Science.gov

Sample records for processed foods

  1. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  2. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2016-10-01

    Literature published in 2015 and early 2016 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  3. Food processing in action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  4. Ultrasonics in food processing.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Oliver, Christine; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, the physical and chemical effects of ultrasound in liquid and solid media have been extensively used in food processing applications. Harnessing the physical forces generated by ultrasound, in the absence and presence of cavitation, for specific food processing applications such as emulsification, filtration, tenderisation and functionality modification have been highlighted. While some applications, such as filtration and emulsification are "mature" industrial processes, other applications, such as functionality modification, are still in their early stages of development. However, various investigations discussed suggest that ultrasonic processing of food and dairy ingredients is a potential and viable technology that will be used by many food industries in the near future.

  5. Infrared processing of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  6. Processing of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy.

  7. Food Processing Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    When NASA started plarning for manned space travel in 1959, the myriad challenges of sustaining life in space included a seemingly mundane but vitally important problem: How and what do you feed an astronaut? There were two main concerns: preventing food crumbs from contaminating the spacecraft's atmosphere or floating into sensitive instruments, and ensuring complete freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria, viruses, and toxins. To solve these concerns, NASA enlisted the help of the Pillsbury Company. Pillsbury quickly solved the first problem by coating bite-size foods to prevent crumbling. They developed the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concept to ensure against bacterial contamination. Hazard analysis is a systematic study of product, its ingredients, processing conditions, handling, storage, packing, distribution, and directions for consumer use to identify sensitive areas that might prove hazardous. Hazard analysis provides a basis for blueprinting the Critical Control Points (CCPs) to be monitored. CCPs are points in the chain from raw materials to the finished product where loss of control could result in unacceptable food safety risks. In early 1970, Pillsbury plants were following HACCP in production of food for Earthbound consumers. Pillsbury's subsequent training courses for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) personnel led to the incorporation of HACCP in the FDA's Low Acid Canned Foods Regulations, set down in the mid-1970s to ensure the safety of all canned food products in the U.S.

  8. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers.

  9. Allergenicity of processed food.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  10. Radio frequency processing of food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The IFT 2016 food expo, which was home to 2,695 booths, was both exciting and educational for those who wished to learn more about food processing. From pumps to small-scale unit operations to commercial equipment, exhibitors highlighted both traditional and innovative food processing solutions for ...

  11. Living and learning food processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This year’s annual event promises to be both exciting and educational for those who wish to learn more about food processing. This column will provide a brief overview of the multitude of scientific sessions that reveal new research related to food processing. In addition to the symposia previewed h...

  12. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed.

  13. Nonthermal processing technologies for food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Looking forward into the future of food science/technology/engineering, in the emerging area of nonthermal processing of foods, is definitely an adventure. It is open-ended and full of uncertainties. Lessons learned from the past should always serve as a good basis for envisioning the future of this...

  14. Microbes in food processing technology.

    PubMed

    Hofstra, H; van der Vossen, J M; van der Plas, J

    1994-10-01

    There is an increasing understanding that the microbial quality of a certain food is the result of a chain of events. It is clear that the microbial safety of food can only be guaranteed when the overall processing, including the production of raw materials, distribution and handling by the consumer are taken into consideration. Therefore, the microbiological quality assurance of foods is not only a matter of control, but also of a careful design of the total process chain. Food industry has now generally adapted quality assurance systems and is implementing the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) concept. Rapid microbiological monitoring systems should be used in these cases. There is a need for rapid and simple microbiological tests which can be adapted to the technology and logistics of specific production processes. Traditional microbiological methods generally do not meet these high requirements. This paper discusses the tests, based on molecular biological principles, to detect and identify microbes in food-processing chains. Tests based on DNA technology are discussed, including in vitro DNA amplification like the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and identifications based on RFLP, RAPD and DNA fingerprinting analysis. PCR-based methodology can be used for the rapid detection of microbes in food manufacturing environments. In addition, DNA fingerprinting methods are suitable for investigating sources and routes of microbial contamination in the food cycle.

  15. [Food preservation through combined processes].

    PubMed

    Sala Trepat, F J

    1995-03-01

    Food preservation by combined processes is based on the combination of two or more existing preservation methods with the objective of developing milder preservation procedures. Currently two combined processes (CP) deserve a special attention, the preservation of food by high pressures (HP) and the preservation of food with the combined use of heat and ultrasounds under pressure (Mano-Thermo-Sonication). In the preservation by HP, the food, at room temperature or at very mild temperature, is held during relatively long periods under very high pressures (100-1000 MPa) to inactivate its enzymes and/or microorganisms. This procedure has proved to be effective to inactivate vegetative cells but much less effective to inactivate most enzymes and bacterial spores. Several kinds of food preserved by this method have already been launched into the market. In Mano-Thermo-Sonication (MTS Process) microorganisms and enzymes are inactivated by a combined heat/ultrasounds treatment under pressure. By this method, the lethality of heat treatments at the same temperature is highly increased. Therefore, the intensity of heat treatments can be drastically reduced. Heat resistance of spores is reduced by a factor of 1/10 and that of enzymes and vegetative cells is reduced by a factor of 1/50 approximately. The applicability of this procedure is currently being investigated.

  16. Food oral processing: conversion of food structure to textural perception.

    PubMed

    Koç, H; Vinyard, C J; Essick, G K; Foegeding, E A

    2013-01-01

    Food oral processing includes all muscle activities, jaw movements, and tongue movements that contribute to preparing food for swallowing. Simultaneously, during the transformation of food structure to a bolus, a cognitive representation of food texture is formed. These physiological signals detected during oral processing are highly complex and dynamic in nature because food structure changes continuously due to mechanical and biochemical breakdown coupled with the lubricating action of saliva. Multiple and different sensations are perceived at different stages of the process. Although much work has focused on factors that determine mechanical (e.g., rheological and fracture) and sensory properties of foods, far less attention has been paid to linking food transformations that occur during oral processing with sensory perception of texture. Understanding how food structure influences specific patterns of oral processing and how these patterns relate to specific textural properties and their cognitive representations facilitates the design of foods that are nutritious, healthy, and enjoyable.

  17. Pallet irradiators for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, R. G.; Chu, R. D. H.

    This paper looks at the various design concepts for the irradiation processing of food products, with particular emphasis on handling the products on pallets. Pallets appear to offer the most attractive method for handling foods from many considerations. Products are transported on pallets. Warehouse space is commonly designed for pallet storage and, if products are already palletized before and after irradiation, then labour could be saved by irradiating on pallets. This is also an advantage for equipment operation since a larger carrier volume means lower operation speeds. Different pallet irradiator design concepts are examined and their suitability for several applications are discussed. For example, low product holdup for fast turn around will be a consideration for those operating an irradiation "service" business; others may require a very large source where efficiency is the primary requirement and this will not be consistent with low holdup. The radiation performance characteristics and processing costs of these machines are discussed.

  18. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  19. Lycopene stability during food processing.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M L; Schwartz, S J

    1998-06-01

    Accumulating epidemiological evidence continues to show that lycopene, found in tomatoes, grapefruits and watermelons, is associated with a reduced risk of developing certain chronic diseases and cancers. With respect to lycopene in tomato products, the effect of thermal processing on its stability has not yet been rigorously addressed. This paper assesses the effect of several different heat treatments on lycopene's isomeric distribution in a variety of tomato products, as well as in organic solvent mixtures containing all-trans lycopene. Experimental results indicate that in contrast to beta-carotene, lycopene remained relatively resistant to heat-induced geometrical conversion during typical food processing of tomatoes and related products. The presence of fat, the change in percentage of solids, and the severity of heat treatment were not contributing factors in the formation of lycopene isomers in tomato products, except at extreme conditions not regularly employed in the food industry or during food preparation. However, lycopene in organic solvent isomerized readily as a function of time even in the absence of light and the presence of antioxidants. These findings suggest that while lycopene is stable in the tomato matrix, sample handling techniques should be carefully evaluated to minimize the formation of lycopene cis isomers in organic solutions.

  20. Ultrasound Applications in Food Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Mobbs, Tamara; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    Food scientists today are focused on the development of not only microbiologically safe products with a long storage life, but, at the same time, products that have fresh-like characteristics and a high quality in taste, flavor, and texture. This focus is based on the needs of the consumer, which is one of the main reasons for constant research in the so-called area of emerging technologies. Traditionally, thermal treatments have been used to produce safe food products. Pasteurization of juice, milk, beer, and wine is a common process in which the final product has a storage life of some weeks (generally under refrigeration). However, vitamins, taste, color, and other sensorial characteristics are decreased with this treatment. High temperature is responsible for these effects and can be observed in the loss of nutritional components and changes in flavor, taste, and texture, often creating the need for additives to improve the product.

  1. Packaging food for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komolprasert, Vanee

    2016-12-01

    Irradiation can play an important role in reducing pathogens that cause food borne illness. Food processors and food safety experts prefer that food be irradiated after packaging to prevent post-irradiation contamination. Food irradiation has been studied for the last century. However, the implementation of irradiation on prepackaged food still faces challenges on how to assess the suitability and safety of these packaging materials used during irradiation. Irradiation is known to induce chemical changes to the food packaging materials resulting in the formation of breakdown products, so called radiolysis products (RP), which may migrate into foods and affect the safety of the irradiated foods. Therefore, the safety of the food packaging material (both polymers and adjuvants) must be determined to ensure safety of irradiated packaged food. Evaluating the safety of food packaging materials presents technical challenges because of the range of possible chemicals generated by ionizing radiation. These challenges and the U.S. regulations on food irradiation are discussed in this article.

  2. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties. PMID:26393643

  3. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-09-17

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  4. Food processing by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-04-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) process, as a nonthermal process, can be used to inactivate microbes while minimizing chemical reactions in food. In this regard, a HHP level of 100 MPa (986.9 atm/1019.7 kgf/cm(2)) and more is applied to food. Conventional thermal process damages food components relating color, flavor, and nutrition via enhanced chemical reactions. However, HHP process minimizes the damages and inactivates microbes toward processing high quality safe foods. The first commercial HHP-processed foods were launched in 1990 as fruit products such as jams, and then some other products have been commercialized: retort rice products (enhanced water impregnation), cooked hams and sausages (shelf life extension), soy sauce with minimized salt (short-time fermentation owing to enhanced enzymatic reactions), and beverages (shelf life extension). The characteristics of HHP food processing are reviewed from viewpoints of nonthermal process, history, research and development, physical and biochemical changes, and processing equipment.

  5. Consumers' conceptualization of ultra-processed foods.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Vidal, Leticia; Allegue, Gimena; Giménez, Ana; Bandeira, Elisa; Moratorio, Ximena; Molina, Verónika; Curutchet, María Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Consumption of ultra-processed foods has been associated with low diet quality, obesity and other non-communicable diseases. This situation makes it necessary to develop educational campaigns to discourage consumers from substituting meals based on unprocessed or minimally processed foods by ultra-processed foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to investigate how consumers conceptualize the term ultra-processed foods and to evaluate if the foods they perceive as ultra-processed are in concordance with the products included in the NOVA classification system. An online study was carried out with 2381 participants. They were asked to explain what they understood by ultra-processed foods and to list foods that can be considered ultra-processed. Responses were analysed using inductive coding. The great majority of the participants was able to provide an explanation of what ultra-processed foods are, which was similar to the definition described in the literature. Most of the participants described ultra-processed foods as highly processed products that usually contain additives and other artificial ingredients, stressing that they have low nutritional quality and are unhealthful. The most relevant products for consumers' conceptualization of the term were in agreement with the NOVA classification system and included processed meats, soft drinks, snacks, burgers, powdered and packaged soups and noodles. However, some of the participants perceived processed foods, culinary ingredients and even some minimally processed foods as ultra-processed. This suggests that in order to accurately convey their message, educational campaigns aimed at discouraging consumers from consuming ultra-processed foods should include a clear definition of the term and describe some of their specific characteristics, such as the type of ingredients included in their formulation and their nutritional composition.

  6. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process.

  7. Food Processing: Technology and Nutritive Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbouin-Rerolle, Pascale

    1993-01-01

    This booklet examines the principles of food preservation, food preservation techniques, and nutrition-related consequences of food processing. All foodstuffs in their natural state will deteriorate and become unfit for human consumption due to internal factors, such as enzyme activity, or external factors, such as insects, rodents, and…

  8. Food processors requirements met by radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Raymond W.

    2002-03-01

    Processing food using irradiation provides significant advantages to food producers by destroying harmful pathogens and extending shelf life without any detectable physical or chemical changes. It is expected that through increased public education, food irradiation will emerge as a viable commercial industry. Food production in most countries involves state of the art manufacturing, packaging, labeling, and shipping techniques that provides maximum efficiency and profit. In the United States, food sales are extremely competitive and profit margins small. Most food producers have heavily invested in equipment and are hesitant to modify their equipment. Meat and poultry producers in particular utilize sophisticated production machinery that processes enormous volumes of product on a continuous basis. It is incumbent on the food irradiation equipment suppliers to develop equipment that can easily merge with existing processes without requiring major changes to either the final food product or the process utilized to produce that product. Before a food producer can include irradiation as part of their food production process, they must be certain the available equipment meets their needs. This paper will examine several major requirements of food processors that will most likely have to be provided by the supplier of the irradiation equipment.

  9. Cold plasma processing to improve food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma is an antimicrobial process being developed for application as a food processing technology. This novel intervention is the subject of an expanding research effort by groups around the world. A variety of devices can be used to generate cold plasma and apply it to the food commodity bein...

  10. Microbial processes in frozen food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiges, O.

    Deep freezing of food and storage at -19 degC is a standard conservation procedure in food technology. The lower limit of growth of bacteria in food is from about -5 degC to about -8 degC, whereas the reproduction limit of yeasts is 2 to 3 degC lower. Storage temperatures above -10 degC should therefore not be used. At -18 degC, a commonly used storage temperature, no growth of microorganisms will occur. The microorganisms mainly found at the lower growth limit are Pseudomonas sp. and basidiomycete yeasts. The reduction in the number of microorganisms due to freezing, storage, and thawing is not of practical importance. Microbial enzymes, in particular lipases and proteases, are still active at -18 degC. Therefore, the quality of raw products and good hygiene at the production site are most important.

  11. Sonic Temperature Sensor for Food Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D. W.; Porter, A. M.; Tow, D. M.

    1997-09-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor system to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. The development of the prototype sensor is a collaborative project with the National Food Processors Association. The project is based on the property of materials that involves a change in the temperature of a material having a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound through particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process.

  12. Sonic temperature sensor for food processing

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Porter, A.M.; Tow, D.M.

    1997-09-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. This, a joint project with the National Food Processors Association, utilizes the property of materials that when the temperature of a material changes, there is a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach taken for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound inside particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process. This work has shown that the speed of sound can be accurately determined to an accuracy of {+-}0.4%, corresponding to a temperature uncertainty of {+-}2{degree}C using tomographic reconstruction methods.

  13. Sustainable Food Processing Inspired by Nature.

    PubMed

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Blank, Imre; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2017-04-01

    Here, we elaborate on the natural origin and use of enzymes and cultures in sustainable food processing. We also illustrate how enzymatically treated or fermented food can contribute to solving challenges involving nutrition and health, such as aging, malnutrition, obesity, and allergy.

  14. Solving Microbial Spoilage Problems in Processed Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavero, Rocelle

    This chapter surveys common microbial food spoilage processes. The chapter is organized by food products and includes sections addressing spoilage in meat, poultry, fish; dairy products (milk, butter, cheese); beverage products; bakery products; canned foods; fruit and confectionery products; and emulsions. It addresses the isolation and identification of spoilage organisms and provides several case studies as examples. It introduces various organisms responsible for spoilage including Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria, Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and fungal contaminants. Throughout the chapter, attention is given to when, where, and how spoilage organisms enter the food processing chain. Troubleshooting techniques are suggested. The effect (or lack of effect) of heating, dehydration, pH change, cooling, and sealing on various organisms is explained throughout. The chapter contains four tables that connect specific organisms to various spoilage manifestations in a variety of food products.

  15. Nonthermal processing technologies as food safety intervention processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods should provide sensorial satisfaction and nutrition to people. Yet, foodborne pathogens cause significant illness and lose of life to human kind every year. A processing intervention step may be necessary prior to the consumption to ensure the safety of foods. Nonthermal processing technologi...

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction and processing of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers are aware of the processing techniques used to manufacture food and health supplements and are concerned about the impact of those processes on their health and the environment. Processes that use supercritical fluids as an alternative to solvents that are used to extract nutrients and bio...

  17. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods.

  18. Applications of sonochemistry in Russian food processing industry.

    PubMed

    Krasulya, Olga; Shestakov, Sergey; Bogush, Vladimir; Potoroko, Irina; Cherepanov, Pavel; Krasulya, Boris

    2014-11-01

    In food industry, conventional methodologies such as grinding, mixing, and heat treatment are used for food processing and preservation. These processes have been well studied for many centuries and used in the conversion of raw food materials to consumable food products. This report is dedicated to the application of a cost-efficient method of energy transfer caused by acoustic cavitation effects in food processing, overall, having significant impacts on the development of relatively new area of food processing such as food sonochemistry.

  19. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19 Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. When...

  20. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19...

  1. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19...

  2. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19 Section 170.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.19...

  3. Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

  4. Ozone processing of foods and beverages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone has a long history of use as a disinfectant in food and beverage processing. In the United States, the application of ozone to disinfect bottled water was approved as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) in 1982. Later it was approved as a sanitizing agent for bottled water treatment lines. Ozo...

  5. Food related processes in the insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Sabine; Kullmann, Stephanie; Veit, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The insular cortex is a multimodal brain region with regional cytoarchitectonic differences indicating various functional specializations. As a multisensory neural node, the insular cortex integrates perception, emotion, interoceptive awareness, cognition, and gustation. Regarding the latter, predominantly the anterior part of the insular cortex is regarded as the primary taste cortex. In this review, we will specifically focus on the involvement of the insula in food processing and on multimodal integration of food-related items. Influencing factors of insular activation elicited by various foods range from calorie-content to the internal physiologic state, body mass index or eating behavior. Sensory perception of food-related stimuli including seeing, smelling, and tasting elicits increased activation in the anterior and mid-dorsal part of the insular cortex. Apart from the pure sensory gustatory processing, there is also a strong association with the rewarding/hedonic aspects of food items, which is reflected in higher insular activity and stronger connections to other reward-related areas. Interestingly, the processing of food items has been found to elicit different insular activation in lean compared to obese subjects and in patients suffering from an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN)). The knowledge of functional differences in the insular cortex opens up the opportunity for possible noninvasive treatment approaches for obesity and eating disorders. To target brain functions directly, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback offers a state-of-the-art tool to learn to control the anterior insular cortex activity voluntarily. First evidence indicates that obese adults have an enhanced ability to regulate the anterior insular cortex. PMID:23986683

  6. Stability of mycotoxins during food processing.

    PubMed

    Bullerman, Lloyd B; Bianchini, Andreia

    2007-10-20

    The mycotoxins that commonly occur in cereal grains and other products are not completely destroyed during food processing operations and can contaminate finished processed foods. The mycotoxins most commonly associated with cereal grains are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. The various food processes that may have effects on mycotoxins include sorting, trimming, cleaning, milling, brewing, cooking, baking, frying, roasting, canning, flaking, alkaline cooking, nixtamalization, and extrusion. Most of the food processes have variable effects on mycotoxins, with those that utilize the highest temperatures having greatest effects. In general the processes reduce mycotoxin concentrations significantly, but do not eliminate them completely. However, roasting and extrusion processing show promise for lowering mycotoxin concentrations, though very high temperatures are needed to bring about much of a reduction in mycotoxin concentrations. Extrusion processing at temperatures greater than 150 degrees C are needed to give good reduction of zearalenone, moderate reduction of alfatoxins, variable to low reduction of deoxynivalenol and good reduction of fumonisins. The greatest reductions of fumonisins occur at extrusion temperatures of 160 degrees C or higher and in the presence of glucose. Extrusion of fumonisin contaminated corn grits with 10% added glucose resulted in 75-85% reduction in Fumonisin B(1) levels. Some fumonisin degredation products are formed during extrusion, including small amounts of hydrolyzed Fumonisin B(1) and N-(Carboxymethyl) - Fumonisin B(1) and somewhat higher amounts of N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl) Fumonisin B(1) in extruded grits containing added glucose. Feeding trial toxicity tests in rats with extruded fumonisin contaminated corn grits show some reduction in toxicity of grits extruded with glucose.

  7. Applications of power ultrasound in food processing.

    PubMed

    Kentish, Sandra; Feng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic energy as a form of physical energy has drawn the interests of both industry and scientific communities for its potential use as a food processing and preservation tool. Currently, most such applications deal with ultrasonic waves with relatively high intensities and acoustic power densities and are performed mostly in liquids. In this review, we briefly discuss the fundamentals of power ultrasound. We then summarize the physical and chemical effects of power ultrasound treatments based on the actions of acoustic cavitation and by looking into several ultrasound-assisted unit operations. Finally, we examine the biological effects of ultrasonication by focusing on its interactions with the miniature biological systems present in foods, i.e., microorganisms and food enzymes, as well as with selected macrobiological components.

  8. The impact of consumer demands and trends on food processing.

    PubMed Central

    Zink, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    In the United States, consumer demand for new foods and changes in eating habits and food safety risks are affecting the food processing industry. The population is becoming older on average; moreover, consumers want fresh and minimally processed food without synthetic chemical preservatives. To address the need for safer food and compete for consumer acceptance, manufacturers are exploring new food processing and preservation methods. PMID:9366598

  9. Food processing: a century of change.

    PubMed

    Welch, R W; Mitchell, P C

    2000-01-01

    In 1900, the population was beset with poverty, and infectious and deficiency diseases were common. The first half of the century was blighted by world wars, economic depression and post-war austerity. Nevertheless, a combination of enlightened social policy and the application of medical, nutritional and food science, resulted in substantial improvements in health, such that, by 1950, many hitherto common infectious diseases were under control, and the diet was generally nutritionally adequate. The second half of the century saw increasing economic prosperity, and unprecedented social and scientific advances. The impact on food processing was manifold: nascent technologies such as freezing and chilling were increasingly exploited, and the consumer became the major focus of a food industry that became more sophisticated, embracing automation, computerisation and new developments in, for example, drying, heat processing, controlled and modified atmosphere packaging, ingredients and quality assurance. By 1999, this had led to an industry which provided foods that were not only safe, nutritious and palatable, but which were also increasingly convenient and healthy.

  10. Mutagen formation during commercial processing of foods.

    PubMed Central

    Krone, C A; Yeh, S M; Iwaoka, W T

    1986-01-01

    Levels of bacterial mutagenicity 3-17 times above spontaneous are generated during commercial thermal processing (canning) of foods, particularly foods high in protein. The potential for other processing operations, including pasteurization, dehydration, and concentration, to produce substances active in the Ames Salmonella assay was also examined. Two heated fish model systems, canned salmon and fried sole, were established by extracting mutagen precursors from fish tissues with water. The model system studies suggest that the limiting reactants for mutagen formation differ from one food product to another, and that Maillard type browning reactions are involved in mutagen production. Bisulfite treatment was found to inhibit mutagen formation in modal systems and whole food products. Isolation and partial characterization of the mutagens in both fried and canned pink salmon showed that at least three distinct mutagens were present. These mutagens exhibited HPLC retention time patterns on C18, cyano, and amino columns different than the major mutagens present in other cooked and grilled meats and fish. PMID:3530739

  11. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  12. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  13. 7 CFR 60.119 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed food item. 60.119 Section 60.119 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.119 Processed food item. Processed food... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., breading, tomato sauce), except...

  14. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  15. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  16. 7 CFR 60.119 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed food item. 60.119 Section 60.119 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.119 Processed food item. Processed food... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., breading, tomato sauce), except...

  17. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  18. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  19. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  20. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  1. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  2. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed food item. 65.220 Section 65.220 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., chocolate, breading, tomato...

  3. 7 CFR 60.119 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed food item. 60.119 Section 60.119 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.119 Processed food item. Processed food... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., breading, tomato sauce), except...

  4. 7 CFR 60.119 - Processed food item.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed food item. 60.119 Section 60.119 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.119 Processed food item. Processed food... other covered commodity or other substantive food component (e.g., breading, tomato sauce), except...

  5. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19 Section 570.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19...

  6. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19 Section 570.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19...

  7. 75 FR 13766 - Food and Drug Administration and Process Analytical Technology for Pharma Manufacturing: Food and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration and Process Analytical Technology for Pharma Manufacturing: Food and Drug Administration--Partnering With Industry; Public Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. The Food and...

  8. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    The food industry, its energy consumption, and its energy conservation targets are discussed. Activities of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch are described. Summaries of research, development, and demonstration programs of the Branch are given. The programs are categorized into the following: energy integrated farm systems; irrigation systems; crop drying systems; fertilizer; dairy and milk processing; meat processing; sugar processing; citrus processing; ethanol production; food processing efficiency systems; and food sterilization. Summaries are presented of 26 completed projects. (MCW)

  9. Furan in Thermally Processed Foods - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Yun-Jeong; Her, Jae-Young; Kim, Yong-Gun; Kim, Min Yeop; Jeong, Soo Young; Kim, Mina K.; Lee, Jee-yeon; Kim, Cho-il; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Furan (C4H4O) is a volatile compound formed mostly during the thermal processing of foods. The toxicity of furan has been well documented previously, and it was classified as “possible human carcinogen (Group 2B)” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Various pathways have been reported for the formation of furan, that is, thermal degradation and/or thermal rearrangement of carbohydrates in the presence of amino acids, thermal degradation of certain amino acids, including aspartic acid, threonine, α-alanine, serine, and cysteine, oxidation of ascorbic acid at higher temperatures, and oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and carotenoids. Owing to the complexity of the formation mechanism, a vast number of studies have been published on monitoring furan in commercial food products and on the potential strategies for reducing furan. Thus, we present a comprehensive review on the current status of commercial food monitoring databases and the possible furan reduction methods. Additionally, we review analytical methods for furan detection and the toxicity of furan. PMID:26483883

  10. Latest Development of Infrared Radiation Heating for Food Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared (IR) heating could be an alternative technology for thermal and dehydration processing of food and agricultural products with many advantages, including high process and energy efficiencies, high product quality, improved food safety and reduced environmental pollution. This paper reviews ...

  11. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1000.19... FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.19 Commercial food processing establishment. Commercial food processing establishment means any facility, other than a milk plant, to which fluid milk...

  12. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  13. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1000.19... FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.19 Commercial food processing establishment. Commercial food processing establishment means any facility, other than a milk plant, to which fluid milk...

  14. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  15. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  16. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  17. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  18. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  19. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1000.19... FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.19 Commercial food processing establishment. Commercial food processing establishment means any facility, other than a milk plant, to which fluid milk...

  20. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1000.19... FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.19 Commercial food processing establishment. Commercial food processing establishment means any facility, other than a milk plant, to which fluid milk...

  1. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed food... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the...

  2. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  3. 7 CFR 1000.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1000.19... FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.19 Commercial food processing establishment. Commercial food processing establishment means any facility, other than a milk plant, to which fluid milk...

  4. 48 CFR 846.302-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 846.302-72 Frozen processed foods. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.246-72, Frozen processed foods, in solicitations and contracts...

  5. Modern foraging: Presence of food and energy density influence motivational processing of food advertisements.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-12-01

    More energy dense foods are preferable from an optimal foraging perspective, which suggests these foods are more motivationally relevant due to their greater capability of fulfilling biological imperatives. This increase in motivational relevance may be exacerbated in circumstances where foraging will be necessary. This study examined how food energy density and presence of food in the immediate environment interacted to influence motivational processing of food advertisements. N = 58 adults viewed advertisements for foods varying in energy density in contexts where the advertised food was actually present in the viewing room or not. Advertisements for more energy dense foods elicited greater skin conductivity level compared to ads for less energy dense foods when food was not present. All ads elicited decreases in corrugator supercilii activation indicating positive emotional response resultant from appetitive motivational activation, though the greatest activation was exhibited toward higher energy density foods when food was present. This supports an optimal foraging perspective and has implications for healthy eating interventions.

  6. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19 Pesticide... processed food when ready to eat is higher than the tolerance prescribed for the raw agricultural commodity, the processed food is adulterated unless the higher concentration is permitted by a tolerance...

  7. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.19 Pesticide... processed food when ready to eat is higher than the tolerance prescribed for the raw agricultural commodity, the processed food is adulterated unless the higher concentration is permitted by a tolerance...

  8. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed.

  9. Sodium monitoring in commercially processed and restaurant foods

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Jaspreet KC; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Haytowitz, David B; Wasswa-Kintu, Shirley; Nickle, Melissa; Showell, Bethany; Thomas, Robin; Roseland, Janet; Williams, Juhi; Khan, Mona; Nguyen, Quynhanh; Hoy, Kathy; Martin, Carrie; Rhodes, Donna; Moshfegh, Alanna; Gillespie, Cathleen; Gunn, Janelle; Merritt, Robert; Cogswell, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Most sodium in the US diet comes from commercially processed and restaurant foods. Sodium reduction in these foods is key to several recent public health efforts. Objective The objective was to provide an overview of a program led by the USDA, in partnership with other government agencies, to monitor sodium contents in commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. We also present comparisons of nutrients generated under the program to older data. Design We track ∼125 commercially processed and restaurant food items (“sentinel foods”) annually using information from food manufacturers and periodically by nationwide sampling and laboratory analyses. In addition, we monitor >1100 other commercially processed and restaurant food items, termed “priority-2 foods” (P2Fs) biennially by using information from food manufacturers. These foods serve as indicators for assessing changes in the sodium content of commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. We sampled all sentinel foods nationwide and reviewed all P2Fs in 2010–2013 to determine baseline sodium concentrations. Results We updated sodium values for 73 sentinel foods and 551 P2Fs in the USDA’s National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (releases 23–26). Sodium values changed by at least 10% for 43 of the sentinel foods, which, for 31 foods, including commonly consumed foods such as bread, tomato catsup, and potato chips, the newer sodium values were lower. Changes in the concentrations of related nutrients (total and saturated fat, total sugar, potassium, or dietary fiber) that were recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for reduced or increased consumption accompanied sodium reduction. The results of sodium reduction efforts, based on resampling of the sentinel foods or re-review of P2Fs, will become available beginning in 2015. Conclusion This monitoring program tracks sodium reduction efforts, improves food composition

  10. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  11. Applications of edible films and coatings to processed foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings have been successfully applied in processed foods such as meat, cereals, confectionaries, dried fruits, nuts and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. These coatings are used to improve the quality and shelf-life of foods. Furthermore, different food ingredients, derived from ...

  12. Cold plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. Although well-established in non-food applications for surface treatment and modification, cold plasma is a relatively new food safety intervention. As a nonthermal food processing te...

  13. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  14. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  15. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  16. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  17. 48 CFR 852.246-72 - Frozen processed foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frozen processed foods. 852.246-72 Section 852.246-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Frozen processed foods. As prescribed in 846.302-72, insert the following clause: Frozen Processed...

  18. 48 CFR 870.111-5 - Frozen processed food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-5 Frozen processed food products. (a) The following frozen processed food products must have a label complying with the Federal... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frozen processed...

  19. Effect of processing technologies on the allergenicity of food products.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Benedé, Sara; Molina, Elena; López-Expósito, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Heat treatment has been used since ancient times for food processing, first to ensure the safety of food and its storage, but also to transform its characteristics (in its raw form) and obtain new textures, flavors, or novel foods. However, the transformation experienced by food components when heated, or processed, can dramatically affect the allergenicity of food, either reducing or increasing it. To date, most of the articles published dealing with the changes in the potential allergenicity of food are focused on heat treatment and the Maillard reaction. However, it is also important to give prominence to other group of new technologies developed nowadays, such as high-pressure processing, microwaves and food irradiation. These techniques are not likely to replace traditional processing methods, but they are becoming attractive for the food industry due to different reasons, and it is expected in the near future to have different products on the market processed with these new technologies at an affordable cost. Moreover, other biochemical modifications, particularly enzymatic cross-linking of proteins, have attracted wide-spread attention and will be considered as well in this review, because of its great opportunities to induce protein modification and thus affect food allergenicity. Together with the effect of processing of food allergens, this review will place special attention on gastroduodenal digestion of processed allergens, which directly affects their allergenicity.

  20. Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing, preservation and extraction.

    PubMed

    Chemat, Farid; Zill-e-Huma; Khan, Muhammed Kamran

    2011-07-01

    Ultrasound is well known to have a significant effect on the rate of various processes in the food industry. Using ultrasound, full reproducible food processes can now be completed in seconds or minutes with high reproducibility, reducing the processing cost, simplifying manipulation and work-up, giving higher purity of the final product, eliminating post-treatment of waste water and consuming only a fraction of the time and energy normally needed for conventional processes. Several processes such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, and extraction have been applied efficiently in the food industry. The advantages of using ultrasound for food processing, includes: more effective mixing and micro-mixing, faster energy and mass transfer, reduced thermal and concentration gradients, reduced temperature, selective extraction, reduced equipment size, faster response to process extraction control, faster start-up, increased production, and elimination of process steps. Food processes performed under the action of ultrasound are believed to be affected in part by cavitation phenomena and mass transfer enhancement. This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on application of ultrasound in food technology including processing, preservation and extraction. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about ultrasound the technology, the technique, and safety precautions. We will also discuss some of the factors which make the combination of food processing and ultrasound one of the most promising research areas in the field of modern food engineering.

  1. Engineering concepts for food processing in bioregenerative life support systems.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J B

    1999-01-01

    Long-duration manned missions, such as Mars exploration, will require development of new and cost-effective food production and delivery systems. Requirements for both carry-on preserved food and food processed from on-board crops exceed the capabilities of existing food processing and preservation technologies. For the transit phase, new food products, preservation methods, and processing technologies for ground-based food processing are required. The bioregenerative surface phase requires methods for processing of in situ-grown crops, treatment of food wastes, preparation of daily meals, and design of nutritious and appealing plant-based menus, all within severe cost and labor constraints. In design of the food supply for a long-term mission, the designers must select and apply both the packaged food and in situ processing technologies most appropriate for the specific mission requirements. This study aims to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different food system strategies in the context of different types of mission, and to point out the most important areas for future technology development.

  2. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  3. Sampling the food processing environment: taking up the cudgel for preventive quality management in food processing environments.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-01-01

    The Listeria monitoring program for Austrian cheese factories was established in 1988. The basic idea is to control the introduction of L. monocytogenes into the food processing environment, preventing the pathogen from contaminating the food under processing. The Austrian Listeria monitoring program comprises four levels of investigation, dealing with routine monitoring of samples and consequences of finding a positive sample. Preventive quality control concepts attempt to detect a foodborne hazard along the food processing chain, prior to food delivery, retailing, and consumption. The implementation of a preventive food safety concept provokes a deepened insight by the manufacturers into problems concerning food safety. The development of preventive quality assurance strategies contributes to the national food safety status and protects public health.

  4. Novel approaches in food-processing technology: new technologies for preserving foods and modifying function.

    PubMed

    Knorr, D

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances in emerging food-processing technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure or high-intensity electric field pulses, allow targeted and sophisticated modification and preservation of foods. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms involved in pressure inactivation of bacterial spores and have been collecting considerable amounts of kinetic data regarding inactivation mechanisms of enzymes and vegetative microorganisms. We are also gaining more insight into the permeabilization of plant membranes and related biosynthetic responses, making progress in food structure engineering and food modification for function, and have been initiating process developments for gentle processing of delicate biomaterials based on pressure-assisted phase transitions of water.

  5. Bacteriophages for detection and control of bacterial pathogens in food and food-processing environment.

    PubMed

    Brovko, Lubov Y; Anany, Hany; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents recent advances in bacteriophage research and their application in the area of food safety. Section 1 describes general facts on phage biology that are relevant to their application for control and detection of bacterial pathogens in food and environmental samples. Section 2 summarizes the recently acquired data on application of bacteriophages to control growth of bacterial pathogens and spoilage organisms in food and food-processing environment. Section 3 deals with application of bacteriophages for detection and identification of bacterial pathogens. Advantages of bacteriophage-based methods are presented and their shortcomings are discussed. The chapter is intended for food scientist and food product developers, and people in food inspection and health agencies with the ultimate goal to attract their attention to the new developing technology that has a tremendous potential in providing means for producing wholesome and safe food.

  6. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  7. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  8. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  9. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  10. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  11. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  12. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  13. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  14. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  15. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  16. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  17. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  18. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  19. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  20. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  1. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  2. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  3. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  4. 7 CFR 1032.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1032.19 Section 1032.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  5. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  6. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  7. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  8. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  9. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  10. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  11. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  12. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  13. 7 CFR 1126.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1126.19 Section 1126.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  14. 7 CFR 1131.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1131.19 Section 1131.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  15. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  16. 7 CFR 1006.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1006.19 Section 1006.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  17. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  18. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  19. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  20. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  1. 7 CFR 1001.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1001.19 Section 1001.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  2. 7 CFR 1033.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1033.19 Section 1033.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  3. 7 CFR 1005.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1005.19 Section 1005.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  4. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  5. 7 CFR 1007.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1007.19 Section 1007.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.19 Commercial food processing establishment....

  6. Food irradiation: the process and implications for dietitians

    SciTech Connect

    Rogan, A.; Glaros, G.

    1988-07-01

    Despite the limited use of irradiation for food preservation in the United States to date, the process provides an alternative to the use of some chemical pesticides and sprout inhibitors. The formation of random and varied radiolytic products (RPs) in foods that have been irradiated is the focus of criticism of the process, because RPs may affect the sensory and nutritive quality of foods processed with ionizing radiation. The FDA has deemed the process safe, within specified doses, for use on spices, some meats, fruits, and vegetables. Dietitians should be prepared to answer consumer questions related to irradiation as the process becomes more widespread.

  7. Cold plasma as a food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on a variety of foods, such as meats, poultry and fruits and vegetables. The primary modes of action are reactive chemical species and ultraviolet light. Various cold plasma systems are under development, operating at am...

  8. Sonic temperature sensor for food processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor system to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. The development of the prototype sensor is a collaborative project with the National Food Processors Association. The project is based on the property of materials that involves a change in the temperature of a material having a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound through particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process. This work has shown that the speed of sound accurately can be determined using tomographic reconstruction methods to an accuracy of {+-} 0.4%, which corresponds to a temperature uncertainty of {+-}2{degrees}C.

  9. Aspects of food processing and its effect on allergen structure.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Angelika

    2009-08-01

    The article summarizes current physical and chemical methods in food processing as storage, preparation, separation, isolation or purification and thermal application on the one hand as well as enzymatic treatment on the other and their impact on the properties of food proteins. Novel methods of food processing like high pressure, electric field application or irradiation and their impact on food allergens are presented. The EU project REDALL (Reduced Allergenicity of Processed Foods, Containing Animal Allergens: QLK1-CT-2002-02687) showed that by a combination of enzyme and heat treatment the allergic potential of hen's egg decreased about 100 fold. Clinical reactions do not appear anymore. An AiF-FV 12024 N project worked with fruits like mango, lychee and apple. Processed mango and lychee had no change in allergenic potential during heating while e. g. canning. Apple almost lost its allergenic potential after pasteurization in juice production.

  10. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases.

  11. Food gels: gelling process and new applications.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soumya; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2012-01-01

    Food gels are viscoelastic substances and several gelled products are manufactured throughout the world. The gelling agents in foods are usually polysaccharides and proteins. In food gels, the polymer molecules are not cross-linked by covalent bonds with the exception of disulphide bonds in some protein gels. Instead, the molecules are held together by a combination of weak inter-molecular forces like hydrogen bonds, electrostatic forces, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions. Polysaccharides including hydrocolloids are strongly hydrated in aqueous medium but they tend to have less ordered structures. The mechanism of gelation depends on the nature of the gelling agent(s) and on the conditions of gel formation like the temperature, the presence of ions, the pH, and the concentration of gelling agents, etc. Characterization of gels can be performed in several ways of which rheological measurements are frequently practiced. Multi-component or mixed gel system is an important area of interest in which two or more gelling components are simultaneously used to achieve certain specific structural and functional characteristics. We here discuss about the different gels and gelling agents, the characterization of gels, and the mechanism of gelation with an emphasis on mixed or multi-component gels that would have significant commercial applications.

  12. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science.

    PubMed

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing's outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples.

  13. Review of conventional and novel food processing methods on food allergens.

    PubMed

    Vanga, Sai Kranthi; Singh, Ashutosh; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2017-07-03

    With the turn of this century, novel food processing techniques have become commercially very important because of their profound advantages over the traditional methods. These novel processing methods tend to preserve the characteristic properties of food including their organoleptic and nutritional qualities better when compared with the conventional food processing methods. During the same period of time, there is a clear rise in the populations suffering from food allergies, especially infants and children. Though, this fact is widely attributed to the changing livelihood of population in both developed and developing nations and to the introduction of new food habits with advent of novel foods and new processing techniques, their complete role is still uncertain. Under the circumstance, it is very important to understand the structural changes in the protein as food is processed to comprehend whether the specific processing technique (conventional and novel) is increasing or mitigating the allergenicity. Various modern means are now being employed to understand the conformational changes in the protein which can affect the allergenicity. In this review, the processing effects on protein structure and allergenicity are discussed along with the insinuations of recent studies and techniques for establishing a platform to investigate future pathway to reduce or eliminate allergenicity in the population.

  14. Food nanotechnology: water is the key to lowering the energy density of processed foods.

    PubMed

    Robson, A A

    2011-01-01

    It is crucial that emergent technologies create foods that help prevent the causal mechanisms of the diet induced disease epidemic. Food nanotechnology could create modem convenience foods that mimic and improve on the nutritional value of the most nutritious cooked wild foods for humans. Structuring a solid processed food similar to a celery stalk using self-assembled, water-filled, edible nanocells or nanotubes would substantially lower its energy density (<1.6 kcal g(-1)). Food technologists could harness the natural turgor force to produce a firm chocolate bar, biscuit or breakfast cereal with a good bite, without altering the appearance or taste of the product. Water carries flavour with few calories, and taste sensation per mouthful could be improved by processing food on the nanoscale to increase the surface area that is in contact with taste and smell receptors. The bioavailable nutrient content (including cofactors) of processed foods could be increased by existing bioactive nanoencapsulation. This would allow people to continue to consume modern convenience food on a mass scale, while simultaneously and significantly increasing nutrient intake and reducing energy intake per day. Thus, helping to reduce mental ill health, obesity and other postprandial insults.

  15. High Throughput Multispectral Image Processing with Applications in Food Science

    PubMed Central

    Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Nychas, George-John

    2015-01-01

    Recently, machine vision is gaining attention in food science as well as in food industry concerning food quality assessment and monitoring. Into the framework of implementation of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) in the food industry, image processing can be used not only in estimation and even prediction of food quality but also in detection of adulteration. Towards these applications on food science, we present here a novel methodology for automated image analysis of several kinds of food products e.g. meat, vanilla crème and table olives, so as to increase objectivity, data reproducibility, low cost information extraction and faster quality assessment, without human intervention. Image processing’s outcome will be propagated to the downstream analysis. The developed multispectral image processing method is based on unsupervised machine learning approach (Gaussian Mixture Models) and a novel unsupervised scheme of spectral band selection for segmentation process optimization. Through the evaluation we prove its efficiency and robustness against the currently available semi-manual software, showing that the developed method is a high throughput approach appropriate for massive data extraction from food samples. PMID:26466349

  16. Monitoring sodium in commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of the sodium we eat comes from commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Sodium reduction in these foods is a key component of several recent public health efforts. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of USDA, CDC and FDA have launched a collaborative program to monitor sodium ...

  17. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section 1124.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.19 Commercial food...

  18. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section 1124.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.19 Commercial food...

  19. 7 CFR 1030.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1030.19 Section 1030.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.19 Commercial food...

  20. 7 CFR 1030.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1030.19 Section 1030.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.19 Commercial food...

  1. 7 CFR 1030.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1030.19 Section 1030.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.19 Commercial food...

  2. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section 1124.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.19 Commercial food...

  3. 7 CFR 1030.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1030.19 Section 1030.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.19 Commercial food...

  4. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section 1124.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.19 Commercial food...

  5. 7 CFR 1030.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial food processing establishment. 1030.19 Section 1030.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.19 Commercial food...

  6. 7 CFR 1124.19 - Commercial food processing establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Commercial food processing establishment. 1124.19 Section 1124.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL... NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.19 Commercial food...

  7. Fungal Laccases: Production, Function, and Applications in Food Processing

    PubMed Central

    Brijwani, Khushal; Rigdon, Anne; Vadlani, Praveen V.

    2010-01-01

    Laccases are increasingly being used in food industry for production of cost-effective and healthy foods. To sustain this trend widespread availability of laccase and efficient production systems have to be developed. The present paper delineate the recent developments that have taken place in understanding the role of laccase action, efforts in overexpression of laccase in heterologous systems, and various cultivation techniques that have been developed to efficiently produce laccase at the industrial scale. The role of laccase in different food industries, particularly the recent developments in laccase application for food processing, is discussed. PMID:21048859

  8. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    PubMed

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  9. Food Production and Processing Considerations of Allergenic Food Ingredients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Pedro A.; Boye, Joyce I.

    2012-01-01

    Although most consumers show no adverse symptoms to food allergens, health consequences for sensitized individuals can be very serious. As a result, the Codex General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods has specified a series of allergenic ingredients/substances requiring mandatory declaration when present in processed prepackaged food products. Countries adhering to international standards are required to observe this minimum of eight substances, but additional priority allergens are included in the list in some countries. Enforcement agencies have traditionally focused their effort on surveillance of prepackaged goods, but there is a growing need to apply a bottom-up approach to allergen risk management in food manufacturing starting from primary food processing operations in order to minimize the possibility of allergen contamination in finished products. The present paper aims to review food production considerations that impact allergen risk management, and it is directed mainly to food manufacturers and policy makers. Furthermore, a series of food ingredients and the allergenic fractions identified from them, as well as the current methodology used for detection of these allergenic foods, is provided. PMID:22187573

  10. Lost in processing? Perceived healthfulness, taste and caloric content of whole and processed organic food.

    PubMed

    Prada, Marília; Garrido, Margarida V; Rodrigues, David

    2017-03-23

    The "organic" claim explicitly informs consumers about the food production method. Yet, based on this claim, people often infer unrelated food attributes. The current research examined whether the perceived advantage of organic over conventional food generalizes across different organic food types. Compared to whole organic foods, processed organic foods are less available, familiar and prototypical of the organic food category. In two studies (combined N = 258) we investigated how both organic foods types were perceived in healthfulness, taste and caloric content when compared to their conventional alternatives. Participants evaluated images of both whole (e.g., lettuce) and processed organic food exemplars (e.g., pizza), and reported general evaluations of these food types. The association of these evaluations with individual difference variables - self-reported knowledge and consumption of organic food, and environmental concerns - was also examined. Results showed that organically produced whole foods were perceived as more healthful, tastier and less caloric than those produced conventionally, thus replicating the well-established halo effect of the organic claim in food evaluation. The organic advantage was more pronounced among individuals who reported being more knowledgeable about organic food, consumed it more frequently, and were more environmentally concerned. The advantage of the organic claim for processed foods was less clear. Overall, processed organic (vs. conventional) foods were perceived as tastier, more healthful (Study 1) or equally healthful (Study 2), but also as more caloric. We argue that the features of processed food may modulate the impact of the organic claim, and outline possible research directions to test this assumption. Uncovering the specific conditions in which food claims bias consumer's perceptions and behavior may have important implications for marketing, health and public-policy related fields.

  11. Opportunities and challenges in application of ultrasound in food processing.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Navin K

    2011-09-01

    The demand for convenience foods of the highest quality in terms of natural flavor and taste, and which are free from additives and preservatives, has spurred the need for the development of a number of non-thermal approaches to food processing, of which ultrasound technology has proven to be very valuable. Increasing number of recent publications have demonstrated the potential of this technology in food processing. A combination of ultrasound with pressure and/or heat is a promising alternative for the rapid inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes. Therefore, novel techniques like thermosonication, manosonication, and manothermosonication may be a more relevant energy-efficient processing alternative for the food industry in times to come. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. In addition to discussing the effects of ultrasound on foods, this review covers various areas that have been identified as having great potential for future development. It has been realized that ultrasound has much to offer to the food industry such as inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes, crystallization, drying, degassing, extraction, filtration, homogenization, meat tenderization, oxidation, sterilization, etc., including efficiency enhancement of various operations and online detection of contaminants in foods. Selected practical examples in the food industry have been presented and discussed. A brief account of the challenges in adopting this technology for industrial development has also been included.

  12. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... moisture content of a pasteurized process cheese food is not more than 44 percent, and the fat content is not less than 23 percent. (4) Moisture and fat are determined by the methods prescribed in §...

  13. Energy management and membrane technology in food and dairy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a special food engineering symposium held in conjunction with the Food and Dairy Expo '83 held in Chicago. Topics considered at the symposium included techniques for food plant energy analysis, process modifications to reduce energy usage, cutting energy costs in boiler room operations, selecting motors and lights for energy efficiency, refrigeration heat recovery, integrated energy systems, reverse osmosis and mechanical vapor recompression, evaporation for liquid food concentration, cottage cheese from ultrafiltered skim milk, process cheese production via direct acidification, the outlook for protein concentrate and lactose, permeate from whey ultrafiltration, a consultant's view of cheese and whey processing trends, whey processing research, and on-farm use of membrane systems.

  14. Neural Signaling of Food Healthiness Associated with Emotion Processing

    PubMed Central

    Herwig, Uwe; Dhum, Matthias; Hittmeyer, Anna; Opialla, Sarah; Scherpiet, Sigrid; Keller, Carmen; Brühl, Annette B.; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The ability to differentiate healthy from unhealthy foods is important in order to promote good health. Food, however, may have an emotional connotation, which could be inversely related to healthiness. The neurobiological background of differentiating healthy and unhealthy food and its relations to emotion processing are not yet well understood. We addressed the neural activations, particularly considering the single subject level, when one evaluates a food item to be of a higher, compared to a lower grade of healthiness with a particular view on emotion processing brain regions. Thirty-seven healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while evaluating the healthiness of food presented as photographs with a subsequent rating on a visual analog scale. We compared individual evaluations of high and low healthiness of food items and also considered gender differences. We found increased activation when food was evaluated to be healthy in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precuneus in whole brain analyses. In ROI analyses, perceived and rated higher healthiness was associated with lower amygdala activity and higher ventral striatal and orbitofrontal cortex activity. Females exerted a higher activation in midbrain areas when rating food items as being healthy. Our results underline the close relationship between food and emotion processing, which makes sense considering evolutionary aspects. Actively evaluating and deciding whether food is healthy is accompanied by neural signaling associated with reward and self-relevance, which could promote salutary nutrition behavior. The involved brain regions may be amenable to mechanisms of emotion regulation in the context of psychotherapeutic regulation of food intake. PMID:26903859

  15. Food processing wastes as nutrient sources in algal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M-H; Chan, W-C; Chu, L-M

    1983-03-01

    Utilization of food processing wastes for biological production will ease part of the disposal problem, especially the potential hazards of eutrophication, andat the same time recycle the inherently rich plant nutrients in the waste materials. The present investigation is an attempt to study the feasibility of using five food processing wastes, including carrot, coconut, eggshell, soybean, and sugarcane, for culturing Chlorella pyrenoidosa (a unicellular green alga).

  16. Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Karlovsky, Petr; Suman, Michele; Berthiller, Franz; De Meester, Johan; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Perrin, Irène; Oswald, Isabelle P; Speijers, Gerrit; Chiodini, Alessandro; Recker, Tobias; Dussort, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.

  17. Lexical-semantic deficits in processing food and non-food items.

    PubMed

    Rumiati, Raffaella I; Foroni, Francesco; Pergola, Giulio; Rossi, Paola; Silveri, Maria Caterina

    2016-12-01

    The study of category specific deficits in brain-damaged patients has been instrumental in explaining how knowledge about different types of objects is organized in the brain. Much of this research focused on testing putative semantic sensory/functional subsystems that could explain the observed dissociations in performance between living things (e.g., animals and fruits/vegetables) and non-living things (e.g., tools). As neuropsychological patterns that did not fit the original living/non-living distinction were observed, an alternative organization of semantic memory in domains constrained by evolutionary pressure was hypothesized. However, the category of food, that contains both living-natural items, such as an apple, and nonliving-manufactured items as in the case of a hamburger, has never been systematically investigated. As such, food category could turn out to be very useful to test whether the brain organizes the knowledge about food in sensory/functional subsystems, in a specific domain, or whether both approaches might need to be integrated. In the present study we tested the ability of patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD) and with Primary Progressive Aphasias (PPA) as well as healthy controls to perform a confrontation naming task, a categorization task, and a comprehension of edible (natural and manufactured food) and non edible items (tools and non-edible natural things) task (Tasks 1-3). The same photographs of natural and manufactured food were presented together with a description of food's sensory or functional property that could be either congruent or incongruent with that particular food (Task 4). Patients were overall less accurate than healthy individuals, and PPA patients were generally more impaired than AD patients, especially on the naming task. Food tended to be processed better than non-food in two out of three tasks (categorization and comprehension tasks). Patient groups showed no difference in naming food and non-food items, while

  18. Recent trends in bioethanol production from food processing byproducts.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Stark, Benjamin C

    2016-11-01

    The widespread use of corn starch and sugarcane as sources of sugar for the production of ethanol via fermentation may negatively impact the use of farmland for production of food. Thus, alternative sources of fermentable sugars, particularly from lignocellulosic sources, have been extensively investigated. Another source of fermentable sugars with substantial potential for ethanol production is the waste from the food growing and processing industry. Reviewed here is the use of waste from potato processing, molasses from processing of sugar beets into sugar, whey from cheese production, byproducts of rice and coffee bean processing, and other food processing wastes as sugar sources for fermentation to ethanol. Specific topics discussed include the organisms used for fermentation, strategies, such as co-culturing and cell immobilization, used to improve the fermentation process, and the use of genetic engineering to improve the performance of ethanol producing fermenters.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed.

  20. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  1. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  2. Solar energy in food processing-a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Eswara, Amruta R; Ramakrishnarao, M

    2013-04-01

    Increasing population and high cost of fuels have created opportunities for using alternate energies for post-harvest processing of foods. Solar food processing is an emerging technology that provides good quality foods at low or no additional fuel costs. A number of solar dryers, collectors and concentrators are currently being used for various steps in food processing and value addition. Society for Energy, Environment and Development (SEED) developed Solar Cabinet Dryer with forced circulation which has been used for dehydration and development of value added products from locally grown fruits, vegetables, leafy greens and forest produce. Drying under simulated shade conditions using UV-reducing Blue filter helps retain nutrients better. Its simple design and ease of handling makes SEED Solar Dryer an ideal choice for application of food processing in rural settings, closer to where the harvest is produced, eliminating the need for expensive transportation or storage of fresh produce. It also creates employment opportunities among the rural population, especially women. Other gadgets based on solar collectors and concentrators currently being used at various steps of food processing are reviewed.

  3. Food material properties and early hominin processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Zink, Katherine D; Lieberman, Daniel E; Lucas, Peter W

    2014-12-01

    Although early Homo is hypothesized to have used tools more than australopiths to process foods prior to consumption, it is unknown how much the food processing techniques they used altered the material properties of foods, and therefore the masticatory forces they generated, and how well they were able to comminute foods. This study presents experimental data on changes to food material properties caused by mechanical tenderization (pounding with a stone tool) and cooking (dry roasting) of two foods likely to have been important components of the hominin diet: meat and tubers. Mechanical tenderization significantly decreased tuber toughness by 42%, but had no effect on meat toughness. Roasting significantly decreased several material properties of tubers correlated with masticatory effort including toughness (49%), fracture stress (28%) and elastic modulus (45%), but increased the toughness (77%), fracture stress (50%-222%), and elastic modulus of muscle fibers in meat (308%). Despite increasing many material properties of meat associated with higher masticatory forces, roasting also decreased measured energy loss by 28%, which likely makes it easier to chew. These results suggest that the use of food processing techniques by early Homo probably differed for meat and tubers, but together would have reduced masticatory effort, helping to relax selection to maintain large, robust faces and large, thickly enameled teeth.

  4. Food-processing enzymes from recombinant microorganisms--a review.

    PubMed

    Olempska-Beer, Zofia S; Merker, Robert I; Ditto, Mary D; DiNovi, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    Enzymes are commonly used in food processing and in the production of food ingredients. Enzymes traditionally isolated from culturable microorganisms, plants, and mammalian tissues are often not well-adapted to the conditions used in modern food production methods. The use of recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to manufacture novel enzymes suitable for specific food-processing conditions. Such enzymes may be discovered by screening microorganisms sampled from diverse environments or developed by modification of known enzymes using modern methods of protein engineering or molecular evolution. As a result, several important food-processing enzymes such as amylases and lipases with properties tailored to particular food applications have become available. Another important achievement is improvement of microbial production strains. For example, several microbial strains recently developed for enzyme production have been engineered to increase enzyme yield by deleting native genes encoding extracellular proteases. Moreover, certain fungal production strains have been modified to reduce or eliminate their potential for production of toxic secondary metabolites. In this article, we discuss the safety of microorganisms used as hosts for enzyme-encoding genes, the construction of recombinant production strains, and methods of improving enzyme properties. We also briefly describe the manufacture and safety assessment of enzyme preparations and summarize options for submitting information on enzyme preparations to the US Food and Drug Administration.

  5. Thermal Inactivation of Feline Calicivirus in Pet Food Processing.

    PubMed

    Haines, J; Patel, M; Knight, A I; Corley, D; Gibson, G; Schaaf, J; Moulin, J; Zuber, S

    2015-12-01

    Extrusion is the most common manufacturing process used to produce heat-treated dry dog and cat food (pet food) for domestic use and international trade. Due to reoccurring outbreaks of notifiable terrestrial animal diseases and their impact on international trade, experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the effectiveness of heat-treated extruded pet food on virus inactivation. The impact of extrusion processing in a pet food matrix on virus inactivation has not been previously reported and very few inactivation studies have examined the thermal inactivation of viruses in complex food matrices. The feline calicivirus vaccine strain FCV F-9 was used as a surrogate model RNA virus pathogen. Small-scale heat inactivation experiments using animal-derived pet food raw materials showed that a > 4 log10 reduction (log10 R) in infectivity occurred at 70 °C prior to reaching the minimum extrusion manufacturing operating temperature of 100 °C. As anticipated, small-scale pressure studies at extrusion pressure (1.6 MPa) showed no apparent effect on FCV F-9 inactivation. Additionally, FCV F-9 was shown not to survive the acidic conditions used to produce pet food palatants of animal origin that are typically used as a coating after the extrusion process.

  6. Use of iodized salt in processed Philippine food products.

    PubMed

    Azanza, P; Cariaso, K; Dela Cerna, M C; de Ocampo, C; Galvez, F; Moises, M; Pujanes, K

    1998-06-01

    The effects of iodized salt use on the quality of processed Philippine food products were evaluated. Samples for the study included dried-salted and smoked fish products, nitrite-cured pork, and fermented plain and flavored shrimp pastes. Generally, no significant differences were detected between the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the test products prepared with iodized and unfortified NaCl salts. The salting process in each food operation significantly increased the iodine content of the test products. However, subsequent losses in the absorbed iodine were recorded due to the boiling, smoking, drying, fermenting and heating processes in the different operations. It was recommended that studies be undertaken on the addition of iodine to semi-processed or completely processed food products to lessen iodine losses.

  7. Kombucha brewing under the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code: risk analysis and processing guidance.

    PubMed

    Nummer, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Kombucha is a fermented beverage made from brewed tea and sugar. The taste is slightly sweet and acidic and it may have residual carbon dioxide. Kombucha is consumed in many countries as a health beverage and it is gaining in popularity in the U.S. Consequently, many retailers and food service operators are seeking to brew this beverage on site. As a fermented beverage, kombucha would be categorized in the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code as a specialized process and would require a variance with submission of a food safety plan. This special report was created to assist both operators and regulators in preparing or reviewing a kombucha food safety plan.

  8. Bacterial Stressors in Minimally Processed Food

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Fiocco, Daniela; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Gallone, Anna; Spano, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Stress responses are of particular importance to microorganisms, because their habitats are subjected to continual changes in temperature, osmotic pressure, and nutrients availability. Stressors (and stress factors), may be of chemical, physical, or biological nature. While stress to microorganisms is frequently caused by the surrounding environment, the growth of microbial cells on its own may also result in induction of some kinds of stress such as starvation and acidity. During production of fresh-cut produce, cumulative mild processing steps are employed, to control the growth of microorganisms. Pathogens on plant surfaces are already stressed and stress may be increased during the multiple mild processing steps, potentially leading to very hardy bacteria geared towards enhanced survival. Cross-protection can occur because the overlapping stress responses enable bacteria exposed to one stress to become resistant to another stress. A number of stresses have been shown to induce cross protection, including heat, cold, acid and osmotic stress. Among other factors, adaptation to heat stress appears to provide bacterial cells with more pronounced cross protection against several other stresses. Understanding how pathogens sense and respond to mild stresses is essential in order to design safe and effective minimal processing regimes. PMID:19742126

  9. Stress hormones link food availability and population processes in seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Catastrophic population declines in marine top predators in the northern Pacific have been hypothesized to result from nutritional stress affecting reproduction and survival of individuals. However, empirical evidence for food-related stress in wild animals is frequently lacking or inconclusive. We used a field endocrinology approach to measure stress, identify its causes, and examine a link between stress and population processes in the common murre Uria aalge. We tested the empirical relationship between variations in the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) and food abundance, reproduction, and persistence of individuals at declining and increasing colonies in Cook Inlet, Alaska, from 1996 to 2001. We found that CORT secretion in murres is independent of colony, reproductive stage effects, and gender of individuals, but is directly negatively correlated with abundance of their food. Baseline CORT reflected current food abundance, whereas acute stress-induced CORT reflected food abundance in the previous month. As food supply diminished, increased CORT secretion predicted a decrease in reproductive performance. At a declining colony, increased baseline levels of CORT during reproduction predicted disappearance of individuals from the population. Persistence of individuals in a growing colony was independent of CORT during reproduction. The obtained results support the hypothesis that nutritional stress during reproduction affects reproduction and survival in seabirds. This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for CORT secretion as a mechanistic link between fluctuations in food abundance and population processes in seabirds. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  10. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods

    PubMed Central

    Salviano dos Santos, Vânia Paula; Medeiros Salgado, Andréa; Guedes Torres, Alexandre; Signori Pereira, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1–10 ppb. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food. PMID:26904662

  11. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods.

    PubMed

    Salviano Dos Santos, Vânia Paula; Medeiros Salgado, Andréa; Guedes Torres, Alexandre; Signori Pereira, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1-10 ppb. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food.

  12. Heat transfer and temperature of foods during processing.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Z A; Woodburn, M

    1981-01-01

    Safety and economics concerns have accentuated an interest in energy input and consumption in the foods industry. This review article focuses on reported temperatures and temperature histories in food preparation and processing. To assist in interpreting reported data, a basic understanding of heat transfer parameters used is given. The relationships between temperature and time histories and quality effects of physical and chemical changes in foods, the production of new compounds with possible health effects, and microbiological safety are summarized. Several areas of needed research are identified.

  13. Food packaging materials and radiation processing of food: A brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    Food is usually packaged to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation can be applied to food-packaging materials in two ways: (i) sterilization of packaging materials for aseptic packaging, and (ii) radiation processing of prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, a sterile package is filled with a sterile product in a microbiologically controlled environment. In irradiation of prepackaged food, the food and the packaging material are irradiated simultaneously. For both applications, the radiation stability of the packaging material is a key consideration if the technology is to be used successfully. To demonstrate the radiation stability of the packaging material, it must be shown that irradiation does not significantly alter the physical and chemical properties of the material. The irradiated material must protect the food from environmental contamination while maintaining its organoleptic and toxicological properties. Single-layer plastics cannot meet the requirements of either application. Multilayered structures produced by coextrusion would likely satisfy the demands of radiation processing prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, the package is irradiated prior to filling, making demands on toxicological safety less stringent. Therefore, multilayered structures produced by coextrusion, lamination or co-injection moulding could satisfy the requirements.

  14. Edible holography: the application of holographic techniques to food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begleiter, Eric

    1991-07-01

    Reports on current research efforts in the application of holographic techniques to food processing. Through a simple and inexpensive production process, diffractive and holographic effects of color, depth, and motion can be transferred to edible products. Processes are discussed which can provide a competitive advantage to the marketing of a diverse group of sugar and non-sugar-based consumable products, i.e. candies, chocolates, lollipops, snacks, cereals and pharmaceuticals. Techniques, applications, and products are investigated involving the shift from a chemical to a physical basis for the production of food coloring and decorating.

  15. Nutrition and health in relation to food production and processing.

    PubMed

    Ghebremeskel, K; Crawford, M A

    1994-01-01

    Intensive animal rearing, manipulation of crop production and food processing have altered the qualitative and quantitative balance of nutrients of foods consumed by Western society. This change, to which the physiology and biochemistry of man may not be presently adapted to, is thought to be responsible for the chronic diseases that are rampant in the Industrialised Western Countries. Agriculture production and food processing practices, dietary habits and lifestyle of the West is being fostered without any appraisal of the health implications by most developing countries. Consequently, a rising trend in the incidences of obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, dental decay and appendicitis is apparent. Mediterranean countries are adopting the agriculture and food practices of northern Europe as the result of the harmonisation of European food and agriculture policy. It is predicted that the low incidence of morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes and breast and colon cancer of the Mediterranean countries would rise to the high northern European level in the foreseeable future. Most of these chronic diseases are lifestyle related and are preventable. This can be realised by tackling the root problem which is food production and processing practices and not by dispensing designer drugs or opening more hospital beds.

  16. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  17. [Hidden allergens in processed food. The consumer perspective].

    PubMed

    Schnadt, S

    2012-03-01

    Despite improved allergen-labeling and careful avoidance strategies, hidden allergens in food are a substantial risk for unintended reactions in food allergy sufferers. Unpublished data from a survey of the German Allergy and Asthma Association (Deutscher Allergie- und Asthmabund, DAAB) show that 85% of 738 questioned food allergic patients have experienced at least one allergic reaction from each prepacked products as well as food sold loose. Almost half of the participants said to have not received information of a food allergen as an ingredient or possible trace on the label. Different possibilities are discussed under which food allergens can be hidden in processed products, like incomprehensible labeling, labeling gaps, unexpected occurrence of allergens as well as cross contaminations or allergens in loose products. To each of the seven highlighted sources of hidden allergens in food, practical examples are given as well as proposals for the improvement of the situation from consumer view. The aim is to indicate possibilities and measures for politics and industry by which allergic consumers and their social circle are able to make an informed choice concerning the safe consumption of a certain product and to protect themselves from unintentional reactions.

  18. Fate of starch in food processing: from raw materials to final food products.

    PubMed

    Delcour, Jan A; Bruneel, Charlotte; Derde, Liesbeth J; Gomand, Sara V; Pareyt, Bram; Putseys, Joke A; Wilderjans, Edith; Lamberts, Lieve

    2010-01-01

    Starch, an essential component of an equilibrated diet, is present in cereals such as common and durum wheat, maize, rice, and rye, in roots and tubers such as potato and cassava, and in legumes such as peas. During food processing, starch mainly undergoes nonchemical transformations. Here, we focus on the occurrence of starch in food raw materials, its composition and properties, and its transformations from raw material to final products. We therefore describe a number of predominant food processes and identify research needs. Nonchemical transformations that are dealt with include physical damage to starch, gelatinization, amylose-lipid complex formation, amylose crystallization, and amylopectin retrogradation. A main focus is on wheat-based processes. (Bio)chemical modifications of starch by amylolytic enzymes are dealt with only in the context of understanding the starch component in bread making.

  19. Generation of low-temperature air plasma for food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya

    2015-11-01

    The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas temperature at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient air in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in air and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.

  20. Unconventional processes for food regeneration in space - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, B. O.; Petersen, G. R.; Schubert, W. W.; Mueller, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Alternatives to conventional plant agriculture for the regeneration of food during space missions of extended duration are examined. The options considered, which may be used in combination with conventional agriculture, include the production of food from plant wastes, the chemical synthesis of food from carbon dioxide and other simple molecules or the substitution of edible chemicals, and the use of microrganisms for food and oxygen regeneration, with suitable processing. A comparison of solar energy conversion efficiencies is presented for nonphotosynthetic bacteria grown on hydrogen and algal systems photosynthetically, and it is shown that hydrogen bacteria are potentially more attractive than photosynthetic algae using artificial light. Weight-volume requirements for the conventional plant, algae and hydrogen bacteria systems are also compared to demonstrate the advantages of microbial systems.

  1. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  2. Food formulation and not processing level: conceptual divergences between public health and food science and technology sectors.

    PubMed

    Botelho, R; Araújo, W; Pineli, L

    2016-07-20

    Observed changes in eating and drinking behaviors in economically developing countries is associated to the increase of obesity and related chronic diseases. Researchers from Public Health (PH) field have attributed this problem to food processing and have created new food classification systems to support their thesis. These classifications conceptually differ from processing level concepts in Food Science and states to people that food processing is directly related to nutritional impact of food. Our work aims to compare the concept of food processing from the standpoints of Food Science and Technology (FST) and of PH as well as to discuss differences related to formulation or level of processing of products and their impact on nutritional quality. There is a misconception among food processing/unit operation /food technology and formulation or recipes. For the PH approach, classification is based on food products selection and the use of ingredients that results in higher consumption of sugar, sodium, fat and additives, whereas in FST, processing level is based on the intensity and amount of unit operations to enhance shelf life, food safety, food quality and availability of edible parts of raw materials. Nutritional quality of a product or preparation is associated to formulation/recipe and not to the level of processing, with few exceptions. The impact of these recommendations on the actual comprehension of food processing and quality by the population must be considered.

  3. Conditions and constraints of food processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, B.; Nelson, P. E.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Requirements and constraints of food processing in space include a balanced diet, food variety, stability for storage, hardware weight and volume, plant performance, build-up of microorganisms, and waste processing. Lunar, Martian, and space station environmental conditions include variations in atmosphere, day length, temperature, gravity, magnetic field, and radiation environment. Weightlessness affects fluid behavior, heat transfer, and mass transfer. Concerns about microbial behavior include survival on Martian and lunar surfaces and in enclosed environments. Many present technologies can be adapted to meet space conditions.

  4. Issues involved in the process of developing a medical food.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Juan B; McClave, Stephen A; Saavedra, Jose

    2011-09-01

    The creation of a medical food with potential health benefits for a particular patient population is a surprisingly complex process. Fortunately, the developmental process for a specific medical food is not as rigorous or as tightly regulated as that of a pharmaceutical agent. However, numerous factors unique to the enteral formulation of a new product come into play, such as physical/chemical compatibility, pH, stability, bioavailability, decay, and even palatability. Additional considerations such as strength of health benefit claims, packaging or presentation, and marketability determine the ultimate commercialization and whether a product ends up being released to the public. A full understanding of the development, substantiation, and commercialization of a medical food is necessary for important physiologic concepts in nutrition therapy to end up as part of the therapeutic regimen at the bedside of the critically ill obese patient.

  5. Relationship between arsenic content of food and water applied for food processing.

    PubMed

    Sugár, Eva; Tatár, Enikő; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G

    2013-12-01

    As part of a survey conducted by the Central Agricultural Office of Hungary, 67 food samples including beverages were taken from 57 food industrial and catering companies, 75% of them being small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Moreover, 40% of the SMEs were micro entities. Water used for food processing was simultaneously sampled. The arsenic (As) content of solid food stuff was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after dry ashing. Food stuff with high water content and water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The As concentration exceeded 10 μg/L in 74% of the water samples taken from SMEs. The As concentrations of samples with high water content and water used were linearly correlated. Estimated As intake from combined exposure to drinking water and food of the population was on average 40% of the daily lower limit of WHO on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5) for As. Five settlements had higher As intake than the BMDL0.5. Three of these settlements are situated in Csongrád county and the distance between them is less than 55 km. The maximum As intake might be 3.8 μg/kg body weight.

  6. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... phenol equivalent of 0.25 gram of pasteurized process cheese food is not more than 3 micrograms. (3) The...) and (b), except that in determining moisture the loss in weight which occurs in drying for 5 hours, under the conditions prescribed in such method, is taken as the weight of the moisture. (5) The...

  7. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... phenol equivalent of 0.25 gram of pasteurized process cheese food is not more than 3 micrograms. (3) The...) and (b), except that in determining moisture the loss in weight which occurs in drying for 5 hours, under the conditions prescribed in such method, is taken as the weight of the moisture. (5) The...

  8. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... phenol equivalent of 0.25 gram of pasteurized process cheese food is not more than 3 micrograms. (3) The...) and (b), except that in determining moisture the loss in weight which occurs in drying for 5 hours, under the conditions prescribed in such method, is taken as the weight of the moisture. (5) The...

  9. Food Processing and Agriculture. Wisconsin Annual Farm Labor Report, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Employment Service, Madison.

    A yearly report on the migrant farm worker situation in Wisconsin evaluates the year 1968 in relation to past years and makes projections for the future. Comparisons are made of trends in year-round employment practices, seasonal food processing, the cherry industry, and the cucumber industry. The report includes a discussion on the social aspects…

  10. Utilization of food processing wastes to produce alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Shahbazi, A.; Reddy, G.B.; Parish, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    Food processing industries, in NC are surveyed for the availability of fermentable by-products. The alcohol yield of each material is determined. The annual alcohol yield from the surveyed materials is estimated. At the end, means for collection and transportation of these wastes and by-products are discussed. Two models have been used to select a site for a central fermentation plant.

  11. Cold Plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  12. Food Processing and Marketing: New Directions...New Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue uses tomato processing to illustrate the new directions and opportunities available in the food market. Comparative advantage and economies of scale are discussed in relation to markets. Forecasting success in the market is attributed to studying consumer consumption trends by type and monitoring standards of living in 32 newly…

  13. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... receipt, disposal, and inventory of donated foods in accordance with § 250.16; (H) Submit processing... forth in the original USDA procurement specification and, in the case of concentrated skim milk replacing donated nonfat dry milk, determine if the concentrated skim milk contains the amount of...

  14. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... receipt, disposal, and inventory of donated foods in accordance with § 250.16; (H) Submit processing... forth in the original USDA procurement specification and, in the case of concentrated skim milk replacing donated nonfat dry milk, determine if the concentrated skim milk contains the amount of...

  15. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... receipt, disposal, and inventory of donated foods in accordance with § 250.16; (H) Submit processing... forth in the original USDA procurement specification and, in the case of concentrated skim milk replacing donated nonfat dry milk, determine if the concentrated skim milk contains the amount of...

  16. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... receipt, disposal, and inventory of donated foods in accordance with § 250.16; (H) Submit processing... forth in the original USDA procurement specification and, in the case of concentrated skim milk replacing donated nonfat dry milk, determine if the concentrated skim milk contains the amount of...

  17. Safety of foods treated with novel process intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many consumers are familiar with traditional food safety and preservation technologies such as thermal processing (cooking), salting, and pickling to inactivate common foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Many consumers are less familiar with other technologies s...

  18. Minimally Processed Functional Foods: Technological and Operational Pathways.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Svetlana

    2016-10-01

    This paper offers a concise review of technical and operational concepts underpinning commercialization of minimally processed functional foods (FFs), foods with fresh-like qualities commanding premium prices. The growing number of permitted nutritional content/health claims, many of which relate to well-being, coupled with emerging extraction and food processing technologies offers new exciting opportunities for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) specializing in fresh produce to play an active role in the health market. Supporting SMEs, governments could benefit from savings in healthcare costs and value creation in the economy. Consumers could benefit from novel FF formats such as refrigerated RTE (ready-to-eat) meals, a variety of fresh-like meat-, fish-, and egg-based products, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, cereal-based fermented foods and beverages. To preserve these valuable commodities, mild biological (enzymatic treatment, fermentation and, bio-preservation) and engineering solutions are needed. The latter include nonthermal techniques such as high-pressure treatment, cook-chill, sous-vide, mirco-encapsulation, vacuum impregnation and others. "De-constructive" culinary techniques such as 3D food printing and molecular gastronomy as well as developments in nutrigenomics and digital technologies facilitate novel product formats, personalization and access to niche markets. In the operational sense, moving from nourishment to health improvement demands a shift from defensive market-oriented to offensive market-developing strategies including collaborative networks with research organizations.

  19. Heavy metal and disinfectant resistance of Listeria monocytogenes from foods and food processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing plants and other ecosystems can be attributed to its ability to adapt to numerous stresses. Resistance to arsenic, cadmium and the quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride (BC) are examples of such adaptations. In this study, we ...

  20. Use of Chlorine-Containing Disinfectants in Food Production and Food Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe current commercial practices in use of chlorine-containing compounds in food processing and alternatives to chlorine use. This chapter is not meant to be complete literature review of the subject, but rather is a summary of widely used and accepted current...

  1. 21 CFR 179.39 - Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and..., PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.39 Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food. Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food may...

  2. 21 CFR 179.39 - Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and..., PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.39 Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food. Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food may...

  3. 21 CFR 179.39 - Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and..., PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.39 Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food. Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food may...

  4. 21 CFR 179.39 - Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and..., PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.39 Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food. Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food may...

  5. Thermocatalytic conversion of food processing wastes: Topical report, FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    The efficient utilization of waste produced during food processing operations is a topic of growing importance to the industry. While incineration is an attractive option for wastes with relatively low ash and moisture contents (i.e., under about 50 wt % moisture), it is not suitable for wastes with high moisture contents. Cheese whey, brewer's spent grain, and fruit pomace are examples of food processing wastes that are generally too wet to burn efficiently and cleanly. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a thermocatalytic conversion process that can convert high-moisture wastes (up to 98 wt % moisture) to a medium-Btu fuel gas consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. At the same time, the COD of these waste streams is reduced by 90% to 99%, Organic wastes are converted by thermocatalytic treatment at 350/degree/C to 400/degree/C and 3000 to 4000 psig. The process offers a relatively simple solution to waste treatment while providing net energy production from wastes containing as little as 2 wt % organic solids (this is equivalent to a COD of approximately 25,000 mg/L). This report describes continuous reactor system (CRS) experiments that have been conducted with food processing wastes. The purpose of the CRS experiments was to provide kinetic and catalyst lifetime data, which could not be obtained with the batch reactor tests. These data are needed for commercial scaleup of the process.

  6. 21 CFR 500.23 - Thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in... Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.23 Thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed... of low-acid foods in hermetically sealed containers, and intended for use as food for animals....

  7. Process-Structure-Function Relations of Pectin in Food.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, Stefanie; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Houben, Ken; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Moelants, Katlijn R N; Ngouémazong, Eugénie D; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc E G

    2016-01-01

    Pectin, a complex polysaccharide rich in galacturonic acid, has been identified as a critical structural component of plant cell walls. The functionality of this intricate macromolecule in fruit- and vegetable-based-derived products and ingredients is strongly determined by the nanostructure of its most abundant polymer, homogalacturonan. During food processing, pectic homogalacturonan is susceptible to various enzymatic as well as nonenzymatic conversion reactions modifying its structural and, hence, its functional properties. Consequently, a profound understanding of the various process-structure-function relations of pectin aids food scientists to tailor the functional properties of plant-based derived products and ingredients. This review describes the current knowledge on process-structure-function relations of pectin in foods with special focus on pectin's functionality with regard to textural attributes of solid plant-based foods and rheological properties of particulated fruit- and vegetable-derived products. In this context, both pectin research performed via traditional, ex situ physicochemical analyses of fractionated walls and isolated polymers and pectin investigation through in situ pectin localization are considered.

  8. The MELISSA food data base: space food preparation and process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Pons, A.; Farges, Berangere; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    Life Support Systems have to deal with air, water and food requirement for a crew, waste management and also to the crew's habitability and safety constraints. Food can be provided from stocks (open loops) or produced during the space flight or on an extraterrestrial base (what implies usually a closed loop system). Finally it is admitted that only biological processes can fulfil the food requirement of life support system. Today, only a strictly vegetarian source range is considered, and this is limited to a very small number of crops compared to the variety available on Earth. Despite these constraints, a successful diet should have enough variety in terms of ingredients and recipes and sufficiently high acceptability in terms of acceptance ratings for individual dishes to remain interesting and palatable over a several months period and an adequate level of nutrients commensurate with the space nutritional requirements. In addition to the nutritional aspects, others parameters have to be considered for the pertinent selection of the dishes as energy consumption (for food production and transformation), quantity of generated waste, preparation time, food processes. This work concerns a global approach called MELISSA Food Database to facilitate the cre-ation and the management of these menus associated to the nutritional, mass, energy and time constraints. The MELISSA Food Database is composed of a database (MySQL based) con-taining multiple information among others crew composition, menu, dishes, recipes, plant and nutritional data and of a web interface (PHP based) to interactively access the database and manage its content. In its current version a crew is defined and a 10 days menu scenario can be created using dishes that could be cooked from a set of limited fresh plant assumed to be produced in the life support system. The nutritional covering, waste produced, mass, time and energy requirements are calculated allowing evaluation of the menu scenario and its

  9. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Oude Lansink, Alfons; Stefanou, Spiro E

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change.

  10. Effect of Food Regulation on the Spanish Food Processing Industry: A Dynamic Productivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kapelko, Magdalena; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Stefanou, Spiro E.

    2015-01-01

    This article develops the decomposition of the dynamic Luenberger productivity growth indicator into dynamic technical change, dynamic technical inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change in the dynamic directional distance function context using Data Envelopment Analysis. These results are used to investigate for the Spanish food processing industry the extent to which dynamic productivity growth and its components are affected by the introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 (Regulation (EC) No 178/2002). The empirical application uses panel data of Spanish meat, dairy, and oils and fats industries over the period 1996-2011. The results suggest that in the oils and fats industry the impact of food regulation on dynamic productivity growth is negative initially and then positive over the long run. In contrast, the opposite pattern is observed for the meat and dairy processing industries. The results further imply that firms in the meat processing and oils and fats industries face similar impacts of food safety regulation on dynamic technical change, dynamic inefficiency change and dynamic scale inefficiency change. PMID:26057878

  11. Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing

    PubMed Central

    Revedin, Anna; Aranguren, Biancamaria; Becattini, Roberto; Longo, Laura; Marconi, Emanuele; Lippi, Marta Mariotti; Skakun, Natalia; Sinitsyn, Andrey; Spiridonova, Elena; Svoboda, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    European Paleolithic subsistence is assumed to have been largely based on animal protein and fat, whereas evidence for plant consumption is rare. We present evidence of starch grains from various wild plants on the surfaces of grinding tools at the sites of Bilancino II (Italy), Kostenki 16–Uglyanka (Russia), and Pavlov VI (Czech Republic). The samples originate from a variety of geographical and environmental contexts, ranging from northeastern Europe to the central Mediterranean, and dated to the Mid-Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian and Gorodtsovian). The three sites suggest that vegetal food processing, and possibly the production of flour, was a common practice, widespread across Europe from at least ~30,000 y ago. It is likely that high energy content plant foods were available and were used as components of the food economy of these mobile hunter–gatherers. PMID:20956317

  12. Folate content and retention in selected raw and processed foods.

    PubMed

    Bassett, M N; Sammán, N C

    2010-09-01

    Adequate intake of folate reduced the risk of abnormalities in early embryonic brain development such as the risk of malformations of the embryonic brain/spinal cord, collectively referred to as neural tube defects (NTDs). Folate is extremely sensitive to destruction by heat, oxidation and UV light. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of different extraction procedures and enzymatic treatment to determine folate concentrations in variety of foods using a microbiological assay (MA) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus as the test organism. This study also aimed to evaluate the retention of folate in foods after using different cooking processes. Nine of the most commonly consumed foods in Argentina and that contain folate were analyzed: broccoli, spinach, potato, lentil, soy (raw and boiled); hen whole egg and yolks (raw, boiled and fried); beef liver (raw and cooked); strawberry (raw) and white bread. For this study, rat plasma (RP) and human plasma (HP) conjugases together with acetate and phosphate buffers were tested. In extraction step for all analyses, RP conjugase was selected since it was easily available in our laboratory and small quantities were required. The acetate buffer was chosen since better growth and more reproducible results were obtained in the different conditions assayed. The results allowed the foods to be grouped into (a) rich sources of folate: hen eggs, yolks, spinach, soybean (raw) and strawberry (100 and 350 microg/100 g fresh weight (FW); (b) good sources of folate: broccoli (raw), soybean (boiled), lentils (raw) and potato (56 to 83 microg/100 g FW) and c) moderate sources of folate: broccoli, lentils (boiled), white breads, onions and beef liver (15 to 30 microg/100g FW). The folate retention was in the range 14-99% according to both type of food and method of processing. Contents and losses of folate vary widely according to type of food and cooking method.

  13. Phytate in foods and significance for humans: food sources, intake, processing, bioavailability, protective role and analysis.

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, Ulrich; Frølich, Wenche; Prieto, Rafel M; Grases, Felix

    2009-09-01

    The article gives an overview of phytic acid in food and of its significance for human nutrition. It summarises phytate sources in foods and discusses problems of phytic acid/phytate contents of food tables. Data on phytic acid intake are evaluated and daily phytic acid intake depending on food habits is assessed. Degradation of phytate during gastro-intestinal passage is summarised, the mechanism of phytate interacting with minerals and trace elements in the gastro-intestinal chyme described and the pathway of inositol phosphate hydrolysis in the gut presented. The present knowledge of phytate absorption is summarised and discussed. Effects of phytate on mineral and trace element bioavailability are reported and phytate degradation during processing and storage is described. Beneficial activities of dietary phytate such as its effects on calcification and kidney stone formation and on lowering blood glucose and lipids are reported. The antioxidative property of phytic acid and its potentional anticancerogenic activities are briefly surveyed. Development of the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates is described, problems of inositol phosphate determination and detection discussed and the need for standardisation of phytic acid analysis in foods argued.

  14. Food irradiation and nonthermal food processing: an overview for food science professionals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation is a nonthermal process that has been shown to inactivate human pathogens from meats, seafood and produce. Irradiation treatment at 1.0 kGy can reduce the surface populations of E. coli O157:H7 on leafy vegetables by 4 logs (99.99%), without significantly impacting the product’s visual a...

  15. Changes in carotenoids during processing and storage of foods.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Being highly unsaturated, carotenoids are susceptible to isomerization and oxidation during processing and storage of foods. Isomerization of trans-carotenoids to cis-carotenoids, promoted by contact with acids, heat treatment and exposure to light, diminishes the color and the vitamin A activity of carotenoids. The major cause of carotenoid loss, however, is enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation, which depends on the availability of oxygen and the carotenoid structure. It is stimulated by light, heat, some metals, enzymes and peroxides and is inhibited by antioxidants. Data on percentage losses of carotenoids during food processing and storage are somewhat conflicting, but carotenoid degradation is known to increase with the destruction of the food cellular structure, increase of surface area or porosity, length and severity of the processing conditions, storage time and temperature, transmission of light and permeability to O2 of the packaging. Contrary to lipid oxidation, for which the mechanism is well established, the oxidation of carotenoids is not well understood. It involves initially epoxidation, formation of apocarotenoids and hydroxylation. Subsequent fragmentations presumably result in a series of compounds of low molecular masses. Completely losing its color and biological activities, the carotenoids give rise to volatile compounds which contribute to the aroma/flavor, desirable in tea and wine and undesirable in dehydrated carrot. Processing can also influence the bioavailability of carotenoids, a topic that is currently of great interest.

  16. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Shawn M.; Harrison, Mark A.; Law, S. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  17. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    PubMed Central

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  18. Quality control throughout the production process of infant food.

    PubMed

    Hamrin, Pia; Hoeft, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of infant food is a highly complex process and needs an effective quality control beyond classical in-process parameters and a final microbiological analysis. To ensure a safe end -product, various tools, such as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), have been developed to facilitate the management of food safety. Every single infant formula ingredient must have an excellent quality and safety approach because even if an ingredient is used in very small quantities in a single product, serious consequences may arise if the quality and product safety are not taken seriously by the ingredient manufacturer. The purpose of this article was twofold: firstly, to briefly describe existing Quality Management Systems and, secondly, to highlight the consequences of non-quality.

  19. Agricultural and Food Processing Applications of Pulsed Power Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Koichi; Ihara, Satoshi

    Recent progress of agricultural and food processing applications of pulsed power is described in this paper. Repetitively operated compact pulsed power generators with a moderate peak power have been developed for the agricultural and the food processing applications. These applications are mainly based on biological effects and can be categorized as decontamination of air and liquid, germination promotion, inhabitation of saprophytes growth, extraction of juice from fruits and vegetables, and fertilization of liquid medium, etc. Types of pulsed power that have biological effects are caused with gas discharges, water discharges, and electromagnetic fields. The discharges yield free radicals, UV radiation, intense electric field, and shock waves. Biologically based applications of pulsed power are performed by selecting the type that gives the target objects the adequate result from among these agents or byproducts. For instance, intense electric fields form pores on the cell membrane, which is called electroporation, or influence the nuclei.

  20. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  1. Applying state diagrams to food processing and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roos, Y.; Karel, M.

    1991-01-01

    The physical state of food components affects their properties during processing, storage, and consumption. Removal of water by evaporation or by freezing often results in formation of an amorphous state (Parks et al., 1928; Troy and Sharp, 1930; Kauzmann, 1948; Bushill et al., 1965; White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). Amorphous foods are also produced from carbohydrate melts by rapid cooling after extrusion or in the manufacturing of hard sugar candies and coatings (Herrington and Branfield, 1984). Formation of the amorphous state and its relation to equilibrium conditions are shown in Fig. 1 [see text]. The most important change, characteristic of the amorphous state, is noticed at the glass transition temperature (Tg), which involves transition from a solid "glassy" to a liquid-like "rubbery" state. The main consequence of glass transition is an increase of molecular mobility and free volume above Tg, which may result in physical and physico-chemical deteriorative changes (White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). We have conducted studies on phase transitions of amorphous food materials and related Tg to composition, viscosity, stickiness, collapse, recrystallization, and ice formation. We have also proposed that some diffusion-limited deteriorative reactions are controlled by the physical state in the vicinity of Tg (Roos and Karel, 1990, 1991a, b, c). The results are summarized in this article, with state diagrams based on experimental and calculated data to characterize the relevant water content, temperature, and time-dependent phenomena of amorphous food components.

  2. Applying state diagrams to food processing and development.

    PubMed

    Roos, Y; Karel, M

    1991-12-01

    The physical state of food components affects their properties during processing, storage, and consumption. Removal of water by evaporation or by freezing often results in formation of an amorphous state (Parks et al., 1928; Troy and Sharp, 1930; Kauzmann, 1948; Bushill et al., 1965; White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). Amorphous foods are also produced from carbohydrate melts by rapid cooling after extrusion or in the manufacturing of hard sugar candies and coatings (Herrington and Branfield, 1984). Formation of the amorphous state and its relation to equilibrium conditions are shown in Fig. 1 [see text]. The most important change, characteristic of the amorphous state, is noticed at the glass transition temperature (Tg), which involves transition from a solid "glassy" to a liquid-like "rubbery" state. The main consequence of glass transition is an increase of molecular mobility and free volume above Tg, which may result in physical and physico-chemical deteriorative changes (White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). We have conducted studies on phase transitions of amorphous food materials and related Tg to composition, viscosity, stickiness, collapse, recrystallization, and ice formation. We have also proposed that some diffusion-limited deteriorative reactions are controlled by the physical state in the vicinity of Tg (Roos and Karel, 1990, 1991a, b, c). The results are summarized in this article, with state diagrams based on experimental and calculated data to characterize the relevant water content, temperature, and time-dependent phenomena of amorphous food components.

  3. Using biosolids from agricultural processing as food for animals

    SciTech Connect

    Belyea, R.L.; Clevenger, T.E.; Van Dyne, D.L.; Eckhoff, S.E.; Wallig, M.A.; Tumbleson, M.E.

    1993-12-31

    A diverse inventory of secondary products arise from processing of agricultural commodities. Societal, economic and physical constraints will curtail traditional disposal methods and create a need for alternatives that conserve, recycle and capitalize on these underutilized resources. Economic viability of some processes or primary products may depend upon practical alternatives for disposing of secondary products. The broad nature of secondary products and the process from which they emanate along with the complex transformations needed for remediation will require the efforts of multidisciplinary teams of scientists to identify creative solutions. Most secondary products have significant nutritional value and could be fed to animals as a means of disposal. However, detailed chemical and biological characterization is needed to determine nutrient concentrations and to ensure safety and efficacy. Feeding studies will be necessary to demonstrate palatability and to determine effects upon animal health and performance. New bioprocessing techniques will be needed to remediate the attributes of some secondary products into more appropriate forms or qualities. The potential for using wash water biosolids as animal food was investigated. Wash water biosolids from a broad cross section of food processing plants were found to be free from pollutants and other harmful entities. Nutrient composition varied considerably within and among different types of food processing plants (i.e., milk vs poultry). However, within a particular plant, variation in mineral concentration of biosolids over several months was quite small. Wash water biosolids from a milk processing plant were found to be free of pollutants and to have nutritional value. Diets containing biosolids were palatable when fed to sheep, cows, turkeys, or swine. Safety and efficacy studies with sheep and swine indicated that feeding up to 20% biosolids did not adversely affect growth, reproduction or survival.

  4. Consumption of ultra-processed foods predicts diet quality in Canada.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Batal, M; Louzada, M L; Martinez Steele, E; Monteiro, C A

    2017-01-01

    This study describes food consumption patterns in Canada according to the types of food processing using the Nova classification and investigates the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and the nutrient profile of the diet. Dietary intakes of 33,694 individuals from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey aged 2 years and above were analyzed. Food and drinks were classified using Nova into unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods and ultra-processed foods. Average consumption (total daily energy intake) and relative consumption (% of total energy intake) provided by each of the food groups were calculated. Consumption of ultra-processed foods according to sex, age, education, residential location and relative family revenue was assessed. Mean nutrient content of ultra-processed foods and non-ultra-processed foods were compared, and the average nutrient content of the overall diet across quintiles of dietary share of ultra-processed foods was measured. In 2004, 48% of calories consumed by Canadians came from ultra-processed foods. Consumption of such foods was high amongst all socioeconomic groups, and particularly in children and adolescents. As a group, ultra-processed foods were grossly nutritionally inferior to non-ultra-processed foods. After adjusting for covariates, a significant and positive relationship was found between the dietary share of ultra-processed foods and the content in carbohydrates, free sugars, total and saturated fats and energy density, while an inverse relationship was observed with the dietary content in protein, fiber, vitamins A, C, D, B6 and B12, niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, as well as zinc, iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. Lowering the dietary share of ultra-processed foods and raising consumption of hand-made meals from unprocessed or minimally processed foods would substantially improve the diet quality of Canadian.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of some Malaysian locally processed raw food products.

    PubMed

    Sharif, R; Ghazali, A R; Rajab, N F; Haron, H; Osman, F

    2008-01-01

    Malaysian locally processed raw food products are widely used as main ingredients in local cooking. Previous studies showed that these food products have a positive correlation with the incidence of cancer. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated using MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimetil-2-thiazolil)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) against Chang liver cells at 2000 microg/ml following 72 h incubation. Findings showed all methanol extracts caused a tremendous drop in the percentage of cell viability at 2000 microg/ml (shrimp paste - 41.69+/-3.36%, salted fish - 37.2+/-1.06%, dried shrimp - 40.32+/-1.8%, p<0.05). To detect DNA damage in a single cell, alkaline Comet Assay was used. None of the extracts caused DNA damage to the Chang liver cells at 62.5 microg/ml following 24 h incubation, as compared to the positive control, hydrogen peroxide (tail moment - 9.50+/-1.50; tail intensity - 30.50+/-2.50). Proximate analysis which was used for the evaluation of macronutrients in food showed that shrimp paste did not comply with the protein requirement (<25%) as in Food Act 1983. Salt was found in every sample with the highest percentage being detected in shrimp paste which exceeded 20%. Following heavy metal analysis (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), arsenic was found in every sample with dried shrimps showing the highest value as compared to the other samples (6.16 mg/kg). In conclusion, several food extracts showed cytotoxic effect but did not cause DNA damage against Chang liver cells. Salt was found as the main additive and arsenic was present in every sample, which could be the probable cause of the toxicity effects observed.

  6. Heavy Metal and Disinfectant Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes from Foods and Food Processing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ratani, Shakir S.; Siletzky, Robin M.; Dutta, Vikrant; Yildirim, Suleyman; Osborne, Jason A.; Lin, Wen; Hitchins, Anthony D.; Ward, Todd J.

    2012-01-01

    The persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing plants and other ecosystems reflects its ability to adapt to numerous stresses. In this study, we investigated 138 isolates from foods and food processing plants for resistance to the quaternary ammonium disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC) and to heavy metals (cadmium and arsenic). We also determined the prevalence of distinct cadmium resistance determinants (cadA1, cadA2, and cadA3) among cadmium-resistant isolates. Most BC-resistant isolates were resistant to cadmium as well. Arsenic resistance was encountered primarily in serotype 4b and was an attribute of most isolates of the serotype 4b epidemic clonal group ECIa. Prevalence of the known cadmium resistance determinants was serotype associated: cadA1 was more common in isolates of serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b than 4b, while cadA2 was more common in those of serotype 4b. A subset (15/77 [19%]) of the cadmium-resistant isolates lacked the known cadmium resistance determinants. Most of these isolates were of serotype 4b and were also resistant to arsenic, suggesting novel determinants that may confer resistance to both cadmium and arsenic in these serotype 4b strains. The findings may reflect previously unrecognized components of the ecological history of different serotypes and clonal groups of L. monocytogenes, including exposures to heavy metals and disinfectants. PMID:22843526

  7. Stability of lycopene during food processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Xianquan, S; Shi, J; Kakuda, Y; Yueming, J

    2005-01-01

    With an increasing understanding of the health benefit of lycopene, how to preserve lycopene during food processing and storage has caused much attention. Lycopene belongs to the carotenoid family and mostly exists in nature as the all-trans form. Heat, light, oxygen, and different food matrices are factors that have an effect on lycopene isomerization and autooxidation. Lycopene may isomerize to mono- or poly-cis forms with the presence of heat or oil or during dehydration. Reisomerization takes place during storage. After oxidation, the lycopene molecule split, which causes loss of color and off-flavor. The effects of heat, oxygen, light, and the presence of oil on the stability of lycopene are uniform in much of the literature; however, controversy still exists on some details, such as the conditions causing the occurrence of isomerization, the optimal moisture, and temperature for storage.

  8. Characterization of radiant emitters used in food processing.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, B J; Farkas, B E; Keener, K M

    2003-01-01

    Radiant emissions from short, medium, and long wavelength thermal radiant emitter systems typically used for food processing applications were quantified. Measurements included heat flux intensity, emitter surface temperature, and spectral wavelength distribution. Heat flux measurements were found highly dependent on the incident angle and the distance from the emitter facing. The maximum flux measured was 5.4 W/cm2. Emitter surface temperature measurements showed that short wavelength radiant systems had the highest surface temperature and greatest thermal efficiency. The emitter spectral distributions showed that radiant emitter systems had large amounts of far infrared energy emission greater than 3 microm when compared to theoretical blackbody curves. The longer wavelength energy would likely cause increased surface heating for most high moisture content food materials.

  9. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav'yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem'ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  10. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  11. Ultra-processed foods and the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa Louzada, Maria Laura da; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study conducted with data from the module on individual food consumption from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF - Brazilian Family Budgets Survey). The sample, which represented the section of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over, involved 32,898 individuals. Food consumption was evaluated by two 24-hour food records. The consumed food items were classified into three groups: natural or minimally processed, including culinary preparations with these foods used as a base; processed; and ultra-processed. RESULTS The average daily energy consumption per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% being provided by natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% by processed foods and 21.5% by ultra-processed food. The nutritional profile of the fraction of ultra-processed food consumption showed higher energy density, higher overall fat content, higher saturated and trans fat, higher levels of free sugar and less fiber, protein, sodium and potassium, when compared to the fraction of consumption related to natural or minimally processed foods. Ultra-processed foods presented generally unfavorable characteristics when compared to processed foods. Greater inclusion of ultra-processed foods in the diet resulted in a general deterioration in the dietary nutritional profile. The indicators of the nutritional dietary profile of Brazilians who consumed less ultra-processed foods, with the exception of sodium, are the stratum of the population closer to international recommendations for a healthy diet. CONCLUSIONS The results from this study highlight the damage to health that is arising based on the observed trend in Brazil of replacing traditional meals, based on natural or minimally processed foods, with ultra-processed foods. These results also support the recommendation of avoiding the consumption of these kinds of foods.

  12. Ultra-processed foods and the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study conducted with data from the module on individual food consumption from the 2008-2009 Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF – Brazilian Family Budgets Survey). The sample, which represented the section of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over, involved 32,898 individuals. Food consumption was evaluated by two 24-hour food records. The consumed food items were classified into three groups: natural or minimally processed, including culinary preparations with these foods used as a base; processed; and ultra-processed. RESULTS The average daily energy consumption per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% being provided by natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% by processed foods and 21.5% by ultra-processed food. The nutritional profile of the fraction of ultra-processed food consumption showed higher energy density, higher overall fat content, higher saturated and trans fat, higher levels of free sugar and less fiber, protein, sodium and potassium, when compared to the fraction of consumption related to natural or minimally processed foods. Ultra-processed foods presented generally unfavorable characteristics when compared to processed foods. Greater inclusion of ultra-processed foods in the diet resulted in a general deterioration in the dietary nutritional profile. The indicators of the nutritional dietary profile of Brazilians who consumed less ultra-processed foods, with the exception of sodium, are the stratum of the population closer to international recommendations for a healthy diet. CONCLUSIONS The results from this study highlight the damage to health that is arising based on the observed trend in Brazil of replacing traditional meals, based on natural or minimally processed foods, with ultra-processed foods. These results also support the recommendation of avoiding the consumption of these kinds of foods

  13. Solar industrial process heat for Georgia's food processing and textile industries: a market evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Studstill, W.T.

    1980-10-08

    Georgia Tech's Engineering Experiment Station conducted a site-specific market evaluation study of solar industrial process heat for Georgia's food processing and textile industries. Twenty plants were surveyed and six case studies were conducted. The summary resualts of that study are presented with interpretation and conclusions by the Southern Solar Energy Center (SSEC).

  14. High pressure-low temperature processing of food proteins.

    PubMed

    Dumay, Eliane; Picart, Laetitia; Regnault, Stéphanie; Thiebaud, Maryse

    2006-03-01

    High pressure-low temperature (HP-LT) processing is of interest in the food field in view of: (i) obtaining a "cold" pasteurisation effect, the level of microbial inactivation being higher after pressurisation at low or sub-zero than at ambient temperature; (ii) limiting the negative impact of atmospheric pressure freezing on food structures. The specific effects of freezing by fast pressure release on the formation of ice I crystals have been investigated on oil in water emulsions stabilized by proteins, and protein gels, showing the formation of a high number of small ice nuclei compared to the long needle-shaped crystals obtained by conventional freezing at 0.1 MPa. It was therefore of interest to study the effects of HP-LT processing on unfolding or dissociation/aggregation phenomena in food proteins, in view of minimizing or controlling structural changes and aggregation reactions, and/or of improving protein functional properties. In the present studies, the effects of HP-LT have been investigated on protein models such as (i) beta-lactoglobulin, i.e., a whey protein with a well known 3-D structure, and (ii) casein micelles, i.e., the main milk protein components, the supramolecular structure of which is not fully elucidated. The effects of HP-LT processing was studied up to 300 MPa at low or sub-zero temperatures and after pressure release, or up to 200 MPa by UV spectroscopy under pressure, allowing to follow reversible structural changes. Pressurisation of approximately 2% beta-lactoglobulin solutions up to 300 MPa at low/subzero temperatures minimizes aggregation reactions, as measured after pressure release. In parallel, such low temperature treatments enhanced the size reduction of casein micelles.

  15. Membrane processing technology in the food industry: food processing, wastewater treatment, and effects on physical, microbiological, organoleptic, and nutritional properties of foods.

    PubMed

    Kotsanopoulos, Konstantinos V; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    Membrane processing technology (MPT) is increasingly used nowadays in a wide range of applications (demineralization, desalination, stabilization, separation, deacidification, reduction of microbial load, purification, etc.) in food industries. The most frequently applied techniques are electrodialysis (ED), reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), ultrafiltration (UF), and microfiltration (MF). Several membrane characteristics, such as pore size, flow properties, and the applied hydraulic pressure mainly determine membranes' potential uses. In this review paper the basic membrane techniques, their potential applications in a large number of fields and products towards the food industry, the main advantages and disadvantages of these methods, fouling phenomena as well as their effects on the organoleptic, qualitative, and nutritional value of foods are synoptically described. Some representative examples of traditional and modern membrane applications both in tabular and figural form are also provided.

  16. Cogeneration handbook for the food processing industry. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fasbender, A.G.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the food processing industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  17. Is the degree of food processing and convenience linked with the nutritional quality of foods purchased by US households?1234

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Background: “Processed foods” are defined as any foods other than raw agricultural commodities and can be categorized by the extent of changes occurring in foods as a result of processing. Conclusions about the association between the degree of food processing and nutritional quality are discrepant. Objective: We aimed to determine 2000–2012 trends in the contribution of processed and convenience food categories to purchases by US households and to compare saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content of purchases across levels of processing and convenience. Design: We analyzed purchases of consumer packaged goods for 157,142 households from the 2000–2012 Homescan Panel. We explicitly defined categories for classifying products by degree of industrial processing and separately by convenience of preparation. We classified >1.2 million products through use of barcode-specific descriptions and ingredient lists. Median saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content and the likelihood that purchases exceeded maximum daily intake recommendations for these components were compared across levels of processing or convenience by using quantile and logistic regression. Results: More than three-fourths of energy in purchases by US households came from moderately (15.9%) and highly processed (61.0%) foods and beverages in 2012 (939 kcal/d per capita). Trends between 2000 and 2012 were stable. When classifying foods by convenience, ready-to-eat (68.1%) and ready-to-heat (15.2%) products supplied the majority of energy in purchases. The adjusted proportion of household-level food purchases exceeding 10% kcal from saturated fat, 15% kcal from sugar, and 2400 mg sodium/2000 kcal simultaneously was significantly higher for highly processed (60.4%) and ready-to-eat (27.1%) food purchases than for purchases of less-processed foods (5.6%) or foods requiring cooking/preparation (4.9%). Conclusions: Highly processed food purchases are a dominant, unshifting part of US purchasing patterns

  18. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdal, W.; Walis, L.; Chmielewski, A. G.

    1993-07-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established.

  19. 21 CFR 179.39 - Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and... Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.39 Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food. Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food may be safely used under the...

  20. How the Food Processing Industry Is Diversifying Rural Minnesota. JSRI Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennelly, Katherine; Leitner, Helga

    The diversification of rural Minnesota is largely the result of the restructuring of the food processing industry and its recruitment of low-wage laborers. The relocation and expansion of food processing plants into rural areas of Minnesota creates a demand for low-wage labor that can not be met locally. Food processing businesses attract…

  1. Recent trends and developments in infrared heating in food processing.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Navin K

    2012-01-01

    Fruit processing and preservation technologies must keep fresh-like characteristics while providing an acceptable and convenient shelf life as well as assuring safety and nutritional value. Processing technologies include a wide range of methodologies to inactivate microorganisms, improve quality and stability, and preserve and minimize changes of fruit fresh-like characteristics. Infrared (IR) heating offers many advantages over conventional heating under similar conditions, which include reduced heating time, uniform heating, reduced quality losses, versatile, simple and compact equipment, and significant energy saving. The integration of IR with other matured processing operations such as blanching, dehydration, freeze-dehydration, thawing, roasting, baking, cooking has been shown to open up new processing options. Combinations of IR heating with microwave heating and other common conductive and convective modes of heating have been gaining momentum because of increased energy throughput. A number of publications and patents have demonstrated novel and diverse uses of this technology. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. The effect of IR on food quality attributes is also discussed. The types of equipment commonly used for IR processing have also been summarized.

  2. Food Classification Systems Based on Food Processing: Significance and Implications for Policies and Actions: A Systematic Literature Review and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Parra, Diana C; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This paper is the first to make a systematic review and assessment of the literature that attempts methodically to incorporate food processing into classification of diets. The review identified 1276 papers, of which 110 were screened and 21 studied, derived from five classification systems. This paper analyses and assesses the five systems, one of which has been devised and developed by a research team that includes co-authors of this paper. The quality of the five systems is assessed and scored according to how specific, coherent, clear, comprehensive and workable they are. Their relevance to food, nutrition and health, and their use in various settings, is described. The paper shows that the significance of industrial food processing in shaping global food systems and supplies and thus dietary patterns worldwide, and its role in the pandemic of overweight and obesity, remains overlooked and underestimated. Once food processing is systematically incorporated into food classifications, they will be more useful in assessing and monitoring dietary patterns. Food classification systems that emphasize industrial food processing, and that define and distinguish relevant different types of processing, will improve understanding of how to prevent and control overweight, obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases, and also malnutrition. They will also be a firmer basis for rational policies and effective actions designed to protect and improve public health at all levels from global to local.

  3. FoodPro: A Web-Based Tool for Evaluating Covariance and Correlation NMR Spectra Associated with Food Processes.

    PubMed

    Chikayama, Eisuke; Yamashina, Ryo; Komatsu, Keiko; Tsuboi, Yuuri; Sakata, Kenji; Kikuchi, Jun; Sekiyama, Yasuyo

    2016-10-19

    Foods from agriculture and fishery products are processed using various technologies. Molecular mixture analysis during food processing has the potential to help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved, thus enabling better cooking of the analyzed foods. To date, there has been no web-based tool focusing on accumulating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra from various types of food processing. Therefore, we have developed a novel web-based tool, FoodPro, that includes a food NMR spectrum database and computes covariance and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness. As a result, FoodPro has accumulated 236 aqueous (extracted in D₂O) and 131 hydrophobic (extracted in CDCl₃) experimental bench-top 60-MHz NMR spectra, 1753 tastings scored by volunteers, and 139 hardness measurements recorded by a penetrometer, all placed into a core database. The database content was roughly classified into fish and vegetable groups from the viewpoint of different spectrum patterns. FoodPro can query a user food NMR spectrum, search similar NMR spectra with a specified similarity threshold, and then compute estimated tasting and hardness, covariance, and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness. Querying fish spectra exemplified specific covariance spectra to tasting and hardness, giving positive covariance for tasting at 1.31 ppm for lactate and 3.47 ppm for glucose and a positive covariance for hardness at 3.26 ppm for trimethylamine N-oxide.

  4. FoodPro: A Web-Based Tool for Evaluating Covariance and Correlation NMR Spectra Associated with Food Processes

    PubMed Central

    Chikayama, Eisuke; Yamashina, Ryo; Komatsu, Keiko; Tsuboi, Yuuri; Sakata, Kenji; Kikuchi, Jun; Sekiyama, Yasuyo

    2016-01-01

    Foods from agriculture and fishery products are processed using various technologies. Molecular mixture analysis during food processing has the potential to help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved, thus enabling better cooking of the analyzed foods. To date, there has been no web-based tool focusing on accumulating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra from various types of food processing. Therefore, we have developed a novel web-based tool, FoodPro, that includes a food NMR spectrum database and computes covariance and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness. As a result, FoodPro has accumulated 236 aqueous (extracted in D2O) and 131 hydrophobic (extracted in CDCl3) experimental bench-top 60-MHz NMR spectra, 1753 tastings scored by volunteers, and 139 hardness measurements recorded by a penetrometer, all placed into a core database. The database content was roughly classified into fish and vegetable groups from the viewpoint of different spectrum patterns. FoodPro can query a user food NMR spectrum, search similar NMR spectra with a specified similarity threshold, and then compute estimated tasting and hardness, covariance, and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness. Querying fish spectra exemplified specific covariance spectra to tasting and hardness, giving positive covariance for tasting at 1.31 ppm for lactate and 3.47 ppm for glucose and a positive covariance for hardness at 3.26 ppm for trimethylamine N-oxide. PMID:27775560

  5. Fluorescence determination of acrylamide in heat-processed foods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Congcong; Luo, Feng; Chen, Dongmei; Qiu, Bin; Tang, Xinhua; Ke, Huixian; Chen, Xi

    2014-06-01

    A simple and rapid fluorescence method has been developed for the determination of acrylamide in heat-processed food samples. In the determination, acrylamide is degraded through Hofmann reaction to generate vinyl amine, and pyrrolinone is produced when the vinyl amine reacts with fluorescamine, resulting in a strong fluorescence emission at 480 nm. Hofmann reaction is a key step for the fluorescence determination of acrylaminde, and the reaction conditions are investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity increases with the increase of acrylamide concentrations. The linear range between the fluorescence intensity and the square-root of acrylamide concentrations is from 0.05 μg mL(-1) to 20 μg mL(-1) with the correlation coefficient R(2)=0.9935. The detection limit is 0.015 μg mL(-1) and the recovery for food samples is from 66.0% to 110.6%. In comparison with Specification of Entry&Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of The People׳s Republic of China (SN/T 2281-2009), the method showed comparable results and demonstrated the accuracy of the method.

  6. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety.

  7. Enzyme technology for precision functional food ingredient processes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anne S

    2010-03-01

    A number of naturally occurring dietary substances may exert physiological benefits. The production of enhanced levels or particularly tailored versions of such candidate functional compounds can be targeted by enzymatic catalysis. The recent literature contains examples of enhancing bioavailability of iron via enzyme-catalyzed degradation of phytate in wheat bran, increasing diacyl-glycerol and conjugated linoleic acid levels by lipase action, enhancing the absorption of the citrus flavonoid hesperetin via rhamnosidase treatment, and obtaining solubilized dietary fiber via enzymatic modification of potato starch processing residues. Such targeted enzyme-catalyzed reactions provide new invention opportunities for designing functional foods with significant health benefits. The provision of well-defined naturally structured compounds can, moreover, assist in obtaining the much-needed improved understanding of the physiological benefits of complex natural substances.

  8. Novel applications for microbial transglutaminase beyond food processing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Tramper, Johannes

    2008-10-01

    Transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13) initially attracted interest because of its ability to reconstitute small pieces of meat into a 'steak'. The extremely high cost of transglutaminase of animal origin has hampered its wider application and has initiated efforts to find an enzyme of microbial origin. Since the early 1990s, many microbial transglutaminase-producing strains have been found, and production processes have been optimized. This has resulted in a rapidly increasing number of applications of transglutaminase in the food sector. However, applications of microbial transglutaminase in other sectors have been explored to a much lesser extent. Here, we will present the wider potential of transglutaminases and discuss recent efforts that could contribute to the realization of their potential.

  9. Food processing methods influence the glycaemic indices of some commonly eaten West Indian carbohydrate-rich foods.

    PubMed

    Bahado-Singh, P S; Wheatley, A O; Ahmad, M H; Morrison, E Y St A; Asemota, H N

    2006-09-01

    Glycaemic index (GI) values for fourteen commonly eaten carbohydrate-rich foods processed by various methods were determined using ten healthy subjects. The foods studied were round leaf yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis), negro and lucea yams (Dioscorea rotundata), white and sweet yams (Dioscorea alata), sweet potato (Solanum tuberosum), Irish potato (Ipomoea batatas), coco yam (Xanthosoma spp.), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), green banana (Musa sapientum), and green and ripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca). The foods were processed by boiling, frying, baking and roasting where applicable. Pure glucose was used as the standard with a GI value of 100. The results revealed marked differences in GI among the different foods studied ranging from 35 (se 3) to 94 (se 8). The area under the glucose response curve and GI value of some of the roasted and baked foods were significantly higher than foods boiled or fried (P<0.05). The results indicate that foods processed by roasting or baking may result in higher GI. Conversely, boiling of foods may contribute to a lower GI diet.

  10. Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet

    PubMed Central

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population’s diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over was assessed (n = 32,898). Food consumption data were collected through two 24-hour food records. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the nutrient content of the diet and the quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption – crude and adjusted for family income per capita. RESULTS Mean daily energy intake per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% coming from natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% from processed foods and 21.5% from ultra-processed foods. For sixteen out of the seventeen evaluated micronutrients, their content was lower in the fraction of the diet composed of ultra-processed foods compared with the fraction of the diet composed of natural or minimally processed foods. The content of 10 micronutrients in ultra-processed foods did not reach half the content level observed in the natural or minimally processed foods. The higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was inversely and significantly associated with the content of vitamins B12, vitamin D, vitamin E, niacin, pyridoxine, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium and zinc. The reverse situation was only observed for calcium, thiamin and riboflavin. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study highlight that reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods is a natural way to promote healthy eating in Brazil and, therefore, is in line with the recommendations made by the Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population) to avoid these foods. PMID:26270019

  11. Zero-discharge: An application of process water recovery technology in the food processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fok, S.; Moore, B.

    1999-07-01

    Water is a valuable natural resource and the food processing industry has been among the leading industrial water users in California. With support from a major northern California utility and the California Institute for Food and Agricultural Research, Tri Valley Growers (TVG) has successfully installed the first US energy-efficient zero-discharge process water reclamation system at its Oberti Olive processing facility in Madera, California. The advanced zero-discharge system is the largest application in the world of membrane filtration for recovering water from a food processing plant. Previously, the plant discharged an average of 1 million gallons of salty wastewater (brine) a day into 160 acres of evaporation ponds. However, new environmental regulations made the ponds obsolete. The cost of process water disposal using alternate biotreatment system was prohibitive and would make continued operation uneconomical with plant closure and job loss the likely outcome. Through comprehensive pilot testing and subsequent system design and operational optimization, the advance membrane filtration system with pre- and post-treatment now recovers about 80% of the process liquid in high priority form of water for subsequent reuse at the plant. The solids produced in olive processing, plus concentrated process liquids are used off-site as an animal feed component, thus achieving the plant zero-discharge scheme. The successful implementation of the zero discharge system at the Oberti Olive processing plant has produced energy saving of 3,500,000 kilowatthours and 244,000 therms of gas a year of power as compared to the alternate biotreatment system. It also prevented plant closure and job loss. In addition, water conservation and the discontinuation of evaporation pond use is beneficial to the environment. The project was applauded by the California Environmental Protection Agency as a positive step forward for environmental technology in the agricultural sector in

  12. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426

  13. Fast or slow-foods? Describing natural variations in oral processing characteristics across a wide range of Asian foods.

    PubMed

    Forde, C G; Leong, C; Chia-Ming, E; McCrickerd, K

    2017-02-22

    The structural properties of foods have a functional role to play in oral processing behaviours and sensory perception, and also impact on meal size and the experience of fullness. This study adopted a new approach by using behavioural coding analysis of eating behaviours to explore how a range of food textures manifest as the microstructural properties of eating and expectations of fullness. A selection of 47 Asian foods were served in fixed quantities to a panel of participants (N = 12) and their eating behaviours were captured via web-camera recordings. Behavioural coding analysis was completed on the recordings to extract total bites, chews and swallows and cumulative time of the food spent in the mouth. From these measurements a series of microstructural properties including average bite size (g), chews per bite, oro-sensory exposure time (seconds) and average eating rate (g min(-1)) were derived per food. The sensory and macronutrient properties of each food were correlated with the microstructure of eating to compare the differences in eating behaviour on a gram for gram basis. There were strong relationships between the perceived food textural properties and its eating behaviours and a food's total water content was the best predictor of its eating rate. Foods that were eaten at a slower eating rate, with smaller bites and more chews per bite were rated as higher in the expected fullness. These relationships are important as oral processing behaviours and beliefs about the potential satiating value of food influence portion decisions and moderate meal size. These data support the idea that naturally occurring differences in the food structure and texture could be used to design meals that slow the rate of eating and maximise fullness.

  14. Nanotechnology in food processing sector-An assessment of emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Kalpana Sastry, R; Anshul, Shrivastava; Rao, N H

    2013-10-01

    Use of nanoscience based technology in the food industry is fast emerging as new area for research and development. Several research groups including private companies in the industry have initiated research programmes for exploring the wide scope of nanotechnology into the value chain of food processing and manufacturing. This paper discusses the current focus of research in this area and assesses its potential impacts. Using the developed relational database framework with R&D indicators like literature and patent documents for assessment of the potential of nanotechnology in food sector, a model to organize and map nanoresearch areas to the food processing sector was developed. The study indicates that the about five basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food sector, include food processing, packaging, nutraceuticals delivery, food safety and functional foods.

  15. Immunomodulatory Effects of Soybeans and Processed Soy Food Compounds.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Imai, Shinjiro

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is an immune response against both internal and external antigens in organisms, particularly in mammals, and includes both uncontrolled chronic and low-grade inflammations. Uncontrolled chronic inflammation often leads to severe diseases such as vascular disease, arthritis, cancer, diabete, allergy, and autoimmunity. On the other hand, low-grade inflammation is recognized as a relationship between obesity and risk of metabolic syndrome. Elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators is commonly observed in patients with uncontrolled or low-grade inflammation-associated diseases. Plants have been generated phytochemicals to overcome inflammations and infections through evolution. Phytochemicals belong to alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, and terpenoids. The consumption of soybeans plays a role in immune modulation through their components such as isoflavones, saponins, and anthocyanins. Recently, it was reported that the application of phytochemicals into patients with inflammatory diseases improves their symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify novel phytochemicals with immunomodulatory activities. This review introduces and discusses recent advances and patents regarding soybean or processed soy food compounds which exhibit immunomodulatory activity in immune diseases, particularly allergy, by mediating the suppression of inflammatory pathways.

  16. A preamplification approach to GMO detection in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Del Gaudio, S; Cirillo, A; Di Bernardo, G; Galderisi, U; Cipollaro, M

    2010-03-01

    DNA is widely used as a target for GMO analysis because of its stability and high detectability. Real-time PCR is the method routinely used in most analytical laboratories due to its quantitative performance and great sensitivity. Accurate DNA detection and quantification is dependent on the specificity and sensitivity of the amplification protocol as well as on the quality and quantity of the DNA used in the PCR reaction. In order to enhance the sensitivity of real-time PCR and consequently expand the number of analyzable target genes, we applied a preamplification technique to processed foods where DNA can be present in low amounts and/or in degraded forms thereby affecting the reliability of qualitative and quantitative results. The preamplification procedure utilizes a pool of primers targeting genes of interest and is followed by real-time PCR reactions specific for each gene. An improvement of Ct values was found comparing preamplified vs. non-preamplified DNA. The strategy reported in the present study will be also applicable to other fields requiring quantitative DNA testing by real-time PCR.

  17. Functional food productions: release the potential of bioactive compounds through food processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological studies of bioactive compounds from plant-based foods have consistently pointed to undisputed benefits of consumption of plant-based foods on human health particularly regarding cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, in order to attain the dosage required from these studies, p...

  18. Worldwide food allergy labeling and detection of allergens in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    The labeling of allergenic foods is an important public health measure to assist food-allergic consumers in avoiding foods that can cause allergic reactions. The regulatory framework for such labeling depends upon the selection of priority allergenic foods, which vary among countries. Most countries include milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, soybeans, and cereal sources of gluten on the priority allergenic foods list, as recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. However, a variety of other foods appear on the priority lists of some countries but not on others. Sesame seeds, molluscan shellfish, buckwheat, and mustard are identified in two or more countries. In most countries, all ingredients derived from these priority allergen sources must also be declared on labels by source. However, exemptions exist for some ingredients in some countries but not in others. Detection methods are critical for the enforcement of allergen labeling regulations and for the investigation of allergic reactions in the community by public health officials. The development of detection methods has advanced considerably over the past several decades and will be briefly reviewed in this chapter. Because of the emphasis on labeling and the development of detection methods, the ingredient statement on packaged food labels now contains more information than ever before to assist food-allergic consumers.

  19. The influence of oral processing, food perception and social aspects on food consumption: a review.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L J; van der Bilt, A

    2016-08-01

    Eating is an essential activity to get energy and necessary nutrients for living. While chewing, the food is broken down by the teeth and dissolved by saliva. Taste, flavour and texture are perceived during chewing and will contribute to the appreciation of the food. The senses of taste and smell play an important role in selecting nutritive food instead of toxic substances. Also visual information of a food product is essential in the choice and the acceptance of food products, whereas auditory information obtained during the chewing of crispy products will provide information on whether a product is fresh or stale. Food perception does not just depend on one individual sense, but appears to be the result from multisensory integration of unimodal signals. Large differences in oral physiology parameters exist among individuals, which may lead to differences in food perception. Knowledge of the interplay between mastication and sensory experience for groups of individuals is important for the food industry to control quality and acceptability of their products. Environment factors during eating, like TV watching or electronic media use, may also play a role in food perception and the amount of food ingested. Distraction during eating a meal may lead to disregard about satiety and fullness feelings and thus to an increased risk of obesity. Genetic and social/cultural aspects seem to play an important role in taste sensitivity and food preference. Males generally show larger bite size, larger chewing power and a faster chewing rhythm than females. The size of swallowed particles seems to be larger for obese individuals, although there is no evidence until now of an 'obese chewing style'. Elderly people tend to have fewer teeth and consequently a less good masticatory performance, which may lead to lower intakes of raw food and dietary fibre. The influence of impaired mastication on food selection is still controversial, but it is likely that it may at least cause

  20. Energy saving processes for nitrogen removal in organic wastewater from food processing industries in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Johansen, N H; Suksawad, N; Balslev, P

    2004-01-01

    Nitrogen removal from organic wastewater is becoming a demand in developed communities. The use of nitrite as intermediate in the treatment of wastewater has been largely ignored, but is actually a relevant energy saving process compared to conventional nitrification/denitrification using nitrate as intermediate. Full-scale results and pilot-scale results using this process are presented. The process needs some additional process considerations and process control to be utilized. Especially under tropical conditions the nitritation process will round easily, and it must be expected that many AS treatment plants in the food industry already produce NO2-N. This uncontrolled nitrogen conversion can be the main cause for sludge bulking problems. It is expected that sludge bulking problems in many cases can be solved just by changing the process control in order to run a more consequent nitritation. Theoretically this process will decrease the oxygen consumption for oxidation by 25% and the use of carbon source for the reduction will be decreased by 40% compared to the conventional process.

  1. Processed Foods: Where Is All That Salt Coming from?

    MedlinePlus

    ... build a heart-healthy diet. More resources on sodium: The Salty Six – surprising foods that add the ... Simple Cooking and Recipes • Dining Out Reduce Your Sodium Intake Receive Healthy Living tips and be Healthy ...

  2. Dosimetry concepts and measurements in food irradiation processing.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, K H; Oosterheert, W F

    1986-01-01

    The associations between the dosimetry concepts, Minimum absorbed dose (D min), maximum absorbed dose (D max), and average dose and median dose are investigated for the case of a large cobalt-60 plaque source irradiating homogeneous bulk product in a two-pass, two-sided irradiation. It is assumed that to a first approximation the intensity of radiation decreases exponentially with the depth, t, in the product. A series of mathematical relationships is derived for the average dose, the maximum and minimum dose, the median dose [defined as (D max/D min)/2], and the uniformity ratio (defined as U.R. = (D max/D min). The relationships are derived in terms of a constant D0 (the dose on the surface of the product in the pass close to the source) and the relaxation length (mu t) of the radiation in the product. Since the uniformity ratio and other dose parameters can be calculated for certain chosen values of mu t, the individual values of mu (the energy absorption coefficient) and t do not need to be known. By dividing the dose range from D min to D max into 10 equal fractions, the amount of product irradiated to each of the fractions is calculated, and it is shown that, independent of the value of U.R., about a third of the product receives a dose in the first fraction above D min. It is also shown that for a given median dose, the average dose decreases as U.R. increases. The calculated dose relationships are confirmed by measurements in homogeneous dummy product, using the lyoluminescence of glutamine to measure dose. The implications of these results for the regulation of the food irradiation process and for the design of irradiation facilities are discussed.

  3. Chemical stability of astaxanthin integrated into a food matrix: Effects of food processing and methods for preservation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Delgado, Alejandra Anahí; Khandual, Sanghamitra; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro Josefina

    2017-06-15

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment found in numerous organisms ranging from bacteria to algae, yeasts, plants, crustaceans and fish such as salmon. Technological importance of this pigment emerged from various studies demonstrating that it is a powerful antioxidant, even with higher activity than alpha-tocopherol and other carotenoids. It has been included in various pharmaceutical products because of several beneficial properties. By its nature, astaxanthin is susceptible to degradation and can undergo chemical changes during food processing. Therefore, different studies have focused on improving the stability of the carotenoid under conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and mechanical force, among others. In this review, common processes involved in food processing and their effect on the stability of astaxanthin, integrated into a food matrix are discussed. Moreover, preservation techniques such as microencapsulation, inclusion in emulsions, suspensions, liposomes, etc., that are being employed to maintain stability of the product are also reviewed.

  4. Organic food processing: a framework for concept, starting definitions and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander; Bügel, Susanne; Busscher, Nicolaas; Geier, Uwe; Matt, Darja; Meischner, Tabea; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Ploeger, Angelika; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schmid, Otto; Strassner, Carola; Taupier-Letage, Bruno; Załęcka, Aneta

    2014-10-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria. These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well as on organic processing. The proposed definition connects organic processing to related systems such as minimal, sustainable and careful, gentle processing, and describes clear principles and related criteria. Based on food examples, such as milk with different heat treatments, the concept and definitions were verified. Organic processing can be defined by clear paradigms and principles and evaluated according criteria from a multidimensional approach. Further work has to be done on developing indicators and parameters for assessment of organic food quality.

  5. Which Foods May Be Addictive? The Roles of Processing, Fat Content, and Glycemic Load

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Erica M.; Avena, Nicole M.; Gearhardt, Ashley N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We propose that highly processed foods share pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. concentrated dose, rapid rate of absorption) with drugs of abuse, due to the addition of fat and/or refined carbohydrates and the rapid rate the refined carbohydrates are absorbed into the system, indicated by glycemic load (GL). The current study provides preliminary evidence for the foods and food attributes implicated in addictive-like eating. Design Cross-sectional. Setting University (Study One) and community (Study Two). Participants 120 undergraduates participated in Study One and 384 participants recruited through Amazon MTurk participated in Study Two. Measurements In Study One, participants (n = 120) completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) followed by a forced-choice task to indicate which foods, out of 35 foods varying in nutritional composition, were most associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. Using the same 35 foods, Study Two utilized hierarchical linear modeling to investigate which food attributes (e.g., fat grams) were related to addictive-like eating behavior (at level one) and explored the influence of individual differences for this association (at level two). Results In Study One, processed foods, higher in fat and GL, were most frequently associated with addictive-like eating behaviors. In Study Two, processing was a large, positive predictor for whether a food was associated with problematic, addictive-like eating behaviors. BMI and YFAS symptom count were small-to-moderate, positive predictors for this association. In a separate model, fat and GL were large, positive predictors of problematic food ratings. YFAS symptom count was a small, positive predictor of the relationship between GL and food ratings. Conclusion The current study provides preliminary evidence that not all foods are equally implicated in addictive-like eating behavior, and highly processed foods, which may share characteristics with drugs of abuse (e.g. high dose

  6. Health Professionals' Attitudes and Educational Needs regarding New Food Processing Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Gutierrez, C.; Bruhn, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    This project evaluates the attitudes of food and health professionals to 3 new food processing technologies that have been developed to respond to consumer demands such as superior taste, longer shelf life, higher nutritional content, health benefits, and environment-friendly processing. Educational brochures for high pressure (HP), pulsed…

  7. Food processing waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment used in the treatment of food processing wastes. Specific food industries include meatpacking, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and poultry. Processes and equipment used in the dairy industry are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Food processing waste treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment used in the treatment of food processing wastes. Specific food industries include meatpacking, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and poultry. Processes and equipment used in the dairy industry are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. High pressure processing and its application to the challenge of virus-contaminated foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pressure processing (HPP) is an increasingly popular non-thermal food processing technology. Study of HPP’s potential to inactivate foodborne viruses has defined general pressure levels required to inactivate hepatitis A virus, norovirus surrogates, and human norovirus itself within foods such...

  10. 76 FR 11891 - Temperature-Indicating Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations for thermally processed low-acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed containers to allow for use of other temperature- indicating devices, in addition to mercury-in-glass thermometers, during processing. This final rule also establishes recordkeeping requirements relating to temperature-indicating devices and reference......

  11. Nutrition marketing on processed food packages in Canada: 2010 Food Label Information Program.

    PubMed

    Schermel, Alyssa; Emrich, Teri E; Arcand, JoAnne; Wong, Christina L; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    The current study describes the frequency of use of different forms of nutrition marketing in Canada and the nutrients and conditions that are the focus of nutrition marketing messages. Prepackaged foods with a Nutrition Facts table (N = 10,487) were collected between March 2010 and April 2011 from outlets of the 3 largest grocery chains in Canada and 1 major western Canadian grocery retailer. The nutrition marketing information collected included nutrient content claims, disease risk reduction claims, and front-of-pack nutrition rating systems (FOPS). We found that nutrition marketing was present on 48.1% of Canadian food packages, with nutrient content claims being the most common information (45.5%), followed by FOPS on 18.9% of packages. Disease risk reduction claims were made least frequently (1.7%). The marketing messages used most often related to total fat and trans fat (15.6% and 15.5% of nutrient content claims, respectively). Limiting total and trans fats is a current public health priority, as recommended by Health Canada and the World Health Organization. However, other nutrients that are also recommended to be limited, including saturated fats, sodium, and added sugars, were not nearly as prominent on food labels. Thus, greater emphasis should be placed by the food industry on these other important nutrients. Repeated data collection in the coming years will allow us to track longitudinal changes in nutrition marketing messages over time as food marketing, public health, and consumer priorities evolve.

  12. Consumer Awareness and Willingness to Pay for High-Pressure Processing of Ready-to-Eat Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; McDermott, Ryan; Richard, Nicole; Hoover, Dallas G.; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial, nonthermal processing of food, such as high hydrostatic-pressure processing (HPP), has increased. The safety and quality of foods produced by HPP has not been well communicated to the public. An online, nationwide consumer survey was implemented to assess awareness of alternative food processing technologies, consumer food safety…

  13. Did food allergy develop in the process of animal evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Nabavizadeh, Seyed Hesamedin; Nabavizadeh, Sara Sadat; Anushiravani, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is pathophysiologic ally based on stimulation of the immune system at the first exposure, and allergic reactions develop during following exposures. Therefore, memory is the cornerstone of an allergy, as seen in the adaptive immune system. The adaptive immune system was first introduced during evolution in vertebrates, so we can say that invertebrates do not have allergic reactions. We can conclude that food allergy is a complication of animal evolution. Evolution also can cause diseases and complications; therefore, understanding it may help in allergy treatment. PMID:28163859

  14. Application of thermoluminescence technique to identify radiation processed foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyak, N.

    1995-02-01

    Research studies reported by various authors have shown that a few methods one of which is thermoluminescence technique- may be suitable for identification of some certain irradiated spicies and food containing bones. This study is an application of the thermoluminescence technique for identifying the irradiated samples. The investigation was carried out on different types of foodstuffs such as onions, potatoes and kiwi. Measurements show that the technique can be applied as a reliable method to distinguish the irradiated food products from non-irradiated ones. The results demonstrate also that it is possible to use this method for determining the absorbed dose of irradiated samples from the established dose-effect curve.

  15. Renewable-energy-resource options for the food-processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.

    1981-09-01

    The food processing industry generates significant quantities of organic process wastes which often require treatment prior to disposal or result in additional expenses for disposal. The food processing industry also requires fuel and electricity to provide the process energy to convert raw materials into finished food products. Depending on the particular process, organic wastes can represent a potential resource for conversion to energy products that can be used for providing process energy or other energy products. This document reports the results of an evaluation of renewable energy resource options for the food processing industry. The options evaluated were direct combustion for providing process heat, fermentation for ethanol production and anaerobic digestion for generation of methane.

  16. 76 FR 81363 - Temperature-Indicating Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers; Correction AGENCY... (76 FR 11892). The final rule amended FDA's regulations for thermally processed low-acid...

  17. Effects of high-pressure CO2 processing on flavor, texture, and color of foods.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linyan; Bi, Xiufang; Xu, Zenghui; Yang, Yingjie; Liao, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    High-pressure CO2 (HPCD) is a pasteurization method that inactivates microorganism and enzymes through molecular effects of CO2 under pressures below 50 MPa without exposing foods to adverse effects of heat. Thermal pasteurization can impart undesirable changes on organoleptic and nutritional quality of the foods, which can reduce sensory perception and consumer acceptance of the foods. As a novel nonthermal processing technique, HPCD does avoid drawbacks such as loss of flavor, denaturation of nutrients, production of side toxic reactions, as well as changes in physical, mechanical, and optical properties of the food materials involved in the processing. This review gives a survey and analysis of recent publications regarding the effects of HPCD on the flavor, texture and color of processed foods, and possible mechanisms explaining HPCD technique on the flavor, texture, and color of the foods were discussed.

  18. Occurrence, Persistence, and Virulence Potential of Listeria ivanovii in Foods and Food Processing Environments in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Leong, Dara; Morgan, Ciara A; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac G M; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of L. ivanovii in foods and food processing environments in Ireland, to track persistence, and to characterize the disease causing potential of the isolated strains. A total of 2,006 samples (432 food samples and 1,574 environmental swabs) were collected between March 2013 and March 2014 from 48 food business operators (FBOs) belonging to different production sectors (dairy, fish, meat, and fresh-cut vegetable). Six of the forty-eight FBOs had samples positive for L. ivanovii on at least one sampling occasion. L. ivanovii was present in fifteen samples (fourteen environmental samples and one food sample). All but one of those positive samples derived from the dairy sector, where L. ivanovii prevalence was 1.7%. Six distinguishable pulsotypes were obtained by PFGE analysis, with one pulsotype being persistent in the environment of a dairy food business. Sequence analysis of the sigB gene showed that fourteen isolates belonged to L. ivanovii subsp. londoniensis, while only one isolate was L. ivanovii subsp. ivanovii. Cell invasion assays demonstrated that the majority of L. ivanovii strains were comparable to L. monocytogenes EGDe in their ability to invade CACO-2 epithelial cells whilst four isolates had significantly higher invasion efficiencies.

  19. The Maillard reaction and its control during food processing. The potential of emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, H; Janositz, A; Knorr, D

    2010-06-01

    The Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids is a common reaction in foods which undergo thermal processing. Desired consequences like the formation of flavor and brown color of some cooked foods but also the destruction of essential amino acids and the production of anti-nutritive compounds require the consideration of the Maillard reaction and relevant mechanisms for its control. This paper aims to exemplify the recent advances in food processing with regard to the controllability of heat-induced changes in the food quality. Firstly, improved thermal technologies, such as ohmic heating, which allows direct heating of the product and overcoming the heat transfer limitations of conventional thermal processing are presented in terms of their applicability to reduce the thermal exposure during food preservation. Secondly, non-thermal technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure and pulsed electric fields and their ability to extend the shelf life of food products without the application of heat, thus also preserving the quality attributes of the food, will be discussed. Finally, an innovative method for the removal of Maillard reaction substrates in food raw materials by the application of pulsed electric field cell disintegration and extraction as well as enzymatic conversion is presented in order to demonstrate the potential of the combination of processes to control the occurrence of the Maillard reaction in food processing.

  20. Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, C A; Moubarac, J-C; Cannon, G; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the global food system and the worldwide rapid increase of obesity and related diseases is not yet well understood. A reason is that the full impact of industrialized food processing on dietary patterns, including the environments of eating and drinking, remains overlooked and underestimated. Many forms of food processing are beneficial. But what is identified and defined here as ultra-processing, a type of process that has become increasingly dominant, at first in high-income countries, and now in middle-income countries, creates attractive, hyper-palatable, cheap, ready-to-consume food products that are characteristically energy-dense, fatty, sugary or salty and generally obesogenic. In this study, the scale of change in purchase and sales of ultra-processed products is examined and the context and implications are discussed. Data come from 79 high- and middle-income countries, with special attention to Canada and Brazil. Results show that ultra-processed products dominate the food supplies of high-income countries, and that their consumption is now rapidly increasing in middle-income countries. It is proposed here that the main driving force now shaping the global food system is transnational food manufacturing, retailing and fast food service corporations whose businesses are based on very profitable, heavily promoted ultra-processed products, many in snack form.

  1. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods ( Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 °C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  2. [Determination of residual pesticides in processed foods manufactured from livestock foods and seafoods using ion trap GC/MS].

    PubMed

    Makabe, Yuhki; Miyamoto, Fumio; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Kiyoko; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-01

    A simultaneous method using iontrap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the determination of pesticide residues in four processed foods (frozen Chinese dumpling, eel kabayaki, corned beef and retort curry). Pesticide residues were extracted from samples with ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (1:1) in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulfate. The extract was concentrated and the residue was dissolved in n-hexane. The lipids in the extract were removed by acetonitrile-n-hexane partitioning, following which the acetonitrile layer was cleaned up using a C(18) mini-cartridge column and a graphite carbon/PSA silica (GCB/PSA) mini-cartridge column. The limits of quantification of compounds in 4 processed foods were below 0.01 microg/g. The recoveries of 292 compounds spiked at 0.1 microg/g in 4 kinds of processed foods, and 210 to 262 pesticides showed acceptable recoveries of 70-120% with low repeatability (15%) and intermediate precision (<20%) only at the 0.1 microg/g spiked level. This method is expected to be useful for multi-residue analysis of pesticide residues in processed foods manufactured using livestock and seafoods as the main raw materials.

  3. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-12-02

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2-18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  4. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children. PMID:26633491

  5. A review on the fate of pesticides during the processes within the food-production Chain.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, R M; Rial-Otero, R; Cancho-Grande, B; Gonzalez-Barreiro, C; Simal-Gándara, J

    2011-02-01

    Only the intake of toxicologically-significant amounts can lead to adverse health effects even for a relatively toxic substance. In the case of residues in foods this is based on two major aspects--first, how to determine quantitatively the presence of a pollutant in individual foods and diets, including its fate during the processes within the food production chain; and second, how to determine the consumption patterns of the individual foods containing the relevant pollutants. The techniques used for the evaluation of the fate of pesticides during food processing have been critically reviewed in this paper to determine those areas where improvements are needed or desirable. Options for improvements are being suggested, including, for example, the development of a pan-European food composition database, activities to understand better effects of processing on individual food pesticides, and harmonization of food consumption survey methods with the option of a regular pan-European survey. The ultimate aim is to obtain appropriate estimations for the presence and quantity of a given chemical in a food and in the diet in general. Existing pragmatic approaches are a first crude step to model food pollutant intake. It is recommended to extend, refine, and validate this approach in the near future. This has to result in a cost-effective exposure-assessment system to be used for existing and potential categories of pollutants. This system of knowledge (with information on sensitivities, accuracy, etc.) will guide future data collection.

  6. Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research: Cold Plasma as a Nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. The Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit develops and validates innovative approaches and new technologies that control pathogenic bacteria and viruses while preser...

  7. Food Safety and Intervention Technologies research: cold plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. The Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit develops and validates innovative approaches and new technologies that control pathogenic bacteria and viruses while preser...

  8. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Tamanna, Nahid; Mahmood, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods.

  9. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Tamanna, Nahid; Mahmood, Niaz

    2015-01-01

    Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods. PMID:26904661

  10. Aligning food-processing policies to promote healthier fat consumption in India.

    PubMed

    Downs, Shauna M; Marie Thow, Anne; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-09-01

    India is undergoing a shift in consumption from traditional foods to processed foods high in sugar, salt and fat. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) high in trans-fat are often used in processed foods in India given their low cost and extended shelf life. The World Health Organization has called for the elimination of PHVOs from the global food supply and recommends their replacement with polyunsaturated fat to maximize health benefits. This study examined barriers to replacing industrially produced trans-fat in the Indian food supply and systematically identified potential policy solutions to assist the government in encouraging its removal and replacement with healthier polyunsaturated fat. A combination of food supply chain analysis and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders was conducted. The main barriers faced by the food-processing sector in terms of reducing use of trans-fat and replacing it with healthier oils in India were the low availability and high cost of oils high in polyunsaturated fats leading to a reliance on palm oil (high in saturated fat) and the low use of those healthier oils in product reformulation. Improved integration between farmers and processors, investment in technology and pricing strategies to incentivize use of healthier oils for product reformulation were identified as policy options. Food processors have trouble accessing sufficient affordable healthy oils for product reformulation, but existing incentives aimed at supporting food processing could be tweaked to ensure a greater supply of healthy oils with the potential to improve population health.

  11. Effect of food processing on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Ozyurt, Vasfiye Hazal; Ötles, Semih

    2016-01-01

    Products derived from the manufacturing or processing of plant based foods: cereals, fruits, vegetables, as well as algae, are sources of abundant dietary fibre. Diets high in dietary fibre have been associated with the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and gastrointestinal disorders. These fibre-rich products and byproducts can also fortify foods, increase their dietary fibre content and result in healthy products, low in calories, cholesterol and fat. Traditionally, consumers have chosen foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables as sources of dietary fibre. Recently, food manufacturers have responded to consumer demand for foods with a higher fibre content by developing products in which highfibre ingredients are used. Different food processing methods also increase the dietary fiber content of food. Moreover, its chemical and physical properties may be affected by food processing. Some of them might even improve the functionality of fibre. Therefore, they may also be applied as functional ingredients to improve physical properties like the physical and structural properties of hydration, oil-holding capacity, viscosity. This study was conducted to examine the effect of different food processing methods on the physicochemical properties of dietary fibre.

  12. Aligning food-processing policies to promote healthier fat consumption in India

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Shauna M.; Marie Thow, Anne; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    India is undergoing a shift in consumption from traditional foods to processed foods high in sugar, salt and fat. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) high in trans-fat are often used in processed foods in India given their low cost and extended shelf life. The World Health Organization has called for the elimination of PHVOs from the global food supply and recommends their replacement with polyunsaturated fat to maximize health benefits. This study examined barriers to replacing industrially produced trans-fat in the Indian food supply and systematically identified potential policy solutions to assist the government in encouraging its removal and replacement with healthier polyunsaturated fat. A combination of food supply chain analysis and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders was conducted. The main barriers faced by the food-processing sector in terms of reducing use of trans-fat and replacing it with healthier oils in India were the low availability and high cost of oils high in polyunsaturated fats leading to a reliance on palm oil (high in saturated fat) and the low use of those healthier oils in product reformulation. Improved integration between farmers and processors, investment in technology and pricing strategies to incentivize use of healthier oils for product reformulation were identified as policy options. Food processors have trouble accessing sufficient affordable healthy oils for product reformulation, but existing incentives aimed at supporting food processing could be tweaked to ensure a greater supply of healthy oils with the potential to improve population health. PMID:24399031

  13. Cortisol, but not intranasal insulin, affects the central processing of visual food cues.

    PubMed

    Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Schulz, André; Streit, Fabian E; Turner, Jonathan D; Oitzl, Melly S; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-12-01

    Stress glucocorticoids and insulin are important endocrine regulators of energy homeostasis, but little is known about their central interaction on the reward-related processing of food cues. According to a balanced group design, healthy food deprived men received either 40IU intranasal insulin (n=13), 30mg oral cortisol (n=12), both (n=15), or placebo (n=14). Acoustic startle responsiveness was assessed during presentation of food and non-food pictures. Cortisol enhanced startle responsiveness during visual presentation of "high glycemic" food pictures, but not during presentation of neutral and pleasant non-food pictures. Insulin had no effect. Based on the "frustrative nonreward" model these results suggest that the reward value of high glycemic food items is specifically increased by cortisol.

  14. High hydrostatic pressure processing: a promising nonthermal technology to inactivate viruses in high-risk foods.

    PubMed

    Lou, Fangfei; Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang; Li, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks of viral origin have become increasingly a serious public health concern. High-pressure processing (HPP), a nonthermal technology, has come to the forefront for food processing given its minimal effects on food quality. Recent studies have revealed encouraging results for the inactivation of several human viruses by HPP. This review provides comprehensive information on the use of HPP to eliminate viruses in model systems and foods. We address the influences of various parameters, including pressure level, holding time, pH, temperature, and food matrix on the efficacy of pressure inactivation of viruses, as well as insight into the mechanisms for inactivation of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. HPP is a promising technology for mitigating virus contamination of foods, thus it is essential to identify the optimal parameters for enhancing virus inactivation while ensuring sensory and nutritional quality retention of foods.

  15. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry. PMID:26613082

  16. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry.

  17. Inhibitory activity of phosphates on molds isolated from foods and food processing plants.

    PubMed

    Suárez, V B; Frisón, L; de Basílico, M Z; Rivera, M; Reinheimer, J A

    2005-11-01

    Six commercial phosphates were evaluated for inhibition of the growth of 17 molds isolated from food sources. The assays were performed at neutral and natural (without pH adjustment) pH values, and the molds were streaked on plate count agar with added phosphates. Phosphate concentrations of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (wt/vol) were used, and the MIC was determined. The resistance of molds to phosphates depended on the species. At a neutral pH, Aspergillus ochraceus and Fusarium proliferatum were resistant to all phosphates at all concentrations assayed, and Byssochlamys nivea, Aureobasidium pullulans, and Penicillium glabrum were most sensitive. The most inhibitory phosphates were those with chain lengths greater than 15 phosphate units and the highest sequestering power. At natural pH values (resulting from dissolving the phosphate in the medium), inhibitory activity changed dramatically for phosphates that produced alkaline or acidic pH in the medium. Phosphates with alkaline pH values (sodium tripolyphosphate of high solubility, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium neutral pyrophosphate) were much more inhibitory than phosphates at a neutral pH, but sodium acid pyrophosphate (acidic pH) had decreased inhibitory activity. The results indicate that some phosphates could be used in the food industry to inhibit molds linked to food spoilage.

  18. Assessment of a handheld fluorescence imaging device as a visual-aid for detection of food residues on processing surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of food with pathogenic bacteria can lead to foodborne illnesses. Food processing surfaces can serve as a medium for cross-contamination if sanitization procedures are inadequate. Ensuring that food processing surfaces are correctly cleaned and sanitized is important in the food indust...

  19. Use of a participatory planning process as a way to build community food security.

    PubMed

    McCullum, Christine; Pelletier, David; Barr, Donald; Wilkins, Jennifer

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the multiple meanings of community food security among stakeholders with diverse interests and to assess the degree to which these stakeholders could find common ground around community food security during a participatory planning process called a search conference. The conceptual framework of citizen politics guided all aspects of the research design. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with 44 participants purposefully recruited to attend a 2 1/2 h-day search conference. Open-ended questionnaires were distributed to all participants during the search conference, and a document review was performed. Prior to the search conference, 4 community food secruity groups emerged: anti-hunger advocates (n=12), agricultural visionaries (n=12), food traditionalists (n=10), and agricultural entrepreneurs (n=8). Participants were able to find common ground around 6 community food security action agendas: distribution of surplus food, education, family and community values, food processing and marketing, legislative initiatives and action, and new agriculture. Other salient community food security issues emerged, but they were not included on any of the action agendas. Formal training in facilitation, negotiation, conflict resolution, and how to influence the public policy-making process will enable dietetics professionals to effectively collaborate with community-based groups that have a stake in food security issues.

  20. A Process Evaluation of Student Participation in a Whole School Food Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, Judy; Jones, Matthew; Salmon, Debra; Weitkamp, Emma; Kimberlee, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Health promotion programmes are widely held to be more effective when the subjects of them actively participate in the process of change. The purpose of this paper is to report on an evaluation of the Food for Life Partnership programme, a multi-level initiative in England promoting healthier nutrition and food sustainability awareness…

  1. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cheese food by § 133.173, except that: (1) Its milk fat content is not less than 22 percent. (2) It... meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method prescribed for the determination of fat by § 133.5(b) is not applicable. (b) The name of a pasteurized process cheese food...

  2. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cheese food by § 133.173, except that: (1) Its milk fat content is not less than 22 percent. (2) It... meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method prescribed for the determination of fat by § 133.5(b) is not applicable. (b) The name of a pasteurized process cheese food...

  3. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cheese food by § 133.173, except that: (1) Its milk fat content is not less than 22 percent. (2) It... meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method prescribed for the determination of fat by § 133.5(b) is not applicable. (b) The name of a pasteurized process cheese food...

  4. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cheese food by § 133.173, except that: (1) Its milk fat content is not less than 22 percent. (2) It... meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method prescribed for the determination of fat by § 133.5(b) is not applicable. (b) The name of a pasteurized process cheese food...

  5. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cheese food by § 133.173, except that: (1) Its milk fat content is not less than 22 percent. (2) It... meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method prescribed for the determination of fat by § 133.5(b) is not applicable. (b) The name of a pasteurized process cheese food...

  6. Magnetic thermometry in the aseptic processing of foods containing particulates (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiron, Kenneth; Litchfield, Bruce

    1997-04-01

    Aseptic processing of foods has many advantages over canning, including higher efficiency, lighter packaging, better taste, and higher nutritional value. Aseptic processing is different from canning where the food and container are sterilized together. Instead, a thin stream of food is heated and the packaging is independently sterilized before the food is placed in the package. However, no aseptic processes have been successfully filed with the FDA for foods containing sizable solid particles because of uncertainties in the thermal sterilization of the particles (e.g., soup). We have demonstrated that by inserting small paramagnetic particles in the interior of the simulated and real food particles, the local temperature can be measured. With this information, any questions about the adequate sterilization of the particles can be resolved. The measurements were done by directing the food stream through a magnetic field and sensing the voltages induced in a pickup coil by the motion of the magnetized particles. Details of the equipment design and data analysis will be discussed along with an introduction to the aseptic processing of foods.

  7. Monitoring sodium levels in commercially processed and restaurant foods - dataset and webpages.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL), Agriculture Research Service (ARS) in collaboration with Food Surveys Research Group, ARS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been monitoring commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States since 2010. About 125 highly consumed, s...

  8. Texas Food Stamp Employment and Training/JOBS Conformance Demonstration: Process Evaluation Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Daniel P.

    A process evaluation was conducted of the Better Opportunities for New Directions (BOND) demonstration that tested the conformance between the Texas Food Stamp Employment and Training (E&T) and Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) programs. JOBS policies and procedures were applied to eligible Food Stamp recipients; staff serving the two…

  9. An Analysis of Occupational Titles and Competencies Needed in Agricultural Food Products Processing Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeltz, LeRoy C.

    To identify, rate, and cluster groups of competencies and occupational titles at entry and advance levels for occupations in five food products commodity areas, data were collected by interviews with personnel managers in 25 Pennsylvania food processing plants. Some findings were: (1) There were meaningful competency factor and occupational title…

  10. The principles of ultrasound and its application in freezing related processes of food materials: A review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinfeng; Zhang, Min; Xu, Baoguo; Adhikari, Benu; Sun, Jincai

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasonic processing is a novel and promising technology in food industry. The propagation of ultrasound in a medium generates various physical and chemical effects and these effects have been harnessed to improve the efficiency of various food processing operations. Ultrasound has also been used in food quality control as diagnostic technology. This article provides an overview of recent developments related to the application of ultrasound in low temperature and closely related processes such as freezing, thawing, freeze concentration and freeze drying. The applications of high intensity ultrasound to improve the efficiency of freezing process, to control the size and size distribution of ice crystals and to improve the quality of frozen foods have been discussed in considerable detail. The use of low intensity ultrasound in monitoring the ice content and to monitor the progress of freezing process has also been highlighted.

  11. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and their impact on the diet of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bielemann, Renata M; Motta, Janaína V Santos; Minten, Gicele C; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the consumption of ultra-processed foods, its associated factors, and its influence on nutrient intake in young adults. METHODS In 2004-2005, the individuals belonging to the Pelotas birth cohort of 1982 were identified for a home interview. A total of 4,297 individuals were interviewed and 4,202 individuals were included in the study (follow-up rate of 77.4%). Diet was assessed using a questionnaire on dietary intake and the percentage of daily caloric intake attributed to ultra-processed foods as well as the intake of macro- and micronutrients were estimated. The association between cohort characteristics and the consumption of ultra-processed foods was assessed using linear regression. Analysis of variance and Pearson’s Chi-square test were used to evaluate the association between the quintiles of the consumption of ultra-processed food, nutrient intake and adequacy of nutrient intake, respectively. RESULTS The consumption of ultra-processed foods corresponded to 51.2% of the total caloric intake. The consumption of ultra-processed foods was higher among women, individuals with higher education, and individuals who were never poor and eutrophic. The increased consumption of ultra-processed foods was positively correlated with the consumption of fat, cholesterol, sodium, iron, calcium, and calories (p < 0.001) and was negatively correlated with the consumption of carbohydrates, protein, and dietary fiber (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The high consumption of ultra-processed foods and its positive correlation with the intake of sodium, cholesterol, and fats underscores the need to perform interventions aimed at decreasing the intake of this food group. PMID:26018785

  12. Consumer fears and familiarity of processed food. The value of information provided by the FTNS.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Fabio; Caracciolo, Francesco; Coppola, Adele; Lombardi, Pasquale

    2014-02-01

    Food choice and consumption behaviour are influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we present an empirical effort to enhance understanding of the neophobia-neophilia forces affecting food choice. Starting from the analysis of consumer preferences for some of the most familiar highly processed foods, namely fat-reduced, functional (enriched drinks and yogurt) and ready-to-eat frozen food, our study investigates the role of traditional demographic variables vs attitudes to new food technologies in predicting the consumption behaviour of a sample of Italians buying such products. Consumer attitudes toward food technologies were collected by means of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS). Moreover, this paper explicitly analyses the value of the information provided by the FTNS. Underlying the research is the hypothesis that the FTNS may contribute to provide a comprehensive picture of the driving forces behind consumers' behavioural responses towards processed foods which are the end-result of mature technologies. The four FTNS components, once measured and used independently, help clarify the influence on food choices of each neophobia-neophilia force (risk perception and novelty seeking, media influence, own health and environmental concerns) into a single, comprehensive framework.

  13. Tracking spore-forming bacteria in food: from natural biodiversity to selection by processes.

    PubMed

    Postollec, Florence; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Bernard, Muriel; Divanac'h, Marie-Laure; Pavan, Sonia; Sohier, Danièle

    2012-08-01

    Sporeforming bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment and exhibit a wide range of diversity leading to their natural prevalence in foodstuff. The state of the art of sporeformer prevalence in ingredients and food was investigated using a multiparametric PCR-based tool that enables simultaneous detection and identification of various genera and species mostly encountered in food, i.e., Alicyclobacillus, Anoxybacillus flavithermus, Bacillus, B. cereus group, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. sporothermodurans, B. subtilis, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Clostridium, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Moorella and Paenibacillus species. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing was used to extend identification to other possibly present contaminants. A total of 90 food products, with or without visible trace of spoilage were analysed, i.e., 30 egg-based products, 30 milk and dairy products and 30 canned food and ingredients. Results indicated that most samples contained one or several of the targeted genera and species. For all three tested food categories, 30 to 40% of products were contaminated with both Bacillus and Clostridium. The percentage of contaminations associated with Clostridium or Bacillus represented 100% in raw materials, 72% in dehydrated ingredients and 80% in processed foods. In the last two product types, additional thermophilic contaminants were identified (A. flavithermus, Geobacillus spp., Thermoanaerobacterium spp. and Moorella spp.). These results suggest that selection, and therefore the observed (re)-emergence of unexpected sporeforming contaminants in food might be favoured by the use of given food ingredients and food processing technologies.

  14. Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin

    2012-01-01

    Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights.

  15. Multiphase Porous Media Modelling: A novel approach to predicting food processing performance.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Imran H; Joardder, M U H; Kumar, Chandan; Karim, M A

    2016-07-20

    The development of a physics-based model of food processing is essential to improve the quality of processed food and optimise energy consumption. Food materials, particularly plant-based food materials, are complex in nature as they are porous and have hygroscopic properties. A multiphase porous media model for simultaneous heat and mass transfer can provide a realistic understanding of transport processes and thus can help to optimise energy consumption and improve food quality. Although the development of a multiphase porous media model for food processing is a challenging task because of its complexity, many researchers have attempted it. The primary aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the multiphase models available in the literature for different methods of food processing, such as drying, frying, cooking, baking, heating and roasting. A critical review of the parameters that should be considered for multiphase modelling is presented which includes input parameters, material properties, simulation techniques and the hypotheses. A discussion on the general trends in outcomes, such as moisture saturation, temperature profile, pressure variation and evaporation patterns, is also presented. The paper concludes by considering key issues in the existing multiphase models and future directions for development of multiphase models.

  16. Determination of walnut protein in processed foods by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Doi, Hirotoshi; Shibata, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    Because food allergens from tree nuts, including walnuts, are a frequent cause of adverse food reactions for allergic patients, the labeling of foods containing ingredients derived from tree nuts is required in numerous countries. According to Japanese regulations, the labeling of food products containing walnuts is recommended. To ensure proper labeling, a novel sandwich ELISA kit for the determination of walnut protein in processed foods (Walnut Protein [2S-Albumin] Kit; Morinaga Institute of Biological Science, Inc.; "walnut kit") has been developed. We prepared seven types of incurred samples (model processed foods: biscuits, bread, sponge cake, orange juice, jelly, chicken meatballs, and rice gruel) containing 10 microg walnut soluble protein/g of food for use in interlaboratory evaluations of the walnut kit. The walnut kit displayed sufficient reproducibility relative standard deviations (interlaboratory precision: 5.8-9.9% RSDR) and a high level of recovery (81-119%) for all the incurred samples. All the repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values for the incurred samples that were examined were less than 6.0%. The results of this interlaboratory evaluation suggested that the walnut kit could be used as a precise and reliable tool for determination of walnut protein in processed foods.

  17. Acrylamide: inhibition of formation in processed food and mitigation of toxicity in cells, animals, and humans.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-06-01

    Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from the heat-inducing reactions between the amino group of the amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in plant-derived foods including cereals, coffees, almonds, olives, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. This review surveys and consolidates the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food, exposure and consumption by diverse populations, reduction of the content in different food categories, and mitigation of adverse in vivo effects. Methods to reduce acrylamide levels include selecting commercial food with a low acrylamide content, selecting cereal and potato varieties with low levels of asparagine and reducing sugars, selecting processing conditions that minimize acrylamide formation, adding food-compatible compounds and plant extracts to food formulations before processing that inhibit acrylamide formation during processing of cereal products, coffees, teas, olives, almonds, and potato products, and reducing multiorgan toxicity (antifertility, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenicity). The herein described observations and recommendations are of scientific interest for food chemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology, but also have the potential to benefit nutrition, food safety, and human health.

  18. Food selectivity and processing by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oevelen, Dick; Mueller, Christina E.; Lundälv, Tomas; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2016-10-01

    Cold-water corals form prominent reef ecosystems along ocean margins that depend on suspended resources produced in surface waters. In this study, we investigated food processing of 13C and 15N labelled bacteria and algae by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. Coral respiration, tissue incorporation of C and N and metabolically derived C incorporation into the skeleton were traced following the additions of different food concentrations (100, 300, 1300 µg C L-1) and two ratios of suspended bacterial and algal biomass (1 : 1, 3 : 1). Respiration and tissue incorporation by L. pertusa increased markedly following exposure to higher food concentrations. The net growth efficiency of L. pertusa was low (0.08 ± 0.03), which is consistent with its slow growth rate. The contribution of algae and bacteria to total coral assimilation was proportional to the food mixture in the two lowest food concentrations, but algae were preferred over bacteria as a food source at the highest food concentration. Similarly, the stoichiometric uptake of C and N was coupled in the low and medium food treatment, but was uncoupled in the high food treatment and indicated a comparatively higher uptake or retention of bacterial carbon as compared to algal nitrogen. We argue that behavioural responses for these small-sized food particles, such as tentacle behaviour, mucus trapping and physiological processing, are more likely to explain the observed food selectivity as compared to physical-mechanical considerations. A comparison of the experimental food conditions to natural organic carbon concentrations above CWC reefs suggests that L. pertusa is well adapted to exploit temporal pulses of high organic matter concentrations in the bottom water caused by internal waves and downwelling events.

  19. Sodium content of popular commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States☆

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K.C.; Wasswa-Kintu, Shirley; Haytowitz, David B.; Daniel, Marlon; Thomas, Robin; Showell, Bethany; Nickle, Melissa; Roseland, Janet M.; Gunn, Janelle; Cogswell, Mary; Pehrsson, Pamela R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to provide baseline estimates of sodium levels in 125 popular, sodium-contributing, commercially processed and restaurant foods in the U.S., to assess future changes as manufacturers reformulate foods. Methods In 2010–2013, we obtained ~ 5200 sample units from up to 12 locations and analyzed 1654 composites for sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar), as part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-led sodium-monitoring program. We determined sodium content as mg/100 g, mg/serving, and mg/kcal and compared them against U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) sodium limits for “low” and “healthy” claims and to the optimal sodium level of < 1.1 mg/kcal, extrapolating from the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Results Results from this study represent the baseline nutrient values to use in assessing future changes as foods are reformulated for sodium reduction. Sodium levels in over half (69 of 125) of the foods, including all main dishes and most Sentinel Foods from fast-food outlets or restaurants (29 of 33 foods), exceeded the FDA sodium limit for using the claim “healthy”. Only 13 of 125 foods had sodium values below 1.1 mg/kcal. We observed a wide range of sodium content among similar food types and brands. Conclusions Current sodium levels in commercially processed and restaurant foods in the U.S. are high and variable. Targeted benchmarks and increased awareness of high sodium content and variability in foods would support reduction of sodium intakes in the U.S. PMID:26844175

  20. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    The food systems slated for future NASA missions must meet crew nutritional needs, be acceptable for consumption, and use resources efficiently. Although the current food system of prepackaged, moderately stabilized food items works well for International Space Station (ISS) missions, many of the current space menu items do not maintain acceptability and/or nutritive value beyond 2 years. Longer space missions require that the food system can sustain the crew for 3 to 5 years without replenishment. The task "Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization" has the objective of optimizing food-product shelf life for the space-food system through product recipe adjustments, new packaging and processing technologies, and modified storage conditions. Two emergent food processing technologies were examined to identify a pathway to stable, wet-pack foods without the detrimental color and texture effects. Both microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pressure-assisted thermal stabilization (PATS) were evaluated against traditional retort processing to determine if lower heat inputs during processing would produce a product with higher micronutrient quality and longer shelf life. While MATS products did have brighter color and better texture initially, the advantages were not sustained. The non-metallized packaging film used in the process likely provided inadequate oxygen barrier. No difference in vitamin stability was evident between MATS and retort processed foods. Similarly, fruit products produced using PATS showed improved color and texture through 3 years of storage compared to retort fruit, but the vitamin stability was not improved. The final processing study involved freeze drying. Five processing factors were tested in factorial design to assess potential impact of each to the quality of freeze-dried food, including the integrity of the microstructure. The initial freezing rate and primary freeze drying

  1. Interior, food processing room, looking northeast U.S. Veterans Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, food processing room, looking northeast - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Kitchen, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  2. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-08-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 °C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  3. Why chlorate occurs in potable water and processed foods: a critical assessment and challenges faced by the food industry.

    PubMed

    Kettlitz, Beate; Kemendi, Gabriella; Thorgrimsson, Nigel; Cattoor, Nele; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Le Bail-Collet, Yves; Maphosa, Farai; Perrichet, Aurélie; Christall, Birgit; Stadler, Richard H

    2016-06-01

    Recently, reports have been published on the occurrence of chlorate mainly in fruits and vegetables. Chlorate is a by-product of chlorinating agents used to disinfect water, and can be expected to be found in varying concentrations in drinking water. Data on potable water taken at 39 sampling points across Europe showed chlorate to range from < 0.003 to 0.803 mg l(-1) with a mean of 0.145 mg l(-1). Chlorate, however, can also be used as a pesticide, but authorisation was withdrawn in the European Union (EU), resulting in a default maximum residue limit (MRL) for foods of 0.01 mg kg(-1). This default MRL has now led to significant problems in the EU, where routinely disinfected water, used in the preparation of food products such as vegetables or fruits, leaves chlorate residues in excess of the default MRL, and in strict legal terms renders the food unmarketable. Due to the paucity of data on the chlorate content of prepared foods in general, we collated chlorate data on more than 3400 samples of mainly prepared foods, including dairy products, meats, fruits, vegetables and different food ingredients/additives. In total, 50.5% of the food samples contained chlorate above 0.01 mg kg(-1), albeit not due to the use of chlorate as a pesticide but mainly due to the occurrence of chlorate as an unavoidable disinfectant by-product. A further entry point of chlorate into foods may be via additives/ingredients that may contain chlorate as a by-product of the manufacturing process (e.g. electrolysis). Of the positive samples in this study, 22.4% revealed chlorate above 0.1 mg kg(-1). In the absence of EU levels for chlorate in water, any future EU regulations must consider the already available WHO guideline value of 0.7 mg l(-1) in potable water, and the continued importance of the usage of oxyhalides for disinfection purposes.

  4. Interaction of electromagnetic energy with biological material — relation to food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponne, Carina T.; Bartels, Paul V.

    1995-04-01

    For food scientists and technologists, the interaction of electromagnetic energy with enzymes, microorganisms and other food compounds is important in optimizing process efficiency and/or product quality. To be able to implement research findings on interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter, theories and experimental data from various disciplines are summarized and placed in a food processing context. Interaction of electromagnetic energy with an object can take place at microscopic and macroscopic levels. Energy penetration and the formation of (inhomogeneous) temperature profiles in the object as a whole have to be taken into account before interaction at cellular and molecular levels can be studied.

  5. Mechanisms of food processing and storage-related stress tolerance in Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Dahlsten, Elias; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    Vegetative cultures of Clostridium botulinum produce the extremely potent botulinum neurotoxin, and may jeopardize the safety of foods unless sufficient measures to prevent growth are applied. Minimal food processing relies on combinations of mild treatments, primarily to avoid deterioration of the sensory qualities of the food. Tolerance of C. botulinum to minimal food processing is well characterized. However, data on effects of successive treatments on robustness towards further processing is lacking. Developments in genetic manipulation tools and the availability of annotated genomes have allowed identification of genetic mechanisms involved in stress tolerance of C. botulinum. Most studies focused on low temperature, and the importance of various regulatory mechanisms in cold tolerance of C. botulinum has been demonstrated. Furthermore, novel roles in cold tolerance were shown for metabolic pathways under the control of these regulators. A role for secondary oxidative stress in tolerance to extreme temperatures has been proposed. Additionally, genetic mechanisms related to tolerance to heat, low pH, and high salinity have been characterized. Data on genetic stress-related mechanisms of psychrotrophic Group II C. botulinum strains are scarce; these mechanisms are of interest for food safety research and should thus be investigated. This minireview encompasses the importance of C. botulinum as a food safety hazard and its central physiological characteristics related to food-processing and storage-related stress. Special attention is given to recent findings considering genetic mechanisms C. botulinum utilizes in detecting and countering these adverse conditions.

  6. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors.

    PubMed

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-05-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids.

  7. Bioregenerative Life Support Systems Test Complex (Bio-Plex) Food Processing System: A Dual System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Vittadini, Elena; Peterson, Laurie J.; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Bioregenerative Life Support Test Complex, BIO-Plex, is currently being constructed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX. This facility will attempt to answer the questions involved in developing a lunar or planetary base. The Food Processing System (FPS) of the BIO-Plex is responsible for supplying food to the crew in coordination with the chosen mission scenario. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and of a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions with mostly resupplied foods, while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity) to process foods from crops grown in the facility. The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. It will be supplemented with salad crops that will be consumed fresh. Microgravity imposes significant limitation on the ability to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. The challenge is to develop food systems similar to the International Space Station or Shuttle Food Systems but with a shelf life of 3 - 5 years. The Lunar or Planetary Food System will allow for food processing of crops due to the presence of some gravitational force (1/6 to 1/3 that of Earth). Crops such as wheat, soybean, rice, potato, peanut, and salad crops, will be processed to final products to provide a nutritious and acceptable diet for the crew. Not only are constraints imposed on the FPS from the crops (e.g., crop variation, availability, storage and shelf-life) but also significant requirements are present for the crew meals (e.g., RDA, high quality, safety, variety). The FPS becomes a fulcrum creating the right connection from crops to crew meals while dealing with issues of integration within a closed self-regenerative system (e.g., safe processing, waste production, volumes, air contaminations, water usage, etc

  8. Current food classifications in epidemiological studies do not enable solid nutritional recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: the impact of food processing.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-11-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions.

  9. Current Food Classifications in Epidemiological Studies Do Not Enable Solid Nutritional Recommendations for Preventing Diet-Related Chronic Diseases: The Impact of Food Processing12

    PubMed Central

    Fardet, Anthony; Rock, Edmond; Bassama, Joseph; Bohuon, Philippe; Prabhasankar, Pichan; Monteiro, Carlos; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Achir, Nawel

    2015-01-01

    To date, observational studies in nutrition have categorized foods into groups such as dairy, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. However, the strength of the association between food groups and chronic diseases is far from convincing. In most international expert surveys, risks are most commonly scored as probable, limited, or insufficient rather than convincing. In this position paper, we hypothesize that current food classifications based on botanical or animal origins can be improved to yield solid recommendations. We propose using a food classification that employs food processes to rank foods in epidemiological studies. Indeed, food health potential results from both nutrient density and food structure (i.e., the matrix effect), both of which can potentially be positively or negatively modified by processing. For example, cereal-based foods may be more or less refined, fractionated, and recombined with added salt, sugars, and fats, yielding a panoply of products with very different nutritional values. The same is true for other food groups. Finally, we propose that from a nutritional perspective, food processing will be an important issue to consider in the coming years, particularly in terms of strengthening the links between food and health and for proposing improved nutritional recommendations or actions. PMID:26567188

  10. Opportunities and Challenges in Application of Forward Osmosis in Food Processing.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Navin K

    2016-01-01

    Food processing and preservation technologies must maintain the fresh-like characteristics of food while providing an acceptable and convenient shelf life as well as assuring safety and nutritional value. Besides, the consumers' demand for the highest quality convenience foods in terms of natural flavor and taste, free from additives and preservatives necessitated the development of a number of membrane-based non-thermal approaches to the concentration of liquid foods, of which forward osmosis has proven to be the most valuable one. A series of recent publications in scientific journals have demonstrated novel and diverse uses of this technology for food processing, desalination, pharmaceuticals as well as for power generation. Its novel features, which include the concentration of liquid foods at ambient temperature and pressure without significant fouling of membrane, made the technology commercially attractive. This review aims to identify the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. At the same time, it presents a comprehensive account of recent advances in forward osmosis technology as related to the major issues of concern in its rapidly growing applications in food processing such as concentration of fruit and vegetable juices (grape, pineapple, red raspberry, orange, and tomato juice and red radish juice) and natural food colorants (anthocyanin and betalains extracts). Several vibrant and vital issues such as recent developments in the forward osmosis membrane and concentration polarization aspects have been also addressed. The asymmetric membrane used for forward osmosis poses newer challenges to account both external and internal concentration polarization leading to significant reduction in flux. The recent advances and developments in forward osmosis membrane processes, mechanism of water transport, characteristics of draw solution and membranes as well as applications of forward osmosis in food processing have been discussed.

  11. Neural dissociation of food- and money-related reward processing using an abstract incentive delay task.

    PubMed

    Simon, Joe J; Skunde, Mandy; Wu, Mudan; Schnell, Knut; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bendszus, Martin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Food is an innate reward stimulus related to energy homeostasis and survival, whereas money is considered a more general reward stimulus that gains a rewarding value through learning experiences. Although the underlying neural processing for both modalities of reward has been investigated independently from one another, a more detailed investigation of neural similarities and/or differences between food and monetary reward is still missing. Here, we investigated the neural processing of food compared with monetary-related rewards in 27 healthy, normal-weight women using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed a task distinguishing between the anticipation and the receipt of either abstract food or monetary reward. Both tasks activated the ventral striatum during the expectation of a reward. Compared with money, greater food-related activations were observed in prefrontal, parietal and central midline structures during the anticipation and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) during the receipt of food reward. Furthermore, during the receipt of food reward, brain activation in the secondary taste cortex was positively related to the body mass index. These results indicate that food-dependent activations encompass to a greater extent brain regions involved in self-control and self-reflection during the anticipation and phylogenetically older parts of the lOFC during the receipt of reward.

  12. Neural dissociation of food- and money-related reward processing using an abstract incentive delay task

    PubMed Central

    Skunde, Mandy; Wu, Mudan; Schnell, Knut; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Bendszus, Martin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Food is an innate reward stimulus related to energy homeostasis and survival, whereas money is considered a more general reward stimulus that gains a rewarding value through learning experiences. Although the underlying neural processing for both modalities of reward has been investigated independently from one another, a more detailed investigation of neural similarities and/or differences between food and monetary reward is still missing. Here, we investigated the neural processing of food compared with monetary-related rewards in 27 healthy, normal-weight women using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed a task distinguishing between the anticipation and the receipt of either abstract food or monetary reward. Both tasks activated the ventral striatum during the expectation of a reward. Compared with money, greater food-related activations were observed in prefrontal, parietal and central midline structures during the anticipation and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) during the receipt of food reward. Furthermore, during the receipt of food reward, brain activation in the secondary taste cortex was positively related to the body mass index. These results indicate that food-dependent activations encompass to a greater extent brain regions involved in self-control and self-reflection during the anticipation and phylogenetically older parts of the lOFC during the receipt of reward. PMID:25552570

  13. [Initiatives developed in Brazil to reduce sodium content of processed foods].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Eduardo Augusto Fernandes; Jaime, Patrícia Constante; Resende, Denise de Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    The construction of strategies for reducing the sodium content of processed foods is part of a set of actions to decrease the intake of this nutrient in Brazil-from the current 12 g of salt per person per day to less than 5 g per person per day (2 000 mg sodium) by 2020. In this process, a central action is the pact between the government and the food industry to establish voluntary, gradual, and sustainable targets to reduce the maximum sodium content of industrial foods. This article describes the Brazilian experience in building and implementing strategies for the reduction of these maximum limits in processed foods and the social actors involved in this effort.

  14. Food-processes wastewaters treatment using food solid-waste materials as adsorbents or absorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti, Ilaira; Georgopoulos, Stavros; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Papadaki, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The wastewaters generated by olive-mills during the production of olive oil, wastewaters from a dairy and a cow-farm unit and wastewaters from a small food factory have been treated by means of selected materials, either by-products of the same units, or other solid waste, as absorbents or adsorbents in order to identify the capacity of those materials to remove organic load and toxicity from the aforementioned wastewaters. The potential of both the materials used as absorbents as well as the treated wastewaters to be further used either as fertilizers or for agricultural irrigation purposes are examined. Dry olive leaves, sheep wool, rice husks, etc. were used either in a fixed-bed or in a stirred batch arrangemen,t employing different initial concentrations of the aforementioned wastewaters. The efficiency of removal was assessed using scpectrophotometric methods and allium test phytotoxicity measurements. In this presentation the response of each material employed is shown as a function of absorbent/adsorbent quantity and kind, treatment time and wastewater kind and initial organic load. Preliminary results on the potential uses of the adsorbents/absorbents and the treated wastewaters are also shown. Keywords: Olive-mill wastewaters, dairy farm wastewaters, olive leaves, zeolite, sheep wool

  15. Quantification of acesulfame potassium in processed foods by quantitative 1H NMR.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Abe, Yutaka; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Acesulfame potassium (AceK), a high-intensity and non-caloric artificial sweetener, is used in various processed foods as a food additive. In this study, we established and validated a method for determining the AceK content in various processed foods by solvent extraction and quantitative (1)H NMR, using a certified reference material as the internal standard. In the recovery test, the proposed method gave satisfactory recoveries (88.4-99.6%) and repeatabilities (0.6-5.6%) for various processed foods. The limit of quantification was confirmed as 0.13 g kg(-1), which was sufficiently low for the purposes of monitoring AceK levels. In the analysis of commercially processed foods containing AceK, all AceK contents determined by the proposed method were in good agreement with those obtained by a conventional method based on dialysis and HPLC. Moreover, this method can achieve rapid quantification and yields analytical data with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) without the need for an authentic analyte standard. Therefore, the proposed method is a useful and practical tool for the determination of AceK in processed foods.

  16. [Contamination with genetically modified maize MON863 of processed foods on the market].

    PubMed

    Ohgiya, Yoko; Sakai, Masaaki; Miyashita, Taeko; Yano, Koichi

    2009-06-01

    Genetically modified maize MON863 (MON863), which has passed a safety examination in Japan, is commercially cultivated in the United States as a food and a resource for fuel. Maize is an anemophilous flower, which easily hybridizes. However, an official method for quantifying the content of MON863 has not been provided yet in Japan. We here examined MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that had no labeling indicating of the use of genetically modified maize.From March 2006 to July 2008, we purchased 20 frozen maize products, 8 maize powder products, 7 canned maize products and 4 other maize processed foods. Three primer pairs named MON 863 primer, MON863-1, and M3/M4 for MON863-specific integrated cassette were used for qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A primer pair "SSIIb-3" for starch synthase gene was used to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. The starch synthase gene was detected in all samples. In qualitative tests, the MON863-specific fragments were detected in 7 (18%) maize powder products out of the 39 processed foods with all the three primer pairs.We concluded that various maize processed foods on the market were contaminated with MON863. It is important to accumulate further information on MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that have no label indication of the use of genetically modified maize.

  17. Food Behavior Change in Late-Life Widowhood: A Two-Stage Process

    PubMed Central

    Vesnaver, Elisabeth; Keller, Heather H.; Sutherland, Olga; Maitland, Scott B.; Locher, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    Widowhood is a common life event for married older women. Prior research has found disruptions in eating behaviors to be common among widows. Little is known about the process underlying these disruptions. The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical understanding of the changing food behaviors of older women during the transition of widowhood. Qualitative methods based on constructivist grounded theory guided by a critical realist worldview were used. Individual active interviews were conducted with 15 community-living women, aged 71 to 86 years, living alone, and widowed six months to 15 years at the time of the interview. Participants described a variety of educational backgrounds and levels of health, were mainly white and of Canadian or European descent, and reported sufficient income to meet their needs. The loss of regular shared meals initiated a two-stage process whereby women first fall into new patterns and then re-establish the personal food system, thus enabling women to redirect their food system from one that satisfied the couple to one that satisfied their personal food needs. Influences on the trajectory of the change process included the couple’s food system, experience with nutritional care, food-related values, and food-related resources. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:26232138

  18. Enhanced Early Neuronal Processing of Food Pictures in Anorexia Nervosa: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Scaife, Jessica C.; Park, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have shown increased activation in reward and cognitive control regions in response to food, and a behavioral attentional bias (AB) towards food stimuli is reported. This study aimed to further investigate the neural processing of food using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Participants were 13 females with restricting-type AN, 14 females recovered from restricting-type AN, and 15 female healthy controls. MEG data was acquired whilst participants viewed high- and low-calorie food pictures. Attention was assessed with a reaction time task and eye tracking. Time-series analysis suggested increased neural activity in response to both calorie conditions in the AN groups, consistent with an early AB. Increased activity was observed at 150 ms in the current AN group. Neuronal activity at this latency was at normal level in the recovered group; however, this group exhibited enhanced activity at 320 ms after stimulus. Consistent with previous studies, analysis in source space and behavioral data suggested enhanced attention and cognitive control processes in response to food stimuli in AN. This may enable avoidance of salient food stimuli and maintenance of dietary restraint in AN. A later latency of increased activity in the recovered group may reflect a reversal of this avoidance, with source space and behavioral data indicating increased visual and cognitive processing of food stimuli. PMID:27525258

  19. Linking rights and standards: the process of developing "rights-based" minimum standards on food security, nutrition and food aid.

    PubMed

    Young, Helen; Taylor, Anna; Way, Sally-Anne; Leaning, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    This article examines the recent revision of the Sphere Minimum Standards in disaster response relating to food security, nutrition and food aid. It describes how the revision attempted to incorporate the principles of the Humanitarian Charter, as well as relevant human rights principles and values into the Sphere Minimum Standards. The initial aim of the revision was to ensure that the Sphere Minimum Standards better reflected the principles embodied in the Humanitarian Charter. This was later broadened to ensure that key legal standards and principles from human rights and humanitarian law were considered and also incorporated, in part to fill the "protection gap" within the existing standards. In relation to the food security, nutrition and food aid standards, it was agreed by participants in the process that the human right to adequate food and freedom from hunger should be incorporated. In relation to more general principles underlying the Humanitarian Charter, itself drawn largely from human rights and humanitarian law, it was agreed that there was a need to strengthen "protection" elements within the standards and a need to incorporate the basic principles of the right to life with dignity, non-discrimination, impartiality and participation, as well as to explore the relevance of the concept of the progressive realisation of the right to food. The questions raised in linking rights to operational standards required thought, on the one hand, about whether the technical standards reflected a deep understanding of the values expressed within the legal instruments, and whether the existing standards were adequate in relation to those legal rights. On the other hand, it also required reflection on how operational standards like Sphere could give concrete content to human rights, such as the right to food and the right to be free from hunger. However, there remain challenges in examining what a rights-based approach will mean in terms of the role of humanitarian

  20. Feasibility studies for the Sonic Sensor System for noninvasive temperature measurement in the food processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, L.S.; Mikesell, C.R.; Taylor, S.C.; Tow, D.M.

    1991-09-01

    Feasibility studies for development of the Sonic Sensor System to measure temperature in the interior of particulates during food processing are described. The method involves tomography-based acquisition and interpretation of speed of sound data. The method is found to be feasible, and representative engineering problems and other technical issues are identified. A two-step approach to concept commercialization, involving replacement of the present puncture-and-thermometer method is conventional batch processing and development of a device to use in continuous aseptic processing, is proposed. A conservative estimate of immediate energy savings, just for food processing, is 0.01 quad/y. Potential follow-on applications are discussed.

  1. Challenges of UV light processing of low UVT foods and beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutchma, Tatiana

    2010-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) technology holds promise as a low cost non-thermal alternative to heat pasteurization of liquid foods and beverages. However, its application for foods is still limited due to low UV transmittance (LUVT). LUVT foods have a diverse range of chemical (pH, Brix, Aw), physical (density and viscosity) and optical properties (absorbance and scattering) that are critical for systems and process designs. The commercially available UV sources tested for foods include low and medium pressure mercury lamps (LPM and MPM), excimer and pulsed lamps (PUV). The LPM and excimer lamps are monochromatic sources whereas emission of MPM and PUV is polychromatic. The optimized design of UV-systems and UV-sources with parameters that match to specific product spectra have a potential to make UV treatments of LUVT foods more effective and will serve its further commercialization. In order to select UV source for specific food application, processing effects on nutritional, quality, sensorial and safety markers have to be evaluated. This paper will review current status of UV technology for food processing along with regulatory requirements. Discussion of approaches and results of measurements of chemico-physical and optical properties of various foods (fresh juices, milk, liquid whey proteins and sweeteners) that are critical for UV process and systems design will follow. Available UV sources did not prove totally effective either resulting in low microbial reduction or UV over-dosing of the product thereby leading to sensory changes. Beam shaping of UV light presents new opportunities to improve dosage uniformity and delivery of UV photons in LUVT foods.

  2. Food safety and amino acid balance in processed cassava "Cossettes".

    PubMed

    Diasolua Ngudi, Delphin; Kuo, Yu Haey; Lambein, Fernand

    2002-05-08

    Processed cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots provide more than 60% of the daily energy intake for the population of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Insufficiently processed cassava roots in a diet deficient in sulfur amino acid have been reported to cause the irreversible paralytic disease konzo, afflicting thousands of women and children in the remote rural areas of Bandundu Province. "Cossettes" (processed cassava roots) purchased in several markets of Kinshasa were analyzed for their content of cyanogens, free amino acids, and total protein amino acids. Residual cyanogen levels were below the safe limit recommended by the codex FAO/WHO for cassava flour (10 mg kg(-1)). The amino acid score was evaluated. Lysine and leucine were the limiting amino acids. Methionine content was very low and contributed about 13% of the total sulfur amino acids. Dietary requirements for sulfur amino acids need to be adjusted for the loss caused by cyanogen detoxification.

  3. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p < 0.001). Samples processed from frozen carrots show increased moisture content and decrease of several chemical constituents. Biocrystallization identified changes between replications of the cooking. Pre-treatment of raw material has a significant influence on the final quality of the baby food.

  4. Inaugural Maximum Values for Sodium in Processed Food Products in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm; Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka; Nilson, Eduardo; L'Abbé, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Reducing dietary salt/sodium is one of the most cost-effective interventions to improve population health. There are five initiatives in the Americas that independently developed targets for reformulating foods to reduce salt/sodium content. Applying selection criteria, recommended by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Technical Advisory Group on Dietary Salt/Sodium Reduction, a consortium of governments, civil society, and food companies (the Salt Smart Consortium) agreed to an inaugural set of regional maximum targets (upper limits) for salt/sodium levels for 11 food categories, to be achieved by December 2016. Ultimately, to substantively reduce dietary salt across whole populations, targets will be needed for the majority of processed and pre-prepared foods. Cardiovascular and hypertension organizations are encouraged to utilize the regional targets in advocacy and in monitoring and evaluation of progress by the food industry.

  5. Food processing and structure impact the metabolizable energy of almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measured metabolizable energy (ME) of whole almonds has been shown to be less than predicted by Atwater factors. However, data are lacking on the effects of processing (roasting, chopping or grinding) on the ME of almonds. A 5-period randomized, crossover study in healthy individuals (n=18) was ...

  6. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... discount, assurance that the processor will submit sales verification data to the distributing agency in...) Processors shall utilize either a discount or a refund system as defined in § 250.3 when they sell end... subdistributing agencies and recipient agencies to enter into processing contracts with a processor...

  7. General Template for the FMEA Applications in Primary Food Processing.

    PubMed

    Özilgen, Sibel; Özilgen, Mustafa

    2016-11-22

    Data on the hazards involved in the primary steps of processing cereals, fruit and vegetables, milk and milk products, meat and meat products, and fats and oils are compiled with a wide-ranging literature survey. After determining the common factors from these data, a general FMEA template is offered, and its use is explained with a case study on pasteurized milk production.

  8. The UN Decade of Nutrition, the NOVA food classification and the trouble with ultra-processing.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Cannon, Geoffrey; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Louzada, Maria Laura C; Jaime, Patrícia Constante

    2017-03-21

    Given evident multiple threats to food systems and supplies, food security, human health and welfare, the living and physical world and the biosphere, the years 2016-2025 are now designated by the UN as the Decade of Nutrition, in support of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. For these initiatives to succeed, it is necessary to know which foods contribute to health and well-being, and which are unhealthy. The present commentary outlines the NOVA system of food classification based on the nature, extent and purpose of food processing. Evidence that NOVA effectively addresses the quality of diets and their impact on all forms of malnutrition, and also the sustainability of food systems, has now accumulated in a number of countries, as shown here. A singular feature of NOVA is its identification of ultra-processed food and drink products. These are not modified foods, but formulations mostly of cheap industrial sources of dietary energy and nutrients plus additives, using a series of processes (hence 'ultra-processed'). All together, they are energy-dense, high in unhealthy types of fat, refined starches, free sugars and salt, and poor sources of protein, dietary fibre and micronutrients. Ultra-processed products are made to be hyper-palatable and attractive, with long shelf-life, and able to be consumed anywhere, any time. Their formulation, presentation and marketing often promote overconsumption. Studies based on NOVA show that ultra-processed products now dominate the food supplies of various high-income countries and are increasingly pervasive in lower-middle- and upper-middle-income countries. The evidence so far shows that displacement of minimally processed foods and freshly prepared dishes and meals by ultra-processed products is associated with unhealthy dietary nutrient profiles and several diet-related non-communicable diseases. Ultra-processed products are also troublesome from social, cultural, economic, political and environmental points of view. We

  9. Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: a meta-analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Keikotlhaile, B M; Spanoghe, P; Steurbaut, W

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in food production to increase food security despite the fact that they can have negative health effects on consumers. Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables; both raw and processed. One of the most common routes of pesticide exposure in consumers is via food consumption. Most foods are consumed after passing through various culinary and processing treatments. A few literature reviews have indicated the general trend of reduction or concentration of pesticide residues by certain methods of food processing for a particular active ingredient. However, no review has focused on combining the obtained results from different studies on different active ingredients with differences in experimental designs, analysts and analysis equipment. In this paper, we present a meta-analysis of response ratios as a possible method of combining and quantifying effects of food processing on pesticide residue levels. Reduction of residue levels was indicated by blanching, boiling, canning, frying, juicing, peeling and washing of fruits and vegetables with an average response ratio ranging from 0.10 to 0.82. Baking, boiling, canning and juicing indicated both reduction and increases for the 95% and 99.5% confidence intervals.

  10. Impaired Cross-Talk between Mesolimbic Food Reward Processing and Metabolic Signaling Predicts Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Joe J.; Skunde, Mandy; Hamze Sinno, Maria; Brockmeyer, Timo; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Bendszus, Martin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The anticipation of the pleasure derived from food intake drives the motivation to eat, and hence facilitate overconsumption of food, which ultimately results in obesity. Brain imaging studies provide evidence that mesolimbic brain regions underlie both general as well as food-related anticipatory reward processing. In light of this knowledge, the present study examined the neural responsiveness of the ventral striatum (VS) in participants with a broad BMI spectrum. The study differentiated between general (i.e., monetary) and food-related anticipatory reward processing. We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20 kg/m2) over a normal (20–25 kg/m2) and overweight (25–30 kg/m2) BMI, to class I (30–35 kg/m2) and class II (35–40 kg/m2) obesity. A total of 24 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing both a food and monetary incentive delay task, which allows to measure neural activation during the anticipation of rewards. After the presentation of a cue indicating the amount of food or money to be won, participants had to react correctly in order to earn “snack points” or “money coins,” which could then be exchanged for real food or money, respectively, at the end of the experiment. During the anticipation of both types of rewards, participants displayed activity in the VS, a region that plays a pivotal role in the anticipation of rewards. Additionally, we observed that specifically anticipatory food reward processing predicted the individual BMI (current and maximum lifetime). This relation was found to be mediated by impaired hormonal satiety signaling, i.e., increased leptin levels and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that heightened food reward motivation contributes to obesity through impaired metabolic signaling. PMID:25368558

  11. [Applicability of PCR methods for detection of shrimp and crab in processed food].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hiromu; Nagatomi, Yasuaki; Kikuchi, Ryo; Hirao, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    According to Japanese food allergen labeling regulations, an ELISA screening test is used for detection of crustacean proteins in food and a shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test is used to confirm a positive ELISA screening test and to exclude false positives. Forty-six kinds of processed foods labeled as containing shrimp/crab were subjected to ELISA screening test and PCR confirmation test and the usefulness of the shrimp/crab-PCR was evaluated. Twenty-seven of the 46 samples contained total crustacean protein levels of 10 ppm or more in the ELISA screening test. All of the samples were positive in the shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test. The results of the confirmation test were consistent with the declaration in the list of ingredients and with the results of the ELISA screening test. The shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test was demonstrated to be applicable to various kinds of foods, including powder, extract, seasoning paste, prepared frozen food, snack food, retort food and canned food.

  12. Mission to Mars: food production and processing for the final frontier.

    PubMed

    Perchonok, Michele H; Cooper, Maya R; Catauro, Patricia M

    2012-01-01

    The food systems of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have evolved tremendously since the early manned spaceflights of the 1960s. To date, NASA's mission focus has been limited to exploration of low Earth orbit (LEO), and the agency's prepackaged food systems have been adequate to enable success of their parent programs. With NASA's mission focus increasing to achieve manned space exploration of the Martian surface, the agency is considering a significant departure from the prepackaged food systems of current and past space programs. NASA's Advanced Food Technology (AFT) project is presently investigating the introduction of a bioregenerative food system to support long duration habitat missions to the Martian surface. A bioregenerative food system is expected to impart less of a burden on critical mission resources, such as mass and volume, than a prepackaged, shelf-stable system. This review provides an introduction to past and present spaceflight food systems, and provides a broad examination of the research conducted to date to enable crop production and food processing on the Martian surface.

  13. Development of a universally applicable household food insecurity measurement tool: process, current status, and outstanding issues.

    PubMed

    Swindale, Anne; Bilinsky, Paula

    2006-05-01

    The United States Public Law 480 Title II food aid program is the largest U.S. government program directed at reducing hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity in the developing world. USAID and Title II implementing partners face challenges in measuring the success of Title II programs in reducing household food insecurity because of the technical difficulty and cost of collecting and analyzing data on traditional food security indicators, such as per capita income and caloric adequacy. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) holds promise as an easier and more user-friendly approach for measuring the access component of household food security. To support the consistent and comparable collection of the HFIAS, efforts are under way to develop a guide with a standardized questionnaire and data collection and analysis instructions. A set of domains have been identified that is deemed to capture the universal experience of the access component of household food insecurity across countries and cultures. Based on these domains, a set of questions has been developed with wording that is deemed to be universally appropriate, with minor adaptation to local contexts. These underlying suppositions, based on research in multiple countries, are being verified by potential users of the guide. The key remaining issue relates to the process for creating a categorical indicator of food insecurity status from the HFIAS.

  14. Formation risk of toxic and other unwanted compounds in pressure-assisted thermally processed foods.

    PubMed

    Bravo, K Segovia; Ramírez, R; Durst, R; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z J; Welti-Chanes, J; Sanz, P D; Torres, J A

    2012-01-01

    Consumers demand, in addition to excellent eating quality, high standards of microbial and chemical safety in shelf-stable foods. This requires improving conventional processing technologies and developing new alternatives such as pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP). Studies in PATP foods on the kinetics of chemical reactions at temperatures (approximately 100 to 120 °C) inactivating bacterial spores in low-acid foods are severely lacking. This review focuses on a specific chemical safety risk in PATP foods: models predicting if the activation volume value (V(a) ) of a chemical reaction is positive or negative, and indicating if the reaction rate constant will decrease or increase with pressure, respectively, are not available. Therefore, the pressure effect on reactions producing toxic compounds must be determined experimentally. A recent model solution study showed that acrylamide formation, a potential risk in PATP foods, is actually inhibited by pressure (that is, its V(a) value must be positive). This favorable finding was not predictable and still needs to be confirmed in food systems. Similar studies are required for other reactions producing toxic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic amines, N-nitroso compounds, and hormone like-peptides. Studies on PATP inactivation of prions, and screening methods to detect the presence of other toxicity risks of PATP foods, are also reviewed.

  15. Application of antibodies for the identification of polysaccharide gum additives in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Pazur, J H; Li, N-Q

    2004-11-01

    Anti-carbohydrate antibodies with specificities for polysaccharide gums were isolated from the serum of rabbits that were immunized with a solution of the gums and Freund's complete adjuvant. The primary objective was to test an immunological method for the detection of the polysaccharide gums as additives to processed foods. Analysis involved the extraction of food with phosphate buffer and the testing of the extract for a reaction with anti-gum antibodies by the agar diffusion method. Reaction by a specific gum with the homologous antibodies establishes the presence of the gum in the food. The method is a novel application of antibodies. The antibody method is highly specific for a gum and thus possesses advantages over other methods of analysis for polysaccharide gums as additives in processed foods.

  16. Effect of food processing on plant DNA degradation and PCR-based GMO analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Gryson, Nicolas

    2010-03-01

    The applicability of a DNA-based method for GMO detection and quantification depends on the quality and quantity of the DNA. Important food-processing conditions, for example temperature and pH, may lead to degradation of the DNA, rendering PCR analysis impossible or GMO quantification unreliable. This review discusses the effect of several food processes on DNA degradation and subsequent GMO detection and quantification. The data show that, although many of these processes do indeed lead to the fragmentation of DNA, amplification of the DNA may still be possible. Length and composition of the amplicon may, however, affect the result, as also may the method of extraction used. Also, many techniques are used to describe the behaviour of DNA in food processing, which occasionally makes it difficult to compare research results. Further research should be aimed at defining ingredients in terms of their DNA quality and PCR amplification ability, and elaboration of matrix-specific certified reference materials.

  17. Human contact imagined during the production process increases food naturalness perceptions.

    PubMed

    Abouab, Nathalie; Gomez, Pierrick

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that food processing and naturalness are not good friends, but is food processing always detrimental to naturalness? Building on the contagion principle, this research examines how production mode (handmade vs. machine-made) influences naturalness perceptions. In a pilot study (n = 69) and an experiment (n = 133), we found that compared with both a baseline condition and a condition in which the mode of production process was portrayed as machine-made, a handmade production mode increases naturalness ratings of a grape juice. A mediation analysis demonstrates that these effects result from higher perceived human contact suggesting that the production process may preserve food naturalness when humanized.

  18. Quality-related enzymes in plant-based products: effects of novel food-processing technologies part 3: ultrasonic processing.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    High-power ultrasound is a versatile technology which can potentially be used in many food processing applications including food preservation. This is part 2 of a series of review articles dealing with the effectiveness of nonthermal food processing technologies in food preservation focusing on their effect on enzymes. Typically, ultrasound treatment alone does not efficiently cause microbial or enzyme inactivation sufficient for food preservation. However, combined with mild heat with or without elevated pressure (P ≤ 500 kPa), ultrasound can effectively inactivate enzymes and microorganisms. Synergistic effects between ultrasound and mild heat have been reported for the inactivation of both enzymes and microorganisms. The application of ultrasound has been shown to enhance the rate of inactivation of quality degrading enzymes including pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and lipoxygenase (LOX) at mild temperature by up to 400 times. Moreover, ultrasound enables the inactivation of relatively heat-resistant enzymes such as tomato PG1 and thermostable orange PME at mild temperature conditions. The extent to which ultrasound enhances the inactivation rate depends on the type of enzyme, the medium in which the enzyme is suspended, and the processing condition including frequency, ultrasonic intensity, temperature, and pressure. The physical and chemical effects of cavitation are considered to be responsible for the ultrasound-induced inactivation of enzymes, although the dominant mechanism depends on the structure of the enzyme.

  19. Food Safety Impacts from Post-Harvest Processing Procedures of Molluscan Shellfish.

    PubMed

    Baker, George L

    2016-04-18

    Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, temperature, salinity, pressure, and process exposure. Regulatory requirements and PHP molluscan shellfish quality implications are major considerations for PHP usage. Food safety impacts associated with PHP of molluscan shellfish vary in their efficacy and may have synergistic outcomes when combined. Further research for many PHP methods are necessary and emerging PHP methods that result in minimal quality loss and effective human pathogen reduction should be explored.

  20. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these. PMID:26393573

  1. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-09-17

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these.

  2. Can Rural Employment Benefit from Changing Labor Skills in U.S. Processed Food Trade?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schluter, Gerald; Lee, Chinkook

    2002-01-01

    The 1990s saw a gain in rural food-processing employment, particularly meat packing and poultry processing, as the industry's demand for low-skilled workers increased. Analysis links the change in worker skills to international trade. While increased rural employment may seem beneficial, the jobs often do not appeal to rural domestic workers, and…

  3. New value-added food ingredients from maize based ethanol processing by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some potentially useful food and health-promoting products were obtained from the by-products of ethanol processing including distillers dried grains (DDG) and maize bran. A DDG sample obtained from MCP Corporation in the USA was processed by jet cooking at various pH levels and fractionated. Rheo...

  4. Recent Developments in Superheated Steam Processing of Foods-A Review.

    PubMed

    Alfy, Anto; Kiran, B V; Jeevitha, G C; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2016-10-02

    Although the use of superheated steam has been known for quite a long time, only in the recent past has it emerged as a viable technology for food processing. Superheated steam, having higher enthalpy, can quickly transfer heat to the material being processed, resulting in its rapid heating. The major advantages of using superheated steam for food processing are better product quality (color, shrinkage, and rehydration characteristics), reduced oxidation losses, and higher energy efficiency. This review provides a comprehensive overview of recent studies on the application of superheated steam for food-processing operations such as drying, decontamination and microbial load reduction, parboiling, and enzyme inactivation. The review encompasses aspects such as the effect of superheated steam processing on product quality, mathematical models reported for superheated steam drying, and the future scope of application in food processing. Recent studies on process improvisation, wherein superheated steam is used at low pressure, in fluidized bed mode, sequential processing with hot air/infrared, and in combination with micro droplets of water have also been discussed.

  5. Utilization of Food Processing By-products as Dietary, Functional, and Novel Fiber: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satish Kumar; Bansal, Sangita; Mangal, Manisha; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Ram K; Mangal, A K

    2016-07-26

    Fast growing food processing industry in most countries across the world, generates huge quantity of by-products, including pomace, hull, husk, pods, peel, shells, seeds, stems, stalks, bran, washings, pulp refuse, press cakes, etc., which have less use and create considerable environmental pollution. With growing interest in health promoting functional foods, the demand of natural bioactives has increased and exploration for new sources is on the way. Many of the food processing industrial by-products are rich sources of dietary, functional, and novel fibers. These by-products can be directly (or after certain modifications for isolation or purification of fiber) used for the manufacture of various foods, i.e. bread, buns, cake, pasta, noodles, biscuit, ice creams, yogurts, cheese, beverages, milk shakes, instant breakfasts, ice tea, juices, sports drinks, wine, powdered drink, fermented milk products, meat products and meat analogues, synthetic meat, etc. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried on this topic to give an overview in the field dietary fiber from food by-products. In this article, the developments in the definition of fiber, fiber classification, potential sources of dietary fibers in food processing by-products, their uses, functional properties, caloric content, energy values and the labelling regulations have been discussed.

  6. The processing of food stimuli in abnormal eating: a systematic review of electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Ines; Fagundo, Ana B; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    To update the knowledge about attentional processing of food stimuli, a systematic review of electrophysiological studies was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge (2000-2014). Twenty-one studies were included into a qualitative synthesis. Presentation of food and control pictures was used to analyze event-related potentials related to sensory processing and motivated attention. Results show consistent attentional bias towards food pictures compared with neutral pictures for patient and control groups. Group comparisons between individuals with abnormal-eating and healthy-eating participants were more inconsistent. Results suggest that temporal differences in the millisecond range are essential for the understanding of visual food processing. In obesity, early attention engagement to food is followed by relatice disengagement. Loss of control eating, as well as external and emotional eating, are associated with a sustained maintenance of attention towards high-caloric food. There is a lack of studies in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

  7. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY nutrition intervention to modify the total school food environment

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, S. L.; Hall, W. J.; Steckler, A.; Schneider, M.; Thompson, D.; Mobley, C.; Pham, T.; El ghormli, L.

    2013-01-01

    The process evaluation of HEALTHY, a large multi-center trial to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle school children, monitored the implementation of the intervention to ascertain the extent that components were delivered and received as intended. The purpose of this article is to report the process evaluation findings concerning the extent to which the HEALTHY nutrition intervention was implemented during the HEALTHY trial. Overall, the observed fidelity of implementing nutrition strategies improved from baseline to the end of the study. By the last semester, all but two nutrition process evaluation goals were met. The most challenging goal to implement was serving high fiber foods, including grain-based foods and legumes. The easiest goals to implement were lowering the fat content of foods offered and offering healthier beverages. The most challenging barriers experienced by research dietitians and food service staff were costs, availability of foods and student acceptance. Forming strong relationships between the research dietitians and food service staff was identified as a key strategy to meet HEALTHY nutrition goals. PMID:24107856

  8. Absolute quantification for benzoic acid in processed foods using quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-09-15

    The absolute quantification method of benzoic acid (BA) in processed foods using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was developed and validated. BA levels were determined using proton signals (δ(H) 7.53 and 7.98) referenced to 2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate-d(6) sodium salt (DSS-d(6)) after simple solvent extraction from processed foods. All recoveries from several kinds of processed foods, spiked at their specified maximum Japanese usage levels (0.6-2.5 g kg(-1)) and at 0.13 g kg(-1) and 0.063 g kg(-1), were greater than 80%. The limit of quantification was confirmed as 0.063 g kg(-1) in processed foods, which was sufficiently low for the purposes of monitoring BA. The accuracy of the proposed method is equivalent to the conventional method using steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method was both rapid and simple. Moreover, it provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. Therefore, the proposed method is a useful and practical tool for determining BA levels in processed foods.

  9. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of food waste.

    PubMed

    Grycová, Barbora; Koutník, Ivan; Pryszcz, Adrian

    2016-10-01

    Different waste materials were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to the final temperature of 800°C with a 10min delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The gas from the pyrolysis experiments was captured discontinuously into Tedlar gas sampling bags and the selected components were analyzed by gas chromatography (methane, ethene, ethane, propane, propene, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). The highest concentration of measured hydrogen (WaCe 61%vol.; WaPC 66%vol.) was analyzed at the temperature from 750 to 800°C. The heating values of the solid and liquid residues indicate the possibility of its further use for energy recovery.

  10. Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing.

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Le Maguer, M

    2000-01-01

    Lycopene is the pigment principally responsible for the characteristic deep-red color of ripe tomato fruits and tomato products. It has attracted attention due to its biological and physicochemical properties, especially related to its effects as a natural antioxidant. Although it has no provitamin A activity, lycopene does exhibit a physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen almost twice as high as that of beta-carotene. This makes its presence in the diet of considerable interest. Increasing clinical evidence supports the role of lycopene as a micronutrient with important health benefits, because it appears to provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers. Tomatoes and related tomato products are the major source of lycopene compounds, and are also considered an important source of carotenoids in the human diet. Undesirable degradation of lycopene not only affects the sensory quality of the final products, but also the health benefit of tomato-based foods for the human body. Lycopene in fresh tomato fruits occurs essentially in the all-trans configuration. The main causes of tomato lycopene degradation during processing are isomerization and oxidation. Isomerization converts all-trans isomers to cis-isomers due to additional energy input and results in an unstable, energy-rich station. Determination of the degree of lycopene isomerization during processing would provide a measure of the potential health benefits of tomato-based foods. Thermal processing (bleaching, retorting, and freezing processes) generally cause some loss of lycopene in tomato-based foods. Heat induces isomerization of the all-trans to cis forms. The cis-isomers increase with temperature and processing time. In general, dehydrated and powdered tomatoes have poor lycopene stability unless carefully processed and promptly placed in a hermetically sealed and inert atmosphere for storage. A significant increase in the cis-isomers with a simultaneous decrease in the all

  11. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2014-02-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of

  12. Sodium content in processed foods in Argentina: compliance with the national law

    PubMed Central

    Tiscornia, María Victoria; Ponce, Miguel; Castronuovo, Luciana; Dunford, Elizabeth; Schoj, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the body of evidence that documents the unfavorable effects of excessive sodium consumption on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, public health efforts to decrease sodium consumption have been limited to a few countries. Argentina is the first country in Latin America to regulate sodium content of processed foods by means of a national law. The objective of this cross-sectional quantitative study is to provide a baseline comparison against the reduction targets set by the national law before its entry into force. Methods Data were collected in February 2014 in a leading supermarket chain located in Buenos Aires. Nutrient data from package labels were analysed for 1,320 products within 14 food groups during the study period. To compare sodium concentration levels with the established maximum levels we matched the collected food groups with the food groups included in the law resulting in a total of 292 products. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 software. Results Food groups with the highest median sodium content were sauces and spreads (866.7 mg/100 g), meat and meat products (750 mg/100 g) and snack foods (644 mg/100 g). Categories with the highest sodium content were appetizers (1,415 mg/100 g), sausages (1,050 mg/100 g) and ready-made meals (940.7 mg/100 g). We also found large variability within products from the same food categories. Products included in the national law correspond to 22.1% (n=292) of the surveyed foods. From the 18 food groups, 15 showed median sodium values below the established targets. Products exceeding the established maximum levels correspond to 15.1% (n=44) of the products included in the analysis. Conclusions This study is the first analysis of food labels to determine sodium concentrations of processed foods in Argentina and to provide a baseline against the national law standards. Upon the completion of this analysis, maximum levels have been achieved by most of the food groups included in

  13. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The results of this research indicate that processing (baked vs. extruded) plays an important role in determining pet food product texture. In addition, raw ingredients (fresh meat vs. meal-based) did not consistently affect product sensory characteristics. These results may help pet food technologists better understand factors that affect palatability. Abstract The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods. PMID:26480040

  14. Detection of hazelnut in foods using ELISA: challenges related to the detectability in processed foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Cucu, Tatiana; Devreese, Bart; Trashin, Stanislav; Kerkaert, Barbara; Rogge, Maarten; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Hazelnuts are widely used nowadays, and can pose a serious threat to allergic consumers due to cross-contamination that may occur during processing. This might lead to the presence of hidden hazelnut in foods. Therefore, reliable tests are needed to detect hazelnut, especially in processed foods. A hazelnut-specific indirect competitive ELISA based on polyclonal chicken antibodies was developed. The polyclonal antibodies were raised against modified hazelnut proteins in order to improve the detectability of hazelnut proteins in processed foods. The assay showed a detection limit of 1.36 microg hazelnut protein/mL of 5 mM urea in phosphate-buffered saline buffer (pH 7.4). Limited cross-reactivity with walnut and pecan nut was observed; no cross-reactivity was observed with other food ingredients. Blank cookies spiked before analysis showed recoveries of 73-107%. However, cookies spiked before baking showed that the detectability was severely decreased. Addition of lactose to the cookies, which led to more severe modification through the Maillard reaction, led to an increase in the detectability. These results indicate that using antibodies developed toward allergens modified through food processing-simulating reactions is a better approach for detection.

  15. Possible association between celiac disease and bacterial transglutaminase in food processing: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of celiac disease is increasing worldwide, and human tissue transglutaminase has long been considered the autoantigen of celiac disease. Concomitantly, the food industry has introduced ingredients such as microbial transglutaminase, which acts as a food glue, thereby revolutionizing food qualities. Several observations have led to the hypothesis that microbial transglutaminase is a new environmental enhancer of celiac disease. First, microbial transglutaminase deamidates/transamidates glutens such as the endogenous human tissue transglutaminase. It is capable of crosslinking proteins and other macromolecules, thereby changing their antigenicity and resulting in an increased antigenic load presented to the immune system. Second, it increases the stability of protein against proteinases, thus diminishing foreign protein elimination. Infections and the crosslinked nutritional constituent gluten and microbial transglutaminase increase the permeability of the intestine, where microbial transglutaminases are necessary for bacterial survival. The resulting intestinal leakage allows more immunogenic foreign molecules to induce celiac disease. The increased use of microbial transglutaminase in food processing may promote celiac pathogenesis ex vivo, where deamidation/transamidation starts, possibly explaining the surge in incidence of celiac disease. If future research substantiates this hypothesis, the findings will affect food product labeling, food additive policies of the food industry, and consumer health education.

  16. Changes in the sodium content of New Zealand processed foods: 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Monro, David; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Jiang, Yannan; Gorton, Delvina; Eyles, Helen

    2015-05-27

    Decreasing population sodium intake has been identified as a "best buy" for reducing non-communicable disease. The aim of this study was to explore 10-year changes in the sodium content of New Zealand processed foods. Nutrient data for nine key food groups were collected in supermarkets in 2003 (n = 323) and 2013 (n = 885). Mean (SD) and median (min, max) sodium content were calculated by food group, year and label type (private/branded). Paired t-tests explored changes in sodium content for all products available for sale in both years (matched; n = 182). The mean (SD) sodium content of all foods was 436 (263) mg (100 g)(-1) in 2003 and 433 (304) mg (100 g)(-1) in 2013, with no significant difference in matched products over time (mean (SD) difference, -56 (122) mg (100 g)(-1), 12%; p = 0.22). The largest percentage reductions in sodium (for matched products) were observed for Breakfast Cereals (28%; -123 (125) mg (100 g)(-1)), Canned Spaghetti (15%; -76 (111) mg (100 g)(-1)) and Bread (14%; -68 (69) mg (100 g)(-1)). The reduction in sodium was greater for matched private vs. branded foods (-69 vs. -50 mg (100 g)(-1), both p < 0.001). There has been modest progress with sodium reduction in some New Zealand food categories over the past 10 years. A renewed focus across the whole food supply is needed if New Zealand is to meet its global commitment to reducing population sodium intake.

  17. Genetically Modified Foods: A Brief Overview of the Risk Assessment Process.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Paige E

    2016-02-18

    Billions of people worldwide are unable to meet their daily micro nutritional needs. Genetically modified (GM) foods, while initially developed to tolerate herbicides and resist disease and insects, have the potential to help alleviate this issue that is currently posing a serious public health concern. However, there is a negative public perception surrounding GM foods, calling for more research regarding the risks that GM foods could pose to the public, specifically on the topics of allergenicity and gene transfer. The risk assessments of GM foods should be performed on a case-by-case basis, by a process outlined by the WHO. The goal of determining food safety is to obtain reasonable certainty that under normal levels of consumption, there will be no harm to people. Current research has shown that GM foods do not cause increased allergenicity or have a meaningful risk of gene transfer to people. GM foods should become publicly accepted products that can bring significant benefit to people at risk of under nutrition.

  18. Possible association between celiac disease and bacterial transglutaminase in food processing: a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of celiac disease is increasing worldwide, and human tissue transglutaminase has long been considered the autoantigen of celiac disease. Concomitantly, the food industry has introduced ingredients such as microbial transglutaminase, which acts as a food glue, thereby revolutionizing food qualities. Several observations have led to the hypothesis that microbial transglutaminase is a new environmental enhancer of celiac disease. First, microbial transglutaminase deamidates/transamidates glutens such as the endogenous human tissue transglutaminase. It is capable of crosslinking proteins and other macromolecules, thereby changing their antigenicity and resulting in an increased antigenic load presented to the immune system. Second, it increases the stability of protein against proteinases, thus diminishing foreign protein elimination. Infections and the crosslinked nutritional constituent gluten and microbial transglutaminase increase the permeability of the intestine, where microbial transglutaminases are necessary for bacterial survival. The resulting intestinal leakage allows more immunogenic foreign molecules to induce celiac disease. The increased use of microbial transglutaminase in food processing may promote celiac pathogenesis ex vivo, where deamidation/transamidation starts, possibly explaining the surge in incidence of celiac disease. If future research substantiates this hypothesis, the findings will affect food product labeling, food additive policies of the food industry, and consumer health education. PMID:26084478

  19. Detection and recognition of uneaten fish food pellets in aquaculture using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanyu; Xu, Lihong; Li, Dawei

    2015-03-01

    The waste of fish food has always been a serious problem in aquaculture. On one hand, the leftover fish food spawns a big waste in the aquaculture industry because fish food accounts for a large proportion of the investment. On the other hand, the left over fish food may pollute the water and make fishes sick. In general, the reason for fish food waste is that there is no feedback about the consumption of delivered fish food after feeding. So it is extremely difficult for fish farmers to determine the amount of feedstuff that should be delivered each time and the feeding intervals. In this paper, we propose an effective method using image processing techniques to solve this problem. During feeding events, we use an underwater camera with supplementary LED lights to obtain images of uneaten fish food pellets on the tank bottom. An algorithm is then developed to figure out the number of left pellets using adaptive Otsu thresholding and a linear-time component labeling algorithm. This proposed algorithm proves to be effective in handling the non-uniform lighting and very accurate number of pellets are counted in experiments.

  20. Relationships between processing-structure-migration properties for recycled polypropylene in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Incarnato, L; Di Maio, L; Acierno, D; Denaro, M; Arrivabene, L

    1998-01-01

    In this work the relationships between processing, structure and migration properties of recycled polypropylene (PP) were analysed in relation to the possible use of recycled PP in food packaging applications. PP containers used in food packaging were contaminated with food and then washed, reduced into a processable size, dried and reprocessed by injection moulding. Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analysis, mechanical, and total migration tests were performed on injection moulded samples to verify the effect of the recycling process on the structure and properties of PP. In order to evaluate the effect of the molecular weight on the properties of the recycled polymer, the study was conducted on containers produced by injection moulding made from a low molecular weight (LMW) PP and on containers produced by thermoforming made from a high molecular weight (HMW) PP.

  1. Quantification of DNA fragmentation in processed foods using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Mano, Junichi; Nishitsuji, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Hayashida, Takuya; Kawakami, Hiroyuki; Kurimoto, Youichi; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2017-07-01

    DNA analysis of processed foods is performed widely to detect various targets, such as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Food processing often causes DNA fragmentation, which consequently affects the results of PCR analysis. In order to assess the effects of DNA fragmentation on the reliability of PCR analysis, we investigated a novel methodology to quantify the degree of DNA fragmentation. We designed four real-time PCR assays that amplified 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences common to various plants at lengths of approximately 100, 200, 400, and 800 base pairs (bp). Then, we created an indicator value, "DNA fragmentation index (DFI)", which is calculated from the Cq values derived from the real-time PCR assays. Finally, we demonstrated the efficacy of this method for the quality control of GMO detection in processed foods by evaluating the relationship between the DFI and the limit of detection.

  2. Perceptions, knowledge and ethical concerns with GM foods and the GM process.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew J

    2009-03-01

    Compared to their European counterparts, the American public has been characterized as relatively unknowledgeable and indifferent about genetically modified foods. To evaluate these claims, six focus groups were held in three Arkansas cities to: (1) determine the extent of knowledge the public possesses about genetically modified foods; (2) detail perceived benefits and risks associated with agricultural biotechnology applications; and (3) explore lay perceptions about the genetic modification process itself. Participants demonstrated partial knowledge, and tended to overestimate the number of genetically modified foods. However, participants tended to be familiar with debates surrounding benefits, risks and moral issues associated with agricultural biotechnology applications. Findings also showed that while participants were not overly concerned about combining genes between plants, they were concerned about inserting animal genes into plants. If these results are any indication, moral and ethical issues will dominate any discussion of foods derived from a mixture of animal and plant genes.

  3. Soybean and Processed Soy Foods Ingredients, and Their Role in Cardiometabolic Risk Prevention.

    PubMed

    Imai, Shinjiro

    2015-01-01

    Soybeans contain various components with potential health benefits effects, but the impact of soy foods and processed soy foods on human health has gone progressively characterized. Soy foods are the traditional Asian diets; however because of their intended health benefits they have gone popular in Westerners, especially postmenopausal women. There are lots of biologically active soybean constituents that might lead to the possible health benefits of soy, and almost consideration has concentrated on the isoflavones, which have both hormonal and nonhormonal activities. The various other constituents of soybeans (saponins, soy protein or peptides, lecithin, and flavonoids) have differing biological activities. These include hormonal, immunological, bacteriological and digestive effects. This review is the broad assessment of the literature comprehensive the health effects of soy constituents that are of superlative interest. The health benefits of soy foods on four diseases-cardiovascular disease (CVD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and diabetes-are the focus of the review.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Effectiveness of Magnetic Field on Food Freezing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toru; Takeuchi, Yuri; Masuda, Kazunori; Watanabe, Manabu; Shirakashi, Ryo; Fukuda, Yutaka; Tsuruta, Takaharu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Koga, Nobumitsu; Hiruma, Naoya; Ichioka, Jun; Takai, Kiyoshi

    Recently, several food refrigeration equipments that utilize magnetic field have attracted much attention from food production companies, consumers and mass media. However, the effectiveness of the freezers is not scientifically examined. Therefore, the effectiveness should be clarified by experiments or theoretical considerations. In this study, the effect of weak magnetic field (about 0.0005 T) on freezing process of several kinds of foods was investigated by using a specially designed freezer facilitated with magnetic field generator. The investigation included the comparison of freezing curves, drip amount, physicochemical evaluations on color and texture, observation of microstructure, and sensory evaluation. From the results of the control experiments, it can be concluded that weak magnetic field around 0.0005 T provided no significant difference on temperature history during freezing and on the qualities of frozen foods, within our experimental conditions.

  5. Recent developments in minimal processing: a tool to retain nutritional quality of food.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Sultan, M Tauseef; Khan, Moazzam Rafiq; Rohi, Madiha

    2014-01-01

    The modernization during the last century resulted in urbanization coupled with modifications in lifestyles and dietary habits. In the same era, industrial developments made it easier to meet the requirements for processed foods. However, consumers are now interested in minimally processed foods owing to increase in their awareness to have fruits and vegetables with superior quality, and natural integrity with fewer additives. The food products deteriorate as a consequence of physiological aging, biochemical changes, high respiration rat,e and high ethylene production. These factors contribute substantially to discoloration, loss of firmness, development of off-flavors, acidification, and microbial spoilage. Simultaneously, food processors are using emerging approaches to process perishable commodities, along with enhanced nutritional and sensorial quality. The present review article is an effort to utilize the modern approaches to minimize the processing and deterioration. The techniques discussed in this paper include chlorination, ozonation, irradiation, photosensitization, edible coating, natural preservative use, high-pressure processing, microwave heating, ohmic heating, and hurdle technology. The consequences of these techniques on shelf-life stability, microbial safety, preservation of organoleptic and nutritional quality, and residue avoidance are the limelight of the paper. Moreover, the discussion has been made on the feasibility and operability of these techniques in modern-day processing.

  6. ALINET: a model for assessing energy conservation opportunities in food processing

    SciTech Connect

    Levis, A.H.; Ducot, E.R.; Webster, T.F.; Levis, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    ALINET, a network model of the US food processing and distribution sector, has been designed as a tool for analyzing energy use and for evaluating specific energy conserving technologies. The model is operational and has been used in the analysis of wheat processing. The results of a pilot study in which an alternative technology - microwave drying - is introduced in the pasta making process are described, and the impact on energy and on specific fuel use is analyzed.

  7. Development and validation of a lateral flow assay for the detection of crustacean protein in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Daisuke; Shirota, Kazuya; Akita, Ryoko; Oda, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    We developed and validated a novel lateral flow assay for the detection of crustacean protein in processed foods. This assay had high sensitivity; the visual detection limit for shrimp protein extract was 25μg/L, equivalent to 1μg/g protein in a food sample, and results could be obtained within 20min without sophisticated procedures or expensive equipment. Concordance between our assay and another validated quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 97% for commercially processed foods. This assay is rapid, simple, reliable, and highly correlated with validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and is thus suitable for monitoring of food products, especially in food-processing facilities.

  8. A Risk-Based Strategy for Evaluating Mitigation Options for Process-Formed Compounds in Food

    PubMed Central

    Brorby, Gregory P.; Krishan, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    Processing (eg, cooking, grinding, drying) has changed the composition of food throughout the course of human history; however, awareness of process-formed compounds, and the potential need to mitigate exposure to those compounds, is a relatively recent phenomenon. In May 2015, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety held a workshop on the risk-based process for mitigation of process-formed compounds. This workshop aimed to gain alignment from academia, government, and industry on a risk-based process for proactively assessing the need for and benefit of mitigation of process-formed compounds, including criteria to objectively assess the impact of mitigation as well as research needed to support this process. Workshop participants provided real-time feedback on a draft framework in the form of a decision tree developed by the ILSI North America Technical Committee on Food and Chemical Safety to a panel of experts, and they discussed the importance of communicating the value of such a process to the larger scientific community and, ultimately, the public. The outcome of the workshop was a decision tree that can be used by the scientific community and could form the basis of a global approach to assessing the risks associated with mitigation of process-formed compounds. PMID:27102178

  9. An ecological perspective of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms in food processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Wladir B; Cutter, Catherine N

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can enter the food chain at virtually any point. However, food processing environments seem to be of particular importance. From an ecological point of view, food processing facilities are microbial habitats that are constantly disturbed by cleaning and sanitizing procedures. Although L. monocytogenes is considered ubiquitous in nature, it is important to recognize that not all L. monocytogenes strains appear to be equally distributed; the distribution of the organism seems to be related to certain habitats. Currently, no direct evidence exists that L. monocytogenes-associated biofilms have played a role in food contamination or foodborne outbreaks, likely because biofilm isolation and identification are not part of an outbreak investigation, or the definition of biofilm is unclear. Because L. monocytogenes is known to colonize surfaces, we suggest that contamination patterns may be studied in the context of how biofilm formation is influenced by the environment within food processing facilities. In this review, direct and indirect epidemiological and phenotypic evidence of lineage-related biofilm formation capacity to specific ecological niches will be discussed. A critical view on the development of the biofilm concept, focused on the practical implications, strengths, and weaknesses of the current definitions also is discussed. The idea that biofilm formation may be an alternative surrogate for microbial fitness is proposed. Furthermore, current research on the influence of environmental factors on biofilm formation is discussed.

  10. Innovative food processing technology using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging for meat.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ruri; Fukuoka, Mika; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2014-02-01

    Since the Tohoku earthquake, there is much interest in processed foods, which can be stored for long periods at room temperature. Retort heating is one of the main technologies employed for producing it. We developed the innovative food processing technology, which supersede retort, using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging. Electrical heating involves the application of alternating voltage to food. Compared with retort heating, which uses a heat transfer medium, ohmic heating allows for high heating efficiency and rapid heating. In this paper we ohmically heated chicken breast samples and conducted various tests on the heated samples. The measurement results of water content, IMP, and glutamic acid suggest that the quality of the ohmically heated samples was similar or superior to that of the retort-heated samples. Furthermore, based on the monitoring of these samples, it was observed that sample quality did not deteriorate during storage.

  11. Processing of nutritious, safe and acceptable foods from CELSS candidate crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, B.; Nelson, P. E.; Irvine, R.; Kanach, L. L.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) is required to sustain life for long-duration space missions. The challenge is preparing a wide variety of tasty, familiar, and nutritious foods from CELSS candidate crops under space environmental conditions. Conventional food processing technologies will have to be modified to adapt to the space environment. Extrusion is one of the processes being examined as a means of converting raw plant biomass into familiar foods. A nutrition-improved pasta has been developed using cowpea as a replacement for a portion of the durum semolina. A freeze-drying system that simulates the space conditions has also been developed. Other technologies that would fulfill the requirements of a CELSS will also be addressed.

  12. Understanding leaf membrane protein extraction to develop a food-grade process.

    PubMed

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica; Boom, Remko M; van der Goot, Atze Jan

    2017-02-15

    Leaf membrane proteins are an underutilised protein fraction for food applications. Proteins from leaves can contribute to a more complete use of resources and help to meet the increasing protein demand. Leaf protein extraction and purification is applied by other disciplines, such as proteomics. Therefore, this study analysed proteomic extraction methods for membrane proteins as an inspiration for a food-grade alternative process. Sugar beet leaves were extracted with two proteomic protocols: solvent extraction and Triton X-114 phase partitioning method. Extraction steps contributed to protein purity and/or to selective fractionation, enabling the purification of specific proteins. It was observed that membrane proteins distributed among different solvents, buffers and solutions used due to their physicochemical heterogeneity. This heterogeneity does not allow a total membrane protein extraction by a unique method or even combinations of processing steps, but it enables the creation of different fractions with different physicochemical properties useful for food applications.

  13. Advertising of ultra-processed foods and beverages: children as a vulnerable population.

    PubMed

    Mallarino, Christina; Gómez, Luis F; González-Zapata, Laura; Cadena, Yazmín; Parra, Diana C

    2013-10-01

    The rapid nutrition transition occurring in Latin America has resulted in a sharp increase of childhood overweight and obesity. Recent evidence has shown that food and beverage advertising has a great influence on children's eating behavior. This population has become a key target market for the ultra-processed foods and beverages industry, which is marketing products in an aggressive way. Evidence shows that Latin American countries have poor regulation of ultra-processed foods and beverages advertising, where the discourse of self-regulation still prevails over statutory regulations. The following commentary explores how advertising might play an important role in developing unhealthy dietary patterns and obesity in Latin American children, as well as the urgent need for government action and the involvement of civil society to tackle this public health issue.

  14. Hydration phenomena: an update and implications for the food processing industry.

    PubMed

    Franks, F

    1991-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed major revisions in our perception of the manner in which water affects the physical, chemical, and microbiological attributes of all manner of food-related systems. The growing realization that, during processing, most such systems are brought to, and maintained in, a state of thermodynamic instability is focussing attention on the dynamics of the various components in such systems. Older, equilibrium-based concepts, such as "water activity," equilibrium moisture sorption, and "bound" water are being discarded in favour of more appropriate descriptions, in terms of diffusion, nucleation, crystallization and relaxation rates, glass/rubber transitions, and steady states. It is being realized that food processing, materials science, and polymer technology have much in common, with water being the universal plasticizer of naturally occurring organic materials which form the basis of food products.

  15. Processing of nutritious, safe and acceptable foods from cells candidate crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, B.; Nelson, P. E.; Irvine, R.; Kanach, L. L.

    A controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) is required to sustain life for long-duration space missions. The challenge is preparing a wide variety of tasty, familiar, and nutritious foods from CELSS candidate crops under space environmental conditions. Conventional food processing technologies will have to be modified to adapt to the space environment. Extrusion is one of the processes being examined as a means of converting raw plant biomass into familiar foods. A nutrition-improved pasta has been developed using cowpea as a replacement for a portion of the durum semolina. A freeze-drying system that simulates the space conditions has also been developed. Other technologies that would fulfill the requirements of a CELSS will also be addressed.

  16. A nutribusiness strategy for processing and marketing animal-source foods for children.

    PubMed

    Mills, Edward W; Seetharaman, Koushik; Maretzki, Audrey N

    2007-04-01

    Nutritional benefits of animal source foods in the diets of children in developing countries indicate a need to increase the availability of such foods to young children. A nutribusiness strategy based on a dried meat and starch product could be used to increase children's access to such foods. The "Chiparoo" was developed at The Pennsylvania State University with this objective in mind. Plant-based and meat ingredients of the Chiparoo are chosen based on regional availability and cultural acceptability. Chiparoo processing procedures, including solar drying, are designed to ensure product safety and to provide product properties that allow them to be eaten as a snack or crumbled into a weaning porridge. Continued work is needed to develop formulation and processing variations that accommodate the needs of cultures around the world.

  17. Effect of cooking or handling conditions on the furan levels of processed foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, T-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, Y S; Lee, K-G

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of cooking or handling conditions on the concentration of furan in processed foods. The analytical method used to analyse furan levels in foods was optimized based on solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In baby soups, the concentration of furan decreased by up to 22% after opening a lid for 10 min. In the baby food in retort packaging, the level of furan was reduced by 15-33% after heating the foods at 50 degrees C without a lid. Furan in rice seasonings was evaporated completely after heating the foods at 60 degrees C. Regarding powered milk, the levels of furan were too low to be compared under various conditions. The levels of furan decreased to 58% in beverage products for babies, after storing them at 4 degrees C for 1 day without a lid. The levels of furan in canned foods such as cereal and vegetable were reduced by zero to 52% when they were stored without stirring in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C for 1 day. When we boiled canned fish, the furan present was almost completely evaporated. It is recommended that canned meats be heated up to 50-70 degrees C for the reduction (26-46%) of furan levels. The levels of furan in instant and brewed coffee samples were significantly reduced after storing for 11 to 20 min at room temperature without a lid (p < 0.05).

  18. 21 CFR 108.35 - Thermal processing of low-acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EMERGENCY PERMIT CONTROL Specific... may result in the distribution in interstate commerce of processed foods that may be injurious to... into interstate commerce. The Commissioner of Food and Drugs therefore finds that, in order to...

  19. Application of induction heating in food processing and cooking: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induction heating is an electromagnetic heating technology that has several advantages such as high safety, scalability, and high energy efficiency. It has been applied for a long time in metal processing, medical applications, and cooking. However, the application of this technology in the food pro...

  20. Use of agro-food wastewaters for the optimisation of the denitrification process.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, L; Villaseñor, J; Fernández, F J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of the denitrification process enhancement, in the Ciudad Real (Spain) WWTP, by dosing agro-food wastewaters generated nearby the city. The studied agro-food wastewaters were characterised by a high COD and low nutrients concentration. The denitrification rates with these wastewaters were lower than those obtained either with acetate or urban sewage, however the dose of agro-food wastewaters raised significantly the denitrification capacity in the WWTP because of the significant increase of easily biodegradable substrates in the wastewater. From the laboratory NUR batch test it was observed that the best agro-food wastewater to enhance the denitrification process was that coming from tomato processing, which presented an average denitrification rate of 1.9 mg NOx-N/(g VSS.h) and an average denitrification yield of 0.2 mg NOx-N/mg COD. The viability of the use of tomato processing wastewater was checked in a pilot plant optimised for urban sewage treatment with biological nutrient removal. The optimum dose, 5.9 mg COD/mg NOx-N, was applied and 99% of the nitrate was removed from the wastewater without influencing negatively either the COD or P effluent concentrations.

  1. Knowledge and Attitudes of Produce and Seafood Processors and Food Safety Educators Regarding Nonthermal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole L.; Gable, Robert K.; Worobo, Randy W.

    2016-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was designed and administered to measure knowledge of and attitudes toward food safety impacts of nonthermal processing technologies of shellfish and produce industry personnel and extension educators. An online survey was sent via e-mail notification with the survey link through professional listserves. The survey…

  2. Sodium content of popular commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in close collaboration with U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention is monitoring the sodium content of commercially processed and restaurant foods in the United States. The main purpose of this manuscript is to prov...

  3. USDA monitors levels of added sodium in processed and prepared foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective is to provide a progress report for efforts by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) to monitor sodium in processed and prepared foods frequently consumed by the U.S. population. Recent concerns by the U.S. public health community about the intake of sodium by Americans have led ARS, USD...

  4. A New Automated Microwave Heating Process for Cooking and Pasteurization of Microwaveable Foods Containing Raw Meats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new microwave heating process was developed for cooking microwaveable foods containing raw meats. A commercially available inverter-based microwave oven was modified for pasteurization of mechanically tenderized beef, inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (~ 5 log cfu/g) and packaged in a 12 o...

  5. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar drying is a ubiquitous method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. Most of the published articles in the literature provide insight on the performance of solar dryers in service but little information on the dryer construction material selection process or mater...

  6. Detection of microbial biofilms on food processing surfaces: Hyperspectral fluorescence imaging study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a portable hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system to evaluate biofilm formations on four types of food processing surface materials including stainless steel, polypropylene used for cutting boards, and household counter top materials such as formica and granite. The objective of this inve...

  7. FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY, A SUGGESTED 2-YEAR POST HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KNOEBEL, ROBERT M.; AND OTHERS

    ADMINISTRATORS, ADVISORY COMMITTEES, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS MAY USE THIS GUIDE IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING NEW PROGRAMS OR EVALUATING EXISTING PROGRAMS IN POST-HIGH SCHOOL FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY. BASIC MATERIALS WERE PREPARED BY THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AGRICULTURAL AND TECHNICAL COLLEGE AT MORRISVILLE AND FINAL PREPARATION WAS…

  8. Cold plasma - a non-thermal processing technology to inactivate human pathogens on foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma is a novel non-thermal food processing technology, suitable for application to fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Reductions of 3-5 logs have been achieved against human pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 on fresh produce and against phytopathogens and spoilage orga...

  9. Discontinuation of data processing step: Salt adjustment on designated foods likely to be home prepared

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this report is to describe (a) the basis for and implementation of a data processing step called salt adjustment that was performed on designated foods in USDA dietary intake surveys from 1985 through 2008, (b) the rationale for discontinuing the step, and (c) the impact and implica...

  10. Detection of organic residues on food processing equipment surfaces by spectral imaging method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic residues remaining attached to equipment surfaces during poultry processing operations can potentially generate cross-contamination and thus increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. Current pre-operational sanitation monitoring mainly relies on human visual inspection, which is subje...

  11. Altered Food-Cue Processing in Chronically Ill and Recovered Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Nicole; Smeets, Paul A. M.; van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Danner, Unna N.; van Meer, Floor; Hoek, Hans W.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 years), 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 years) and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), after fasting overnight. Functional region of interests (fROIs) were defined in BU (e.g., striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), TD (e.g., medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate), the insula, and visual processing areas (VPA). Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs. We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.’s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC, fROIs across BU, TD, and VPA areas clustered; in AN, one cluster span across BU, TD, and insula; one across BU, TD, and VPA areas; and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC, BU, TD, and VPA or VPA and insula clustered. In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food

  12. Automated small-scale fuel alcohol plant: A means to add value to food processing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Keller, J.; Wernimont, L.P.

    1993-12-31

    A small scale fuel grade alcohol plant was designed, constructed and operated a decade ago. This plant design incorporated several innovative processes and features that are still on the cutting edge for small scale alcohol production. The plant design could be scaled down or up to match the needs of food processing waste streams that contain sugars or starches as BOD. The novel features include automation requiring four hours of labor per 24 hour day and a plug flow low temperature cooking system which solubilizes and liquifies the starch in one step. This plant consistently produced high yield of alcohol. Yields of 2.6 gallons of absolute alcohol were produced from a bushel of corn. Potato waste grain dust and cheese whey were also processed in this plant as well as barley. Production energy for a 190 proof gallon was approximately 32,000 BTU. This paper discusses the design, results, and applicability of this plant to food processing industries.

  13. Removal of Radiocesium from Food by Processing: Data Collected after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident - 13167

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    2013-07-01

    Removal of radiocesium from food by processing is of great concern following the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Foods in markets are monitored and recent monitoring results have shown that almost all food materials were under the standard limit concentration levels for radiocesium (Cs-134+137), that is, 100 Bq kg{sup -1} in raw foods, 50 Bq kg{sup -1} in baby foods, and 10 Bq kg{sup -1} in drinking water; those food materials above the limit cannot be sold. However, one of the most frequently asked questions from the public is how much radiocesium in food would be removed by processing. Hence, information about radioactivity removal by processing of food crops native to Japan is actively sought by consumers. In this study, the food processing retention factor, F{sub r}, which is expressed as total activity in processed food divided by total activity in raw food, is reported for various types of corps. For white rice at a typical polishing yield of 90-92% from brown rice, the F{sub r} value range was 0.42-0.47. For leafy vegetable (indirect contamination), the average F{sub r} values were 0.92 (range: 0.27-1.2) after washing and 0.55 (range: 0.22-0.93) after washing and boiling. The data for some fruits are also reported. (authors)

  14. Determination of acrylamide in processed foods by LC/MS using column switching.

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Satoshi; Nemoto, Satoru; Sasaki, Kumiko; Maitani, Tamio

    2003-04-01

    An LC/MS method was developed for the determination of acrylamide (AA) in processed or cooked foods. AA was extracted with a mixture of water and acetone from homogenized food samples after the addition of 13C-labeled acrylamide (AA-1-(13)C) as an internal standard. The extract was concentrated, washed with dichloromethane for defatting, and cleaned up on Bond Elut C18, PSA and ACCUCAT cartridge-columns, and then AA was determined by LC/MS in the selected ion recording (SIR) mode. For the LC/MS analysis, four LC columns were connected in-line and the flow of the mobile phase was switched according to a time-program. Monitoring ions for AA were m/z 72 and 55, and those for AA-1-(13)C were m/z 73 and 56. AA and AA-1-(13)C were determined without interference from the matrices in all samples. The recoveries of AA from potato chips, corn snack, pretzel and roasted tea spiked at the level of 500 ng/g of AA were 99.5-101.0% with standard deviations (SD) in the range from 0.3 to 1.6%. The limits of detection and quantification of the developed method were 9 and 30 ng/g for AA in samples, respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of AA in various processed or cooked food samples purchased from retail markets. High levels of AA were found in potato chips and French-fried potato (467-3,544 ng/g). Fried and sugar-coated dough cakes (karinto) contained 374 and 1,895 ng/g. Corn snacks contained 117-535 ng/g of AA. Roasted foods (such as roasted sesame seed, roasted barley (mugi-cha), roasted tea (hoji-cha), coffee beans and curry powder) contained 116-567 ng/g of AA. Foods made from fish, egg and meat contained lower levels of AA than the plant-based foods. Foods containing much water showed a tendency to have low levels of AA compared with dry foods. The proposed method was applicable to the analysis of AA in variety of processed foods.

  15. Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athnasios, Albert K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this review of analytical methods include: additives, adulteration, contamination, decomposition, carbohydrates, color, enzymes, fats, oils, fatty acids, flavor, identifying compounds, inorganic methods, moisture, organic acids, nitrogen processes, and vitamins. (MVL)

  16. Development and Demonstration of a Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, in collaboration with Frito-Lay, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, CPL Systems, Inc., Alpha Boilers, and Kansas State University will demonstrate use of a biomass boiler in the food processing industry. The 60,000 lb/hr innovative biomass boiler system utilizing a combination of wood waste and tire-derived fuel (TDF) waste will offset all natural gas consumption at Frito-Lay's Topeka, Kansas, processing facility.

  17. The effects of relative food item size on optimal tooth cusp sharpness during brittle food item processing

    PubMed Central

    Berthaume, Michael A.; Dumont, Elizabeth R.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Grosse, Ian R.

    2014-01-01

    Teeth are often assumed to be optimal for their function, which allows researchers to derive dietary signatures from tooth shape. Most tooth shape analyses normalize for tooth size, potentially masking the relationship between relative food item size and tooth shape. Here, we model how relative food item size may affect optimal tooth cusp radius of curvature (RoC) during the fracture of brittle food items using a parametric finite-element (FE) model of a four-cusped molar. Morphospaces were created for four different food item sizes by altering cusp RoCs to determine whether optimal tooth shape changed as food item size changed. The morphospaces were also used to investigate whether variation in efficiency metrics (i.e. stresses, energy and optimality) changed as food item size changed. We found that optimal tooth shape changed as food item size changed, but that all optimal morphologies were similar, with one dull cusp that promoted high stresses in the food item and three cusps that acted to stabilize the food item. There were also positive relationships between food item size and the coefficients of variation for stresses in food item and optimality, and negative relationships between food item size and the coefficients of variation for stresses in the enamel and strain energy absorbed by the food item. These results suggest that relative food item size may play a role in selecting for optimal tooth shape, and the magnitude of these selective forces may change depending on food item size and which efficiency metric is being selected. PMID:25320068

  18. Mathematical Modelling to Predict Oxidative Behaviour of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Food Processing Industry.

    PubMed

    Ojanguren, Aitziber; Ayo, Josune

    2013-06-20

    Industrial processes that apply high temperatures in the presence of oxygen may compromise the stability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) bioactive isomers. Statistical techniques are used in this study to model and predict, on a laboratory scale, the oxidative behaviour of oil with high CLA content, controlling the limiting factors of food processing. This modelling aims to estimate the impact of an industrial frying process (140 °C, 7 L/h air) on the oxidation of CLA oil for use as frying oil instead of sunflower oil. A factorial design was constructed within a temperature (80-200 °C) and air flow (7-20 L/h) range. Oil stability index (Rancimat method) was used as a measure of oxidation. Three-level full factorial design was used to obtain a quadratic model for CLA oil, enabling the oxidative behaviour to be predicted under predetermined process conditions (temperature and air flow). It is deduced that temperatures applied in food processes affect the oxidation of CLA to a greater extent than air flow. As a result, it is estimated that the oxidative stability of CLA oil is less resistant to industrial frying than sunflower oil. In conclusion, thanks to the mathematical model, a good choice of the appropriate industrial food process can be selected to avoid the oxidation of the bioactive isomers of CLA, ensuring its functionality in novel applications.

  19. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum.

  20. Curbing variations in packaging process through Six Sigma way in a large-scale food-processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Darshak A.; Kotadiya, Parth; Makwana, Nikheel; Patel, Sonalinkumar

    2015-08-01

    Indian industries need overall operational excellence for sustainable profitability and growth in the present age of global competitiveness. Among different quality and productivity improvement techniques, Six Sigma has emerged as one of the most effective breakthrough improvement strategies. Though Indian industries are exploring this improvement methodology to their advantage and reaping the benefits, not much has been presented and published regarding experience of Six Sigma in the food-processing industries. This paper is an effort to exemplify the application of Six Sigma quality improvement drive to one of the large-scale food-processing sectors in India. The paper discusses the phase wiz implementation of define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) on one of the chronic problems, variations in the weight of milk powder pouch. The paper wraps up with the improvements achieved and projected bottom-line gain to the unit by application of Six Sigma methodology.

  1. Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval Process: A History and Overview.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher Ty

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the processing of investigational and new drug applications is described and the standard and expedited review processes are examined. The efforts of the US Food and Drug Administration to ensure greater agency transparency and fiscal responsibility and intensify oversight during the drug development and approval process are reviewed. Often attributed to a decrease in the number of uninsured adults, both the increase in prescription drug sales and the high costs associated with bringing a new drug to market highlight the necessity for a streamlined and cost-effective process to deliver these drugs safely and effectively.

  2. Challenging genosensors in food samples: The case of gluten determination in highly processed samples.

    PubMed

    Martín-Fernández, Begoña; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Martín-Clemente, Juan Pedro; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús; López-Ruiz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical genosensors have undergone an enormous development in the last decades, but only very few have achieved a quantification of target content in highly processed food samples. The detection of allergens, and particularly gluten, is challenging because legislation establishes a threshold of 20 ppm for labeling as gluten-free but most genosensors expresses the results in DNA concentration or DNA copies. This paper describes the first attempt to correlate the genosensor response and the wheat content in real samples, even in the case of highly processed food samples. A sandwich-based format, comprising a capture probe immobilized onto the screen-printed gold electrode, and a signaling probe functionalized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), both hybridizing with the target was used. The hybridization event was electrochemically monitored by adding an anti-FITC peroxidase (antiFITC-HRP) and its substrate, tetramethylbenzidine. Binary model mixtures, as a reference material, and real samples have been analyzed. DNA from food was extracted and a fragment encoding the immunodominant peptide of α2-gliadin amplified by a tailored PCR. The sensor was able to selectively detect toxic cereals for celiac patients, such as different varieties of wheat, barley, rye and oats, from non-toxic plants. As low as 0.001% (10 mg/kg) of wheat flour in an inert matrix was reliably detected, which directly compete with the current method of choice for DNA detection, the real-time PCR. A good correlation with the official immunoassay was found in highly processed food samples.

  3. The impact of the reduction of sodium content in processed foods in salt intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Souza, Bárbara da Silva Nalin de; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed at assessing the potential impact of the reduction of sodium content in processed foods in the average salt intake in the Brazilian population. A total of 32,900 participants of the first National Dietary Survey (NDS 2008-2009), age 10 years and older who provided information about food intake over two days were evaluated. The sodium reduction targets established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2010 and 2013 were used as the reference to determine the maximum content of sodium in 21 groups of processed food. The results show that sodium reduction targets in processed food have small impact in mean Brazilian population intake of salt. For 2017, the expected mean reduction is of 1.5%, the average sodium intake being still above the recommended 2,000mg/day maximum. Therefore, it will hardly be possible to reach the necessary reduction in salt intake in Brazil from volunteer agreements like the ones made so far.

  4. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Integrating CCHP with NW Food Processing Plant #1: Modeling Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Wagner, Anne W.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Thornton, John

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has launched a project funded by the Bonneville Power Association (BPA) to identify strategies for increasing industrial energy efficiency and reducing energy costs of Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) plants through deployment of novel combinations and designs of variable-output combined heat and power (CHP) distributed generation (DG), combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) DG and energy storage systems. Detailed evaluations and recommendations of CHP and CCHP DG systems will be performed for several Northwest (NW) food processing sites. The objective is to reduce the overall energy use intensity of NW food processors by 25% by 2020 and by 50% by 2030, as well as reducing emissions and understanding potential congestion reduction impacts on the transmission system in the Pacific Northwest.

  5. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review.

    PubMed

    Rasane, Prasad; Jha, Alok; Sabikhi, Latha; Kumar, Arvind; Unnikrishnan, V S

    2015-02-01

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) have received considerable attention for their high content of dietary fibres, phytochemicals and nutritional value. It is believed that consumption of oats possesses various health benefits such as hypocholesterolaemic and anticancerous properties. Oats have also recently been considered suitable in the diet of celiac patients. Owing to their high nutritional value, oat-based food products like breads, biscuits, cookies, probiotic drinks, breakfast cereals, flakes and infant food are gaining increasing consideration. Research and development on oat and its products may be helpful in combating various diseases known to mankind. This paper provides an overview of the nutritional and health benefits provided by oats as whole grains and its value added products. It is designed to provide an insight on the processing of oats and its effect on their functional properties. The manuscript also reviews various uses of oats and its fractions for clinical and industrial purposes and in development of value added food products.

  6. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  7. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of food processing wastes. 1995 topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    The catalytic gasification system described in this report has undergone continuing development and refining work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for over 16 years. The original experiments, performed for the Gas Research Institute, were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous stirred-tank reactor tests provided useful design information for evaluating the preliminary economics of the process. This report is a follow-on to previous interim reports which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with batch and continuous-feed reactor systems from 1989 to 1994, including much work with food processing wastes. The discussion here provides details of experiments on food processing waste feedstock materials, exclusively, that were conducted in batch and continuous- flow reactors.

  8. Food Safety Impacts from Post-Harvest Processing Procedures of Molluscan Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Baker, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, temperature, salinity, pressure, and process exposure. Regulatory requirements and PHP molluscan shellfish quality implications are major considerations for PHP usage. Food safety impacts associated with PHP of molluscan shellfish vary in their efficacy and may have synergistic outcomes when combined. Further research for many PHP methods are necessary and emerging PHP methods that result in minimal quality loss and effective human pathogen reduction should be explored. PMID:28231124

  9. Functional food and nutraceutical registration processes in Japan and China: a diffusion of innovation perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshika; Dufour, Yvon; Domigan, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper looks into the functional food and nutraceutical registration processes in Japan and China. The Japanese have developed the Foods for Specified Health Use (FOSHU) registration process whereas the Chinese have put into place the Health Food (HF) registration process. The aim of this paper is to compare the regulation processes between the two countries in search for answers to three core empirical questions: (1) how have the registration processes developed and changed? (2) What are the similarities and differences between the processes of registration in the two countries investigated? (3) Why are the registration processes similar/different? Method - The study was conducted using secondary sources. The literature surveyed covered academic journals, trade journals, magazine and newspaper articles, market reports, proceedings, books and web pages of relevant regulatory authorities and regulatory consultants. Information from the more recently published sources was used preferentially over older sources. As well as using the most recent sources, information was selected on the basis of which source it was from. Official regulations and SFDA and MHLW websites would contain accurate and up to date information and information from here would be taken as true over other sources of information. Results - The two diagrams of the registration processes respectively in Japan and China clearly show that there are similarities and differences. There are six categories under which these can be found: (1) the scientific evidence required; (2) the application process; (3) the evaluation process; (4) the law and the categories of products; (5) the labels and the types of claims; and finally (6) the cost and the time involved. Conclusions -The data analysis suggests that the process of diffusion of innovation played a role in the development of the regulations. Further it was found that while Japan was at the outset a pioneer innovator in nutraceutical

  10. Advances in feature selection methods for hyperspectral image processing in food industry applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qiong; Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased interest in the applications of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for assessing food quality, safety, and authenticity. HSI provides abundance of spatial and spectral information from foods by combining both spectroscopy and imaging, resulting in hundreds of contiguous wavebands for each spatial position of food samples, also known as the curse of dimensionality. It is desirable to employ feature selection algorithms for decreasing computation burden and increasing predicting accuracy, which are especially relevant in the development of online applications. Recently, a variety of feature selection algorithms have been proposed that can be categorized into three groups based on the searching strategy namely complete search, heuristic search and random search. This review mainly introduced the fundamental of each algorithm, illustrated its applications in hyperspectral data analysis in the food field, and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms. It is hoped that this review should provide a guideline for feature selections and data processing in the future development of hyperspectral imaging technique in foods.

  11. Development of Rapid Identification and Risk Analysis of Moniliella Spp. in Acidic Processed Foods.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Motokazu; Hosoya, Kouichi; Shimizu-Imanishi, Yumi; Chibana, Hiroji; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The number of spoilage incidents in the food industry attributable to a species of the genus Moniliella has recently increased, but the risk of food spoilage has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to rapidly identify high-risk species and to conduct a risk analysis study of Moniliella spp. Acetic acid resistance of M. acetoabutens and ethanol resistance of M. suaveolens were higher than for other Moniliella species. All examined strains of M. acetoabutens developed a high tolerance to acetic acid by being cultured twice in liquid media containing low concentrations of acetic acid. These findings indicate that M. acetoabutens and M. suaveolens are high-risk species for food spoilage and must be discriminated from other fungi. We developed species-specific primers to identify M. acetoabutens and M. suaveolens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the D1/D2 domain of 28S rDNA. The PCR using the primer sets designed for M. acetoabutens (Mac_F1/R1) and M. suaveolens (Msu_F1/R1) was specific to the target species and did not detect other fungi involved in food spoilage or environmental contamination. This method is expected to be effective for the monitoring of raw materials and components of the food production process.

  12. Validation of quantitative and qualitative methods for detecting allergenic ingredients in processed foods in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-06-19

    A labeling system for food allergenic ingredients was established in Japan in April 2002. To monitor the labeling, the Japanese government announced official methods for detecting allergens in processed foods in November 2002. The official methods consist of quantitative screening tests using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and qualitative confirmation tests using Western blotting or polymerase chain reactions (PCR). In addition, the Japanese government designated 10 μg protein/g food (the corresponding allergenic ingredient soluble protein weight/food weight), determined by ELISA, as the labeling threshold. To standardize the official methods, the criteria for the validation protocol were described in the official guidelines. This paper, which was presented at the Advances in Food Allergen Detection Symposium, ACS National Meeting and Expo, San Diego, CA, Spring 2012, describes the validation protocol outlined in the official Japanese guidelines, the results of interlaboratory studies for the quantitative detection method (ELISA for crustacean proteins) and the qualitative detection method (PCR for shrimp and crab DNAs), and the reliability of the detection methods.

  13. Ultra-Processed Food Products and Obesity in Brazilian Households (2008–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Background Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity) and obesity in Brazil. Methods The study was based on data from the 2008–2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata), geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products). Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. Results The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile) to 39.4% (upper quartile). Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. Conclusion Greater household

  14. Assessment of the microbial safety and quality of cooked chilled foods and their production process.

    PubMed

    Daelman, Jeff; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Lahou, Evy; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Refrigerated processed foods of extended durability (REPFEDs) are a heterogeneous group of food products. This study assesses the microbial safety and quality along the production process in five REPFED companies. Samples were taken of raw materials (n=123), intermediate products (n=123), end products at production day (n=45) and at end of shelf life (n=90), food contact surfaces (n=226) and worker's hands/gloves (n=92). Samples are analysed for total psychrotrophic aerobic count, aerobic spore count, sulphite reducing Clostridia, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Both L. monocytogenes and B. cereus were detected on the raw materials. Nine of 72 raw materials tested were positive (in 25g) for L. monocytogenes and all but one of these raw materials were raw or minimally processed animal products. Three of 123 raw materials contained high counts (>4log CFU/g) of B. cereus, all of these samples were dried herbs. During production both food contact surfaces (90/226) and gloves (43/92) contained increased levels of total psychrotrophic aerobic counts (≥3log CFU/25cm(2)). This points out a potential source of bacterial recontamination. However, only a four and six of 223 food contact surfaces were positive (per 25cm(2)) for L. monocytogenes and B. cereus respectively. None of the gloves sampled contained L. monocytogenes and only 2 sets of gloves were positive for B. cereus. Of the 123 intermediate products tested twelve tested positive for L. monocytogenes (in 25g) and 5 showed elevated counts of B. cereus (ca. 2.5log CFU/g). Despite the presence of L. monocytogenes in the raw materials, the production area and in some of the intermediate products, none of the end products were positive for L. monocytogenes and only 9 of 135 samples (6.7%) showed to have low numbers of B. cereus (<2.7log CFU/g). This results show that the current pasteurization processes and the food safety management system are adequate to guarantee the production of microbiologically safe

  15. Surface modification of food contact materials for processing and packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barish, Jeffrey A.

    This body of work investigates various techniques for the surface modification of food contact materials for use in food packaging and processing applications. Nanoscale changes to the surface of polymeric food packaging materials enables changes in adhesion, wettability, printability, chemical functionality, and bioactivity, while maintaining desirable bulk properties. Polymer surface modification is used in applications such as antimicrobial or non-fouling materials, biosensors, and active packaging. Non-migratory active packagings, in which bioactive components are tethered to the package, offer the potential to reduce the need for additives in food products while maintaining safety and quality. A challenge in developing non-migratory active packaging materials is the loss of biomolecular activity that can occur when biomolecules are immobilized. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), a biocompatible polymer, is grafted from the surface of ozone treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resulting in a surface functionalized polyethylene to which a range of amine-terminated bioactive molecules can be immobilized. The grafting of PEG onto the surface of polymer packaging films is accomplished by free radical graft polymerization, and to covalently link an amine-terminated molecule to the PEG tether, demonstrating that amine-terminated bioactive compounds (such as peptides, enzymes, and some antimicrobials) can be immobilized onto PEG-grafted LDPE in the development of non-migratory active packaging. Fouling on food contact surfaces during food processing has a significant impact on operating efficiency and can promote biofilm development. Processing raw milk on plate heat exchangers results in significant fouling of proteins as well as minerals, and is exacerbated by the wall heating effect. An electroless nickel coating is co-deposited with polytetrafluoroethylene onto stainless steel to test its ability to resist fouling on a pilot plant scale plate heat exchanger. Further

  16. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gliadin assessment in processed food products available for persons with celiac disease: a feasibility study for developing a gluten-free food database.

    PubMed

    Agakidis, Charalampos; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Kalaitsidou, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theodoros; Savvidou, Afroditi; Daskalou, Efstratia; Dimitrios, Triantafyllou

    2011-12-01

    Inappropriate food labeling and unwillingness of food companies to officially register their own gluten-free products in the Greek National Food Intolerance Database (NFID) result in a limited range of processed food products available for persons with celiac disease (CDP). The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing a gluten-free food product database based on the assessment of the gluten content in processed foods available for CDP. Gluten was assessed in 41 processed food products available for CDP. Group A consisted of 26 products for CDP included in the NFID, and group B contained 15 food products for CDP not registered in the NFID but listed in the safe lists of the local Celiac Association (CA). High-sensitivity ω-gliadin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for analysis. Gluten was lower than 20 ppm in 37 of 41 analyzed products (90.2%): in 24 of 26 (92.3%) products in group A and in 13 of 15 (86.7%) products in group B (P = .61). No significant difference was found between the 2 groups regarding gluten content. No product in either group contained gluten in excess of 100 ppm. Most of the analyzed products included in the Greek NFID or listed in the lists of the local CA, even those not officially labeled "gluten free," can be safely consumed by CDP. The use of commercially available ω-gliadin ELISA is able to identify those products that contain inappropriate levels of gluten, making feasible it to develop an integrated gluten-free processed food database.

  17. Emerging techniques for assisting and accelerating food freezing processes: A review of recent research progresses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lina; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zi

    2017-03-04

    Freezing plays an important role in food preservation and the emergence of rapid freezing technologies can be highly beneficial to the food industry. This paper reviews some novel food freezing technologies, including high-pressure freezing (HPF), ultrasound-assisted freezing (UAF), electrically disturbed freezing (EF) and magnetically disturbed freezing (MF), microwave-assisted freezing (MWF), and osmo-dehydro-freezing (ODF). HPF and UAF can initiate ice nucleation rapidly, leading to uniform distribution of ice crystals and the control of their size and shape. Specifically, the former is focused on increasing the degree of supercooling, whereas the latter aims to decrease it. Direct current electric freezing (DC-EF) and alternating current electric freezing (AC-EF) exhibit different effects on ice nucleation. DC-EF can promote ice nucleation and AC-EF has the opposite effect. Furthermore, ODF has been successfully used for freezing various vegetables and fruit. MWF cannot control the nucleation temperature, but can decrease supercooling degree, thus decreasing the size of ice crystals. The heat and mass transfer processes during ODF have been investigated experimentally and modeled mathematically. More studies should be carried out to understand the effects of these technologies on food freezing process.

  18. Commercial processed soy-based food product contains glycated and glycoxidated lunasin proteoforms

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Aida; Gallart-Palau, Xavier; See-Toh, Rachel Su-En; Hemu, Xinya; Tam, James P.; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Nutraceuticals have been proposed to exert positive effects on human health and confer protection against many chronic diseases. A major bioactive component of soy-based foods is lunasin peptide, which has potential to exert a major impact on the health of human consumers worldwide, but the biochemical features of dietary lunasin still remain poorly characterized. In this study, lunasin was purified from a soy-based food product via strong anion exchange solid phase extraction and then subjected to top-down mass spectrometry analysis that revealed in detail the molecular diversity of lunasin in processed soybean foods. We detected multiple glycated proteoforms together with potentially toxic advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from lunasin. In both cases, modification sites were Lys24 and Lys29 located at the helical region that shows structural homology with a conserved region of chromatin-binding proteins. The identified post-translational modifications may have an important repercussion on lunasin epigenetic regulatory capacity. Taking together, our results demonstrate the importance of proper chemical characterization of commercial processed food products to assess their impact on consumer’s health and risk of chronic diseases. PMID:27189269

  19. Effect of high-pressure food processing on the physical properties of synthetic and biopolymer films.

    PubMed

    Galotto, M J; Ulloa, P A; Guarda, A; Gavara, R; Miltz, J

    2009-08-01

    The effect of high-pressure processing on 2 plastic food packaging films, a biopolymer (PLASiOx/PLA) and a synthetic polymer (PET-AlOx), was studied. Samples in direct contact with olive oil, as a fatty food simulant, and distilled water, as an aqueous simulant, were subjected to a pressure of 500MPa for 15 min at 50 degrees C. The mechanical, thermal, and gas barrier properties of both films were evaluated after the high-pressure processing (HPP) and compared to control samples that have not undergone this treatment. Significant changes in all properties were observed in both films after the HPP treatment and in contact with the food simulants. In both films an induced crystallization was noticed. In the PLASiOx/PLA film the changes were larger when in contact with water that probably acted as a plasticizer. In the PET-AlOx film the changes in properties were attributed to the formation of pinholes and cracks during the HPP treatment. In this film, most of the properties changed more in the presence of oil as the food simulant.

  20. New Trends in Pesticide Residue Analysis in Cereals, Nutraceuticals, Baby Foods, and Related Processed Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide residue methods have been developed for a wide variety of food products including cereal-based foods, nutraceuticals and related plant products, and baby foods. These cereal, fruit, vegetable, and plant-based products provide the basis for many processed consumer products. For cereal and nutraceuticals, which are dry sample products, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method has been used with additional steps to allow wetting of the dry sample matrix and subsequent cleanup using dispersive or cartridge format SPE to reduce matrix effects. More processed foods may have lower pesticide concentrations but higher co-extracts that can lead to signal suppression or enhancement with MS detection. For complex matrixes, GC/MS/MS or LC/electrospray ionization (positive or negative ion)-MS/MS is more frequently used. The extraction and cleanup methods vary with different sample types particularly for cereal-based products, and these different approaches are discussed in this review. General instrument considerations are also discussed.

  1. 21 CFR 108.35 - Thermal processing of low-acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... processing method in terms of the type of processing equipment employed, and a list of the low-acid foods so... to the scheduled processes including but not limited to the processing method, type of retort or... processing, sterilizing value (Fo), or other equivalent scientific evidence of process adequacy,...

  2. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N.

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  3. California Food Processing Industry Wastewater Demonstration Project: Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Glen; Atkinson, Barbara; Rhyne, Ivin

    2009-09-09

    Wastewater treatment is an energy-intensive process and electricity demand is especially high during the utilities summer peak electricity demand periods. This makes wastewater treatment facilities prime candidates for demand response programs. However, wastewater treatment is often peripheral to food processing operations and its demand response opportunities have often been overlooked. Phase I of this wastewater demonstration project monitored wastewater energy and environmental data at Bell-Carter Foods, Inc., California's largest olive processing plant. For this monitoring activity the project team used Green Energy Management System (GEMS) automated enterprise energy management (EEM) technologies. This report presents results from data collected by GEMS from September 15, 2008 through November 30, 2008, during the olive harvest season. This project established and tested a methodology for (1) gathering baseline energy and environmental data at an industrial food-processing plant and (2) using the data to analyze energy efficiency, demand response, daily peak load management, and environmental management opportunities at the plant. The Phase I goals were to demonstrate the measurement and interrelationship of electricity demand, electricity usage, and water quality metrics and to estimate the associated CO{sub 2} emissions.

  4. Product, not process! Explaining a basic concept in agricultural biotechnologies and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Most life scientists have relentlessly recommended any evaluative approach of agri-food products to be based on examination of the phenotype, i.e. the actual characteristics of the food, feed and fiber varieties: the effects of any new cultivar (or micro-organism, animal) on our health are not dependent on the process(es), the techniques used to obtain it.The so-called "genetically modified organisms" ("GMOs"), on the other hand, are commonly framed as a group with special properties - most frequently seen as dubious, or even harmful.Some social scientists still believe that considering the process is a correct background for science-based understanding and regulation. To show that such an approach is utterly wrong, and to invite scientists, teachers and science communicators to explain this mistake to students, policy-makers and the public at large, we imagined a dialogue between a social scientist, who has a positive opinion about a certain weight that a process-based orientation should have in the risk assessment, and a few experts who offer plenty of arguments against that view. The discussion focuses on new food safety.

  5. Food and processing residues in California: resource assessment and potential for power generation.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Gary C; Jenkins, B M

    2007-11-01

    The California agricultural industry produces more than 350 commodities with a combined yearly value in excess of $28 billion. The processing of many of these crops results in the production of residue streams, and the food processing industry faces increasing regulatory pressure to reduce environmental impacts and provide for sustainable management and use. Surveys of food and other processing and waste management sectors combined with published state data yield a total resource in excess of 4 million metric tons of dry matter, with nearly half of this likely to be available for utilization. About two-thirds of the available resource is produced as high-moisture residues that could support 134 MWe of power generation by anaerobic digestion and other conversion techniques. The other third is generated as low-moisture materials, many of which are already employed as fuel in direct combustion biomass power plants. The cost of energy conversion remains high for biochemical systems, with tipping or disposal fees of the order of $30-50Mg(-1) required to align power costs with current market prices. Identifying ways to reduce capital and operating costs of energy conversion, extending operating seasons to increase capacity factors through centralizing facilities, combining resource streams, and monetizing environmental benefits remain important goals for restructuring food and processing waste management in the state.

  6. Thermal processing of acidified foods with pH 4.1 to pH 4.6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shelf-stable acidified foods with a pH at or below 4.6 must be processed to achieve a 5-log reduction for vegetative bacterial pathogens. Published research does not exist to adequately support the Food and Drug Administration process filings for products with pH 4.1–4.6 or to define critical limits...

  7. Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility (Mead-Johnson Nutritionals, Bristol-Myers Squib)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project.

  8. Going beyond exposure to local news media: an information-processing examination of public perceptions of food safety.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kenneth; Thorson, Esther; Zhang, Yuyan

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety was examined in a statewide telephone survey (n = 524). The theoretical framework of the study was based on a review of the social and psychological factors that affect public concerns about food safety, the relationship between mass communication and risk perception, and the thesis of information-processing strategies and its impact on learning from the news. The results show that information-processing strategies substantially mediated the relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety, with elaborative processing being more influential than active reflection in people's learning from the news media. Attention to local television had an independent effect, after demographics, awareness of food safety problems, and perceived safety of local food supply were statistically controlled. Other important predictors included gender, education, ethnicity, and perceived safety of local food supply.

  9. Gastric digestion in vivo and in vitro: how the structural aspects of food influence the digestion process.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Paul Singh, R

    2014-01-01

    Food digestion is crucial for sustaining life. Although it has been examined for more than 300 years, the basic principles are not entirely understood. Antral motility is well characterized, and current research is seeking to determine flow patterns generated by the stomach's peristaltic contractions. The rate of gastric emptying for solid and liquid meals has been determined according to variations in meal composition, energy content, and subject characteristics. The glycemic response has been measured for many carbohydrate foods and is altered by factors such as amount of processing, particle size, and starch structure. Similarly, ileal starch digestibility is altered by food and starch properties. Even though many foods have been studied according to their glycemic response, starch digestibility, and in vitro digestion kinetics, the rate-determining processes and underlying mechanisms remain to be established. The link between food properties, digestion processes, and final health outcomes must be strengthened for functional food optimization.

  10. Granular activated carbon promoted ozonation of a food-processing secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Pedro M; Pocostales, J Pablo; Beltrán, Fernando J

    2011-01-30

    This paper reports on the application of a simultaneous combination of ozone and a granular activated carbon (O(3)/GAC) as a tertiary treatment of a wastewater generated from the activity of various food-processing industries. Prior to the O(3)/GAC treatment, the wastewater was subjected to conventional primary and secondary treatments in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The effluent from the WWTP presented high organic load (COD>500 mg/l and TOC>150 mg/l), which could be much reduced by the O(3)/GAC treatment. Results from the O(3)/GAC experiments were compared with those obtained in single ozonation, single adsorption onto GAC and sequential O(3)-GAC adsorption experiments. While single processes and the sequential one showed limited capacity to remove organic matter for the food-processing effluent (COD removal <40%), the simultaneous O(3)/GAC process led to decreases of COD up to 82% at the conditions here applied. The combined process also improved the ozone consumption, which decreased from about 19 g O(3)/g TOC (single ozonation process) to 8.2-10.7 g O(3)/g TOC (O(3)/GAC process). The reusability of the GAC throughout a series of consecutive O(3)/GAC experiments was studied with no apparent loss of activity for a neutral GAC (PZC = 6.7) but for a basic GAC (PZC = 9.1).

  11. Modeling optimal process conditions for UV-heat inactivation of foodborne pathogens in liquid foods.

    PubMed

    Gayán, Elisa; Serrano, María Jesús; Álvarez, Ignacio; Condón, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    The combination of ultraviolet radiation and heat (UV-H treatment) has been demonstrated as a promising strategy to overcome the limited UV germicidal effect in fruit juices. Nonetheless, there are so far no data regarding the efficacy of the combined process for the inactivation of bacterial foodborne pathogens in other liquid foods with different pH and composition. In this investigation, the optimum UV-H processing conditions for the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and S. aureus in chicken and vegetable broth, in addition to juices, were determined. From these data models that accurately predict the most advantageous UV-H treatment temperature and the expected synergistic lethal effect from UV and heat resistance data separately were constructed. Equations demonstrated that the optimum UV-H treatment temperature mostly depended on heat resistance, whereas the maximum synergistic lethal effect also was affected by the UV resistance of the microorganism of concern in a particular food.

  12. Potential Applications of Immobilized β-Galactosidase in Food Processing Industries

    PubMed Central

    Panesar, Parmjit S.; Kumari, Shweta; Panesar, Reeba

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme β-galactosidase can be obtained from a wide variety of sources such as microorganisms, plants, and animals. The use of β-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk and whey is one of the promising enzymatic applications in food and dairy processing industries. The enzyme can be used in either soluble or immobilized forms but the soluble enzyme can be used only for batch processes and the immobilized form has the advantage of being used in batch wise as well as in continuous operation. Immobilization has been found to be convenient method to make enzyme thermostable and to prevent the loss of enzyme activity. This review has been focused on the different types of techniques used for the immobilization of β-galactosidase and its potential applications in food industry. PMID:21234407

  13. Food protein-derived bioactive peptides: production, processing, and potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive peptides (BAPs), derived through enzymatic hydrolysis of food proteins, have demonstrated potential for application as health-promoting agents against numerous human health and disease conditions, including cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. The feasibility of pharmacological application of these peptides depends on absorption and bioavailability in intact forms in target tissues, which in turn depends on structure of the peptides. Therefore, production and processing of peptides based on important structure-function parameters can lead to the production of potent peptides. This article reviews the literature on BAPs with emphasis on strategic production and processing methods as well as antihypertensive, anticancer, anticalmodulin, hypocholesterolemic, and multifunctional properties of the food protein-derived peptides. It is recommended that future research efforts on BAP should be directed toward elucidation of their in vivo molecular mechanisms of action, safety at various doses, and pharmacological activity in maintaining homeostasis during aberrant health conditions in human subjects.

  14. Energy conservation study on Smith Frozen Foods processing plant, Weston, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-02

    A comprehensive energy study was performed at Smith Frozen Foods in Weston, Oregon, in the fall of 1984. The plant processes corn, peas, lima beans and carrots. The products are inspected, prepared and graded before being sent through freeze tunnels. The frozen products are dumped into tote bins which are transported into cold storage warehouses. Energy conservation measures were calculated using a modified return on investment analysis called a return on capital (ROC) analysis and current rate schedules.

  15. Evaluation of Sources of Nitrate Beneath Food Processing Wastewater-Application Sites near Umatilla, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna; Paulson, Anthony; Richerson, Phil; Striz, Elise; Black, Curt

    2009-01-01

    Water samples from wells were collected beneath and downgradient of two food-processing wastewater-application sites near Umatilla, Oregon. These samples were analyzed for nitrate stable isotopes, nutrients, major ions, and age-dating constituents to determine if nitrate-stable isotopes can be used to differentiate food-processing waste from other potential sources of nitrate. Major-ion data from each site were used to determine which samples were associated with the recharge of the food-processing wastewater. End-member mixing analysis was used to determine the relative amounts of each identified end member within the samples collected from the Terrace Farm site. The delta nitrogen-15 (delta 15N) of nitrate generally ranged between +2 and +9 parts per thousand and the delta oxygen-18 (delta 18O) of nitrate generally ranged between -2 and -7 parts per thousand. None of the samples that were determined to be associated with the wastewater were different from the samples that were not affected by the wastewater. The nitrate isotope values measured in this study are also characteristic of ammonium fertilizer, animal and human waste, and soil nitrate; therefore, it was not possible to differentiate between food-processing wastewater and the other nitrate sources. Values of delta 15N and delta 18O of nitrate provided no more information about the sources of nitrate in the Umatilla River basin than did a hydrologic and geochemical understanding of the ground-water system derived from interpreting water-level and major-ion chemistry data.

  16. Biomarker qualification pilot process at the US Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Goodsaid, Federico; Frueh, Felix

    2007-03-23

    New biomarkers of safety and efficacy are becoming powerful tools in drug development. Their application can be accelerated if a consensus can be reached about their qualification for regulatory applications. This consensus requires a review structure within the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that can evaluate qualification data for these biomarkers and determine whether these biomarkers can be qualified. A pilot process and corresponding Biomarker Qualification Review Team have been developed to test how the FDA can work on biomarker qualification.

  17. Consumer concerns and expectations about novel food processing technologies: effects on product liking.

    PubMed

    Cardello, Armand V

    2003-06-01

    Eighty-eight consumers participated in a blind pre-test in which they rated their baseline preference for chocolate pudding, their liking of three tasted brands of chocolate pudding, and their level of concern for 20 different food processing and preservation technologies. All returned one month later and tasted the same puddings, but this time they were informed that they had been processed by one of several different novel or traditional food processing techniques. Different sub-groups were informed of the name of the process, the name plus a factual description of the process, or the name, the factual description, plus a benefit statement. Ratings of expected liking were obtained before and after viewing the samples, but before tasting them. Finally, subjects tasted and rated the products for actual liking and a sub-group rated their concern levels for the same 20 technologies rated in the pre-test. Pre-test results showed females to have significantly higher concern levels for all technologies. Individuals who had demonstrated a willingness to consume foods processed by one novel technology (irradiation) had lower concern ratings for all technologies. Ratings of concern were negatively correlated with expected liking for products believed to be processed by the technologies. Expected liking ratings were positively influenced by visual exposure to the product and by a safety and benefit statement. Linear regression of the change in product liking as a function of whether products were better or worse than expected supported an assimilation model of the effect of disconfirmed expectations on liking/disliking. Lastly, post-test concern levels for many of the technologies were reduced by participation in the study.

  18. Modern 'junk food' and minimally-processed 'natural food' cafeteria diets alter the response to sweet taste but do not impair flavor-nutrient learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Palframan, Kristen M; Myers, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Animals learn to prefer and increase consumption of flavors paired with postingestive nutrient sensing. Analogous effects have been difficult to observe in human studies. One possibility is experience with the modern, processed diet impairs learning. Food processing manipulates flavor, texture, sweetness, and nutrition, obscuring ordinary correspondences between sensory cues and postingestive consequences. Over time, a diet of these processed 'junk' foods may impair flavor-nutrient learning. This 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis was tested by providing rats long-term exposure to cafeteria diets of unusual breadth (2 or 3 foods per day, 96 different foods over 3 months, plus ad libitum chow). One group was fed processed foods (PF) with added sugars/fats and manipulated flavors, to mimic the sensory-nutrient properties of the modern processed diet. Another group was fed only 'natural' foods (NF) meaning minimally-processed foods without manipulated flavors or added sugars/fats (e.g., fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains) ostensibly preserving the ordinary correspondence between flavors and nutrition. A CON group was fed chow only. In subsequent tests of flavor-nutrient learning, PF and NF rats consistently acquired strong preferences for novel nutrient-paired flavors and PF rats exhibited enhanced learned acceptance, contradicting the 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis. An unexpected finding was PF and NF diets both caused lasting reduction in ad lib sweet solution intake. Groups did not differ in reinforcing value of sugar in a progressive ratio task. In lick microstructure analysis the NF group paradoxically showed increased sucrose palatability relative to PF and CON, suggesting the diets have different effects on sweet taste evaluation.

  19. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  20. Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses.

  1. Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chetan; Kaur, Amarjeet; Thind, S S; Singh, Baljit; Raina, Shiveta

    2015-12-01

    The global food industry is expected to increase more than US $ 7 trillion by 2014. This rise in processed food sector shows that more and more people are diverging towards modern processed foods. As modern diets are largely heat processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds which are known as brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances such as pentosidine, non-fluorescent cross-linking products such as methylglyoxal-lysine dimers (MOLD), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (a pyrrole aldehyde). The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and ageing discussed. The concept of AGEs receptor - RAGE is mentioned. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different methods of detection and quantification along with types of agents used for the treatment of AGEs are reviewed. Generally, ELISA or LC-MS methods are used for analysis of foods and body fluids, however lack of universally established method highlighted. The inhibitory effect of bioactive components on AGEs by trapping variety of chemical moieties discussed. The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs.

  2. Thermal and refining processes, not fermentation, tend to reduce lipotropic capacity of plant-based foods.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony; Martin, Jean-François; Chardigny, Jean-Michel

    2011-08-01

    Plant-based foods (PBF) are relevant and diversified sources of lipotropes, which are compounds preventing excess hepatic fat deposits. In a first study, we defined the lipotropic capacity (LC, %) of raw PBF as the means of 8 lipotrope densities (LD, mg/100 kcal), each expressed relative to that of a reference food ranking the highest considering its mean 8 LD ranks (LC(raw asparagus)=100%) (A. Fardet, J.-F. Martin and J. M. Chardigny, J. Food Comp. Anal., 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2011.1003.1013). We showed that vegetables appeared as the best source of lipotropes on a 100 kcal-basis compared to legumes, cereals, fruits and nuts. The main objective of this second study was to quantify the effect of processing on LD and LC of raw PBF based on lipotrope contents collected in a USDA (United State Department of Agriculture) database and the literature, i.e. betaine, choline, myo-inositol, methionine, magnesium, niacin, pantothenic acid and folate contents. Choline and betaine densities were not significantly affected by processing while methionine and lipotropic micronutrient densities were significantly decreased, especially for magnesium, pantothenate and folates. Myo-inositol density decreases were insignificant due to lower product number resulting from limited literature data. Lipotropic micronutrient densities were more affected by processing than other densities. Fermentations increased betaine (median change of +32%) and choline (+34%) densities. Canning and boiling vegetables increased choline densities (+26%). Globally, processing significantly reduced LC by ∼20%, fermentations being less drastic (median change of -5%) than refining (-33%) and thermal treatments (-16%). More specifically, canning increased LC of beetroot (536 vs 390%) and common bean (40 vs 36%) as fermentation towards LC grape (14 vs 7% for wine). Results were then mainly discussed based on percentages of lipotrope content changes on a dry-weight basis. Results of this study also showed

  3. BIOFILM FORMATION OF Vibrio cholerae ON STAINLESS STEEL USED IN FOOD PROCESSING

    PubMed Central

    FERNÁNDEZ-DELGADO, Milagro; ROJAS, Héctor; DUQUE, Zoilabet; SUÁREZ, Paula; CONTRERAS, Monica; GARCÍA-AMADO, M. Alexandra; ALCIATURI, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae represents a significant threat to human health in developing countries. This pathogen forms biofilms which favors its attachment to surfaces and its survival and transmission by water or food. This work evaluated the in vitro biofilm formation of V. cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources on stainless steel of the type used in food processing by using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results showed no cell adhesion at 4 h and scarce surface colonization at 24 h. Biofilms from the environmental strain were observed at 48 h with high cellular aggregations embedded in Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS), while less confluence and VPS production with microcolonies of elongated cells were observed in biofilms produced by the clinical strain. At 96 h the biofilms of the environmental strain were released from the surface leaving coccoid cells and residual structures, whereas biofilms of the clinical strain formed highly organized structures such as channels, mushroom-like and pillars. This is the first study that has shown the in vitro ability of V. cholerae to colonize and form biofilms on stainless steel used in food processing. PMID:27253749

  4. Mathematical model of solid food pasteurization by ohmic heating: influence of process parameters.

    PubMed

    Marra, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurization of a solid food undergoing ohmic heating has been analysed by means of a mathematical model, involving the simultaneous solution of Laplace's equation, which describes the distribution of electrical potential within a food, the heat transfer equation, using a source term involving the displacement of electrical potential, the kinetics of inactivation of microorganisms likely to be contaminating the product. In the model, thermophysical and electrical properties as function of temperature are used. Previous works have shown the occurrence of heat loss from food products to the external environment during ohmic heating. The current model predicts that, when temperature gradients are established in the proximity of the outer ohmic cell surface, more cold areas are present at junctions of electrodes with lateral sample surface. For these reasons, colder external shells are the critical areas to be monitored, instead of internal points (typically geometrical center) as in classical pure conductive heat transfer. Analysis is carried out in order to understand the influence of pasteurisation process parameters on this temperature distribution. A successful model helps to improve understanding of these processing phenomenon, which in turn will help to reduce the magnitude of the temperature differential within the product and ultimately provide a more uniformly pasteurized product.

  5. Effects of various cooking processes on the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in foods.

    PubMed

    Perelló, Gemma; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2008-12-10

    The effects of cooking processes commonly used by the population of Catalonia (Spain) on total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) concentrations in various foodstuffs were investigated. All food samples were randomly acquired in local markets, big supermarkets, and grocery stores of Reus (Catalonia). Foods included fish (sardine, hake, and tuna), meat (veal steak, loin of pork, breast and thigh of chicken, and steak and rib of lamb), string bean, potato, rice, and olive oil. For each food item, two composite samples were prepared for metal analyses, whose levels in raw and cooked (fried, grilled, roasted, and boiled) samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As, Hg, and Pb (raw and cooked samples) were mainly found in fish, with a clear tendency, in general, to increase metal concentrations after cooking. However, in these samples, Cd levels were very close to their detection limit. In turn, the concentrations of metals in raw and cooked meat samples were detected in all samples (As) or only in a very few samples (Cd, Hg, and Pb). A similar finding corresponded to string beans, rice, and olive oil, while in potatoes, Hg could not be detected and Pb only was detected in the raw samples. In summary, the results of the present study show that, in general terms, the cooking process is only of a very limited value as a means of reducing metal concentrations. This hypothetical reduction depends upon cooking conditions (time, temperature, and medium of cooking).

  6. BIOFILM FORMATION OF Vibrio cholerae ON STAINLESS STEEL USED IN FOOD PROCESSING.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Rojas, Héctor; Duque, Zoilabet; Suárez, Paula; Contreras, Monica; García-Amado, M Alexandra; Alciaturi, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae represents a significant threat to human health in developing countries. This pathogen forms biofilms which favors its attachment to surfaces and its survival and transmission by water or food. This work evaluated the in vitro biofilm formation of V. cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources on stainless steel of the type used in food processing by using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results showed no cell adhesion at 4 h and scarce surface colonization at 24 h. Biofilms from the environmental strain were observed at 48 h with high cellular aggregations embedded in Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS), while less confluence and VPS production with microcolonies of elongated cells were observed in biofilms produced by the clinical strain. At 96 h the biofilms of the environmental strain were released from the surface leaving coccoid cells and residual structures, whereas biofilms of the clinical strain formed highly organized structures such as channels, mushroom-like and pillars. This is the first study that has shown the in vitro ability of V. cholerae to colonize and form biofilms on stainless steel used in food processing.

  7. Mathematical Model of Solid Food Pasteurization by Ohmic Heating: Influence of Process Parameters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurization of a solid food undergoing ohmic heating has been analysed by means of a mathematical model, involving the simultaneous solution of Laplace's equation, which describes the distribution of electrical potential within a food, the heat transfer equation, using a source term involving the displacement of electrical potential, the kinetics of inactivation of microorganisms likely to be contaminating the product. In the model, thermophysical and electrical properties as function of temperature are used. Previous works have shown the occurrence of heat loss from food products to the external environment during ohmic heating. The current model predicts that, when temperature gradients are established in the proximity of the outer ohmic cell surface, more cold areas are present at junctions of electrodes with lateral sample surface. For these reasons, colder external shells are the critical areas to be monitored, instead of internal points (typically geometrical center) as in classical pure conductive heat transfer. Analysis is carried out in order to understand the influence of pasteurisation process parameters on this temperature distribution. A successful model helps to improve understanding of these processing phenomenon, which in turn will help to reduce the magnitude of the temperature differential within the product and ultimately provide a more uniformly pasteurized product. PMID:24574874

  8. Damage Evaluation on Freeze-Thawing Process of Food by Using NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andou, Hiroko; Fukuoka, Mika; Miyawaki, Osato; Suzuki, Toru

    Freeze-thawing process gives significant damages for food structure. Several new techniques have been attempted for quantitative evaluation of the damages. In this study, using NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) with a stimulated echo method, restricted diffusion phenomena of water molecules was measured for damaged food (onion and tuna) tissues that were subjected to the repeat of freeze-thawing, Through experiments, water permeability of tissue membrane was calculated. The water permeability of fresh tissues for onion showed clearly restricted diffusion, but after freeze-thawing, it disappeared. On the other hand, the water permeability of fresh tuna tissue was small significantly, even though it was a little higher after freeze-thawing. After all, the damage level after freeze-thawing showed a significant difference between onion and tuna. These results support the view that plant tissue is very sensitive to freeze-thawing and that the water permeability of plant is much lower than that of animal.

  9. Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

    2014-11-01

    To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning.

  10. Interpreting food processing through dietary mechanical properties: a Lemur catta case study.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Nayuta; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge of dietary mechanical properties can be informative about physical consequences to consumers during ingestion and mastication. In this article, we examine how Tamarindus indica fruits can affect dental morphology in a population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Beza Mahafaly special reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Ring-tailed lemurs in tamarind dominated gallery forests exhibit extreme wear and tooth loss on their postcanine dentition that has been related to processing T. indica fruits. We measured and compared mechanical properties of individual food parts in the diet of ring-tailed lemurs in different seasons in 1999-2000, 2008, and 2010. Fracture toughness, hardness, and modulus of foods were measured with a portable mechanical tester. The ripe fruits of T. indica are indeed the toughest and hardest foods ingested by the lemurs. In addition, they are among the largest foods consumed, require high numbers of ingestive bites to process, and are the most frequently eaten by volume. During controlled cutting tests of the ripe fruit shell, multiple runaway side cracks form alongside the cut. Similarly, the lemurs repeatedly bite the ripe shell during feeding and thereby introduce multiple cracks that eventually fragment the shell. Studies of enamel microstructure (e.g., Lucas et al.: BioEssays 30 (2008) 374-385; Campbell et al., 2011) advance the idea that the thin enamel of ring-tailed lemur teeth is susceptible to substantial micro-cracking that rapidly erodes the teeth. We conclude that micro-cracking from repeated loads, in combination with the mechanical and physical properties of the fruit, is primarily responsible for the observed dental damage.

  11. Linking Food Webs and Biogeochemical Processes in Wetlands: Insights From Sulfur Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stricker, C. A.; Guntenspergen, G. R.; Rye, R. O.

    2005-05-01

    To better understand the transfer of nutrients into prairie wetland food webs we have investigated the cycling of S (via S isotope systematics and geochemistry) in a prairie wetland landscape by characterizing sources (ground water, interstitial water, surface water) and processes in a small catchment comprised of four wetlands in eastern South Dakota. We focused on S to derive process information that is not generally available from carbon isotopes alone. The wetlands chosen for study spanned a considerable range in SO4 concentration (0.1-13.6 mM), which corresponded with landscape position. Ground water δ34SSO4 values remained relatively constant (mean = -13.2 per mil) through time. However, δ34SSO4 values of wetland surface waters ranged from -2.9 to -30.0 per mil (CDT) and were negatively correlated with SO4 concentrations (p<0.05). The isotopic variability of surface water SO4 resulted from mixing with re-oxidized sulfides associated with recently flushed wetland soils. The δ34S signatures of wetland primary (Gastropoda: Stagnicola elodes) and secondary (Odonata: Anax sp.) consumers were significantly related to surface water δ34SSO4 values (p<0.05) suggesting that food web components were responding to changes in the isotopic composition of the S source. Both primary and secondary consumer δ34S signatures differed between wetlands (ANOVA, p<0.05). These data illustrate the complexity of S cycling in prairie wetlands and the influence of wetland hydrologic and biogeochemical processes on prairie wetland food webs. Additionally, this work has demonstrated that sulfur isotopes can provide unique source and process information that cannot be derived from traditional carbon and nitrogen isotope studies.

  12. Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Development of a portable hyperspectral imaging system for monitoring the efficacy of sanitation procedures in food processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cleaning and sanitation in food processing facilities is a critical step in reducing the risk of transfer of pathogenic organisms to food consumed by the public. Current methods to check the effectiveness of sanitation procedures rely on visual observation and sub-sampling tests such as ATP biolumin...

  14. Modeling vadose zone processes during land application of food-processing waste water in California's Central Valley.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gretchen R; Rubin, Yoram; Mayer, K Ulrich; Benito, Pascual H

    2008-01-01

    Land application of food-processing waste water occurs throughout California's Central Valley and may be degrading local ground water quality, primarily by increasing salinity and nitrogen levels. Natural attenuation is considered a treatment strategy for the waste, which often contains elevated levels of easily degradable organic carbon. Several key biogeochemical processes in the vadose zone alter the characteristics of the waste water before it reaches the ground water table, including microbial degradation, crop nutrient uptake, mineral precipitation, and ion exchange. This study used a process-based, multi-component reactive flow and transport model (MIN3P) to numerically simulate waste water migration in the vadose zone and to estimate its attenuation capacity. To address the high variability in site conditions and waste-stream characteristics, four food-processing industries were coupled with three site scenarios to simulate a range of land application outcomes. The simulations estimated that typically between 30 and 150% of the salt loading to the land surface reaches the ground water, resulting in dissolved solids concentrations up to sixteen times larger than the 500 mg L(-1) water quality objective. Site conditions, namely the ratio of hydraulic conductivity to the application rate, strongly influenced the amount of nitrate reaching the ground water, which ranged from zero to nine times the total loading applied. Rock-water interaction and nitrification explain salt and nitrate concentrations that exceed the levels present in the waste water. While source control remains the only method to prevent ground water degradation from saline wastes, proper site selection and waste application methods can reduce the risk of ground water degradation from nitrogen compounds.

  15. 21 CFR 108.35 - Thermal processing of low-acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sealed containers shall promptly report to the Food and Drug Administration any instance of spoilage or... processing systems, aseptic processing and packaging systems, or other thermal processing systems, and... approved by the Commissioner for giving instruction in retort operations, aseptic processing and...

  16. 21 CFR 108.35 - Thermal processing of low-acid foods packaged in hermetically sealed containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sealed containers shall promptly report to the Food and Drug Administration any instance of spoilage or... processing systems, aseptic processing and packaging systems, or other thermal processing systems, and... approved by the Commissioner for giving instruction in retort operations, aseptic processing and...

  17. Association between Dietary Share of Ultra-Processed Foods and Urinary Concentrations of Phytoestrogens in the US.

    PubMed

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2017-02-28

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and urinary phytoestrogen concentrations in the US. Participants from cross-sectional 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey aged 6+ years, selected to measure urinary phytoestrogens and with one 24-h dietary recall were evaluated (2692 participants). Food items were classified according to NOVA (a name, not an acronym), a four-group food classification based on the extent and purpose of industrial food processing. Ultra-processed foods are formulations manufactured using several ingredients and a series of processes (hence "ultra-processed"). Most of their ingredients are lower-cost industrial sources of dietary energy and nutrients, with additives used for the purpose of imitating sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods or of culinary preparations of these foods. Studied phytoestrogens included lignans (enterolactone and enterodiol) and isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin and equol). Gaussian regression was used to compare average urinary phytoestrogen concentrations (normalized by creatinine) across quintiles of energy share of ultra-processed foods. Models incorporated survey sample weights and were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income, and education, among other factors. Adjusted enterodiol geometric means decreased monotonically from 60.6 in the lowest quintile to 35.1 µg/g creatinine in the highest, while adjusted enterolactone geometric means dropped from 281.1 to 200.1 across the same quintiles, respectively. No significant linear trend was observed in the association between these quintiles and isoflavone concentrations. This finding reinforces the existing evidence regarding the negative impact of ultra-processed food consumption on the overall quality of the diet and expands it to include non-nutrients such as lignans.

  18. An event-specific DNA microarray to identify genetically modified organisms in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Su-Youn; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2010-05-26

    We developed an event-specific DNA microarray system to identify 19 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including two GM soybeans (GTS-40-3-2 and A2704-12), thirteen GM maizes (Bt176, Bt11, MON810, MON863, NK603, GA21, T25, TC1507, Bt10, DAS59122-7, TC6275, MIR604, and LY038), three GM canolas (GT73, MS8xRF3, and T45), and one GM cotton (LLcotton25). The microarray included 27 oligonucleotide probes optimized to identify endogenous reference targets, event-specific targets, screening targets (35S promoter and nos terminator), and an internal target (18S rRNA gene). Thirty-seven maize-containing food products purchased from South Korean and US markets were tested for the presence of GM maize using this microarray system. Thirteen GM maize events were simultaneously detected using multiplex PCR coupled with microarray on a single chip, at a limit of detection of approximately 0.5%. Using the system described here, we detected GM maize in 11 of the 37 food samples tested. These results suggest that an event-specific DNA microarray system can reliably detect GMOs in processed foods.

  19. Impact of high-temperature food processing on fats and oils.

    PubMed

    Warner, K

    1999-01-01

    Fats and oils are heated at high temperatures during baking, grilling and pan frying; however, deep fat frying is the most common method of high temperature treatment. Deep fat frying is a popular food preparation method because it produces desirable fried food flavor, golden brown color and crisp texture. For example, in the U.S. in 1994, approximately 12 billion pounds of fats and oils were used with 5.5 billion pounds used for frying and baking (USDA, 1995). Fried snack foods accounted for 2.9 billion pounds of oil, whereas 2 billion pounds were used for frying in restaurants (USDA, 1995). Because of such large consumption of frying oils and fats, the effects of high temperatures on these oils and fats is of major concern both for product quality and nutrition. This chapter will discuss the process of frying and the chemical and physical reactions that occur. The products formed from these reactions will be reviewed as well as information on the effects of the products and the control of these deteriorative reactions.

  20. Effects of processing on the recovery of food allergens from a model dark chocolate matrix.

    PubMed

    Khuda, Sefat E; Jackson, Lauren S; Fu, Tong-Jen; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-01

    To alleviate the risk to allergic consumers, it is crucial to improve factors affecting the detection of food allergens in processed chocolate products. This study evaluated processing effects on (1) recovery of peanut, egg, and milk allergens using five different extraction buffers, and (2) identification of specific allergenic proteins from extracts of incurred chocolate using allergen-specific antibodies and human allergic sera. Immunochemical staining with polyclonal antibodies showed that the addition of detergent or reducing agent improved extraction efficiency of peanut proteins, but not of egg and milk proteins. Tempering decreased antibody binding regardless of extractant. Detection of IgE-reactive peanut, egg, and milk allergens was differentially affected by tempering and extractant. Detection problems associated with matrix and processing effects may be overcome by the choice of extraction buffer and detecting antibody.