast diversity of forms from which the main classes of entities at the new level of complexity emerge independently, through a sampling process. In the second phase, evolution dramatically slows down, the respective process of genetic information exchange tapers off, and multiple lineages of the new type of entities emerge, each of them evolving in a tree-like fashion from that point on. This biphasic model of evolution incorporates the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Pengcheng; Hou, Wei; Feng, Guolin
2016-05-01
A new detection method has been proposed to study the transition process of abrupt climate change. With this method, the climate system transiting from one stable state to another can be verified clearly. By applying this method to the global sea surface temperature over the past century, several climate changes and their processes are detected, including the start state (moment), persist time, and end state (moment). According to the spatial distribution, the locations of climate changes mainly have occurred in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific before the middle twentieth century, in the 1970s in the equatorial middle-eastern Pacific, and in the middle and southern Pacific since the end of the twentieth century. In addition, the quantitative relationship between the transition process parameters is verified in theory and practice: (1) the relationship between the rate and stability parameters is linear, and (2) the relationship between the rate and change amplitude parameters is quadratic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slaughter, Susan; Bankes, Jane
2007-01-01
The Functional Transitions Model (FTM) integrates the theoretical notions of progressive functional decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), excess disability, and transitions occurring intermittently along the trajectory of functional decline. Application of the Functional Transitions Model to clinical practice encompasses the paradox of…
Shen, Jun; Boeckmann, Alison; Vick, Andrew
2012-06-01
A mathematical absorption model (e.g. transit compartment model) is useful to describe complex absorption process. However, in such a model, an assumption has to be made to introduce multiple doses that a prior dose has been absorbed nearly completely when the next dose is administered. This is because the drug input cannot be determined from drug depot compartment through integration of the differential equation system and has to be analytically calculated. We propose a method of dose superimposition to introduce multiple doses; thereby eliminating the assumption. The code for implementing the dose superimposition in WinNonlin and NONMEM was provided. For implementation in NONMEM, we discussed a special case (SC) and a general case (GC). In a SC, dose superimposition was implemented solely using NM-TRAN abbreviated code and the maximum number of the doses that can be administered for any subject must be pre-defined. In a GC, a user-supplied function (FUNCA) in FORTRAN code was defined to perform dose superimposition to remove the restriction that the maximum number of doses must be pre-defined. PMID:22555854
A new model for broadband waveguide-to-microstrip transition design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ponchak, George E.; Downey, Alan N.
1988-01-01
A new model is presented which permits the prediction of the resonant frequencies created by antipodal finline waveguide to microstrip transitions. The transition is modeled as a tapered transmission line in series with an infinite set of coupled resonant circuits. The resonant circuits are modeled as simple microwave resonant cavities of which the resonant frequencies are easily determined. The model is developed and the resonant frequencies determined for several different transitions. Experimental results are given to confirm the models.
Optimal Control of Markov Processes with Age-Dependent Transition Rates
Ghosh, Mrinal K. Saha, Subhamay
2012-10-15
We study optimal control of Markov processes with age-dependent transition rates. The control policy is chosen continuously over time based on the state of the process and its age. We study infinite horizon discounted cost and infinite horizon average cost problems. Our approach is via the construction of an equivalent semi-Markov decision process. We characterise the value function and optimal controls for both discounted and average cost cases.
Phase transitions in Ising models on directed networks.
Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, António Luis; Lipowska, Dorota; Gontarek, Krzysztof
2015-11-01
We examine Ising models with heat-bath dynamics on directed networks. Our simulations show that Ising models on directed triangular and simple cubic lattices undergo a phase transition that most likely belongs to the Ising universality class. On the directed square lattice the model remains paramagnetic at any positive temperature as already reported in some previous studies. We also examine random directed graphs and show that contrary to undirected ones, percolation of directed bonds does not guarantee ferromagnetic ordering. Only above a certain threshold can a random directed graph support finite-temperature ferromagnetic ordering. Such behavior is found also for out-homogeneous random graphs, but in this case the analysis of magnetic and percolative properties can be done exactly. Directed random graphs also differ from undirected ones with respect to zero-temperature freezing. Only at low connectivity do they remain trapped in a disordered configuration. Above a certain threshold, however, the zero-temperature dynamics quickly drives the model toward a broken symmetry (magnetized) state. Only above this threshold, which is almost twice as large as the percolation threshold, do we expect the Ising model to have a positive critical temperature. With a very good accuracy, the behavior on directed random graphs is reproduced within a certain approximate scheme. PMID:26651748
Phase transitions in Ising models on directed networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, António Luis; Lipowska, Dorota; Gontarek, Krzysztof
2015-11-01
We examine Ising models with heat-bath dynamics on directed networks. Our simulations show that Ising models on directed triangular and simple cubic lattices undergo a phase transition that most likely belongs to the Ising universality class. On the directed square lattice the model remains paramagnetic at any positive temperature as already reported in some previous studies. We also examine random directed graphs and show that contrary to undirected ones, percolation of directed bonds does not guarantee ferromagnetic ordering. Only above a certain threshold can a random directed graph support finite-temperature ferromagnetic ordering. Such behavior is found also for out-homogeneous random graphs, but in this case the analysis of magnetic and percolative properties can be done exactly. Directed random graphs also differ from undirected ones with respect to zero-temperature freezing. Only at low connectivity do they remain trapped in a disordered configuration. Above a certain threshold, however, the zero-temperature dynamics quickly drives the model toward a broken symmetry (magnetized) state. Only above this threshold, which is almost twice as large as the percolation threshold, do we expect the Ising model to have a positive critical temperature. With a very good accuracy, the behavior on directed random graphs is reproduced within a certain approximate scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Liwu; Luo, Xiaojian; Fei, Fan; Wang, Yixing; Leng, Jinsong; Liu, Yanju
2013-04-01
Applied to voltage, a dielectric elastomer membrane may deform into a mixture of two states under certain conditions. One of which is the flat state and the other is the wrinkled state. In the flat state, the membrane is relatively thick with a small area, while on the contrary, in the wrinkled state, the membrane is relatively thin with a large area. The coexistence of these two states may cause the electromechanical phase transition of dielectric elastomer. The phase diagram of idea dielectric elastomer membrane under unidirectional stress and voltage inspired us to think about the liquid-to-vapor phase transition of pure substance. The practical working cycle of a steam engine includes the thermodynamical process of liquid-to-vapor phase transition, the fact is that the steam engine will do the maximum work if undergoing the phase transition process. In this paper, in order to consider the influence of coexistent state of dielectric elastomer, we investigate the homogeneous deformation of the dielectric elastomer tube. The theoretical model is built and the relationship between external loads and stretch are got, we can see that the elastomer tube experiences the coexistent state before reaching the stretching limit from the diagram. We think these results can guide the design and manufacture of energy harvesting equipments.
Aguiar, Ana Paula Dutra; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Assis, Talita Oliveira; Dalla-Nora, Eloi L; Toledo, Peter Mann; Santos-Junior, Roberto Araújo Oliveira; Batistella, Mateus; Coelho, Andrea Santos; Savaget, Elza Kawakami; Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Cruz; Nobre, Carlos Afonso; Ometto, Jean Pierre H
2016-05-01
Following an intense occupation process that was initiated in the 1960s, deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, stabilizing around 6000 km(2) yr(-1) in the last 5 years. A convergence of conditions contributed to this, including the creation of protected areas, the use of effective monitoring systems, and credit restriction mechanisms. Nevertheless, other threats remain, including the rapidly expanding global markets for agricultural commodities, large-scale transportation and energy infrastructure projects, and weak institutions. We propose three updated qualitative and quantitative land-use scenarios for the Brazilian Amazon, including a normative 'Sustainability' scenario in which we envision major socio-economic, institutional, and environmental achievements in the region. We developed an innovative spatially explicit modelling approach capable of representing alternative pathways of the clear-cut deforestation, secondary vegetation dynamics, and the old-growth forest degradation. We use the computational models to estimate net deforestation-driven carbon emissions for the different scenarios. The region would become a sink of carbon after 2020 in a scenario of residual deforestation (~1000 km(2) yr(-1)) and a change in the current dynamics of the secondary vegetation - in a forest transition scenario. However, our results also show that the continuation of the current situation of relatively low deforestation rates and short life cycle of the secondary vegetation would maintain the region as a source of CO2 - even if a large portion of the deforested area is covered by secondary vegetation. In relation to the old-growth forest degradation process, we estimated average gross emission corresponding to 47% of the clear-cut deforestation from 2007 to 2013 (using the DEGRAD system data), although the aggregate effects of the postdisturbance regeneration can partially offset these emissions. Both processes (secondary
Simulating Society Transitions: Standstill, Collapse and Growth in an Evolving Network Model
Xu, Guanghua; Yang, Junjie; Li, Guoqing
2013-01-01
We developed a model society composed of various occupations that interact with each other and the environment, with the capability of simulating three widely recognized societal transition patterns: standstill, collapse and growth, which are important compositions of society evolving dynamics. Each occupation is equipped with a number of inhabitants that may randomly flow to other occupations, during which process new occupations may be created and then interact with existing ones. Total population of society is associated with productivity, which is determined by the structure and volume of the society. We ran the model under scenarios such as parasitism, environment fluctuation and invasion, which correspond to different driving forces of societal transition, and obtained reasonable simulation results. This work adds to our understanding of societal evolving dynamics as well as provides theoretical clues to sustainable development. PMID:24086530
Model-based software process improvement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zettervall, Brenda T.
1994-01-01
The activities of a field test site for the Software Engineering Institute's software process definition project are discussed. Products tested included the improvement model itself, descriptive modeling techniques, the CMM level 2 framework document, and the use of process definition guidelines and templates. The software process improvement model represents a five stage cyclic approach for organizational process improvement. The cycles consist of the initiating, diagnosing, establishing, acting, and leveraging phases.
Quantum phase transitions in the pseudogap Anderson Holstein model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Mengxing; Ingersent, Kevin
2011-03-01
We study a pseudogap Anderson-Holstein model of a magnetic impurity level that (1) hybridizes with a conduction band whose density of states vanishes in power-law fashion at the Fermi energy, and (2) couples, via its charge, to a nondispersive bosonic mode (e.g., an optical phonon). The model exhibits quantum phase transitions (QPTs) of different types depending on the strength λ of the impurity-boson coupling. For small λ , the suppression of the density of states near the Fermi energy leads to QPTs between strong-coupling (Kondo) and local-moment phases. A sufficiently large λ , however, transforms the bare Coulomb repulsion between a pair of electrons in the impurity level into an effective attraction, leading to QPTs between strong-coupling (charge-Kondo) and local-charge phases. Critical exponents characterizing the response to a local magnetic field (for small λ) or electric potential (for large λ) suggest that the QPTs belong to the same universality class as the QPT of the previously studied pseudogap Anderson model. One specific case of the pseudogap Anderson-Holstein model may be realized in a double-quantum-dot device, where the QPTs manifest themselves in the finite- temperature linear electrical conductance. Supported by NSF grant DMR-0710540.
Elastic Model Transitions Using Quadratic Inequality Constrained Least Squares
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orr, Jeb S.
2012-01-01
A technique is presented for initializing multiple discrete finite element model (FEM) mode sets for certain types of flight dynamics formulations that rely on superposition of orthogonal modes for modeling the elastic response. Such approaches are commonly used for modeling launch vehicle dynamics, and challenges arise due to the rapidly time-varying nature of the rigid-body and elastic characteristics. By way of an energy argument, a quadratic inequality constrained least squares (LSQI) algorithm is employed to e ect a smooth transition from one set of FEM eigenvectors to another with no requirement that the models be of similar dimension or that the eigenvectors be correlated in any particular way. The physically unrealistic and controversial method of eigenvector interpolation is completely avoided, and the discrete solution approximates that of the continuously varying system. The real-time computational burden is shown to be negligible due to convenient features of the solution method. Simulation results are presented, and applications to staging and other discontinuous mass changes are discussed
Growth of transition metals on cerium tungstate model catalyst layers.
Skála, T; Tsud, N; Stetsovych, V; Mysliveček, J; Matolín, V
2016-10-01
Two model catalytic metal/oxide systems were investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. The mixed-oxide support was a cerium tungstate epitaxial thin layer grown in situ on the W(1 1 0) single crystal. Active particles consisted of palladium and platinum 3D islands deposited on the tungstate surface at 300 K. Both metals were found to interact weakly with the oxide support and the original chemical state of both support and metals was mostly preserved. Electronic and morphological changes are discussed during the metal growth and after post-annealing at temperatures up to 700 K. Partial transition-metal coalescence and self-cleaning from the CO and carbon impurities were observed. PMID:27494195
Topological phase transitions in the golden string-net model.
Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Vidal, Julien
2013-04-01
We examine the zero-temperature phase diagram of the two-dimensional Levin-Wen string-net model with Fibonacci anyons in the presence of competing interactions. Combining high-order series expansions around three exactly solvable points and exact diagonalizations, we find that the non-Abelian doubled Fibonacci topological phase is separated from two nontopological phases by different second-order quantum critical points, the positions of which are computed accurately. These trivial phases are separated by a first-order transition occurring at a fourth exactly solvable point where the ground-state manifold is infinitely many degenerate. The evaluation of critical exponents suggests unusual universality classes. PMID:25167030
Phases and phase transitions in the algebraic microscopic shell model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgieva, A. I.; Drumev, K. P.
2016-01-01
We explore the dynamical symmetries of the shell model number conserving algebra, which define three types of pairing and quadrupole phases, with the aim to obtain the prevailing phase or phase transition for the real nuclear systems in a single shell. This is achieved by establishing a correspondence between each of the pairing bases with the Elliott's SU(3) basis that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems. This allows for a complete classification of the basis states of different number of particles in all the limiting cases. The probability distribution of the SU(3) basis states within theirs corresponding pairing states is also obtained. The relative strengths of dynamically symmetric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in respect to the isoscalar, isovector and total pairing interactions define a control parameter, which estimates the importance of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.
Mathematical Modeling: A Structured Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anhalt, Cynthia Oropesa; Cortez, Ricardo
2015-01-01
Mathematical modeling, in which students use mathematics to explain or interpret physical, social, or scientific phenomena, is an essential component of the high school curriculum. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) classify modeling as a K-12 standard for mathematical practice and as a conceptual category for high school…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Solloway, C. B.; Wakeland, W.
1976-01-01
First-order Markov model developed on digital computer for population with specific characteristics. System is user interactive, self-documenting, and does not require user to have complete understanding of underlying model details. Contains thorough error-checking algorithms on input and default capabilities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartels, Robert E.
2001-01-01
Three-dimensional transonic flow over a delta wing is investigated using several turbulence models. The performance of linear eddy viscosity models and an explicit algebraic stress model is assessed at the start of vortex flow, and the results compared with experimental data. To assess the effect of transition location, computations that either fix transition aft of the leading edge or are fully turbulent are performed. These computations show that grid resolution, transition location and turbulence model significantly affect the 3D flowfield.
Reversible Folding of Lysozyme by a Quasi-static Process: A First-Order-Like State Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu-Cheng, Yeh; Po-Yen, Lin; Chia-Ching, Chang; Lou-Sing, Kan
2004-03-01
First-order-like state transition is a novel global reaction model of protein folding. In order to elucidate the general applicability of this mechanism, a stepwise thermal equilibrate dialysis process is used, and a model protein, lysozyme is selected. Within this study, four stable intermediates and renature lysozyme were obtained and their secondary structure, particle size distribution, thermal stability, and oxidation state of disulfide bonds were analyzed by circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and Raman spectra, respectively. According to the experimental evidences in this study, not only first-order-like state transition model has been verified, both collapse and sequential models were observed and verified by an overcritical reaction folding process. We also found that the glassy state which obtained from directly folding process can convert into the molten globule state and this indicated the protein folding under difference reaction path may follow the same folding mechanism. Namely, the mechanism that is revealed by overcritical folding intermediates may represent the real mechanism of protein folding. The helix formed prior to the beta-sheet might indicate that the protein folding was initiated by local interactions.
A Comparative of business process modelling techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Waworuntu, J.
2016-04-01
In this era, there is a lot of business process modeling techniques. This article is the research about differences of business process modeling techniques. For each technique will explain about the definition and the structure. This paper presents a comparative analysis of some popular business process modelling techniques. The comparative framework is based on 2 criteria: notation and how it works when implemented in Somerleyton Animal Park. Each technique will end with the advantages and disadvantages. The final conclusion will give recommend of business process modeling techniques that easy to use and serve the basis for evaluating further modelling techniques.
Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling.
Zhou, Mingyuan; Carin, Lawrence
2015-02-01
The seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling are united under the negative binomial (NB) process. A gamma process is employed to model the rate measure of a Poisson process, whose normalization provides a random probability measure for mixture modeling and whose marginalization leads to an NB process for count modeling. A draw from the NB process consists of a Poisson distributed finite number of distinct atoms, each of which is associated with a logarithmic distributed number of data samples. We reveal relationships between various count- and mixture-modeling distributions and construct a Poisson-logarithmic bivariate distribution that connects the NB and Chinese restaurant table distributions. Fundamental properties of the models are developed, and we derive efficient Bayesian inference. It is shown that with augmentation and normalization, the NB process and gamma-NB process can be reduced to the Dirichlet process and hierarchical Dirichlet process, respectively. These relationships highlight theoretical, structural, and computational advantages of the NB process. A variety of NB processes, including the beta-geometric, beta-NB, marked-beta-NB, marked-gamma-NB and zero-inflated-NB processes, with distinct sharing mechanisms, are also constructed. These models are applied to topic modeling, with connections made to existing algorithms under Poisson factor analysis. Example results show the importance of inferring both the NB dispersion and probability parameters. PMID:26353243
Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling.
Zhou, Mingyuan; Carin, Lawrence
2013-10-17
The seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling are united under the negative binomial (NB) process. A gamma process is employed to model the rate measure of a Poisson process, whose normalization provides a random probability measure for mixture modeling and whose marginalization leads to a NB process for count modeling. A draw from the NB process consists of a Poisson distributed finite number of distinct atoms, each of which is associated with a logarithmic distributed number of data samples. We reveal relationships between various count- and mixture-modeling distributions distributions, and construct a Poisson-logarithmic bivariate distribution that connects the NB and Chinese restaurant table distributions. Fundamental properties of the models are developed, and we derive efficient Bayesian inference. It is shown that with augmentation and normalization, the NB process and gamma-NB process can be reduced to the Dirichlet process and hierarchical Dirichlet process, respectively. These relationships highlight theoretical, structural and computational advantages of the NB process. A variety of NB processes, including the beta-geometric, beta-NB, marked-beta-NB, marked-gamma-NB and zero-inflated-NB processes, with distinct sharing mechanisms, are also constructed. These models are applied to topic modeling, with connections made to existing algorithms under Poisson factor analysis. Example results show the importance of inferring both the NB dispersion and probability parameters. PMID:24144977
Information-Processing Models and Curriculum Design
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Calfee, Robert C.
1970-01-01
"This paper consists of three sections--(a) the relation of theoretical analyses of learning to curriculum design, (b) the role of information-processing models in analyses of learning processes, and (c) selected examples of the application of information-processing models to curriculum design problems." (Author)
Discontinuous phase transition in a core contact process on complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup
2015-02-01
To understand the effect of generalized infection processes, we suggest and study the core contact process (CCP) on complex networks. In CCP an uninfected node is infected when at least k different infected neighbors of the node select the node for the infection. The healing process is the same as that of the normal CP. It is analytically and numerically shown that discontinuous transitions occur in CCP on random networks and scale-free networks depending on infection rate and initial density of infected nodes. The discontinuous transitions include hybrid transitions with β = 1/2 and β = 1. The asymptotic behavior of the phase boundary related to the initial density is found analytically and numerically. The mapping between CCP with k and static (k+1)-core percolation is supposed from the (k+1)-core structure in the active phase and the hybrid transition with β = 1/2. From these properties of CCP one can see that CCP is one of the dynamical processes for the k-core structure on real networks.
Distress in the Transition Process: The Role of Loss, Community, and Coping
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budge, Stephanie L.
2011-01-01
Given the extensiveness of rejection and discrimination that transgender individuals experience (Lombardi, Wilchins, Priesing, & Malouf, 2001), the purpose of the current study was to examine the process of coping and how this relates to well-being at different stages of the gender transition. A total of 357 transsexual individuals (n = 226…
Presumption of Incompetence: The Systematic Assignment of Guardianship within the Transition Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rood, Carrie E.; Kanter, Arlene; Causton, Julie
2014-01-01
This article describes the potential impact that state guardianship laws may have on the transition planning process for students identified with intellectual and developmental disabilities under the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Improvement Act. The authors utilize a disability studies framework to describe how the goals of…
Collaborative Assessment for Employment Planning: Transition Assessment and the Discovery Process
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stevenson, Bradley S.; Fowler, Catherine H.
2016-01-01
As the Workforce Innovation and Opportunities Act (WIOA) is implemented across the nation, special education and vocational rehabilitation professionals will need to increase their level of collaboration. One area of potential collaboration is assessment--transition assessment for the field of special education and the discovery process for adult…
Effective tight-binding model for transition metal dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Yen-Hung; Cazalilla, Miguel; Ochoa, Hector
For transition metal dichalcogenides, various band models have been developed to describe the novel subband features. In this work, we propose a new effective minimum-band model by preforming a canonical transformation on the full-band Hamiltonian. We found that, depending on the form of transformation, both the Γ- and K-valley electrons can be well captured, including the frequency and band effective mass. And, for the full-band parameters used, starting from Wannier function basis set leads to a better result than from Slater-Koster basis set. A close inspection of the transformation projection also enables us to extract the modification on the site energy, as well as the orbital hopping between several nearest neighboring atoms. Instead of pure empirical fitting, our effective models preserve rich orbital physics inside, which is shown to be versatile in studying a variety of fundamental physical properties. Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (NSC 102-2112-M-007-024-MY5).
Technology Transition a Model for Infusion and Commercialization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McMillan, Vernotto C.
2006-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has as part of its charter the mission of transferring technologies developed for the space program into the private sector for the purpose of affording back to the American people the economical and improved quality of life benefits associated with the technologies developed. In recent years considerable effort has been made to use this program for not only transitioning technologies out of the NASA Mission Directorate Programs, but also to transfer technologies into the Mission Directorate Programs and leverage the impact of government and private sector innovation. The objective of this paper is to outline an approach and the creation of a model that brings together industry, government, and commercialization strategies. When these elements are integrated, the probability of successful technology development, technology infusion into the Mission Programs, and commercialization into the private sector is increased. This model primarily addresses technology readiness levels between TRL 3 and TRL 6. This is typically a gap area known as the valley of death. This gap area is too low for commercial entities to invest heavily and not developed enough for major programs to actively pursue. This model has shown promise for increasing the probably of TRL advancement to an acceptable level for NASA programs and/or commercial entities to afford large investments toward either commercialization or infusion.
A Hierarchical Process-Dissociation Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Lu, Jun; Morey, Richard D.; Sun, Dongchu; Speckman, Paul L.
2008-01-01
In fitting the process-dissociation model (L. L. Jacoby, 1991) to observed data, researchers aggregate outcomes across participant, items, or both. T. Curran and D. L. Hintzman (1995) demonstrated how biases from aggregation may lead to artifactual support for the model. The authors develop a hierarchical process-dissociation model that does not…
Secondary Structure Transition and Critical Stress for a Model of Spider Silk Assembly.
Giesa, Tristan; Perry, Carole C; Buehler, Markus J
2016-02-01
Spiders spin their silk from an aqueous solution to a solid fiber in ambient conditions. However, to date, the assembly mechanism in the spider silk gland has not been satisfactorily explained. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics simulations to model Nephila clavipes MaSp1 dragline silk formation under shear flow and determine the secondary structure transitions leading to the experimentally observed fiber structures. While no experiments are performed on the silk fiber itself, insights from this polypeptide model can be transferred to the fiber scale. The novelty of this study lies in the calculation of the shear stress (300-700 MPa) required for fiber formation and identification of the amino acid residues involved in the transition. This is the first time that the shear stress has been quantified in connection with a secondary structure transition. By study of molecules containing varying numbers of contiguous MaSp1 repeats, we determine that the smallest molecule size giving rise to a "silk-like" structure contains six polyalanine repeats. Through a probability analysis of the secondary structure, we identify specific amino acids that transition from α-helix to β-sheet. In addition to portions of the polyalanine section, these amino acids include glycine, leucine, and glutamine. The stability of β-sheet structures appears to arise from a close proximity in space of helices in the initial spidroin state. Our results are in agreement with the forces exerted by spiders in the silking process and the experimentally determined global secondary structure of spidroin and pulled MaSp1 silk. Our study emphasizes the role of shear in the assembly process of silk and can guide the design of microfluidic devices that attempt to mimic the natural spinning process and predict molecular requirements for the next generation of silk-based functional materials. PMID:26669270
Subcritical transition in plane Poiseuille flow as a linear instability process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roizner, Federico; Karp, Michael; Cohen, Jacob
2016-05-01
In this work, a transition scenario is demonstrated, in which most of the stages are followed analytically. The transition is initiated by the linear transient growth mechanism in plane Poiseuille flow subjected to an infinitesimally small secondary disturbance. A novel analytical approximation of the linear transient growth mechanism enables us to perform a secondary linear stability analysis of the modified base-flow. Two possible routes to transition are highlighted here, both correspond to a small secondary disturbance superimposed on a linear transient growth. The first scenario is initiated by four decaying odd normal modes which form a counter-rotating vortex pair; the second is initiated by five even decaying modes which form a pair of counter-rotating pairs. The approximation of the linear transient growth stage by a combination of minimal number of modes allows us to follow the transition stages analytically by employing the multiple time scale method. In particular, the secondary instability stage is followed analytically using linear tools, and is verified by obtaining transition in a direct numerical simulation initiated by conditions dictated by the transient growth analytical expressions. Very good agreement is observed, verifying the theoretical model. The similarities between the two transition routes are discussed and the results are compared with similar results obtained for plane Couette flow.
Foramen Ovale Closure Is a Process of Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Leading to Fibrosis
Elliott, Graeme C.; Gurtu, Rockesh; McCollum, Charles; Newman, William G.; Wang, Tao
2014-01-01
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an atrial septal deformity present in around 25% of the general population. PFO is associated with major causes of morbidity, including stroke and migraine. PFO appears to be heritable but genes involved in the closure of foramen ovale have not been identified. The aim of this study is to determine molecular pathways and genes that are responsible to the postnatal closure of the foramen ovale. Using Sprague-Dawley rat hearts as a model we analysed the dynamic histological changes and gene expressions at the foramen ovale region between embryonic day 20 and postnatal day 7. We observed a gradual loss of the endothelial marker PECAM1, an upregulation of the mesenchymal marker vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin, the elevation of the transcription factor Snail, and an increase of fibroblast activation protein (FAP) in the foramen ovale region as well as the deposition of collagen-rich connective tissues at the closed foramen ovale, suggesting endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) occurring during foramen ovale closure which leads to fibrosis. In addition, Notch1 and Notch3 receptors, Notch ligand Jagged1 and Notch effector HRT1 were highly expressed in the endocardium of the foramen ovale region during EndMT. Activation of Notch3 alone in an endothelial cell culture model was able to drive EndMT and transform endothelial cells to mesenchymal phenotype. Our data demonstrate for the first time that FO closure is a process of EndMT-mediated fibrosis, and Notch signalling is an important player participating in this process. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of the closure of foramen ovale informs the pathogenesis of PFO and may provide potential options for screening and prevention of PFO related conditions. PMID:25215881
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ameri, Ali A.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this report is to summarize and document the work done to enable a NASA CFD code to model laminar-turbulent transition process on an isolated turbine blade. The ultimate purpose of the present work is to down-select a transition model that would allow the flow simulation of a variable speed power turbine to be accurately performed. The flow modeling in its final form will account for the blade row interactions and their effects on transition which would lead to accurate accounting for losses. The present work only concerns itself with steady flows of variable inlet turbulence. The low Reynolds number k- model of Wilcox and a modified version of the same model will be used for modeling of transition on experimentally measured blade pressure and heat transfer. It will be shown that the k- model and its modified variant fail to simulate the transition with any degree of accuracy. A case is thus made for the adoption of more accurate transition models. Three-equation models based on the work of Mayle on Laminar Kinetic Energy were explored. The three-equation model of Walters and Leylek was thought to be in a relatively mature state of development and was implemented in the Glenn-HT code. Two-dimensional heat transfer predictions of flat plate flow and two-dimensional and three-dimensional heat transfer predictions on a turbine blade were performed and reported herein. Surface heat transfer rate serves as sensitive indicator of transition. With the newly implemented model, it was shown that the simulation of transition process is much improved over the baseline k- model for the single Reynolds number and pressure ratio attempted; while agreement with heat transfer data became more satisfactory. Armed with the new transition model, total-pressure losses of computed three-dimensional flow of E3 tip section cascade were compared to the experimental data for a range of incidence angles. The results obtained, form a partial loss bucket for the chosen blade
Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei
2014-01-01
Computational Process and Material Modeling of Powder Bed additive manufacturing of IN 718. Optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling. Increase understanding of build properties. Increase reliability of builds. Decrease time to adoption of process for critical hardware. Potential to decrease post-build heat treatments. Conduct single-track and coupon builds at various build parameters. Record build parameter information and QM Meltpool data. Refine Applied Optimization powder bed AM process model using data. Report thermal modeling results. Conduct metallography of build samples. Calibrate STK models using metallography findings. Run STK models using AO thermal profiles and report STK modeling results. Validate modeling with additional build. Photodiode Intensity measurements highly linear with power input. Melt Pool Intensity highly correlated to Melt Pool Size. Melt Pool size and intensity increase with power. Applied Optimization will use data to develop powder bed additive manufacturing process model.
Siebert, Uwe; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Jahn, Beate; Owens, Douglas K; Cohen, David J; Kuntz, Karen M
2012-01-01
State-transition modeling is an intuitive, flexible, and transparent approach of computer-based decision-analytic modeling including both Markov model cohort simulation and individual-based (first-order Monte Carlo) microsimulation. Conceptualizing a decision problem in terms of a set of (health) states and transitions among these states, state-transition modeling is one of the most widespread modeling techniques in clinical decision analysis, health technology assessment, and health-economic evaluation. State-transition models have been used in many different populations and diseases, and their applications range from personalized health care strategies to public health programs. Most frequently, state-transition models are used in the evaluation of risk factor interventions, screening, diagnostic procedures, treatment strategies, and disease management programs. The goal of this article was to provide consensus-based guidelines for the application of state-transition models in the context of health care. We structured the best practice recommendations in the following sections: choice of model type (cohort vs. individual-level model), model structure, model parameters, analysis, reporting, and communication. In each of these sections, we give a brief description, address the issues that are of particular relevance to the application of state-transition models, give specific examples from the literature, and provide best practice recommendations for state-transition modeling. These recommendations are directed both to modelers and to users of modeling results such as clinicians, clinical guideline developers, manufacturers, or policymakers. PMID:22999130
Mathematical and physical modelling of materials processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1982-01-01
Mathematical and physical modeling of turbulence phenomena in metals processing, electromagnetically driven flows in materials processing, gas-solid reactions, rapid solidification processes, the electroslag casting process, the role of cathodic depolarizers in the corrosion of aluminum in sea water, and predicting viscoelastic flows are described.
Simulation Modeling of Software Development Processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calavaro, G. F.; Basili, V. R.; Iazeolla, G.
1996-01-01
A simulation modeling approach is proposed for the prediction of software process productivity indices, such as cost and time-to-market, and the sensitivity analysis of such indices to changes in the organization parameters and user requirements. The approach uses a timed Petri Net and Object Oriented top-down model specification. Results demonstrate the model representativeness, and its usefulness in verifying process conformance to expectations, and in performing continuous process improvement and optimization.
The Transient to Steady-State Transition during the Spray-Rolling Process
Yaojun Lin; Kevin M. McHugh; Yizhang Zhou; Enrique J. Lavernia
2004-11-01
From the geometrical standpoint, this article presents a qualitative theoretical analysis and prediction of the transient to steady-state transition during the spray-rolling process, a novel manufacturing technique for aluminum strips. The analytical results indicate that, when the deposited materials at the specific points on one roll surface overlap their counter-parts on the other roll surface, spray rolling transits from the transient state to the steady state. The specific points are the limiting depositon position of the atomized droplets on the roll surface initially.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuksenok, Olga
Feedback mechanisms are vital in a number of processes in biological systems. For example, feedback loops play an essential role during a limb development in mammals and are responsible for the asymmetric cell division to constrain the growth in plants to the specific regions. An integration of well-controlled feedback loops into the fully synthetic materials is an important step in designing a range of biomimetic functionalities. Herein, we focus on hydrogels functionalized with light-sensitive trisodium salt of copper chlorophyllin and study discontinuous phase transitions in these systems. Prior experimental studies had shown that illumination of these functionalized gels results in their heating and in discontinuous, first order phase transition upon the variation in temperature. Herein, we develop the first computational model for these gels; the framework of the model is based on the gel Lattice Spring Model, in this work we account for the gel heating under the illumination. The results of our simulations are in a good agreement with prior experimental studies. We focus on pattern development during the volume phase transitions in membranes of various thicknesses and show that one can effectively utilize light intensity to remotely control feedback loops in these systems.
The k-sample problem in a multi-state model and testing transition probability matrices.
Tattar, Prabhanjan N; Vaman, H J
2014-07-01
The choice of multi-state models is natural in analysis of survival data, e.g., when the subjects in a study pass through different states like 'healthy', 'in a state of remission', 'relapse' or 'dead' in a health related quality of life study. Competing risks is another common instance of the use of multi-state models. Statistical inference for such event history data can be carried out by assuming a stochastic process model. Under such a setting, comparison of the event history data generated by two different treatments calls for testing equality of the corresponding transition probability matrices. The present paper proposes solution to this class of problems by assuming a non-homogeneous Markov process to describe the transitions among the health states. A class of test statistics are derived for comparison of [Formula: see text] treatments by using a 'weight process'. This class, in particular, yields generalisations of the log-rank, Gehan, Peto-Peto and Harrington-Fleming tests. For an intrinsic comparison of the treatments, the 'leave-one-out' jackknife method is employed for identifying influential observations. The proposed methods are then used to develop the Kolmogorov-Smirnov type supremum tests corresponding to the various extended tests. To demonstrate the usefulness of the test procedures developed, a simulation study was carried out and an application to the Trial V data provided by International Breast Cancer Study Group is discussed. PMID:23722306
Model fitting and inference under Latent Equilibrium Processes
Bhattacharya, Sourabh; Gelfand, Alan E.; Holsinger, Kent E.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a methodology for model fitting and inference in the context of Bayesian models of the type f(Y | X, θ)f(X | θ)f(θ), where Y is the (set of) observed data, θ is a set of model parameters and X is an unobserved (latent) stationary stochastic process induced by the first order transition model f(X(t+1) | X(t), θ), where X(t) denotes the state of the process at time (or generation) t. The crucial feature of the above type of model is that, given θ, the transition model f(X(t+1) | X(t), θ) is known but the distribution of the stochastic process in equilibrium, that is f(X | θ), is, except in very special cases, intractable, hence unknown. A further point to note is that the data Y has been assumed to be observed when the underlying process is in equilibrium. In other words, the data is not collected dynamically over time. We refer to such specification as a latent equilibrium process (LEP) model. It is motivated by problems in population genetics (though other applications are discussed), where it is of interest to learn about parameters such as mutation and migration rates and population sizes, given a sample of allele frequencies at one or more loci. In such problems it is natural to assume that the distribution of the observed allele frequencies depends on the true (unobserved) population allele frequencies, whereas the distribution of the true allele frequencies is only indirectly specified through a transition model. As a hierarchical specification, it is natural to fit the LEP within a Bayesian framework. Fitting such models is usually done via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). However, we demonstrate that, in the case of LEP models, implementation of MCMC is far from straightforward. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a methodology to implement MCMC for LEP models. We demonstrate our approach in population genetics problems with both simulated and real data sets. The resultant model fitting is computationally intensive
From Boots to Books: Applying Schlossberg's Model to Transitioning American Veterans
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryan, Shawn W.; Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Hughey, Kenneth F.; Harris, Brandonn S.
2011-01-01
This introduction to the strengths, needs, and challenges of veterans as they transition from the military to higher education is presented within the framework of Schlossberg's transition model (Schlossberg, Waters, & Goodman, 1995). Academic advisors must understand the way that veteran transitions to college are both similar to and different…
Is the transition zone an empty water reservoir? Inferences from numerical model of mantle dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richard, Guillaume; Monnereau, Marc; Ingrin, Jannick
2002-12-01
Water is probably present everywhere in the Earth's mantle today, with abundances ranging between scales of percent (%) to the parts per million (ppm). Mantle total water content is estimated to be between 10% to several times that of the present-day hydrosphere. Numerous studies have been devoted to the determination of water solubility in mantle material [D.R. Bell, G.R. Rossmann, Science 255 (1992) 1391-1397; J. Ingrin, H. Skogby, Eur. J. Mineral. 12 (2000) 543-570]. They all show strong solubility variations from one mineral phase to another. Principally, water partitioning has made the transition zone a probable trap for water from the Earth's mantle [N. Bolfan-Casanova et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 182 (2000) 209-221; D.L. Kohlstedt et al., Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 123 (1996) 345-357]. Nevertheless, water distribution within the mantle is still debated. We have studied the role of mantle dynamics in water distribution by modeling water transport and mantle convection in a two-dimensional (2-D) cartesian geometry. The model takes into account water partitioning between the mantle's transition zone and the upper mantle of 10:1 and between the lower mantle and the transition zone of 1:100 (i.e. respectively between olivine and spinel and spinel and post-spinel). We have modeled the mantle temperature field using depth-dependent viscosity and plate-like surface conditions. Water injection at the trench has also been simulated. Our numerical experiments suggest that diffusivity of water has to be very high, at least two orders of magnitude higher than the one experimentally determined [D.R. Bell, G.R. Rossmann, Science 255 (1992) 1391-1397; J. Ingrin, H. Skogby, Eur. J. Mineral. 12 (2000) 543-570] to significantly influence water distribution in Earth's mantle. In fact, the diffusion process is not efficient enough to balance the mixing due to mantle dynamics and to force water into the transition zone. We show that the distribution of water should be quite
Models for Turbulent Transport Processes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, James C.
1979-01-01
Since the statistical theories of turbulence that have developed over the last twenty or thirty years are too abstract and unreliable to be of much use to chemical engineers, this paper introduces the techniques of single point models and suggests some areas of needed research. (BB)
Conformational model of the Holliday junction transition deduced from molecular dynamics simulations
Yu, Jin; Ha, Taekjip; Schulten, Klaus
2004-01-01
Homologous recombination plays a key role in the restart of stalled replication forks and in the generation of genetic diversity. During this process, two homologous DNA molecules undergo strand exchange to form a four-way DNA (Holliday) junction. In the presence of metal ions, the Holliday junction folds into the stacked-X structure that has two alternative conformers. Experiments have revealed the spontaneous transitions between these conformers, but their detailed pathways are not known. Here, we report a series of molecular dynamics simulations of the Holliday junction at physiological and elevated (400 K) temperatures. The simulations reveal new tetrahedral intermediates and suggest a schematic framework for conformer transitions. The tetrahedral intermediates bear resemblance to the junction conformation in complex with a junction-resolving enzyme, T7 endonuclease I, and indeed, one intermediate forms a stable complex with the enzyme as demonstrated in one simulation. We also describe free energy minima for various states of the Holliday junction system, which arise during conformer transitions. The results show that magnesium ions stabilize the stacked-X form and destabilize the open and tetrahedral intermediates. Overall, our study provides a detailed dynamic model of the Holliday junction undergoing a conformer transition. PMID:15613597
MHD Modeling of Coronal Loops: the Transition Region Throat
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guarrasi, M.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Mignone, A.; Klimchuk, J. A.
2014-01-01
Context. The expansion of coronal loops in the transition region may considerably influence the diagnostics of the plasma emission measure. The cross-sectional area of the loops is expected to depend on the temperature and pressure, and might be sensitive to the heating rate. Aims. The approach here is to study the area response to slow changes in the coronal heating rate, and check the current interpretation in terms of steady heating models. Methods. We study the area response with a time-dependent 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) loop model, including the description of the expanding magnetic field, coronal heating and losses by thermal conduction, and radiation from optically thin plasma. We run a simulation for a loop 50 Mm long and quasi-statically heated to about 4 millikelvin. Results. We find that the area can change substantially with the quasi-steady heating rate, e.g., by approx. 40% at 0.5 millikelvin as the loop temperature varies between 1 millikelvin and 4 millikelvin, and, therefore, affects the interpretation of the differential emission measure vs. temperature (DEM(T)) curves.
Transition between Functional Regimes in an Integrate-And-Fire Network Model of the Thalamus.
Barardi, Alessandro; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Mazzoni, Alberto
2016-01-01
The thalamus is a key brain element in the processing of sensory information. During the sleep and awake states, this brain area is characterized by the presence of two distinct dynamical regimes: in the sleep state activity is dominated by spindle oscillations (7 - 15 Hz) weakly affected by external stimuli, while in the awake state the activity is primarily driven by external stimuli. Here we develop a simple and computationally efficient model of the thalamus that exhibits two dynamical regimes with different information-processing capabilities, and study the transition between them. The network model includes glutamatergic thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons and GABAergic reticular (RE) neurons described by adaptive integrate-and-fire models in which spikes are induced by either depolarization or hyperpolarization rebound. We found a range of connectivity conditions under which the thalamic network composed by these neurons displays the two aforementioned dynamical regimes. Our results show that TC-RE loops generate spindle-like oscillations and that a minimum level of clustering (i.e. local connectivity density) in the RE-RE connections is necessary for the coexistence of the two regimes. We also observe that the transition between the two regimes occurs when the external excitatory input on TC neurons (mimicking sensory stimulation) is large enough to cause a significant fraction of them to switch from hyperpolarization-rebound-driven firing to depolarization-driven firing. Overall, our model gives a novel and clear description of the role that the two types of neurons and their connectivity play in the dynamical regimes observed in the thalamus, and in the transition between them. These results pave the way for the development of efficient models of the transmission of sensory information from periphery to cortex. PMID:27598260
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Büker, Engin
2015-05-01
The defence technologies which have been developing and changing rapidly, today make it difficult to be able to foresee the next environment and spectrum of warfare. When said change and development is looked in specific to the naval operations, it can be said that the possible battlefield and scenarios to be developed in the near and middle terms (5-20 years) are more clarified with compare to other force components. Network Centric Naval Warfare Concept that was developed for the floating, diving and flying fleet platforms which serves away from its own mainland for miles, will keep its significance in the future. Accordingly, Network Centric Intelligence structure completely integrating with the command and control systems will have relatively more importance. This study will firstly try to figure out the transition from the traditional intelligence cycle that is still used in conventional war to Network Centric Intelligence Production Process. In the last part, the use of this new approach on the base of UAV that is alternative to satellite based command control and data transfer systems in the joint operations in narrow seas will be examined, a model suggestion for the use of operative and strategic UAVs which are assured within the scope of the NATO AGS2 for this aim will be brought.
Jiang, Bin; Liu, Yeting; Bhandari, Bhesh; Zhou, Weibiao
2008-07-01
Further to part I of this study, this paper discusses mathematical modeling of the relationship between caramelization of several sugars including fructose, glucose, and sucrose and their glass transition temperatures ( T g). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used for creating caramelized sugar samples and determining their glass transition temperatures ( T g). UV-vis absorbance measurement and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis were used for quantifying the extent of caramelization. Specifically, absorbances at 284 and 420 nm were obtained from UV-vis measurement, and the contents of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF) in the caramelized sugars were obtained from HPLC measurements. Results from the UV and HPLC measurements were correlated with the Tg values measured by DSC. By using both linear and nonlinear regressions, two sets of mathematical models were developed for the prediction of Tg values of sugar caramels. The first set utilized information obtained from both UV-vis measurement and HPLC analysis, while the second set utilized only information from the UV-vis measurement, which is much easier to perform in practice. As a caramelization process is typically characterized by two stages, separate models were developed for each of the stages within a set. Furthermore, a third set of nonlinear equations were developed, serving as criteria to decide at which stage a caramelized sample is. The models were evaluated through a validation process. PMID:18553880
Geometric entanglement and quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional quantum lattice models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Qian-Qian; Wang, Hong-Lei; Li, Sheng-Hao; Cho, Sam Young; Batchelor, Murray T.; Zhou, Huan-Qiang
2016-06-01
Geometric entanglement (GE), as a measure of multipartite entanglement, has been investigated as a universal tool to detect phase transitions in quantum many-body lattice models. In this paper we outline a systematic method to compute GE for two-dimensional (2D) quantum many-body lattice models based on the translational invariant structure of infinite projected entangled pair state (iPEPS) representations. By employing this method, the q -state quantum Potts model on the square lattice with q ∈{2 ,3 ,4 ,5 } is investigated as a prototypical example. Further, we have explored three 2D Heisenberg models: the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 X X X and anisotropic X Y X models in an external magnetic field, and the antiferromagnetic spin-1 X X Z model. We find that continuous GE does not guarantee a continuous phase transition across a phase transition point. We observe and thus classify three different types of continuous GE across a phase transition point: (i) GE is continuous with maximum value at the transition point and the phase transition is continuous, (ii) GE is continuous with maximum value at the transition point but the phase transition is discontinuous, and (iii) GE is continuous with nonmaximum value at the transition point and the phase transition is continuous. For the models under consideration, we find that the second and the third types are related to a point of dual symmetry and a fully polarized phase, respectively.
Transitioning process of a film-based radiology department to direct digital imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romlein, John R.; Weiser, John C.; Willis, Charles E.; Smith, Suzy; Guinther, Rik; Quillin, Edward
1994-05-01
The initial transition of the Radiology Department at Madigan Army Medical Center, the Wright Patterson Air Force Medical Center and the Brooke Army Medical Center from film- based operations to direct digital image capture and display has been completed. This presentation describes the planning process and the impact of the transition on radiology operations and clinical services. PACS implementation requires changes in both the physical plant and the human element of the Radiology departments as well as in the clinical areas where imaging workstations were installed. Equipment retrofit, utility upgrades, space trade- offs, quality control operations, work flow variations, and educational requirements were major considerations. An overview of the scope of departmental transitions is achieved.
Transition time of nonlinear Landau-Zener model in adiabatic limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xuan-Zuo; Tian, Dong-Ping; Chong, Bo
2016-06-01
The impact of nonlinear interaction on the loop structure of lower energy level and on the time evolution curve of canonical momentum which corresponds to the lower eigenstate are analyzed respectively. We find that the curve changes from single-valued to multi-valued as nonlinear interaction grows. The fascinating part is that the time range delimited by turning points in the loop of energy level and the period between two inflexion points on the multi-valued part of the evolution curve of canonical momentum are the same. Therefore, we propose a characteristic time in the transition process of nonlinear Landau-Zener model in adiabatic limit. Last, the physical meaning of the transition time as a measure of how much time the system experiences a structural change which directly results in the breakdown of adiabaticity is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz-Santiuste, Juan E.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Ulises R.; González-Platas, Javier; Lavín, Víctor
2009-04-01
The correlation between the optical properties of the Eu3+ ions and their local structures in fluorozirconate glasses and glass-ceramics have been analyzed by means of steady-state and time-resolved site-selective laser spectroscopies. Changes in the crystal-field interaction, ranging from weak to medium strength values, are observed monitoring the luminescence and the lifetime of the Eu3+ ions in different local environments in the glass. As key roles in this study, the Eu3+ luminescence in the thermally-induced crystallization of the glass and the pressure-induced amorphization of the crystalline phase of the glass-ceramic experimentally states the existence of a parent local structure for the Eu3+ ions in the glass, identified as the EuZrF7 crystalline phase. Starting from the ab initio single overlap model, crystal-field calculations have been performed in the glass and the glass-ceramic. From the site-selective measurements, the crystal-field parameters sets are obtained, giving a suitable simulation of the F7J (J =0-6) Stark energy level diagram for the Eu3+ ions in the different environments present in the fluorozirconate glass. A simple geometrical model based on a continuous distortion of the parent structure is proposed for the distribution of local environments of the Eu3+ ions in the fluorozirconate glass.
Phase transitions of the generalized contact process with two absorbing states.
Lee, Man Young; Vojta, Thomas
2010-06-01
We investigate the generalized contact process with two absorbing states in one space dimension by means of large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. Treating the creation rate of active sites between inactive domains as an independent parameter leads to a rich phase diagram. In addition to the conventional active and inactive phases we find a parameter region where the simple contact process is inactive, but an infinitesimal creation rate at the boundary between inactive domains is sufficient to take the system into the active phase. Thus, the generalized contact process has two different phase transition lines. The point separating them shares some characteristics with a multicritical point. We also study in detail the critical behaviors of these transitions and their universality. PMID:20866399
Transition Heat Transfer Modeling Based on the Characteristics of Turbulent Spots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Fred; Boyle, Robert
1998-01-01
While turbulence models are being developed which show promise for simulating the transition region on a turbine blade or vane, it is believed that the best approach with the greatest potential for practical use is the use of models which incorporate the physics of turbulent spots present in the transition region. This type of modeling results in the prediction of transition region intermittency which when incorporated in turbulence models give a good to excellent prediction of the transition region heat transfer. Some models are presented which show how turbulent spot characteristics and behavior can be employed to predict the effect of pressure gradient and Mach number on the transition region. The models predict the spot formation rate which is needed, in addition to the transition onset location, in the Narasimha concentrated breakdown intermittency equation. A simplified approach is taken for modeling turbulent spot growth and interaction in the transition region which utilizes the turbulent spot variables governing transition length and spot generation rate. The models are expressed in terms of spot spreading angle, dimensionless spot velocity, dimensionless spot area, disturbance frequency and Mach number. The models are used in conjunction with a computer code to predict the effects of pressure gradient and Mach number on the transition region and compared with VKI experimental turbine data.
RSRM Chamber Pressure Oscillations: Transit Time Models and Unsteady CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nesman, Tom; Stewart, Eric
1996-01-01
Space Shuttle solid rocket motor low frequency internal pressure oscillations have been observed since early testing. The same type of oscillations also are present in the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM). The oscillations, which occur during RSRM burn, are predominantly at the first three motor cavity longitudinal acoustic mode frequencies. Broadband flow and combustion noise provide the energy to excite these modes at low levels throughout motor burn, however, at certain times during burn the fluctuating pressure amplitude increases significantly. The increased fluctuations at these times suggests an additional excitation mechanism. The RSRM has inhibitors on the propellant forward facing surface of each motor segment. The inhibitors are in a slot at the segment field joints to prevent burning at that surface. The aft facing segment surface at a field joint slot burns and forms a cavity of time varying size. Initially the inhibitor is recessed in the field joint cavity. As propellant burns away the inhibitor begins to protrude into the bore flow. Two mechanisms (transit time models) that are considered potential pressure oscillation excitations are cavity-edge tones, and inhibitor hole-tones. Estimates of frequency variation with time of longitudinal acoustic modes, cavity edge-tones, and hole-tones compare favorably with frequencies measured during motor hot firing. It is believed that the highest oscillation amplitudes occur when vortex shedding frequencies coincide with motor longitudinal acoustic modes. A time accurate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was made to replicate the observations from motor firings and to observe the transit time mechanisms in detail. FDNS is the flow solver used to detail the time varying aspects of the flow. The fluid is approximated as a single-phase ideal gas. The CFD model was an axisymmetric representation of the RSRM at 80 seconds into burn.Deformation of the inhibitors by the internal flow was determined
Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd
2012-01-01
When epilepsy does not remit in childhood, transition and transfer to adult care is eventually required. Youth must leave the family-centered approach of pediatric care for the individual focus of adult medicine. Evidence from population-based studies indicates that many of those with childhood-onset epilepsy have major social difficulties in adulthood even if their epilepsy has resolved. Epilepsy may have major effects on normal adolescent development, and societal attitudes confound this difficult period in the lives of young people with epilepsy. Very little objective data are available to assist in the designing of models of care for youth with epilepsy; however, based on our clinical experience and the limited available literature, it appears that a transition program to prepare children for adult care is best started during childhood and adolescence. The formal transfer to adult services may be assisted by a transition clinic jointly attended by pediatric and adult epilepsy specialists. PMID:23476118
ISS-Experiments of Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sturz, Laszlo; Zimmermann, Gerhard; Gandin, Charles, Andre; Billia, Bernard; Magelinck, Nathalie; Nguyen-Thi, Henry; Browne, David John; Mirihanage, Wajira U.; Voss, Daniela; Beckermann, Christoph; Karma, Alain
2012-01-01
The main topic of the research project CETSOL in the framework of the Microgravity Application Promotion (MAP) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) is the investigation of the transition from columnar to equiaxed grain growth during solidification. Microgravity environment allows for suppression of buoyancy-driven melt flow and for growth of equiaxed grains free of sedimentation and buoyancy effects. This contribution will present first experimental results obtained in microgravity using hypo-eutectic AlSi alloys in the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The analysis of the experiments confirms the existence of a columnar to equiaxed transition, especially in the refined alloy. Temperature evolution and grain structure analysis provide critical values for the position, the temperature gradient and the solidification velocity at the columnar to equiaxed transition. These data will be used to improve modeling of solidification microstructures and grain structure on different lengths scales.
Transitioning Models and Model Output to Space Weather Operations: Challenges and Opportunities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesse, Michael; Berrios, David; Chulaki, Anna; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; MacNeice, Peter J.; Maddox, Mario; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre
2009-01-01
The transition of space weather models or of information derived from space weather models to space weather forecasting is the last step of the chain from model development to model deployment in forecasting operations. As such, it is an extremely important element of the quest to increase our national capability to forecast and mitigate space weather hazards. It involves establishing customer requirements, and analyses of available models, which are, in principle, capable of delivering the required product. Models will have to be verified and validated prior to a selection of the best performing model. Further considerations include operational hardware, and the availability of data streams to drive the model. The final steps include the education of forecasters, and the implementation on gateway hardware prior to operational use. This presentation will provide a discussion of opportunities for rapid progress from the viewpoint of the Community Coordinated Modeling Center.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lau, William K. M.
1998-01-01
We present results of a pilot study of the evolution of large scale hydrologic processes associated with the first transition of the Asian summer monsoon in conjunction with the launching of the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) in May, 1998. Using a combination of satellite-estimated rainfall, moisture, surface wind and sea surface temperature, we present some interesting and hitherto unknown features in large scale atmospheric and oceanic hydrologic processes associated with the fluctuation of the SCS monsoon. Results show that, climatologically, the SCS monsoon occurs during mid-May when major convection zone shifts from the eastern Indian Ocean/southern Indochina to the SCS. Simultaneously with the SCS monsoon onset is the development of a moist tongue and frontal rainband emanating from northern SCS, across southern China and the East China Sea to southern Japan as well as the enhancement of equatorial convection in the western Pacific ITCZ. Analysis of the satellite-derived moisture and rainfall show that the onset of the SCS monsoon during 1997 was preceded by the development of eastward propagating supercloud clusters over the Indian Ocean. The satellite data also reveal a strong onset vortex over the SCS and large scale cooling and warming patterns over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. These features signal a major shift of the large-scale hydrologic cycle in the ocean-atmosphere system, which underpins the SCS monsoon onset. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the observational platform of SCSMEX and a call for the utility of satellite data, field observations and models for comprehensive studies of the Asian monsoon.
Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Noé, Frank
2013-04-28
Direct simulation of biomolecular dynamics in thermal equilibrium is challenging due to the metastable nature of conformation dynamics and the computational cost of molecular dynamics. Biased or enhanced sampling methods may improve the convergence of expectation values of equilibrium probabilities and expectation values of stationary quantities significantly. Unfortunately the convergence of dynamic observables such as correlation functions or timescales of conformational transitions relies on direct equilibrium simulations. Markov state models are well suited to describe both stationary properties and properties of slow dynamical processes of a molecular system, in terms of a transition matrix for a jump process on a suitable discretization of continuous conformation space. Here, we introduce statistical estimation methods that allow a priori knowledge of equilibrium probabilities to be incorporated into the estimation of dynamical observables. Both maximum likelihood methods and an improved Monte Carlo sampling method for reversible transition matrices with fixed stationary distribution are given. The sampling approach is applied to a toy example as well as to simulations of the MR121-GSGS-W peptide, and is demonstrated to converge much more rapidly than a previous approach of Noé [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 244103 (2008)]. PMID:23635117
Efficient Bayesian estimation of Markov model transition matrices with given stationary distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Noé, Frank
2013-04-01
Direct simulation of biomolecular dynamics in thermal equilibrium is challenging due to the metastable nature of conformation dynamics and the computational cost of molecular dynamics. Biased or enhanced sampling methods may improve the convergence of expectation values of equilibrium probabilities and expectation values of stationary quantities significantly. Unfortunately the convergence of dynamic observables such as correlation functions or timescales of conformational transitions relies on direct equilibrium simulations. Markov state models are well suited to describe both stationary properties and properties of slow dynamical processes of a molecular system, in terms of a transition matrix for a jump process on a suitable discretization of continuous conformation space. Here, we introduce statistical estimation methods that allow a priori knowledge of equilibrium probabilities to be incorporated into the estimation of dynamical observables. Both maximum likelihood methods and an improved Monte Carlo sampling method for reversible transition matrices with fixed stationary distribution are given. The sampling approach is applied to a toy example as well as to simulations of the MR121-GSGS-W peptide, and is demonstrated to converge much more rapidly than a previous approach of Noé [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 244103 (2008), 10.1063/1.2916718].
Modeling and Simulation of the MIDREX Shaft Furnace: Reduction, Transition and Cooling Zones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shams, Alireza; Moazeni, Faegheh
2015-11-01
Metallic iron used in steel industries is mostly obtained from a direct reduction process. The focus of this study is to simulate the furnace of the MIDREX technology. MIDREX technology which is the most important gas-based direct reduced iron (DRI) process in the world, includes reduction, transition and cooling zones. The reduction zone considered as a counter current gas-solid reactor produces sponge iron from iron ore pellets. The transition zone has sufficient height to isolate the reduction zone and cooling zone from each other and the cooling zone cools the solid product down to around 50°C. Each zone has a system of reactions. Simultaneous mass and energy balances along the reduction zone lead to a set of ordinary differential equations with two points of boundary conditions. The transitions and cooling zone are investigated at the equilibrium condition leading to a set of algebraic equations. By solving these systems of equations, we determined the materials concentration, temperature, and pressure along the furnace. Our results are in a good agreement with data reported by Parisi and Laborde (2004) for a real MIDREX plant. Using this model, the effect of reactor length and cooling gas flow on the metallization and the effect of cooling gas flow on the outlet temperature of the solid phase have been studied. These new findings can be used to minimize the consumed energy.
Hard is Normal: Military Families' Transitions Within the Process of Deployment.
Yablonsky, Abigail M; Barbero, Edie Devers; Richardson, Jeanita W
2016-02-01
US military deployments have become more frequent and lengthier in duration since 2003. Over half of US military members are married, and many also have children. The authors sought to understand the process of deployment from the perspective of the military family. After a thorough search of the literature, 21 primary research reports of 19 studies with an aggregate sample of 874 were analyzed using qualitative metasynthesis. The deployment process was experienced in four temporal domains. The military family as a whole shared the pre-deployment transition: all family members felt uncertain about the future, needed to complete tasks to "get ready" for deployment, and experienced a sense of distancing in preparation for the upcoming separation. The AD member went through the deployment transition independently, needing to "stay engaged" with the military mission, building a surrogate family and simultaneously trying to maintain connection with the family at home. In parallel, the home front family was going through a transposement transition, moving forward as an altered family unit, taking on new roles and responsibilities, and trying to simultaneously connect with the deployed member and find support from other military families. In post-deployment, the family went through the "reintegration" transition together, managing expectations, and readjusting family roles, all needing understanding and appreciation for their sacrifices during the recent separation. Effective family communication was important for military family well-being after deployment but unexpectedly challenging for many. Clinical, research, and policy recommendations are discussed. PMID:26595761
Drought processes, modeling, and mitigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Ashok K.; Sivakumar, Bellie; Singh, Vijay P.
2015-07-01
Accurate assessment of droughts is crucial for proper planning and management of our water resources, environment, and ecosystems. The combined influence of increasing water demands and the anticipated impacts of global climate change has already raised serious concerns about worsening drought conditions in the future and their social, economic, and environmental impacts. As a result, studies on droughts are currently a major focal point for a broad range of research communities, including civil engineers, hydrologists, environmentalists, ecologists, meteorologists, geologists, agricultural scientists, economists, policy makers, and water managers. There is, therefore, an urgent need for enhancing our understanding of droughts (e.g. occurrence, modeling), making more reliable assessments of their impacts on various sectors of our society (e.g. domestic, agricultural, industrial), and undertaking appropriate adaptation and mitigation measures, especially in the face of global climate change.
The Ballet Dancing Profession: A Career Transition Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roncaglia, Irina
2008-01-01
What type of emotional transition is experienced by professional dancers who face the end of their career? What does this journey imply? This article discusses the transition experiences of two case studies out of a total sample of fourteen (N = 14) international professional ballet dancers who left their careers between the ages of 21 and 49…
An Epidemiological Model of Transition and Postschool Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flexer, Robert W.; Daviso, Alfred W., III; Baer, Robert M.; Queen, Rachel McMahan; Meindl, Richard S.
2011-01-01
This longitudinal transition study was conducted in collaboration with teachers who interviewed students who graduated from 177 school districts in a Great Lakes state. Special education students were interviewed at exit and 1 year following graduation using a survey based on the National Longitudinal Transition Study. The data were analyzed using…
Lithography process window analysis with calibrated model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Wenzhan; Yu, Jin; Lo, James; Liu, Johnson
2004-05-01
As critical-dimension shrink below 0.13 μm, the SPC (Statistical Process Control) based on CD (Critical Dimension) control in lithography process becomes more difficult. Increasing requirements of a shrinking process window have called on the need for more accurate decision of process window center. However in practical fabrication, we found that systematic error introduced by metrology and/or resist process can significantly impact the process window analysis result. Especially, when the simple polynomial functions are used to fit the lithographic data from focus exposure matrix (FEM), the model will fit these systematic errors rather than filter them out. This will definitely impact the process window analysis and determination of the best process condition. In this paper, we proposed to use a calibrated first principle model to do process window analysis. With this method, the systematic metrology error can be filtered out efficiently and give a more reasonable window analysis result.
How nanochannel confinement affects the DNA melting transition within the Poland-Scheraga model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiter-Schad, Michaela; Werner, Erik; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Mehlig, Bernhard; Ambjörnsson, Tobias
2015-09-01
When double-stranded DNA molecules are heated, or exposed to denaturing agents, the two strands are separated. The statistical physics of this process has a long history and is commonly described in terms of the Poland-Scheraga (PS) model. Crucial to this model is the configurational entropy for a melted region (compared to the entropy of an intact region of the same size), quantified by the loop factor. In this study, we investigate how confinement affects the DNA melting transition, by using the loop factor for an ideal Gaussian chain. By subsequent numerical solutions of the PS model, we demonstrate that the melting temperature depends on the persistence lengths of single-stranded and double-stranded DNA. For realistic values of the persistence lengths, the melting temperature is predicted to decrease with decreasing channel diameter. We also demonstrate that confinement broadens the melting transition. These general findings hold for the three scenarios investigated: 1. homo-DNA, i.e., identical basepairs along the DNA molecule, 2. random sequence DNA, and 3. "real" DNA, here T4 phage DNA. We show that cases 2 and 3 in general give rise to broader transitions than case 1. Case 3 exhibits a similar phase transition as case 2 provided the random sequence DNA has the same ratio of AT to GC basepairs (A - adenine, T - thymine, G - guanine, C - cytosine). A simple analytical estimate for the shift in melting temperature is provided as a function of nanochannel diameter. For homo-DNA, we also present an analytical prediction of the melting probability as a function of temperature.
Phase transition in the economically modeled growth of a cellular nervous system
Nicosia, Vincenzo; Vértes, Petra E.; Schafer, William R.; Latora, Vito; Bullmore, Edward T.
2013-01-01
Spatially embedded complex networks, such as nervous systems, the Internet, and transportation networks, generally have nontrivial topological patterns of connections combined with nearly minimal wiring costs. However, the growth rules shaping these economical tradeoffs between cost and topology are not well understood. Here, we study the cellular nervous system of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, together with information on the birth times of neurons and on their spatial locations. We find that the growth of this network undergoes a transition from an accelerated to a constant increase in the number of links (synaptic connections) as a function of the number of nodes (neurons). The time of this phase transition coincides closely with the observed moment of hatching, when development switches metamorphically from oval to larval stages. We use graph analysis and generative modeling to show that the transition between different growth regimes, as well as its coincidence with the moment of hatching, may be explained by a dynamic economical model that incorporates a tradeoff between topology and cost that is continuously negotiated and renegotiated over developmental time. As the body of the animal progressively elongates, the cost of longer-distance connections is increasingly penalized. This growth process regenerates many aspects of the adult nervous system’s organization, including the neuronal membership of anatomically predefined ganglia. We expect that similar economical principles may be found in the development of other biological or manmade spatially embedded complex systems. PMID:23610428
Estimation of State Transition Probabilities: A Neural Network Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Hiroshi; Takiyama, Ken; Okada, Masato
2015-12-01
Humans and animals can predict future states on the basis of acquired knowledge. This prediction of the state transition is important for choosing the best action, and the prediction is only possible if the state transition probability has already been learned. However, how our brains learn the state transition probability is unknown. Here, we propose a simple algorithm for estimating the state transition probability by utilizing the state prediction error. We analytically and numerically confirmed that our algorithm is able to learn the probability completely with an appropriate learning rate. Furthermore, our learning rule reproduced experimentally reported psychometric functions and neural activities in the lateral intraparietal area in a decision-making task. Thus, our algorithm might describe the manner in which our brains learn state transition probabilities and predict future states.
Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process
Westphal, B.R.
1996-03-01
As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.
VARTM Process Modeling of Aerospace Composite Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Song, Xiao-Lan; Grimsley, Brian W.; Hubert, Pascal; Cano, Roberto J.; Loos, Alfred C.
2003-01-01
A three-dimensional model was developed to simulate the VARTM composite manufacturing process. The model considers the two important mechanisms that occur during the process: resin flow, and compaction and relaxation of the preform. The model was used to simulate infiltration of a carbon preform with an epoxy resin by the VARTM process. The model predicted flow patterns and preform thickness changes agreed qualitatively with the measured values. However, the predicted total infiltration times were much longer than measured most likely due to the inaccurate preform permeability values used in the simulation.
Semiphenomenological model for gas-liquid phase transitions.
Benilov, E S; Benilov, M S
2016-03-01
We examine a rarefied gas with inter-molecular attraction. It is argued that the attraction force amplifies random density fluctuations by pulling molecules from lower-density regions into high-density regions and thus may give rise to an instability. To describe this effect, we use a kinetic equation where the attraction force is taken into account in a way similar to how electromagnetic forces in plasma are treated in the Vlasov model. It is demonstrated that the instability occurs when the temperature T is lower than a certain threshold value T(s) depending on the gas density. It is further shown that, even if T is only marginally lower than T(s), the instability generates clusters with density much higher than that of the gas. These results suggest that the instability should be interpreted as a gas-liquid phase transition, with T(s) being the temperature of saturated vapor and the high-density clusters representing liquid droplets. PMID:27078333
Gosselin, G.; Morel, P.; Mohr, P.
2010-05-15
The influence of the stellar plasma on the production and destruction of K isomers is studied for the examples {sup 176}Lu and {sup 180}Ta. Individual electromagnetic transitions are enhanced predominantly by nuclear excitation by electron capture, whereas the other mechanisms of electron scattering and nuclear excitation by electron transition give only minor contributions. It is found that individual transitions can be enhanced significantly for low transition energies below 100 keV. Transitions with higher energies above 200 keV are practically not affected. Although one low-energy transition in {sup 180}Ta is enhanced by up to a factor of 10, the stellar transition rates from low-K to high-K states via so-called intermediate states in {sup 176}Lu and {sup 180}Ta do not change significantly under s-process conditions. The s-process nucleosynthesis of {sup 176}Lu and {sup 180}Ta remains essentially unchanged.
Calibration of a γ- Re θ transition model and its application in low-speed flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, YunTao; Zhang, YuLun; Meng, DeHong; Wang, GunXue; Li, Song
2014-12-01
The prediction of laminar-turbulent transition in boundary layer is very important for obtaining accurate aerodynamic characteristics with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) tools, because laminar-turbulent transition is directly related to complex flow phenomena in boundary layer and separated flow in space. Unfortunately, the transition effect isn't included in today's major CFD tools because of non-local calculations in transition modeling. In this paper, Menter's γ- Re θ transition model is calibrated and incorporated into a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code — Trisonic Platform (TRIP) developed in China Aerodynamic Research and Development Center (CARDC). Based on the experimental data of flat plate from the literature, the empirical correlations involved in the transition model are modified and calibrated numerically. Numerical simulation for low-speed flow of Trapezoidal Wing (Trap Wing) is performed and compared with the corresponding experimental data. It is indicated that the γ- Re θ transition model can accurately predict the location of separation-induced transition and natural transition in the flow region with moderate pressure gradient. The transition model effectively imporves the simulation accuracy of the boundary layer and aerodynamic characteristics.
INTEGRATED FISCHER TROPSCH MODULAR PROCESS MODEL
Donna Post Guillen; Richard Boardman; Anastasia M. Gribik; Rick A. Wood; Robert A. Carrington
2007-12-01
With declining petroleum reserves, increased world demand, and unstable politics in some of the world’s richest oil producing regions, the capability for the U.S. to produce synthetic liquid fuels from domestic resources is critical to national security and economic stability. Coal, biomass and other carbonaceous materials can be converted to liquid fuels using several conversion processes. The leading candidate for large-scale conversion of coal to liquid fuels is the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. Process configuration, component selection, and performance are interrelated and dependent on feed characteristics. This paper outlines a flexible modular approach to model an integrated FT process that utilizes a library of key component models, supporting kinetic data and materials and transport properties allowing rapid development of custom integrated plant models. The modular construction will permit rapid assessment of alternative designs and feed stocks. The modeling approach consists of three thrust areas, or “strands” – model/module development, integration of the model elements into an end to end integrated system model, and utilization of the model for plant design. Strand 1, model/module development, entails identifying, developing, and assembling a library of codes, user blocks, and data for FT process unit operations for a custom feedstock and plant description. Strand 2, integration development, provides the framework for linking these component and subsystem models to form an integrated FT plant simulation. Strand 3, plant design, includes testing and validation of the comprehensive model and performing design evaluation analyses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franz, Silvio; Gradenigo, Giacomo; Spigler, Stefano
2016-03-01
We study how the thermodynamic properties of the triangular plaquette model (TPM) are influenced by the addition of extra interactions. The thermodynamics of the original TPM is trivial, while its dynamics is glassy, as usual in kinetically constrained models. As soon as we generalize the model to include additional interactions, a thermodynamic phase transition appears in the system. The additional interactions we consider are either short ranged, forming a regular lattice in the plane, or long ranged of the small-world kind. In the case of long-range interactions we call the new model the random-diluted TPM. We provide arguments that the model so modified should undergo a thermodynamic phase transition, and that in the long-range case this is a glass transition of the "random first-order" kind. Finally, we give support to our conjectures studying the finite-temperature phase diagram of the random-diluted TPM in the Bethe approximation. This corresponds to the exact calculation on the random regular graph, where free energy and configurational entropy can be computed by means of the cavity equations.
Franz, Silvio; Gradenigo, Giacomo; Spigler, Stefano
2016-03-01
We study how the thermodynamic properties of the triangular plaquette model (TPM) are influenced by the addition of extra interactions. The thermodynamics of the original TPM is trivial, while its dynamics is glassy, as usual in kinetically constrained models. As soon as we generalize the model to include additional interactions, a thermodynamic phase transition appears in the system. The additional interactions we consider are either short ranged, forming a regular lattice in the plane, or long ranged of the small-world kind. In the case of long-range interactions we call the new model the random-diluted TPM. We provide arguments that the model so modified should undergo a thermodynamic phase transition, and that in the long-range case this is a glass transition of the "random first-order" kind. Finally, we give support to our conjectures studying the finite-temperature phase diagram of the random-diluted TPM in the Bethe approximation. This corresponds to the exact calculation on the random regular graph, where free energy and configurational entropy can be computed by means of the cavity equations. PMID:27078408
A unified approach to the transition matrices of DNA substitution models.
Yap, Von Bing
2013-04-01
For a reversible finite-state continuous-time Markov chain containing similar states, the computation of the transition matrix can be expressed quite elegantly in terms of the transition matrix of an associated lumped Markov chain. This result is immensely useful for obtaining explicit transition matrices for many DNA substitution models, without diagonalizing a matrix or solving a differential equation. Furthermore, the technique works for the analogous problem in the discrete-time DNA substitution models. PMID:23313463
Transition in the deformation mode of nanocrystalline tantalum processed by high-pressure torsion
Ligda, J.P.; Schuster, B.E.; Wei, Q.
2012-10-11
We present quasi-static room temperature compression and nanoindentation data for nanocrystalline and ultrafine grained tantalum processed by high-pressure torsion. Because bulk samples possess an inherent gradient in properties, microstructures were characterized using site-specific transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Nanocrystalline Ta shows appreciable homogeneous plastic deformation in compression; however, specimens with the smallest grain sizes exhibit localized plastic deformation via shear bands. Microstructural changes associated with this transition in deformation mode are discussed.
Modelling Biological Processes Using Simple Matrices.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paton, Ray
1991-01-01
A variety of examples are given from different areas of biology to illustrate the general applicability of matrix algebra to discrete models. These models of biological systems are concerned with relations between processes occurring in discrete time intervals. Diffusion, ecosystems, and different types of cells are modeled. (KR/Author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marketin, T.; Huther, L.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.
2016-02-01
Background: r -process nucleosynthesis models rely, by necessity, on nuclear structure models for input. Particularly important are β -decay half-lives of neutron-rich nuclei. At present only a single systematic calculation exists that provides values for all relevant nuclei making it difficult to test the sensitivity of nucleosynthesis models to this input. Additionally, even though there are indications that their contribution may be significant, the impact of first-forbidden transitions on decay rates has not been systematically studied within a consistent model. Purpose: Our goal is to provide a table of β -decay half-lives and β -delayed neutron emission probabilities, including first-forbidden transitions, calculated within a fully self-consistent microscopic theoretical framework. The results are used in an r -process nucleosynthesis calculation to asses the sensitivity of heavy element nucleosynthesis to weak interaction reaction rates. Method: We use a fully self-consistent covariant density functional theory (CDFT) framework. The ground state of all nuclei is calculated with the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) model, and excited states are obtained within the proton-neutron relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (p n -RQRPA). Results: The β -decay half-lives, β -delayed neutron emission probabilities, and the average number of emitted neutrons have been calculated for 5409 nuclei in the neutron-rich region of the nuclear chart. We observe a significant contribution of the first-forbidden transitions to the total decay rate in nuclei far from the valley of stability. The experimental half-lives are in general well reproduced for even-even, odd-A , and odd-odd nuclei, in particular for short-lived nuclei. The resulting data table is included with the article as Supplemental Material. Conclusions: In certain regions of the nuclear chart, first-forbidden transitions constitute a large fraction of the total decay rate and must be
Turbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition - Part 2: A simple TKE model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nilsson, Erik; Lothon, Marie; Lohou, Fabienne; Pardyjak, Eric; Hartogensis, Oscar; Darbieu, Clara
2016-07-01
A simple model for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and the TKE budget is presented for sheared convective atmospheric conditions based on observations from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign. It is based on an idealized mixed-layer approximation and a simplified near-surface TKE budget. In this model, the TKE is dependent on four budget terms (turbulent dissipation rate, buoyancy production, shear production and vertical transport of TKE) and only requires measurements of three available inputs (near-surface buoyancy flux, boundary layer depth and wind speed at one height in the surface layer) to predict vertical profiles of TKE and TKE budget terms.This simple model is shown to reproduce some of the observed variations between the different studied days in terms of near-surface TKE and its decay during the afternoon transition reasonably well. It is subsequently used to systematically study the effects of buoyancy and shear on TKE evolution using idealized constant and time-varying winds during the afternoon transition. From this, we conclude that many different TKE decay rates are possible under time-varying winds and that generalizing the decay with simple scaling laws for near-surface TKE of the form tα may be questionable.The model's errors result from the exclusion of processes such as elevated shear production and horizontal advection. The model also produces an overly rapid decay of shear production with height. However, the most influential budget terms governing near-surface TKE in the observed sheared convective boundary layers are included, while only second-order factors are neglected. Comparison between modeled and averaged observed estimates of dissipation rate illustrates that the overall behavior of the model is often quite reasonable. Therefore, we use the model to discuss the low-turbulence conditions that form first in the upper parts of the boundary layer during the afternoon transition and are only
Inferring Transition Rates of Networks from Populations in Continuous-Time Markov Processes.
Dixit, Purushottam D; Jain, Abhinav; Stock, Gerhard; Dill, Ken A
2015-11-10
We are interested inferring rate processes on networks. In particular, given a network's topology, the stationary populations on its nodes, and a few global dynamical observables, can we infer all the transition rates between nodes? We draw inferences using the principle of maximum caliber (maximum path entropy). We have previously derived results for discrete-time Markov processes. Here, we treat continuous-time processes, such as dynamics among metastable states of proteins. The present work leads to a particularly important analytical result: namely, that when the network is constrained only by a mean jump rate, the rate matrix is given by a square-root dependence of the rate, kab ∝ (πb/πa)(1/2), on πa and πb, the stationary-state populations at nodes a and b. This leads to a fast way to estimate all of the microscopic rates in the system. As an illustration, we show that the method accurately predicts the nonequilibrium transition rates in an in silico gene expression network and transition probabilities among the metastable states of a small peptide at equilibrium. We note also that the method makes sensible predictions for so-called extra-thermodynamic relationships, such as those of Bronsted, Hammond, and others. PMID:26574334
Combining In-situ and In-transit Processing to Enable Extreme-Sscale Scientific Analysis
Bennett, Janine C.; Abbasi, Hasan; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Grout, Ray; Gyulassy, Attila; Jin, Tong; Klasky, Scott A; Kolla, Hemanth; Parashar, Manish; Pascucci, Valerio; Pebay, Philippe; Thompson, David; Yu, Hongfeng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Jacqueline H
2012-01-01
With the onset of extreme-scale computing, I/O constraints make it increasingly difficult for scientists to save a sufficient amount of raw simulation data to persistent storage. One potential solution is to change the data analysis pipeline from a post-process centric to a concurrent approach based on either in-situ or in-transit processing. In this context computations are considered in-situ if they utilize the primary compute resources, while in-transit processing refers to offloading computations to a set of secondary resources using asynchronous data transfers. In this paper we explore the design and implementation of three common analysis techniques typically performed on large-scale scientific simulations: topological analysis, descriptive statistics, and visualization. We summarize algorithmic developments, describe a resource scheduling system to coordinate the execution of various analysis workflows, and discuss our implementation using the DataSpaces and ADIOS frameworks that support efficient data movement between in-situ and in-transit computations. We demonstrate the efficiency of our lightweight, flexible framework by deploying it on the Jaguar XK6 to analyze data generated by S3D, a massively parallel turbulent combustion code. Our framework allows scientists dealing with the data deluge at extreme scale to perform analyses at increased temporal resolutions, mitigate I/O costs, and significantly improve the time to insight.
Preform Characterization in VARTM Process Model Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hubert, Pascal; Loos, Alfred C.; Kellen, Charles B.; Jensen, Brian J.
2004-01-01
Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is a Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) process where both resin injection and fiber compaction are achieved under pressures of 101.3 kPa or less. Originally developed over a decade ago for marine composite fabrication, VARTM is now considered a viable process for the fabrication of aerospace composites (1,2). In order to optimize and further improve the process, a finite element analysis (FEA) process model is being developed to include the coupled phenomenon of resin flow, preform compaction and resin cure. The model input parameters are obtained from resin and fiber-preform characterization tests. In this study, the compaction behavior and the Darcy permeability of a commercially available carbon fabric are characterized. The resulting empirical model equations are input to the 3- Dimensional Infiltration, version 5 (3DINFILv.5) process model to simulate infiltration of a composite panel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Cheng; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Du, Xiu-Juan
2012-11-01
We modify the anisotropic phase-field crystal model (APFC), and present a semi-implicit spectral method to numerically solve the dynamic equation of the APFC model. The process results in the acceleration of computations by orders of magnitude relative to the conventional explicit finite-difference scheme, thereby, allowing us to work on a large system and for a long time. The faceting transitions introduced by the increasing anisotropy in crystal growth are then discussed. In particular, we investigate the morphological evolution in heteroepitaxial growth of our model. A new formation mechanism of misfit dislocations caused by vacancy trapping is found. The regular array of misfit dislocations produces a small-angle grain boundary under the right conditions, and it could significantly change the growth orientation of epitaxial layers.
b {r-arrow} s transitions in family-dependent U(1)' models.
Barger, V.; Everett, L.; Jiang, J.; Langacker, P.; Liu, T.; Wagner, C. E. M.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Wisconsin; Inst. for Advanced Study
2009-01-01
We analyze flavor-changing-neutral-current (FCNC) effects in the b {yields} s transitions that are induced by family non-universal U(1){prime} gauge symmetries. After systematically developing the necessary formalism, we present a correlated analysis for the {Delta}B = 1,2 processes. We adopt a model-independent approach in which we only require family-universal charges for the first and second generations and small fermion mixing angles. We analyze the constraints on the resulting parameter space from B{sub s}-{bar B} mixing and the time-dependent CP asymmetries of the penguin-dominated B{sub d} {yields} ({pi},{phi}, {eta}{prime}, {rho},{omega},f0)K{sub S} decays. Our results indicate that the currently observed discrepancies in some of these modes with respect to the Standard Model predictions can be consistently accommodated within this general class of models.
Williams, Terrinieka T; McMahon, Susan D; Keys, Christopher B
2014-01-01
School experiences can have positive effects on student academic achievement, yet less is known about intermediary processes that contribute to these positive effects. We examined pathways between school experiences and academic achievement among 117 low-income urban students of color, many with disabilities, who transitioned to other schools following a school closure. Using structural equation modeling, we tested two ecological models that examined the relationships among self-reported school experiences, school support, academic self-efficacy, and school-reported academic achievement. The model in which the relationship between school experiences and academic achievement is mediated by both school support and academic self-efficacy, and that takes previous academic achievement into account, was an excellent fit with the data. The roles of contextual and individual factors as they relate to academic achievement, and the implications of these findings, are discussed. PMID:24447155
A Career and Learning Transitional Model for Those Experiencing Labour Market Disadvantage
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cameron, Roslyn
2009-01-01
Research investigating the learning and career transitions of those disadvantaged in the labour market has resulted in the development of a four-component model to enable disadvantaged groups to navigate learning and career transitions. The four components of the model include: the self-concept; learning and recognition; career and life planning;…
Modeling Cellular Processes in 3-D
Mogilner, Alex; Odde, David
2011-01-01
Summary Recent advances in photonic imaging and fluorescent protein technology offer unprecedented views of molecular space-time dynamics in living cells. At the same time, advances in computing hardware and software enable modeling of ever more complex systems, from global climate to cell division. As modeling and experiment become more closely integrated, we must address the issue of modeling cellular processes in 3-D. Here, we highlight recent advances related to 3-D modeling in cell biology. While some processes require full 3-D analysis, we suggest that others are more naturally described in 2-D or 1-D. Keeping the dimensionality as low as possible reduces computational time and makes models more intuitively comprehensible; however, the ability to test full 3-D models will build greater confidence in models generally and remains an important emerging area of cell biological modeling. PMID:22036197
Diffusively anisotropic model for the deflagration-to-detonation transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagan, Leonid; Sivashinsky, Gregory
2014-03-01
To elucidate the key mechanisms responsible for the transition from deflagrative to detonative combustion in smooth-walled channels, a reactive flow with anisotropic thermal and molecular diffusivities is considered. Setting the transverse diffusivities large compared to longitudinal diffusivities, the initially formed deflagration (despite no-slip boundary conditions) appears to be nearly planar and not accelerating. This, however, does not prevent its eventual abrupt transition to Chapman-Jouguet detonation.
Software-Engineering Process Simulation (SEPS) model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, C. Y.; Abdel-Hamid, T.; Sherif, J. S.
1992-01-01
The Software Engineering Process Simulation (SEPS) model is described which was developed at JPL. SEPS is a dynamic simulation model of the software project development process. It uses the feedback principles of system dynamics to simulate the dynamic interactions among various software life cycle development activities and management decision making processes. The model is designed to be a planning tool to examine tradeoffs of cost, schedule, and functionality, and to test the implications of different managerial policies on a project's outcome. Furthermore, SEPS will enable software managers to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of software project development and perform postmodern assessments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, L. X.; Kamath, H.
2006-12-01
A dynamical mathematical model is proposed to model the hysteretic behaviour of magnetorheological fluids and dampers using phase-transition theory. To construct the model involving hysteresis, the magnetorheological fluids are assumed to be switchable between different phases upon the application of a shear strain rate, with one solid-like phase and two fluid-like phases. The Landau theory for phase transition is employed to model the dynamics of the phase transition in the fluids. The proposed model is able to capture hysteresis loops, and is rate dependent (frequency dependent). A comparison between predicted and experimental behaviour of the damper is presented, and perfect agreement is obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, T. F.; Ren, W. J.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.
2016-08-01
The magnetic structure of MnSn2 and magnetic phase transitions in this compound have been investigated by magnetic measurements on single crystals. The results show that two antiferromagnetic (AFM) states exist below 325 K and that a transition between these two phases occurs at 74 K. Applying a magnetic field (H) has great influence on the transition temperature. An anomalous magnetization process at low fields occurs when the magnetic field applied along the [110] direction, which is ascribed to the contribution of the basal anisotropy. Based on the data for the magnetization processes and the phase transition of the present single crystal, the H-T phase diagram has been established.
Bypass Transitional Flow Calculations Using a Navier-Stokes Solver and Two-Equation Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liuo, William W.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Povinelli, L. A. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Bypass transitional flows over a flat plate were simulated using a Navier-Stokes solver and two equation models. A new model for the bypass transition, which occurs in cases with high free stream turbulence intensity (TI), is described. The new transition model is developed by including an intermittency correction function to an existing two-equation turbulence model. The advantages of using Navier-Stokes equations, as opposed to boundary-layer equations, in bypass transition simulations are also illustrated. The results for two test flows over a flat plate with different levels of free stream turbulence intensity are reported. Comparisons with the experimental measurements show that the new model can capture very well both the onset and the length of bypass transition.
Bifurcation analysis and dimension reduction of a predator-prey model for the L-H transition
Dam, Magnus; Brøns, Morten; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Xu, Guosheng
2013-10-15
The L-H transition denotes a shift to an improved confinement state of a toroidal plasma in a fusion reactor. A model of the L-H transition is required to simulate the time dependence of tokamak discharges that include the L-H transition. A 3-ODE predator-prey type model of the L-H transition is investigated with bifurcation theory of dynamical systems. The analysis shows that the model contains three types of transitions: an oscillating transition, a sharp transition with hysteresis, and a smooth transition. The model is recognized as a slow-fast system. A reduced 2-ODE model consisting of the full model restricted to the flow on the critical manifold is found to contain all the same dynamics as the full model. This means that all the dynamics in the system is essentially 2-dimensional, and a minimal model of the L-H transition could be a 2-ODE model.
Lachi-Silva, Larissa; Sy, Sherwin K B; Voelkner, Alexander; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Lopes, João Luis C; Silva, Denise B; Lopes, Norberto P; Kimura, Elza; Derendorf, Hartmut; Diniz, Andrea
2015-08-01
The pharmacokinetic properties of a new molecular entity are important aspects in evaluating the viability of the compound as a pharmacological agent. The sesquiterpene lactone lychnopholide exhibits important biological activities. The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of lychnopholide after intravenous administration of 1.65 mg/kg (n = 5) and oral administration of 3.3 mg/kg (n = 3) lychnopholide in rats (0.2 ± 0.02 kg in weight) through nonlinear mixed effects modeling and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. A highly sensitive analytical method was used to quantify the plasma lychnopholide concentrations in rats. Plasma protein binding of this compound was over 99 % as determined by a filtration method. A two-compartment body model plus three transit compartments to characterize the absorption process best described the disposition of lychnopholide after both routes of administration. The oral bioavailability was approximately 68 %. The clearance was 0.131 l/min and intercompartmental clearance was 0.171 l/min; steady-state volume of distribution was 4.83 l. The mean transit time for the absorption process was 9.15 minutes. No flip-flop phenomenon was observed after oral administration. The pharmacokinetic properties are favorable for further development of lychnopholide as a potential oral pharmacological agent. PMID:26218336
Phase transitions and charge ordering in a square spin ice model with conserved monopole density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Yunlong; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liu, Jun-Ming
2015-03-01
Artificial spin ices represent a class of highly interested frustrated magnetic systems under intensive investigations for fascinating ground states and thermodynamics/dynamics of spin excitations in recent years. As one of these issues, magnetic charge ordering and the corresponding phase transitions in the two-dimensional system are emerging topics in condensed matter physics. In this work, we investigate all the monopole-ordered phases of the square spin ice model using the conserved monopole density algorithm. In low monopole density (ρ ~ 0), the Coulomb potential determines the monopoles' dynamics. We test the Coulomb's law in a two-dimension lattice and justify the monopole dimerization which is quite different from the three-dimensional pyrochlore spin ice. These monopole dimers are charge neutral, and the interactions between them have also been investigated using our algorithm. In the cases of high monopole density (ρ ~ 1), the system is similar to the dipolar kagome spin ice model, and our simulation results show that there exists an intermediate phase between the paramagnetic phase and the ordered magnetic phase. Such intermediate phase can be distinguished by the order of magnetic charges. In a cooling process, the system undergoes a two-stage magnetic phase transition before freezing to the long range magnetic ordered phase via a staggered charge ordering. Furthermore, a liquefaction process of monopole dimers can be justified upon the increasing effective internal pressure in the isothermal condition.
Towards a general growth model for graphene CVD on transition metal catalysts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Weatherup, Robert S.; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Caneva, Sabina; Hofmann, Stephan
2016-01-01
The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene on three polycrystalline transition metal catalysts, Co, Ni and Cu, is systematically compared and a first-order growth model is proposed which can serve as a reference to optimize graphene growth on any elemental or alloy catalyst system. Simple thermodynamic considerations of carbon solubility are insufficient to capture even basic growth behaviour on these most commonly used catalyst materials, and it is shown that kinetic aspects such as carbon permeation have to be taken into account. Key CVD process parameters are discussed in this context and the results are anticipated to be highly useful for the design of future strategies for integrated graphene manufacture.The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene on three polycrystalline transition metal catalysts, Co, Ni and Cu, is systematically compared and a first-order growth model is proposed which can serve as a reference to optimize graphene growth on any elemental or alloy catalyst system. Simple thermodynamic considerations of carbon solubility are insufficient to capture even basic growth behaviour on these most commonly used catalyst materials, and it is shown that kinetic aspects such as carbon permeation have to be taken into account. Key CVD process parameters are discussed in this context and the results are anticipated to be highly useful for the design of future strategies for integrated graphene manufacture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06873h
Simple Models for Airport Delays During Transition to a Trajectory-Based Air Traffic System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooker, Peter
It is now widely recognised that a paradigm shift in air traffic control concepts is needed. This requires state-of-the-art innovative technologies, making much better use of the information in the air traffic management (ATM) system. These paradigm shifts go under the names of NextGen in the USA and SESAR in Europe, which inter alia will make dramatic changes to the nature of airport operations. A vital part of moving from an existing system to a new paradigm is the operational implications of the transition process. There would be business incentives for early aircraft fitment, it is generally safer to introduce new technologies gradually, and researchers are already proposing potential transition steps to the new system. Simple queuing theory models are used to establish rough quantitative estimates of the impact of the transition to a more efficient time-based navigational and ATM system. Such models are approximate, but they do offer insight into the broad implications of system change and its significant features. 4D-equipped aircraft in essence have a contract with the airport runway and, in return, they would get priority over any other aircraft waiting for use of the runway. The main operational feature examined here is the queuing delays affecting non-4D-equipped arrivals. These get a reasonable service if the proportion of 4D-equipped aircraft is low, but this can deteriorate markedly for high proportions, and be economically unviable. Preventative measures would be to limit the additional growth of 4D-equipped flights and/or to modify their contracts to provide sufficient space for the non-4D-equipped flights to operate without excessive delays. There is a potential for non-Poisson models, for which there is little in the literature, and for more complex models, e.g. grouping a succession of 4D-equipped aircraft as a batch.
Kang, Xiaonan; Sun, Chun; Jiang, Kai; Huang, Li; Lu, Yu; Sui, Jingzhe; Qin, Xue; Liu, Yinkun
2013-01-01
Background and Objective Due to recurrence and metastasis, the mortality of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is high. It is well known that the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and glycan of cell surface glycoproteins play pivotal roles in tumor metastasis. The goal of this study was to identify HCC metastasis related differential glycan pattern and their enzymatic basis using a HGF induced EMT model. Methodology HGF was used to induce HCC EMT model. Lectin microarray was used to detect the expression of cell surface glycan and the difference was validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. The mRNA expression levels of glycotransferases were determined by qRT-PCR. Results After HGF treatment, the Huh7 cell lost epithelial characteristics and obtained mesenchymal markers. These changes demonstrated that HGF could induce a typical cell model of EMT. Lectin microarray analysis identified a decreased affinity in seven lectins ACL, BPL, JAC, MPL, PHA-E, SNA, and SBA to the glycan of cell surface glycoproteins. This implied that glycan containing T/Tn-antigen, NA2 and bisecting GlcNAc, Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc, terminal α or βGalNAc structures were reduced. The binding ability of thirteen lectins, AAL, LCA, LTL, ConA, NML, NPL, DBA, HAL, PTL II, WFL, ECL, GSL II and PHA-L to glycan were elevated, and a definite indication that glycan containing terminal αFuc and ± Sia-Le, core fucose, α-man, gal-β(α) GalNAc, β1,6 GlcNAc branching and tetraantennary complex oligosaccharides structures were increased. These results were further validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of Mgat3 decreased while that of Mgat5, FucT8 and β3GalT5 increased. Therefore, cell surface glycan alterations in the EMT process may coincide with the expression of glycosyltransferase. Conclusions The findings of this study systematically clarify the alterations of cell surface glycan in cancer EMT, and
Lasing behaviors upon phase transition in solution-processed perovskite thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, Tsung Sheng; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Chou, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Fang-Chung; Lu, Tien-Chang
2014-12-01
In this paper, the temperature dependent lasing characteristics of solution-processed organic-inorganic halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 films have been demonstrated. The lasing temperature can be sustained up to a near room temperature at 260 K. Via the temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements, an emerged phase-transition band can be observed, ascribing to the crystalline structures changed from the orthorhombic to tetragonal phase states in the perovskites as a function of a gradual increase in the ambient temperature. The optical characteristics of the PL emission peaks and the anomalous shifts of the peak intensities are highly correspondent with the phase states in perovskites at different temperatures, showing a low-threshold lasing behavior at the phase transition. The laser cavities may be formed under multiple random scattering provided by the polycrystalline grain boundary and/or phase separation upon the phase transition. Since the threshold gain is potentially high in the random cavities, the large material gain exhibited by the solution-processed perovskite would be very promising in making practical laser devices.
Quantum Phase Transitional Behavior in the Extended Casten Triangle of the Interacting Boson Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Feng; Wang, Tao; Huo, Y.-S.; Draayer, J. P.
Quantum phase transitional patterns in the whole parameter space of the consistent-Q Hamiltonian in the Interacting Boson Model are studied based on an implemented Fortran code for numerical computation of the matrix elements in the SU(3) Draayer-Akiyama basis. Results with respect to both ground and some excited states of the model Hamiltonian are discussed. Quantum phase transitional behavior under a variety of parameter situations is shown. It is found that transitional behavior of excited states is more complicated. Pt isotopes are taken as examples in illustrating the prolate-oblate shape phase transition.
Quantum phase transitions in the consistent-Q Hamiltonian of the interacting boson model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Feng; Wang, Tao; Huo, Y.-S.; Draayer, J. P.
2008-12-01
Quantum phase transitional patterns in the whole parameter space of the consistent-Q Hamiltonian in the interacting boson model are studied based on an implemented Fortran code for the numerical computation of the matrix elements in the SU(3) Draayer-Akiyama basis. Results with respect to both ground and some excited states of the model Hamiltonian are discussed. Quantum phase transitional behavior in a variety of parameter situations is shown. It is found that transitional behavior of excited states is more complicated. Pt isotopes are taken as examples in illustrating the prolate-oblate shape phase transition.
Dynamical phase transitions and Loschmidt echo in the infinite-range XY model.
Žunkovič, Bojan; Silva, Alessandro; Fabrizio, Michele
2016-06-13
We compare two different notions of dynamical phase transitions in closed quantum systems. The first is identified through the time-averaged value of the equilibrium-order parameter, whereas the second corresponds to non-analyticities in the time behaviour of the Loschmidt echo. By exactly solving the dynamics of the infinite-range XY model, we show that in this model non-analyticities of the Loschmidt echo are not connected to standard dynamical phase transitions and are not robust against quantum fluctuations. Furthermore, we show that the existence of either of the two dynamical transitions is not necessarily connected to the equilibrium quantum phase transition. PMID:27140975
The Coalescent Process in Models with Selection
Kaplan, N. L.; Darden, T.; Hudson, R. R.
1988-01-01
Statistical properties of the process describing the genealogical history of a random sample of genes are obtained for a class of population genetics models with selection. For models with selection, in contrast to models without selection, the distribution of this process, the coalescent process, depends on the distribution of the frequencies of alleles in the ancestral generations. If the ancestral frequency process can be approximated by a diffusion, then the mean and the variance of the number of segregating sites due to selectively neutral mutations in random samples can be numerically calculated. The calculations are greatly simplified if the frequencies of the alleles are tightly regulated. If the mutation rates between alleles maintained by balancing selection are low, then the number of selectively neutral segregating sites in a random sample of genes is expected to substantially exceed the number predicted under a neutral model. PMID:3066685
Object-oriented models of cognitive processing.
Mather, G
2001-05-01
Information-processing models of vision and cognition are inspired by procedural programming languages. Models that emphasize object-based representations are closely related to object-oriented programming languages. The concepts underlying object-oriented languages provide a theoretical framework for cognitive processing that differs markedly from that offered by procedural languages. This framework is well-suited to a system designed to deal flexibly with discrete objects and unpredictable events in the world. PMID:11323249
Transition metal-catalyzed process for addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds
Hartwig, John F.; Kawatsura, Motoi; Loeber, Oliver
2002-01-01
The present invention is directed to a process for addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds in a substrate, comprising: reacting an amine with a compound containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond in the presence a transition metal catalyst under reaction conditions effective to form a product having a covalent bond between the amine and a carbon atom of the former carbon-carbon double bond. The transition metal catalyst comprises a Group 8 metal and a ligand containing one or more 2-electron donor atoms. The present invention is also directed to enantioselective reactions of amine compounds with compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds, and a calorimetric assay to evaluate potential catalysts in these reactions.
Configurable product design considering the transition of multi-hierarchical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Bin; Qiu, Lemiao; Zhang, Shuyou; Tan, Jianrong; Cheng, Jin
2013-03-01
The current research of configurable product design mainly focuses on how to convert a predefined set of components into a valid set of product structures. With the scale and complexity of configurable products increasing, the interdependencies between customer demands and product structures grow up as well. The result is that existing product structures fails to satisfy the individual customer requirements and hence product variants are needed. This paper is aimed to build a bridge between customer demands and product structures in order to make demand-driven fast response design feasible. First of all, multi-hierarchical models of configurable product design are established with customer demand model, technical requirement model and product structure model. Then, the transition of multi-hierarchical models among customer demand model, technical requirement model and product structure model is solved with fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and the algorithm of multi-level matching. Finally, optimal structure according to the customer demands is obtained with the calculation of Euclidean distance and similarity of some cases. In practice, the configuration design of a clamping unit of injection molding machine successfully performs an optimal search strategy for the product variants with reasonable satisfaction to individual customer demands. The proposed method can automatically generate a configuration design with better alternatives for each product structures, and shorten the time of finding the configuration of a product.
Overlap and activity glass transitions in plaquette spin models with hierarchical dynamics.
Turner, Robert M; Jack, Robert L; Garrahan, Juan P
2015-08-01
We consider thermodynamic and dynamic phase transitions in plaquette spin models of glasses. The thermodynamic transitions involve coupled (annealed) replicas of the model. We map these coupled-replica systems to a single replica in a magnetic field, which allows us to analyze the resulting phase transitions in detail. For the triangular plaquette model (TPM), we find for the coupled-replica system a phase transition between high- and low-overlap phases, occurring at a coupling ɛ*(T), which vanishes in the low-temperature limit. Using computational path sampling techniques, we show that a single TPM also displays "space-time" transitions between active and inactive dynamical phases. These first-order dynamical transitions occur at a critical counting field sc(T)≳0 that appears to vanish at zero temperature in a manner reminiscent of the thermodynamic overlap transition. In order to extend the ideas to three dimensions, we introduce the square pyramid model, which also displays both overlap and activity transitions. We discuss a possible common origin of these various phase transitions, based on long-lived (metastable) glassy states. PMID:26382352
Overlap and activity glass transitions in plaquette spin models with hierarchical dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, Robert M.; Jack, Robert L.; Garrahan, Juan P.
2015-08-01
We consider thermodynamic and dynamic phase transitions in plaquette spin models of glasses. The thermodynamic transitions involve coupled (annealed) replicas of the model. We map these coupled-replica systems to a single replica in a magnetic field, which allows us to analyze the resulting phase transitions in detail. For the triangular plaquette model (TPM), we find for the coupled-replica system a phase transition between high- and low-overlap phases, occurring at a coupling ɛ*(T ) , which vanishes in the low-temperature limit. Using computational path sampling techniques, we show that a single TPM also displays "space-time" transitions between active and inactive dynamical phases. These first-order dynamical transitions occur at a critical counting field sc(T ) ≳0 that appears to vanish at zero temperature in a manner reminiscent of the thermodynamic overlap transition. In order to extend the ideas to three dimensions, we introduce the square pyramid model, which also displays both overlap and activity transitions. We discuss a possible common origin of these various phase transitions, based on long-lived (metastable) glassy states.
Siclari, Francesca; Bernardi, Giulio; Riedner, Brady A.; LaRocque, Joshua J.; Benca, Ruth M.; Tononi, Giulio
2014-01-01
Objectives: To assess how the characteristics of slow waves and spindles change in the falling-asleep process. Design: Participants undergoing overnight high-density electroencephalographic recordings were awakened at 15- to 30-min intervals. One hundred forty-one falling-asleep periods were analyzed at the scalp and source level. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Six healthy participants. Interventions: Serial awakenings. Results: The number and amplitude of slow waves followed two dissociated, intersecting courses during the transition to sleep: slow wave number increased slowly at the beginning and rapidly at the end of the falling-asleep period, whereas amplitude at first increased rapidly and then decreased linearly. Most slow waves occurring early in the transition to sleep had a large amplitude, a steep slope, involved broad regions of the cortex, predominated over frontomedial regions, and preferentially originated from the sensorimotor and the posteromedial parietal cortex. Most slow waves occurring later had a smaller amplitude and slope, involved more circumscribed parts of the cortex, and had more evenly distributed origins. Spindles were initially sparse, fast, and involved few cortical regions, then became more numerous and slower, and involved more areas. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for two types of slow waves, which follow dissociated temporal courses in the transition to sleep and have distinct cortical origins and distributions. We hypothesize that these two types of slow waves result from two distinct synchronization processes: (1) a “bottom-up,” subcorticocortical, arousal system-dependent process that predominates in the early phase and leads to type I slow waves, and (2) a “horizontal,” corticocortical synchronization process that predominates in the late phase and leads to type II slow waves. The dissociation between these two synchronization processes in time and space suggests that they may be differentially
An observational and modeling study of extratropical transition of Hurricane Sandy in 2012
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Dan; Li, Pengyuan; Fu, Gang
2015-10-01
Around 30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall along the New Jersey shoreline after its completion of extratropical transition and transformation into an extratropical cyclone. The strong gale induced a catastrophic storm surge, and caused 72 death and damage of more than 50 billion. In this paper, the evolutionary process and spatial structure of the Hurricane Sandy during its extratropical transition were investigated by using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) version 3.3.1 modeling results and National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Coupled Forecast System model version 2 reanalysis datasets (CFSv2). It is found that during the upper-level trough interaction on 29 October, Sandy gradually fused with a pre-existing mid-latitude low-pressure system, and finished the re-intensification. WRF modeling results showed that the second peak occurred mainly due to the enhanced vertical motion, reduced vertical wind shear as well as the supplement of potential vorticity resulting from trough interaction over the southeast of Great Lakes. The cold continental air from the back of trough was encircled within the warm core system cyclonically, forming the characteristic of warm seclusion.
Franović, Igor; Miljković, Vladimir
2009-06-01
Spike packet propagation is modeled in mesoscopic-scale networks, composed of locally and recurrently coupled neural pools, and embedded in a two-dimensional lattice. Site dynamics is governed by three key parameters--pool connectedness probability, synaptic strength (following the steady-state distribution of some realizations of spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning rule), and the neuron refractoriness. Formation of spatiotemporal patterns in our model, synfire chains, exhibits critical behavior, with the emerging percolation phase transition controlled by the probability for nonzero synaptic strength value. Applying the finite-size scaling method, we infer the critical probability dependence on synaptic strength and refractoriness and determine the effects of connection topology on the pertaining percolation clusters fractal dimensions. We find that the directed percolation and the pair contact process with diffusion constitute the relevant universality classes of phase transitions observed in a class of mesoscopic-scale network models, which may be related to recently reported data on in vitro cultures. PMID:19658540
A comparative study on the flow over an airfoil using transitional turbulence models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Mou; Sarlak, Hamid
2016-06-01
This work addresses the simulation of the flow over NREL S826 airfoil under a relatively low Reynolds number (Re = 1 × 105) using the CFD solvers OpenFoam and ANSYS Fluent. The flow is simulated using two different transition models, γ-Reθ and k - kL - ω model, and the results are examined against the k - ω SST model without transitional formulations. By comparing the simulations with the available experimental data, we find that the using the transitional model can effectively improve the flow prediction, especially the drag coefficient results, before the stall.
Computational Modeling For The Transitional Flow Over A Multi-Element Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.; Liu, Feng-Jun; Rumsey, Chris L. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The transitional flow over a multi-element airfoil in a landing configuration are computed using a two equation transition model. The transition model is predictive in the sense that the transition onset is a result of the calculation and no prior knowledge of the transition location is required. The computations were performed using the INS2D) Navier-Stokes code. Overset grids are used for the three-element airfoil. The airfoil operating conditions are varied for a range of angle of attack and for two different Reynolds numbers of 5 million and 9 million. The computed results are compared with experimental data for the surface pressure, skin friction, transition onset location, and velocity magnitude. In general, the comparison shows a good agreement with the experimental data.
Observing various phase transitions in the holographic model of superfluidity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuang, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Yunqi; Wang, Bin
2012-08-01
We study the gravity duals of supercurrent solutions in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole background with general phase structure to describe both the first- and the second-order phase transitions at finite temperature in strongly interacting systems. We argue that the conductivity and the pair susceptibility can be possible phenomenological indications to distinguish the order of phase transitions. We extend our discussion to the AdS soliton configuration. Different from the black hole spacetime, in the probe limit, the first-order phase transition cannot be brought by introducing the spatial component of the vector potential of the gauge field in the AdS soliton background.
The (Mathematical) Modeling Process in Biosciences
Torres, Nestor V.; Santos, Guido
2015-01-01
In this communication, we introduce a general framework and discussion on the role of models and the modeling process in the field of biosciences. The objective is to sum up the common procedures during the formalization and analysis of a biological problem from the perspective of Systems Biology, which approaches the study of biological systems as a whole. We begin by presenting the definitions of (biological) system and model. Particular attention is given to the meaning of mathematical model within the context of biology. Then, we present the process of modeling and analysis of biological systems. Three stages are described in detail: conceptualization of the biological system into a model, mathematical formalization of the previous conceptual model and optimization and system management derived from the analysis of the mathematical model. All along this work the main features and shortcomings of the process are analyzed and a set of rules that could help in the task of modeling any biological system are presented. Special regard is given to the formative requirements and the interdisciplinary nature of this approach. We conclude with some general considerations on the challenges that modeling is posing to current biology. PMID:26734063
An analysis of the massless planet approximation in transit light curve models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millholland, Sarah; Ruch, Gerry
2015-08-01
Many extrasolar planet transit light curve models use the approximation of a massless planet. They approximate the planet as orbiting elliptically with the host star at the orbit’s focus instead of depicting the planet and star as both orbiting around a common center of mass. This approximation should generally be very good because the transit is a small fraction of the full-phase curve and the planet to stellar mass ratio is typically very small. However, to fully examine the legitimacy of this approximation, it is useful to perform a robust, all-parameter space-encompassing statistical comparison between the massless planet model and the more accurate model.Towards this goal, we establish two questions: (1) In what parameter domain is the approximation invalid? (2) If characterizing an exoplanetary system in this domain, what is the error of the parameter estimates when using the simplified model? We first address question (1). Given each parameter vector in a finite space, we can generate the simplified and more complete model curves. Associated with these model curves is a measure of the deviation between them, such as the root mean square (RMS). We use Gibbs sampling to generate a sample that is distributed according to the RMS surface. The high-density regions in the sample correspond to a large deviation between the models. To determine the domains of these high-density areas, we first employ the Ordering Points to Identify the Clustering Structure (OPTICS) algorithm. We then characterize the subclusters by performing the Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) on the transformed Principal Component spaces of each cluster. This process yields descriptors of the parameter domains with large discrepancies between the models.To consider question (2), we start by generating synthetic transit curve observations in the domains specified by the above analysis. We then derive the best-fit parameters of these synthetic light curves according to each model and examine
The Epidemic Process and The Contagion Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Worthen, Dennis B.
1973-01-01
Goffman's epidemic theory is presented and compared to the contagion theory developed by Menzel. An attempt is made to compare the two models presented and examine their similarities and differences. The conclusion drawn is that the two models are very similar in their approach to understanding communication processes. (14 references) (Author/SJ)
Information-Processing Models of Cognition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simon, Herbert A.
1981-01-01
Reviews recent progress in modeling human cognition, in particular the use of computers in generating models. Topics covered include the information processing approach to cognition, problem solving, semantic memory, pattern induction, and learning and cognitive development. A 164-item reference list is attached. (JL)
Modeling of fluidized bed silicon deposition process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, K.; Hsu, G.; Lutwack, R.; PRATURI A. K.
1977-01-01
The model is intended for use as a means of improving fluidized bed reactor design and for the formulation of the research program in support of the contracts of Silicon Material Task for the development of the fluidized bed silicon deposition process. A computer program derived from the simple modeling is also described. Results of some sample calculations using the computer program are shown.
Transitions between Spatial Attractors in Place-Cell Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monasson, R.; Rosay, S.
2015-08-01
The spontaneous transitions between D -dimensional spatial maps in an attractor neural network are studied. Two scenarios for the transition from one map to another are found, depending on the level of noise: (i) through a mixed state, partly localized in both maps around positions where the maps are most similar, and (ii) through a weakly localized state in one of the two maps, followed by a condensation in the arrival map. Our predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations and qualitatively compared to recent recordings of hippocampal place cells during quick-environment-changing experiments in rats.
Superconductor-insulator phase transition in the boson Hubbard model
Kampf, A.P. ); Zimanyi, G.T. Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 )
1993-01-01
We investigate the superconductor-insulator phase transition in the two-dimensional boson Hubbard system with short-range interactions. Fluctuations of [ital both] the phase and the amplitude of the superfluid order parameter are included in the determination of the phase diagram at zero and finite temperatures. The mean-field phase boundary is compared to quantum Monte Carlo results. We also calculate the frequency-dependent conductivity in the vicinity of the phase transition and find it universal at the multicritical point.
Transition Studies on a Swept-Wing Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saric, William S.
1996-01-01
The present investigation contributes to the understanding of boundary-layer stability and transition by providing detailed measurements of carefully-produced stationary crossflow vortices. It is clear that a successful prediction of transition in swept-wing flows must include an understanding of the detailed physics involved. Receptivity and nonlinear effects must not be ignored. Linear stability theory correctly predicts the expected wavelengths and mode shapes for stationary crossflow, but fails to predict the growth rates, even for low amplitudes. As new computational and analytical methods are developed to deal with three-dimensional boundary layers, the data provided by this experiment will serve as a useful benchmark for comparison.
Modeling biochemical transformation processes and information processing with Narrator
Mandel, Johannes J; Fuß, Hendrik; Palfreyman, Niall M; Dubitzky, Werner
2007-01-01
Background Software tools that model and simulate the dynamics of biological processes and systems are becoming increasingly important. Some of these tools offer sophisticated graphical user interfaces (GUIs), which greatly enhance their acceptance by users. Such GUIs are based on symbolic or graphical notations used to describe, interact and communicate the developed models. Typically, these graphical notations are geared towards conventional biochemical pathway diagrams. They permit the user to represent the transport and transformation of chemical species and to define inhibitory and stimulatory dependencies. A critical weakness of existing tools is their lack of supporting an integrative representation of transport, transformation as well as biological information processing. Results Narrator is a software tool facilitating the development and simulation of biological systems as Co-dependence models. The Co-dependence Methodology complements the representation of species transport and transformation together with an explicit mechanism to express biological information processing. Thus, Co-dependence models explicitly capture, for instance, signal processing structures and the influence of exogenous factors or events affecting certain parts of a biological system or process. This combined set of features provides the system biologist with a powerful tool to describe and explore the dynamics of life phenomena. Narrator's GUI is based on an expressive graphical notation which forms an integral part of the Co-dependence Methodology. Behind the user-friendly GUI, Narrator hides a flexible feature which makes it relatively easy to map models defined via the graphical notation to mathematical formalisms and languages such as ordinary differential equations, the Systems Biology Markup Language or Gillespie's direct method. This powerful feature facilitates reuse, interoperability and conceptual model development. Conclusion Narrator is a flexible and intuitive systems
Model for Transition Zone Formation from Upwelling Thermo-Chemical Plumes of Intermediate Rheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, C. T.; Weeraratne, D. S.
2008-12-01
The mantle transition zone has been limited to a layer of approximately 250 km at the base of the upper mantle, identified by studies in seismology and mineral physics. However, there are many uncertainties as to the nature of formation of this mid-mantle layer, its evolution over geological time, physical properties, and its role facilitating or inhibiting whole mantle flow. Here, we conduct laboratory fluid experiments using high viscosity corn syrup fluids and liquid gallium to study mantle convection processes in the early Earth. Specifically, we consider early core formation events involving metal-silicate plumes which sink following impact events and entrain magma ocean material from the surface during descent. Preliminary studies indicate that low viscosity, buoyant material, that makes up the model magma ocean near the surface is entrained in conduits that form behind quickly descending liquid metal plumes to the base of the lower mantle. This low density material brought to the base of the model lower mantle becomes buoyant and subsequently rises back up to the top of the fluid box forming a new intermediate material that has experienced both chemical and thermal diffusion along its mantle pathway and empties at the top of the lower mantle or base of a magma ocean. Two-component fluid experiments are considered in the presence of a hot lower thermal boundary layer at Rayleigh numbers of 103 to 105 and low Reynolds number flow, and indicate that upwelling thermo-chemical plumes may form following core formation events. This new third fluid layer of intermediate rheology is considered as a model for the mantle transition zone. Shadow graph images indicate a sharp density contrast with surrounding fluids that persists for long times, consistent with seismic discontinuities observed for the Earth's transition zone. We will present quantitative estimates of material rheology, density, and flow properties for scaling with a silicate mantle, geophysical, and
Simple Model Study of Phase Transition Properties of Isolated and Aggregated Protein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Yong-Yun; Yi, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Lin-Xi
2011-03-01
We investigate the phase transition properties of isolated and aggregated protein by exhaustive numerical study in the confined conformation space with maximally compact lattice model. The study within the confined conformation space shows some general folding properties. Various sequences show different folding properties: two-state folding, three-state folding and prion-like folding behavior. We find that the aggregated protein holds a more evident transition than isolated one and the transition temperature is generally lower than that in isolated case.
Longitudinal Test of a Developmental Model of the Transition to Early Drinking
Settles, Regan E.; Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Smith, Gregory T.
2014-01-01
This paper reports on a longitudinal test of a developmental model of early drinking that specifies transactions among personality, learning and behavior in the risk process. The model was tested on 1906 children making the transition from elementary school to middle school across three time points: the spring of 5th grade, the fall of 6th grade, and the spring of 6th grade. In a transaction that has been referred to as Acquired Preparedness, individual differences in the trait positive urgency at the end of 5th grade were associated with increases in expectancies for social facilitation from alcohol at the start of 6th grade, which then predicted drinker status at the end of 6th grade. In addition, the alcohol expectancy and drinker status predicted each other reciprocally across time. Multiple factors appear to transact to predict early drinking behavior. PMID:24661166
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanev, Emil V.; Lu, Xi; Grashorn, Sebastian
2015-09-01
The dynamics in the transition zone between the North Sea and Baltic Sea are analyzed here using data from a 22-year-long climatic simulation with a focus on the periods 1992-1994 and 2001-2003 when two recent major inflow events occurred. Observations from gauges and in situ measurements are used to validate the model. Parameters, which cannot be easily measured, such as water and salt transports through straits, have been compared against similar previous estimates. The good performance of simulations is attributed to the finer resolution of the model compared to earlier set ups. The outflow in the Kattegat, which is an analogue of the tidal outflows, tends to propagate to the North over the shallows without showing a substantial deflection to the right due to the Earth's rotation. The inflow follows the topography. The different inflow and outflow pathways are explained as a consequence of the specific combination of bathymetry, axial and lateral processes. The circulation in Kattegat is persistently clockwise with an eastern intensification during inflow and a western one during outflow regimes. The tidal wave there propagates as Kelvin wave, keeping the coast on its right. The flows in the two main straits reveal very different responses to tides, which are also highly asymmetric during inflow and outflow conditions. The circulation has a typical two-layer structure, the correlation between salinity and velocity tends to increase the salt transport in the salinity conveyor belt. The transversal circulation in the entrance of the Sound enhances the vertical mixing of the saltier North Sea water. The long-term averaged ratio of the water transports through the Great Belt and the Sound is ∼2.6-2.7 but this number changes reaching lower values during the major inflow in 1993. The transports in the straits are asymmetric. During inflow events the repartition of water penetrating the Baltic Sea is strongly in favor of the pathway through the Sound, which provides
Modeling of Non-equilibrium Processes in Oil Trunk Pipeline Using Godunov Type Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sumskoi, S. I.; Sverchkov, A. M.
The Article presents the numerical method of solving the system of one-dimensional non-stationary equations describing oil movement in the oil pipeline. The method is aimed at modeling the non-equilibrium and transitional processes in the oil pipelines in the normal and emergency modes. This new developed method can be applied for relaxation non-equilibrium flow case, that can't be modeling using another methods. Also this method is aimed at modeling the non-equilibrium and transitional processes in the liquefied hydrocarbon pipelines in the normal and emergency modes. Phase non-equilibrium flow is considered for boiling liquids transporting pipeline.
Using Perspective to Model Complex Processes
Kelsey, R.L.; Bisset, K.R.
1999-04-04
The notion of perspective, when supported in an object-based knowledge representation, can facilitate better abstractions of reality for modeling and simulation. The object modeling of complex physical and chemical processes is made more difficult in part due to the poor abstractions of state and phase changes available in these models. The notion of perspective can be used to create different views to represent the different states of matter in a process. These techniques can lead to a more understandable model. Additionally, the ability to record the progress of a process from start to finish is problematic. It is desirable to have a historic record of the entire process, not just the end result of the process. A historic record should facilitate backtracking and re-start of a process at different points in time. The same representation structures and techniques can be used to create a sequence of process markers to represent a historic record. By using perspective, the sequence of markers can have multiple and varying views tailored for a particular user's context of interest.
Design Science Research for Business Process Design: Organizational Transition at Intersport Sweden
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lind, Mikael; Rudmark, Daniel; Seigerroth, Ulf
Business processes need to be aligned with business strategies. This paper elaborates on experiences from a business process design effort in an action research project performed at Intersport Sweden. The purpose with this project was to create a solid base for taking the retail chain Intersport into a new organizational state where the new process design is aligned with strategic goals. Although business process modeling is concerned with creating artifacts, traditionally information systems design science research has had little impact on research on business process models. In this paper, we address the question of how design science research can contribute to business process design. Three heuristic guidelines for creating organizational commitment and strategic alignment in process design are presented. The guidelines are derived from the successful actions taken in the research project. The development of these guidelines is used as a basis to reflect upon the contribution of design science research to business process design.
Modeling the VARTM Composite Manufacturing Process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Song, Xiao-Lan; Loos, Alfred C.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hubert, Pascal
2004-01-01
A comprehensive simulation model of the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Modeling (VARTM) composite manufacturing process has been developed. For isothermal resin infiltration, the model incorporates submodels which describe cure of the resin and changes in resin viscosity due to cure, resin flow through the reinforcement preform and distribution medium and compaction of the preform during the infiltration. The accuracy of the model was validated by measuring the flow patterns during resin infiltration of flat preforms. The modeling software was used to evaluate the effects of the distribution medium on resin infiltration of a flat preform. Different distribution medium configurations were examined using the model and the results were compared with data collected during resin infiltration of a carbon fabric preform. The results of the simulations show that the approach used to model the distribution medium can significantly effect the predicted resin infiltration times. Resin infiltration into the preform can be accurately predicted only when the distribution medium is modeled correctly.
Silicon EFG process development by multiscale modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, M.; Birkmann, B.; Mosel, F.; Westram, I.; Seidl, A.
2010-04-01
An overview of simulation models in use for optimizing the edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) process of thin-walled hollow silicon tubes at WACKER SCHOTT Solar is presented. The simulations span the length scales from complete furnace models over growth simulations with a mesoscopic description of the crystalline character of silicon down to solidification simulations with atomic resolution. Results gained from one model are used as input parameters or boundary conditions on other levels. Examples for the application of these models and their impact on process design are given. These include the reduction of tube thickness variations, the control of tube deformations, residual stresses and dislocation densities and the identification of twin formation processes typical for EFG silicon.
Klimakow, Maria; Leiterer, Jork; Kneipp, Janina; Rössler, Ernst; Panne, Ulrich; Rademann, Klaus; Emmerling, Franziska
2010-07-01
A combination of two analytical methods, time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, is presented as a novel tool for crystallization studies. An acoustic levitator was employed as sample environment. This setup enables the acquisition of XRD and Raman data in situ simultaneously within a 20 s period and hence permits investigation of polymorphic phase transitions during the crystallization process in different solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone, dichloromethane, acetonitrile). These real time measurements allow the determination of the phase content from the onset of the first crystalline molecular assemblies to the stable system. To evaluate the capability of this approach, the setup was applied to elucidate the crystallization process of the polymorphic compound nifedipine. The results indicate the existence of solvent-dependent transient phases during the crystallization process. The quality of the data allowed the assignment of the lattice constants of the hitherto unknown crystal structure of the beta-polymorph. PMID:20222693
Improved model for the transit entropy of monatomic liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chisolm, Eric; Bock, Nicolas; Wallace, Duane
2010-03-01
In the original formulation of vibration-transit (V-T) theory for monatomic liquid dynamics, the transit contribution to entropy was taken to be a universal constant, calibrated to the constant-volume entropy of melting. This implied that the transit contribution to energy vanishes, which is incorrect. Here we develop a new formulation that corrects this deficiency. The theory contains two nuclear motion contributions: (a) the dominant vibrational contribution Svib(T/θ0), where T is temperature and θ0 is the vibrational characteristic temperature, and (b) the transit contribution Str(T/θtr), where θtr is a scaling temperature for each liquid. The appearance of a common functional form of Str for all the liquids studied is deduced from the experimental data, when analyzed via the V-T formula. The theoretical entropy of melting is derived, in a single formula applying to normal and anomalous melting alike. An ab initio calculation of θ0 for Na and Cu, based on density functional theory, provides verification of our analysis and V-T theory. In view of the present results, techniques currently being applied in ab initio simulations of liquid properties can be employed to advantage in the further testing and development of V-T theory.
The Challenge of Change: The Transition Model and Its Applications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schlossberg, Nancy K.
2011-01-01
Work transitions are particularly complex because individuals will change jobs and careers many times, and the structure of work itself is always changing. It is critical that individuals understand change, how it affects their clients, and how they can apply this knowledge to their lives and their clients' lives. In this article, the author…