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Sample records for processed low-rank coals

  1. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  2. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  3. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  4. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  5. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  6. Upgrading low-rank coals using the liquids from coal (LFC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Nickell, R.E.; Hoften, S.A. van

    1993-12-31

    Three unmistakable trends characterize national and international coal markets today that help to explain coal`s continuing and, in some cases, increasing share of the world`s energy mix: the downward trend in coal prices is primarily influenced by an excess of increasing supply relative to increasing demand. Associated with this trend are the availability of capital to expand coal supplies when prices become firm and the role of coal exports in international trade, especially for developing nations; the global trend toward reducing the transportation cost component relative to the market, preserves or enhances the producer`s profit margins in the face of lower prices. The strong influence of transportation costs is due to the geographic relationships between coal producers and coal users. The trend toward upgrading low grade coals, including subbituminous and lignite coals, that have favorable environmental characteristics, such as low sulfur, compensates in some measure for decreasing coal prices and helps to reduce transportation costs. The upgrading of low grade coal includes a variety of precombustion clean coal technologies, such as deep coal cleaning. Also included in this grouping are the coal drying and mild pyrolysis (or mild gasification) technologies that remove most of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter, including organic sulfur, while producing two or more saleable coproducts with considerable added value. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) process falls into this category. In the following sections, the LFC process is described and the coproducts of the mild pyrolysis are characterized. Since the process can be applied widely to low rank coals all around the world, the characteristics of coproducts from three different regions around the Pacific Rim-the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, the Beluga Field in Alaska near the Cook Inlet, and the Bukit Asam region in south Sumatra, Indonesia - are compared.

  7. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, Norman W.; Sethi, Vijay; Brecher, Lee E.

    1994-01-01

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  8. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Sethi, V.; Brecher, L.E.

    1994-06-21

    A process is described for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage. 1 fig.

  9. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  10. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1988-04-01

    Co-processing of low-rank coals (LRCs) with petroleum resids under mild conditions may produce a product that extends petroleum refinery feeds with a partially coal-derived material. These co-processing products may also provide a lower-cost way to introduce coal-derived materials into the commercial market. In this staged process, the petroleum resid acts as a solvent, aiding in the solubilization of the coal during the first stage, and both the dissolved coal and the resid are upgraded during a second-stage catalytic hydrogenation. Another method of upgrading coal in a liquefaction process is the ChemCoal Process. The process uses chemical methods to transform coal into clean solid and liquid products. It features low-severity conversion of coal in a phenolic solvent, using an alkali promotor and carbon monoxide as the reductant. Oil agglomeration has been used to reduce the ash and mineral matter in bituminous coals to obtain a product with increased heating value, reduced moisture, and lower sulfur content. This method can be used to produce a clean coal feedstock for liquefaction. During agglomeration, an oil is used to preferentially wet the organic phases of the coal, and water is used to wet the minerals, resulting in a separation of ash and water from the coal. The primary objective of this project is to expand the scientific and engineering data base of LRC liquefaction by investigating direct liquefaction processes that will produce the most competitive feedstocks or liquid fuels. The work effort which was proposed for the second year of this cooperative agreement dealt primarily with co-processing and the ChemCoal Process.

  11. Biological degradation of low-rank coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.J.

    1989-06-01

    The principal objective of this research project as to investigate the potential for anaerobic bioconversion of low-rank coal. The research was divided into three phases, including: (a) assessment of biodegradation and coal chemistry, (b) anaerobic bioconversion of ''model'' low-rank coal constituents; and (c) anaerobic bioconversion of coal. A literature review of coal chemistry and microbially-mediated processes related to coal bioconversion was performed. Initial lab studies were conducted with selected ''model'' compounds, including simple aromatic constituents (phenol, cresol, catechol) as well as more complex aromatic compounds (naphthol, 9-phenanthrol, dibenzothiophene) which may be components of low-rank coal. Analytical procedures were developed for efficient extraction, separation and quantitation of the test ''model'' compounds. Additional studies with a benzene-derived extract of a low-rank coal sample were performed. Extraction and quantitation procedures were developed to assess bioconversion potential. Preliminary toxicity experiments with ''model'' compounds revealed partial inhibition of growth of selected pure bacterial cultres as well as inhibition of microbial consortia at concentrations above those used in our test system. For most of the test compounds, little or no inhibition (toxicity) was noted. Overall results suggest that complex aromatic constituents which may be representative of low-rank coal structure are relatively recalcitrant to microbial attack by natural microbial populations. 88 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOEpatents

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  14. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOEpatents

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-12-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  15. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    2000-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  16. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    1999-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  17. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    1999-01-26

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

  18. Novel Low-Cost Process for the Gasification of Biomass and Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Barton

    2009-03-05

    Farm Energy envisaged a phased demonstration program, in which a pilot-scale straw gasifier will be installed on a farm. The synthesis gas product will be used to initially (i) generate electricity in a 300 kW diesel generator, and subsequently (ii) used as a feedstock to produce ethanol or mixed alcohols. They were seeking straw gasification and alcohol synthesis technologies that may be implemented on farm-scale. The consortium, along with the USDA ARS station in Corvallis, OR, expressed interest in the dual-bed gasification concept promoted by WRI and Taylor Energy, LLC. This process operated at atmospheric pressure and employed a solids-circulation type oxidation/reduction cycle significantly different from traditional fluidized-bed or up-draft type gasification reactors. The objectives of this project were to perform bench-scale testing to determine technical feasibility of gasifier concept, to characterize the syngas product, and to determine the optimal operating conditions and configuration. We used the bench-scale test data to complete a preliminary design and cost estimate for a 1-2 ton per hour pilot-scale unit that is also appropriate for on-farm scale applications. The gasifier configuration with the 0.375-inch stainless steel balls recirculating media worked consistently and for periods up to six hours of grass feed. The other principle systems like the boiler, the air pump, and feeder device also worked consistently during all feeding operations. Minor hiccups during operation tended to come from secondary systems like the flare or flammable material buildup in the exit piping. Although we did not complete the extended hour tests to 24 or 48 hours due to time and budget constraints, we developed the confidence that the gasifier in its current configuration could handle those tests. At the modest temperatures we operated the gasifier, slagging was not a problem. The solid wastes were dry and low density. The majority of the fixed carbon from the grass

  19. Investigation of the role of aromatic carboxylic acids in cross-linking processes in low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Eskay, T.P.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    In the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low-rank coals, low-temperature cross-linking reactions have been correlated with the loss of carboxyl groups and the evolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. It is not clearly understood how decarboxylation leads to cross-linking beyond the suggestion that decarboxylation could be a radical process that involves radical recombination or radical addition reactions. We have recently conducted a study of the pyrolysis of 1,2-(3,3{prime}-dicarboxyphenyl)ethane (1) and 1,2-(4,4{prime}-dicarboxyphenyl)ethane (2) and found that decarboxylation occurs readily between 350-425 {degrees}C with no evidence of coupling products or products representative of cross-links. We proposed that decarboxylation occurred primarily by an acid-promoted cationic pathway, and the source of acid was a second carboxylic acid. The decarboxylation of 1 and 2 was investigated in diphenyl ether and naphthalene as inert diluents. In each solvent, the rate of decarboxylation dropped by roughly a factor of 2 upon dilution from the neat liquid to ca. 0.4 mole fraction of acid, but further dilution had no effect on the rate. This could be a consequence of hydrogen bonding or an intramolecular protonation. Molecular mechanics calculations indicated that 1 and 2 can adopt an appropriate conformation for internal proton transfer from a carboxy group on one ring to the second aryl ring without a significant energy penalty. In addition, the dicarboxylic acid could internally hydrogen bond, which may further complicate the reaction mechanism. Therefore, we have conducted a study of the pyrolysis of a monocarboxybibenzyl, 1-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4-biphenyl)ethane (3), to determine if decarboxylation occurs by an ionic pathway in the absence of intramolecular pathways.

  20. Method for stabilizing dried low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.Y.

    1987-03-17

    A method is described for protection of heated and dried pyrophoric particles, such as low rank coals, containing a reduced moisture content by treating the particles with a pyrophoric protection fluid within a vessel having a gas-solid separator in combination with a cooling fluid comprising: (a) introducing the heated and dried pyrophoric particles into a vessel which vessel lacks a means for supporting the particles during cooling thereof; (b) fluidizing the particles with the cooling fluid at ambient temperature; (c) applying a pyrophoric protection fluid to the fluidized particles thereby coating the particles sufficiently to cause at least a substantial portion of the particles to agglomerate and fall while simultaneously cooling the agglomerated particles; and (d) removing continuously the agglomerated cooled particles and the cooling fluid from the vessel. The method is also described where in step (b) the pyrophoric protection fluid is at least one member selected from the group consisting of petroleum residual oil, heavy oil, a mixture of tall oil and rosin, and gelatinized starch, in an amount of from about 0.01 weight percent to about 5 weight percent of the particles.

  1. [Study on Microwave Co-Pyrolysis of Low Rank Coal and Circulating Coal Gas].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Xiao-feng; Wu, Lei; Tian, Yu-hong; Zhao, Xi-cheng

    2016-02-01

    The pyrolysis of low rank coal to produce bluecoke, coal tar and gas is considered to be the optimal method to realize its clean and efficient utilization. However, the current mainstream pyrolysis production technology generally has a certain particle size requirements for raw coal, resulting in lower yield and poorer quality of coal tar, lower content of effective components in coal gas such as H₂, CH₄, CO, etc. To further improve the yield of coal tar obtained from the pyrolysis of low rank coal and explore systematically the effect of microwave power, pyrolysis time and particle size of coal samples on the yield and composition of microwave pyrolysis products of low rank coal through the analysis and characterization of products with FTIR and GC-MS, introducing microwave pyrolysis of low rank coal into the microwave pyrolysis reactor circularly was suggested to carry out the co-pyrolysis experiment of the low rank coal and coal gas generated by the pyrolysis of low rank coal. The results indicated that the yield of the bluecoke and liquid products were up to 62.2% and 26.8% respectively when the optimal pyrolysis process conditions with the microwave power of 800W, pyrolysis time of 40 min, coal samples particle size of 5-10 mm and circulating coal gas flow rate of 0.4 L · min⁻¹ were selected. The infrared spectrogram of the bluecoke under different microwave power and pyrolysis time overlapped roughly. The content of functional groups with -OH, C==O, C==C and C−O from the bluecoke through the pyrolysis of particle size coal samples had a larger difference. To improve microwave power, prolonging pyrolysis time and reducing particle size of coal samples were conducive to converting heavy component to light one into coal tar.

  2. Low-rank-coal study national needs for resource development. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, Dr., Martin A.; Hill, George R.; Jonakin, James; Crutchfield, Paul W.; Severson, Donald E.; White, David M.; Yeager, Kurt

    1980-11-01

    Low-rank coals - lignite and subbituminous - are those which have been subjected to the least amount of metamorphic change during the coal-forming process. As such, they retain greater fractions of moisture and volatile matter from the original peat material, and contain less fixed carbon, than the high-rank coals - bituminous and anthracite. The primary measure used to classify the lower ranks of coal is heating value. Other important characteristics which distinguish the low-rank coals from high-rank coals are discussed in this report. Low-rank coals represent a major, and largely untapped, energy resource for this country. Very extensive deposits of lignite and subbituminous coal exist in the western states, the Gulf coast, and Alaska. Major deposits of low-rank coal are also found in many other countries, most notably the USSR, Australia, Canada, and the central and eastern European nations. Worldwide coal statistics indicate that low-rank coals account for roughly one-third of the total resource and current production tonnages. This report recommends a comprehensive national research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program to enhance the development of low-rank coals. The major conclusion of this study is that the unique properties of these coals affect the technologies for their extraction, preparation, direct use, and conversion and justify a separate focus on low-rank coals in the national RD and D efforts.

  3. CWM production from upgraded young low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurui, Masao; Katagiri, Tsutomu; Yanagimachik, Harumitsu; Tokuda, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Noboru; Yui, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Takeshi

    1997-12-31

    CWM is a mixture of pulverized coal (60 to 70%) and water (30 to 40%) with a very small quantity of dispersant. It is stable under storage conditions and is sufficiently fluid to be transported by means of long-distance pipelines, and ocean going tankers. In order to overcome the economic difficulties of CWM, the authors started the development of a new type of CWM based on abundant non-utilized young low grade coal. This R and D aims at developing and demonstrating an economical clean coal fuel manufacturing technology to ensure safe transportation and storage. To this end, it is necessary to develop a technology to irreversibly dewater coals while maintaining volatility as far as possible, and to convert dewatered coals to high-concentration coal water mixtures (CWM). Japan COM Company Limited and JGC Corporation have been jointly conducting research and development of low rank coals upgrading technology to establish CWM production and utilization technologies from upgraded coals at lower cost and higher quality. In the first phase, the authors investigated available low rank coals upgrading technologies and selected the hot water drying (HWD) process as suited for the conversion of coals to CWM. In the second phase, they conducted HWD upgrading tests using an autoclave and a continuous type bench plant for laboratory-scale tests to convert upgraded coals to CWM, and thus confirmed upgrading effects. In the third phase, they constructed an upgrading pilot plant of 8.4 t/d (dry coal) processing capacity and have conducted upgrading tests. They have also conducted CWM production tests using a CWM production facility of 500 kg/h, and assessed the combustibility of upgraded coal CWM. The operation is carried out using three coals, two Indonesian sub-bituminous coals and one Australian brown coal, which were selected through the bench-scale testing. The following tests were carried out from Dec. of 1994 to March 1996: (1) Continuous upgrading tests by newly

  4. Ion exchange and adsorption on low rank coals for liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this program are to study the application of catalysts and the catalysis of liquefaction of low rank coals. Ion exchange and adsorption techniques are being used or modified to incorporate catalytically active metals (Fe, Co, Ni and Mo) in relatively small (100-2000 ppM) quantities into coal samples. Relative oil yields are being determined by PETC and Auburn University workers as collaborators to establish the effectiveness of the catalyst incorporation techniques. It is hoped that these techniques will provide highly active forms of the catalyst in low concentrations to minimize the need for metals recovery. A two step preparation of the coal is used to (1) remove material which both limits oil conversion and prepares for the addition of exchangeable catalyst, and (2) add catalytically active material which enhances the conversion of the coal matter to the oil fraction in the processing.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CARBON PRODUCTS FROM LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson

    2001-07-01

    The goal of this project is to facilitate the production of carbon fibers from low-rank coal (LRC) tars. To this end, the effect of demineralization on the tar yields and composition was investigated using high-sodium and high-calcium lignites commonly mined in North Dakota. These coals were demineralized by ion exchange with ammonium acetate and by cation dissolution with nitric acid. Two types of thermal processing were investigated for obtaining suitable precursors for pitch and fiber production. Initially, tars were produced by simple pyrolysis of the set of samples at 650 C. Since these experiments produced little usable material from any of the samples, the coals were heated at moderate temperatures (380 and 400 C) in tetralin solvent to form and extract the plastic material (metaplast) that forms at these temperatures.

  6. Combustion reactivity of low rank coal chars

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.C.

    1983-08-01

    For many years the CSIRO has been involved in studies on the combustion kinetics of coal chars and related materials. Early work included studies on a char produced from a Victorian brown coal. More recently, the combustion kinetics of chars produced during the flash pyrolysis of sub-bituminous coals have been determined. Data are given for the combustion reactivities of four flash pyrolysis chars. Their reactivities are compared with the results for chars produced from low and high rank coals, and petroleum coke. Reactivity is expressed as the rate of combustion of carbon per unit external surface area of the particle, with due correction being made for the effect of the mass transfer of oxygen to the particle. It has been shown that the reactivities to oxygen of chars produced from Millmerran sub-bituminous coal decrease with increasing pyrolysis temperature but are similar in magnitude to the reactivities of chars derived from a brown and a bituminous coal and to the reactivities of anthracites and semi-anthracites. However, Wandoan char, also of sub-bituminous origin, exhibits about twice the reactivity of Millmerran char and about ten times the reactivity of petroleum coke. On the basis of observed activation energy values, particle size and particle density behaviour it is concluded that the combustion rates of Millmerran and Wandoan chars are controlled by the combined effects of pore diffusion and chemical reaction.

  7. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  8. Ion exchange and adsorption on low rank coals for liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vorres, K.S.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this program involve the study of the catalysis of liquefaction of low rank coals. Ion exchange and adsorption techniques are being used or modified to incorporate catalytically active metals into coal samples. Relative oil yields will be determined by Sandia National Laboratory and PETC collaborators to establish the effectiveness of the catalyst incorporation techniques. This report describes work done over the past 12 months of an on-going project.

  9. Low-rank coal thermal properties and diffusivity: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, W.F.

    1987-06-01

    This project developed techniques for measuring thermal properties and mass diffusivities of low-rank coals and coal powders. Using the concept of volume averaging, predictive models have been developed for these porous media properties. The Hot Wire Method was used for simultaneously measuring the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of both consolidated and unconsolidated low-rank coals. A new computer-interfaced experiment is presented and sample container designs developed for both coal powders and consolidated coals. A new mathematical model, based upon volume averaging, is presented for the prediction of these porous media properties. Velocity and temperature effects on liquid-phase dispersion through unconsolidated coal were determined. Radioactive tracer data were used to determine mass diffusivities. A new predictive mathematical model is presented based upon volume averaging. Vapor-phase diffusivity measurements of organic solvents in consolidated lignite coal are reported. An unsteady-state pressure response experiment with microcomputed-based data acquisition was developed to estimate dispersion coefficients through consolidated lignite coals. The mathematical analysis of the pressure response data provides the dispersion coefficient and the adsorption coefficient. 48 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Low-Rank Coal Grinding Performance Versus Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Rajive Ganguli; Sukumar Bandopadhyay

    2008-12-31

    The intent of this project was to demonstrate that Alaskan low-rank coal, which is high in volatile content, need not be ground as fine as bituminous coal (typically low in volatile content) for optimum combustion in power plants. The grind or particle size distribution (PSD), which is quantified by percentage of pulverized coal passing 74 microns (200 mesh), affects the pulverizer throughput in power plants. The finer the grind, the lower the throughput. For a power plant to maintain combustion levels, throughput needs to be high. The problem of particle size is compounded for Alaskan coal since it has a low Hardgrove grindability index (HGI); that is, it is difficult to grind. If the thesis of this project is demonstrated, then Alaskan coal need not be ground to the industry standard, thereby alleviating somewhat the low HGI issue (and, hopefully, furthering the salability of Alaskan coal). This project studied the relationship between PSD and power plant efficiency, emissions, and mill power consumption for low-rank high-volatile-content Alaskan coal. The emissions studied were CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and Hg (only two tests). The tested PSD range was 42 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. Within the tested range, there was very little correlation between PSD and power plant efficiency, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}. Hg emissions were very low and, therefore, did not allow comparison between grind sizes. Mill power consumption was lower for coarser grinds.

  11. AFBC bed material performance with low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, G.M.; Benson, S.A.; Karner, F.R.; Rindt, D.K.; Hajicek, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the reasons for carefully screening any candidate bed material for use in low-rank coal atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, before the final selection is made. The sections of this paper describe: (1) the experimental equipment used to obtain the data, as well as the experimental and analytical procedures used in evaluation; (2) the results of tests utilizing various bed materials with particular emphasis on the problem of bed material agglomeration; and (3) the conclusions and recommendations for bed material selection and control for use with low-rank coal. Bed materials of aluminum oxide, quartz, limestone, dolomite, granite, gabbro, and mixtures of some of these materials have been used in the testing. Of these materials, gabbro appears most suitable for use with high available sodium lignites. 17 figures, 8 tables. (DMC)

  12. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

    2006-08-31

    Injection of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds is a plausible method of reducing atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO{sub 2} disposal in high-rank coals. The objective of this research was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery from, low-rank coals in the Texas Gulf Coast area. Our research included an extensive coal characterization program, including acquisition and analysis of coal core samples and well transient test data. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic reservoir simulation and economic studies to evaluate the effects of injectant fluid composition (pure CO{sub 2} and flue gas), well spacing, injection rate, and dewatering on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery in low-rank coals of the Calvert Bluff formation of the Texas Wilcox Group. Shallow and deep Calvert Bluff coals occur in two, distinct, coalbed gas petroleum systems that are separated by a transition zone. Calvert Bluff coals < 3,500 ft deep are part of a biogenic coalbed gas system. They have low gas content and are part of a freshwater aquifer. In contrast, Wilcox coals deeper than 3,500 ft are part of a thermogenic coalbed gas system. They have high gas content and are part of a saline aquifer. CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Calvert Bluff low-rank coals of East-Central Texas must be located in the deeper, unmineable coals, because shallow Wilcox coals are part of a protected freshwater aquifer. Probabilistic simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection into 20 feet of Calvert Bluff coal in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicates that these coals can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0

  13. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank... COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.20 How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals. Here are the requirements for calculating the excess moisture in low-rank coals for a calendar quarter. ASTM standards...

  14. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank... COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.20 How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals. Here are the requirements for calculating the excess moisture in low-rank coals for a calendar quarter. ASTM standards...

  15. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank... COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.20 How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals. Here are the requirements for calculating the excess moisture in low-rank coals for a calendar quarter. ASTM standards...

  16. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank... COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.20 How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals. Here are the requirements for calculating the excess moisture in low-rank coals for a calendar quarter. ASTM standards...

  17. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. Mcvay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-02-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The primary objectives for this reporting period were to construct a coal geological model for reservoir analysis and to continue modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration performance in coalbed methane reservoirs under various operational conditions. Detailed correlation of coal zones is important for reservoir analysis and modeling. Therefore, we interpreted and created isopleth maps of coal occurrences, and correlated individual coal seams within the coal bearing subdivisions of the Wilcox Group--the Hooper, Simsboro and Calvert Bluff formations. Preliminary modeling studies were run to determine if gravity effects would affect the performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration in coalbed methane reservoirs. Results indicated that gravity could adversely affect sweep efficiency and, thus, volumes of CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced in thick, vertically continuous coals. Preliminary modeling studies were also run to determine the effect of injection gas composition on sequestration in low-rank coalbeds. Injected gas composition was varied from pure CO{sub 2} to pure N{sub 2}, and results show that increasing N{sub 2} content degrades CO{sub 2} sequestration and methane production performance. We have reached a Data Exchange Agreement with Anadarko Petroleum Corporation. We are currently incorporating the Anadarko data into our work, and expect these data to greatly enhance the accuracy and value of our studies.

  18. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to (1) estimate the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and methane production from, low-rank coals of the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in the east-central Texas region, (2) quantify uncertainty associated with these estimates, (3) conduct reservoir and economic analyses of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production using horizontal wells, and (4) compare the results with those obtained from previous studies of vertical wells. To estimate the total volumes of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered in, and total volumes of methane that can be produced from, the Wilcox Group low-rank coals in east-central Texas, we used data provided by Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, data obtained during this research, and results of probabilistic simulation modeling studies we conducted. For the analysis, we applied our base-case coal seam characteristics to a 2,930-mi{sup 2} (1,875,200-ac) area where Calvert Bluff coal seams range between 4,000 and 6,200 ft deep. Results of the probabilistic analysis indicate that potential CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the coals ranges between 27.2 and 49.2 Tcf (1.57 and 2.69 billion tons), with a mean value of 38 Tcf (2.2 billion tons), assuming a 72.4% injection efficiency. Estimates of recoverable methane resources, assuming a 71.3% recovery factor, range between 6.3 and 13.6 Tcf, with a mean of 9.8 Tcf. As part of the technology transfer for this project, we presented the paper SPE 100584 at the 2006 SPE Gas Technology Symposium held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, on May 15-18, 2006. Also, we submitted an abstract to be considered for inclusion in a special volume dedicated to CO{sub 2} sequestration in geologic media, which

  19. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to (1) determine the effects of permeability anisotropy on performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation (LCB) of the Wilcox Group coals in east-central Texas, and (2) begin reservoir and economic analyses of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production using horizontal wells. To evaluate the effects of permeability anisotropy on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM in LCB coal beds, we conducted deterministic reservoir modeling studies of 100% CO{sub 2} gas injection for the 6,200-ft depth base case (Case 1b) using the most likely values of the reservoir parameters. Simulation results show significant differences in the cumulative volumes of CH{sub 4} produced and CO{sub 2} injected due to permeability anisotropy, depending on the orientation of injection patterns relative to the orientation of permeability anisotropy. This indicates that knowledge of the magnitude and orientation of permeability anisotropy will be an important consideration in the design of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects. We continued discussions with Anadarko Petroleum regarding plans for additional coal core acquisition and laboratory work to further characterize Wilcox low-rank coals. As part of the technology transfer for this project, we submitted the paper SPE 100584 for presentation at the 2006 SPE Gas Technology Symposium to be held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada on May 15-18, 2006.

  20. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main tasks for this reporting period were to correlate well logs and refine coal property maps, evaluate methane content and gas composition of Wilcox Group coals, and initiate discussions concerning collection of additional, essential data with Anadarko. To assess the volume of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered and volume of methane that can be produced in the vicinity of the proposed Sam Seymour sequestration site, we used approximately 200 additional wells logs from Anadarko Petroleum Corp. to correlate and map coal properties of the 3 coal-bearing intervals of Wilcox group. Among the maps we are making are maps of the number of coal beds, number of coal beds greater than 5 ft thick, and cumulative coal thickness for each coal interval. This stratigraphic analysis validates the presence of abundant coal for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of Sam Seymour power plant. A typical wellbore in this region may penetrate 20 to 40 coal beds with cumulative coal thickness between 80 and 110 ft. Gas desorption analyses of approximately 75 coal samples from the 3 Wilcox coal intervals indicate that average methane content of Wilcox coals in this area ranges between 216 and 276 scf/t, basinward of the freshwater boundary indicated on a regional hydrologic map. Vitrinite reflectance data indicate that Wilcox coals are thermally immature for gas generation in this area. Minor amounts of biogenic gas may be present, basinward of the freshwater line, but we infer that most of the Wilcox coalbed gas in the deep coal beds is migrated thermogenic gas. Analysis based on limited data suggest that sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed gas recovery should be located basinward of the Wilcox

  1. Ultrafine grinding of low-rank coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchillon, C.W.; Steele, W.G.

    1986-08-01

    A study of ultrafine grinding of low-rank coals in a fluid-energy mill was undertaken. This report presents the results of the Phase I effort which included a review of the literature on ultrafine grinding, a review of theories of grinding, a combined grinding and drying experiment on Martin Lake Texas lignite, an evaluation of the energy requirements for the process, and an evaluation of the properties of the products from the grinding tests. A sample of Martin Lake Texas lignite was obtained and a series of tests were conducted in a fluid-energy mill at the Ergon, Inc., Micro-Energy Division development facility at Vicksburg, MS. The grinding fluids used were air at 116 F and steam at 225, 310, 350, 400, and 488 F as measured in the mill. The products of these tests were analyzed for volatile mattr, ash, total moisture, equilibrium moisture, heating value, density distribution, aerodynamic particle size classification, angle of repose, porosity, density, and particle size distribution. ASTM test procedures were followed where applicable. Ultimate and ash mineral analyses were also conducted on the samples. Results of the various tests are presented in detail in the report. In general, the fluid energy mill was used succssfully in simultaneous grinding and drying of the lignite. Particle size reduction to less than 10 microns on a population basis was achieved. The equilibrium moisture of the samples decreased with increasing grinding fluid temperatures. Density distribution studies showed that a significant fraction of the ash appeared in the >1.6 specific gravity particles. The energy required for the grinding/drying process increased with increasing mill temperatures. 29 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  3. Low-rank coal drying technologies current status and new developments

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Wu, Z.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2009-07-01

    Despite their vast reserves, low-rank coals are considered undesirable because their high moisture content entails high transportation costs, potential safety hazards in transportation and storage, and the low thermal efficiency obtained in combustion of such coals. Their high moisture content, greater tendency to combust spontaneously, high degree of weathering, and the dusting characteristics restrict widespread use of such coals. The price of coal sold to utilities depends upon the heating value of the coal. Thus, removal of moisture from low-rank coals (LRC) is an important operation. Furthermore, LRC can be used cost effectively for pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction processes. This article provides an overview the diverse processes both those that utilize conventional drying technologies and those that are not yet commercialized and hence in need of RD. Relative merits and limitations of the various technologies and the current state of their development are presented. Drying characteristics of low-rank coal as well as factors affecting drying characteristics of coal samples are also discussed.

  4. 30 CFR 870.20 - How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coals. 870.20 Section 870.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.20 How to calculate excess moisture in LOW-rank coals. Here are the requirements for calculating the excess moisture in low-rank coals for a calendar quarter. ASTM standards...

  5. Method for producing a dried coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.H.; Bonnecaze, B.F.; Matthews, J.D.; Skinner, J.L.; Wunderlich, D.K.

    1983-08-02

    A method is disclosed for producing a dried coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal by drying the low rank coal and thereafter cooling the dried coal to a temperature below about 100/sup 0/F. Optionally the dried coal is partially oxidized prior to cooling and optionally the dried coal is mixed with a deactivating fluid.

  6. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. there were two main objectives for this reporting period. first, they wanted to collect wilcox coal samples from depths similar to those of probable sequestration sites, with the objective of determining accurate parameters for reservoir model description and for reservoir simulation. The second objective was to pursue opportunities for determining permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling reservoir performance during CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. In mid-summer, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation agreed to allow the authors to collect Wilcox Group coal samples from a well that was to be drilled to the Austin Chalk, which is several thousand feet below the Wilcox. In addition, they agreed to allow them to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well. Both wells are in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that they earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2}. They negotiated contracts for sidewall core collection and core analyses, and they began discussions with a service company to perform permeability testing. To collect sidewall core samples of the Wilcox coals, they made structure and isopach maps and cross sections to select coal beds and to determine their depths for coring. On September 29, 10 sidewall core samples were obtained from 3 coal beds of the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group. The samples were desorbed in 4 sidewall core canisters. Desorbed gas samples were sent to a laboratory for gas compositional analyses, and the coal samples were sent to another laboratory to measure CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. All analyses should be finished by the end of

  7. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  8. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  9. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to perform reservoir simulation and economic sensitivity studies to (1) determine the effects of injection gas composition, (2) determine the effects of injection rate, and (3) determine the effects of coal dewatering prior to CO{sub 2} injection on CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation (LCB) of the Wilcox Group coals in east-central Texas. To predict CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM in LCB coal beds for these three sensitivity studies, we constructed a 5-spot pattern reservoir simulation model and selected reservoir parameters representative of a typical depth, approximately 6,200-ft, of potential LCB coalbed reservoirs in the focus area of East-Central Texas. Simulation results of flue gas injection (13% CO{sub 2} - 87% N{sub 2}) in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern (40-ac well spacing) indicate that LCB coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store a median value of 0.46 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with a median ECBM recovery of 0.94 Bcf and median CO{sub 2} breakthrough time of 4,270 days (11.7 years). Simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicated that these same coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store a median value of 1.75 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft with a median ECBM recovery of 0.67 Bcf and median CO{sub 2} breakthrough time of 1,650 days (4.5 years). Breakthrough was defined as the point when CO{sub 2} comprised 5% of the production stream for all cases. The injection rate sensitivity study for pure CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern at 6,200-ft depth shows that total volumes of CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced do not have significant sensitivity to

  10. The utilization of Indonesia`s low rank coal: Its potential, challenges and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Panaka, P.

    1997-07-01

    It has known that there are around 36 billion tons of coal resources potential in Indonesia, however over 21 billion tons (58.7%) is classified as low-rank (lignite) coal. Due to their properties, these coals are not economical to be transported for a long distance and are therefore unexportable. That`s why these low-rank coals still under-utilized at present. As the utilization of low-rank coals is expected to grow in importance as the domestic`s demand for energy increases in the near future, efforts should also be directed to find the possible upgrading technology for low-rank coals by reducing the total moisture of it, once the possible upgrading technology has been adopted, then those coal can be converted into coal water mixture, coal liquefaction, gasification, briquetting, etc., even for mine mouth power-plant. The challenges facing low-rank coals are: low conversion efficiency resulting from the high moisture content and relatively low in calorific values, the risk of spontaneous combustion, ash deposit formation and higher CO{sub 2} emission To response to these challenges, the adoption of new and advanced technologies for the utilization of low-rank coals from the third countries is therefore required. Combined cycle technologies such as CFBC, PFBC and IGCC, etc. combined with coal up-grading technology are applicable to low-rank coals and are expected to become a major future power plant for Indonesia. The main question for low-rank coals is whether these plants can be competitive when the extra costs involved in up-grading (drying) the coal are taken into account.

  11. Anaerobic biprocessing of low rank coals. Final technical report, September 12, 1990--August 10, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.

    1993-08-05

    Coal solubilization under aerobic conditions results in oxygenated coal product which, in turn, makes the coal poorer fuel than the starting material. A novel approach has been made in this project is to remove oxygen from coal by reductive decarboxylation. In Wyodak subbituminous coal the major oxygen functionality is carboxylic groups which exist predominantly as carboxylate anions strongly chelating metal cations like Ca{sup 2+} and forming strong macromolecular crosslinks which contribute in large measure to network polymer structure. Removal of the carboxylic groups at ambient temperature by anaerobic organisms would unravel the macromoleculer network, resulting in smaller coal macromolecules with increased H/C ratio which has better fuel value and better processing prospects. These studies described here sought to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. Efforts were made to establish anaerobic microbial consortia having decarboxylating ability, decarboxylate coal with the adapted microbial consortia, isolate the organisms, and characterize the biotreated coal products. Production of CO{sup 2} was used as the primary indicator for possible coal decarboxylation.

  12. Low-rank coal research, Task 5.1. Topical report, April 1986--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This document is a topical progress report for Low-Rank Coal Research performed April 1986 - December 1992. Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research is described for Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains, and Hot-Gas Cleanup. Advanced Research and Technology Development was conducted on Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Combustion Research is described for Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Fuels (completed 10/31/90), Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals (completed 12/31/90), Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications (completed 10/31/90), Nitrous Oxide Emission, and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion. Liquefaction Research in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction is discussed. Gasification Research was conducted in Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coals and in Sulfur Forms in Coal.

  13. Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R.; Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1987-04-01

    Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO₂ reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-05

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions.

  15. Energy and environmental (JSR) research emphasizing low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, L.L.

    1994-12-01

    The products of plastic thermal depolymerization can be used for the manufacture of new plastics or various other hydrocarbon-based products. One thermal depolymerization development effort is ongoing at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) of the University of North Dakota, under joint sponsorship of the American Plastics Council, the 3M corporation, and the Department of Energy. Thermal depolymerization process development began at the EERC with a benchscale program that ran from 9/92 to 6/93 (1). Testing was conducted in a 1-4-lb/hr continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) unit using individual virgin resins and resin blends and was intended to determine rough operating parameters and product yields and to identify product stream components. Process variables examined included temperature and bed material, with a lesser emphasis on gas fluidization velocity and feed material mix. The following work was performed: (1) a short program to determine the suitability of using CaO in a postreactor, fixed bed for chlorine remediation, (2) thermal depolymerization of postconsumer plastics, and (3) testing of industrial (3M) products and wastes to determine their suitability as feed to a thermal depolymerization process. The involvement of DOE in the development of the plastics thermal depolymerization process has helped to facilitate the transfer of coal conversion technology to a new and growing technology area -- waste conversion. These two technology areas are complementary. The application of known coal conversion technology has accelerated the development of plastics conversion technology, and findings from the plastics depolymerization process development, such as the development of chlorine remediation techniques and procedures for measurement of organically associated chlorine, can be applied to new generations of coal conversion processes.

  16. Drying low rank coal and retarding spontaneous ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Bellow, E.J. Jr.; Bixel, J.C.; Heaney, W.F.; Yan, T.Y.

    1989-05-09

    A method is described of passivating and cooling heated dried coal comprising: (a) heating particulate coal to a temperature between about 190 and about 230/sup 0/F to dry to the desired level: and (b) coating the resulting heated particulate coal with an aqueous emulsion of a hydrocarbon selected from the group consisting of petroleum resid, light cycle oil, heavy cycle oil, clarified slurry oil, durene, asphaltenes, coal tar and coal tar pitch.

  17. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  18. Alaska low-rank coal-water fuel -- Diesel demonstration Phase 2: Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.; Benson, C.; Wilson, R.; Krier, G.; Ruckhaus, M.; Walsh, D.; Ward, C.

    1998-07-01

    The technical feasibility of producing and utilizing a premium low-rank coal-water fuel (LRCWF) made from ultra-low sulfur Alaskan subbituminous coal following hydrothermal treatment (HT) has been demonstrated in pilot plants in Australia, Japan and the US. Preliminary process economics suggest that LRCWF produced from subbituminous coal from the Beluga coal field near Anchorage, Alaska, with measured coal reserves approaching 2 billion tons, would be competitive with heavy oil priced above about $18 per barrel in Japan. Consequently, a consortium led by Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. (UCM), the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) and Coal-Water Fuel Services (CWFS) was formed to seek funding for a commercial-scale demonstration project to be built at UAF. Arthur D. Little, Inc. (ADL), with support from the US Department of Energy (DOE), led a team that demonstrated the feasibility of using CWFs in medium speed diesel engines. They were awarded funding in DOE's fifth and final Clean Coal Technology Program solicitation to demonstrate the technology at commercial scale in a Maryland utility. Due to reduced power demands, the utility withdrew and project developers sought a new location. ADL was familiar with the potential synergism with the proposed Alaskan LRCWF project and have joined with the Alaskan team to formulate the LRCWF-Diesel Demonstration Project to be located at UAF. Coltec Industries, Fairbanks Morse Engine Division, will provide commercial CWF diesel technology.

  19. A new process for catalytic liquefaction of low-rank coal using dispersed MoS{sub 2} catalyst generating in-situ with added H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.S.; Saini, A.K.; Yoneyama, Yoshiharu

    1997-12-31

    It is known that water deactivates hydrogenation catalysts under conventional coal liquefaction conditions, although the beneficial effect of hydrothermal pretreatment has been reported. However, the authors have recently found that using water and a dispersed Mo catalyst precursor together could dramatically improve coal conversion at temperatures (325--375 C) that are much lower than those used in conventional processes (400--470 C). However, adding water to catalytic reactions at 400--450 C decreased coal conversion, although water addition to the noncatalytic runs was slightly beneficial in this high temperature range. In the present work, the authors examined the effect of water in solvent-mediated runs in addition to ``dry`` tests, and explored a temperature-programmed liquefaction procedure to take advantage of the synergetic effect between water and dispersed Mo catalyst precursor at low temperatures for more efficient coal conversion. It was found that reaction using ATTM (ammonium tetrathiomolybdate) with added water at 350 C, followed by water removal and subsequent reaction at 400 C gave good coal conversion and oil yield. To understand the effect of water, model reactions of dinaphthyl ether, abbreviated as DNE, were also carried out using ATTM in the absence and presence of water. Addition of water to ATTM in the model reactions substantially enhanced DNE conversion at 350 C. The combination of 1-step and 2-step model tests revealed that at a low temperature of 350 C, the main role of water is to promote the formation of highly active Mo sulfide catalyst. The liquefaction results coupled with model tests suggest that the presence of water results in substantially higher activity of the in-situ generated MoS{sub 2} catalyst for coal conversion at 350 C. Temperature-programming may be an effective strategy for developing a better liquefaction process using dispersed catalysts. This new process appears to be more effective for conversion of low-rank

  20. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  1. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  2. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  3. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  4. Effect of Water Invasion on Outburst Predictive Index of Low Rank Coals in Dalong Mine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingyu; Cheng, Yuanping; Mou, Junhui; Jin, Kan; Cui, Jie

    2015-01-01

    To improve the coal permeability and outburst prevention, coal seam water injection and a series of outburst prevention measures were tested in outburst coal mines. These methods have become important technologies used for coal and gas outburst prevention and control by increasing the external moisture of coal or decreasing the stress of coal seam and changing the coal pore structure and gas desorption speed. In addition, techniques have had a significant impact on the gas extraction and outburst prevention indicators of coal seams. Globally, low rank coals reservoirs account for nearly half of hidden coal reserves and the most obvious feature of low rank coal is the high natural moisture content. Moisture will restrain the gas desorption and will affect the gas extraction and accuracy of the outburst prediction of coals. To study the influence of injected water on methane desorption dynamic characteristics and the outburst predictive index of coal, coal samples were collected from the Dalong Mine. The methane adsorption/desorption test was conducted on coal samples under conditions of different injected water contents. Selective analysis assessed the variations of the gas desorption quantities and the outburst prediction index (coal cutting desorption index). Adsorption tests indicated that the Langmuir volume of the Dalong coal sample is ~40.26 m3/t, indicating a strong gas adsorption ability. With the increase of injected water content, the gas desorption amount of the coal samples decreased under the same pressure and temperature. Higher moisture content lowered the accumulation desorption quantity after 120 minutes. The gas desorption volumes and moisture content conformed to a logarithmic relationship. After moisture correction, we obtained the long-flame coal outburst prediction (cutting desorption) index critical value. This value can provide a theoretical basis for outburst prediction and prevention of low rank coal mines and similar occurrence conditions

  5. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  6. An integrated approach to the utilization of low rank coals and biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, S.; Sen, M.; Moitra, N.

    1999-08-01

    While suggesting an integrated approach for utilization of inferior low rank coals for power in India, the importance of low temperature carbonization followed by retrieval of all value-based products has been stressed. It is further suggested that tar, obtained in the process, could be hydrogenated and fractionated in a central plant for conversion to hydrocarbons. High ash char, the principal product of pyrolysis, has been experimentally found to be amenable to beneficiation, yielding suitable fractions for power generation, briquetting, or blending. Experimental studies have shown that forest litters and agricultural wastes, containing significant proportions of spore, cuticle, and exine--considered as precursors of hydrocarbon-generating coal macerals--also yield large quantities of tar, ammonical liquor, and the principal product, char, which can be respectively utilized for the production of petroleum substitutes, value-based chemicals, and source material for blending, briquette making, and char-water slurries, opening up new avenues for fuel utilization and conservation.

  7. To improve the stability of combustion of low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Bin Wei

    1995-03-01

    A new aerothermodynamic method, Bi-Flat Inlet Flow Precombustor with Control Jets, developed for flame stabilization of pulverized-coal and the improvement of the ignition condition of low grade coal is described in this paper. The BI-flat flow precombustor consists of a rectangular combustion chamber which can be installed in the location of the burner in the utility and industrial boilers to be used to advance ignition of fuel and primary air mixture and to increase combustion stability of the furnace flames. This type of precombustor simply constructs with two flattened primary air flow and control jets at the head end of the combustor. The velocity of control jets is higher than that of primary flow. A very large recirculation zone with high temperature burnt gases and high turbulent intensity as an ignition source is created in the center of combustion chamber based upon the principles of the actions of jets entraining and Coanda effect. Meanwhile, the higher velocity air layers with lower concentration of coal characteristics on preventing walls from slagging accumulation. Another very important feature is that coal particles could enter directly into the recirculation zone as their inertia and diffusion forces so that it shows a good compatibility of the flow paths of coal particles and high temperature gases. Finally, it is full of promise to be a low pollution emissions combustor since its staged flow and combustion structures.

  8. Proceedings of the Australian/USA workshop on low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The current commercial use of the low-rank coals in both Australia (total production of 53 million short tons in 1989) and the US (318 million tons) is predominantly in electric power generation. The few important exceptions include 2.5 million tons of Victorian brown coal used annually in the production of briquettes, 6 million tons of North Dakota lignite gasified to produce substitute natural gas, and 0.2 millions tons of Wyoming subbituminous coal used to produce formcoke for phosphorus manufacture. The large potential for increased utilization of low-rank coals as raw materials for synthetic liquid fuels and high-value-added carbons has not been realized in either Australia or the US, owing largely to energy economics dominated by low world prices for petroleum. At present, a number of initiatives affecting energy policies, markets, and technologies are underway in both countries that will help to improve the prospects for future commercial development, notably the Clean Coal Technology program in the US and the Coal Corporation of Victoria in Australia. The occasion of the 1991 Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, therefore, represented a particularly appropriate time for invited scientists and technologist from the two countries to meet to assess the status of technologies for producing liquid fuels and value-added carbon products from low-rank coals. Nine papers have been abstracted separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Microbial and chemical factors influencing methane production in laboratory incubations of low-rank subsurface coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Stephen H.; Smith, Richard L.; Barker, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    Lignite and subbituminous coals were investigated for their ability to support microbial methane production in laboratory incubations. Results show that naturally-occurring microorganisms associated with the coals produced substantial quantities of methane, although the factors influencing this process were variable among different samples tested. Methanogenic microbes in two coals from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, produced 140.5-374.6 mL CH4/kg ((4.5-12.0 standard cubic feet (scf)/ton) in response to an amendment of H2/CO2. The addition of high concentrations (5-10 mM) of acetate did not support substantive methane production under the laboratory conditions. However, acetate accumulated in control incubations where methanogenesis was inhibited, indicating that acetate was produced and consumed during the course of methane production. Acetogenesis from H2/CO2 was evident in these incubations and may serve as a competing metabolic mode influencing the cumulative amount of methane produced in coal. Two low-rank (lignite A) coals from Fort Yukon, Alaska, USA, demonstrated a comparable level of methane production (131.1-284.0 mL CH4/kg (4.2-9.1 scf/ton)) in the presence of an inorganic nutrient amendment, indicating that the source of energy and organic carbon was derived from the coal. The concentration of chloroform-extractable organic matter varied by almost three orders of magnitude among all the coals tested, and appeared to be related to methane production potential. These results indicate that substrate availability within the coal matrix and competition between different groups of microorganisms are two factors that may exert a profound influence on methanogenesis in subsurface coal beds.

  10. A case study of PFBC for low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Combined-Cycle (PFBC) technology allows the efficient and environmentally friendly utilization of solid fuels for power and combined heat and power generation. With current PFBC technology, thermal efficiencies near 46%, on an LHV basis and with low condenser pressures, can be reached in condensing power plants. Further efficiency improvements to 50% or more are possible. PFBC plants are characterized by high thermal efficiency, compactness, and extremely good environmental performance. The PFBC plants which are now in operation in Sweden, the U.S. and Japan burn medium-ash, bituminous coal with sulfur contents ranging from 0.7 to 4%. A sub- bituminous {open_quotes}black lignite{close_quotes} with high levels of sulfur, ash and humidity, is used as fuel in a demonstration PFBC plant in Spain. Project discussions are underway, among others in Central and Eastern Europe, for the construction of PFBC plants which will burn lignite, oil-shale and also mixtures of coal and biomass with high efficiency and extremely low emissions. This paper will provide information about the performance data for PFBC plants when operating on a range of low grade coals and other solid fuels, and will summarize other advantages of this leading new clean coal technology.

  11. Low-rank coal study. Volume 5. RD and D program evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A national program is recommended for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of improved technologies for the enviromentally acceptable use of low-rank coals. RD and D project recommendations are outlined in all applicable technology areas, including extraction, transportation, preparation, handling and storage, conventional combustion and environmental control technology, fluidized bed combustion, gasification, liquefaction, and pyrolysis. Basic research topics are identified separately, as well as a series of crosscutting research activities addressing environmental, economic, and regulatory issues. The recommended RD and D activities are classified into Priority I and Priority II categories, reflecting their relative urgency and potential impact on the advancement of low-rank coal development. Summaries of ongoing research projects on low-rank coals in the US are presented in an Appendix, and the relationships of these ongoing efforts to the recommended RD and D program are discussed.

  12. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  13. Indonesian low rank coal oxidation: The effect of H2O2 concentration and oxidation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahayu, S. S.; Findiati, F.; Aprilia, F.

    2016-11-01

    Extraction of Indonesian low rank coals by alkaline solution has been performed to isolate the humic substances. Pretreatments of the coals by oxidation using H2O2 prior to extraction are required to have higher yield of humic substances. In the previous research, only the extraction process was considered. Therefore, the effects of reaction temperature and residence time on coal oxidation and composition of extract residues are also investigated in this research. The oxidation temperatures studied were 40°C, 50°C, and 70°C and the H2O2 concentrations studied were 5%, 15%, 20 %, and 30 %. All the oxidation variables were studied for 90 minutes. The results show that the higher the concentration of H2O2 used, the less oxidized coal produced. The same trend was obtained by using higher oxidation temperature. The effect of H2O2 concentration, oxidation temperature and reaction time to the yield of humic substances extraction have positive trends.

  14. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  15. Relationship between Particle Size Distribution of Low-Rank Pulverized Coal and Power Plant Performance

    DOE PAGES

    Ganguli, Rajive; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar

    2012-01-01

    Tmore » he impact of particle size distribution (PSD) of pulverized, low rank high volatile content Alaska coal on combustion related power plant performance was studied in a series of field scale tests. Performance was gauged through efficiency (ratio of megawatt generated to energy consumed as coal), emissions (SO 2 , NO x , CO), and carbon content of ash (fly ash and bottom ash).he study revealed that the tested coal could be burned at a grind as coarse as 50% passing 76 microns, with no deleterious impact on power generation and emissions.he PSD’s tested in this study were in the range of 41 to 81 percent passing 76 microns.here was negligible correlation between PSD and the followings factors: efficiency, SO 2 , NO x , and CO. Additionally, two tests where stack mercury (Hg) data was collected, did not demonstrate any real difference in Hg emissions with PSD.he results from the field tests positively impacts pulverized coal power plants that burn low rank high volatile content coals (such as Powder River Basin coal).hese plants can potentially reduce in-plant load by grinding the coal less (without impacting plant performance on emissions and efficiency) and thereby, increasing their marketability.« less

  16. Effect of pretreatment with carbonic acid on 'Hypercoal' (ash-free coal) production from low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kensuke Masaki; Nao Kashimura; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Shinya Sato; Akimitsu Matsumura; Ikuo Saito

    2005-10-01

    The use of 'HyperCoal' (ash-free coal) as feedstock for gas turbines results in higher net power output with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. HyperCoal can be produced by thermal extraction from low-rank coals with industrial organic solvents in an inert atmosphere, providing raw materials. The pretreatment of low-rank coals with carbonic acid (CO{sub 2} dissolved in water - CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O) produced a strong increase in HyperCoal yields at relatively lower CO{sub 2} pressures of 0.1-0.5 MPa; the thermal extraction yields at 360{sup o}C increased by 7%-15% with extraction yields of 52% and 45% obtained for Wyodak sub-bituminous coal and Beulah-Zap lignite, respectively. In the range of 320-360{sup o}C, crude methylnaphthalene oil (CMNO) extraction yields of pretreated Wyodak coal increased significantly (by 4%-11%) over those of raw coal. The enhanced extraction yields of these low-rank coals are attributed to disruption of cation-bridging crosslinks on acid pretreatment, and the release of the hydrogen bonds by CMNO extraction. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this

  18. Advanced CO{sub 2} Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal IGCC System

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2013-09-30

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO{sub 2} scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO{sub 2} emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO{sub 2} above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in bituminous coal the net plant efficiency is about 2.4 percentage points higher than an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant equipped with SelexolTM to capture CO{sub 2}. We also previously completed two successful field demonstrations: one at the National Carbon Capture Center (Southern- Wilsonville, AL) in 2011, and a second demonstration in fall of 2012 at the Wabash River IGCC plant (Terra Haute, IN). In this project, we first optimized the sorbent to catalyst ratio used in the combined WGS and CO{sub 2} capture

  19. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  20. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior

    2004-10-29

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  1. Alaska low-rank coal-water fuel diesel demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.; Wilson, R.; Walsh, D.; Ward, C.; Willson, W.

    1997-12-31

    A Coal-Water Fuel (CWF)-Diesel Demonstration Project developed by ADLittle (ADL) and Cooper-Energy Systems (CES) was selected for funding in US Dept. of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT). The $38.3 million demonstration was originally planned for a utility in Maryland using CWF made from cleaned Ohio bituminous coal. When the host utility withdrew from the project, the sponsors sought a new location. During this time the technical feasibility of producing a premium low-rank coal-water fuel (LRCWF) from hydrothermally treated (HT) ultra-low S Alaskan subbituminous coal had been demonstrated at the pilot-scale. Since preliminary cost analyses showed Alaskan LRCWF to be competitive with Chinese bituminous CWF and oil priced at about $18 per barrel, an Alaskan consortium was seeking funding for a commercial-scale LRCWF demonstration project proposed for the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF). Since the engine developers at CES were already familiar with the features of LRCWF, the projects were combined and DOE approved relocating the LRCWF-Diesel CCT Project to UAF. The combined project will feature a 6.3 MWe diesel generation set with advanced emission controls capable of operating with either LRCWF or diesel, an oil-designed boiler also modified to use LRCWF or oil, and a nominal 120 tpd LRCWF production plant. Key project objectives are to develop commercial-scale LRCWF production costs, determine derating requirements and deratings for oil-designed boilers fired with LRCWF and to operate a LRCWF-fired diesel engine long enough to establish operating and wear characteristics.

  2. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-07-25

    This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

  3. Soil attenuation of leachates from low-rank coal combustion wastes: a literature survey. [116 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, R. O.; DeOtte, R. E.; Slowey, J. F.; McFarland, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    In parallel with pursuing the goal of increased utilization of low-rank solid fuels, the US Department of Energy is investigating various aspects associated with the disposal of coal-combustion solid wastes. Concern has been expressed relative to the potential hazards presented by leachates from fly ash, bottom ash and scrubber wastes. This is of particular interest in some regions where disposal areas overlap aquifer recharge regions. The western regions of the United States are characterized by relatively dry alkaline soils which may effect substantial attenuation of contaminants in the leachates thereby reducing the pollution potential. A project has been initiated to study the contaminant uptake of western soils. This effort consists of two phases: (1) preparation of a state-of-the-art document on soil attenuation; and (2) laboratory experimental studies to characterize attenuation of a western soil. The state-of-the-art document, represented herein, presents the results of studies on the characteristics of selected wastes, reviews the suggested models which account for the uptake, discusses the specialized columnar laboratory studies on the interaction of leachates and soils, and gives an overview of characteristics of Texas and Wyoming soils. 116 references, 10 figures, 29 tables.

  4. Low-rank coal research semiannual report, January 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This semiannual report is a compilation of seventeen reports on ongoing coal research at the University of North Dakota. The following research areas are covered: control technology and coal preparation; advanced research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction and gasification. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 5.1, Stability issues

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Dewall, R.A.; Richter, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    Low-sulfur subbituminous and lignite coals have high moisture content and, consequently, low heating value, leading to boiler derating in US midwestern and eastern utilities as well as switching and/or blending coals to achieve SO{sub 2} compliance. In the drive to develop cost-effective coal-drying processes, coal developers have focused on heat content of the products and generally neglected the critical stability issues of friability and dusting, moisture reabsorption, and spontaneous heating. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in an effort to establish new standards for dried products, has used established methods and has developed new ones to evaluate the propensity of lump western coals, raw and dried, to produce dust and absorb water. Three drying methods--air, hydrothermal, and saturated steam--were used to generate low-moisture upgraded products. New indices for dust generation and friability were determined to assess the effects of moisture removal and upgrading methodology on coal stability. Analysis of the dried coals using various strength tests indicated that the reduction in moisture made the lump coal unstable, yielding substantially higher dust and friability indices relative to those of the raw coals.

  6. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  7. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  8. Geogenic organic contaminants in the low-rank coal-bearing Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer of East Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chakraborty, Jayeeta; Varonka, Matthew S.; Orem, William H.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Manton, William

    2017-01-01

    The organic composition of groundwater along the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in East Texas (USA), sampled from rural wells in May and September 2015, was examined as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from low-rank coals. The quality of water from the low-rank coal-bearing Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer is a potential environmental concern and no detailed studies of the organic compounds in this aquifer have been published. Organic compounds identified in the water samples included: aliphatics and their fatty acid derivatives, phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (aliphatics, phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are geogenic and originated from groundwater leaching of young and unmetamorphosed low-rank coals. Estimated concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 3.9 to 0.01 μg/L. In many rural areas in East Texas, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in groundwater are likely to be present in drinking water supplied from wells that penetrate the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the water samples are potentially toxic to humans, but at the estimated levels in these samples, the compounds are unlikely to cause acute health problems. The human health effects of low-level chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water in East Texas are currently unknown, and continuing studies will evaluate possible toxicity.

  9. Geogenic organic contaminants in the low-rank coal-bearing Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer of East Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayeeta; Varonka, Matthew; Orem, William; Finkelman, Robert B.; Manton, William

    2017-01-01

    The organic composition of groundwater along the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in East Texas (USA), sampled from rural wells in May and September 2015, was examined as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from low-rank coals. The quality of water from the low-rank coal-bearing Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer is a potential environmental concern and no detailed studies of the organic compounds in this aquifer have been published. Organic compounds identified in the water samples included: aliphatics and their fatty acid derivatives, phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (aliphatics, phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are geogenic and originated from groundwater leaching of young and unmetamorphosed low-rank coals. Estimated concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 3.9 to 0.01 μg/L. In many rural areas in East Texas, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in groundwater are likely to be present in drinking water supplied from wells that penetrate the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the water samples are potentially toxic to humans, but at the estimated levels in these samples, the compounds are unlikely to cause acute health problems. The human health effects of low-level chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water in East Texas are currently unknown, and continuing studies will evaluate possible toxicity.

  10. Study of Indonesia low rank coal utilization on modified fixed bed gasification for combined cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardianto, T.; Amalia, A. R.; Suwono, A.; Riauwindu, P.

    2015-09-01

    Gasification is a conversion process converting carbon-based solid fuel into gaseous products that have considerable amount of calorific value. One of the carbon-based solid fuel that serves as feed for gasification is coal. Gasification gaseous product is termed as syngas (synthetic gas) that is composed of several different gases. Syngas produced from gasification vary from one process to another, this is due to several factors which are: feed characteristics, operation condition, gasified fluid condition, and gasification method or technology. One of the utilization of syngas is for combined cycle power plant fuel. In order to meet the need to convert carbon-based solid fuel into gaseous fuel for combined cycle power plant, engineering adjustment for gasification was done using related software to create the syngas with characteristics of natural gas that serve as fuel for combined cycle power plant in Indonesia. Feed used for the gasification process in this paper was Indonesian Low Rank Coal and the method used to obtain syngas was Modified Fixed Bed Gasifier. From the engineering adjustment process, the yielded syngas possessed lower heating value as much as 31828.32 kJ/kg in gasification condition of 600°C, 3.5 bar, and steam to feed ratio was 1 kg/kg. Syngas characteristics obtained from the process was used as a reference for the adjustment of the fuel system modification in combined cycle power plant that will have the same capacity with the conversion of the system's fuel from natural gas to syngas.

  11. Hydrothermal extraction and gasification of low rank coal with catalyst Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachruzzaki, Handayani, Ismi; Mursito, Anggoro Tri

    2017-01-01

    Increasing coal quality is very important in order to utilize low-rank coal. This research is attempted to increase the quality of low-rank coal using hydrothermal process with hot compressed water (HCW) at 200 °C and 3 MPa. The product from this process were solid residue and liquid filtrate with organic component. Product from gasification of the filtrate was synthetic gas. The result showed that higher water flow rate could increase organic component in the filtrate. When a catalyst was used, the extraction process was faster, the organic component in the filtrate was increased while its content was decreased in the residue. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated that coal extraction using HCW was more effective with catalyst Pd/Al2O3. Increasing the process temperature will increase the amounts CO and H2 gas. In this research, highest net heating value at 800°C using K2CO3 solution and Pd/Al2O3 catalyst was 17,774.36 kJ/kg. The highest cold gas efficiency was 91.29% and the best carbon conversion was 34.78%.

  12. Humic substances and nitrogen-containing compounds from low rank brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Kar, Y.; Deveci, H.

    2006-03-15

    Coal is one of the sources of nitrogen-containing compounds (NCCs). Recovery of NCCs from brown coals in high yield was carried out from tars of stepwise semicoking of brown coals. Humic acids have been shown to contain many types of nitrogen compounds. Humic acids are thought to be complex aromatic macromolecules with amino acids, amino sugars, peptides, and aliphatic compounds that are involved in the linkages between the aromatic groups. Humic acids extracted from peats, brown coals, and lignites, are characterized using different techniques. Humic substances (HSs) have several known benefits to agriculture. The properties of humic substances vary from source to source, because they are heterogeneous mixtures of biochemical degradation products from plant and animal residues, and synthesis activities of microorganisms. HSs have been considered to be a significant floculant in surface water filtration plants for the production of drinking water as well as the processing of water. HSs are produced from chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues and from synthetic activities of microorganisms.

  13. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  14. STUDIES OF THE SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF LOW RANK COALS AND LIGNITES

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Okoh; Joseph N.D. Dodoo

    2005-07-26

    Spontaneous combustion has always been a problem in coal utilization especially in the storage and transportation of coal. In the United States, approximately 11% of underground coal mine fires are attributed to spontaneous coal combustion. The incidence of such fires is expected to increase with increased consumption of lower rank coals. The cause is usually suspected to be the reabsorption of moisture and oxidation. To understand the mechanisms of spontaneous combustion this study was conducted to (1) define the initial and final products during the low temperature (10 to 60 C) oxidation of coal at different partial pressures of O{sub 2}, (2) determine the rate of oxidation, and (3) measure the reaction enthalpy. The reaction rate (R) and propensity towards spontaneous combustion were evaluated in terms of the initial rate method for the mass gained due to adsorbed O{sub 2}. Equipment that was used consisted of a FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectrometer, Perkin Elmer), an accelerated surface area porosimeter (ASAP, Micromeritics model 2010), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, Cahn Microbalance TG 121) and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, Q1000, thermal analysis instruments). Their combination yielded data that established a relation between adsorption of oxygen and reaction enthalpy. The head space/ gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer system (HS/GC/MS) was used to identify volatiles evolved during oxidation. The coal samples used were Beulah lignite and Wyodak (sub-bituminous). Oxygen (O{sub 2}) absorption rates ranged from 0.202 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.20 (Beulah pyrolyzed at 300 C) to 6.05 mg O{sub 2}/mg coal hr for coal sample No.8 (wyodak aged and pyrolyzed at 300 C). Aging of coal followed by pyrolysis was observed to contribute to higher reaction rates. Reaction enthalpies ranged from 0.42 to 1580 kcal/gm/mol O{sub 2}.

  15. Release of inorganic constituents during rapid pyrolysis of Victorian low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, G.; Riley, K.W.

    1996-12-31

    It has been shown that the mineral matter contained in Victorian brown coal is released to some extent during rapid pyrolysis. The fate of four inorganic species: sodium, calcium, magnesium, and iron, has been investigated. As expected, sodium is released from the coal during heating. However, the divalent species calcium, magnesium and iron, are all released during pyrolysis, with losses of between 35 and 40% where the total mass loss from the coal reaches at least 70%. A mechanism has been postulated for the loss: these elements are believed to be retained within the large molecular weight tar fraction which makes up between 30 and 40% of the mass loss from the coal during rapid pyrolysis.

  16. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  17. Changes in the chemical structure of low rank coal after low temperature oxidation or demineralisation by acid treatment: Analysis by FTIR and UV fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Kister, J.; Guiliano, M.; Mille, G.; Dou, H.

    1987-04-01

    The studies have been conducted on low rank coal: Flambant de Provence, France, PRV=0.44 FTIR and UV synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy are used to study structural changes in low rank coal after natural oxidation or acid (HCl/HF) demineralization. The observed variations deal mainly with a decrease in aliphatic structures and an increase in the oxygenated species. A quantitative oxidation study of the effect of temperature, time, mineral matter and oxygen concentrations has been conducted by FTIR. An attempt to describe the oxygenated species by FTIR and to compare their evolution has been conducted. Various oxidation mechanisms are proposed according to the results.

  18. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.7, Fuel utilization properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-08-01

    Gasification-type entrained ash and deposits were produced in a pressurized test furnace at high temperature. For the subbituminous Black Thunder coal, the effect of fuel-rich conditions was an increase in quartz, calcite, dolomite, and calcium-rich phases in the entrained ash. Lower particle temperatures, as compared to full air conventional combustion, and the oxygen-lean atmosphere may have caused a reduction in the interaction and assimilation of pure quartz and organically bound calcium into calcium aluminosilicate phases. For the Illinois No. 6 entrained fly ash fuel-rich conditions prevented the oxidation of pyrite and pyrrhotite to iron oxide. Lower temperatures within and surrounding char particles during reducing conditions combustion may have prevented the decomposition of pyrrhotite and enhanced the reaction of iron with aluminosilicate phases. The deposits show similar trends, with the Illinois No. 6 deposit grown under pressurized conditions at a lower temperature having Na and (Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, K) aluminosilicates, calcium carbonate, and an iron sulfide, probably pyrrohotite, present. At higher temperature, loss of sulfur occurs with the increased formation of iron aluminosilicate phases. The Illinois No. 6 and Black Thunder coals were tested with kaolin and lime additives under highly reducing conditions to simulate a gasification environment. The deposit collection zone temperature was varied from 750{degree}C to 1OOO{degree}C. Although no clear trends were evident for the interaction of kaolin or lime with the deposits, the deposits did become more porous, with greatly reduced strength shown for both additives.

  19. Circulating fluidized bed gasification of low rank coal: Influence of O2/C molar ratio on gasification performance and sulphur transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haixia; Zhang, Yukui; Zhu, Zhiping; Lu, Qinggang

    2016-08-01

    To promote the utilization efficiency of coal resources, and to assist with the control of sulphur during gasification and/or downstream processes, it is essential to gain basic knowledge of sulphur transformation associated with gasification performance. In this research we investigated the influence of O2/C molar ratio both on gasification performance and sulphur transformation of a low rank coal, and the sulphur transformation mechanism was also discussed. Experiments were performed in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier with O2/C molar ratio ranging from 0.39 to 0.78 mol/mol. The results showed that increasing the O2/C molar ratio from 0.39 to 0.78 mol/mol can increase carbon conversion from 57.65% to 91.92%, and increase sulphur release ratio from 29.66% to 63.11%. The increase of O2/C molar ratio favors the formation of H2S, and also favors the retained sulphur transforming to more stable forms. Due to the reducing conditions of coal gasification, H2S is the main form of the released sulphur, which could be formed by decomposition of pyrite and by secondary reactions. Bottom char shows lower sulphur content than fly ash, and mainly exist as sulphates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements also show that the intensity of pyrite declines and the intensity of sulphates increases for fly ash and bottom char, and the change is more obvious for bottom char. During CFB gasification process, bigger char particles circulate in the system and have longer residence time for further reaction, which favors the release of sulphur species and can enhance the retained sulphur transforming to more stable forms.

  20. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coals. Annual technical report, April 1, 1987--March 31, 1988 including quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1988: Task 5.1

    SciTech Connect

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1988-04-01

    Co-processing of low-rank coals (LRCs) with petroleum resids under mild conditions may produce a product that extends petroleum refinery feeds with a partially coal-derived material. These co-processing products may also provide a lower-cost way to introduce coal-derived materials into the commercial market. In this staged process, the petroleum resid acts as a solvent, aiding in the solubilization of the coal during the first stage, and both the dissolved coal and the resid are upgraded during a second-stage catalytic hydrogenation. Another method of upgrading coal in a liquefaction process is the ChemCoal Process. The process uses chemical methods to transform coal into clean solid and liquid products. It features low-severity conversion of coal in a phenolic solvent, using an alkali promotor and carbon monoxide as the reductant. Oil agglomeration has been used to reduce the ash and mineral matter in bituminous coals to obtain a product with increased heating value, reduced moisture, and lower sulfur content. This method can be used to produce a clean coal feedstock for liquefaction. During agglomeration, an oil is used to preferentially wet the organic phases of the coal, and water is used to wet the minerals, resulting in a separation of ash and water from the coal. The primary objective of this project is to expand the scientific and engineering data base of LRC liquefaction by investigating direct liquefaction processes that will produce the most competitive feedstocks or liquid fuels. The work effort which was proposed for the second year of this cooperative agreement dealt primarily with co-processing and the ChemCoal Process.

  1. Low-rank coal research annual report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1990 including quarterly report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Research programs in the following areas are presented: control technology and coal preparation; advance research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction; and gasification. Sixteen projects are included. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. A primer on the occurrence of coalbed methane in low-rank coals, with special reference to its potential occurrence in Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    SanFilipo, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: This report compiles and updates a series of correspondence that took place between 1998 and early 2000 among the author and representatives of various consulting groups operating in the coal sector of Pakistan. The purpose of the original correspondence was to introduce basic concepts of coalbed methane (CBM) in low-rank coals to planners and other parties interested in the development of Pakistan's coal, particularly the large deposits of the Thar desert area of Sindh Province that were recently discovered (SanFilipo and Khan, 1994) by the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The author tested two shallow boreholes in Sindh Province for CBM in 1992, including one in Thar, with very marginal results. Additional targets with better CBM prospects were recommended shortly thereafter (SanFilipo and others, 1994), but these were not followed up during subsequent drilling, nor were any other sites tested. Recent events, notably the rapid pace of CBM development in low-rank coals of the Powder River Basin of the U.S., and a show of CBM in commercial quantities in the Cambay Basin of India - both of which are similar in age and rank to most of Pakistan's coal - have indicated a need for reevaluating the initial CBM investigations made in Pakistan in 1992 and for a reassessment of the CBM prospects for the country at large.

  3. CO2 Adsorption in Low-Rank Coals: Progress Toward Assessing the National Capacity to Store CO2 in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, R. W.; Burruss, R. C.; Flores, R. M.; Warwick, P. D.

    2001-05-01

    Subsurface environments for geologic storage of CO2 from combustion of fossil fuel include saline formations, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and unmineable coalbeds. Of these environments, storage in petroleum reservoirs and coal beds offers a potential economic benefit of enhanced recovery of energy resources. Meaningful assessment of the volume and geographic distribution of storage sites requires quantitative estimates of geologic factors that control storage capacity. The factors that control the storage capacity of unmineable coalbeds are poorly understood. In preparation for a USGS assessment of CO2 storage capacity we have begun new measurements of CO2 and CH4 adsorption isotherms of low-rank coal samples from 4 basins. Initial results for 13 samples of low-rank coal beds from the Powder River Basin (9 subbituminous coals), Greater Green River Basin (1 subbituminous coal), Williston Basin (2 lignites) and the Gulf Coast (1 lignite) indicate that their adsorption capacity is up to 10 times higher than it is for CH4. These values contrast with published measurements of the CO2 adsorption capacity of bituminous coals from the Fruitland Formation, San Juan basin, and Gates Formation, British Columbia, that indicate about twice as much carbon dioxide as methane can be adsorbed on coals. Because CH4 adsorption isotherms are commonly measured on coals, CO2 adsorption capacity can be estimated if thecorrect relationship between the gases is known. However, use a factor to predict CO2 adsorption that is twice that of CH4 adsorption, which is common in the published literature, grossly underestimates the storage capacity of widely distributed, thick low-rank coal beds. Complete petrographic and chemical characterization of these low-rank coal samples is in progress. Significant variations in adsorption measurements among samples are depicted depending on the reporting basis used. Properties were measured on an "as received" (moist) basis but can be converted to a

  4. AO13. High energy, low methane syngas from low-rank coals for coal-to-liquids production

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, Andrew; Goyal, Amit; McCabe, Kevin; Gangwal, Santosh

    2015-06-30

    An experimental program was undertaken to develop and demonstrate novel steam reforming catalysts for converting tars, C2+ hydrocarbons, and methane under high temperature and sulfur environments at lab scale. Several catalysts were developed and synthesized along with some catalysts based on recipes found in the literature. Of these, two had good resistance at 90 ppm H2S with one almost not affected at all. Higher concentrations of H2S did affect methane conversion across the catalyst, but performance was fairly stable for up to 200 hours. Based on the results of the experimental program, a techno-economic analysis was developed for IGCC and CTL applications and compared to DOE reference cases to examine the effects of the new technology. In the IGCC cases, the reformer/POX system produces nearly the same amount of electricity for nearly the same cost, however, the reformers/POX case sequesters a higher percentage of the carbon when compared to IGCC alone. For the CTL case the economics of the new process were nearly identical to the CTL case, but due to improved yields, the greenhouse gas emissions for a given production of fuels was approximately 50% less than the baseline case.

  5. CeO2-TiO2 catalysts for catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury in low-rank coal combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Wu, Chang-Yu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Junying

    2011-09-01

    CeO(2)-TiO(2) (CeTi) catalysts synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted impregnation method were employed to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in simulated low-rank (sub-bituminous and lignite) coal combustion flue gas. The CeTi catalysts with a CeO(2)/TiO(2) weight ratio of 1-2 exhibited high Hg(0) oxidation activity from 150 to 250 °C. The high concentrations of surface cerium and oxygen were responsible for their superior performance. Hg(0) oxidation over CeTi catalysts was proposed to follow the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism whereby reactive species from adsorbed flue gas components react with adjacently adsorbed Hg(0). In the presence of O(2), a promotional effect of HCl, NO, and SO(2) on Hg(0) oxidation was observed. Without O(2), HCl and NO still promoted Hg(0) oxidation due to the surface oxygen, while SO(2) inhibited Hg(0) adsorption and subsequent oxidation. Water vapor also inhibited Hg(0) oxidation. HCl was the most effective flue gas component responsible for Hg(0) oxidation. However, the combination of SO(2) and NO without HCl also resulted in high Hg(0) oxidation efficiency. This superior oxidation capability is advantageous to Hg(0) oxidation in low-rank coal combustion flue gas with low HCl concentration.

  6. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  7. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  8. Effects of pyrolysis conditions and ion-exchangeable cations on the thermal decomposition of a Victorian low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sathe, C.; Pang, Y.; Li, C.Z.

    1998-12-31

    A Loy Yang brown coal sample was acid-washed and ion-exchanged with Na and Ca to prepare the H-form, Na-form and Ca-form coal samples. These coal samples were pyrolyzed in a wire-mesh reactor where the extraparticle secondary reactions of the evolved volatiles were minimized. The ion-exchanged coal samples were found to give very different tar yields from those of the raw coal samples. The tar yields from the pyrolysis of the raw and H-form coal samples were observed to be very sensitive to changes in heating rate and the tar yields at 600 C were found to increase much more than the corresponding increases in the total volatile yields as the heating rate was increased from 1 to 1,000 K/s. In contrast, the tar yields from the Ca-form and Na-form coal samples showed little heating rate sensitivity. The heating rate sensitivity of pyrolysis yields is believed to be at least partly related to the presence of carboxyl/carboxylate groups and other bulky substitution groups in the coal as well as the rapid pressure buildup within the particles. Re-exchanging Na in the Na-form coal sample and Ca in the Ca-form coal sample with H confirmed the effects of Na and Ca, but also suggested that the irreversible structural changes taking place during ion-exchange should also be considered to evaluate the effects of ion-exchangeable cations during pyrolysis. The major roles of ion-exchangeable cations during pyrolysis are thought to be associated with the transformation of the alkali and alkaline earth metallic species. Some Ca was volatilized during pyrolysis, even at temperatures as low as 600 C.

  9. Integrating flotation to improve the performance of an HMC circuit treating a low-rank fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, H.; Polat, M.

    2005-11-01

    One reason that heavy media cyclone (HMC) circuits suffer from the inadvertent loss of magnetite and fine coal is the presence of nonmagnetic material in the magnetic separator feed. In this study, flotation was applied to the undersize fractions of the HMC drain-and-rinse screens to minimize these problems. These fractions, which contain 17.9% nonmagnetic material, are currently sent to magnetic separators and the nonmagnetic portion from the separators contains 39.1% ash. Applying flotation resulted in a clean coal product with an ash content of 8.7% and a calorific value of 6,300 kcal/kg. The refuse from flotation, which will be sent to the magnetic separators, contains 7.7% nonmagnetics.

  10. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 6.1. Corrosion of advanced structural materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nowok, J.W.; Strobel, T.M.; Bieber, J.A.; Hurley, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    In order to increase national energy self-sufficiency for the near future, energy systems will be required to fire low-grade fuels and use more efficient energy cycles than those available today. The steam cycle used at present is limited to a maximum steam temperature of 550{degrees}C and thus a conversion efficiency of 35%. To boost efficiency significantly, much higher working fluid temperatures are required, compelling subsystems to operate at much higher temperatures and, therefore, in much more corrosive environments than those currently used. Problems of special concern are corrosion and fatigue of direct-fired turbine blades, corrosion and blinding of hot-gas cleanup filters, catastrophic failure of high-temperature heat exchangers, and spalling and dissolution of refractory materials. The extreme conditions will require the use of advanced structural materials such as high-temperature ceramics for the construction of the subsystems. Unfortunately, little is known of the performance of these materials in actual coal combustion environments. Although some corrosion testing has been performed in the past, most has been done by groups experimenting with ash or slag stimulants composed of only one or two simple compounds. For this project performed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), actual coal ash and slag will be used in simulated combustion conditions so that more realistic determinations of the mechanisms of corrosion can be made. The work includes three main research areas focusing on two fossil energy subsystems: high-temperature heat exchangers and hot-gas cleanup filters. The first area involves developing existing abilities in thermodynamic equilibrium calculations to determine the most appropriate corroding agents to include in the tests; the second area involves coal slag corrosion of high temperature heat exchangers; and the third, lower-temperature ash and gas corrosion hot-gas cleanup filters.

  11. On-site field tests for study of low-rank western-coal fly ash. Final report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Gooch, John P.

    1981-02-16

    The Final Report on Phase 1 of the referenced contract covers the work performed and the technical plans logistical arrangements, and recommendations developed during the period of October 1, 1980 to January 31, 1981. SoRI has prepared a detailed work plan for the project which included procedures for the selection of test sites and plans for the performance of the follow-on field tests under Phase 2 of the project. The Technical Manager authorized the first field test of the Arapahoe Unit 3 baghouse to take place in late February or early March. A detailed work plan for the Arapahoe baghouse test is included in this report. The objectives of Phase 1 were to select appropriate test sites and make the necessary plans for conducting the follow-on field tests at these sites. The planning was to include the formulation of a detailed work plan for the project and the administrative and logistical arrangements with the selected utilities. All of these objectives have been satisfied with the exception of the arrangements with the utilities which have not been completed for all utilities due to the accelerated project schedule. The primary purpose of these follow-on field tests is to investigate the emissions and control of fly ash from utility boilers burning low-rank Western coals.

  12. Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium.

  13. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Two long gasification tests were accomplished (66 and 72 hours of slagging operation) this quarter, and the balance of the wastewater needed for the second cooling tower (CT) test (approx. 11,000 gallons) was generated. Eleven thousand gallons of slagging fixed-bed gasifier (SFBG) wastewater were solvent extracted and ammonia stripped (AS) to nominal levels of 160 mg/1 phenol and 600 mg/1 NH/sub 3/. This wastewater is being further treated by activated sludge (AS) and granular activated carbon (GAC) processing to prepare a high quality makeup for the second CT test. Phenol mass balances indicated that > 90 pct of the phenol was stripped from the tower, indicating that previous assumptions of high levels of biodegradation were erroneous. Over 80 pct of the ammonia and about 25 pct of the methanol were also stripped. Data collected during steady state operation of the bench-scale rotating biological contractor indicate complete removal of phenolics and alcohols, and 94 pct removal of BOD. Nitrification also occurred in this unit, with over 30 pct removal of ammonia. Problems due to individual bacteria, present in the biotreated wastewater, passing through the multi-media filter and thus decreasing the carbon adsorption efficiency of the GAC system, have resulted in lower treatment rates than originally anticipated. As a result, to achieve the desired treatment, the contact time of the wastewater with the carbon in the granular activated carbon system has been increased. Since this has decreased the treatment rate, a larger carbon adsorption system has been designed and is presently being constructed.

  14. Testing of FMI's Coal Upgrading Process

    SciTech Connect

    Vijay Sethi

    2009-03-21

    WRI and FMI have collaborated to develop and test a novel coal upgrading technology. Proprietary coal upgrading technology is a fluidized bed-based continuous process which allows high through-puts, reducing the coal processing costs. Processing is carried out under controlled oxidizing conditions at mild enough conditions that compared to other coal upgrading technologies; the produced water is not as difficult to treat. All the energy required for coal drying and upgrading is derived from the coal itself. Under the auspices of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program, Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-98FT40323, a nominal 400 lbs/hour PDU was constructed and operated. Over the course of this project, several low-rank coals were successfully tested in the PDU. In all cases, a higher Btu, low moisture content, stable product was produced and subsequently analyzed. Stack emissions were monitored and produced water samples were analyzed. Product stability was established by performing moisture readsorption testing. Product pyrophobicity was demonstrated by instrumenting a coal pile.

  15. Effects of Adsorbed Gases on the Physical and Transport Properties of Low-Rank Coal, PRB, WY: Implications for Carbon Sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Zoback, M. D.; Hagin, P. N.

    2010-12-01

    When CO2 is injected into unminable coalbeds, it has the potential to enhance the amount of methane production (ECBM) and to geologically sequester CO2 as an adsorbed phase. In this study we study the effects of adsorption of He, N2, CH4 and CO2, on the mechanical and flow properties of sub-bituminous coal from the Powder River Basin (PRB) on both intact and crushed samples. The coal samples were vacuum dried before each test, then saturated by each test gas at a series of either increasing pore pressure or increasing effective stress until steady state was reached. Thus, the amount of adsorption can be measured as a function of pore pressure Permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Preliminary results show that the adsorption of CO2 is twice as large as CH4, and almost four times that of N2. Hysteresis is observed among pure component adsorption and desorption isotherms which are characterized Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. Permeability decreases with increasing effective stress for He, CH4 and CO2. At constant effective stress, permeability decreases when the saturating gas changes from He to CH4 and CO2. Hysteresis of permeability with increasing and decreasing effective stress is not observed in crushed samples. The coal swells when CH4 displaces He and swells more when CO2 displaces He. Viscoplastic creep behavior is observed in the presence of CH4 and CO2 with both intact and crushed samples, which may affect maintaining permeability for long-term CO2 injection. Adsorption Isotherm of Crushed Coal Sample, WY Permeability as a function of effective stress with different gas saturation

  16. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 7.2, Resource data evaluation. Topical report, July 1994--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    The Resource Data Evaluation subtask of the US Department of Energy (DOE) base program represents an Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) initiative to promote the integration of geographic information system (GIS) technologies with other ongoing and planned EERC research in the areas of resource utilization, remediation, land use planning, and regulatory and policy assessment. Significant demand for GIS-based information already exists for energy resource evaluation, interpretation of remote sensing data, environmental assessment at the state and local levels, and use in strategic planning. The objective of this task was to determine the appropriate platform and approach upon which to develop GIS applications for optimizing resource evaluation and integrating this information with related areas of interest. Activities associated with Task 7.2, Resource Data Evaluation, were conducted primarily during the first half of the project year. These activities included tasks associated with the development and implementation of GIS databases and construction of digitized files for research pertaining to energy studies. As previously noted, database design was undertaken for two EERC projects: 1) coal occurrence in Bowman and adjacent counties in the Fort Union Coal Region of southwestern North Dakota and 2) energy resource utilization concerns for selected sites in Alaska.

  17. Effects of metal cations present naturally in coal on the fate of coal-bound nitrogen in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of 25 coals with different ranks: correlation between inherent Fe cations and N{sub 2} formation from low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuo Ohtsuka; Zhiheng Wu

    2009-09-15

    The fate of coal-N in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of 25 coals with 62-81 wt % (daf) C has been studied with a quartz reactor at 1000 C under ambient pressure to examine the effects of metal cations present naturally in these coals on the partitioning of coal-N into N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, tar-N, and char-N. Nitrogen mass balances for all runs fall within the reasonable range of 100 {+-} 5%, and N{sub 2} is the predominant product for all of the coals. As the N{sub 2} yield increases, the sum of NH{sub 3}, HCN, and tar-N is unchanged significantly, whereas the char-N yield decreases almost linearly, showing that most of N{sub 2} originates from char-N. When eight kinds of inherent metals, such as Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe, and Ti, are determined by the conventional method and related with the N{sub 2} yield, there exists a strong, direct correlation between the Fe content and N{sub 2} formation for low-rank coals with less than 75 wt % (daf) C. Transmission electron microscopy coupled with an energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (TEM-EDAX) measurements after pyrolysis at 1000{sup o}C of a German brown coal, which provides the highest N{sub 2} yield of about 60%, reveal the existence of lamella structures because of graphitized carbon as well as nanoscale Fe particles with different sizes and shapes. The mechanism for conversion reactions of char-N to N{sub 2} is discussed in terms of the catalysis by nanoparticles of metallic Fe formed from inherent Fe cations. 34 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 3.4 -- Hot-gas cleaning. Topical report (includes semiannual report for January--June 1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Swanson, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of three subtasks completed in support of the current and future hot-gas cleanup activities at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The overall objective of the EERC hot-gas cleanup task is to develop reliable methods to remove particulate matter from high-temperature, high-pressure gas streams produced from coal combustion and/or gasification. Near-term task objectives include (1) design, fabrication, and assembly of a high-temperature, high-pressure bench-scale filter vessel; (2) design, fabrication, and assembly of a high-temperature, high-pressure sampling train; and (3) the preliminary design of a pilot-scale high-temperature, high-pressure filter vessel and support systems. Bench-scale hot-gas filter research will be performed with the pressurized fluid-bed reactor (PFBR) or the continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) and a hot-gas filter vessel. The objectives of future work with the bench-scale system will be to determine particulate and vapor-phase alkali degradation of candidate ceramic filter structures as well as filter performance relative to particulate collection efficiency, differential pressure, and filter cleanability. Construction of the high-temperature, high-pressure sampling system was intended to support bench- and pilot-scale activities with respect to conventional particulate sampling (total mass and particle-size distribution) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) sampling. Finally, pilot-scale tests will be performed to evaluate filter performance and determine alkali corrosion of ceramic materials with a hot-gas filter vessel attached to the EERC Transport Reactor Development Unit (TRDU).

  19. Continuous coal processing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  20. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  1. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  2. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Norman L.; Moon, William G.; Prudich, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  3. Apparatus for processing coal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1985-02-12

    Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

  4. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lili; Schobert, Harold H.; Song, Chunshan

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  5. Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at the University of Southern California on coal liquefaction processes. Lecture topics and course requirements are discussed. A 64-item bibliography of papers used in place of a textbook is included. (BT)

  6. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  7. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  8. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Charles H.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  9. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  10. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  11. Coal processing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterlich, W.; Bohn, T.; Eickhoff, H. G.; Geldmacher, H.; Mengis, W.; Oomatia, H.; Stroppel, K. G.

    1980-08-01

    The efficient design of processing plants which combine various coal based technologies in order to maximize the effectiveness of coal utilization is considered. The technical, economical and ecological virtues which compound plants for coal conversion offer are assayed. Twenty-two typical processes of coal conversion and product refinement are selected and described by a standardized method of characterization. An analysis of product market and a qualitative assessment of plant design support six different compound plant propositions. The incorporation of such coal conversion schemes into future energy supply systems was simulated by model calculations. The analysis shows that byproducts and nonconverted materials from individual processes can be processed in a compound plant in a profitable manner. This leads to an improvement in efficiencies. The product spectrum can be adapted to a certain degree to demand variations. Furthermore, the integration of fluidized bed combustion can provide an efficient method of desulfurization. Compound plants are expected to become economic in the 1990's. A necessary condition to compound technologies is high reliability in the functioning of all individual processes.

  12. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  13. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  14. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar; Sunder, Swaminathan

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

  15. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  16. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Maa, Peter S.

    1978-01-01

    A process for liquefying a particulate coal feed to produce useful petroleum-like liquid products which comprises contacting; in a series of two or more coal liquefaction zones, or stages, graded with respect to temperature, an admixture of a polar compound; or compounds, a hydrogen donor solvent and particulate coal, the total effluent being passed in each instance from a low temperature zone, or stage to the next succeeding higher temperature zone, or stage, of the series. The temperature within the initial zone, or stage, of the series is maintained about 70.degree. F and 750.degree. F and the temperature within the final zone, or stage, is maintained between about 750.degree. F and 950.degree. F. The residence time within the first zone, or stage, ranges, generally, from about 20 to about 150 minutes and residence time within each of the remaining zones, or stages, of the series ranges, generally, from about 10 minutes to about 70 minutes. Further steps of the process include: separating the product from the liquefaction zone into fractions inclusive of a liquid solvent fraction; hydrotreating said liquid solvent fraction in a hydrogenation zone; and recycling the hydrogenated liquid solvent mixture to said coal liquefaction zones.

  17. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, M.M.; Seehra, M.S. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-10-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using temperature-programmed electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the examination of tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resid materials derived from direct coal liquefaction. TGA is used to quantitate volatile losses in a temperature-programmed experiment. The TGA data are used to correct the free radical densities obtained by ESR as volatile material is evolved from the samples in the temperature-programmed ESR experiment. The techniques, when employed in tandem, can be used to determine the content and nature of the free radicals in the samples at temperatures approximating those used in the liquefaction process. TGA and ESR experiments were performed in flowing nitrogen and hydrogen, at ambient pressure. No significant difference was observed in the ESR spectra in the different atmospheres, except in the case of low-rank coal-derived resids. The TGA results, however, were systematically different; mass loss in an H[sub 2] atmosphere is consistently higher than that observed in an N[sub 2] atmosphere. It was shown that temperature-programmed ESR, which can pinpoint conditions at which the free radical content is the highest, has potential to be a guide for the appropriate choice of conditions for optimum resid upgrading. Further development of these combined analytical methods as process development tools appears justified based on these results.

  18. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    DOEpatents

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  19. Coal gasification cogeneration process

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.H.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a process for the coproduction of a combustible first gas stream usable as an energy source, a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream usable as a source for oxidant in the gasification of coal and a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream usable as a feedstock for the production of sulfuric acid. It comprises: reacting coal in a coal gasification zone in the presence of an oxidant under partial coal-gasifying conditions to produce carbonaceous char and a crude gas stream; separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream in a sulfur recovery zone to produce a combustible first gas stream and elemental sulfur; reacting the carbonaceous char and gypsum in a reaction zone in proportions such that the non-gypsum portion of the carbonaceous char and gypsum mixture contains sufficient reducing potential to reduce sulfur in the gypsum to gaseous compounds of sulfur in a +4 or lower oxidation state under reducing conditions to produce first a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream which contains weaker SO{sub 2} produced in an early stage of the reaction zone and removed from the reaction zone, and then a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream which contains concentrated SO{sub 2} recovered from a later stage of the reaction zone.

  20. Adjoints and Low-rank Covariance Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative measures of the uncertainty of Earth System estimates can be as important as the estimates themselves. Second moments of estimation errors are described by the covariance matrix, whose direct calculation is impractical when the number of degrees of freedom of the system state is large. Ensemble and reduced-state approaches to prediction and data assimilation replace full estimation error covariance matrices by low-rank approximations. The appropriateness of such approximations depends on the spectrum of the full error covariance matrix, whose calculation is also often impractical. Here we examine the situation where the error covariance is a linear transformation of a forcing error covariance. We use operator norms and adjoints to relate the appropriateness of low-rank representations to the conditioning of this transformation. The analysis is used to investigate low-rank representations of the steady-state response to random forcing of an idealized discrete-time dynamical system.

  1. Continuous process for conversion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Willson, Warrack G.; Baker, Gene G.; Sondreal, Everett A.; Farnum, Sylvia A.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for converting coal to liquid and gaseous products wherein the liquid products predominate and wherein reactor, tubing, and valve plugging due to carbonate salt formation is reduced by reacting crushed low-rank coal containing about 12 to 30% by weight of water in a solvent at a temperature in the range of about 455.degree. to 500.degree. C., under about 2000 to 5000 psi pressure of a H.sub.2 /CO mixture for a liquid residence time of about 20 to 60 minutes. The solvent is a fraction of liquid product defined on a weight basis as being made up of about 55% of which distills at less than 250.degree. C./lmm, about 20% of which is soluble in THF, and about 25% of which is carbon polymer and indigenous inorganic matter. The solvent is further defined as containing at least about 5 weight % of partially hydrogenated aromatics and/or fully hydrogenated aromatics and little or no alkylated aromatics or higher alkanes.

  2. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  3. Coal desulfurization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  4. [Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project]. Technical progress report: April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals into a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/Ib), by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45-ton-per-hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently near commercial size.

  5. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  6. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 1994. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  7. Coal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Good, Robert J.; Badgujar, Mohan

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  8. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  9. Brain electrical responses to high- and low-ranking buildings.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, Ilan; Mühlmann, Heiner; Blechinger, Gerhard; Mothersill, Ian W; Hilfiker, Peter; Jokeit, Hennric; Kurthen, Martin; Krämer, Günter; Grunwald, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Since the ancient world, architecture generally distinguishes two categories of buildings with either high- or low-ranking design. High-ranking buildings are supposed to be more prominent and, therefore, more memorable. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to drawings of buildings with either high- or low-ranking architectural ornaments and found that ERP responses between 300 and 600 ms after stimulus presentation recorded over both frontal lobes were significantly more positive in amplitude to high-ranking buildings. Thus, ERPs differentiated reliably between both classes of architectural stimuli although subjects were not aware of the two categories. We take our data to suggest that neurophysiological correlates of building perception reflect aspects of an architectural rule system that adjust the appropriateness of style and content ("decorum"). Since this rule system is ubiquitous in Western architecture, it may define architectural prototypes that can elicit familiarity memory processes.

  10. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOEpatents

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  11. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high moisture, low rank coals to a high quality, low sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal process enhances low rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 Btu/lb, by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45 ton per hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train load out facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. During this report period the primary focus has been to continue the operation of the demonstration facility. Production has been going to area power plants. Modifications and maintenance work was also performed this quarter.

  12. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  13. Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods.

  14. Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods. PMID:26367116

  15. Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Kang, Dohee

    1984-01-01

    In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

  16. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  17. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This detailed report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the project was to expand market awareness and acceptability for the products and the technology. The use of covered hopper cars has been successful and marketing efforts have focused on this technique. Operational improvements are currently aimed at developing fines marketing systems, increasing throughput capacity, decreasing operation costs, and developing standardized continuous operator training. Testburns at industrial user sites were also conducted. A detailed process description; technical progress report including facility operations/plant production, facility testing, product testing, and testburn product; and process stability report are included. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  19. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  20. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  1. Process for cleaning fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ennis, R.E.

    1981-08-04

    A process for the wet concentration and cleaning of fine coal is provided which comprises the steps of desliming and thickening a dilute slurry of fine coal and contaminant particles having a size of less than about 10 mm by introducing the same to a hydrocyclone separator to retain a slurry of particles having a size greater than about 0.1 mm, wet concentrating the last-named slurry and removing the heavier contaminant particles by introducing it to an autogenous dense medium separation vessel having a manifold for injecting water at an intermediate level and controlling the underflow of heavier than coal particles to maintain a fluidized bed of heavier particles and causing a slurry of the lighter coal particles to overflow, and concentrating and dewatering the overflow by means of a static or vibratory sizing screen.

  2. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  3. Low-Rank Matrix Factorization With Adaptive Graph Regularizer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gui-Fu; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel low-rank matrix factorization algorithm with adaptive graph regularizer (LMFAGR). We extend the recently proposed low-rank matrix with manifold regularization (MMF) method with an adaptive regularizer. Different from MMF, which constructs an affinity graph in advance, LMFAGR can simultaneously seek graph weight matrix and low-dimensional representations of data. That is, graph construction and low-rank matrix factorization are incorporated into a unified framework, which results in an automatically updated graph rather than a predefined one. The experimental results on some data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art low-rank matrix factorization methods.

  4. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, David S.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  5. Granuflow and Mulled coal: Alternative processes for fine coal recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.E.

    1999-07-01

    Granuflow and Mulled Coal were developed in parallel to enhance the ability to recover and process wet coal fines. There are some similarities in the processes; however, the end products are quite different. This paper will compare the properties of the two products prepared from the same coal and identify the unique properties of each. Criteria for selecting between the two processes, including cost, will be discussed.

  6. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.

    1993-10-26

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300 C to 400 C for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  7. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Rindt, John R.; Hetland, Melanie D.

    1993-01-01

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  8. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOEpatents

    Beeson, Justin L.

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  9. A Nonconvex Optimization Framework for Low Rank Matrix Estimation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Zhaoran; Liu, Han

    2016-01-01

    We study the estimation of low rank matrices via nonconvex optimization. Compared with convex relaxation, nonconvex optimization exhibits superior empirical performance for large scale instances of low rank matrix estimation. However, the understanding of its theoretical guarantees are limited. In this paper, we define the notion of projected oracle divergence based on which we establish sufficient conditions for the success of nonconvex optimization. We illustrate the consequences of this general framework for matrix sensing. In particular, we prove that a broad class of nonconvex optimization algorithms, including alternating minimization and gradient-type methods, geometrically converge to the global optimum and exactly recover the true low rank matrices under standard conditions. PMID:28316458

  10. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.; Merriam, N.W.

    1994-10-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is developing a process to produce a stable, clean-burning, premium fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and other low-rank coals. This process is designed to overcome the problems of spontaneous combustion, dust formation, and readsorption of moisture that are experienced with PRB coal and with processed PRB coal. This process, called COMPCOAL{trademark}, results in high-Btu product that is intended for burning in boilers designed for midwestern coals or for blending with other coals. In the COMPCOAL process, sized coal is dried to zero moisture content and additional oxygen is removed from the coal by partial decarboxylation as the coal is contacted by a stream of hot fluidizing gas in the dryer. The hot, dried coal particles flow into the pyrolyzer where they are contacted by a very small flow of air. The oxygen in the air reacts with active sites on the surface of the coal particles causing the temperature of the coal to be raised to about 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) and oxidizing the most reactive sites on the particles. This ``instant aging`` contributes to the stability of the product while only reducing the heating value of the product by about 50 Btu/lb. Less than 1 scf of air per pound of dried coal is used to avoid removing any of the condensible liquid or vapors from the coal particles. The pyrolyzed coal particles are mixed with fines from the dryer cyclone and dust filter and the resulting mixture at about 600{degrees}F (316{degrees}C) is fed into a briquettor. Briquettes are cooled to about 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C) by contact with a mist of water in a gas-tight mixing conveyor. The cooled briquettes are transferred to a storage bin where they are accumulated for shipment.

  11. Process for removing ash from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, K.; Nakanishi, T.; Ogino, E.; Yoshida, N.

    1983-06-21

    A process for removing ash from coal comprising the steps of pulverizing the coal to fine particles, admixing water with the finely divided coal to prepare an ash-containing slurry of finely divided coal, mixing with the slurry an oil and seeds in the form of oleophilic solid grains and serving as granulating nuclei to granulate the finely divided coal, separating the resulting granules from the mixture and washing the granules with water to remove the ash, and disintegrating the washed granules to obtain a deashed coal and recover the seeds for reuse.

  12. Catalyst for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Huibers, Derk T. A.; Kang, Chia-Chen C.

    1984-01-01

    An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of nickel molybdenum, cobalt molybdenum, cobalt tungsten, and nickel tungsten on a carrier of alumina, silica, or a combination of alumina and silica. The catalyst has a total pore volume of about 0.500 to about 0.900 cc/g and the pore volume comprises micropores, intermediate pores and macropores, the surface of the intermediate pores being sufficiently large to convert the preasphaltenes to asphaltenes and lighter molecules. The conversion of the asphaltenes takes place on the surface of micropores. The macropores are for metal deposition and to prevent catalyst agglomeration. The micropores have diameters between about 50 and about 200 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 50 to about 80% of the pore volume, whereas the intermediate pores have diameters between about 200 and 2000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume, and the macropores have diameters between about 2000 and about 10,000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume. The catalysts are further improved where they contain promoters. Such promoters include the oxides of vanadium, tungsten, copper, iron and barium, tin chloride, tin fluoride and rare earth metals.

  13. Weighted Discriminative Dictionary Learning based on Low-rank Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Heyou; Zheng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Low-rank representation has been widely used in the field of pattern classification, especially when both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Dictionary plays an important role in low-rank representation. With respect to the semantic dictionary, the optimal representation matrix should be block-diagonal. However, traditional low-rank representation based dictionary learning methods cannot effectively exploit the discriminative information between data and dictionary. To address this problem, this paper proposed weighted discriminative dictionary learning based on low-rank representation, where a weighted representation regularization term is constructed. The regularization associates label information of both training samples and dictionary atoms, and encourages to generate a discriminative representation with class-wise block-diagonal structure, which can further improve the classification performance where both training and testing images are corrupted with large noise. Experimental results demonstrate advantages of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  15. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Chervenak, Michael C.

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  16. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Process for selective grinding of coal

    DOEpatents

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  18. Relations Among Some Low-Rank Subspace Recovery Models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyang; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Junbin

    2015-09-01

    Recovering intrinsic low-dimensional subspaces from data distributed on them is a key preprocessing step to many applications. In recent years, a lot of work has modeled subspace recovery as low-rank minimization problems. We find that some representative models, such as robust principal component analysis (R-PCA), robust low-rank representation (R-LRR), and robust latent low-rank representation (R-LatLRR), are actually deeply connected. More specifically, we discover that once a solution to one of the models is obtained, we can obtain the solutions to other models in closed-form formulations. Since R-PCA is the simplest, our discovery makes it the center of low-rank subspace recovery models. Our work has two important implications. First, R-PCA has a solid theoretical foundation. Under certain conditions, we could find globally optimal solutions to these low-rank models at an overwhelming probability, although these models are nonconvex. Second, we can obtain significantly faster algorithms for these models by solving R-PCA first. The computation cost can be further cut by applying low-complexity randomized algorithms, for example, our novel l2,1 filtering algorithm, to R-PCA. Although for the moment the formal proof of our l2,1 filtering algorithm is not yet available, experiments verify the advantages of our algorithm over other state-of-the-art methods based on the alternating direction method.

  19. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOEpatents

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  20. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  1. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  2. EXXON donor solvent coal liquefaction process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epperly, W. R.; Swabb, L. E., Jr.; Tauton, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    A solvent coal liquefaction process to produce low-sulfur liquid products from a wide range of coals is described. An integrated program of laboratory and engineering research and development in conjunction with operation of a 250 T/D pilot plant is discussed.

  3. Coal treatment process and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Getsoian, J.A.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes a process for obtaining product coal agglomerates. It comprises mixing an aqueous slurry of finely divided coal particles and particles of pyrites and other mineral matter with an organic, water-insoluble, steam-strippable, bridging liquid selected from the group consisting of aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons having from 5 to 9 carbon atoms and mixtures thereof, under high shear conditions effective to wet the coal particles with the bridging liquid and convert same into microagglomerates, then mixing the aqueous slurry of the microagglomerates of coal and the particles of pyrites and other mineral matters together with an organic, water-insoluble binder comprising asphalt and the bridging liquid, under low shear conditions effective to agglomerate the microagglomerates to form product coal agglomerates, then separating water and the particles of pyrites and other mineral matter from the product coal agglomerates, then heating the product coal agglomerates and thereby evaporating and removing the bridging liquid from the product coal agglomerates, and then recovering the product coal agglomerates substantially free of the bridging liquid.

  4. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Characterization of coal liquefaction resids employing thermogravimetric analysis and electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, M.M.; Seehra, M.S.

    1992-10-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using temperature-programmed electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the examination of tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resid materials derived from direct coal liquefaction. TGA is used to quantitate volatile losses in a temperature-programmed experiment. The TGA data are used to correct the free radical densities obtained by ESR as volatile material is evolved from the samples in the temperature-programmed ESR experiment. The techniques, when employed in tandem, can be used to determine the content and nature of the free radicals in the samples at temperatures approximating those used in the liquefaction process. TGA and ESR experiments were performed in flowing nitrogen and hydrogen, at ambient pressure. No significant difference was observed in the ESR spectra in the different atmospheres, except in the case of low-rank coal-derived resids. The TGA results, however, were systematically different; mass loss in an H{sub 2} atmosphere is consistently higher than that observed in an N{sub 2} atmosphere. It was shown that temperature-programmed ESR, which can pinpoint conditions at which the free radical content is the highest, has potential to be a guide for the appropriate choice of conditions for optimum resid upgrading. Further development of these combined analytical methods as process development tools appears justified based on these results.

  5. Denoising MR spectroscopic imaging data with low-rank approximations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hien M; Peng, Xi; Do, Minh N; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the denoising problem associated with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has been a critical problem. A new scheme is proposed, which exploits two low-rank structures that exist in MRSI data, one due to partial separability and the other due to linear predictability. Denoising is performed by arranging the measured data in appropriate matrix forms (i.e., Casorati and Hankel) and applying low-rank approximations by singular value decomposition (SVD). The proposed method has been validated using simulated and experimental data, producing encouraging results. Specifically, the method can effectively denoise MRSI data in a wide range of SNR values while preserving spatial-spectral features. The method could prove useful for denoising MRSI data and other spatial-spectral and spatial-temporal imaging data as well.

  6. On low-rank updates to the singular value and Tucker decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, M J

    2009-10-06

    The singular value decomposition is widely used in signal processing and data mining. Since the data often arrives in a stream, the problem of updating matrix decompositions under low-rank modification has been widely studied. Brand developed a technique in 2006 that has many advantages. However, the technique does not directly approximate the updated matrix, but rather its previous low-rank approximation added to the new update, which needs justification. Further, the technique is still too slow for large information processing problems. We show that the technique minimizes the change in error per update, so if the error is small initially it remains small. We show that an updating algorithm for large sparse matrices should be sub-linear in the matrix dimension in order to be practical for large problems, and demonstrate a simple modification to the original technique that meets the requirements.

  7. Constrained low-rank gamut completion for robust illumination estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianshen; Yuan, Jiazheng; Liu, Hongzhe

    2017-02-01

    Illumination estimation is an important component of color constancy and automatic white balancing. According to recent survey and evaluation work, the supervised methods with a learning phase are competitive for illumination estimation. However, the robustness and performance of any supervised algorithm suffer from an incomplete gamut in training image sets because of limited reflectance surfaces in a scene. In order to address this problem, we present a constrained low-rank gamut completion algorithm, which can replenish gamut from limited surfaces in an image, for robust illumination estimation. In the proposed algorithm, we first discuss why the gamut completion is actually a low-rank matrix completion problem. Then a constrained low-rank matrix completion framework is proposed by adding illumination similarities among the training images as an additional constraint. An optimization algorithm is also given out by extending the augmented Lagrange multipliers. Finally, the completed gamut based on the proposed algorithm is fed into the support vector regression (SVR)-based illumination estimation method to evaluate the effect of gamut completion. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world image sets show that the proposed gamut completion model not only can effectively improve the performance of the original SVR method but is also robust to the surface insufficiency in training samples.

  8. COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the Western Research Institute (WRI) COMPCOAL{trademark} process which is designed to produce a stable, high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) and other low-rank coals. The process is designed to overcome the problems of oxidation and spontaneous combustion, readsorption of moisture, and dust formation from the friable coal. PRB coal is susceptible to low-temperature oxidation and self-heating, particularly after it has been dried. This report describes a method WRI has developed to prevent self-heating of dried PRB coal. The ``accelerated aging`` not only stabilizes the dried coal, but it also increases the heating value of the COMPCOAL product. The stabilized COMPCOAL product has a heating value of 12,000 to 12,700 Btu/lb, contains 35 to 40 wt % volatiles, and is comparable to unprocessed PRB coal in self-heating and low-temperature oxidation characteristics. Importantly, the self-heating tendency can be controlled by slightly adjusting the ``aging`` step in the process.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Weil, S. A.; Babu, S. P.

    1980-09-01

    Thermodynamic analysis for evaluating and improving coal gasification process efficiency requires estimation of enthalpy, entropy, and availability transformations in various process steps. A compilation of procedures and data relevant to coal gasification processes is presented for calculating the above thermodynamic properties. Enthalpy and availability transformations are estimated for significant process steps in the HYGAS process for producing substitute natural gas from coal. The thermal efficiencies based on the first law of thermodynamics are compared with the availability efficiencies based on the second law. Work intensive process steps, such as gas compression and separation, are shown to have extremely low thermal efficiencies and fairly high availability efficiencies. Heat intensive process steps, such as steam generation, have high thermal efficiencies but generally poor availability efficiencies.

  10. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  11. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOEpatents

    Garg, D.

    1986-10-14

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  12. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1986-01-01

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  13. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  14. The application of low-rank and sparse decomposition method in the field of climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nitika; Bhaskaran, Prasad K.

    2017-03-01

    The present study reports a low-rank and sparse decomposition method that separates the mean and the variability of a climate data field. Until now, the application of this technique was limited only in areas such as image processing, web data ranking, and bioinformatics data analysis. In climate science, this method exactly separates the original data into a set of low-rank and sparse components, wherein the low-rank components depict the linearly correlated dataset (expected or mean behavior), and the sparse component represents the variation or perturbation in the dataset from its mean behavior. The study attempts to verify the efficacy of this proposed technique in the field of climatology with two examples of real world. The first example attempts this technique on the maximum wind-speed (MWS) data for the Indian Ocean (IO) region. The study brings to light a decadal reversal pattern in the MWS for the North Indian Ocean (NIO) during the months of June, July, and August (JJA). The second example deals with the sea surface temperature (SST) data for the Bay of Bengal region that exhibits a distinct pattern in the sparse component. The study highlights the importance of the proposed technique used for interpretation and visualization of climate data.

  15. Respirable coal mine dust sample processing

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, L.D.; Tomb, T.F.; Parobeck, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 established mandatory dust standards for coal mines. Regulatory requirements for complying with the provisions of the Act were prescribed in Title 30, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 70 and 71, which were published in the Federal Register on April 3, 1970, and March 28, 1972, respectively. These standard and sampling requirements of coal mine operators, along with a description of the laboratory which was established to process respirable coal mine dust samples collected in accordance with these requirements, were published in MESA Informational Report (MESA, the acronym for the Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration, was changed to MSHA, the acronym for the Mine Safety and Health Administration, in 1977). These standards and regulatory requirements continued under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 until November 1980, when major regulatory revisions were made in the operator's dust sampling program. This paper describes the changes in the respirable coal mine dust sampling program and the equipment and procedures used by MSHA to process respirable coal mine dust samples collected in accordance with regulatory requirements. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Moving object detection via low-rank total variation regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Chen, Qian; Shao, Na

    2016-09-01

    Moving object detection is a challenging task in video surveillance. Recently proposed Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) can recover the outlier patterns from the low-rank data under some mild conditions. However, the l-penalty in RPCA doesn't work well in moving object detection because the irrepresentable condition is often not satisfied. In this paper, a method based on total variation (TV) regularization scheme is proposed. In our model, image sequences captured with a static camera are highly related, which can be described using a low-rank matrix. Meanwhile, the low-rank matrix can absorb background motion, e.g. periodic and random perturbation. The foreground objects in the sequence are usually sparsely distributed and drifting continuously, and can be treated as group outliers from the highly-related background scenes. Instead of l-penalty, we exploit the total variation of the foreground. By minimizing the total variation energy, the outliers tend to collapse and finally converge to be the exact moving objects. The TV-penalty is superior to the l-penalty especially when the outlier is in the majority for some pixels, and our method can estimate the outlier explicitly with less bias but higher variance. To solve the problem, a joint optimization function is formulated and can be effectively solved through the inexact Augmented Lagrange Multiplier (ALM) method. We evaluate our method along with several state-of-the-art approaches in MATLAB. Both qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that our proposed method works effectively on a large range of complex scenarios.

  17. Coal enhancement process and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Nankee, R.J.; Vivan, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a method for treating coal by the heavy media technique wherein the float and sink solids each individually are recovered and freed of liquid then dried to remove the residual heavy media retained thereon. The improvement consists of treating each solids portion with hot water at the temperature of from the heavy medium water azeotroping point to the boiling point of water for a time sufficient to remove a substantial portion of the heavy media or until the water comes off at its boiling point and thereafter separates the solids from the water.

  18. Overview of coal conversion process instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Liptak, B. G.; Leiter, C. P.

    1980-05-01

    A review of standard instrumentation used in the processing industries is given, and the applicability of this instrumentation to measurements in mixed phase media and hostile environments such as those encountered in coal conversion processes is considered. The major projects in coal conversion sponsored by the US Department of Energy are briefly reviewed with schematics to pinpoint areas where the standard instrumentation is inadequate or altogether lacking. The next report in this series will provide detailed requirements on the instruments needed for these processes, will review new instruments which have recently become commercially available but are not yet considered standard instrumentation, and report on the status of new instruments which are being developed and, in some cases, undergoing tests in coal conversion plants.

  19. Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, George W.; Givens, Edwin N.; Skinner, Ronald W.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

  20. Accelerating Parameter Mapping with a Locally Low Rank Constraint

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Pauly, John M.; Levesque, Ives R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To accelerate MR parameter mapping (MRPM) using a locally low rank (LLR) constraint, and the combination of parallel imaging (PI) and the LLR constraint. Theory and Methods An LLR method is developed for MRPM and compared with a globally low rank (GLR) method in a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping experiment. For acquisition with coil arrays, a combined LLR and PI method is proposed. The proposed method is evaluated in a variable flip angle T1 mapping experiment and compared with the LLR method and PI alone. Results In the multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping experiment, the LLR method is more accurate than the GLR method for acceleration factors 2 and 3, especially for tissues with high T2 values. Variable flip angle T1 mapping is achieved by acquiring datasets with 10 flip angles, each dataset accelerated by a factor of 6, and reconstructed by the proposed method with a small normalized root mean square error of 0.025. Conclusion The LLR method is likely superior to the GLR method for MRPM. The proposed combined LLR and PI method has better performance than the two methods alone, especially with highly accelerated acquisition. PMID:24500817

  1. Integrated Low-Rank-Based Discriminative Feature Learning for Recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pan; Lin, Zhouchen; Zhang, Chao

    2016-05-01

    Feature learning plays a central role in pattern recognition. In recent years, many representation-based feature learning methods have been proposed and have achieved great success in many applications. However, these methods perform feature learning and subsequent classification in two separate steps, which may not be optimal for recognition tasks. In this paper, we present a supervised low-rank-based approach for learning discriminative features. By integrating latent low-rank representation (LatLRR) with a ridge regression-based classifier, our approach combines feature learning with classification, so that the regulated classification error is minimized. In this way, the extracted features are more discriminative for the recognition tasks. Our approach benefits from a recent discovery on the closed-form solutions to noiseless LatLRR. When there is noise, a robust Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based denoising step can be added as preprocessing. When the scale of a problem is large, we utilize a fast randomized algorithm to speed up the computation of robust PCA. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  2. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chuanqi; Liu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from “BCI Competition III Dataset IVa” and “BCI Competition IV Database 2a.” The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP. PMID:28096809

  3. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenchang; Sun, Fuchun; Tan, Chuanqi; Liu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from "BCI Competition III Dataset IVa" and "BCI Competition IV Database 2a." The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP.

  4. Coal-to-Liquids Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive Aspen Plus model has been developed to rigorously model coal-to-liquids processes. This portion was developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. The model is built in a modular fashion to allow rapid reconfiguration for evaluation of process options. Aspen Plus is the framework in which the model is developed. The coal-to-liquids simulation package is an assemble of Aspen Hierarchy Blocks representing subsections of the plant. Each of these Blocks are considered individual components of the Copyright, which may be extracted and licensed as individual components, but which may be combined with one or more other components, to model general coal-conversion processes, including the following plant operations: (1) coal handling and preparation, (2) coal pyrolysis, combustion, or gasification, (3) syngas conditioning and cleanup, (4) sulfur recovery using Claus-SCOT unit operations, (5) Fischer-Tropsch liquid fuels synthesis, (6) hydrocracking of high molecular weight paraffin, (7) hydrotreating of low molecular weight paraffin and olefins, (8) gas separations, and (9) power generation representing integrated combined cycle technology.

  5. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G.; Davis, A. . Energy and Fuels Research Center); Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D. . Energy and Fuels Research Center)

    1991-12-01

    This study demonstrated the use of the gold tube carbonization technique and reflectance microscopy analysis for the examination of process-derived materials from direct coal liquefaction. The carbonization technique, which was applied to coal liquefaction distillation resids, yields information on the amounts of gas plus distillate, pyridine-soluble resid, and pyridine-insoluble material formed when a coal liquid sample is heated to 450{degree}C for one hour at 5000 psi in an inert atmosphere. The pyridine-insolubles then are examined by reflectance microscopy to determine the type, amount, and optical texture of isotropic and anisotropic carbon formed upon carbonization. Further development of these analytical methods as process development tools may be justified on the basis of these results.

  6. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, F. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Eckert, C.A. . School of Chemical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    Because of their unusual solvating and mass transfer properties, supercritical fluids show potential for a variety of coal processing applications. We have established a database of coal model compound equilibria; to add to this database, we have developed and are testing methods of rapidly measuring cosolvent effects on solubility. In addition, we have used fluorescence spectroscopy to study the nature of cosolvent effects on molecular level. The solubility and spectroscopic measurements are being used to guide the development of an equation of state that includes both physical and chemical interactions. The equation of state will be used to predict solubility behavior to systems can be designed for the processing of coal with supercritical fluids. 8 figs.

  7. Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Kang, Doohee

    1987-01-01

    A process for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases.

  8. Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry

    DOEpatents

    Givens, E.N.; Kang, D.

    1987-06-23

    A process is described for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases. 2 figs.

  9. Process for separating anthracite coal from impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, D.W.; Stiller, A.H.

    1985-05-06

    A process is described for separating a first mixture including previously mined anthracite coal, klinker-type cinder ash and other refuse consisting of: a. separating the first mixture to produce a refuse portion and a second mixture consisting of anthracite and klinker-type cinder ash, b. reducing the average particle size in the second mixture to a uniform size, c. subjecting the second mixture to a separating magnetic field to produce a klinker-type cinder ash portion and an anthracite coal portion.

  10. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  11. Process and apparatus for coal hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Ruether, John A.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process an aqueous slurry of coal is prepared containing a dissolved liquefaction catalyst. A small quantity of oil is added to the slurry and then coal-oil agglomerates are prepared by agitation of the slurry at atmospheric pressure. The resulting mixture of agglomerates, excess water, dissolved catalyst, and unagglomerated solids is pumped to reaction pressure and then passed through a drainage device where all but a small amount of surface water is removed from the agglomerates. Sufficient catalyst for the reaction is contained in surface water remaining on the agglomerates. The agglomerates fall into the liquefaction reactor countercurrently to a stream of hot gas which is utilized to dry and preheat the agglomerates as well as deposit catalyst on the agglomerates before they enter the reactor where they are converted to primarily liquid products under hydrogen pressure.

  12. Process and apparatus for coal hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Ruether, John A.; Simpson, Theodore B.

    1991-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process an aqueous slurry of coal is prepared containing a dissolved liquefaction catalyst. A small quantity of oil is added to the slurry and then coal-oil agglomerates are prepared by agitation of the slurry at atmospheric pressure. The resulting mixture is drained of excess water and dried at atmospheric pressure leaving catalyst deposited on the agglomerates. The agglomerates then are fed to an extrusion device where they are formed into a continuous ribbon of extrudate and fed into a hydrogenation reactor at elevated pressure and temperature. The catalytic hydrogenation converts the extrudate primarily to liquid hydrocarbons in the reactor. The liquid drained in recovering the agglomerates is recycled.

  13. Controlled short residence time coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-05-04

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -455.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same conditions except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent.

  14. Minimization of moisture readsorption in dried coal samples

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.

    2008-07-01

    Low-rank coals constitute a major energy source for the future as reserves of such high-moisture coals around the world are vast. Currently they are considered undesirable since high moisture content entails high transportation costs, potential safety hazards in transportation and storage, and the low thermal efficiency obtained in combustion of such coals. Furthermore, low-moisture-content coal is needed for the various coal pyrolysis and gasification processes. Hence, various upgrading processes have been developed to reduce the moisture content. Moisture readsorption and spontaneous combustion are important issues in coal upgrading processes. This article discusses results of laboratory experiments conducted to study the options for minimization of readsorption of moisture after drying of selected coal samples. Results suggest that there is little benefit in drying low-rank coal at high temperatures. It was found that the higher the amount of bitumen used for coating, the lower is the readsorption of moisture by dried coal. Also, mixing high-temperature-dried coal with wet coal in appropriate proportion can yield reduced moisture content as the sensible heat in the hot coal is utilized for evaporation.

  15. Low-rank matrix decomposition and spatio-temporal sparse recovery for STAP radar

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Satyabrata

    2015-08-04

    We develop space-time adaptive processing (STAP) methods by leveraging the advantages of sparse signal processing techniques in order to detect a slowly-moving target. We observe that the inherent sparse characteristics of a STAP problem can be formulated as the low-rankness of clutter covariance matrix when compared to the total adaptive degrees-of-freedom, and also as the sparse interference spectrum on the spatio-temporal domain. By exploiting these sparse properties, we propose two approaches for estimating the interference covariance matrix. In the first approach, we consider a constrained matrix rank minimization problem (RMP) to decompose the sample covariance matrix into a low-rank positive semidefinite and a diagonal matrix. The solution of RMP is obtained by applying the trace minimization technique and the singular value decomposition with matrix shrinkage operator. Our second approach deals with the atomic norm minimization problem to recover the clutter response-vector that has a sparse support on the spatio-temporal plane. We use convex relaxation based standard sparse-recovery techniques to find the solutions. With extensive numerical examples, we demonstrate the performances of proposed STAP approaches with respect to both the ideal and practical scenarios, involving Doppler-ambiguous clutter ridges, spatial and temporal decorrelation effects. As a result, the low-rank matrix decomposition based solution requires secondary measurements as many as twice the clutter rank to attain a near-ideal STAP performance; whereas the spatio-temporal sparsity based approach needs a considerably small number of secondary data.

  16. Low-rank matrix decomposition and spatio-temporal sparse recovery for STAP radar

    DOE PAGES

    Sen, Satyabrata

    2015-08-04

    We develop space-time adaptive processing (STAP) methods by leveraging the advantages of sparse signal processing techniques in order to detect a slowly-moving target. We observe that the inherent sparse characteristics of a STAP problem can be formulated as the low-rankness of clutter covariance matrix when compared to the total adaptive degrees-of-freedom, and also as the sparse interference spectrum on the spatio-temporal domain. By exploiting these sparse properties, we propose two approaches for estimating the interference covariance matrix. In the first approach, we consider a constrained matrix rank minimization problem (RMP) to decompose the sample covariance matrix into a low-rank positivemore » semidefinite and a diagonal matrix. The solution of RMP is obtained by applying the trace minimization technique and the singular value decomposition with matrix shrinkage operator. Our second approach deals with the atomic norm minimization problem to recover the clutter response-vector that has a sparse support on the spatio-temporal plane. We use convex relaxation based standard sparse-recovery techniques to find the solutions. With extensive numerical examples, we demonstrate the performances of proposed STAP approaches with respect to both the ideal and practical scenarios, involving Doppler-ambiguous clutter ridges, spatial and temporal decorrelation effects. As a result, the low-rank matrix decomposition based solution requires secondary measurements as many as twice the clutter rank to attain a near-ideal STAP performance; whereas the spatio-temporal sparsity based approach needs a considerably small number of secondary data.« less

  17. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi, Second quarterly report, [October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bumpus, J.A.

    1995-01-26

    Since our last quarterly report our research activities have focused on characterization of coal macromolecule by P. chrysosporium in vivo in ;two different culture media and by sodium oxalate in vitro. Wood rotting fungi mediate solubilization of low rank coal by secreting oxalic acid which chelates metal ions whose chelating metal ions oxalic acid breaks these ionic bridges rendering the coal macromolecules water soluble. Thus solubization by sodium oxalate in vitro represents a biomimetic process.

  18. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

  19. Effects of temperature and glucose limitation on coal solubilization by Candida ML13

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B. )

    1991-04-01

    Biological processing has received considerable attention in recent years as a technology for the utilization of low-ranked coals. Several fungi and actinomycetes have been shown to liquefy highly oxidized coal in pure culture under aerobic conditions. This report describes the optimization of cultural conditions for coal solubilization by Candida sp. ML13, an organism originally isolated from a naturally weathered coal seam. Coal solubilization by surface cultures of Candida sp. has previously been demonstrated. The author describes here the elicitation of the activity in submerged cultures as well as the effect of carbohydrate concentration, carbon source, temperature, and agitation rate on coal solubilization by this organism.

  20. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. )

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL's contract.

  1. Two-stage coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    An improved SRC-I two-stage coal liquefaction process which improves the product slate is provided. Substantially all of the net yield of 650.degree.-850.degree. F. heavy distillate from the LC-Finer is combined with the SRC process solvent, substantially all of the net 400.degree.-650.degree. F. middle distillate from the SRC section is combined with the hydrocracker solvent in the LC-Finer, and the initial boiling point of the SRC process solvent is increased sufficiently high to produce a net yield of 650.degree.-850.degree. F. heavy distillate of zero for the two-stage liquefaction process.

  2. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOEpatents

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  3. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOEpatents

    Aida, Tetsuo; Squires, Thomas G.; Venier, Clifford G.

    1985-02-05

    A process for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  4. Low-Rank Decomposition Based Restoration of Compressed Images via Adaptive Noise Estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinfeng; Lin, Weisi; Xiong, Ruiqin; Liu, Xianming; Ma, Siwei; Gao, Wen

    2016-07-07

    Images coded at low bit rates in real-world applications usually suffer from significant compression noise, which significantly degrades the visual quality. Traditional denoising methods are not suitable for the content-dependent compression noise, which usually assume that noise is independent and with identical distribution. In this paper, we propose a unified framework of content-adaptive estimation and reduction for compression noise via low-rank decomposition of similar image patches. We first formulate the framework of compression noise reduction based upon low-rank decomposition. Compression noises are removed by soft-thresholding the singular values in singular value decomposition (SVD) of every group of similar image patches. For each group of similar patches, the thresholds are adaptively determined according to compression noise levels and singular values. We analyze the relationship of image statistical characteristics in spatial and transform domains, and estimate compression noise level for every group of similar patches from statistics in both domains jointly with quantization steps. Finally, quantization constraint is applied to estimated images to avoid over-smoothing. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed method not only improves the quality of compressed images obviously for post-processing, but are also helpful for computer vision tasks as a pre-processing method.

  5. Process for detoxifying coal tars

    DOEpatents

    Longwell, John P.; Peters, William A.

    1983-01-01

    A process for treating liquid hydrocarbons to remove toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons comprises feeding the hydrocarbons into a reactor where vapors are thermally treated in contact with a catalyst consisting essentially of calcium oxide or a calcium oxide containing mineral. Thermally treating liquid hydrocarbons in contact with calcium oxide preferentially increases the cracking of aromatics thus producing a product having a reduced amount of aromatic compounds.

  6. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  7. Process for producing fluid fuel from coal

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, Richard W.; Reber, Stephen A.; Schutte, August H.; Nadkarni, Ravindra M.

    1977-01-01

    Process for producing fluid fuel from coal. Moisture-free coal in particulate form is slurried with a hydrogen-donor solvent and the heated slurry is charged into a drum wherein the pressure is so regulated as to maintain a portion of the solvent in liquid form. During extraction of the hydrocarbons from the coal, additional solvent is added to agitate the drum mass and keep it up to temperature. Subsequently, the pressure is released to vaporize the solvent and at least a portion of the hydrocarbons extracted. The temperature of the mass in the drum is then raised under conditions required to crack the hydrocarbons in the drum and to produce, after subsequent stripping, a solid coke residue. The hydrocarbon products are removed and fractionated into several cuts, one of which is hydrotreated to form the required hydrogen-donor solvent while other fractions can be hydrotreated or hydrocracked to produce a synthetic crude product. The heaviest fraction can be used to produce ash-free coke especially adapted for hydrogen manufacture. The process can be made self-sufficient in hydrogen and furnishes as a by-product a solid carbonaceous material with a useful heating value.

  8. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, F. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Eckert, C.A. . School of Chemical Engineering)

    1988-09-15

    The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

  9. REGULATION OF COAL POLYMER DEGRADATION BY FUNGI

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Bumpus

    1998-11-30

    A variety of lignin degrading fungi mediate solubilization and subsequent biodegradation of coal macromolecules (a.k.a. coal polymer) from highly oxidized low rank coals such as leonardites. It appears that oxalate or possibly other metal chelators (i.e., certain Krebs Cycle intermediates) mediate solubilization of low rank coals while extracellular oxidases have a role in subsequent oxidation of solubilized coal macromolecule. These processes are under nutritional control. For example, in the case of P. chrysosporium, solubilization of leonardite occurred when the fungi were cultured on most but not all nutrient agars tested and subsequent biodegradation occurred only in nutrient nitrogen limited cultures. Lignin peroxidases mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule in a reaction that is dependent on the presence of veratryl alcohol and hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic evidence suggests that veratryl alcohol is oxidized to the veratryl alcohol cation radical which then mediates oxidation of the coal macromolecule. Results by others suggest that Mn peroxidases mediate formation of reactive Mn{sup 3+} complexes which also mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule. A biomimetic approach was used to study solubilization of a North Dakota leonardite. It was found that a concentration {approximately}75 mM sodium oxalate was optimal for solubilization of this low rank coal. This is important because this is well above the concentration of oxalate produced by fungi in liquid culture. Higher local concentrations probably occur in solid agar cultures and thus may account for the observation that greater solubilization occurs in agar media relative to liquid media. The characteristics of biomimetically solubilized leonardite were similar to those of biologically solubilized leonardite. Perhaps our most interesting observation was that in addition to oxalate, other common Lewis bases (phosphate/hydrogen phosphate/dihydrogen phosphate and bicarbonate/carbonate ions) are able to mediate

  10. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

  11. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOEpatents

    Pawlak, Wanda; Janiak, Jerzy S.; Turak, Ali A.; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  12. Coal liquefaction process research quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Bickel, T.C.; Curlee, R.M.; Granoff, B.; Stohl, F.V.; Thomas, M.G.

    1980-03-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the activities of Sandia's continuing program in coal liquefaction process research. The overall objectives are to: (1) provide a fundamental understanding of the chemistry of coal liquefaction; (2) determine the role of catalysts in coal liquefaction; and (3) determine the mechanism(s) of catalyst deactivation. The program is composed of three major projects: short-contact-time coal liquefaction, mineral effects, and catalyst studies. These projects are interdependent and overlap significantly.

  13. Ammonia production from coal by utilization of Texaco coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; McClanhan, T.S.; Weatherington, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Operating data will be presented for the coal gasification and gas purification unit which has been retrofitted to the front end of an existing ammonia plant. The plant uses 200 tons per day of coal and produces 135 tons per day of ammonia. The plant uses the Texaco coal gasification process, Haldor-Topsoe catalyst systems, Selexol acid gas removal process, and the Holmes-Stretford sulfur recovery process.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C.; Derbyshire, F.J. . Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1991-10-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using fluorescence and reflectance microscopy techniques for the examination of distillation resid materials derived from direct coal liquefaction. Resid, as defined here, is the 850{degrees}F{sup +} portion of the process stream, and includes soluble organics, insoluble organics and ash. The technique can be used to determine the degree of hydrogenation and the presence of multiple phases occurring within a resid sample. It can also be used to infer resid reactivity. The technique is rapid, requiring less than one hour for sample preparation and examination, and thus has apparent usefulness for process monitoring. Additionally, the technique can distinguish differences in samples produced under various process conditions. It can, therefore, be considered a potentially useful technique for the process developer. Further development and application of this analytical method as a process development tool is justified based on these results.

  15. Process for improving soluble coal yield in a coal deashing process

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    Coal liquefaction products are contacted with a deashing solvent and introduced into a first separation zone. The first separation zone is maintained at an elevated temperature and pressure, determined to maximize the recovery of soluble coal products, to cause said coal liquefaction products to separate into a first light phase and a first heavy phase. Under these conditions the heavy phase while still fluid-like in character is substantially non-flowable. Flowability is returned to the fluid-like heavy phase by the introduction of an additional quantity of deashing solvent into the first separation zone at a location below the interface between the first light and heavy phases or into the heavy phase withdrawal conduit during withdrawal of the first heavy phase and prior to any substantial pressure reduction. The first heavy phase then is withdrawn from the first separation zone for additional downstream processing without plugging either the withdrawal conduit or the downstream apparatus. The first light phase comprising the soluble coal products is withdrawn and recovered in an increased yield to provide a more economical coal deashing process.

  16. H-Coal process and plant design

    DOEpatents

    Kydd, Paul H.; Chervenak, Michael C.; DeVaux, George R.

    1983-01-01

    A process for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and more valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and/or other hydrocarbonaceous materials with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction products from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from the residuals; introducing the vaporous and distillate products from the separator directly into a hydrotreater where they are further hydrogenated; passing the residuals from the separator successively through flash vessels at reduced pressures where distillates are flashed off and combined with the vaporous and distillate products to be hydrogenated; transferring the unseparated residuals to a solids concentrating and removal means to remove a substantial portion of solids therefrom and recycling the remaining residual oil to the reactor; and passing the hydrogenated vaporous and distillate products to an atmospheric fractionator where the combined products are fractionated into separate valuable liquid products. The hydrogen-containing gas is generated from sources within the process.

  17. Coal liquefaction process utilizing coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream

    DOEpatents

    Comolli, Alfred G.; McLean, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    A coal hydrogenation and liquefaction process in which particulate coal feed is pressurized to an intermediate pressure of at least 500 psig and slurried with CO.sub.2 liquid to provide a flowable coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream, which is further pressurized to at least 1000 psig and fed into a catalytic reactor. The coal particle size is 50-375 mesh (U.S. Sieve Series) and provides 50-80 W % coal in the coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream. Catalytic reaction conditions are maintained at 650.degree.-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure and coal feed rate of 10-100 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 reactor volume to produce hydrocarbon gas and liquid products. The hydrogen and CO.sub.2 are recovered from the reactor effluent gaseous fraction, hydrogen is recycled to the catalytic reactor, and CO.sub.2 is liquefied and recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, two catalytic reaction stages close coupled together in series relation can be used. The process advantageously minimizes the recycle and processing of excess hydrocarbon liquid previously needed for slurrying the coal feed to the reactor(s).

  18. Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid

    DOEpatents

    Heavin, Leonard J.; King, Edward E.; Milliron, Dennis L.

    1982-10-26

    A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

  19. Continuous extrusion of coal. [plastic fluidizing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Kushida, R.; Daksla, C.

    1978-01-01

    A feeding method for use with bituminous coals that exhibit plasticity at elevated temperatures is described and demonstrated on a small screw extruder previously used to extrude polyethylene. A metered feed of coal heated to a temperature just below that of incipient caking (approximately 450 C) is used. Modifications to the extruder consisting of ceramic band heaters, auxiliary cooling coils on the thrust bearing and special quick opening dies are detailed. Coals successfully extruded include high volatile A bituminous coals, high volatile B bituminous coals, a high volatile C bituminous coal and a coal with high ash content. The computer program, EXTRUD, used to simulate the extruder is described. Predicted power consumption exhibits 30% scatter, which is explained by the sensitivity of the coal friction coefficient to temperature profiles. Detailed analysis reveals some discrepancies in the program that need to be resolved.

  20. Environmental impact of solvent refined coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lobnitz, M.A.; Firley, J.A.; Loran, B.

    1982-08-01

    The SRC-1 process produces low sulfur and low ash solid and liquid fuels from coal which can replace corresponding petroleum products. Sources of air pollution are fuel gas combustion products, solids and liquids handling, and waste gases. The SRC-1 demonstration plant planned is projected to have very small impacts on air quality. The wastewater treatment system is designed for zero-discharge and process-derived solids are to be disposed in suitably selected land areas. Environmental unknowns in the project include operator skill in managing startup, shutdown and upset emissions; regional impact of the CO/sub 2/ released; detailed characterization of wastewater streams; and solid waste leachate kinetics. These issues are expected to be explored and possibly resolved through experience acquired during operation of the demonstration plant.

  1. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  2. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to calibrate'' the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850[degrees]F[sup +] , 1050[degrees]F[sup +], and 850 [times] 1050[degrees]F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  3. The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.E.

    1996-02-01

    The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  4. Effect of the process conditions of aerobic bioconversion on the characteristics of biologically processed brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    I.P. Ivanov

    2007-04-15

    The effect of the laboratory and pilot process conditions of the aerobic bioconversion of brown coals on the elemental composition and technical characteristics of the organic matter of the resulting biologically processed coals is reported.

  5. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: Summaries of the final reports produced by Lehigh University, West Virginia University, and Vander Sande Associates under the Participants Program are presented. Analytical data produced by CONSOL are provided in Appendix I for all samples employed in the Participants Program and issued with the samples to research groups in the Participants Program. A paper was presented at the 1992 US Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Liquefaction Contractors' Review Conference, held in Pittsburgh September 23--24, 1992, entitled The Chemical Nature of Coal Liquid Resids and the Implications for Process Development''. It appears as Appendix 2 in this report.

  7. Patch-based denoising method using low-rank technique and targeted database for optical coherence tomography image.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhou; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Image denoising is a crucial step before performing segmentation or feature extraction on an image, which affects the final result in image processing. In recent years, utilizing the self-similarity characteristics of the images, many patch-based image denoising methods have been proposed, but most of them, named the internal denoising methods, utilized the noisy image only where the performances are constrained by the limited information they used. We proposed a patch-based method, which uses a low-rank technique and targeted database, to denoise the optical coherence tomography (OCT) image. When selecting the similar patches for the noisy patch, our method combined internal and external denoising, utilizing the other images relevant to the noisy image, in which our targeted database is made up of these two kinds of images and is an improvement compared with the previous methods. Next, we leverage the low-rank technique to denoise the group matrix consisting of the noisy patch and the corresponding similar patches, for the fact that a clean image can be seen as a low-rank matrix and rank of the noisy image is much larger than the clean image. After the first-step denoising is accomplished, we take advantage of Gabor transform, which considered the layer characteristic of the OCT retinal images, to construct a noisy image before the second step. Experimental results demonstrate that our method compares favorably with the existing state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture

    DOEpatents

    Miller, R.N.

    1986-10-14

    An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

  9. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Borole, Abhijeet P.; Hamilton, Choo Y.

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  10. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOEpatents

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  11. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOEpatents

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  12. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles are difficult to dewater and create problems in coal transportation, as well as in storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine the ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, several types of coal samples with various particle size distributions have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. Furthermore, various bitumen emulsions have been tested to determine the optimum dewatering reagent. These dewatering and pelletizing tests were carried out using a lab-scale ram extruder. Discharge from the dewatering and briquetting processes was tested to determine compliance with current federal and state requirements. The influence of bitumen emulsion on the sulfur content of coal pellets made were also examined. In addition, a ram extruder which can be operated continuously to simulate a rotary press operation, has been built and is currently being tested for use in the fine coal dewatering and pelletizing process.

  13. Efficiency improved scalar wave low-rank extrapolation with an effective perfectly matched layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hanming; Zhou, Hui; Xia, Muming

    2017-02-01

    Low-rank extrapolation is a relatively new method for seismic wave simulation. However, the low-rank method involved requires several fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) per time step, and the number of FFTs increases with the time-stepping size and complexity of the model, which leads to high computational cost at each step. To reduce the cost per time step, a more efficient low-rank extrapolation scheme is presented by splitting the original wave propagator into two parts. The first part represents the traditional pseudo-spectral operator, and is calculated by FFT directly. The residual part compensates the time-stepping error, and is approximated by low-rank decomposition. Compared with the conventional low-rank extrapolation scheme, the improved extrapolation scheme enables using a lower rank for the decomposition to attain similar approximation accuracy, which reduces the number of floating-point operations per time step, and thus reduces the total computational cost. To avoid the wraparound effect caused by FFTs, we develop an effective split perfectly matched layer (PML) to absorb outgoing waves near the boundary. Numerical examples verify the accuracy of the developed low-rank extrapolation scheme and the effectiveness of the PML.

  14. Supercritical Fluid Reactions for Coal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Eckert

    1997-11-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which resemble the organic nitrogen containing components of coal, we developed a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal denitrogenation. The tautomeric equilibrium of a Schiff base was chosen as one model system and was investigated in supercritical ethane and cosolvent modified supercritical ethane. The Diels-Alder reaction of anthracene and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was selected as a second model system, and it was investigated in supercritical carbon dioxide.

  15. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  16. Coal liquefaction process with increased naphtha yields

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Daniel F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein the solid carbonaceous material is slurried with a suitable solvent and then subjected to liquefaction at elevated temperature and pressure to produce a normally gaseous product, a normally liquid product and a normally solid product. The normally liquid product is further separated into a naphtha boiling range product, a solvent boiling range product and a vacuum gas-oil boiling range product. At least a portion of the solvent boiling-range product and the vacuum gas-oil boiling range product are then combined and passed to a hydrotreater where the mixture is hydrotreated at relatively severe hydrotreating conditions and the liquid product from the hydrotreater then passed to a catalytic cracker. In the catalytic cracker, the hydrotreater effluent is converted partially to a naphtha boiling range product and to a solvent boiling range product. The naphtha boiling range product is added to the naphtha boiling range product from coal liquefaction to thereby significantly increase the production of naphtha boiling range materials. At least a portion of the solvent boiling range product, on the other hand, is separately hydrogenated and used as solvent for the liquefaction. Use of this material as at least a portion of the solvent significantly reduces the amount of saturated materials in said solvent.

  17. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.W.; Heintz, S.J.

    1995-12-01

    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  18. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  19. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... and Processing Plants § 60.254 Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. (a) On and after the date on which...

  20. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  1. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOEpatents

    Davies, Geoffrey; El-Toukhy, Ahmed

    1987-01-01

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  2. Low-rank approximations with sparse factors II: Penalized methods with discrete Newton-like iterations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhenyue; Zha, Hongyuan; Simon, Horst

    2006-07-31

    In this paper, we developed numerical algorithms for computing sparse low-rank approximations of matrices, and we also provided a detailed error analysis of the proposed algorithms together with some numerical experiments. The low-rank approximations are constructed in a certain factored form with the degree of sparsity of the factors controlled by some user-specified parameters. In this paper, we cast the sparse low-rank approximation problem in the framework of penalized optimization problems. We discuss various approximation schemes for the penalized optimization problem which are more amenable to numerical computations. We also include some analysis to show the relations between the original optimization problem and the reduced one. We then develop a globally convergent discrete Newton-like iterative method for solving the approximate penalized optimization problems. We also compare the reconstruction errors of the sparse low-rank approximations computed by our new methods with those obtained using the methods in the earlier paper and several other existing methods for computing sparse low-rank approximations. Numerical examples show that the penalized methods are more robust and produce approximations with factors which have fewer columns and are sparser.

  3. A model of coal particle drying in fluidized bed combustion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Komatina, M.; Manovic, V.; Saljnikov, A.

    2007-02-15

    Experimental and theoretical investigation on drying of a single coal particle in fluidized bed combustor is presented. Coal particle drying was considered via the moist shrinking core mechanism. The results of the drying test runs of low-rank Serbian coals were used for experimental verification of the model. The temperature of the coal particle center was measured, assuming that drying was completed when the temperature equalled 100{sup o}C. The influence of different parameters (thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of coal, fluidized bed temperature, moisture content and superheating of steam) on drying time and temperature profile within the coal particle was analyzed by a parametric analysis. The experimentally obtained results confirmed that the moist shrinking core mechanism can be applied for the mathematical description of a coal particle drying, while dependence between drying time and coal particle radius, a square law relationship, implicates heat transfer control of the process and confirms the validity of assumptions used in modeling.

  4. Fungal colonization and enzyme-mediated metabolism of waste coal by Neosartorya fischeri strain ECCN 84.

    PubMed

    Sekhohola, Lerato Mary; Isaacs, Michelle Louise; Cowan, Ashton Keith

    2014-01-01

    Colonization and oxidative metabolism of South African low-rank discard coal by the fungal strain ECCN 84 previously isolated from a coal environment and identified as Neosartorya fischeri was investigated. Results show that waste coal supported fungal growth. Colonization of waste coal particles by N. fischeri ECCN 84 was associated with the formation of compact spherical pellets or sclerotia-like structures. Dissection of the pellets from liquid cultures revealed a nucleus of "engulfed" coal which when analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed a time-dependent decline in weight percentage of elemental carbon and an increase in elemental oxygen. Proliferation of peroxisomes in hyphae attached to coal particles and increased extracellular laccase activity occurred after addition of waste coal to cultures of N. fischeri ECCN 84. These results support a role for oxidative enzyme action in the biodegradation of coal and suggest that extracellular laccase is a key component in this process.

  5. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Robbins; R. A. Winschel; S. D. Brandes

    1998-06-09

    CONSOL characterized 38 process strea m samples from HTI Run PB- 04, in which Black Thunder Mine Coal, Hondo vacuum resid, autom obile shredder residue (ASR), and virgin plastics were used as liquefaction feedstocks with dispersed catalyst. A paper on kinetic modeling of resid reactivity was presented at the DOE Coal Lique -faction and Solid Fuels Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, i n Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "The Reactivity of Direct Coal Liquefaction Resids", i s appended (Appendix 1). Three papers on characterization of samples from coal/ resid/ waste p lastics co- liquefaction were presented or submitted for presen tation at conferences. Because of their similarity, only one of the papers is appended to this report. The paper, "Characterization o f Process Samples From Co- Liquefaction of Coal and Waste Polymers", (Appendix 2) was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuels C ontractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "Characterization of Process Stream Samples From Bench- Scale Co -Liquefaction Runs That Utilized Waste Polymers as Feedstocks" was presented at the 214th National Meeting of the Ameri can Chemical Society, September 7- 11, 1997, in Las Vegas, NV. The paper, "Characterization of Process Oils from Coal/ Waste Co- Liquefaction" wa s submitted for presentation at the 14th Japan/ U. S. Joint Technical Meeting on Coa l Liquefaction and Materials for Coal Liquefaction on October 28, 1997, in Tokyo, Japan. A joint Burns and Roe Services Corp. and CONSOL pap er on crude oil assays of product oils from HTI Run PB- 03 was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuel s Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper , "Characterization of Liquid Products from All- Slurry Mode Liquefaction", is appende d (Appendix 3).

  6. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  7. Supercritical fluid reactions for coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which resemble the organic nitrogen containing components of coal, we propose to develop a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal denitrogenation. The Diels-Alder reaction of anthracene and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was chosen as the model system and was investigated in supercritical carbon dioxide. Kinetic data has been previously collected for pure CO{sub 2} at pressures between the critical pressure of CO{sub 2} (73.8 bar) and 216 bar. This data is now being used to construct mathematical forms which can model these pressure induced kinetic changes. One promising avenue of investigation involves treating the supercritical medium as a dense gas, which allows a kinetic model based on high reference pressure fugacity coefficients to be derived.

  8. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  9. Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-12-31

    With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

  10. Data Compression for the Tomo-e Gozen Using Low-rank Matrix Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morii, Mikio; Ikeda, Shiro; Sako, Shigeyuki; Ohsawa, Ryou

    2017-01-01

    Optical wide-field surveys with a high cadence are expected to create a new field of astronomy, so-called “movie astronomy,” in the near future. The amount of data from the observations will be huge, and hence efficient data compression will be indispensable. Here we propose a low-rank matrix approximation with sparse matrix decomposition as a promising solution to reduce the data size effectively while preserving sufficient scientific information. We apply one of the methods to the movie data obtained with the prototype model of the Tomo-e Gozen mounted on the 1.0 m Schmidt telescope of Kiso Observatory. Once full-scale observation with the Tomo-e Gozen commences, it will generate ∼30 TB of data per night. We demonstrate that the data are compressed by a factor of about 10 in size without losing transient events like optical short transient point sources and meteors. The intensity of point sources can be recovered from the compressed data. The processing runs sufficiently fast, compared with the expected data-acquisition rate in the actual observing runs.

  11. Process for forming coal compacts and product thereof

    DOEpatents

    Gunnink, Brett; Kanunar, Jayanth; Liang, Zhuoxiong

    2002-01-01

    A process for forming durable, mechanically strong compacts from coal particulates without use of a binder is disclosed. The process involves applying a compressive stress to a particulate feed comprising substantially water-saturated coal particles while the feed is heated to a final compaction temperature in excess of about 100.degree. C. The water present in the feed remains substantially in the liquid phase throughout the compact forming process. This is achieved by heating and compressing the particulate feed and cooling the formed compact at a pressure sufficient to prevent water present in the feed from boiling. The compacts produced by the process have a moisture content near their water saturation point. As a result, these compacts absorb little water and retain exceptional mechanical strength when immersed in high pressure water. The process can be used to form large, cylindrically-shaped compacts from coal particles (i.e., "coal logs") so that the coal can be transported in a hydraulic coal log pipeline.

  12. Low-Rank and Sparsity Analysis Applied to Speech Enhancement Via Online Estimated Dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pengfei; Qin, Jun

    2016-12-01

    We propose an online estimated dictionary based single channel speech enhancement algorithm, which focuses on low rank and sparse matrix decomposition. In this proposed algorithm, a noisy speech spectral matrix is considered as the summation of low rank background noise components and an activation of the online speech dictionary, on which both low rank and sparsity constraints are imposed. This decomposition takes the advantage of local estimated dictionary high expressiveness on speech components. The local dictionary can be obtained through estimating the speech presence probability by applying Expectation Maximal algorithm, in which a generalized Gamma prior for speech magnitude spectrum is used. The evaluation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves significant improvements when compared to four other speech enhancement algorithms.

  13. Low-rank and eigenface based sparse representation for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yi-Fu; Sun, Zhan-Li; Chong, Yan-Wen; Zheng, Chun-Hou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on low-rank representation and eigenface extraction, we present an improvement to the well known Sparse Representation based Classification (SRC). Firstly, the low-rank images of the face images of each individual in training subset are extracted by the Robust Principal Component Analysis (Robust PCA) to alleviate the influence of noises (e.g., illumination difference and occlusions). Secondly, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is applied to extract the eigenfaces from these low-rank and approximate images. Finally, we utilize these eigenfaces to construct a compact and discriminative dictionary for sparse representation. We evaluate our method on five popular databases. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  14. Low-Rank and Eigenface Based Sparse Representation for Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Fu; Sun, Zhan-Li; Chong, Yan-Wen; Zheng, Chun-Hou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on low-rank representation and eigenface extraction, we present an improvement to the well known Sparse Representation based Classification (SRC). Firstly, the low-rank images of the face images of each individual in training subset are extracted by the Robust Principal Component Analysis (Robust PCA) to alleviate the influence of noises (e.g., illumination difference and occlusions). Secondly, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is applied to extract the eigenfaces from these low-rank and approximate images. Finally, we utilize these eigenfaces to construct a compact and discriminative dictionary for sparse representation. We evaluate our method on five popular databases. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method. PMID:25334027

  15. Technical, Energetics, and Economic Comparison of NRL Oxidative Coal Liquefaction Process with some Developed Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-05

    the synthesis step becomes two processes. synthesis CO + H2 catalyst ) methanol conversion methanol catalyst > gasoline + water Wiser states that...structure illustrates the main types of linkage between ring clusters and also some of the heteroatom forms that are found in coal. 20 APPENDIX II...used more widely as petroleum and natural gas resources are depleted and hydrogen for coal liquefaction processes will be produced predominantly from

  16. Co-processing of agriculture and biomass waste with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Biomass and bio-processed waste are potential candidates for co-liquefaction with coal. Specific materials used here include sawdust and poultry manure. Liquefaction experiments were run on each of these materials, separately and with coal, using tetralin as solvent at 350{degrees}C and 1000 psi(cold) hydrogen pressure for 1h. Total conversion was monitored, as well as conversion to asphaltenes, oils and gases. All the biomass samples are converted to oils and gases under the reaction conditions. Poultry manure seems to convert coal more completely, and to produce more oils and gases, than conventional liquefaction.

  17. Process for removal of hazardous air pollutants from coal

    DOEpatents

    Akers, David J.; Ekechukwu, Kenneth N.; Aluko, Mobolaji E.; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    2000-01-01

    An improved process for removing mercury and other trace elements from coal containing pyrite by forming a slurry of finely divided coal in a liquid solvent capable of forming ions or radicals having a tendency to react with constituents of pyrite or to attack the bond between pyrite and coal and/or to react with mercury to form mercury vapors, and heating the slurry in a closed container to a temperature of at least about 50.degree. C. to produce vapors of the solvent and withdrawing vapors including solvent and mercury-containing vapors from the closed container, then separating mercury from the vapors withdrawn.

  18. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 6. Peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The requirements and potential for development of US peat resources for energy use are reviewed. Factors analyzed include the occurrence and properties of major peat deposits; technologies for extraction, dewatering, preparation, combustion, and conversion of peat to solid, liquid, or gaseous fuels; environmental, regulatory, and market constraints; and research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) needs. Based on a review of existing research efforts, recommendations are made for a comprehensive national RD and D program to enhance the use of peat as an energy source.

  19. Ultra fine grinding of low-rank coal. Progress report, April-June 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchillon, C.W.; Steele, W.G.

    1986-07-01

    The lignite used for Phase I of the project was a Texas lignite from the Martin Lake mine obtained from the stockpile for the Martin Lake Power Plant of the Texas Utilities Generating Company. The power requirements for the fluid-energy mill were determined from the measured steam (or air) temperatures, pressures and pressure drops and the lignite flow rate. The instrument locations for the tests are shown on Figure 1. All of the instruments were connected to a microcomputer via an analog input interface board. Data were recorded on disks periodically throughout the tests. Appropriate calibration procedures were followed to assure that reliable data were being obtained. The combined grinding/drying tests were conducted in Vicksbuth, MS at Ergon, Inc.'s fluid-energy-mill facility. both steam and air were used as grinding fluids. With steam, tests were used as grinding fluids. With steam, tests were run with the following temperatures maintained inside the pulverizer: 310/sup 0/F, 350/sup 0/F, 400/sup 0/F, 488/sup 0/F. The materials from the grinding/drying tests have been analyzed. Tests included particle size distribution, density distribution, proximate and ultimate analyses, ash mineral analyses, electron microscope pictures, angle of repose and equilibrium moisture tests. These data have been correlated with the drying temperatures. The pulverized material was separated into different particle size groups with an air classifier. The samples from these tests were used to determine if one particle range had a higher ash content than the others. Very little difference in ash content was noted. Fluids at 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.6 specific gravities were used in a centrifuge to separate the ultrafine lignite into different density groups.

  20. Ultra fine grinding of low-rank coal. Progress report, January-March 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchillon, C.W.; Steele, W.G.

    1986-04-01

    The specific goals for Phase I of this project were to: (1) select a friable Texas lignite for Phase I investigation. (2) In three separate tests, micropulverize the lignite in a fluid-energy mill utilizing steam as the drying agent and carrier media to produce at three levels of moisture content. (3) Measure the power requirements to micropulverize the lignite at each level of product moisture. (4) Measure the product size distribution, ash content as a function of particle size, particle shape, angle of repose and moisture reabsorption. (5) Submit a technical report on the test lignite. Preliminary results are reported.

  1. Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Jr., Edward L.; Mitchell, Willard N.

    1980-01-01

    Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

  2. Microcharacterization of coal components for beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Markuszewski, R.

    1989-02-01

    The capabilities of automated image analysis (AIA) have been improved, and the modified procedures have been applied to characterize the degree of association of mineral particles with the coal matrix for two coal samples subjected to cleaning by float-sink separation. Definitions of elemental intensity used to identify mineral particles during AIA have been expanded to include oxygen in the list of elements monitored. This new light-element analysis capability permits the identification of mineral phases such as iron oxides and iron carbonates which were previously indistinguishable. Definitions have been established for the identification of 20 phases present in coal and mineral matter based on the relative abundance of the elements present. These definitions have been tested using mineral standards and a sample of well-characterized Illinois No. 6 coal. The automated image analysis (AIA) techniques for measuring the degree of associated of mineral particles with coal have also expanded to measure the association for individual minerals with coal particles in order to predict and document selective removal in coal cleaning procedures. The AIA technique has been applied to {minus}200 mesh samples of feed, clean product, and refuse streams of two low-rank coals processed in-house by float-sink procedures at 1.6 specific gravity. Analyses of all three process streams permit a material balance in terms of coal mineral association. Results are reported for one of the coals from the Williams Fork Q bed. 3 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation and hydroconversion process

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, James B.; McLean, Joseph B.; Comolli, Alfred G.

    1989-01-01

    A process for two-stage catalytic hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent and fed at temperature below about 650.degree. F. into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils at conditions favoring hydrogenation reactions. The first stage reactor is maintained at 650.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-60 lb coal/hr/ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The partially hydrogenated material from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the close-coupled second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at a temperature at least about 25.degree. F. higher than for the first stage reactor and within a range of 750.degree.-875.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and thermal hydroconversion reactions. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, which results in significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of undesirable residuum and unconverted coal and hydrocarbon gases, with use of less energy to obtain the low molecular weight products, while catalyst life is substantially increased.

  4. An Algorithm for Improving Non-Local Means Operators via Low-Rank Approximation.

    PubMed

    May, Victor; Keller, Yosi; Sharon, Nir; Shkolnisky, Yoel

    2016-03-01

    We present a method for improving a non-local means (NLM) operator by computing its low-rank approximation. The low-rank operator is constructed by applying a filter to the spectrum of the original NLM operator. This results in an operator, which is less sensitive to noise while preserving important properties of the original operator. The method is efficiently implemented based on Chebyshev polynomials and is demonstrated on the application of natural images denoising. For this application, we provide a comparison of our method with other denoising methods.

  5. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  6. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Marvin W.

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  7. Control of pyrite addition in coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Bruce K.; Junkin, James E.

    1982-12-21

    Pyrite addition to a coal liquefaction process (22, 26) is controlled (118) in inverse proportion to the calcium content of the feed coal to maximize the C.sub.5 --900.degree. F. (482.degree. C.) liquid yield per unit weight of pyrite added (110). The pyrite addition is controlled in this manner so as to minimize the amount of pyrite used and thus reduce pyrite contribution to the slurry pumping load and disposal problems connected with pyrite produced slag.

  8. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal...

  9. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal...

  10. Optimization of the process of plasma ignition of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Peregudov, V.S.

    2009-04-15

    Results are given of experimental and theoretical investigations of plasma ignition of coal as a result of its thermochemical preparation in application to the processes of firing up a boiler and stabilizing the flame combustion. The experimental test bed with a commercial-scale burner is used for determining the conditions of plasma ignition of low-reactivity high-ash anthracite depending on the concentration of coal in the air mixture and velocity of the latter. The calculations produce an equation (important from the standpoint of practical applications) for determining the energy expenditure for plasma ignition of coal depending on the basic process parameters. The tests reveal the difficulties arising in firing up a boiler with direct delivery of pulverized coal from the mill to furnace. A scheme is suggested, which enables one to reduce the energy expenditure for ignition of coal and improve the reliability of the process of firing up such a boiler. Results are given of calculation of plasma thermochemical preparation of coal under conditions of lower concentration of oxygen in the air mixture.

  11. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  12. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  13. Power recovery system for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Horton, Joel R.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for minimizing energy required to inject reactant such as coal-oil slurry into a reaction vessel, using high pressure effluent from the latter to displace the reactant from a containment vessel into the reaction vessel with assistance of low pressure pump. Effluent is degassed in the containment vessel, and a heel of the degassed effluent is maintained between incoming effluent and reactant in the containment vessel.

  14. Hydrogen donor solvent coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Plumlee, Karl W.

    1978-01-01

    An indigenous hydrocarbon product stream boiling within a range of from about C.sub.1 -700.degree. F., preferably C.sub.1 -400.degree. F., is treated to produce an upgraded hydrocarbon fuel component and a component which can be recycled, with a suitable donor solvent, to a coal liquefaction zone to catalyze the reaction. In accordance therewith, a liquid hydrocarbon fraction with a high end boiling point range up to about 700.degree. F., preferably up to about 400.degree. F., is separated from a coal liquefaction zone effluent, the separated fraction is contacted with an alkaline medium to provide a hydrocarbon phase and an aqueous extract phase, the aqueous phase is neutralized, and contacted with a peroxygen compound to convert indigenous components of the aqueous phase of said hydrocarbon fraction into catalytic components, such that the aqueous stream is suitable for recycle to the coal liquefaction zone. Naturally occurring phenols and alkyl substituted phenols, found in the aqueous phase, are converted, by the addition of hydroxyl constituents to phenols, to dihydroxy benzenes which, as disclosed in copending Application Ser. Nos. 686,813 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,536; 686,814 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,537; 686,827 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,012 and 686,828, K. W. Plumlee et al, filed May 17, 1976, are suitable hydrogen transfer catalysts.

  15. Supercritical Fluid Reactions for Coal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, Charles A

    1997-07-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which resemble the organic nitrogen containing components of coal, we propose to develop a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal denitrogenation. The Diels-Alder reaction of anthracene and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) was chosen as the model system and was investigated in supercritical carbon dioxide. Kinetic data have been previously collected for pure CO2 at 40C and pressures between the critical pressure of CO2 (73.8 bar) and 216 bar. These data support the theory of local density enhancements suggested in the literature. Data taken at 50C and pressures ranging from 70 bar to 195 bar are currently reported; they do not exhibit the molecular clustering evident closer to the critical temperature. The data taken at 40C are now being used to construct mathematical forms which can model these pressure-induced kinetic changes. One promising avenue of investigation involves treating the supercritical medium as a dense gas, which allows a kinetic model based on high reference pressure fugacity coefficients to be derived.

  16. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zutao; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Fubing; Meng, Guanjun; Salman, Waleed; Saleem, Layth; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunbai; Hu, Guangdi; Liu, Yugang

    2016-06-09

    Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety.

  17. A Novel Multi-Sensor Environmental Perception Method Using Low-Rank Representation and a Particle Filter for Vehicle Reversing Safety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zutao; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Fubing; Meng, Guanjun; Salman, Waleed; Saleem, Layth; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chunbai; Hu, Guangdi; Liu, Yugang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental perception and information processing are two key steps of active safety for vehicle reversing. Single-sensor environmental perception cannot meet the need for vehicle reversing safety due to its low reliability. In this paper, we present a novel multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. The proposed system consists of four main steps, namely multi-sensor environmental perception, information fusion, target recognition and tracking using low-rank representation and a particle filter, and vehicle reversing speed control modules. First of all, the multi-sensor environmental perception module, based on a binocular-camera system and ultrasonic range finders, obtains the distance data for obstacles behind the vehicle when the vehicle is reversing. Secondly, the information fusion algorithm using an adaptive Kalman filter is used to process the data obtained with the multi-sensor environmental perception module, which greatly improves the robustness of the sensors. Then the framework of a particle filter and low-rank representation is used to track the main obstacles. The low-rank representation is used to optimize an objective particle template that has the smallest L-1 norm. Finally, the electronic throttle opening and automatic braking is under control of the proposed vehicle reversing control strategy prior to any potential collisions, making the reversing control safer and more reliable. The final system simulation and practical testing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed multi-sensor environmental perception method using low-rank representation and a particle filter for vehicle reversing safety. PMID:27294931

  18. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  19. Anomaly detection in hyperspectral imagery based on low-rank and sparse decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaoguang; Tian, Yuan; Weng, Lubin; Yang, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel low-rank and sparse decomposition (LSD) based model for anomaly detection in hyperspectral images. In our model, a local image region is represented as a low-rank matrix plus spares noises in the spectral space, where the background can be explained by the low-rank matrix, and the anomalies are indicated by the sparse noises. The detection of anomalies in local image regions is formulated as a constrained LSD problem, which can be solved efficiently and robustly with a modified "Go Decomposition" (GoDec) method. To enhance the validity of this model, we adapts a "simple linear iterative clustering" (SLIC) superpixel algorithm to efficiently generate homogeneous local image regions i.e. superpixels in hyperspectral imagery, thus ensures that the background in local image regions satisfies the condition of low-rank. Experimental results on real hyperspectral data demonstrate that, compared with several known local detectors including RX detector, kernel RX detector, and SVDD detector, the proposed model can comfortably achieves better performance in satisfactory computation time.

  20. Enhanced low-rank representation via sparse manifold adaption for semi-supervised learning.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong; Lu, Bao-Liang; Wang, Suhang

    2015-05-01

    Constructing an informative and discriminative graph plays an important role in various pattern recognition tasks such as clustering and classification. Among the existing graph-based learning models, low-rank representation (LRR) is a very competitive one, which has been extensively employed in spectral clustering and semi-supervised learning (SSL). In SSL, the graph is composed of both labeled and unlabeled samples, where the edge weights are calculated based on the LRR coefficients. However, most of existing LRR related approaches fail to consider the geometrical structure of data, which has been shown beneficial for discriminative tasks. In this paper, we propose an enhanced LRR via sparse manifold adaption, termed manifold low-rank representation (MLRR), to learn low-rank data representation. MLRR can explicitly take the data local manifold structure into consideration, which can be identified by the geometric sparsity idea; specifically, the local tangent space of each data point was sought by solving a sparse representation objective. Therefore, the graph to depict the relationship of data points can be built once the manifold information is obtained. We incorporate a regularizer into LRR to make the learned coefficients preserve the geometric constraints revealed in the data space. As a result, MLRR combines both the global information emphasized by low-rank property and the local information emphasized by the identified manifold structure. Extensive experimental results on semi-supervised classification tasks demonstrate that MLRR is an excellent method in comparison with several state-of-the-art graph construction approaches.

  1. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings....

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of the process of formation of sulfur compounds in oxygen gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    G.Ya. Gerasimov; T.M. Bogacheva

    2001-05-15

    A thermodynamic approach to the description of the behavior of the system fuel-oxidizer in oxygen gasification of coal is used to reveal the main mechanisms of the process of capture of sulfur by the mineral part of the coal and to determine the fundamental possibility of the process for coals from different coal fields.

  3. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings....

  4. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings....

  5. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Euker, Jr., Charles A.; Wesselhoft, Robert D.; Dunkleman, John J.; Aquino, Dolores C.; Gouker, Toby R.

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  6. Process for reducing sulfur in coal char

    DOEpatents

    Gasior, Stanley J.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.; Kenny, Richard F.

    1976-07-20

    Coal is gasified in the presence of a small but effective amount of alkaline earth oxide, hydroxide or carbonate to yield a char fraction depleted in sulfur. Gases produced during the reaction are enriched in sulfur compounds and the alkaline earth compound remains in the char fraction as an alkaline earth oxide. The char is suitable for fuel use, as in a power plant, and during combustion of the char the alkaline earth oxide reacts with at least a portion of the sulfur oxides produced from the residual sulfur contained in the char to further lower the sulfur content of the combustion gases.

  7. Design Fuels Corporation (DFC)-Apache, Inc. coal reclamation system for the plant of the future for processing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, J.; Karsnak, G.

    1998-12-31

    The mechanical washing processing and drying portion of the DFC process offers an efficient method for cleaning of pyritic sulfur bearing compounds which represents 25% sulfur reduction from original run-of-mine coal quality. This reduction can be augmented with the use of calcium and sodium based compounds to reduce the sulfur in many coals to produce compliance quality coal. The use of mechanical/physical methods for the removal of the pyritic material found in coal is used by the DFC process as a first step to the final application of a complete coal refuse clean-up technology based on site specific conditions of the parent coal. The paper discusses the use of the DFC process to remediate slurry ponds and tailings piles and to improve coal cleaning by gravity separation methods, flotation, hydrocyclones and spiral separators, dense media separation, water only cyclones, and oil/solvent agglomeration. A typical DFC Project is the Rosa Coal Reclamation Project which involves the development of a bituminous coal waste impoundment reclamation and washery system. The plant would be located adjacent to a coal fines pond or tailings pond and refuse pile or gob pile at a former coal strip mine in Oneonta, Alabama. Design Fuels would provide a development program by which coal waste at the Rosa Mine could be reclaimed, cleaned and sold profitably. This feedstock could be furnished from recovered coal for direct use in blast furnaces, or as feedstock for coke ovens at 250,000 tons per year at an attractive price on a 10-year contract basis. The site has an old coal washing facility on the property that will be dismantled. Some equipment salvage has been considered; and removal of the existing plant would be the responsibility of Design Fuels. The paper briefly discusses the market potential of the process.

  8. U-GAS process for production of hydrogen from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.J.; Patel, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Today, hydrogen is produced mainly from natural gas and petroleum fractions. Tomorrow, because reserves of natural gas and oil are declining while demand continues to increase, they cannot be considered available for long-term, large-scale production of hydrogen. Hydrogen obtained from coal is expected to be the lowest cost, large-scale source of hydrogen in the future. The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of hydrogen is discussed. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of hydrogen manufactured are presented.

  9. A synoptic description of coal basins via image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, K. W., Jr.; Wherry, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    An existing image processing system is adapted to describe the geologic attributes of a regional coal basin. This scheme handles a map as if it were a matrix, in contrast to more conventional approaches which represent map information in terms of linked polygons. The utility of the image processing approach is demonstrated by a multiattribute analysis of the Herrin No. 6 coal seam in Illinois. Findings include the location of a resource and estimation of tonnage corresponding to constraints on seam thickness, overburden, and Btu value, which are illustrative of the need for new mining technology.

  10. Process and catalyst for the hydrogenation of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Wernicke, H.J.; Zimmerman, H.

    1985-05-07

    Blast furnace flue dust is used as a catalyst in a process for the hydrogenation of coal. A flowable mixture of finely divided coal particles and liquid hydrocarbons is brought to high pressure and to reaction temperature. The mixture is hydrogenated with hydrogen in the presence of blast furnace dust as a hydrogenation catalyst. The cost-effective hydrogenation catalyst is reused profitably subsequent to application in the coal hydrogenation process. Gaseous products are separated from liquid and solid reaction products. Liquid products are vaporized and are fractionated under atmospheric pressure and under vacuum. Hydrogen for use in the hydrogenation is produced by partial oxidation of the residue, and the catalyst is deposited as slag, which is returned to the blast furnace.

  11. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  12. Mechanistic studies on the hydroliquefaction of Victorian brown coal and of coal derived products

    SciTech Connect

    Larkins, F.P.; Cassidy, P.J.; Hertan, P.A.; Jackson, W.R.; Marshall, M.; Rush, D.

    1983-08-01

    The overall aim of our recent studies has been to obtain a more complete understanding of the mechanisms for the principal reactions which occur during the catalysed hydroliquefaction of low rank, high oxygen containing (ca. 25 wt% db) coals. The results of 70 ml batch autoclave studies with and without added catalysts on Victorian brown coal, on a number of different coal derived products and on related model ether compounds are discussed herein. More complete details of various aspects of this work may be found elsewhere. On the basis of these investigations a mechanism is proposed for the hydroliquefaction process which emphasises the role of catalysts in inhibiting repolymerisation reactions, the significance of interconvertibility of coal derived products and the importance of hydrogen donation from molecular hydrogen and the vehicle tetralin.

  13. Application studies of RFID technology in the process of coal logistics transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Bingqin; Chang, Xiaoming; Hao, Meiyan; Kong, Dejin

    2012-04-01

    For quality control problems in coal transport, RFID technology has been proposed to be applied to coal transportation process. The whole process RFID traceability system from coal production to consumption has been designed and coal supply chain logistics tracking system integration platform has been built, to form the coal supply chain traceability and transport tracking system and providing more and more transparent tracking and monitoring of coal quality information for consumers of coal. Currently direct transport and combined transport are the main forms of coal transportation in China. The means of transport are cars, trains and ships. In the booming networking environment of RFID technology, the RFID technology will be applied to coal logistics and provide opportunity for the coal transportation tracking in the process transportation.

  14. Coal preparation process using true-heavy-liquid separation

    SciTech Connect

    Baltich, L.K.; Malhotra, D.

    1990-12-20

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is supporting work to develop advanced fine-coal cleaning processes including the exploitation of differences in specific gravity through the use of heavy-liquid media in hydrocyclones. The true-heavy-liquid media used for this program are solutions of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and water. This concept takes advantage of the miscibility of the acid water to produce a range of heavy liquids up to a specific gravity of 1.84 for pure sulfuric acid. The main objective of this research program was to develop a true-heavy-liquid separation process to clean ultrafine coal using smelter-guide sulfuric acid. Three bituminous coals and one subbituminous coal were selected for testing. In general, single-stage true-heavy-liquid hydrocyclone process demonstrated similar performance characteristics to heavy-media separation processes under study by other investigators. True-heavy-liquid media has the advantage of allowing additional separation steps at other specific gravities for cleaning and scavenging without the introduction of another heavy liquid to the flowsheet. In addition, sulfuric acid is inorganic and can be neutralized and disposed of without the toxicity problems associated with the other type of heavy liquids under consideration. Preliminary economics analysis indicates that the cost for sulfuric acid makeup to the process may be prohibitive. 4 refs., 11 figs., 61 tabs.

  15. Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-05-18

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -454.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent (83) and recycled as process solvent (16). The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance.

  16. Short residence time coal liquefaction process including catalytic hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.P.; Schmalzer, D.K.; Wright, C.H.

    1982-05-18

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone, the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1,500 psig (105 kg/cm[sup 2]), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone at a temperature in the range of between about 455 and about 500 C to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425 C to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C[sub 5]-454 C is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same condition except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent. The amount of solvent boiling range liquid is sufficient to provide at least 80 weight percent of that required to maintain the process in overall solvent balance. 6 figs.

  17. Highly accelerated cardiac cine parallel MRI using low-rank matrix completion and partial separability model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Jingyuan; Nakarmi, Ukash; Zhang, Chaoyi; Ying, Leslie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach to highly accelerated dynamic parallel MRI using low rank matrix completion, partial separability (PS) model. In data acquisition, k-space data is moderately randomly undersampled at the center kspace navigator locations, but highly undersampled at the outer k-space for each temporal frame. In reconstruction, the navigator data is reconstructed from undersampled data using structured low-rank matrix completion. After all the unacquired navigator data is estimated, the partial separable model is used to obtain partial k-t data. Then the parallel imaging method is used to acquire the entire dynamic image series from highly undersampled data. The proposed method has shown to achieve high quality reconstructions with reduction factors up to 31, and temporal resolution of 29ms, when the conventional PS method fails.

  18. Hyperspectral image denoising using the robust low-rank tensor recovery.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang; Ma, Yong; Huang, Jun; Mei, Xiaoguang; Ma, Jiayi

    2015-09-01

    Denoising is an important preprocessing step to further analyze the hyperspectral image (HSI), and many denoising methods have been used for the denoising of the HSI data cube. However, the traditional denoising methods are sensitive to outliers and non-Gaussian noise. In this paper, by utilizing the underlying low-rank tensor property of the clean HSI data and the sparsity property of the outliers and non-Gaussian noise, we propose a new model based on the robust low-rank tensor recovery, which can preserve the global structure of HSI and simultaneously remove the outliers and different types of noise: Gaussian noise, impulse noise, dead lines, and so on. The proposed model can be solved by the inexact augmented Lagrangian method, and experiments on simulated and real hyperspectral images demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for HSI denoising.

  19. Target detection in GPR data using joint low-rank and sparsity constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzerdoum, Abdesselam; Tivive, Fok Hing Chi; Abeynayake, Canicious

    2016-05-01

    In ground penetrating radars, background clutter, which comprises the signals backscattered from the rough, uneven ground surface and the background noise, impairs the visualization of buried objects and subsurface inspections. In this paper, a clutter mitigation method is proposed for target detection. The removal of background clutter is formulated as a constrained optimization problem to obtain a low-rank matrix and a sparse matrix. The low-rank matrix captures the ground surface reflections and the background noise, whereas the sparse matrix contains the target reflections. An optimization method based on split-Bregman algorithm is developed to estimate these two matrices from the input GPR data. Evaluated on real radar data, the proposed method achieves promising results in removing the background clutter and enhancing the target signature.

  20. Low-rank factorization of electron integral tensors and its application in electronic structure theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bo; Kowalski, Karol

    2017-03-01

    In this letter, we apply reverse Cuthill-McKee (RCM) algorithm to transform two-electron integral tensors to their block diagonal forms. By further applying Cholesky decomposition (CD) on each of the diagonal blocks, we are able to represent the high-dimensional two-electron integral tensors in terms of permutation matrices and low-rank Cholesky vectors. This representation facilitates low-rank factorizations of high-dimensional tensor contractions in post-Hartree-Fock calculations. Here, we discuss the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) method and the linear coupled-cluster model with doubles (L-CCD) as examples to demonstrate the efficiency of this technique in representing the two-electron integrals in a compact form.

  1. Low-rank factorization of electron integral tensors and its application in electronic structure theory

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Bo; Kowalski, Karol

    2017-01-25

    In this paper, we apply reverse Cuthill-McKee (RCM) algorithm to transform two-electron integral tensors to their block diagonal forms. By further applying Cholesky decomposition (CD) on each of the diagonal blocks, we are able to represent the high-dimensional two-electron integral tensors in terms of permutation matrices and low-rank Cholesky vectors. This representation facilitates low-rank factorizations of high-dimensional tensor contractions in post-Hartree-Fock calculations. Finally, we discuss the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) method and the linear coupled-cluster model with doubles (L-CCD) as examples to demonstrate the efficiency of this technique in representing the two-electron integrals in a compact form.

  2. Simultaneous Reconstruction and Segmentation of Dynamic PET via Low-Rank and Sparse Matrix Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuhang; Liu, Huafeng; Hu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Heye; Shi, Pengcheng; Chen, Yunmei

    2015-07-01

    Although of great clinical value, accurate and robust reconstruction and segmentation of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images are great challenges due to low spatial resolution and high noise. In this paper, we propose a unified framework that exploits temporal correlations and variations within image sequences based on low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition. Thus, the two separate inverse problems, PET image reconstruction and segmentation, are accomplished in a simultaneous fashion. Considering low signal to noise ratio and piece-wise constant assumption of PET images, we also propose to regularize low-rank and sparse matrices with vectorial total variation norm. The resulting optimization problem is solved by augmented Lagrangian multiplier method with variable splitting. The effectiveness of proposed approach is validated on realistic Monte Carlo simulation datasets and the real patient data.

  3. Development of an Advanced Deshaling Technology to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Coal Handling, Processing, and Utilization Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Honaker; Gerald Luttrell

    2007-09-30

    The concept of using a dry, density-based separator to achieve efficient, near-face rock removal, commonly referred to as deshaling, was evaluated in several applications across the U.S.. Varying amounts of high-density rock exist in most run-of-mine feed. In the central Appalachian coalfields, a rock content exceeding 50% in the feed to a preparation plant is commonplace due to high amounts of out-of-seam dilution made necessary by extracting coal from thin seams. In the western U.S, an increase in out-of-seam dilution and environmental regulations associated with combustion emissions have resulted in a need to clean low rank coals and dry cleaning may be the only option. A 5 ton/hr mobile deshaling unit incorporating a density-based, air-table technology commercially known as the FGX Separator has been evaluated at mine sites located within the states of Utah, Wyoming, Texas, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. The FGX technology utilizes table riffling principles with air as the medium. Air enters through the table and creates a fluidized bed of particles comprised of mostly fine, high density particles. The high density particle bed lifts the low-density coal particles to the top of the bed. The low-density coal moves toward the front of the table due to mass action and the downward slope of the table. The high-density particles settle through the fluidized particle bed and, upon making contact with the table, moves toward the back of the table with the assistance of table vibration. As a result, the low-density coal particles exit the front of the table closest to the feed whereas the high-density, high-ash content particles leave on the side and front of the table located at the farthest from the feed entry. At each test site, the run-of-mine feed was either directly fed to the FGX unit or pre-screened to remove the majority of the -6mm material. The surface moisture of the feed must be maintained below 9%. Pre-screening is required when the

  4. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  5. Process for hydroliquefying coal or like carbonaceous solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Malek, John Michael

    1977-01-01

    In this process the products of the dissolution-hydrogenation of coal or the like material in a hydrocarbon rich solvent are subjected in their slurryform fraction to an asphaltenes decomposing action of an alkali, like caustic soda or, being admixed after the gasiform fraction of the hydrogenation products has been taken off the slurryform fraction of the hydrogenation products now including the admixed alkali is subjected to a rehydrogenation by a hydrogen rich gas which after its rehydrogenating use is preferably applied, as source of hydrogen, to said dissolution-hydrogenation of coal. Optionally the admixed alkali includes minor amounts of a carboxylic acid salt of calcium.

  6. Co-processing of agricultural and biomass waste with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, Ji-Perng

    1995-12-31

    A major thrust of our research program is the use of waste materials as co-liquefaction agents for the first-stage conversion of coal to liquid fuels. By fulfilling one or more of the roles of an expensive solvent in the direct coal liquefaction (DCL) process, the waste material is disposed off ex-landfill, and may improve the overall economics of DCL. Work in our group has concentrated on co-liquefaction with waste rubber tires, some results from which are presented elsewhere in these Preprints. In this paper, we report on preliminary results with agricultural and biomass-type waste as co-liquefaction agents.

  7. Liquid products derived from brown coal in BCL process

    SciTech Connect

    Okuma, O.; Yanai, S.; Komatsu, N.

    1999-07-01

    The BCL (Brown Coal Liquefaction) process developed for Victorian brown coal is a two-stage liquefaction process which consists of 4 unit sections: dewatering, primary hydrogenation (PH), solvent de-ashing (DA) and secondary hydrogenation (SH). The liquid products produced in the PH and SH sections are distillates with b.p. < 420 C and with b.p. < 240 C, respectively, and their properties are different due to differences in the hydrogenation conditions and activities of catalysts used. The former contains much aromatic and hetero-atom-containing compounds than the latter. This paper reveals the yields and properties of the liquid products derived from the brown coal in the BCL process, and the compounds in these products that were analyzed by GC/MC and capillary GC. This paper discusses the change in the compounds in the solvent fraction during recycling and the effects of PH conditions on the naphtha. In addition, the results of hydrogenation of the vaporized fraction in gas-liquid separator of the PH section are also discussed to simplify the BCL process. These results are useful as basic data for production of chemicals from the coal-derived liquids.

  8. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  9. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-11-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  10. Main trends in the biotechnological processing of coals: a review

    SciTech Connect

    I.P. Ivanov

    2007-02-15

    A review of the literature concerning the studies of the biotechnological processing of coal in Russia and abroad is presented. This environmentally safe technology is demonstrated to be promising for the conversion of solid fossil fuels into valuable fuel and chemical products. 73 refs.

  11. Co-processing of residual oil and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Audeh, C.A.

    1983-04-05

    Visbreaking a mixture of petroleum residuum, coal and catalytic cracking catalyst under conditions severe enough to effect conversion but not so severe as to produce substantial quantities of coke produces a range of products including gaseous olefins and gasoline distillate. The solids recovered from the visbreaking operation can be processed to produce a synthesis gas of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

  12. Coal Gasification Processes for Retrofitting Military Central Heating Plants: Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    the product gas and convened to elemental sulfur by the Claus or wet oxidation processes. It is easier to remove sulfur in the form of H2S rather than...The wet oxidation process is generally more economical than the Claus process because of the low H2S content (usually less than 5 percent) in the cold...is carried out with the product gases. The fluidized-bed gasifier generally cannot handle highly caking coals without an oxidative pretreatment step

  13. Distribution and leaching ability of some heavy metals in products of flotation processing of fine-grained coal slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Klika, Z.; Weiss, Z.; Lach, K.

    1994-12-31

    Coal from the Ostrava-Karvina mines is processed in 19 coal preparation plants, 6 of which are not equipped with flotation technology. Generally, all fine-grained coal is transported into sedimentary coal slurry ponds. Depending on processing technology, coal slurries contain from 5 to 95% coal matter. Sedimentary coal slurry ponds occupy large areas, deteriorate the landscape, and ar great sources of dust in a dry summer. Moreover, some components from coal slurries scan be leached and can penetrate into underground water. This research project sampled 13 coal slurry ponds to determine the composition of coal slurries, the distribution of some heavy metals in the flotation process, and leaching behavior.

  14. High-Resolution Dynamic Speech Imaging with Joint Low-Rank and Sparsity Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Maojing; Zhao, Bo; Carignan, Christopher; Shosted, Ryan K.; Perry, Jamie L.; Kuehn, David P.; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To enable dynamic speech imaging with high spatiotemporal resolution and full-vocal-tract spatial coverage, leveraging recent advances in sparse sampling. Methods An imaging method is developed to enable high-speed dynamic speech imaging exploiting low-rank and sparsity of the dynamic images of articulatory motion during speech. The proposed method includes: a) a novel data acquisition strategy that collects navigators with high temporal frame rate, and b) an image reconstruction method that derives temporal subspaces from navigators and reconstructs high-resolution images from sparsely sampled data with joint low-rank and sparsity constraints. Results The proposed method has been systematically evaluated and validated through several dynamic speech experiments. A nominal imaging speed of 102 frames per second (fps) was achieved for a single-slice imaging protocol with a spatial resolution of 2.2 × 2.2 × 6.5 mm3. An eight-slice imaging protocol covering the entire vocal tract achieved a nominal imaging speed of 12.8 fps with the identical spatial resolution. The effectiveness of the proposed method and its practical utility was also demonstrated in a phonetic investigation. Conclusion High spatiotemporal resolution with full-vocal-tract spatial coverage can be achieved for dynamic speech imaging experiments with low-rank and sparsity constraints. PMID:24912452

  15. Constructing a Nonnegative Low-Rank and Sparse Graph With Data-Adaptive Features.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Liansheng; Gao, Shenghua; Tang, Jinhui; Wang, Jingjing; Lin, Zhouchen; Ma, Yi; Yu, Nenghai

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at constructing a good graph to discover the intrinsic data structures under a semisupervised learning setting. First, we propose to build a nonnegative low-rank and sparse (referred to as NNLRS) graph for the given data representation. In particular, the weights of edges in the graph are obtained by seeking a nonnegative low-rank and sparse reconstruction coefficients matrix that represents each data sample as a linear combination of others. The so-obtained NNLRS-graph captures both the global mixture of subspaces structure (by the low-rankness) and the locally linear structure (by the sparseness) of the data, hence it is both generative and discriminative. Second, as good features are extremely important for constructing a good graph, we propose to learn the data embedding matrix and construct the graph simultaneously within one framework, which is termed as NNLRS with embedded features (referred to as NNLRS-EF). Extensive NNLRS experiments on three publicly available data sets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art graph construction method by a large margin for both semisupervised classification and discriminative analysis, which verifies the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  16. Color correction with blind image restoration based on multiple images using a low-rank model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Xudong; Lam, Kin-Man

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that can handle the color correction of multiple photographs with blind image restoration simultaneously and automatically. We prove that the local colors of a set of images of the same scene exhibit the low-rank property locally both before and after a color-correction operation. This property allows us to correct all kinds of errors in an image under a low-rank matrix model without particular priors or assumptions. The possible errors may be caused by changes of viewpoint, large illumination variations, gross pixel corruptions, partial occlusions, etc. Furthermore, a new iterative soft-segmentation method is proposed for local color transfer using color influence maps. Due to the fact that the correct color information and the spatial information of images can be recovered using the low-rank model, more precise color correction and many other image-restoration tasks-including image denoising, image deblurring, and gray-scale image colorizing-can be performed simultaneously. Experiments have verified that our method can achieve consistent and promising results on uncontrolled real photographs acquired from the Internet and that it outperforms current state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Process for recovering fine coal particles from slurry of finely divided coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, K.; Ogino, E.; Yoshii, N.

    1982-08-24

    Fine coal particles are recovered from a slurry of finely divided coal by mixing coarsely divided coal and a binder together to cause the binder to adhere to the surfaces of the coarsely divided coal pieces, mixing the slurry with the coal pieces having the binder adhered thereto to cause fine coal particles to adhere to the binder over the surfaces of the coal pieces serving as nuclei and thereby form agglomerates, and separating the agglomerates from the remaining slurry portion to recover the fine coal particles along with the coarsely divided coal and the binder.

  18. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  19. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Strandberg, Gerald W.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  20. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. Success in this program will be a major step in improving in predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized first principles'' treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data. The progress during the fifteenth quarterly of the program is presented. 56 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Coal-gasification-process concepts. [Dependence on gasifier pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.; Tarman, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    First Generation coal gasification continues to grow with the expansion of Lurgi process to make gasoline in South Africa and SNG in the United States. This moving-bed gasifier is no doubt the leading commercial application of coal gasification. This can probably be attributed to its operation at the elevated pressure that simultaneously increases coal throughput and broadens the utility of the raw Syngas product by lowering its coal. Other Second Generation processes also strive to achieve high pressure operation: Ruhrgas 100 to improve moving-bed gasification at 100 bars; Texaco, Shell, Koppers, and Saarberg-Otto to improve entrained-bed gasification at 20 to 40 bars; and U-GAS and Westinghouse and the pressurized Winkler to improve fluidized-bed operation at 10 to 40 bars. Operation at 20 to 40 bars greatly improves gasifier productivity and significantly broadens the use of the raw Syngas produced by all types of gasifiers. Future commercial trends will include the entrained- and fluidized-bed concepts at 20 to 40 bars while even higher operating pressures will be used for the Lurgi moving-bed concept.

  2. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO[sub x]-NO[sub x] submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  3. Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.

    2009-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) represents a strategy targeting at syngas production for fuel or power generation from in-situ coal seams. It is a promising technique for exploiting coal deposits as an energy source at locations not allowing conventional mining under economic conditions. Although the underlying concept has already been suggested in 1868 and has been later on implemented in a number of field trials and even at a commercial scale, UCG is still facing technological barriers, impeding its widespread application. Field UCG operations rely on injection wells enabling the ignition of the target seam and the supply with oxidants (air, O2) inducing combustion (oxidative conditions). The combustion process delivers the enthalpy required for endothermic hydrogen production under reduction prone conditions in some distance to the injection point. The produced hydrogen - usually accompanied by organic and inorganic carbon species, e.g. CH4, CO, and CO2 - can then be retrieved through a production well. In contrast to gasification of mined coal in furnaces, it is difficult to measure the combustion temperature directly during UCG operations. It is already known that geochemical parameters such as the relative production gas composition as well as its stable isotope signature are related to the combustion temperature and, consequently, can be used as temperature proxies. However, so far the general applicability of such relations has not been proven. In order to get corresponding insights with respect to coals of significantly different rank and origin, four powdered coal samples covering maturities ranging from Ro= 0.43% (lignite) to Ro= 3.39% (anthracite) have been gasified in laboratory experiments. The combustion temperature has been varied between 350 and 900 ˚ C, respectively. During gasification, the generated gas has been captured in a cryo-trap, dried and the carbon containing gas components have been catalytically oxidized to CO2. Thereafter, the

  4. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  5. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 5.7, Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Aulich, T.R.; Grisanti, A.A.; Knudson, C.L.

    1995-08-01

    Atomobile evaporative emission canisters contain activated carbon sorbents that trap and store fuel vapors emitted from automobile fuel tanks during periods of hot ambient temperatures and after engine operation. When a vehicle is started, combustion air is pulled through the canister, and adsorbed vapors are removed from the sorbent and routed to the intake manifold for combustion along with fuel from the tank. The two primary requirements of an effective canister sorbent are that (1) it must be a strong enough adsorbent to hold on to the fuel vapors that contact it and (2) it must be a weak enough adsorbent to release the captured vapors in the presence of the airflow required by the engine for fuel combustion. Most currently available commercial canister sorbents are made from wood, which is reacted with phosphoric acid and heat to yield an activated carbon with optimum pore size for gasoline vapor adsorption. The objectives of Task 5.7 were to (1) design and construct a test system for evaluating the performance of different sorbents in trapping and releasing butane, gasoline, and other organic vapors; (2) investigate the use of lignite char as an automobile fuel evaporation canister sorbent; (3) compare the adsorbing and desorbing characteristics of lignite chars with those of several commercial sorbents; and (4) investigate whether the presence of ethanol in fuel vapors affects sorbent performance in any way. Tests with two different sorbents (a wood-derived activated carbon and a lignite char) showed that with both sorbents, ethanol vapor breakthrough took about twice as long as hydrocarbon vapor breakthrough. Possible reasons for this, including an increased sorbent affinity for ethanol vapors, will be investigated. If this effect is real (i.e., reproducible over an extensive series of tests under varying conditions), it may help explain why ethanol vapor concentrations in SHED test evaporative emissions are often lower than would be expected.

  6. Coal gasification process wastewater reusability: separation of organics by membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Kermode, R.I.; Dickinson, R.L.

    1983-02-01

    The developing coal-gasification technologies generate gaseous process streams laden with water-soluble species such as H/sub 2/S, NH/sub 3/, HCN, phenols, cresols etc. The primary raw gas clean-up (gas quenching) results in large volumes of highly contaminated wastewaters. The development of a membrane separation process for the removal of selected organics, salts, and scale-forming compounds from stripped coal-conversion process wastewaters, will minimise surface-water pollution and decrease water consumption by permeate recycling. The recent industrial development of non-cellulosic thin-film composite membranes has provided membranes with high salt and low molecular weight organic separation characteristics and insignificant compaction problems. The low pressure membranes (used for brackish water) have definite advantages in terms of energy saving and lower capital cost. The composite membranes perform better than cellulose-acetate membranes. 24 references.

  7. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOEpatents

    Ignasiak, Teresa; Strausz, Otto; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Janiak, Jerzy; Pawlak, Wanda; Szymocha, Kazimierz; Turak, Ali A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  8. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  9. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  10. Large-scale 3D EM modeling with a Block Low-Rank multifrontal direct solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantsev, Daniil V.; Jaysaval, Piyoosh; de la Kethulle de Ryhove, Sébastien; Amestoy, Patrick R.; Buttari, Alfredo; L'Excellent, Jean-Yves; Mary, Theo

    2017-03-01

    We put forward the idea of using a Block Low-Rank (BLR) multifrontal direct solver to efficiently solve the linear systems of equations arising from a finite-difference discretization of the frequency-domain Maxwell equations for 3D electromagnetic (EM) problems. The solver uses a low-rank representation for the off-diagonal blocks of the intermediate dense matrices arising in the multifrontal method to reduce the computational load. A numerical threshold, the so called BLR threshold, controlling the accuracy of low-rank representations was optimized by balancing errors in the computed EM fields against savings in floating point operations (flops). Simulations were carried out over large-scale 3D resistivity models representing typical scenarios for marine controlled-source EM surveys, and in particular the SEG SEAM model which contains an irregular salt body. The flop count, size of factor matrices and elapsed run time for matrix factorization are reduced dramatically by using BLR representations and can go down to, respectively, 10%, 30% and 40% of their full rank values for our largest system with N = 20.6 million unknowns. The reductions are almost independent of the number of MPI tasks and threads at least up to 90 × 10 = 900 cores. The BLR savings increase for larger systems, which reduces the factorization flop complexity from O( {{N^2}} ) for the full-rank solver to O( {{N^m}} ) with m = 1.4 - 1.6 . The BLR savings are significantly larger for deep-water environments that exclude the highly resistive air layer from the computational domain. A study in a scenario where simulations are required at multiple source locations shows that the BLR solver can become competitive in comparison to iterative solvers as an engine for 3D CSEM Gauss-Newton inversion that requires forward modelling for a few thousand right-hand sides.

  11. Robust cardiac motion estimation using ultrafast ultrasound data: a low-rank-topology-preserving approach.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Angelica I; Widlak, Thomas; Casals, Alicia; Nillesen, Maartje; Ammari, Habib

    2017-03-24

    Cardiac motion estimation is an important diagnostic tool to detect heart diseases and it has been explored with modalities such as MRI and conventional ultrasound (US) sequences. US cardiac motion estimation still presents challenges because of the complex motion patterns and the presence of noise. In this work, we propose a novel approach to estimate the cardiac motion using ultrafast ultrasound data. -- Our solution is based on a variational formulation characterized by the L2-regularized class. The displacement is represented by a lattice of b-splines and we ensure robustness by applying a maximum likelihood type estimator. While this is an important part of our solution, the main highlight of this work is to combine a low-rank data representation with topology preservation. Low-rank data representation (achieved by finding the k-dominant singular values of a Casorati Matrix arranged from the data sequence) speeds up the global solution and achieves noise reduction. On the other hand, topology preservation (achieved by monitoring the Jacobian determinant) allows to radically rule out distortions while carefully controlling the size of allowed expansions and contractions. Our variational approach is carried out on a realistic dataset as well as on a simulated one. We demonstrate how our proposed variational solution deals with complex deformations through careful numerical experiments. While maintaining the accuracy of the solution, the low-rank preprocessing is shown to speed up the convergence of the variational problem. Beyond cardiac motion estimation, our approach is promising for the analysis of other organs that experience motion.

  12. Remote sensing image segmentation using local sparse structure constrained latent low rank representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shu; Zhang, Ye; Yan, Yimin; Su, Nan; Zhang, Junping

    2016-09-01

    Latent low-rank representation (LatLRR) has been attached considerable attention in the field of remote sensing image segmentation, due to its effectiveness in exploring the multiple subspace structures of data. However, the increasingly heterogeneous texture information in the high spatial resolution remote sensing images, leads to more severe interference of pixels in local neighborhood, and the LatLRR fails to capture the local complex structure information. Therefore, we present a local sparse structure constrainted latent low-rank representation (LSSLatLRR) segmentation method, which explicitly imposes the local sparse structure constraint on LatLRR to capture the intrinsic local structure in manifold structure feature subspaces. The whole segmentation framework can be viewed as two stages in cascade. In the first stage, we use the local histogram transform to extract the texture local histogram features (LHOG) at each pixel, which can efficiently capture the complex and micro-texture pattern. In the second stage, a local sparse structure (LSS) formulation is established on LHOG, which aims to preserve the local intrinsic structure and enhance the relationship between pixels having similar local characteristics. Meanwhile, by integrating the LSS and the LatLRR, we can efficiently capture the local sparse and low-rank structure in the mixture of feature subspace, and we adopt the subspace segmentation method to improve the segmentation accuracy. Experimental results on the remote sensing images with different spatial resolution show that, compared with three state-of-the-art image segmentation methods, the proposed method achieves more accurate segmentation results.

  13. SAR moving target imaging using sparse and low-rank decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kang-Yu; Rao, Shankar

    2014-05-01

    We propose a method to image a complex scene with spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) despite the presence of multiple moving targets. Many recent methods use sparsity-based reconstruction coupled with phase error corrections of moving targets to reconstruct stationary scenes. However, these methods rely on the assumption that the scene itself is sparse and thus unfortunately cannot handle realistic SAR scenarios with complex backgrounds consisting of more than just a few point targets. Our method makes use of sparse and low-rank (SLR) matrix decomposition, an efficient method for decomposing a low-rank matrix and sparse matrix from their sum. For detecting the moving targets and reconstructing the stationary background, SLR uses a convex optimization model that penalizes the nuclear norm of the low rank background structure and the L1 norm of the sparse moving targets. We propose an L1-norm regularization reconstruction method to form the input data matrix, which is grossly corrupted by the moving targets. Each column of the input matrix is a reconstructed SAR image with measurements from a small number of azimuth angles. The use of the L1-norm regularization and a sparse transform permits us to reconstruct the scene with significantly fewer measurements so that moving targets are approximately stationary. We demonstrate our SLR-based approach using simulations adapted from the GOTCHA Volumetric SAR data set. These simulations show that SLR can accurately image multiple moving targets with different individual motions in complex scenes where methods that assume a sparse scene would fail.

  14. Low-rank spectral expansions of two electron excitations for the acceleration of quantum chemistry calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Christine A.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2012-12-01

    Treatment of two-electron excitations is a fundamental but computationally expensive part of ab initio calculations of many-electron correlation. In this paper we develop a low-rank spectral expansion of two-electron excitations for accelerated electronic-structure calculations. The spectral expansion differs from previous approaches by relying upon both (i) a sum of three expansions to increase the rank reduction of the tensor and (ii) a factorization of the tensor into geminal (rank-two) tensors rather than orbital (rank-one) tensors. We combine three spectral expansions from the three distinct forms of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM), (i) the two-particle 2D, (ii) the two-hole 2Q, and the (iii) particle-hole 2G matrices, to produce a single spectral expansion with significantly accelerated convergence. While the resulting expansion is applicable to any quantum-chemistry calculation with two-particle excitation amplitudes, it is employed here in the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.253002. The low-rank parametric 2-RDM method scales quartically with the basis-set size, but like its full-rank version it can capture multi-reference correlation effects that are difficult to treat efficiently by traditional single-reference wavefunction methods. Applications are made to computing potential energy curves of HF and triplet OH+, equilibrium bond distances and frequencies, the HCN-HNC isomerization, and the energies of hydrocarbon chains. Computed 2-RDMs nearly satisfy necessary N-representability conditions. The low-rank spectral expansion has the potential to expand the applicability of the parametric 2-RDM method as well as other ab initio methods to large-scale molecular systems that are often only treatable by mean-field or density functional theories.

  15. Low-rank Quasi-Newton updates for Robust Jacobian lagging in Newton methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Brune, P.

    2013-07-01

    Newton-Krylov methods are standard tools for solving nonlinear problems. A common approach is to 'lag' the Jacobian when assembly or preconditioner setup is computationally expensive, in exchange for some degradation in the convergence rate and robustness. We show that this degradation may be partially mitigated by using the lagged Jacobian as an initial operator in a quasi-Newton method, which applies unassembled low-rank updates to the Jacobian until the next full reassembly. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on problems in glaciology and elasticity. (authors)

  16. Towards estimating cardiac motion using low-rank representation and topology preservation for ultrafast ultrasound data.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Angelica I; Widlak, Thomas; Casals, Alicia; Ammari, Habib

    2016-08-01

    Estimation of the cardiac motion is very important in order to detect heart diseases. This work presents a cardiac motion estimation approach using ultrafast ultrasound data. We optimize a variational framework which has the benefits of combining low-rank data representation with topology preservation. We show through the analysis of experimental results that this combination offers a radical reduction in computational time and noise while ensuring preservation of the anatomical structure of the heart under complex deformations. Although in this work we use the heart as a study case, our solution is promising to analyze other organs experiencing motion.

  17. Illumination Compensation and Normalization Using Low-Rank Decomposition of Multispectral Images in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Duliu, Alexandru; Brosig, Richard; Ognawala, Saahil; Lasser, Tobias; Ziai, Mahzad; Navab, Nassir

    2015-01-01

    When attempting to recover the surface color from an image, modelling the illumination contribution per-pixel is essential. In this work we present a novel approach for illumination compensation using multispectral image data. This is done by means of a low-rank decomposition of representative spectral bands with prior knowledge of the reflectance spectra of the imaged surface. Experimental results on synthetic data, as well as on images of real lesions acquired at the university clinic, show that the proposed method significantly improves the contrast between the lesion and the background.

  18. Improvement of stability and efficiency of combustion for low rank anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.; Qiu, J.; Zhang, Z.; Li, F.; Sun, X.

    1994-12-31

    A new kind of burner, bluff-body with cavity burner, which is based on the bluff-body burner is developed in this paper. The three dimension mean velocity and turbulent characteristics have been measured in the burner`s recirculation zone by using three dimension laser dynamics analysis. For a low rank anthracite, combustion test shows this burner is better than bluff-body in ignition and flame stability. 50 MW(220T/H) boiler operation show that the temperature in the flame zone is high, combustion is very stable and the efficiency is increased when this burner is used.

  19. On matrices with low-rank-plus-shift structure: Partial SVD and latent semantic indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, H.; Zhang, Z.

    1998-08-01

    The authors present a detailed analysis of matrices satisfying the so-called low-rank-plus-shift property in connection with the computation of their partial singular value decomposition. The application they have in mind is Latent Semantic Indexing for information retrieval where the term-document matrices generated from a text corpus approximately satisfy this property. The analysis is motivated by developing more efficient methods for computing and updating partial SVD of large term-document matrices and gaining deeper understanding of the behavior of the methods in the presence of noise.

  20. Feature transformation of neural activity with sparse and low-rank decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kang-Yu; Benvenuto, James; Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Millin, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    We propose a novel application of the sparse and low-rank (SLR) decomposition method to decode cognitive states for concept activity measured using fMRI BOLD. Current decoding methods attempt to reduce the dimensionality of fMRI BOLD signals to increase classification rate, but do not address the separable issues of multiple noise sources and complexity in the underlying data. Our feature transformation method extends SLR to separate task activity from the resting state and extract concept specific cognitive state. We show a significant increase in single trial decoding of concepts from fMRI BOLD using SLR to extract task specific cognitive state.

  1. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, J.H.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  2. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Robbins; R. A. Winschel

    1998-07-01

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the fourteenth quatier of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period October 1 through December 31, 1997'. Described in this report is the following activity: o CONSOL characterized 34 process stream samples from HTI Run PB-06, in which Black Thunder Mine coal, virgin plastics, plasticiderived pyrolysis oil, and Hondo vacuum resid were used as liquefaction feedstocks with dispersed catalyst.

  3. A Technique for Decreasing Reactivity of Coal Material to Suppress the Oxygen Absorption Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Lugovtsova, N. Yu; Gubanova, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the mechanisms of self-ignition formation in coal liable to spontaneous combustion, on the basis of experimental works performed to analyze heat and mass transfer in the coal-air system. A new approach was developed to the coal self-heating suppression and thermodynamic control of the oxidation process. The influence of coal moisture content and thermal behaviour of air in the cooling process was studied during moisture evaporation.

  4. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  5. Process development for production of coal/sorbent agglomerates

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a process flow diagram to economically produce a clean-burning fuel from fine Illinois coal. To accomplish this, the process of pelletizing fine coal with calcium hydroxide, a sulfur capturing sorbent, was investigated. Carbonation, which is the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide (in the presence of moisture) to produce a bonding matrix of calcium carbonate, was investigated as a method for improving pellet quality and reducing binder costs. Proper moisture level is critical to allow the reaction to occur. If too much moisture is present in a pellet, the pore spaces are filled and carbon dioxide must diffuse through the water to reach the calcium hydroxide and react. This severely slows or stops the reaction. The ideal situation is when there is just enough moisture to coat the calcium hydroxide allowing for the reaction to proceed. The process has been successfully demonstrated on a pilot-scale as a method of hardening iron ore pellets (Imperato, 1966). Two potential combustion options are being considered for the coal/calcium hydroxide pellets: fluidized bed combustors and industrial stoker boilers.

  6. A new model of coal-water interaction and relevance for dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Suuberg, E.M.

    1992-12-18

    This project is concerned with a basic scientific question concerning the properties of coal- to what extent is the ability of coal to hold moisture a manifestation of the well-known ability of coal to swell, when exposed to good solvents The question implies that the long-held belief that coal holds a significant portion of its moisture by classical capillary condensation processes, is possibly in error. This seems to be a very real possibility for low rank coals, i.e. lignites. To explore this hypothesis further requires an examination of the basic phenomena governing the swelling of coals in good solvents. This is the focus of the first part of this project. The possibility that coal holds a significant portion of its moisture by solvent swelling mechanisms leads to an interesting technical issue. It is well known that simple drying of low rank coals is ineffective because the process is reversible, to a significant degree. Pyrolytic treatments of the coals in oil, steam or liquid water itself. Pyrolytically remove oxygen groups, which are assumed to be those that hold water most strongly by hydrogen bonding. The treatments have been designed to minimize tar formation and decrepitation of the particles, both highly undesirable. In relation to the present new hypothesis concerning water retention, it is likely that a sound approach to permanent drying would involve highly crosslinking the coal at mild drying conditions. The crosslinked coal could not swell sufficiently to hold much water. It is identifying processes to achieve this goal, that constitute the objective of the second phase of this work.

  7. Process for coal liquefaction using electrodeposited catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Raymond H.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of solid hydrocarbonaceous materials is disclosed. Particles of such materials are electroplated with a metal catalyst and are then suspended in a hydrocarbon oil and subjected to hydrogenolysis to liquefy the solid hydrocarbonaceous material. A liquid product oil is separated from residue solid material containing char and the catalyst metal. The catalyst is recovered from the solid material by electrolysis for reuse. A portion of the product oil can be employed as the hydrocarbon oil for suspending additional particles of catalyst coated solid carbonaceous material for hydrogenolysis.

  8. Enhanced low-rank + sparsity decomposition for speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopriva, Ivica; Shi, Fei; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-07-01

    Speckle artifacts can strongly hamper quantitative analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is necessary to provide assessment of ocular disorders associated with vision loss. Here, we introduce a method for speckle reduction, which leverages from low-rank + sparsity decomposition (LRpSD) of the logarithm of intensity OCT images. In particular, we combine nonconvex regularization-based low-rank approximation of an original OCT image with a sparsity term that incorporates the speckle. State-of-the-art methods for LRpSD require a priori knowledge of a rank and approximate it with nuclear norm, which is not an accurate rank indicator. As opposed to that, the proposed method provides more accurate approximation of a rank through the use of nonconvex regularization that induces sparse approximation of singular values. Furthermore, a rank value is not required to be known a priori. This, in turn, yields an automatic and computationally more efficient method for speckle reduction, which yields the OCT image with improved contrast-to-noise ratio, contrast and edge fidelity. The source code will be available at www.mipav.net/English/research/research.html.

  9. MsLRR: a unified multiscale low-rank representation for image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobai; Xu, Qian; Ma, Jiayi; Jin, Hai; Zhang, Yanduo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient multiscale low-rank representation for image segmentation. Our method begins with partitioning the input images into a set of superpixels, followed by seeking the optimal superpixel-pair affinity matrix, both of which are performed at multiple scales of the input images. Since low-level superpixel features are usually corrupted by image noise, we propose to infer the low-rank refined affinity matrix. The inference is guided by two observations on natural images. First, looking into a single image, local small-size image patterns tend to recur frequently within the same semantic region, but may not appear in semantically different regions. The internal image statistics are referred to as replication prior, and we quantitatively justified it on real image databases. Second, the affinity matrices at different scales should be consistently solved, which leads to the cross-scale consistency constraint. We formulate these two purposes with one unified formulation and develop an efficient optimization procedure. The proposed representation can be used for both unsupervised or supervised image segmentation tasks. Our experiments on public data sets demonstrate the presented method can substantially improve segmentation accuracy.

  10. Performance of low-rank QR approximation of the finite element Biot-Savart law

    SciTech Connect

    White, D; Fasenfest, B

    2006-10-16

    In this paper we present a low-rank QR method for evaluating the discrete Biot-Savart law. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that is easily implemented on parallel computers. It is assumed that the known current density and the unknown magnetic field are both expressed in a finite element expansion, and we wish to compute the degrees-of-freedom (DOF) in the basis function expansion of the magnetic field. The matrix that maps the current DOF to the field DOF is full, but if the spatial domain is properly partitioned the matrix can be written as a block matrix, with blocks representing distant interactions being low rank and having a compressed QR representation. While an octree partitioning of the matrix may be ideal, for ease of parallel implementation we employ a partitioning based on number of processors. The rank of each block (i.e. the compression) is determined by the specific geometry and is computed dynamically. In this paper we provide the algorithmic details and present computational results for large-scale computations.

  11. Bayesian Framework with Non-local and Low-rank Constraint for Image Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhonghe; Wang, Shengzhe; Huo, Jianliang; Guo, Hang; Zhao, Haibo; Mei, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Built upon the similar methodology of 'grouping and collaboratively filtering', the proposed algorithm recovers image patches from the array of similar noisy patches based on the assumption that their noise-free versions or approximation lie in a low dimensional subspace and has a low rank. Based on the analysis of the effect of noise and perturbation on the singular value, a weighted nuclear norm is defined to replace the conventional nuclear norm. Corresponding low-rank decomposition model and singular value shrinkage operator are derived. Taking into account the difference between the distribution of the signal and the noise, the weight depends not only on the standard deviation of noise, but also on the rank of the noise-free matrix and the singular value itself. Experimental results in image reconstruction tasks show that at relatively low computational cost the performance of proposed method is very close to state-of-the-art reconstruction methods BM3D and LSSC even outperforms them in restoring and preserving structure

  12. Robust Adaptive Beamforming Based on Low-Rank and Cross-Correlation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Hang; de Lamare, Rodrigo C.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents cost-effective low-rank techniques for designing robust adaptive beamforming (RAB) algorithms. The proposed algorithms are based on the exploitation of the cross-correlation between the array observation data and the output of the beamformer. Firstly, we construct a general linear equation considered in large dimensions whose solution yields the steering vector mismatch. Then, we employ the idea of the full orthogonalization method (FOM), an orthogonal Krylov subspace based method, to iteratively estimate the steering vector mismatch in a reduced-dimensional subspace, resulting in the proposed orthogonal Krylov subspace projection mismatch estimation (OKSPME) method. We also devise adaptive algorithms based on stochastic gradient (SG) and conjugate gradient (CG) techniques to update the beamforming weights with low complexity and avoid any costly matrix inversion. The main advantages of the proposed low-rank and mismatch estimation techniques are their cost-effectiveness when dealing with high dimension subspaces or large sensor arrays. Simulations results show excellent performance in terms of the output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the beamformer among all the compared RAB methods.

  13. Structure-based Low-Rank Model with Graph Nuclear Norm Regularization for Noise Removal.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qi; Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Wu, Fei; Wei, Zhihui; Xiao, Liang; Shao, Wenze; Yue, Dong; Li, Haibo

    2016-12-15

    Nonlocal image representation methods, including group-based sparse coding and BM3D, have shown their great performance in application to low-level tasks. The nonlocal prior is extracted from each group consisting of patches with similar intensities. Grouping patches based on intensity similarity, however, gives rise to disturbance and inaccuracy in estimation of the true images. To address this problem, we propose a structure-based low-rank model with graph nuclear norm regularization. We exploit the local manifold structure inside a patch and group the patches by the distance metric of manifold structure. With the manifold structure information, a graph nuclear norm regularization is established and incorporated into a low-rank approximation model. We then prove that the graph-based regularization is equivalent to a weighted nuclear norm and the proposed model can be solved by a weighted singular-value thresholding algorithm. Extensive experiments on additive white Gaussian noise removal and mixed noise removal demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better performance than several state-of-the-art algorithms.

  14. Low-Rank Positive Semidefinite Matrix Recovery From Corrupted Rank-One Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanxin; Sun, Yue; Chi, Yuejie

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of estimating a low-rank positive semidefinite (PSD) matrix from a set of rank-one measurements using sensing vectors composed of i.i.d. standard Gaussian entries, which are possibly corrupted by arbitrary outliers. This problem arises from applications such as phase retrieval, covariance sketching, quantum space tomography, and power spectrum estimation. We first propose a convex optimization algorithm that seeks the PSD matrix with the minimum $\\ell_1$-norm of the observation residual. The advantage of our algorithm is that it is free of parameters, therefore eliminating the need for tuning parameters and allowing easy implementations. We establish that with high probability, a low-rank PSD matrix can be exactly recovered as soon as the number of measurements is large enough, even when a fraction of the measurements are corrupted by outliers with arbitrary magnitudes. Moreover, the recovery is also stable against bounded noise. With the additional information of an upper bound of the rank of the PSD matrix, we propose another non-convex algorithm based on subgradient descent that demonstrates excellent empirical performance in terms of computational efficiency and accuracy.

  15. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Novel analytical techniques for coal liquefaction: Fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C.; Derbyshire, F.J.

    1991-10-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using fluorescence and reflectance microscopy techniques for the examination of distillation resid materials derived from direct coal liquefaction. Resid, as defined here, is the 850{degrees}F{sup +} portion of the process stream, and includes soluble organics, insoluble organics and ash. The technique can be used to determine the degree of hydrogenation and the presence of multiple phases occurring within a resid sample. It can also be used to infer resid reactivity. The technique is rapid, requiring less than one hour for sample preparation and examination, and thus has apparent usefulness for process monitoring. Additionally, the technique can distinguish differences in samples produced under various process conditions. It can, therefore, be considered a potentially useful technique for the process developer. Further development and application of this analytical method as a process development tool is justified based on these results.

  16. Process for producing high-concentration slurry of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoji, K.; Itoh, H.; Kamao, M.; Takao, Sh.; Tatsumi, Sh.

    1985-02-19

    High concentrated coal-water slurry is produced by coarsely crushing coal, thereafter pulverizing the coarsely crushed coal, together with water and a slurry dispersant, according to necessity, in a wet-type ball mill, and feeding back one portion of the finely pulverized coal slurry thus obtained into the inlet of the wet-type ball mill.

  17. A Course in Fundamentals of Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radovic, Ljubisa R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the content, objectives, and requirements for a one-semester (30 20-hour sessions) graduate engineering course at the University of Concepcion, Chile. Major course topics include: structure and properties of coal; coal pyrolysis and carbonization; coal liquefaction; coal combustion and gasification; and economic and environmental…

  18. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  19. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary...

  20. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary...

  1. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  2. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary...

  3. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  4. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary...

  5. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary...

  6. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  7. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  8. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  9. Applications of polymer extrusion technology to coal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Upon heating, many of the middle-aged bituminous coals exhibit a plasticity very similar to polyethylene for a few minutes. Plastic coal can be extruded, pelletized or molded using common plastics technology and equipment. Investigations concerning the plastic state of coals are conducted with the objective to develop techniques which will make useful commercial applications of this property possible. Experiments which show the characteristics of plastic-state coal are discussed, and problems related to a continuous extrusion of coal are considered. Probably the most significant difference between the continuous extrusion of coal and the extrusion of a thermoplastic polymer is that volatiles are continuously being released from the coal. Attention is given to aspects of dragflow, solids feeding, and melt pumping. Application potentials for plastic coal extrusion might be related to coal gasification, direct liquefaction, and coal combustion.

  10. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Robbins; S.D. Brandes; D.J. Pazuchanics; D.G. Nichols; R.A. Winschel

    1999-02-01

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the sixteenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period April 1 through June 30, 1998. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized nine process stream samples received from Exxon Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) operations conducted in 1994 with Rawhide Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal and all-dispersed Fe and Mo catalysts. (2) The University of Delaware subcontract related to resid reactivity was completed with issuance of the Topical Report covering work performed by Delaware. (3) Computational studies of the coal liquefaction resid models developed at the University of Delaware were continued at CONSOL R and D. The two reaction models, consisting of the reaction optimization and reaction once-through programs, were the focus of these studies. The updated resid structure data and results were used in the reaction models to predict percent conversion values that were compared with the experimentally-measured values from the University of Delaware. (4) Small samples of high-sulfur Hondo resid and anthracene oil were shipped to John Verkade of Iowa State University at his request. Verkade is testing a desulfurization method.

  11. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Robbins; S.D. Brandes; D.J. Pazuchanics; D.G. Nichols; R.A. Winschel

    1998-12-01

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the fifteenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period January 1 through March 31, 1998. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized 41 process stream samples obtained from HTI Run PB-01 (227-90), in which Black Thunder Mine coal, Hondo VTB resid, municipal solid waste (MSW) plastics, and virgin plastics were co-liquefaction feedstocks with all-dispersed Fe and Mo catalysts. (2) A request was made for samples from the Nippon Coal Oil NEDOL pilot plant in Kashima, Japan. (3) Phenols were extracted from two samples of separator overhead oil from HTI Run PB-03 Periods 10A and 10B. The phenols were converted to ethylphenyl ethers, and the ethers were distilled to produce a sample within the diesel fuel boiling range. The ethers were mixed with diesel fuel to make 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% solutions. The four mixtures and a control sample (0% ether) were tested for diesel fuel properties by Intertek Testing Services, Caleb Brett. (4) Computational studies related to the University of Delaware's resid conversion model were continued on the Hewlett Packard Apollo HP-735 RISC workstation at CONSOL R and D. The Structure Optimization Program and the Structure Once-Through Program were used to generate physicochemical properties and structure models for the 15 coal resid samples which have been under study.

  12. Low-rank plus sparse decomposition for exoplanet detection in direct-imaging ADI sequences. The LLSG algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Gonzalez, C. A.; Absil, O.; Absil, P.-A.; Van Droogenbroeck, M.; Mawet, D.; Surdej, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Data processing constitutes a critical component of high-contrast exoplanet imaging. Its role is almost as important as the choice of a coronagraph or a wavefront control system, and it is intertwined with the chosen observing strategy. Among the data processing techniques for angular differential imaging (ADI), the most recent is the family of principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithms. It is a widely used statistical tool developed during the first half of the past century. PCA serves, in this case, as a subspace projection technique for constructing a reference point spread function (PSF) that can be subtracted from the science data for boosting the detectability of potential companions present in the data. Unfortunately, when building this reference PSF from the science data itself, PCA comes with certain limitations such as the sensitivity of the lower dimensional orthogonal subspace to non-Gaussian noise. Aims: Inspired by recent advances in machine learning algorithms such as robust PCA, we aim to propose a localized subspace projection technique that surpasses current PCA-based post-processing algorithms in terms of the detectability of companions at near real-time speed, a quality that will be useful for future direct imaging surveys. Methods: We used randomized low-rank approximation methods recently proposed in the machine learning literature, coupled with entry-wise thresholding to decompose an ADI image sequence locally into low-rank, sparse, and Gaussian noise components (LLSG). This local three-term decomposition separates the starlight and the associated speckle noise from the planetary signal, which mostly remains in the sparse term. We tested the performance of our new algorithm on a long ADI sequence obtained on β Pictoris with VLT/NACO. Results: Compared to a standard PCA approach, LLSG decomposition reaches a higher signal-to-noise ratio and has an overall better performance in the receiver operating characteristic space

  13. DFC coal reclamation system for the plant of the future for processing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Karsnak, G.; Hoppe, J.

    1993-12-31

    The coal resources of the United States are vast and provide a sound uninterruptable source of energy for both domestic use and international export which will continue to be available for hundreds of years in the future. It has been estimated that the vast U.S. Coal resources can be used as an economic way of producing power for another 300-400 years as predicted by both federal and industrial energy analysis sources. The {open_quotes}proven coal reserves{close_quotes} of the country or demonstrated reserve base (DRB) was estimated to be 467 billion short tons in 1987 based on DOE/EIA estimates of the coal that can be economically removed from the ground by state-of-the-art coal mining technology currently used by industry. These estimates are based on {open_quotes}state level{close_quotes} data that were collected by the DOE/EIA in recent studies attempting to quantify the economically usable coal reserves of the U.S. and provide estimates of the total available reserve base. The estimation of the U.S. coal resource base often leads to a misunderstanding of the actual coal reserves available as a carbon based fuel. Coal resources are defined as the amount of coal in the ground which may be made available for end-use in energy production while the quantifying of coal reserves is based on the amount of recoverable coal which can be economically extracted from the ground through conventional mining methods. What is customarily ignored in these estimates is the coal waste generated during coal beneficiation and which accumulates as a result of coal cleaning plants associated with most coal utilization applications.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  15. Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Diffusion-Weighted Images using 4D Low-Rank and Total Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Li; Yap, Pew-Thian; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides invaluable information in white matter microstructure and is widely applied in neurological applications. However, DWI is largely limited by its relatively low spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose an image post-processing method, referred to as super-resolution reconstruction, to estimate a high spatial resolution DWI from the input low-resolution DWI, e.g., at a factor of 2. Instead of requiring specially designed DWI acquisition of multiple shifted or orthogonal scans, our method needs only a single DWI scan. To do that, we propose to model both the blurring and downsampling effects in the image degradation process where the low-resolution image is observed from the latent high-resolution image, and recover the latent high-resolution image with the help of two regularizations. The first regularization is 4-dimensional (4D) low-rank, proposed to gather self-similarity information from both the spatial domain and the diffusion domain of 4D DWI. The second regularization is total variation, proposed to depress noise and preserve local structures such as edges in the image recovery process. Extensive experiments were performed on 20 subjects, and results show that the proposed method is able to recover the fine details of white matter structures, and outperform other approaches such as interpolation methods, non-local means based upsampling, and total variation based upsampling. PMID:27845833

  16. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

    SciTech Connect

    Menkov, V.

    1996-12-31

    An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.

  17. Sparse and low-rank feature extraction for the classification of target's tracking capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasti, Behnood; Gudmundsson, Karl S.

    2016-09-01

    A feature extraction-based classification method is proposed in this paper for verifying the capability of human's neck in target tracking. Here, the target moves in predefined trajectory patterns in three difficulty levels. Dataset used for each pattern is obtained from two groups of people, one with whiplash associated disorder (WAD) and asymptomatic group, who behave in both sincere and feign manner. The aim is to verify the WAD group from asymptomatic one and also to discriminate the sincere behavior from the feigned one. Sparse and low-rank feature extraction is proposed to extract the most informative feature from training samples and then each sample is classified into the group which has the highest correlation coefficient with. The classification results are improved by fusing the results of the three patterns.

  18. A dynamical low-rank approach to the chemical master equation.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Tobias; Huisinga, Wilhelm

    2008-11-01

    Stochastic reaction kinetics have increasingly been used to study cellular systems, with applications ranging from viral replication to gene regulatory networks and to signaling pathways. The underlying evolution equation, known as the chemical master equation (CME), can rarely be solved with traditional methods due to the huge number of degrees of freedom. We present a new approach to directly solve the CME by a dynamical low-rank approximation based on the Dirac-Frenkel-McLachlan variational principle. The new approach has the capability to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom, and to turn the CME into a computationally tractable problem. We illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of our methods in application to two examples of biological interest.

  19. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  20. Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are presented. During a few operating periods of Run POC-2, HTI co-liquefied mixed plastics with coal, and tire rubber with coal. Although steady-state operation was not achieved during these brief tests periods, the results indicated that a liquefaction plant could operate with these waste materials as feedstocks. CONSOL analyzed 65 process stream samples from coal-only and coal/waste portions of the run. Some results obtained from characterization of samples from Run POC-2 coal/plastics operation are presented.

  1. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 01, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  2. Experience in feeding coal into a liquefaction process development unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akhtar, S.; Friedman, S.; Mazzocco, N. J.; Yavorsky, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    A system for preparing coal slurry and feeding it into a high pressure liquefaction plant is described. The system was developed to provide supporting research and development for the Bureau of Mines coal liquefaction pilot plant. Operating experiences are included.

  3. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham; Hollstein, Elmer J.; Janoski, Edward J.; Scheibel, Edward G.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  4. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1999-05-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics.

  5. Low-rank filter and detector for multidimensional data based on an alternative unfolding HOSVD: application to polarimetric STAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boizard, Maxime; Ginolhac, Guillaume; Pascal, Fréderic; Forster, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes an extension of the higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD), namely the alternative unfolding HOSVD (AU-HOSVD), in order to exploit the correlated information in multidimensional data. We show that the properties of the AU-HOSVD are proven to be the same as those for HOSVD: the orthogonality and the low-rank (LR) decomposition. We next derive LR filters and LR detectors based on AU-HOSVD for multidimensional data composed of one LR structure contribution. Finally, we apply our new LR filters and LR detectors in polarimetric space-time adaptive processing (STAP). In STAP, it is well known that the response of the background is correlated in time and space and has a LR structure in space-time. Therefore, our approach based on AU-HOSVD seems to be appropriate when a dimension (like polarimetry in this paper) is added. Simulations based on signal-to-interferenceplus-noise ratio (SINR) losses, probability of detection (Pd), and probability of false alarm (Pfa) show the interest of our approach: LR filters and LR detectors which can be obtained only from AU-HOSVD outperform the vectorial approach and those obtained from a single HOSVD.

  6. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  7. A Novel Fixed Low-Rank Constrained EEG Spatial Filter Estimation with Application to Movie-Induced Emotion Recognition.

    PubMed

    Yano, Ken; Suyama, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel fixed low-rank spatial filter estimation for brain computer interface (BCI) systems with an application that recognizes emotions elicited by movies. The proposed approach unifies such tasks as feature extraction, feature selection, and classification, which are often independently tackled in a "bottom-up" manner, under a regularized loss minimization problem. The loss function is explicitly derived from the conventional BCI approach and solves its minimization by optimization with a nonconvex fixed low-rank constraint. For evaluation, an experiment was conducted to induce emotions by movies for dozens of young adult subjects and estimated the emotional states using the proposed method. The advantage of the proposed method is that it combines feature selection, feature extraction, and classification into a monolithic optimization problem with a fixed low-rank regularization, which implicitly estimates optimal spatial filters. The proposed method shows competitive performance against the best CSP-based alternatives.

  8. A Novel Riemannian Metric Based on Riemannian Structure and Scaling Information for Fixed Low-Rank Matrix Completion.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shasha; Xiong, Lin; Jiao, Licheng; Feng, Tian; Yeung, Sai-Kit

    2016-07-26

    Riemannian optimization has been widely used to deal with the fixed low-rank matrix completion problem, and Riemannian metric is a crucial factor of obtaining the search direction in Riemannian optimization. This paper proposes a new Riemannian metric via simultaneously considering the Riemannian geometry structure and the scaling information, which is smoothly varying and invariant along the equivalence class. The proposed metric can make a tradeoff between the Riemannian geometry structure and the scaling information effectively. Essentially, it can be viewed as a generalization of some existing metrics. Based on the proposed Riemanian metric, we also design a Riemannian nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm, which can efficiently solve the fixed low-rank matrix completion problem. By experimenting on the fixed low-rank matrix completion, collaborative filtering, and image and video recovery, it illustrates that the proposed method is superior to the state-of-the-art methods on the convergence efficiency and the numerical performance.

  9. Research on the evolvement of morphology of coking coal during the coking process.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiangyun; Wu, Shiyong; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhenning; Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Xi, Bai

    2013-12-01

    The evolvement of morphology and structure of the coal with different metamorphic degrees during coking process in the vertical furnace was investigated by infrared Image detector. Moreover, the temperature distribution in the radial direction and the crack formation were also studied in heating process. The results show that the amount of crack and the shrinkage level of char decrease with the coal rank rising. In addition, the initial temperature of crack formation for char increases with the coal rank rising.

  10. Development of a method for characterizing changes in coal and mineral surfaces resulting from beneficiation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Slomka, B.J.; Seward, K.J.; Dawson, M.R.; Buttermore, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    A novel method was developed for characterizing changes in coal and mineral surfaces resulting from sonication and other cleaning processes. This method employs a unique flow-cell to permit the dynamic measurement of dye adsorption on coal and mineral particle surfaces. The rates and extents of adsorption of ionic dyes on Illinois No. 6 coal were found to be dependent on mineral content and particle size of ground coal samples. A significant correlation was observed between the adsorbed quantity of dye and the total mineral content of coal. In preliminary experiments with methylene blue dye, clay was found to absorb significantly more of the dye than quartz, pyrite, calcite, or clean coal'' surfaces. By using dyes of differing adsorption selectivity, it is demonstrated that sonication reduces the apparent mineral content on the surface of coal. 9 refs., 7 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  12. Upgraded coal interest group. First quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1994-12-31

    The interest group got under way effective January 1, 1994, with nine utility members, EPRI, Bechtel, and the Illinois Clean Coal Institute. DOE participation was effective October 1, 1994. The first meeting was held on April 22, 1994 in Springfield, Illinois and the second meeting was held on August 10--11, 1994 at Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Technical reviews were prepared in several areas, including the following: status of low rank coal upgrading, advanced physical coal cleaning, organic sulfur removal from coal, handling of fine coal, combustion of coal water slurries. It was concluded that, for bituminous coals, processing of fines from coal cleaning plants or impoundments was going to be less costly than processing of coal, since the fines were intrinsically worth less and advanced upgrading technologies require fine coal. Penelec reported on benefits of NOX reductions when burning slurry fuels. Project work was authorized in the following areas: Availability of fines (CQ, Inc.), Engineering evaluations (Bechtel), and Evaluation of slurry formulation and combustion demonstrations (EER/MATS). The first project was completed.

  13. Phase equilibrium in coal liquefaction processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, K.C.

    1984-08-01

    Gas-liquid equilibrium data have been determined in simulation of coal liquefaction process conditions in mixtures of light gases + heavy hydrocarbons to add to the accumulated data previously reported in EPRI AP-1593. The mixture systems newly investigated are: methane + 9,10 dihydrophenanthrene; hydrogen + methane + 1-methylnaphthalene; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + tetralin; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + 1-methynaphthalene; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + quinoline; nitrogen + tetralin, + n-hexadecane, + 1-methylnaphthalene, + quinoline, and + m-cresol. Correlations for the solubilities of methane and carbon dioxide have been developed from the data based on the use of solubility parameter. The solubility of hydrogen was correlated in EPRI AP-1593. Two equations of state are developed for the description of both the gas solubility and the vaporization of the heavy oil. The Chain-of-Rotators (COR) equation of state explicitly accounts for the rotational molecular motion contribution to the pressure of a fluid. The Cubic-Chain-of-Rotators (CCOR) equation is obtained upon simplifying the COR equation. Interaction constants in the CCOR equation have been determined for the light gases with the heavy hydrocarbons based on data from this project, and the constants are correlated. Equilibrium flash vaporization has been experimentally determined for three coal liquids and for their mixtures with hydrogen. The data are correlated with the CCOR equation of state. 74 figures, 46 tables.

  14. Novel use of residue from direct coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Jianli Yang; Zhaixia Wang; Zhenyu Liu; Yuzhen Zhang

    2009-09-15

    Direct coal liquefaction residue (DCLR) is, commonly, designed to be used as a feed stock for gasification or combustion. Use of DCLR as a value added product is very important for improving overall economy of direct coal liquefaction processes. This study shows that the DCLR may be used as a pavement asphalt modifier. The modification ability is similar to that of Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA), a superior commercial modifier. Asphalts modified by two DCLRs meet the specifications of ASTM D5710 and BSI BS-3690 designated for the TLA-modified asphalts. The required addition amount for the DCLRs tested is less than that for TLA due possibly to the high content of asphaltene in DCLRs. Different compatibility was observed for the asphalts with the same penetration grade but from the different origin. Different components in the DCLR play different roles in the modification. Positive synergetic effects among the fractions were observed, which may due to the formation of the stable colloid structure. Unlike polymer-type modifier, the structure of asphalt-type modifier has a similarity with petroleum asphalts which favors the formation of a stable dispersed polar fluid (DPF) colloid structure and improves the performance of pavement asphalt. 12 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  15. Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.

    1991-09-11

    The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for a first-stage solids separation step is standard cyclones, arranged in parallel trains for large-volume applications in order to take advantage of the higher separation efficiency of smaller cyclones. However, mild gasification pilot-plant data show entrainment of ultrafine particles for which standard cyclones have poor separation efficiency. A hot secondary solids separation step is needed for the ultrafine entrainment in order to protect the liquid product from excessive amounts of contaminating solids. The secondary solids separation step is similar to many high-temperature flue-gas applications with an important complicating condition: Mild gasifier vapors form coke on surfaces in contact with the vapors. Plugging of the filter medium by coke deposition is concluded to be the main product separation problem for mild gasification. Three approaches to solution of this problem are discussed in the order of preference: (1) a barrier filter medium made of a perforated foil that is easy to regenerate, (2) a high-efficiency cyclone coupled with recycle of a solids-containing tar fraction for coking/cracking in the gasifier, and (3) a granular moving bed filter with regeneration of the bed material. The condensation of oil vapors diluted by noncondensible gas is analyzed thermodynamically, and the conclusion is that existing commercial oil fractionator designs are adequate as long as the vapor stream does not contain excessive amounts of solids. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  16. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    Using a reactor in which the coal is physically separated from the solid catalyst by a porous wall permeable to the hydrogen donor solvent, it was shown that direct contact between the catalyst and the coal is not required for catalyzed coal liquefaction. This occurs however only when there is a hydrogen atmosphere, as liquefaction with catalyst participation does not occur in a nitrogen atmosphere. Liquefaction by hydrogen transfer from the donor solvent itself does occur. This suggests that there is transfer of hydrogen from the catalyst to the coal via the solvent. The character of the solvent makes a significant difference, the better solvents being good hydrogen donors. These results indicate that the role of the catalyst may be to regenerate the spent hydrogen donor solvent during the liquefaction process. The peak temperature for volatiles evolution has been shown to be a reproducible measure of the coal rank. This was shown by an excellent correlation (R2 = 0.998) between peak volatiles temperatures (by TGA) and vitrinite reflectance. Using TG/MS, the volatiles contents of coals of a wide range of ranks was determined. The low rank coals emit largely phenols and some other oxygen compounds and olefins. The higher rank coals emit largely aromatic hydrocarbons and some olefins.

  17. Inhibition of retrogressive reactions in coal/petroleum co-processing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tomic, J.

    1993-05-25

    The objective of this study was to examine the processes in coal/petroleum coprocessing systems which led to coke formation. Specifically, the interactions between the petroleum residue and coal, leading to retrogressive products, were investigated. Five coals were reacted with five model compounds in order to investigate the coal conversions in a variety of solvents and to determine the role of the solvent in promoting or inhibiting coal conversion. The selected model compounds range from paraffinic to fully aromatic and were chosen as representative of types of compounds that are found in petroleum residua. Coprocessing experiments were conducted using the five coals and three petroleum residua. The effect of temperature on coal conversions was crucial. The coal conversions at 350 and 400{degree}C seem to be governed by the nature of the coal and to a lesser extent by the petroleum residua. Negative coal conversions were observed above 400{degree}C indicating that retrogressive processes had occurred. At temperatures higher than 400{degree}C, the petroleum residua undergo physical and chemical transformations and the influence of the petroleum residua on coal conversions is significant. The structural features of the residues indicated that the residues were predominately coal-derived. An overall increase in aromaticity was observed with increasing temperature which was also accompanied by loss of oxygen functional groups. The retrogressive reactions with non-caking coals involve carbonyl and carboxyl group leading to a final solid characterized by a cross-linked structure. In the case of caking coal, these reactions are governed by loss of aromatic oxygen groups and loss of alkyl groups.

  18. Cells on fibers to degrade PAH and upgrade coal

    SciTech Connect

    Clyde, R.

    1997-12-31

    There are over 2000 sites contaminated with PAH`s from coal burning plants. White rot fungus degrades phenanthrene and anthracene, but the fungus needs air to grow. When grown on old cardboard boxes and buried, air is entrapped in the corrugations for growth of the fungus. When holes are put in the valleys of the corrugations and rotated in a half full reactor, drops are formed. Mass transfer to drops is much faster than to a flat surface, as described in Patent 5,256,570, so the fungus grows faster. Low rank coal can be upgraded to more valuable products with the fungus, say some Australians, but the problem is supplying oxygen. Celite can be entrapped in the fibers to ferment coal derived synthesis gas. The paper describes these processes.

  19. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  20. Process for modifying the properties of a swelling coal, an installation for carrying out the process and a chamber for treatment of coal by fluidization and crushing

    SciTech Connect

    Delessard, S.L.; Kita, J.; Puff, R.M.

    1983-05-10

    The present invention relates to a process for modifying the properties of a swelling coal, to an installation for carrying out the process and to a chamber for treatment by fluidization and crushing. A percussion-type crusher is installed in a fluidization chamber at about 1 meter above the zone of connection between a duct for conveying coal by pneumatic transport and the chamber. A combustion chamber produces gases for transport and fluidization, having an oxygen content of at least 10%.

  1. Low-rank separated representation surrogates of high-dimensional stochastic functions: Application in Bayesian inference

    SciTech Connect

    Validi, AbdoulAhad

    2014-03-01

    This study introduces a non-intrusive approach in the context of low-rank separated representation to construct a surrogate of high-dimensional stochastic functions, e.g., PDEs/ODEs, in order to decrease the computational cost of Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations in Bayesian inference. The surrogate model is constructed via a regularized alternative least-square regression with Tikhonov regularization using a roughening matrix computing the gradient of the solution, in conjunction with a perturbation-based error indicator to detect optimal model complexities. The model approximates a vector of a continuous solution at discrete values of a physical variable. The required number of random realizations to achieve a successful approximation linearly depends on the function dimensionality. The computational cost of the model construction is quadratic in the number of random inputs, which potentially tackles the curse of dimensionality in high-dimensional stochastic functions. Furthermore, this vector-valued separated representation-based model, in comparison to the available scalar-valued case, leads to a significant reduction in the cost of approximation by an order of magnitude equal to the vector size. The performance of the method is studied through its application to three numerical examples including a 41-dimensional elliptic PDE and a 21-dimensional cavity flow.

  2. Low-rank network decomposition reveals structural characteristics of small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranca, Victor J.; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2015-12-01

    Small-world networks occur naturally throughout biological, technological, and social systems. With their prevalence, it is particularly important to prudently identify small-world networks and further characterize their unique connection structure with respect to network function. In this work we develop a formalism for classifying networks and identifying small-world structure using a decomposition of network connectivity matrices into low-rank and sparse components, corresponding to connections within clusters of highly connected nodes and sparse interconnections between clusters, respectively. We show that the network decomposition is independent of node indexing and define associated bounded measures of connectivity structure, which provide insight into the clustering and regularity of network connections. While many existing network characterizations rely on constructing benchmark networks for comparison or fail to describe the structural properties of relatively densely connected networks, our classification relies only on the intrinsic network structure and is quite robust with respect to changes in connection density, producing stable results across network realizations. Using this framework, we analyze several real-world networks and reveal new structural properties, which are often indiscernible by previously established characterizations of network connectivity.

  3. PCLR: Phase-Constrained Low-Rank Model for Compressive Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Weifeng; Hu, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This work develops a compressive sensing approach for diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI. Methods A phase-constrained low-rank (PCLR) approach was developed using the image coherence across the DW directions for efficient compressive DW MRI, while accounting for drastic phase changes across the DW directions, possibly as a result of eddy current, and rigid and non-rigid motions. In PCLR, a low-resolution phase estimation was used for removing phase inconsistency between DW directions. In our implementation, GRAPPA was incorporated for better phase estimation while allowing higher undersampling factor. An efficient and easy-to-implement image reconstruction algorithm, consisting mainly of partial Fourier update and singular value decomposition, was developed for solving PCLR. Results The error measures based on diffusion-tensor-derived metrics and tractography indicated that PCLR, with its joint reconstruction of all DW images using the image coherence, outperformed the frame-independent reconstruction through zero-padding FFT. Furthermore, using GRAPPA for phase estimation, PCLR readily achieved a 4-fold undersampling. Conclusion The PCLR is developed and demonstrated for compressive DW MRI. A 4-fold reduction in k-space sampling could be readily achieved without substantial degradation of reconstructed images and diffusion tensor measures, making it possible to significantly reduce the data acquisition in DW MRI and/or improve spatial and angular resolutions. PMID:24327553

  4. Nonlocal image restoration with bilateral variance estimation: a low-rank approach.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weisheng; Shi, Guangming; Li, Xin

    2013-02-01

    Simultaneous sparse coding (SSC) or nonlocal image representation has shown great potential in various low-level vision tasks, leading to several state-of-the-art image restoration techniques, including BM3D and LSSC. However, it still lacks a physically plausible explanation about why SSC is a better model than conventional sparse coding for the class of natural images. Meanwhile, the problem of sparsity optimization, especially when tangled with dictionary learning, is computationally difficult to solve. In this paper, we take a low-rank approach toward SSC and provide a conceptually simple interpretation from a bilateral variance estimation perspective, namely that singular-value decomposition of similar packed patches can be viewed as pooling both local and nonlocal information for estimating signal variances. Such perspective inspires us to develop a new class of image restoration algorithms called spatially adaptive iterative singular-value thresholding (SAIST). For noise data, SAIST generalizes the celebrated BayesShrink from local to nonlocal models; for incomplete data, SAIST extends previous deterministic annealing-based solution to sparsity optimization through incorporating the idea of dictionary learning. In addition to conceptual simplicity and computational efficiency, SAIST has achieved highly competent (often better) objective performance compared to several state-of-the-art methods in image denoising and completion experiments. Our subjective quality results compare favorably with those obtained by existing techniques, especially at high noise levels and with a large amount of missing data.

  5. Fast dynamic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging using low-rank tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, Anthony G.; Redler, Gage; Clifford, Bryan; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Halpern, Howard J.; Epel, Boris

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic tumors are resistant to radiotherapy, motivating the development of tools to image local oxygen concentrations. It is generally believed that stable or chronic hypoxia is the source of resistance, but more recent work suggests a role for transient hypoxia. Conventional EPR imaging (EPRI) is capable of imaging tissue pO2in vivo, with high pO2 resolution and 1 mm spatial resolution but low imaging speed (10 min temporal resolution for T1-based pO2 mapping), which makes it difficult to investigate the oxygen changes, e.g., transient hypoxia. Here we describe a new imaging method which accelerates dynamic EPR oxygen imaging, allowing 3D imaging at 2 frames per minute, fast enough to image transient hypoxia at the "speed limit" of observed pO2 change. The method centers on a low-rank tensor model that decouples the tradeoff between imaging speed, spatial coverage/resolution, and number of inversion times (pO2 accuracy). We present a specialized sparse sampling strategy and image reconstruction algorithm for use with this model. The quality and utility of the method is demonstrated in simulations and in vivo experiments in tumor bearing mice.

  6. Motion adaptive patch-based low-rank approach for compressed sensing cardiac cine MRI.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Huisu; Kim, Kyung Sang; Kim, Daniel; Bresler, Yoram; Ye, Jong Chul

    2014-11-01

    One of the technical challenges in cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to reduce the acquisition time to enable the high spatio-temporal resolution imaging of a cardiac volume within a short scan time. Recently, compressed sensing approaches have been investigated extensively for highly accelerated cine MRI by exploiting transform domain sparsity using linear transforms such as wavelets, and Fourier. However, in cardiac cine imaging, the cardiac volume changes significantly between frames, and there often exist abrupt pixel value changes along time. In order to effectively sparsify such temporal variations, it is necessary to exploit temporal redundancy along motion trajectories. This paper introduces a novel patch-based reconstruction method to exploit geometric similarities in the spatio-temporal domain. In particular, we use a low rank constraint for similar patches along motion, based on the observation that rank structures are relatively less sensitive to global intensity changes, but make it easier to capture moving edges. A Nash equilibrium formulation with relaxation is employed to guarantee convergence. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm clearly reconstructs important anatomical structures in cardiac cine image and provides improved image quality compared to existing state-of-the-art methods such as k-t FOCUSS, k-t SLR, and MASTeR.

  7. Coal desulfurization by a microwave process. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zavitsanos, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Bleiler, K.W.

    1982-01-01

    Desulfurization experiments have been carried out using the moving bed flow reactor to examine the following: (1) hardgrove grindability index of microwave treated coal compared with raw coal; (2) washability of microwave treated coal compared with raw coal; (3) the extent of sulfur and ash removal from alkali/coal treated samples. In the washability experiments, the following treatment sequence was carried out: expose raw coal (1-2'' size) to microwaves (2 kW power level, 120 to 240 sec exposure); crush (30 to 200 mesh); float/sink (1.6 S.G.). Sulfur, ash and CV measurements were made on the float fractions for comparison with similar measurements on raw coal float samples prepared in the same way as microwave treated samples. Table 2 is a summary of the sulfur, ash and calorific value analyses comparing washed with raw coal samples. These data were used to calculate percent energy recovery as shown in the table. It is not possible to conclude from the data taken to date whether there is beneficiation from microwave treated-washed coal since two coals showed increased energy recovery and two did not. Additional washability data will be taken to pursue this question.

  8. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  9. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  10. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  11. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  12. Process for control of pollutants generated during coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Frumerman, Robert; Hooper, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improvement in the coal gasification process that effectively eliminates substantially all of the environmental pollutants contained in the producer gas. The raw producer gas is passed through a two-stage water scrubbing arrangement with the tars being condensed essentially water-free in the first stage and lower boiling condensables, including pollutant laden water, being removed in the second stage. The pollutant-laden water is introduced into an evaporator in which about 95 percent of the water is vaporized and introduced as steam into the gas producer. The condensed tars are combusted and the resulting products of combustion are admixed with the pollutant-containing water residue from the evaporator and introduced into the gas producer.

  13. Instrumentation for optimizing an underground coal-gasification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabaugh, W.; Zielinski, R. E.

    1982-06-01

    While the United States has a coal resource base of 6.4 trillion tons, only seven percent is presently recoverable by mining. The process of in-situ gasification can recover another twenty-eight percent of the vast resource, however, viable technology must be developed for effective in-situ recovery. The key to this technology is system that can optimize and control the process in real-time. An instrumentation system is described that optimizes the composition of the injection gas, controls the in-situ process and conditions the product gas for maximum utilization. The key elements of this system are Monsanto PRISM Systems, a real-time analytical system, and a real-time data acquisition and control system. This system provides from complete automation of the process but can easily be overridden by manual control. The use of this cost effective system can provide process optimization and is an effective element in developing a viable in-situ technology.

  14. A new model of coal-water interaction and relevance for dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Suuberg, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    This project is concerned with the ability of coal to hold moisture is it a manifestation of the well-known ability of coal to swell, when exposed to good solvents The question implies that the long-held belief that coal holds a significant portion of its moisture by classical capillary condensation processes, is possibly in error. To explore this hypothesis further requires an examination of the basic phenomena governing the swelling of coals in good solvents. This is the focus of the first part of this project. The possibility that coal holds a significant portion of its moisture by solvent swelling mechanisms leads to an interesting technical issue. It is well known that simple drying of low rank coals is ineffective because the process is reversible. Mild pyrolytic treatments of the coals in oil, steam or liquid water itself pyrolytically remove oxygen groups, which are assumed to be those that hold water most strongly by hydrogen bonding. The treatments have been designed to minimize tar formation and decrepitation of the particles. In relation to the present new hypothesis concerning water retention, it is likely that a sound approach to permanent drying would involve highly crosslinking the coal at mild drying conditions. The crosslinked coal could not swell sufficiently to hold much water. It is identifying processes to achieve this goal, that constitute the objective of the second phase of this work.

  15. Exploratory research on novel coal liquefaction concept. [Quarterly report], May 24--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Derbyshire, F.J.; Kimber, G.; Anderson, R.K.; Carter, S.D.; Peluso, M.

    1995-11-08

    CONSOL Inc., the University of Kentucky/Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), and LDP Associates are conducting a three-year research program to explore the technical and economic feasibility of a novel direct coal liquefaction concept. The purpose of this research program is to explore a new approach to direct coal liquefaction in which the primary coal dissolution step is effected by chemical rather than thermal cleavage of bonds in the coal. This is done at a temperature which is significantly lower than that typically used in conventional coal liquefaction. Reaction at this low temperature results in high conversion of the coal to a solubilized form, with little hydrocarbon gas make, and avoids the thermally induced retrograde reactions which are unavoidable in conventional thermal processes. In addition, for low-rank coals, a substantial portion of the oxygen in the coal is removed as CO and CO{sub 2} during the dissolution. The higher selectivity to liquid products and rejection of oxygen as carbon oxides should result in improved hydrogen utilization. The basis of the novel concept is the discovery made by CONSOL R&D that certain hydride transfer agents are very active for coal dissolution at temperatures in the range of 350{degree}C. Because of the exploratory nature of the research, the project is divided into sequential tasks that are designed to first evaluate key elements of the process is presented for the following tasks: management plan; evaluation of process steps; engineering and economic study and reporting.

  16. Management of local economic and ecological system of coal processing company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, T. V.; Mikhailov, V. G.; Karasev, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The management issues of local ecological and economic system of coal processing company - coal processing plant - are considered in the article. The objectives of the research are the identification and the analysis of local ecological and economic system (coal processing company) performance and the proposals for improving the mechanism to support the management decision aimed at improving its environmental safety. The data on the structure of run-of-mine coal processing products are shown. The analysis of main ecological and economic indicators of coal processing enterprises, characterizing the state of its environmental safety, is done. The main result of the study is the development of proposals to improve the efficiency of local enterprise ecological and economic system management, including technical, technological and business measures. The results of the study can be recommended to industrial enterprises to improve their ecological and economic efficiency.

  17. Costs and technical characteristics of environmental control processes for low-Btu coal gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Salmon, R.; Fisher, J.F.; Peterson, G.R.

    1980-06-01

    Technical characteristics and costs of 25 individual environmental control processes that can be used for treating low-Btu coal gas are given. These processes are chosen from a much larger array of potential environmental control processes because of their likely applicability to low-Btu coal gasification operations and because of the limited scope of this study. The selected processes cover gas treating, by-product recovery, wastewater treating, and particulate recovery operations that are expected to be encountered in coal gasification operations. Although the existence of the Resource Conservtion and Recovery Act of 1976 is recognized, no treatment schemes for solid wastes are evaluated because of the paucity of information in this area. The potential costs of emission controls (by using eight integrated combinations of these 25 environmental control processes) in conceptual low-Btu coal gasification plants are given in an adjunct report titled Evaluation of Eight Environmental Control Systems for Low-Btu Coal Gasification Plants, ORNL-5481.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.; Rastogi, S.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1994-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of coal under conditions of rapid heating have been determined using a combination of UTRC facilities including a proprietary rapid heating rate differential thermal analyzer (RHR-DTA), a microbomb calorimeter (MBC), an entrained flow reactor (EFR), an elemental analyzer (EA), and a FT-IR. The total heat of devolatilization, was measured for a HVA bituminous coal (PSOC 1451D, Pittsburgh No. 8) and a LV bituminous coal (PSOC 1516D, Lower Kittaning). For the HVA coal, the contributions of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization were measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Morphological characterization of coal and char samples was performed at the University of Pittsburgh using a PC-based image analysis system, BET apparatus, helium pcynometer, and mercury porosimeter. The bulk density, true density, CO{sub 2} surface area, pore volume distribution, and particle size distribution as a function of extent of reaction are reported for both the HVA and LV coal. Analyses of the data were performed to obtain the fractal dimension of the particles as well as estimates for the external surface area. The morphological data together with the thermodynamic data obtained in this investigation provides a complete database for a set of common, well characterized coal and char samples. This database can be used to improve the prediction of particle temperatures in coal devolatilization models. Such models are used both to obtain kinetic rates from fundamental studies and in predicting furnace performance with comprehensive coal combustion codes. Recommendations for heat capacity functions and heats of devolatilization for the HVA and LV coals are given. Results of sample particle temperature calculations using the recommended thermodynamic properties are provided.

  19. Environmental studies of materials from the H-coal liquefaction process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.

    1982-12-01

    H-coal is a process for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce synthetic fuels. Its development has progressed from bench-scale testing through operation of a 2.7 Mg/d (3 ton/d) Process Development Unit. A large-scale H-Coal pilot plant is presently operating at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, and there are plans for the construction of a commercial H-Coal liquefaction facility by the end of the decade. Two of the environmental concerns of the developing direct coal liquefaction industry are accidental spills of synthetic oils and treatment/storage of solid wastes. As a means of obtaining preliminary information on the severity of these potential impacts well in advance of commercialization, samples of product oils and solid wastes were obtained from the H-Coal Process Development Unit (PDU). These samples were subjected to a battery of rapid screening tests, including chemical characterization and bioassays with a variety of aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Water-soluble fraction (WSFs) of H-Coal PDU oils had considerably higher concentrations of phenols and anilines and were commonly one to two orders of magnitude more toxic to aquatic organisms than WSFs of analogous petroleum crude oil. Whole H-Coal PDU oils were also more toxic to the cricket than petroleum-based oils, and some H-Coal samples showed evidence of teratogenicity. Leachates from H-Coal PDU solid wastes, on the other hand, had relatively low concentrations of selected elements and had essentially no acute toxicity to a variety of aquatic and terrestrial species. These studies indicate that environmental effects of product oil spills from a commercial H-Coal liquefaction plant are likely to be more severe than those of conventional petroleum spills. Product upgrading or special transportation and storage techniques may be needed to ensure environmentally sound commercialization of the H-Coal process.

  20. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: The preliminary evaluation of the kinetics of coal liquefaction distillation resid conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, He

    1994-02-01

    This study evaluated the use of a novel laboratory-scale batch reactor, designed by the University of Delaware, to study the kinetics of coal liquefaction resid reactivity. The short time batch reactor (STBR) is capable of conducting reactions at temperatures up to 450{degrees}C and pressures up to 2500 psi at well-defined reaction times from a few seconds to 30 min or longer. Sixty experiments were conducted with the STBR in this project. The products of the resid/tetralin/hydrogen reaction were separated by solubility, and several analytical procedures were used to evaluate the reaction products, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Changes were monitored in the boiling ranges of the products, as a function of process conditions (time, temperature, and tetralin donor solvent-to-resid ratio), with and without catalysts. Two distillation resid samples were studied; Sample 1 is the resid of the second stage product stream from Wilsonville Run 259 which used Pittsburgh seam coal (Ireland mine) bituminous coal, and Sample 2 is the resid of the same streak from Wilsonville Run 260 which used Wyodak and Anderson (Black Thunder Mine) subbituminous coal. It was determined that the resid reactivity was different for the two samples studied. The results demonstrate that further development of this experimental method is warranted to empirically assess resid reactivity and to provide data for use in the construction of an empirical model of coal conversion in the direct liquefaction process.

  1. A new model of coal-water interaction and relevance for dewatering. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 March--31 May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Suuberg, E.M.

    1992-12-18

    This project is concerned with a basic scientific question concerning the properties of coal- to what extent is the ability of coal to hold moisture a manifestation of the well-known ability of coal to swell, when exposed to good solvents? The question implies that the long-held belief that coal holds a significant portion of its moisture by classical capillary condensation processes, is possibly in error. This seems to be a very real possibility for low rank coals, i.e. lignites. To explore this hypothesis further requires an examination of the basic phenomena governing the swelling of coals in good solvents. This is the focus of the first part of this project. The possibility that coal holds a significant portion of its moisture by solvent swelling mechanisms leads to an interesting technical issue. It is well known that simple drying of low rank coals is ineffective because the process is reversible, to a significant degree. Pyrolytic treatments of the coals in oil, steam or liquid water itself. Pyrolytically remove oxygen groups, which are assumed to be those that hold water most strongly by hydrogen bonding. The treatments have been designed to minimize tar formation and decrepitation of the particles, both highly undesirable. In relation to the present new hypothesis concerning water retention, it is likely that a sound approach to permanent drying would involve highly crosslinking the coal at mild drying conditions. The crosslinked coal could not swell sufficiently to hold much water. It is identifying processes to achieve this goal, that constitute the objective of the second phase of this work.

  2. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams The Kinetics of Coal Liquefaction Distillation Resid Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D; Nichols, D G; Pazuchanics, D J; Huang, H; Klein, M T; Winschel, R A; Brandes, S D; Wang, S; Calkins, W H

    1998-06-04

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc. (DOE Contract N o. DE- AC22- 94PC93054), the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. Th e program at Delaware was conducted be tween August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivit y toward hydrocracking of coal- derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An Introduction and Summary of th e project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here. INTRODUCTION Resid hydrocracking is a key reaction of modern (i. e., distillate- producing) coal liquefactio n processes. Coals are readily converted to resid a nd lighter products in the liquefaction process. The resid is combined with fr esh coal in a ratio often greater than 1: 1, and some vacuum gas oil and is recycled to be further converted. Understanding the chemistry of resids and resi d reactivity is important to improve direct liquefaction process design and to achieve economi c objectives for direct coal liquefaction. Computational models that predict resid conversion from the chemical characteristics of the resids and reaction conditions would be a cost- efficient way to explore process variables. Implementation of such models could aid in the design an d operation of liquefaction facilities.

  3. Learning Low-Rank Class-Specific Dictionary and Sparse Intra-Class Variant Dictionary for Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Feng, Guo-can; Li, Xiao-xin; Cai, Jia-xin

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition is challenging especially when the images from different persons are similar to each other due to variations in illumination, expression, and occlusion. If we have sufficient training images of each person which can span the facial variations of that person under testing conditions, sparse representation based classification (SRC) achieves very promising results. However, in many applications, face recognition often encounters the small sample size problem arising from the small number of available training images for each person. In this paper, we present a novel face recognition framework by utilizing low-rank and sparse error matrix decomposition, and sparse coding techniques (LRSE+SC). Firstly, the low-rank matrix recovery technique is applied to decompose the face images per class into a low-rank matrix and a sparse error matrix. The low-rank matrix of each individual is a class-specific dictionary and it captures the discriminative feature of this individual. The sparse error matrix represents the intra-class variations, such as illumination, expression changes. Secondly, we combine the low-rank part (representative basis) of each person into a supervised dictionary and integrate all the sparse error matrix of each individual into a within-individual variant dictionary which can be applied to represent the possible variations between the testing and training images. Then these two dictionaries are used to code the query image. The within-individual variant dictionary can be shared by all the subjects and only contribute to explain the lighting conditions, expressions, and occlusions of the query image rather than discrimination. At last, a reconstruction-based scheme is adopted for face recognition. Since the within-individual dictionary is introduced, LRSE+SC can handle the problem of the corrupted training data and the situation that not all subjects have enough samples for training. Experimental results show that our method achieves the

  4. Improved Parker's method for topographic models using Chebyshev series and low rank approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Leyuan; Lin, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    We present a new method to improve the convergence of the well-known Parker's formula for the modelling of gravity and magnetic fields caused by sources with complex topography. In the original Parker's formula, two approximations are made, which may cause considerable numerical errors and instabilities: 1) the approximation of the forward and inverse continuous Fourier transforms using their discrete counterparts, the forward and inverse Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithms; 2) the approximation of the exponential function with its Taylor series expansion. In a previous paper of ours, we have made an effort addressing the first problem by applying the Gauss-FFT method instead of the standard FFT algorithm. The new Gauss-FFT based method shows improved numerical efficiency and agrees well with space-domain analytical or hybrid analytical-numerical algorithms. However, even under the simplifying assumption of a calculation surface being a level plane above all topographic sources, the method may still fail or become inaccurate under certain circumstances. When the peaks of the topography approach the observation surface too closely, the number of terms of the Taylor series expansion needed to reach a suitable precision becomes large and slows the calculation. We show in this paper that this problem is caused by the second approximation mentioned above, and it is due to the convergence property of the Taylor series expansion that the algorithm becomes inaccurate for certain topographic models with large amplitudes. Based on this observation, we present a modified Parker's method using low rank approximation (LRA) of the exponential function in virtue of the Chebfun software system. In this way, the optimal rate of convergence is achieved. Some pre-computation is needed but will not cause significant computational overheads. Synthetic and real model tests show that the method now works well for almost any practical topographic model, provided that the assumption

  5. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Suardini, P.J.

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  7. Supercritical fluid reactions for coal processing. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which closely resemble the organic sulfur and nitrogen containing components of coal, we propose to develop a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal desulfurization and denitrogenation. Diels-Alder reactions involving such compounds have been extensively studied and characterized in liquids. However, there is very little understanding of such reactions in SCF`s. We are developing an approach which will allow optimum design of coal desulfurization and denitrogenation processes.

  8. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  9. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or operator shall not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from any coal processing and..., the owner or operator must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from the affected facility... discharged into the atmosphere from any mechanical vent on an affected facility gases which...

  10. Bi-flow rotary kiln coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Garside, P.G.

    1983-02-22

    A process is disclosed for gasifying solid coal particles in a rotary kiln that produces simultaneously and continuously two distinctly different fuel gas streams from the opposite ends of a single kiln. A relatively low temperature gas is discharged from the solids inlet end of the kiln, which contains substantially all tars produced by the process. A second of the gas streams is discharged from the solids discharge end of the kiln at approximately 1,900* F. And substantially tar-free. Heat is recovered from this tar-free gas after only a simple cleaning of particulate matter, as may be provided by a cyclone separator. The discharge of gas out the solids inlet end of the kiln and the gas discharged out the solids discharge end of the kiln, is adjustably proportioned relative to each other so that at least some high temperature tar-free gas will mix inside the kiln with the lower temperature tar-containing gas, in an amount sufficient to keep such mixed gases at a temperature high enough to avoid the tars condensing on equipment surfaces. Several process parameters are disclosed for adjusting the proportion of the gas flows out each end of the kiln to maintain the aforesaid condition of both gas streams.

  11. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1994-12-31

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin, are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles that are produced are difficult to dewater and they create problems in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, two types of coal samples have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. These tests were carried out in conjunction with a selected hydrophobic binder as the dewatering reagent and an uniaxial hydraulic press. The influence of compaction pressure and binder concentration (2 to 5%) on the performance of coal pellets have been evaluated in terms of their water and wear resistance. A laboratory scale ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting extruder that can be operated continuously for coal pellets fabrication, has been designed and built, and will be available for testing in the next quarter.

  12. Digital image processing applications in the ignition and combustion of char/coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.; Kharbat, E.; Goplakrishnan, C.

    1992-12-01

    Digital image processing, is employed in this remarch study in order to visually investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated char/coal particles as well as the effect of interactivecombustion in two-particle char/coal arrays. Preliminary experiments are conducted on miniature isolated candles as well as two-candle arrays.

  13. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements,...

  14. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements,...

  15. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements,...

  16. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements,...

  17. Interaction and reactivity of the components of a fat coal in the process of thermal degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Bronshtein, A.P.; Aksenov, L.N.; Bulashev, V.M.; Makarov, G.N.; Povalyaev, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The results are given of an investigation of the mutual influence of the components of a fat coal and its plastic mass on the process of their thermal degradation. Features of their behavior on heating in the composition of the coal and autonomously are discussed. An interpretation of the effects detected is given.

  18. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  19. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  20. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  1. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  2. Numerical simulation of the coal combustion process initiated by a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarova, A. S.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Maksimov, V. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical experiments on the torch combustion of the coal dust prepared by a plasma-thermochemical treatment for combustion have been done using the method of three-dimensional simulation. It is shown that the plasma preparation of coal for combustion enables one to optimize the process, improve the conditions for inflammation and combustion and minimize the emissions of harmful substances.

  3. Dispersed catalysts for co-processing and coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bockrath, B.; Parfitt, D.; Miller, R.

    1995-12-31

    The basic goal is to improve dispersed catalysts employed in the production of clean fuels from low value hydrocarbons. The immediate objective is to determine how the properties of the catalysts may be altered to match the demands placed on them by the properties of the feedstock, the qualities of the desired end products, and the economic constraints put upon the process. Several interrelated areas of the application of dispersed catalysts to co-processing and coal conversion are under investigation. The first involves control of the selectivity of MoS{sub 2} catalysts for HDN, HDS, and hydrogenation of aromatics. A second area of research is the development and use of methods to evaluate dispersed catalysts by means of activity and selectivity tests. A micro-flow reactor has been developed for determining intrinsic reactivities using model compounds, and will be used to compare catalysts prepared in different ways. Micro-autoclaves will also be used to develop data in batch experiments at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The third area under investigation concerns hydrogen spillover reactions between MoS{sub 2} catalysts and carbonaceous supports. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} exchange reactions with a pulse-flow microreactor indicate the presence of spillover between MoS{sub 2} and a graphitic carbon. A more complete study will be made at a later stage of the project. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  4. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilio, C. I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    The continuous testing of the Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) was completed successfully using Middle Wyodak and Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples. The CECC unit was run under the optimum conditions established for these coal samples. For the Middle Wyodak coal, the ash content was reduced from 6.96 percent to as low 1.61 percent, corresponding to an ash rejection (by weight) of about 83 percent. The ash and sulfur contents of the Elkhorn No. 3 coal were reduced to as low as 1.8 percent and 0.9 percent. The average ash and sulfur rejections were calculated to be around 84 percent and 47 percent. The CECC continuous unit was used to treat -325 mesh Elkhorn No. 3 coal samples and gave ash and sulfur rejection values of as high as 77 percent and 66 percent. In these test, the clean -325 mesh coal particles were separated from the liberated mineral matter through microbubble column flotation, instead of wet-screening.

  5. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-01-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  6. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-11-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  7. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-02-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others. Key milestones included producing hydrogenated coal in the Hydrotreating Facility for the first time. The facility is now operational, although digital controls have not yet been completely wired. In addition, ultrasound is being used to investigate enhanced dissolution of coal. Experiments have been carried out.

  8. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  9. Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan

    2008-05-15

    Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

  10. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  11. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation: Processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods, processes, and apparatus for coal liquefaction and hydrogenation. Included are patents for catalytic two-stage, catalytic single-step, fixed-bed, hydrogen-donor, internal heat transfer, and multi-phase processes. Topics also include catalyst production, catalyst recovery, desulfurization, pretreatment of coals, energy recovery processes, solvent product separation, hydrogenating gases, and pollution control. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  13. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  14. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  15. A parallel computer implementation of fast low-rank QR approximation of the Biot-Savart law

    SciTech Connect

    White, D A; Fasenfest, B J; Stowell, M L

    2005-11-07

    In this paper we present a low-rank QR method for evaluating the discrete Biot-Savart law on parallel computers. It is assumed that the known current density and the unknown magnetic field are both expressed in a finite element expansion, and we wish to compute the degrees-of-freedom (DOF) in the basis function expansion of the magnetic field. The matrix that maps the current DOF to the field DOF is full, but if the spatial domain is properly partitioned the matrix can be written as a block matrix, with blocks representing distant interactions being low rank and having a compressed QR representation. The matrix partitioning is determined by the number of processors, the rank of each block (i.e. the compression) is determined by the specific geometry and is computed dynamically. In this paper we provide the algorithmic details and present computational results for large-scale computations.

  16. The Dual Role of Oxygen Functions in Coal Pretreatment and Liquefaction: Crosslinking and Cleavage Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Serio; Erik Kroo; Sylvie Charpenay; Peter Solomon

    1993-09-30

    The overall objective of this project was to elucidate and model the dual role of oxygen functions in thermal pretreatment and liquefaction of low rank coals through the application of analytical techniques and theoretical models. The project was an integrated study of model polymers representative of coal structures, raw coals of primarily low rank, and selectively modified coals in order to provide specific information relevant to the reactions of real coals. The investigations included liquefaction experiments in microautoclave reactors, along with extensive analysis of intermediate solid, liquid and gaseous products. Attempts were made to incorporate the results of experiments on the different systems into a liquefaction model.

  17. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  18. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  19. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  20. Simultaneously sparse and low-rank hyperspectral image recovery from coded aperture compressive measurements via convex optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gélvez, Tatiana C.; Rueda, Hoover F.; Arguello, Henry

    2016-05-01

    A hyperspectral image (HSI) can be described as a set of images with spatial information across different spectral bands. Compressive spectral imaging techniques (CSI) permit to capture a 3-dimensional hyperspectral scene using 2 dimensional coded and multiplexed projections. Recovering the original scene from a very few projections can be valuable in applications such as remote sensing, video surveillance and biomedical imaging. Typically, HSI exhibit high correlations both, in the spatial and spectral dimensions. Thus, exploiting these correlations allows to accurately recover the original scene from compressed measurements. Traditional approaches exploit the sparsity of the scene when represented in a proper basis. For this purpose, an optimization problem that seeks to minimize a joint l2 - l1 norm is solved to obtain the original scene. However, there exist some HSI with an important feature which does not have been widely exploited; HSI are commonly low rank, thus only a few number of spectral signatures are presented in the image. Therefore, this paper proposes an approach to recover a simultaneous sparse and low rank hyperspectral image by exploiting both features at the same time. The proposed approach solves an optimization problem that seeks to minimize the l2-norm, penalized by the l1-norm, to force the solution to be sparse, and penalized by the nuclear norm to force the solution to be low rank. Theoretical analysis along with a set of simulations over different data sets show that simultaneously exploiting low rank and sparse structures enhances the performance of the recovery algorithm and the quality of the recovered image with an average improvement of around 3 dB in terms of the peak-signal to noise ratio (PSNR).

  1. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  2. ℓ1/2-norm regularized nonnegative low-rank and sparse affinity graph for remote sensing image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shu; Zhang, Ye; Yan, Yiming; Su, Nan

    2016-10-01

    Segmentation of real-world remote sensing images is a challenge due to the complex texture information with high heterogeneity. Thus, graph-based image segmentation methods have been attracting great attention in the field of remote sensing. However, most of the traditional graph-based approaches fail to capture the intrinsic structure of the feature space and are sensitive to noises. A ℓ-norm regularization-based graph segmentation method is proposed to segment remote sensing images. First, we use the occlusion of the random texture model (ORTM) to extract the local histogram features. Then, a ℓ-norm regularized low-rank and sparse representation (LNNLRS) is implemented to construct a ℓ-regularized nonnegative low-rank and sparse graph (LNNLRS-graph), by the union of feature subspaces. Moreover, the LNNLRS-graph has a high ability to discriminate the manifold intrinsic structure of highly homogeneous texture information. Meanwhile, the LNNLRS representation takes advantage of the low-rank and sparse characteristics to remove the noises and corrupted data. Last, we introduce the LNNLRS-graph into the graph regularization nonnegative matrix factorization to enhance the segmentation accuracy. The experimental results using remote sensing images show that when compared to five state-of-the-art image segmentation methods, the proposed method achieves more accurate segmentation results.

  3. The use of non-fossil derived hydrogen in coal conversion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. S.; Merrick, D.; Smith, M.; Rasmussen, G.

    The National Coal Board, UK, carried out a technical and economic study of the use of non-fossil derived (NFD) hydrogen on three coal conversion processes: methanol synthesis, solid phase hydrogenation (hydrogasification) for substitute natural gas production, and liquid phase hydrogenation (liquifaction) for the manufacture of liquid fuels. Use of NFD hydrogen generally resulted in an increase in the conversion efficiency and carbon utilization, and a reduction in the number of component stages of the process. It was also shown that market conditions could exist in which the use of NFD hydrogen in coal conversion would be preferable to both conventional coal conversion and the direct use of hydrogen, irrespective of the coal price. Substitute natural gas production from synthesis gas (methanation) and the production of liquid fuels from synthesis gas by a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis route were also evaluated and showed similar technical and economic results. Preliminary results of the overall costs of using NFD hydrogen from a nuclear power/electrolysis plant showed that at present fuel prices, coal conversion processes using NFD hydrogen are not competitive with conventional processes, but would be if the price of coal were to double.

  4. Catalytic hydrosolvation process converts coal to low-sulfur liquid fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Development of the catalytic hydrosolvation process for converting coal to low-sulfur fuel oil is described in this paper. Coal impregnated with catalyst was slurried with oil, and the mixture was hydrogenated at a temperature of 475 C, and 30 min residence time under 3600 psi pressure. A ton of coal yielded 3.5 bbl of fuel oil containing 0.2% sulfur, with naphtha and C1-C4 hydrocarbon gases as byproducts. A preliminary economic evaluation of the process indicated potential for further development.

  5. Coal mining with Triple-section extraction process in stagger arrangement roadway layout method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zimo; Liu, Baozhu; Zhao, Jingli; Chanda, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces the Triple-section extraction process in the three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement method for longwall top-coal caving mining. This 3-D roadway layout of stagger arrangement method without coal pillars, which arranged the air intake roadway and air return roadway in different horizons, realizing the design theory transformation of roadway layout from 2D system to 3D system. And the paper makes systematic analysis to the geological, technical and economic factors, applies this new mining roadway layout technology for raising coal recovery ratio and solving the problems about full-seam mining in thick coal seam synthetically according to theoretical study and mining practice. Furthermore, the paper presents a physical simulation about inner staggered roadway layout of this particular longwall top-coal caving method.

  6. Modelling of the process of coal dust combustion in a cyclone furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarzycki, Robert; Bis, Zbigniew

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the concept of a cyclone furnace for coal dust oxy-fuel combustion and gasification. The results of numerical calculations for the combustion and gasification processes were also presented.

  7. Fine coal fractionation using a magnetohydrostatic separation process CRADA 91-003. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Heechan; Killmeyer, R. P.

    1992-10-31

    The magnetohydrostatic separation (MHS) process uses a magnetic fluid which has the ability to float a submerged particle in a magnetic field. The objective of this project was to develop a technique for laboratory gravity fractionation of coal using MHS.

  8. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  9. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    SciTech Connect

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  10. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  11. Secondary co-processing of coal and petroleum naphthas

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.A.; Jones, M.A.; Lohring, R.

    1993-12-31

    Straight-run distillate derived from North Sea (Brent) crude oil and coal-derived distillate obtained from the 200 tpd coal liquefaction pilot plant at Bottrop, Essen (Germany) have been used to prepare light distillate refining feedstocks. Coal-derived naphtha was hydrotreated along and as a 50% blend with petroleum naphtha to reduce its nitrogen and sulphur content to levels acceptable for catalytic reformer feedstocks. The hydrotreating conditions required were similar to those used in the conventional oil refining industry. The hydrotreated coal-derived naphthas were catalytically reformed alone and as blends with petroleum naphtha. The coal-derived naphthas reformed very readily to high octane blendstocks at conditions markedly less severe than those necessary for the petroleum naphtha. As would be expected, the conditions required to reform blends were intermediate between those of the end members. However, the results indicate potential yield advantages when co-reforming blends as compared with reforming the end members separately and blending the products.

  12. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    DOEpatents

    Klima, Mark S.; Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  13. Plasma Torch for Plasma Ignition and Combustion of Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustimenko, Alexandr; Messerle, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-fuel systems (PFS) have been developed to improve coal combustion efficiency. PFS is a pulverized coal burner equipped with arc plasma torch producing high temperature air stream of 4000 - 6000 K. Plasma activation of coal at the PFS increases the coal reactivity and provides more effective ignition and ecologically friendly incineration of low-rank coal. The main and crucial element of PFS is plasma torch. Simplicity and reliability of the industrial arc plasma torches using cylindrical copper cathode and air as plasma forming gas predestined their application at heat and power engineering for plasma aided coal combustion. Life time of these plasma torches electrodes is critical and usually limited to 200 hours. Considered in this report direct current arc plasma torch has the cathode life significantly exceeded 1000 hours. To ensure the electrodes long life the process of hydrocarbon gas dissociation in the electric arc discharge is used. In accordance to this method atoms and ions of carbon from near-electrode plasma deposit on the active surface of the electrodes and form electrode carbon condensate which operates as ``actual'' electrode. Complex physicochemical investigation showed that deposit consists of nanocarbon material.

  14. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of chemical analyses to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods are obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, new analytical instruments and techniques to examine coal-derived samples are being evaluated. The data obtained form this study are used to guide process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank, established and maintained for use in this project, is available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) is being examined. From the literature and experimental data, a kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. Such a model will provide insights to improve process performance and the economics of direct coal liquefaction.

  15. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, Kazimierz; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Pawlak, Wanda; Kulik, Conrad; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

  16. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, Kazimierz; Ignasiak, Boleslaw; Pawlak, Wanda; Kulik, Conrad; Lebowitz, Howard E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal.

  17. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1997-02-11

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other minerals particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

  18. Flotation machine and process for removing impurities from coals

    DOEpatents

    Szymocha, K.; Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Kulik, C.; Lebowitz, H.E.

    1995-12-05

    The present invention is directed to a type of flotation machine that combines three separate operations in a single unit. The flotation machine is a hydraulic separator that is capable of reducing the pyrite and other mineral matter content of a coal. When the hydraulic separator is used with a flotation system, the pyrite and certain other mineral particles that may have been entrained by hydrodynamic forces associated with conventional flotation machines and/or by the attachment forces associated with the formation of microagglomerates are washed and separated from the coal. 4 figs.

  19. Ultrafine coal single stage dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    It is well known that a large portion of the pyrite particles in the coal seams of the Illinois Basin, are finely disseminated within the coal matrix. In order to liberate these micron size pyrite particles, one must use a fine grinding operation. The ultrafine coal particles that are produced are difficult to dewater and they create problems in coal transportation as well as in its storage and handling at utility plants. The objective of this research project is to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation. This will be accomplished by the use of bitumen based emulsions for dewatering and a compaction device for briquetting. During this reporting period, two types of coal samples have been tested for use in the dewatering and briquetting processes. These tests were carried out using Orimulsion as the dewatering reagent. A ram extruder that can be operated continuously is used to fabricate dewatered pellets. The influence of compaction pressure, curing time, binder concentration (2% to 5%), particle size, and compacting time on the performance of coal pellets have been evaluated in terms of their water resistance and wear vulnerability.

  20. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1998-04-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from January 1, 1998 to April 31, 1998 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing. Experimental work was carried out with two coal fines. One sample originated from pond (Drummond Pond Fines) while the second was pulverized Luscar Mine coal. Both samples were tested at the laboratory batch-scale while only Luscar Mine Coal was processed on the 250 kg/h continuous system. Significant progress was made on optimization of process conditions for Pond Fines. The test results showed that ash could be reduced by about 42% at combustible recovery exiting 94%. It was also found that pond fines required significantly longer conditioning time than freshly pulverized run of mine coal. Continuous bench-scale testing carried out with Luscar Mine coal included rod mill calibration, plant equipment and instrumentation check-up, and parametric studies. Compared with batch-scale tests, the continuous bench-scale process required more bridging oil to achieve similar process performance. During the current reporting period work has been commenced on the final engineering and preparation of design package of 3t/h POC-scale unit.