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Sample records for processes euclidean quantum

  1. Simplicial Euclidean and Lorentzian Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.

    2002-09-01

    One can try to define the theory of quantum gravity as the sum over geometries. In two dimensions the sum over Euclidean geometries can be performed constructively by the method of dynamical triangulations. One can define a proper-time propagator. This propagator can be used to calculate generalized Hartle-Hawking amplitudes and it can be used to understand the the fractal structure of quantum geometry. In higher dimensions the philosophy of defining the quantum theory, starting from a sum over Euclidean geometries, regularized by a reparametrization invariant cut off which is taken to zero, seems not to lead to an interesting continuum theory. The reason for this is the dominance of singular Euclidean geometries. Lorentzian geometries with a global causal structure are less singular. Using the framework of dynamical triangulations it is possible to give a constructive definition of the sum over such geometries, In two dimensions the theory can be solved analytically. It differs from two-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity, and the relation between the two theories can be understood. In three dimensions the theory avoids the pathologies of three-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity. General properties of the four-dimensional discretized theory have been established, but a detailed study of the continuum limit in the spirit of the renormalization group and asymptotic safety is till awaiting.

  2. The Fourier Transform on Quantum Euclidean Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulembier, Kevin

    2011-05-01

    We study Fourier theory on quantum Euclidean space. A modified version of the general definition of the Fourier transform on a quantum space is used and its inverse is constructed. The Fourier transforms can be defined by their Bochner's relations and a new type of q-Hankel transforms using the first and second q-Bessel functions. The behavior of the Fourier transforms with respect to partial derivatives and multiplication with variables is studied. The Fourier transform acts between the two representation spaces for the harmonic oscillator on quantum Euclidean space. By using this property it is possible to define a Fourier transform on the entire Hilbert space of the harmonic oscillator, which is its own inverse and satisfies the Parseval theorem.

  3. Euclidean quantum field theory: Curved spacetimes and gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, William Gordon

    This thesis presents a new formulation of quantum field theory (QFT) on curved spacetimes, with definite advantages over previous formulations, and an introduction to the millennium prize problem on four-dimensional gauge theory. Our constructions are completely rigorous, making QFT on curved spacetimes into a subfield of mathematics, and we achieve the first analytic control over nonperturbative aspects of interacting theories on curved spacetimes. The success of Euclidean path integrals to capture nonperturbative aspects of QFT has been striking. The Euclidean path integral is the most accurate method of calculating strong-coupling effects in gauge theory (such as glueball masses). Euclidean methods are also useful in the study of black holes, as evidenced by the Hartle-Hawking calculation of black-hole radiance. From a mathematical point of view, on flat spacetimes the Euclidean functional integral provides the most elegant method of constructing examples of interacting relativistic field theories. Yet until now, the incredibly-useful Euclidean path integral had never been given a definitive mathematical treatment on curved backgrounds. It is our aim to rectify this situation. Along the way, we discover that the Dirac operator on an arbitrary Clifford bundle has a resolvent kernel which is the Laplace transform of a positive measure. In studying spacetime symmetries, we discover a new way of constructing unitary representations of noncompact Lie groups. We also define and explore an interesting notion of convergence for Laplacians. The same mathematical framework applies to scalar fields, fermions, and gauge fields. The later chapters are devoted to gauge theory. We present a rigorous, self-contained introduction to the subject, aimed at mathematicians and using the language of modern mathematics, with a view towards nonperturbative renormalization in four dimensions. The latter ideas are unfinished. A completion of the final chapter would imply the construction

  4. Linking covariant and canonical loop quantum gravity: New solutions to the Euclidean scalar constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesci, Emanuele; Thiemann, Thomas; Zipfel, Antonia

    2012-07-01

    It is often emphasized that spin-foam models could realize a projection on the physical Hilbert space of canonical loop quantum gravity. As a first test, we analyze the one-vertex expansion of a simple Euclidean spin foam. We find that for fixed Barbero-Immirzi parameter γ=1, the one-vertex amplitude in the Kaminski, Kisielowski, and Lewandowski prescription annihilates the Euclidean Hamiltonian constraint of loop quantum gravity [T. Thiemann, Classical Quantum Gravity 15, 839 (1998).]. Since, for γ=1, the Lorentzian part of the Hamiltonian constraint does not contribute, this gives rise to new solutions of the Euclidean theory. Furthermore, we find that the new states only depend on the diagonal matrix elements of the volume. This seems to be a generic property when applying the spin-foam projector.

  5. Towards spectral geometric methods for Euclidean quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panine, Mikhail; Kempf, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The unification of general relativity with quantum theory will also require a coming together of the two quite different mathematical languages of general relativity and quantum theory, i.e., of differential geometry and functional analysis, respectively. Of particular interest in this regard is the field of spectral geometry, which studies to which extent the shape of a Riemannian manifold is describable in terms of the spectra of differential operators defined on the manifold. Spectral geometry is hard because it is highly nonlinear, but linearized spectral geometry, i.e., the task to determine small shape changes from small spectral changes, is much more tractable and may be iterated to approximate the full problem. Here, we generalize this approach, allowing, in particular, nonequal finite numbers of shape and spectral degrees of freedom. This allows us to study how well the shape degrees of freedom are encoded in the eigenvalues. We apply this strategy numerically to a class of planar domains and find that the reconstruction of small shape changes from small spectral changes is possible if enough eigenvalues are used. While isospectral nonisometric shapes are known to exist, we find evidence that generically shaped isospectral nonisometric shapes, if existing, are exceedingly rare.

  6. Spectral asymptotics of Euclidean quantum gravity with diff-invariant boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giampiero; Fucci, Guglielmo; Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu; Kirsten, Klaus

    2005-03-01

    A general method is known to exist for studying Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories, as well as Euclidean quantum gravity, at 1-loop level on manifolds with boundary. In the latter case, boundary conditions on metric perturbations h can be chosen to be completely invariant under infinitesimal diffeomorphisms, to preserve the invariance group of the theory and BRST symmetry. In the de Donder gauge, however, the resulting boundary-value problem for the Laplace-type operator acting on h is known to be self-adjoint but not strongly elliptic. The latter is a technical condition ensuring that a unique smooth solution of the boundary-value problem exists, which implies, in turn, that the global heat-kernel asymptotics yielding 1-loop divergences and 1-loop effective action actually exists. The present paper shows that, on the Euclidean 4-ball, only the scalar part of perturbative modes for quantum gravity is affected by the lack of strong ellipticity. Further evidence for lack of strong ellipticity, from an analytic point of view, is therefore obtained. Interestingly, three sectors of the scalar-perturbation problem remain elliptic, while lack of strong ellipticity is 'confined' to the remaining fourth sector. The integral representation of the resulting ζ-function asymptotics on the Euclidean 4-ball is also obtained; this remains regular at the origin by virtue of a spectral identity here obtained for the first time.

  7. The q-DEFORMED SCHRÖDINGER Equation of the Harmonic Oscillator on the Quantum Euclidean Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, Ursula; Watamura, Satoshi

    We consider the q-deformed Schrödinger equation of the harmonic oscillator on the N-dimensional quantum Euclidean space. The creation and annihilation operators are found, which systematically produce all energy levels and eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger equation. In order to get the q series representation of the eigenfunction, we also give an alternative way to solve the Schrödinger equation which is based on the q analysis. We represent the Schrödinger equation by the q difference equation and solve it by using q polynomials and q exponential functions.

  8. Quantum Stochastic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, William Joseph

    2009-04-13

    We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

  9. Perceptual or Analytical Processing? Evidence from Children's and Adult's Performance on the Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooij, Iris; Schactman, Alissa; Kadlec, Helena; Stege, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    The Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem (E-TSP) is a useful task to study how humans optimize when faced with computational intractability. It has been found that humans are capable of finding high-quality solutions for E-TSP in a relatively short time and with seemingly little cognitive effort. This observation has led to two general…

  10. Perceptual or Analytical Processing? Evidence from Children's and Adult's Performance on the Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooij, Iris; Schactman, Alissa; Kadlec, Helena; Stege, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    The Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem (E-TSP) is a useful task to study how humans optimize when faced with computational intractability. It has been found that humans are capable of finding high-quality solutions for E-TSP in a relatively short time and with seemingly little cognitive effort. This observation has led to two general…

  11. Quantum Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    preparation, indicating, to our surprise, that standard quantum teleportation is *not* optimal for the transmission of states from Alice to Bob if...1 August 1998-1 August. 2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantum Information Processing 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DAAG55-98-C-0041 6. AUTHOR(S) David P... quantum entanglement in which the transmitted quantum state is known to Alice. Very recently, with A. Winter, a new, more efficient protocol for RSP has

  12. Hybrid quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  13. Electron quantum optics as quantum signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, B.; Cabart, C.; Fève, G.; Thibierge, E.; Degiovanni, P.

    2017-03-01

    The recent developments of electron quantum optics in quantum Hall edge channels have given us new ways to probe the behavior of electrons in quantum conductors. It has brought new quantities called electronic coherences under the spotlight. In this paper, we explore the relations between electron quantum optics and signal processing through a global review of the various methods for accessing single- and two-electron coherences in electron quantum optics. We interpret electron quantum optics interference experiments as analog signal processing converting quantum signals into experimentally observable quantities such as current averages and correlations. This point of view also gives us a procedure to obtain quantum information quantities from electron quantum optics coherences. We illustrate these ideas by discussing two mode entanglement in electron quantum optics. We also sketch how signal processing ideas may open new perspectives for representing electronic coherences in quantum conductors and understand the properties of the underlying many-body electronic state.

  14. Quantum image processing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastriani, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a number of problems concerning the practical (real) implementation of the techniques known as quantum image processing. The most serious problem is the recovery of the outcomes after the quantum measurement, which will be demonstrated in this work that is equivalent to a noise measurement, and it is not considered in the literature on the subject. It is noteworthy that this is due to several factors: (1) a classical algorithm that uses Dirac's notation and then it is coded in MATLAB does not constitute a quantum algorithm, (2) the literature emphasizes the internal representation of the image but says nothing about the classical-to-quantum and quantum-to-classical interfaces and how these are affected by decoherence, (3) the literature does not mention how to implement in a practical way (at the laboratory) these proposals internal representations, (4) given that quantum image processing works with generic qubits, this requires measurements in all axes of the Bloch sphere, logically, and (5) among others. In return, the technique known as quantum Boolean image processing is mentioned, which works with computational basis states (CBS), exclusively. This methodology allows us to avoid the problem of quantum measurement, which alters the results of the measured except in the case of CBS. Said so far is extended to quantum algorithms outside image processing too.

  15. Euclidean Epstein-Glaser renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Kai J.

    2009-10-15

    In the framework of perturbative algebraic quantum field theory recently developed by Brunetti, Duetsch, and Fredenhagen (http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.2038) I give a general construction of so-called Euclidean time-ordered products, i.e., algebraic versions of the Schwinger functions, for scalar quantum field theories on spaces of Euclidean signature. This is done by generalizing the recursive construction of time-ordered products by Epstein and Glaser, originally formulated for quantum field theories on Minkowski space [Epstein and Glaser, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare 19, 211 (1973)]. An essential input of Epstein-Glaser renormalization is the causal structure of Minkowski space. The absence of this causal structure in the Euclidean framework makes it necessary to modify the original construction of Epstein and Glaser at two points. First, the whole construction has to be performed with an only partially defined product on (interaction) functionals. This is due to the fact that the fundamental solutions of the Helmholtz operator (-{delta}+m{sup 2}) of Euclidean quantum field theory have a unique singularity structure, i.e., they are unique up to a smooth part. Second, one needs to (re)introduce a (rather natural) 'Euclidean causality' condition for the recursion of Epstein and Glaser to be applicable.

  16. Euclidean Epstein-Glaser renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Kai J.

    2009-10-01

    In the framework of perturbative algebraic quantum field theory recently developed by Brunetti, Dütsch, and Fredenhagen (http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.2038) I give a general construction of so-called Euclidean time-ordered products, i.e., algebraic versions of the Schwinger functions, for scalar quantum field theories on spaces of Euclidean signature. This is done by generalizing the recursive construction of time-ordered products by Epstein and Glaser, originally formulated for quantum field theories on Minkowski space [Epstein and Glaser, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare 19, 211 (1973)]. An essential input of Epstein-Glaser renormalization is the causal structure of Minkowski space. The absence of this causal structure in the Euclidean framework makes it necessary to modify the original construction of Epstein and Glaser at two points. First, the whole construction has to be performed with an only partially defined product on (interaction) functionals. This is due to the fact that the fundamental solutions of the Helmholtz operator (-Δ+m2) of Euclidean quantum field theory have a unique singularity structure, i.e., they are unique up to a smooth part. Second, one needs to (re)introduce a (rather natural) "Euclidean causality" condition for the recursion of Epstein and Glaser to be applicable.

  17. PREFACE: Quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Andrew; Ferry, David; Stoneham, Marshall

    2006-05-01

    Microelectronics and the classical information technologies transformed the physics of semiconductors. Photonics has given optical materials a new direction. Quantum information technologies, we believe, will have immense impact on condensed matter physics. The novel systems of quantum information processing need to be designed and made. Their behaviours must be manipulated in ways that are intrinsically quantal and generally nanoscale. Both in this special issue and in previous issues (see e.g., Spiller T P and Munro W J 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 V1-10) we see the emergence of new ideas that link the fundamentals of science to the pragmatism of market-led industry. We hope these papers will be followed by many others on quantum information processing in the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.

  18. The origins of Schwinger's Euclidean Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael E.

    2015-05-01

    This paper places Julian Schwinger's development of the Euclidean Green's function formalism for quantum field theory in historical context. It traces the techniques employed in the formalism back to Schwinger's work on waveguides during World War II, and his subsequent formulation of the Minkowski space Green's function formalism for quantum field theory in 1951. Particular attention is dedicated to understanding Schwinger's physical motivation for pursuing the Euclidean extension of this formalism in 1958.

  19. Imbedding Locally Euclidean and Conformally Euclidean Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. A.

    1992-02-01

    The possibility of imbedding n-dimensional locally Euclidean metrics in the large in Rn is studied by means of the global inverse function theorem in the forms suggested by Hadamard, John, Levy and Plastock. The imbeddability of conformally Euclidean metrics is studied by means of a theorem of Zorich on the removability of an isolated singularity of a locally quasiconformal mapping.

  20. Quantum thermodynamics of general quantum processes.

    PubMed

    Binder, Felix; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan; Goold, John

    2015-03-01

    Accurately describing work extraction from a quantum system is a central objective for the extension of thermodynamics to individual quantum systems. The concepts of work and heat are surprisingly subtle when generalizations are made to arbitrary quantum states. We formulate an operational thermodynamics suitable for application to an open quantum system undergoing quantum evolution under a general quantum process by which we mean a completely positive and trace-preserving map. We derive an operational first law of thermodynamics for such processes and show consistency with the second law. We show that heat, from the first law, is positive when the input state of the map majorizes the output state. Moreover, the change in entropy is also positive for the same majorization condition. This makes a strong connection between the two operational laws of thermodynamics.

  1. Simplified quantum process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branderhorst, M. P. A.; Nunn, J.; Walmsley, I. A.; Kosut, R. L.

    2009-11-01

    We propose and evaluate experimentally an approach to quantum process tomography that completely removes the scaling problem plaguing the standard approach. The key to this simplification is the incorporation of prior knowledge of the class of physical interactions involved in generating the dynamics, which reduces the problem to one of parameter estimation. This allows part of the problem to be tackled using efficient convex methods, which, when coupled with a constraint on some parameters, allows globally optimal estimates for the Krauss operators to be determined from experimental data. Parameterizing the maps provides further advantages: it allows the incorporation of mixed states of the environment as well as some initial correlation between the system and environment, both of which are common physical situations following excitation of the system away from thermal equilibrium. Although the approach is not universal, in cases where it is valid it returns a complete set of positive maps for the dynamical evolution of a quantum system at all times.

  2. Free q-Schrödinger equation from homogeneous spaces of the 2-dim Euclidean quantum group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonechi, F.; Ciccoli, N.; Giachetti, R.; Sorace, E.; Tarlini, M.

    1996-01-01

    After a preliminary review of the definition and the general properties of the homogeneous spaces of quantum groups, the quantum hyperboloid qH and the quantum plane qP are determined as homogeneous spaces of F q ( E(2)). The canonical action of E q (2) is used to define a natural q-analog of the free Schrödinger equation, that is studied in the momentum and angular momentum bases. In the first case the eigenfunctions are factorized in terms of products of two q-exponentials. In the second case we determine the eigenstates of the unitary representation, which, in the qP case, are given in terms of Hahn-Exton functions. Introducing the universal T-matrix for E q (2) we prove that the Hahn-Exton as well as Jackson q-Bessel functions are also obtained as matrix elements of T, thus giving the correct extension to quantum groups of well known methods in harmonic analysis.

  3. The Development of Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Cosmologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses early Euclidean cosmologies, inadequacies in classical Euclidean cosmology, and the development of non-Euclidean cosmologies. Explains the present state of the theory of cosmology including the work of Dirac, Sandage, and Gott. (CP)

  4. The Development of Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Cosmologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses early Euclidean cosmologies, inadequacies in classical Euclidean cosmology, and the development of non-Euclidean cosmologies. Explains the present state of the theory of cosmology including the work of Dirac, Sandage, and Gott. (CP)

  5. Optical Hybrid Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira

    Historically, two complementary approaches to optical quantum information processing have been pursued: qubits and continuous-variables, each exploiting either particle or wave nature of light. However, both approaches have pros and cons. In recent years, there has been a significant progress in combining both approaches with a view to realizing hybrid protocols that overcome the current limitations. In this chapter, we first review the development of the two approaches with a special focus on quantum teleportation and its applications. We then introduce our recent research progress in realizing quantum teleportation by a hybrid scheme, and mention its future applications to universal and fault-tolerant quantum information processing.

  6. Quantum communication and information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beals, Travis Roland

    Quantum computers enable dramatically more efficient algorithms for solving certain classes of computational problems, but, in doing so, they create new problems. In particular, Shor's Algorithm allows for efficient cryptanalysis of many public-key cryptosystems. As public key cryptography is a critical component of present-day electronic commerce, it is crucial that a working, secure replacement be found. Quantum key distribution (QKD), first developed by C.H. Bennett and G. Brassard, offers a partial solution, but many challenges remain, both in terms of hardware limitations and in designing cryptographic protocols for a viable large-scale quantum communication infrastructure. In Part I, I investigate optical lattice-based approaches to quantum information processing. I look at details of a proposal for an optical lattice-based quantum computer, which could potentially be used for both quantum communications and for more sophisticated quantum information processing. In Part III, I propose a method for converting and storing photonic quantum bits in the internal state of periodically-spaced neutral atoms by generating and manipulating a photonic band gap and associated defect states. In Part II, I present a cryptographic protocol which allows for the extension of present-day QKD networks over much longer distances without the development of new hardware. I also present a second, related protocol which effectively solves the authentication problem faced by a large QKD network, thus making QKD a viable, information-theoretic secure replacement for public key cryptosystems.

  7. Quantum information processing : science & technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, Rebecca; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Tarman, Thomas David

    2010-09-01

    Qubits demonstrated using GaAs double quantum dots (DQD). The qubit basis states are the (1) singlet and (2) triplet stationary states. Long spin decoherence times in silicon spurs translation of GaAs qubit in to silicon. In the near term the goals are: (1) Develop surface gate enhancement mode double quantum dots (MOS & strained-Si/SiGe) to demonstrate few electrons and spin read-out and to examine impurity doped quantum-dots as an alternative architecture; (2) Use mobility, C-V, ESR, quantum dot performance & modeling to feedback and improve upon processing, this includes development of atomic precision fabrication at SNL; (3) Examine integrated electronics approaches to RF-SET; (4) Use combinations of numerical packages for multi-scale simulation of quantum dot systems (NEMO3D, EMT, TCAD, SPICE); and (5) Continue micro-architecture evaluation for different device and transport architectures.

  8. Efficient Quantum Information Processing via Quantum Compressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Luo, M. X.; Ma, S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose is to improve the quantum transmission efficiency and reduce the resource cost by quantum compressions. The lossless quantum compression is accomplished using invertible quantum transformations and applied to the quantum teleportation and the simultaneous transmission over quantum butterfly networks. New schemes can greatly reduce the entanglement cost, and partially solve transmission conflictions over common links. Moreover, the local compression scheme is useful for approximate entanglement creations from pre-shared entanglements. This special task has not been addressed because of the quantum no-cloning theorem. Our scheme depends on the local quantum compression and the bipartite entanglement transfer. Simulations show the success probability is greatly dependent of the minimal entanglement coefficient. These results may be useful in general quantum network communication.

  9. Fuzzy Euclidean wormholes in de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Hu, Yao-Chieh; Yeom, Dong-han

    2017-07-01

    We investigate Euclidean wormholes in Einstein gravity with a massless scalar field in de Sitter space. Euclidean wormholes are possible due to the analytic continuation of the time as well as complexification of fields, where we need to impose the classicality after the Wick-rotation to the Lorentzian signatures. For some parameters, wormholes are preferred than Hawking-Moss instantons, and hence wormholes can be more fundamental than Hawking-Moss type instantons. Euclidean wormholes can be interpreted in three ways: (1) classical big bounce, (2) either tunneling from a small to a large universe or a creation of a collapsing and an expanding universe from nothing, and (3) either a transition from a contracting to a bouncing phase or a creation of two expanding universes from nothing. These various interpretations shed some light on challenges of singularities. In addition, these will help to understand tensions between various kinds of quantum gravity theories.

  10. Euclidean black hole vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowker, Fay; Gregory, Ruth; Traschen, Jennie

    1991-01-01

    We argue the existence of solutions of the Euclidean Einstein equations that correspond to a vortex sitting at the horizon of a black hole. We find the asymptotic behaviors, at the horizon and at infinity, of vortex solutions for the gauge and scalar fields in an abelian Higgs model on a Euclidean Schwarzschild background and interpolate between them by integrating the equations numerically. Calculating the backreaction shows that the effect of the vortex is to cut a slice out of the Schwarzschild geometry. Consequences of these solutions for black hole thermodynamics are discussed.

  11. Physics as quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo

    2011-10-01

    The experience from Quantum Information has lead us to look at Quantum Theory (QT) and the whole Physics from a different angle. The information-theoretical paradigm—It from Bit— prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler is relentlessly advancing. Recently it has been shown that QT is derivable from pure informational principles. The possibility that there is only QT at the foundations of Physics has been then considered, with space-time, Relativity, quantization rules and Quantum Field Theory (QFT) emerging from a quantum-information processing. The resulting theory is a discrete version of QFT with automatic relativistic invariance, and without fields, Hamiltonian, and quantization rules. In this paper I review some recent advances on these lines. In particular: i) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; ii) The derivation of the Dirac equation as free information flow, without imposing Lorentz covariance; iii) the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and Planck constant; iv) An observable consequence of the theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will then conclude with two possible routes to Quantum Gravity.

  12. The complementarity relations of quantum coherence in quantum information processing

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fei; Qiu, Liang; Liu, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    We establish two complementarity relations for the relative entropy of coherence in quantum information processing, i.e., quantum dense coding and teleportation. We first give an uncertainty-like expression relating local quantum coherence to the capacity of optimal dense coding for bipartite system. The relation can also be applied to the case of dense coding by using unital memoryless noisy quantum channels. Further, the relation between local quantum coherence and teleportation fidelity for two-qubit system is given. PMID:28272481

  13. The complementarity relations of quantum coherence in quantum information processing.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fei; Qiu, Liang; Liu, Zhi

    2017-03-08

    We establish two complementarity relations for the relative entropy of coherence in quantum information processing, i.e., quantum dense coding and teleportation. We first give an uncertainty-like expression relating local quantum coherence to the capacity of optimal dense coding for bipartite system. The relation can also be applied to the case of dense coding by using unital memoryless noisy quantum channels. Further, the relation between local quantum coherence and teleportation fidelity for two-qubit system is given.

  14. The complementarity relations of quantum coherence in quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Fei; Qiu, Liang; Liu, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    We establish two complementarity relations for the relative entropy of coherence in quantum information processing, i.e., quantum dense coding and teleportation. We first give an uncertainty-like expression relating local quantum coherence to the capacity of optimal dense coding for bipartite system. The relation can also be applied to the case of dense coding by using unital memoryless noisy quantum channels. Further, the relation between local quantum coherence and teleportation fidelity for two-qubit system is given.

  15. Practicality of quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan

    Quantum Information Processing (QIP) is expected to bring revolutionary enhancement to various technological areas. However, today's QIP applications are far from being practical. The problem involves both hardware issues, i.e., quantum devices are imperfect, and software issues, i.e., the functionality of some QIP applications is not fully understood. Aiming to improve the practicality of QIP, in my PhD research I have studied various topics in quantum cryptography and ion trap quantum computation. In quantum cryptography, I first studied the security of position-based quantum cryptography (PBQC). I discovered a wrong assumption in the previous literature that the cheaters are not allowed to share entangled resources. I proposed entanglement attacks that could cheat all known PBQC protocols. I also studied the practicality of continuous-variable (CV) quantum secret sharing (QSS). While the security of CV QSS was considered by the literature only in the limit of infinite squeezing, I found that finitely squeezed CV resources could also provide finite secret sharing rate. Our work relaxes the stringent resources requirement of implementing QSS. In ion trap quantum computation, I studied the phase error of quantum information induced by dc Stark effect during ion transportation. I found an optimized ion trajectory for which the phase error is the minimum. I also defined a threshold speed, above which ion transportation would induce significant error. In addition, I proposed a new application for ion trap systems as universal bosonic simulators (UBS). I introduced two architectures, and discussed their respective strength and weakness. I illustrated the implementations of bosonic state initialization, transformation, and measurement by applying radiation fields or by varying the trap potential. When comparing with conducting optical experiments, the ion trap UBS is advantageous in higher state initialization efficiency and higher measurement accuracy. Finally, I

  16. Enjoyment of Euclidean Planar Triangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    This article adopts the following classification for a Euclidean planar [triangle]ABC, purely based on angles alone. A Euclidean planar triangle is said to be acute angled if all the three angles of the Euclidean planar [triangle]ABC are acute angles. It is said to be right angled at a specific vertex, say B, if the angle ?ABC is a right angle…

  17. Addendum to ;Quantum deformations of D = 4 Euclidean, Lorentz, Kleinian and quaternionic o⋆ (4) symmetries in unified o (4 ; C) setting; [Phys. Lett. B 754 (2016) 176-181

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiec, Andrzej; Lukierski, Jerzy; Tolstoy, Valeriy N.

    2017-07-01

    In our previous paper [1] we obtained a full classification of nonequivalent quasitriangular quantum deformations for the complex D = 4 Euclidean Lie symmetry o (4 ; C). The result was presented in the form of a list consisting of three three-parameter, one two-parameter and one one-parameter nonisomorphic classical r-matrices which provide 'directions' of the nonequivalent quantizations of o (4 ; C). Applying reality conditions to the complex o (4 ; C)r-matrices we obtained the nonisomorphic classical r-matrices for all possible real forms of o (4 ; C): Euclidean o (4), Lorentz o (3 , 1), Kleinian o (2 , 2) and quaternionic o⋆ (4) Lie algebras. In the case of o (4) and o (3 , 1) real symmetries these r-matrices give the full classifications of the inequivalent quasitriangular quantum deformations, however for o (2 , 2) and o⋆ (4) the classifications are not full. In this paper we complete these classifications by adding three new three-parameter o (2 , 2)-real r-matrices and one new three-parameter o⋆ (4)-real r-matrix. All nonisomorphic classical r-matrices for all real forms of o (4 ; C) are presented in the explicit form what is convenient for providing the quantizations. We will mention also some applications of our results to the deformations of space-time symmetries and string σ-models.

  18. Quantum Process Algebra with Priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xingtian; Wang, Yong; Dai, Guiping

    2017-08-01

    One of the most fascinating characteristics is the modularity of ACP (Algebra of Communicating Processes), that is, ACP can be extended easily. qACP also inherents the modularity characteristics of ACP. By introducing new operators or new constants, qACP can have more properties. In this paper, we extend the quantum process algebra qACP with priorities support in an elegant way. And we obtain the soundness and completeness of the extension.

  19. Non-Euclidean spring embedders.

    PubMed

    Kobourov, Stephen G; Wampler, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    We present a conceptually simple approach to generalizing force-directed methods for graph layout from Euclidean geometry to Riemannian geometries. Unlike previous work on non-Euclidean force-directed methods, ours is not limited to special classes of graphs, but can be applied to arbitrary graphs. The method relies on extending the Euclidean notions of distance, angle, and force-interactions to smooth non-Euclidean geometries via projections to and from appropriately chosen tangent spaces. In particular, we formally describe the calculations needed to extend such algorithms to hyperbolic and spherical geometries. We also study the theoretical and practical considerations that arise when working with non-Euclidean geometries.

  20. Experimental Quantum Randomness Processing Using Superconducting Qubits.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Zhaopeng; Vijay, R; Sun, Luyan; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Coherently manipulating multipartite quantum correlations leads to remarkable advantages in quantum information processing. A fundamental question is whether such quantum advantages persist only by exploiting multipartite correlations, such as entanglement. Recently, Dale, Jennings, and Rudolph negated the question by showing that a randomness processing, quantum Bernoulli factory, using quantum coherence, is strictly more powerful than the one with classical mechanics. In this Letter, focusing on the same scenario, we propose a theoretical protocol that is classically impossible but can be implemented solely using quantum coherence without entanglement. We demonstrate the protocol by exploiting the high-fidelity quantum state preparation and measurement with a superconducting qubit in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and a nearly quantum-limited parametric amplifier. Our experiment shows the advantage of using quantum coherence of a single qubit for information processing even when multipartite correlation is not present.

  1. Experimental Quantum Randomness Processing Using Superconducting Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Zhaopeng; Vijay, R.; Sun, Luyan; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Coherently manipulating multipartite quantum correlations leads to remarkable advantages in quantum information processing. A fundamental question is whether such quantum advantages persist only by exploiting multipartite correlations, such as entanglement. Recently, Dale, Jennings, and Rudolph negated the question by showing that a randomness processing, quantum Bernoulli factory, using quantum coherence, is strictly more powerful than the one with classical mechanics. In this Letter, focusing on the same scenario, we propose a theoretical protocol that is classically impossible but can be implemented solely using quantum coherence without entanglement. We demonstrate the protocol by exploiting the high-fidelity quantum state preparation and measurement with a superconducting qubit in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and a nearly quantum-limited parametric amplifier. Our experiment shows the advantage of using quantum coherence of a single qubit for information processing even when multipartite correlation is not present.

  2. Information Processing Using Quantum Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Laxmidhar

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents an information processing paradigm that introduces collective response of multiple agents (computational units) while the level of intelligence associated with the information processing has been increased manifold. It is shown that if the potential field of the Schroedinger wave equation is modulated using a self-organized learning scheme, then the probability density function associated with the stochastic data is transferred to the probability amplitude function which is the response of the Schroedinger wave equation. This approach illustrates that information processing of data with stochastic behavior can be efficiently done using quantum probability instead of classical probability. The proposed scheme has been demonstrated through two applications: denoising and adaptive control.

  3. Action with Acceleration i: Euclidean Hamiltonian and Path Integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2013-10-01

    An action having an acceleration term in addition to the usual velocity term is analyzed. The quantum mechanical system is directly defined for Euclidean time using the path integral. The Euclidean Hamiltonian is shown to yield the acceleration Lagrangian and the path integral with the correct boundary conditions. Due to the acceleration term, the state space depends on both position and velocity — and hence the Euclidean Hamiltonian depends on two degrees of freedom. The Hamiltonian for the acceleration system is non-Hermitian and can be mapped to a Hermitian Hamiltonian using a similarity transformation; the matrix elements of the similarity transformation are explicitly evaluated.

  4. Adaptive schemes for incomplete quantum process tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Rehacek, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdenek

    2011-12-15

    We propose an iterative algorithm for incomplete quantum process tomography with the help of quantum state estimation. The algorithm, which is based on the combined principles of maximum likelihood and maximum entropy, yields a unique estimator for an unknown quantum process when one has less than a complete set of linearly independent measurement data to specify the quantum process uniquely. We apply this iterative algorithm adaptively in various situations and so optimize the amount of resources required to estimate a quantum process with incomplete data.

  5. Quantum Simulations of Classical Annealing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somma, R. D.; Boixo, S.; Barnum, H.; Knill, E.

    2008-09-01

    We describe a quantum algorithm that solves combinatorial optimization problems by quantum simulation of a classical simulated annealing process. Our algorithm exploits quantum walks and the quantum Zeno effect induced by evolution randomization. It requires order 1/δ steps to find an optimal solution with bounded error probability, where δ is the minimum spectral gap of the stochastic matrices used in the classical annealing process. This is a quadratic improvement over the order 1/δ steps required by the latter.

  6. Thermodynamics of discrete quantum processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Janet; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2013-03-01

    We define thermodynamic configurations and identify two primitives of discrete quantum processes between configurations for which heat and work can be defined in a natural way. This allows us to uncover a general second law for any discrete trajectory that consists of a sequence of these primitives, linking both equilibrium and non-equilibrium configurations. Moreover, in the limit of a discrete trajectory that passes through an infinite number of configurations, i.e. in the reversible limit, we recover the saturation of the second law. Finally, we show that for a discrete Carnot cycle operating between four configurations one recovers Carnot's thermal efficiency.

  7. Fractional Fourier processing of quantum light.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yifan; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-13

    We have extended Fourier transform of quantum light to a fractional Fourier processing, and demonstrated that a classical optical fractional Fourier processor can be used for the shaping of quantum correlations between two or more photons. Comparing the present method with that of Fourier processing, we find that fractional Fourier processing for quantum light possesses many advantages. Based on such a method, not only quantum correlations can be shaped more rich, but also the initial states can be easily identified. Moreover, the twisted phase information can be recovered and quantum states are easily controlled in performing quantum information experiments. Our findings open up new avenues for the manipulation of correlations between photons in optical quantum information processing.

  8. Whiteheadian process and quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.

    1998-08-01

    There are deep similarities between Whitehead's idea of the process by which nature unfolds and the ideas of quantum theory. Whitehead says that the world is made of ''actual occasions'', each of which arises from potentialities created by prior actual occasions. These actual occasions are happenings modeled on experiential events, each of which comes into being and then perishes, only to be replaced by a successor. It is these experience-like happenings that are the basic realities of nature, according to Whitehead, not the persisting physical particles that Newtonian physics took be the basic entities. Similarly, Heisenberg says that what is really happening in a quantum process is the emergence of an actual from potentialities created by prior actualities. In the orthodox Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory the actual things to which the theory refer are increments in ''our knowledge''. These increments are experiential events. The particles of classical physics lose their fundamental status: they dissolve into diffuse clouds of possibilities. At each stage of the unfolding of nature the complete cloud of possibilities acts like the potentiality for the occurrence of a next increment in knowledge, whose occurrence can radically change the cloud of possibilities/potentialities for the still-later increments in knowledge. The fundamental difference between these ideas about nature and the classical ideas that reigned from the time of Newton until this century concerns the status of the experiential aspects of nature. These are things such as thoughts, ideas, feelings, and sensations. They are distinguished from the physical aspects of nature, which are described in terms of quantities explicitly located in tiny regions of space and time. According to the ideas of classical physics the physical world is made up exclusively of things of this latter type, and the unfolding of the physical world is determined by causal connections involving only these things

  9. Fuzzy Euclidean wormholes in de Sitter space

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Pisin; Hu, Yao-Chieh; Yeom, Dong-han

    2017-07-03

    Here, we investigate Euclidean wormholes in Einstein gravity with a massless scalar field in de Sitter space. Euclidean wormholes are possible due to the analytic continuation of the time as well as complexification of fields, where we need to impose the classicality after the Wick-rotation to the Lorentzian signatures. Furthermore, we prefer wormholes for some parameters, rather than Hawking-Moss instantons, and hence wormholes can be more fundamental than Hawking-Moss type instantons. Euclidean wormholes can be interpreted in three ways: (1) classical big bounce, (2) either tunneling from a small to a large universe or a creation of a collapsing andmore » an expanding universe from nothing, and (3) either a transition from a contracting to a bouncing phase or a creation of two expanding universes from nothing. These various interpretations shed some light on challenges of singularities. In addition, these will help to understand tensions between various kinds of quantum gravity theories.« less

  10. Photonic qubits for remote quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunz, P.; Olmschenk, S.; Hayes, D.; Matsukevich, D. N.; Duan, L.-M.; Monroe, C.

    2009-05-01

    Quantum information processing between remote quantum memories relies on a fast and faithful quantum channel. Recent experiments employed both, the photonic polarization and frequency qubits, in order to entangle remote atoms [1, 2], to teleport quantum information [3] and to operate a quantum gate between distant atoms. Here, we compare the dierent schemes used in these experiments and analyze the advantages of the dierent choices of atomic and photonic qubits and their coherence properties. [4pt] [1] D. L. Moehring et al. Nature 449, 68 (2007).[0pt] [2] D. N. Matsukevich et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 150404 2008).[0pt] [3] S. Olmschenk et al. Science, 323, 486 (2009).

  11. Quantum information processing with atoms and photons.

    PubMed

    Monroe, C

    2002-03-14

    Quantum information processors exploit the quantum features of superposition and entanglement for applications not possible in classical devices, offering the potential for significant improvements in the communication and processing of information. Experimental realization of large-scale quantum information processors remains a long-term vision, as the required nearly pure quantum behaviour is observed only in exotic hardware such as individual laser-cooled atoms and isolated photons. But recent theoretical and experimental advances suggest that cold atoms and individual photons may lead the way towards bigger and better quantum information processors, effectively building mesoscopic versions of 'Schrödinger's cat' from the bottom up.

  12. Generalized Hofmann quantum process fidelity bounds for quantum filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlák, Michal; Fiurášek, Jaromír

    2016-04-01

    We propose and investigate bounds on the quantum process fidelity of quantum filters, i.e., probabilistic quantum operations represented by a single Kraus operator K . These bounds generalize the Hofmann bounds on the quantum process fidelity of unitary operations [H. F. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160504 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.160504] and are based on probing the quantum filter with pure states forming two mutually unbiased bases. Determination of these bounds therefore requires far fewer measurements than full quantum process tomography. We find that it is particularly suitable to construct one of the probe bases from the right eigenstates of K , because in this case the bounds are tight in the sense that if the actual filter coincides with the ideal one, then both the lower and the upper bounds are equal to 1. We theoretically investigate the application of these bounds to a two-qubit optical quantum filter formed by the interference of two photons on a partially polarizing beam splitter. For an experimentally convenient choice of factorized input states and measurements we study the tightness of the bounds. We show that more stringent bounds can be obtained by more sophisticated processing of the data using convex optimization and we compare our methods for different choices of the input probe states.

  13. Virtual Processes and Quantum Tunnelling as Fictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Richard T. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that virtual processes are dispensable fictions. The argument proceeds by a comparison with the phenomenon of quantum tunnelling. Building on an analysis of Levy-Leblond and Balibar, it is argued that, although the phenomenon known as quantum tunnelling certainly occurs and is at the basis of many paradigmatic quantum…

  14. Virtual Processes and Quantum Tunnelling as Fictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Richard T. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that virtual processes are dispensable fictions. The argument proceeds by a comparison with the phenomenon of quantum tunnelling. Building on an analysis of Levy-Leblond and Balibar, it is argued that, although the phenomenon known as quantum tunnelling certainly occurs and is at the basis of many paradigmatic quantum…

  15. Provable quantum advantage in randomness processing.

    PubMed

    Dale, Howard; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-09-18

    Quantum advantage is notoriously hard to find and even harder to prove. For example the class of functions computable with classical physics exactly coincides with the class computable quantum mechanically. It is strongly believed, but not proven, that quantum computing provides exponential speed-up for a range of problems, such as factoring. Here we address a computational scenario of randomness processing in which quantum theory provably yields, not only resource reduction over classical stochastic physics, but a strictly larger class of problems which can be solved. Beyond new foundational insights into the nature and malleability of randomness, and the distinction between quantum and classical information, these results also offer the potential of developing classically intractable simulations with currently accessible quantum technologies.

  16. Trapped Atomic Ions and Quantum Information Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Wineland, D. J.; Leibfried, D.; Bergquist, J. C.; Blakestad, R. B.; Bollinger, J. J.; Britton, J.; Chiaverini, J.; Epstein, R. J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Reichle, R.; Rosenband, T.; Schaetz, T.; Schmidt, P. O.; Seidelin, S.; Shiga, N.

    2006-11-07

    The basic requirements for quantum computing and quantum simulation (single- and multi-qubit gates, long memory times, etc.) have been demonstrated in separate experiments on trapped ions. Construction of a large-scale information processor will require synthesis of these elements and implementation of high-fidelity operations on a very large number of qubits. This is still well in the future. NIST and other groups are addressing part of the scaling issue by trying to fabricate multi-zone arrays of traps that would allow highly-parallel and scalable processing. In the near term, some simple quantum processing protocols are being used to aid in quantum metrology, such as in atomic clocks. As the number of qubits increases, Schroedinger's cat paradox and the measurement problem in quantum mechanics become more apparent; with luck, trapped ion systems might be able to shed light on these fundamental issues.

  17. Trapped Atomic Ions and Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wineland, D. J.; Leibfried, D.; Bergquist, J. C.; Blakestad, R. B.; Bollinger, J. J.; Britton, J.; Chiaverini, J.; Epstein, R. J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Knill, M.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Reichle, R.; Rosenband, T.; Schaetz, T.; Schmidt, P. O.; Seidelin, S.; Shiga, N.; Wesenberg, J. H.

    2006-11-01

    The basic requirements for quantum computing and quantum simulation (single- and multi-qubit gates, long memory times, etc.) have been demonstrated in separate experiments on trapped ions. Construction of a large-scale information processor will require synthesis of these elements and implementation of high-fidelity operations on a very large number of qubits. This is still well in the future. NIST and other groups are addressing part of the scaling issue by trying to fabricate multi-zone arrays of traps that would allow highly-parallel and scalable processing. In the near term, some simple quantum processing protocols are being used to aid in quantum metrology, such as in atomic clocks. As the number of qubits increases, Schrödinger's cat paradox and the measurement problem in quantum mechanics become more apparent; with luck, trapped ion systems might be able to shed light on these fundamental issues.

  18. Euclidean resonance in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ivlev, B.

    2007-08-15

    An analogy is found between Wigner resonant tunneling and tunneling across a static potential barrier in a static magnetic field. Whereas in the process of Wigner tunneling an electron encounters a classically allowed region where a discrete energy level coincides with its energy, in the magnetic field the potential barrier is constant in the direction of tunneling. Along the tunneling path, certain regions are formed where, in the classical language, the kinetic energy of the motion perpendicular to tunneling is negative. These regions play the role of potential wells, where a discrete energy level can coincide with the electron energy. This phenomenon, which occurs at a certain magnetic field, is called Euclidean resonance and substantially depends on the shape of the potential forces in the direction perpendicular to tunneling. Under conditions of Euclidean resonance, a long-distance underbarrier motion is possible, which can be observed in experiments.

  19. Solution-processed colloidal lead sulfide quantum dots for near-infrared quantum information processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Ranojoy

    In this thesis, we study solution-processed lead sulfide quantum dots for near-infrared quantum information and communication applications. Quantum dots processed through synthetic routes and colloidally suspended in solution offer far-reaching device application possibilities that are unparalelled in traditional self-assembled quantum dots. Lead sulfide quantum dots are especially promising for near-infrared quantum optics due to their optical emission at the wavelengths of fiber-optic communications (1.3--1.5 microm). The broad absorption spectrum of these quantum dots can be used for solar light-harvesting applications, to which end the results of Chapter 2---where we study Forster resonance energy transfer in quantum dot solids---provide remarkable insights into photon emission from quantum-dot based solar cells. In subsequent chapters, we explore quantum-dot photonic crystal applications, where exciton-photon interactions in the cavity environment remarkably allow for the emission of indistinguishable single photons that are important for distribution of high-security quantum keys---being highly sensitive to 'eavesdropping'. Particularly, the suggestion of the solution-processed QED system is novel compared to traditional self-assembled systems, and as we will discuss, offer integration and processing capabilities that are unprecedented, and perform well at wavelength ranges where standard QED systems scale poorly. The results of chapters 3--6 are therefore significant in the general field of cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  20. Quantum processes: A Whiteheadian interpretation of quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Jonathan

    Quantum processes: A Whiteheadian interpretation of quantum field theory is an ambitious and thought-provoking exercise in physics and metaphysics, combining an erudite study of the very complex metaphysics of A.N. Whitehead with a well-informed discussion of contemporary issues in the philosophy of algebraic quantum field theory. Hättich's overall goal is to construct an interpretation of quantum field theory. He does this by translating key concepts in Whitehead's metaphysics into the language of algebraic quantum field theory. In brief, this Hättich-Whitehead (H-W, hereafter) interpretation takes "actual occasions" as the fundamental ontological entities of quantum field theory. An actual occasion is the result of two types of processes: a "transition process" in which a set of initial possibly-possessed properties for the occasion (in the form of "eternal objects") is localized to a space-time region; and a "concrescence process" in which a subset of these initial possibly-possessed properties is selected and actualized to produce the occasion. Essential to these processes is the "underlying activity", which conditions the way in which properties are initially selected and subsequently actualized. In short, under the H-W interpretation of quantum field theory, an initial set of possibly-possessed eternal objects is represented by a Boolean sublattice of the lattice of projection operators determined by a von Neumann algebra R (O) associated with a region O of Minkowski space-time, and the underlying activity is represented by a state on R (O) obtained by conditionalizing off of the vacuum state. The details associated with the H-W interpretation involve imposing constraints on these representations motivated by principles found in Whitehead's metaphysics. These details are spelled out in the three sections of the book. The first section is a summary and critique of Whitehead's metaphysics, the second section introduces the formalism of algebraic quantum field

  1. On Heat in a Quantum Mechanical Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deesuwan, Tanapat; Anders, Janet

    2013-05-01

    Heat is the portion of energy exchange between systems in thermodynamic process which, unlike work, is always associated with the change of the entropies of the systems. In the context of quantum thermodynamics, heat process is described by an incoherent generalised quantum evolution, which is a map between two quantum states that does not preserve the entropy. Based on an information-theoretic reasoning, we propose that heat involving in a general quantum thermodynamic process can be separated into two types: one that is due to the unital subclass of the evolutions and another one that is due to the others. According to these categories, we show how the former type of heat can be incorporated into Jarzynski equality, resulting in a generalised version of the equality. We also derive a Jarzynski inequality which incorporates all heat into the picture and show that this situation is just equivalent to the presence of Maxwell's demon.

  2. Geometric Deep Learning: Going beyond Euclidean data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronstein, Michael M.; Bruna, Joan; LeCun, Yann; Szlam, Arthur; Vandergheynst, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Many scientific fields study data with an underlying structure that is a non-Euclidean space. Some examples include social networks in computational social sciences, sensor networks in communications, functional networks in brain imaging, regulatory networks in genetics, and meshed surfaces in computer graphics. In many applications, such geometric data are large and complex (in the case of social networks, on the scale of billions), and are natural targets for machine learning techniques. In particular, we would like to use deep neural networks, which have recently proven to be powerful tools for a broad range of problems from computer vision, natural language processing, and audio analysis. However, these tools have been most successful on data with an underlying Euclidean or grid-like structure, and in cases where the invariances of these structures are built into networks used to model them. Geometric deep learning is an umbrella term for emerging techniques attempting to generalize (structured) deep neural models to non-Euclidean domains such as graphs and manifolds. The purpose of this paper is to overview different examples of geometric deep learning problems and present available solutions, key difficulties, applications, and future research directions in this nascent field.

  3. Quantum metrology with unitary parametrization processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Jing, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2015-02-24

    Quantum Fisher information is a central quantity in quantum metrology. We discuss an alternative representation of quantum Fisher information for unitary parametrization processes. In this representation, all information of parametrization transformation, i.e., the entire dynamical information, is totally involved in a Hermitian operator H. Utilizing this representation, quantum Fisher information is only determined by H and the initial state. Furthermore, H can be expressed in an expanded form. The highlights of this form is that it can bring great convenience during the calculation for the Hamiltonians owning recursive commutations with their partial derivative. We apply this representation in a collective spin system and show the specific expression of H. For a simple case, a spin-half system, the quantum Fisher information is given and the optimal states to access maximum quantum Fisher information are found. Moreover, for an exponential form initial state, an analytical expression of quantum Fisher information by H operator is provided. The multiparameter quantum metrology is also considered and discussed utilizing this representation.

  4. Quantum metrology with unitary parametrization processes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Jing, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Fisher information is a central quantity in quantum metrology. We discuss an alternative representation of quantum Fisher information for unitary parametrization processes. In this representation, all information of parametrization transformation, i.e., the entire dynamical information, is totally involved in a Hermitian operator . Utilizing this representation, quantum Fisher information is only determined by and the initial state. Furthermore, can be expressed in an expanded form. The highlights of this form is that it can bring great convenience during the calculation for the Hamiltonians owning recursive commutations with their partial derivative. We apply this representation in a collective spin system and show the specific expression of . For a simple case, a spin-half system, the quantum Fisher information is given and the optimal states to access maximum quantum Fisher information are found. Moreover, for an exponential form initial state, an analytical expression of quantum Fisher information by operator is provided. The multiparameter quantum metrology is also considered and discussed utilizing this representation. PMID:25708678

  5. Scalable quantum information processing and the optical topological quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devitt, S.

    2010-02-01

    Optical quantum computation has represented one of the most successful testbed systems for quantum information processing. Along with ion-traps and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), experimentalists have demonstrated control of qubits, multi-gubit gates and small quantum algorithms. However, photonic based qubits suffer from a problematic lack of a large scale architecture for fault-tolerant computation which could conceivably be built in the near future. While optical systems are, in some regards, ideal for quantum computing due to their high mobility and low susceptibility to environmental decoherence, these same properties make the construction of compact, chip based architectures difficult. Here we discuss many of the important issues related to scalable fault-tolerant quantum computation and introduce a feasible architecture design for an optics based computer. We combine the recent development of topological cluster state computation with the photonic module, simple chip based devices which can be utilized to deterministically entangle photons. The integration of this operational unit with one of the most exciting computational models solves many of the existing problems with other optics based architectures and leads to a feasible large scale design which can continuously generate a 3D cluster state with a photonic module resource cost linear in the cross sectional size of the cluster.

  6. Quantum Control, Quantum Information Processing, and Quantum-Limited Metrology with Trapped Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wineland, D. J.; Leibfried, D.; Barrett, M. D.; Ben-Kish, A.; Bergquist, J. C.; Blakestad, R. B.; Bollinger, J. J.; Britton, J.; Chiaverini, J.; Demarco, B.; Hume, D.; Itano, W. M.; Jensen, M.; Jost, J. D.; Knill, E.; Koelemeij, J.; Langer, C.; Oskay, W.; Ozeri, R.; Reichle, R.; Rosenband, T.; Schaetz, T.; Schmidt, P. O.; Seidelin, S.

    2005-12-01

    We briefly discuss recent experiments on quantum information processing using trapped ions at NIST. A central theme of this work has been to increase our capabilities in terms of quantum computing protocols, but we have also applied the same concepts to improved metrology, particularly in the area of frequency standards and atomic clocks. Such work may eventually shed light on more fundamental issues, such as the quantum measurement problem.

  7. Euclidean, Spherical, and Hyperbolic Shadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Many classical problems in elementary calculus use Euclidean geometry. This article takes such a problem and solves it in hyperbolic and in spherical geometry instead. The solution requires only the ability to compute distances and intersections of points in these geometries. The dramatically different results we obtain illustrate the effect…

  8. Euclidean, Spherical, and Hyperbolic Shadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Many classical problems in elementary calculus use Euclidean geometry. This article takes such a problem and solves it in hyperbolic and in spherical geometry instead. The solution requires only the ability to compute distances and intersections of points in these geometries. The dramatically different results we obtain illustrate the effect…

  9. Engineering Photonic Switches for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Neal N.

    In this dissertation, we describe, characterize, and demonstrate the operation of a dual-in, dual-out, all-optical, fiber-based quantum switch. This "cross-bar" switch is particularly useful for applications in quantum information processing because of its low-loss, high-speed, low-noise, and quantum-state-retention properties. Building upon on our lab's prior development of an ultrafast demultiplexer [1-3] , the new cross-bar switch can be used as a tunable multiplexer and demultiplexer. In addition to this more functional geometry, we present results demonstrating faster performance with a switching window of ≈45 ps, corresponding to >20-GHz switching rates. We show a switching fidelity of >98%, i. e., switched polarization-encoded photonic qubits are virtually identical to unswitched photonic qubits. We also demonstrate the ability to select one channel from a two-channel quantum data stream with the state of the measured (recovered) quantum channel having >96% relative fidelity with the state of that channel transmitted alone. We separate the two channels of the quantum data stream by 155 ps, corresponding to a 6.5-GHz datastream. Finally, we describe, develop, and demonstrate an application that utilizes the switch's higher-speed, lower-loss, and spatio-temporal-encoding features to perform quantum state tomographies on entangled states in higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Since many previous demonstrations show bipartite entanglement of two-level systems, we define "higher" as d > 2 where d represents the dimensionality of a photon. We show that we can generate and measure time-bin-entangled, two-photon, qutrit (d = 3) and ququat (d = 4) states with >85% and >64% fidelity to an ideal maximally entangled state, respectively. Such higher-dimensional states have applications in dense coding [4] , loophole-free tests of nonlocality [5] , simplifying quantum logic gates [6] , and increasing tolerance to noise and loss for quantum information processing [7] .

  10. Quantum information processing by weaving quantum Talbot carpets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías, Osvaldo Jiménez; de Melo, Fernando; Milman, Pérola; Walborn, Stephen P.

    2015-06-01

    Single-photon interference due to passage through a periodic grating is considered in a novel proposal for processing D -dimensional quantum systems (quDits) encoded in the spatial degrees of freedom of light. We show that free-space propagation naturally implements basic single-quDit gates by means of the Talbot effect: an intricate time-space carpet of light in the near-field diffraction regime. By adding a diagonal phase gate, we show that a complete set of single-quDit gates can be implemented. We then introduce a spatially dependent beam splitter that allows for projective measurements in the computational basis and can be used for the implementation of controlled operations between two quDits. Universal quantum information processing can then be implemented with linear optics and ancilla photons via postselection and feed-forward following the original proposal of Knill-Laflamme and Milburn. Although we consider photons, our scheme should be directly applicable to a number of other physical systems. Interpretation of the Talbot effect as a quantum logic operation provides a beautiful and interesting way to visualize quantum computation through wave propagation and interference.

  11. Enjoyment of Euclidean planar triangles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-09-01

    This article adopts the following classification for a Euclidean planar ?, purely based on angles alone. A Euclidean planar triangle is said to be acute angled if all the three angles of the Euclidean planar ? are acute angles. It is said to be right angled at a specific vertex, say B, if the angle ? is a right angle with the two remaining angles as acute angles. It is said to be obtuse angled at the vertex B if ? is an obtuse angle, with the two remaining angles as acute angles. In spite of the availability of numerous text books that contain our human knowledge of Euclidean plane geometry, softwares can offer newer insights about the characterizations of planar geometrical objects. The author's characterizations of triangles involve points like the centroid G, the orthocentre H of the ?, the circumcentre S of the ?, the centre N of the nine-point circle of the ?. Also the radical centre rc of three involved diameter circles of the sides BC, AC and AB of the ? provides a reformulation of the orthocentre, resulting in an interesting theorem, dubbed by the author as 'Three Circles Theorem'. This provides a special result for a right-angled ?, again dubbed by the author as 'The Four Circles Theorem'. Apart from providing various inter connections between the geometrical points, the relationships between shapes of the triangle and the behaviour of the points are reasonably explored in this article. Most of these results will be useful to students that take courses in Euclidean Geometry at the college level and the high school level. This article will be useful to teachers in mathematics at the high school level and the college level.

  12. Tunneling through nonstationary barriers and Euclidean resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Ivlev, B.

    2004-09-01

    The phenomenon of Euclidean resonance (a strong enhancement of quantum tunneling through a nonstationary potential barrier) is applied to disintegration of atoms and molecules through tunnel barriers formed by applied constant and time-dependent electric fields. There are two different channels for such disintegration, electronic and ionic. The electronic mechanism is associated with the ionization of a molecule into an electron and a positive ion. The required frequencies are in a wide range between 100 MHz and the infrared. This mechanism may constitute a method of selective destruction of chemical bonds. The ionic mechanism consists of dissociation of a molecule into two ions. Since an ion is more massive than an electron, the necessary frequency is about 1 MHz. This provides the theoretical possibility of a different method of isotope separation by radio frequency waves.

  13. Euclidean lattice simulation for dynamical supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamori, Issaku; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sugino, Fumihiko

    2008-05-01

    The global supersymmetry is spontaneously broken if and only if the ground-state energy is strictly positive. We propose to use this fact to observe the spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in Euclidean lattice simulations. For lattice formulations that possess a manifest fermionic symmetry, there exists a natural choice of a Hamiltonian operator that is consistent with a topological property of the Witten index. We confirm validity of our idea in models of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics. We then examine a possibility of a dynamical supersymmetry breaking in the two-dimensional N=(2,2) super Yang-Mills theory with the gauge group SU(2), for which the Witten index is unknown. Differently from a recent conjectural claim, our numerical result tempts us to conclude that supersymmetry is not spontaneously broken in this system.

  14. Euclidean Geometry via Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filimonov, Rossen; Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Plane Geometry System computer software developed at the Educational Computer Systems laboratory in Sofia, Bulgaria. The system enables students to use the concept of "algorithm" to correspond to the process of "deductive proof" in the development of plane geometry. Provides an example of the software's capability…

  15. Euclidean Circles and Their Modular Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1990-01-01

    Shows a series of Euclidean equations using the Euclidean algorithm to get the greatest common divisor of two integers. Describes the use of the equations to generate a series of circles. Discusses computer generation of Euclidean circles and provides a BASIC program. (YP)

  16. Non-Local Euclidean Medians.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Singer, Amit

    2012-11-01

    In this letter, we note that the denoising performance of Non-Local Means (NLM) can be improved at large noise levels by replacing the mean by the Euclidean median. We call this new denoising algorithm the Non-Local Euclidean Medians (NLEM). At the heart of NLEM is the observation that the median is more robust to outliers than the mean. In particular, we provide a simple geometric insight that explains why NLEM performs better than NLM in the vicinity of edges, particularly at large noise levels. NLEM can be efficiently implemented using iteratively reweighted least squares, and its computational complexity is comparable to that of NLM. We provide some preliminary results to study the proposed algorithm and to compare it with NLM.

  17. Reversibility in Quantum Models of Stochastic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gier, David; Crutchfield, James; Mahoney, John; James, Ryan

    Natural phenomena such as time series of neural firing, orientation of layers in crystal stacking and successive measurements in spin-systems are inherently probabilistic. The provably minimal classical models of such stochastic processes are ɛ-machines, which consist of internal states, transition probabilities between states and output values. The topological properties of the ɛ-machine for a given process characterize the structure, memory and patterns of that process. However ɛ-machines are often not ideal because their statistical complexity (Cμ) is demonstrably greater than the excess entropy (E) of the processes they represent. Quantum models (q-machines) of the same processes can do better in that their statistical complexity (Cq) obeys the relation Cμ >= Cq >= E. q-machines can be constructed to consider longer lengths of strings, resulting in greater compression. With code-words of sufficiently long length, the statistical complexity becomes time-symmetric - a feature apparently novel to this quantum representation. This result has ramifications for compression of classical information in quantum computing and quantum communication technology.

  18. Exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    Large momentum transfer exclusive processes and the short distance structure of hadronic wave functions can be systematically analyzed within the context of perturbative QCD. Predictions for meson form factors, two-photon processes ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. M anti M, hadronic decays of heavy quark systems, and a number of other related QCD phenomena are reviewed.

  19. Topological Quantum Information Processing Mediated Via Hybrid Topogical Insulator Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-28

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0591 TOPOLOGICAL QUANTUM INFORMATION PROCESSING MEDIATED VIA HYBRID TOPOGICAL INSULAT Matthew Gilbert UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS...Virginia 22203 Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Materiel Command Final Progress Report Title: Topological Quantum Information Processing...long been known to have the potential to perform universal quantum computation. To realize quantum computation with spins one needs an extraordinary

  20. Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Peter Lepage, G.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * NONRELATIVISTIC FORM FACTORS FOR HEAVY-QUARK MESONS * HADRONIC WAVEFUNCTIONS * DEFINITIONS * LIGHT-CONE BOUND-STATE EQUATIONS * GENERAL PROPERTIES OF LIGHT-CONE WAVEFUNCTIONS * RENORMALIZATION * CALCULATING * A PERTURBATIVE ANALYSIS * FACTORIZATION—LEADING ORDER ANALYSIS * THE QUARK DISTRIBUTION AMPLITUDE * DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION AMPLITUDES * HIGHER ORDER ANALYSIS * COMPLICATIONS * How LARGE IS ASYMPTOTIC Q? * APPLICATIONS OF QCD TO THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF EXCLUSIVE REACTIONS * GENERAL FEATURES OF EXCLUSIVE PROCESSES IN QCD * ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM FACTORS * COMPARISON OF QCD SCALING WITH EXPERIMENT * EXCLUSIVE ANTI-PROTON PROTON ANNIHILATION PROCESSES * ADDITIONAL TESTS OF GLUON SPIN IN EXCLUSIVE PROCESSES * HADRONIC WAVEFUNCTION PHENOMENOLOGY * CALCULATING TH * THE PRE-QCD DEVELOPMENT OF EXCLUSIVE REACTIONS * EXCLUSIVE e+ e- ANNIHILATION PROCESSES * J/ψ DECAY TO HADRON PAIRS * THE π-ρ PUZZLE * FORM FACTOR ZEROS IN QCD * EXCLUSIVE γγ REACTIONS * QCD PROCESSES IN NUCLEI * EXCLUSIVE NUCLEAR REACTIONS - REDUCED AMPLITUDES * COLOR TRANSPARENCY * SPIN CORRELATIONS IN PROTON-PROTON SCATTERING * CONCLUSIONS * APPENDIX I BARYON FORM FACTORS AND EVOLUTION EQUATIONS * APPENDIX II LIGHT CONE QUANTIZATION AND PERTURBATION THEORY * APPENDIX III A NONPERTURBATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXCLUSIVE REACTIONS-DISCRETIZED LIGHT-CONE QUANTIZATION * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  1. Quantum Information Processing with Trapped 43Ca+ Ions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-18

    state 11 Fig.3: Deterministic quantum teleportation protocol 12 Fig.4: Density matrix of an entangled eight-ion state 13 Fig.5: Quantum process...4.3.4 Deterministic quantum teleportation Teleportation of a quantum state encompasses the complete transfer of information from one particle to...allow quantum -state teleportation to be performed. We succeeded in demonstrating deterministic quantum -state teleportation between a pair of trapped

  2. Quantum cooperative process in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, Robert

    2006-03-01

    A model of a quantum cooperative process has accurately accounted for various quantitative observations.^1 That investigation considered chemical oscillations to be generated by generic quantum oscillators producing discrete quanta with well-defined energy and wavelength. The current work extends the theory by postulating that these oscillations arise from repetitive electron transfers in membranes. We find this produces a limit cycle completely consistent with the hypothetical generic oscillators, accurately reproduces the results of microwave irradiation experiments on yeast, and addresses limits for the smallest possible cell sizes. Questions of coherence in cells and implications for molecular information transfers are briefly considered. ^1R.W. Finkel, J. Theor. Biol. in press.

  3. Optimal Hamiltonian Simulation by Quantum Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Guang Hao; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2017-01-01

    The physics of quantum mechanics is the inspiration for, and underlies, quantum computation. As such, one expects physical intuition to be highly influential in the understanding and design of many quantum algorithms, particularly simulation of physical systems. Surprisingly, this has been challenging, with current Hamiltonian simulation algorithms remaining abstract and often the result of sophisticated but unintuitive constructions. We contend that physical intuition can lead to optimal simulation methods by showing that a focus on simple single-qubit rotations elegantly furnishes an optimal algorithm for Hamiltonian simulation, a universal problem that encapsulates all the power of quantum computation. Specifically, we show that the query complexity of implementing time evolution by a d -sparse Hamiltonian H ^ for time-interval t with error ɛ is O [t d ∥H ^ ∥max+log (1 /ɛ ) /log log (1 /ɛ ) ] , which matches lower bounds in all parameters. This connection is made through general three-step "quantum signal processing" methodology, comprised of (i) transducing eigenvalues of H ^ into a single ancilla qubit, (ii) transforming these eigenvalues through an optimal-length sequence of single-qubit rotations, and (iii) projecting this ancilla with near unity success probability.

  4. A Process Algebra Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulis, William

    2017-04-01

    The process algebra program is directed towards developing a realist model of quantum mechanics free of paradoxes, divergences and conceptual confusions. From this perspective, fundamental phenomena are viewed as emerging from primitive informational elements generated by processes. The process algebra has been shown to successfully reproduce scalar non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM) without the usual paradoxes and dualities. NRQM appears as an effective theory which emerges under specific asymptotic limits. Space-time, scalar particle wave functions and the Born rule are all emergent in this framework. In this paper, the process algebra model is reviewed, extended to the relativistic setting, and then applied to the problem of electrodynamics. A semiclassical version is presented in which a Minkowski-like space-time emerges as well as a vector potential that is discrete and photon-like at small scales and near-continuous and wave-like at large scales. QED is viewed as an effective theory at small scales while Maxwell theory becomes an effective theory at large scales. The process algebra version of quantum electrodynamics is intuitive and realist, free from divergences and eliminates the distinction between particle, field and wave. Computations are carried out using the configuration space process covering map, although the connection to second quantization has not been fully explored.

  5. The role of quantum memory in quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Kae; Stephens, Ashley M.; Devitt, Simon J.; Harrison, Keith A.; Munro, William J.

    2013-09-01

    Until recently, it was believed that long-lived quantum memories were necessary for long-distance quantum communication. However, by using error-correction codes in an efficient way—specifically, by correcting for photon loss—it is possible to transmit quantum information over long distances without quantum memories. For quantum computation, recent architectures for topological quantum computation indicate that the simplest large-scale structure could be memory-less. While a quantum memory may no longer be an essential resource for quantum networks, it could nonetheless be a key device in the development of quantum information technology. However, it is still not clear what benefits a functioning device could bring to quantum information systems, largely due to a lack of detailed models. Recently we have developed a detailed model for a quantum network based on a simple device designed to act as a building block for a full system architecture. The device is based on an optical cavity containing a negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. This model naturally integrates quantum communication with computation, and using this model we can assess quantitatively the costs and benefits of quantum memories. With or without quantum memories, it is necessary for us to preserve quantum information for a long period of time in either communication or computation.

  6. Basing quantum theory on information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Howard

    2008-03-01

    I consider information-based derivations of the quantum formalism, in a framework encompassing quantum and classical theory and a broad spectrum of theories serving as foils to them. The most ambitious hope for such a derivation is a role analogous to Einstein's development of the dynamics and kinetics of macroscopic bodies, and later of their gravitational interactions, on the basis of simple principles with clear operational meanings and experimental consequences. Short of this, it could still provide a principled understanding of the features of quantum mechanics that account for its greater-than-classical information-processing power, helping guide the search for new quantum algorithms and protocols. I summarize the convex operational framework for theories, and discuss information-processing in theories therein. Results include the fact that information that can be obtained without disturbance is inherently classical, generalized no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems, exponentially secure bit commitment in all non-classical theories without entanglement, properties of theories that allow teleportation, and properties of theories that allow ``remote steering'' of ensembles using entanglement. Joint work with collaborators including Jonathan Barrett, Matthew Leifer, Alexander Wilce, Oscar Dahlsten, and Ben Toner.

  7. Conformal Janus on Euclidean sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gustavsson, Andreas; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2016-12-01

    We interpret Janus as an interface in a conformal field theory and study its properties. The Janus is created by an exactly marginal operator and we study its effect on the interface conformal field theory on the Janus. We do this by utilizing the AdS/CFT correspondence. We compute the interface free energy both from leading correction to the Euclidean action in the dual gravity description and from conformal perturbation theory in the conformal field theory. We find that the two results agree each other and that the interface free energy scales precisely as expected from the conformal invariance of the Janus interface.

  8. Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.

    PubMed

    Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A

    2017-01-01

    It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.

  9. Precisely timing dissipative quantum information processing.

    PubMed

    Kastoryano, M J; Wolf, M M; Eisert, J

    2013-03-15

    Dissipative engineering constitutes a framework within which quantum information processing protocols are powered by system-environment interaction rather than by unitary dynamics alone. This framework embraces noise as a resource and, consequently, offers a number of advantages compared to one based on unitary dynamics alone, e.g., that the protocols are typically independent of the initial state of the system. However, the time independent nature of this scheme makes it difficult to imagine precisely timed sequential operations, conditional measurements, or error correction. In this work, we provide a path around these challenges, by introducing basic dissipative gadgets which allow us to precisely initiate, trigger, and time dissipative operations while keeping the system Liouvillian time independent. These gadgets open up novel perspectives for thinking of timed dissipative quantum information processing. As an example, we sketch how measurement-based computation can be simulated in the dissipative setting.

  10. Precisely Timing Dissipative Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastoryano, M. J.; Wolf, M. M.; Eisert, J.

    2013-03-01

    Dissipative engineering constitutes a framework within which quantum information processing protocols are powered by system-environment interaction rather than by unitary dynamics alone. This framework embraces noise as a resource and, consequently, offers a number of advantages compared to one based on unitary dynamics alone, e.g., that the protocols are typically independent of the initial state of the system. However, the time independent nature of this scheme makes it difficult to imagine precisely timed sequential operations, conditional measurements, or error correction. In this work, we provide a path around these challenges, by introducing basic dissipative gadgets which allow us to precisely initiate, trigger, and time dissipative operations while keeping the system Liouvillian time independent. These gadgets open up novel perspectives for thinking of timed dissipative quantum information processing. As an example, we sketch how measurement-based computation can be simulated in the dissipative setting.

  11. Nondegenerate superintegrable systems in n-dimensional Euclidean spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kalnins, E. G.; Kress, J. M. Miller, W.; Pogosyan, G. S.

    2007-03-15

    We analyze the concept of a nondegenerate superintegrable system in n-dimensional Euclidean space. Attached to this idea is the notion that every such system affords a separation of variables in one of the various types of generic elliptical coordinates that are possible in complex Euclidean space. An analysis of how these coordinates are arrived at in terms of their expression in terms of Cartesian coordinates is presented in detail. The use of well-defined limiting processes illustrates just how all these systems can be obtained from the most general nondegenerate superintegrable system in n-dimensional Euclidean space. Two examples help with the understanding of how the general results are obtained.

  12. Realization of quantum information processing in quantum star network constituted by superconducting hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlin; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2016-12-01

    In the framework of superconducting hybrid systems, we construct a star quantum network in which a superconducting transmission line resonator as a quantum bus and multiple units constituted by transmission line resonator and superconducting qubits as the carriers of quantum information. We further propose and analyze a theoretical scheme to realize quantum information processing in the quantum network. The coupling between the bus and any two superconducting qubits can be selectively implemented based on the dark state resonances of the highly dissipative transmission line resonators, and it can be found that quantum information processing between any two units can be completed in one step. As examples, the transmission of unknown quantum states and the preparation of quantum entanglement in this quantum network are investigated. At last, we exhibit our simulation results and complete the relevant discussions in order to show the advantages of this kind of quantum network.

  13. A Case Example of Insect Gymnastics: How Is Non-Euclidean Geometry Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junius, Premalatha

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the article is on the complex cognitive process involved in learning the concept of "straightness" in Non-Euclidean geometry. Learning new material is viewed through a conflict resolution framework, as a student questions familiar assumptions understood in Euclidean geometry. A case study reveals how mathematization of the straight…

  14. Process tomography for unitary quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Gutoski, Gus; Johnston, Nathaniel

    2014-03-15

    We study the number of measurements required for quantum process tomography under prior information, such as a promise that the unknown channel is unitary. We introduce the notion of an interactive observable and we show that any unitary channel acting on a d-level quantum system can be uniquely identified among all other channels (unitary or otherwise) with only O(d{sup 2}) interactive observables, as opposed to the O(d{sup 4}) required for tomography of arbitrary channels. This result generalizes to the problem of identifying channels with at most q Kraus operators, and slight improvements can be obtained if we wish to identify such a channel only among unital channels or among other channels with q Kraus operators. These results are proven via explicit construction of large subspaces of Hermitian matrices with various conditions on rank, eigenvalues, and partial trace. Our constructions are built upon various forms of totally nonsingular matrices.

  15. From geometry to algebra: the Euclidean way with technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarello, Daniela; Flavia Mammana, Maria; Pennisi, Mario

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an experimental classroom activity, history-based with a phylogenetic approach, to achieve algebra properties through geometry. In particular, we used Euclidean propositions, processed them by a dynamic geometry system and translate them into algebraic special products.

  16. Printing Non-Euclidean Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurlo, Giuseppe; Truskinovsky, Lev

    2017-07-01

    Geometrically frustrated solids with a non-Euclidean reference metric are ubiquitous in biology and are becoming increasingly relevant in technological applications. Often they acquire a targeted configuration of incompatibility through the surface accretion of mass as in tree growth or dam construction. We use the mechanics of incompatible surface growth to show that geometrical frustration developing during deposition can be fine-tuned to ensure a particular behavior of the system in physiological (or working) conditions. As an illustration, we obtain an explicit 3D printing protocol for arteries, which guarantees stress uniformity under inhomogeneous loading, and for explosive plants, allowing a complete release of residual elastic energy with a single cut. Interestingly, in both cases reaching the physiological target requires the incompatibility to have a topological (global) component.

  17. Quantum process reconstruction based on mutually unbiased basis

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Perez, A.; Saavedra, C.; Klimov, A. B.

    2011-05-15

    We study a quantum process reconstruction based on the use of mutually unbiased projectors (MUB projectors) as input states for a D-dimensional quantum system, with D being a power of a prime number. This approach connects the results of quantum-state tomography using mutually unbiased bases with the coefficients of a quantum process, expanded in terms of MUB projectors. We also study the performance of the reconstruction scheme against random errors when measuring probabilities at the MUB projectors.

  18. Quantum process discrimination with information from environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan-Mei; Li, Jun-Gang; Zou, Jian; Xu, Bao-Ming

    2016-12-01

    In quantum metrology we usually extract information from the reduced probe system but ignore the information lost inevitably into the environment. However, K. Mølmer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 040401 (2015)] showed that the information lost into the environment has an important effect on improving the successful probability of quantum process discrimination. Here we reconsider the model of a driven atom coupled to an environment and distinguish which of two candidate Hamiltonians governs the dynamics of the whole system. We mainly discuss two measurement methods, one of which obtains only the information from the reduced atom state and the other obtains the information from both the atom and its environment. Interestingly, for the two methods the optimal initial states of the atom, used to improve the successful probability of the process discrimination, are different. By comparing the two methods we find that the partial information from the environment is very useful for the discriminations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274043, 11375025, and 11005008).

  19. Cold atom quantum emulation of ultrafast processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Shankari; Geiger, Zachary; Fujiwara, Kurt; Singh, Kevin; Senaratne, Ruwan; Weld, David

    2016-05-01

    Pulsed lasers are an invaluable probe of fast electron dynamics in condensed matter systems. However, despite tremendous progress, physical limitations on lasers and a lack of exact theoretical models still limit the exploration of ultrafast processes in solids. We discuss a possible complementary approach, in which lattice-trapped cold neutral atoms driven far from equilibrium are used as a quantum emulator of ultrafast physics at sub-cycle timescales. The cold atom context is in many ways a natural choice for such experiments: equilibration timescales are more than ten orders of magnitude slower than those in solids, and strong driving forces are easily produced and manipulated. Our experimental approach uses ultracold strontium in optical traps. Multiple stable isotopes and a long-lived metastable state provide control over interaction strengths, while a narrow-linewidth transition expands the typical cold-atom toolbox of readout techniques. We discuss initial efforts in quantum emulation of tunnel ionization and development of a platform for more complicated endeavors, including the study of multiple-pulse sequences and recollision processes. We acknowledge support from the NSF GRFP, the AFOSR, the ARO and DURIP program, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the University of California Office of the President.

  20. Compact component for integrated quantum optic processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2015-11-01

    Quantum interference is indispensable to derive integrated quantum optic technologies (1-2). For further progress in large scale integration of quantum optic circuit, we have introduced first time two mode interference (TMI) coupler as an ultra compact component. The quantum interference varying with coupling length corresponding to the coupling ratio is studied and the larger HOM dip with peak visibility ~0.963 ± 0.009 is found at half coupling length of TMI coupler. Our results also demonstrate complex quantum interference with high fabrication tolerance and quantum visibility in TMI coupler.

  1. Nature computes: information processing in quantum dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Karoline

    2010-09-01

    Nature intrinsically computes. It has been suggested that the entire universe is a computer, in particular, a quantum computer. To corroborate this idea we require tools to quantify the information processing. Here we review a theoretical framework for quantifying information processing in a quantum dynamical system. So-called intrinsic quantum computation combines tools from dynamical systems theory, information theory, quantum mechanics, and computation theory. We will review how far the framework has been developed and what some of the main open questions are. On the basis of this framework we discuss upper and lower bounds for intrinsic information storage in a quantum dynamical system.

  2. Toward a conceptual foundation of Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiribella, Giulio

    2011-03-01

    Quantum Information Science has brought to light an enormous amount of new protocols showing that the structure of quantum theory dramatically impacts the way in which information can be processed. It also made clear that the rules of information processing are dictated by physics and that different physical theories entail different models of information processing. Quantum Information poses an exciting challenge to foundational research: the challenge is to reduce the multiplicity of quantum protocols to a small number of basic physical principles and to answer questions like ``What are the physical roots of the power of quantum information?'' A satisfactory answer to these questions calls for the solution of a long-standing problem: deriving quantum theory from physical principles, as opposed to the abstract mathematical principles of the Hilbert space formulation. In this talk I will show that quantum theory can be derived from few principles about information processing. The central principle of the derivation will be the purification principle, stating that ignorance about a part (subsystem) is always compatible with maximal knowledge of the whole (compound system). A large number of quantum information features, including e.g. teleportation and no-cloning, are direct consequences of the purification principle, which appears a strong candidate for the conceptual foundation of Quantum Information Processing. Moreover, the derivation of quantum theory from purely informational principles provides a rigorous justification of the diffuse claim that quantum theory is ultimately a theory of information.

  3. Euclidean supersymmetry, twisting and topological sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, C. M.; Lindström, U.; Melo dos Santos, L.; von Unge, R.; Zabzine, M.

    2008-06-01

    We discuss two dimensional N-extended supersymmetry in Euclidean signature and its R-symmetry. For N = 2, the R-symmetry is SO(2) × SO(1, 1), so that only an A-twist is possible. To formulate a B-twist, or to construct Euclidean N = 2 models with H-flux so that the target geometry is generalised Kahler, it is necessary to work with a complexification of the sigma models. These issues are related to the obstructions to the existence of non-trivial twisted chiral superfields in Euclidean superspace.

  4. Quantum processes in strong magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.

    1975-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical processes that occur in a piece of matter embedded in a magnetic field with a strength of the order of 10 to the 13th power G are described which either are entirely due to the presence of the field or become modified because of it. The conversion of rotational energy into electromagnetic energy in pulsars is analyzed as a mechanism for producing such a field, and it is shown that a strong magnetic field is not sufficient for quantum effects to play a significant role; in addition, the density must be adjusted to be as low as possible. The pressure and energy density of a free electron gas in a uniform magnetic field are evaluated, neutron beta-decay in the presence of a strong field is examined, and the effect of such a field on neutrino reactions is discussed. The thermal history of a neutron star is studied, and it is concluded that a strong magnetic field helps to increase the cooling rate of the star by producing new channels through which neutrinos can carry away energy.

  5. Quantum processes in strong magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.

    1975-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical processes that occur in a piece of matter embedded in a magnetic field with a strength of the order of 10 to the 13th power G are described which either are entirely due to the presence of the field or become modified because of it. The conversion of rotational energy into electromagnetic energy in pulsars is analyzed as a mechanism for producing such a field, and it is shown that a strong magnetic field is not sufficient for quantum effects to play a significant role; in addition, the density must be adjusted to be as low as possible. The pressure and energy density of a free electron gas in a uniform magnetic field are evaluated, neutron beta-decay in the presence of a strong field is examined, and the effect of such a field on neutrino reactions is discussed. The thermal history of a neutron star is studied, and it is concluded that a strong magnetic field helps to increase the cooling rate of the star by producing new channels through which neutrinos can carry away energy.

  6. Characterization of conditional state-engineering quantum processes by coherent state quantum process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Merlin; Slade, Eirion; Karpiński, Michał; Smith, Brian J.

    2015-03-01

    Conditional quantum optical processes enable a wide range of technologies from generation of highly non-classical states to implementation of quantum logic operations. The process fidelity that can be achieved in a realistic implementation depends on a number of system parameters. Here we experimentally examine Fock state filtration, a canonical example of a broad class of conditional quantum operations acting on a single optical field mode. This operation is based upon interference of the mode to be manipulated with an auxiliary single-photon state at a beam splitter, resulting in the entanglement of the two output modes. A conditional projective measurement onto a single photon state at one output mode heralds the success of the process. This operation, which implements a measurement-induced nonlinearity, is capable of suppressing particular photon-number probability amplitudes of an arbitrary quantum state. We employ coherent-state process tomography to determine the precise operation realized in our experiment, which is mathematically represented by a process tensor. To identify the key sources of experimental imperfection, we develop a realistic model of the process and identify three main contributions that significantly hamper its efficacy. The experimentally reconstructed process tensor is compared with the model, yielding a fidelity better than 0.95. This enables us to identify three key challenges to overcome in realizing a filter with optimal performance—namely the single-photon nature of the auxiliary state, high mode overlap of the optical fields involved, and the need for photon-number-resolving detection when heralding. The results show that the filter does indeed exhibit a non-linear response as a function of input photon number and preserves the phase relation between Fock layers of the output state, providing promise for future applications.

  7. Entropy Transfer of Quantum Gravity Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2015-05-01

    We introduce the term smooth entanglement entropy transfer, a phenomenon that is a consequence of the causality-cancellation property of the quantum gravity environment. The causality-cancellation of the quantum gravity space removes the causal dependencies of the local systems. We study the physical effects of the causality-cancellation and show that it stimulates entropy transfer between the quantum gravity environment and the independent local systems of the quantum gravity space. The entropy transfer reduces the entropies of the contributing local systems and increases the entropy of the quantum gravity environment. We discuss the space-time geometry structure of the quantum gravity environment and the local quantum systems. We propose the space-time geometry model of the smooth entropy transfer. We reveal on a smooth Cauchy slice that the space-time geometry of the quantum gravity environment dynamically adapts to the vanishing causality. We prove that the Cauchy area expansion, along with the dilation of the Rindler horizon area of the quantum gravity environment, is a corollary of the causality-cancellation of the quantum gravity environment. This work was partially supported by the GOP-1.1.1-11-2012-0092 (Secure quantum key distribution between two units on optical fiber network) project sponsored by the EU and European Structural Fund, and by the COST Action MP1006.

  8. Non-Euclidean Geometry and Unreal Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thwaites, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses two of the reasons for the decline of formal Euclidean geometry in recent syllabi: (1) Traditional approach; and (2) Inherent difficulties. Suggested are some reasons and examples as to why the decline should be reversed. (YP)

  9. Zero energy scattering calculation in Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, J.; Karmanov, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    We show that the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the scattering amplitude in the limit of zero incident energy can be transformed into a purely Euclidean form, as it is the case for the bound states. The decoupling between Euclidean and Minkowski amplitudes is only possible for zero energy scattering observables and allows determining the scattering length from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude. Such a possibility strongly simplifies the numerical solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation and suggests an alternative way to compute the scattering length in Lattice Euclidean calculations without using the Luscher formalism. The derivations contained in this work were performed for scalar particles and one-boson exchange kernel. They can be generalized to the fermion case and more involved interactions.

  10. Designing quantum information processing via structural physical approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2017-10-01

    In quantum information processing it may be possible to have efficient computation and secure communication beyond the limitations of classical systems. In a fundamental point of view, however, evolution of quantum systems by the laws of quantum mechanics is more restrictive than classical systems, identified to a specific form of dynamics, that is, unitary transformations and, consequently, positive and completely positive maps to subsystems. This also characterizes classes of disallowed transformations on quantum systems, among which positive but not completely maps are of particular interest as they characterize entangled states, a general resource in quantum information processing. Structural physical approximation offers a systematic way of approximating those non-physical maps, positive but not completely positive maps, with quantum channels. Since it has been proposed as a method of detecting entangled states, it has stimulated fundamental problems on classifications of positive maps and the structure of Hermitian operators and quantum states, as well as on quantum measurement such as quantum design in quantum information theory. It has developed efficient and feasible methods of directly detecting entangled states in practice, for which proof-of-principle experimental demonstrations have also been performed with photonic qubit states. Here, we present a comprehensive review on quantum information processing with structural physical approximations and the related progress. The review mainly focuses on properties of structural physical approximations and their applications toward practical information applications.

  11. Designing quantum information processing via structural physical approximation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2017-10-01

    In quantum information processing it may be possible to have efficient computation and secure communication beyond the limitations of classical systems. In a fundamental point of view, however, evolution of quantum systems by the laws of quantum mechanics is more restrictive than classical systems, identified to a specific form of dynamics, that is, unitary transformations and, consequently, positive and completely positive maps to subsystems. This also characterizes classes of disallowed transformations on quantum systems, among which positive but not completely maps are of particular interest as they characterize entangled states, a general resource in quantum information processing. Structural physical approximation offers a systematic way of approximating those non-physical maps, positive but not completely positive maps, with quantum channels. Since it has been proposed as a method of detecting entangled states, it has stimulated fundamental problems on classifications of positive maps and the structure of Hermitian operators and quantum states, as well as on quantum measurement such as quantum design in quantum information theory. It has developed efficient and feasible methods of directly detecting entangled states in practice, for which proof-of-principle experimental demonstrations have also been performed with photonic qubit states. Here, we present a comprehensive review on quantum information processing with structural physical approximations and the related progress. The review mainly focuses on properties of structural physical approximations and their applications toward practical information applications.

  12. Toward Scalable Ion Traps for Quantum Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits Nature 429 737 [15] Jost J D, Home J P, Amini J M, Hanneke D, Ozeri R, Langer C, Bollinger J J, Leibfried...Toward scalable ion traps for quantum information processing This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full...AND SUBTITLE Toward Scalable ion Traps For Quantum Information Processing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  13. Barbero-Immirzi parameter, manifold invariants and Euclidean path integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liko, Tomáš

    2012-05-01

    The Barbero-Immirzi parameter γ appears in the real connection formulation of gravity in terms of the Ashtekar variables, and gives rise to a one-parameter quantization ambiguity in loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we investigate the conditions under which γ will have physical effects in Euclidean quantum gravity. This is done by constructing a well-defined Euclidean path integral for the Holst action with a non-zero cosmological constant on a manifold with a boundary. We find that two general conditions must be satisfied by the spacetime manifold in order for the Holst action and its surface integral to be non-zero: (i) the metric has to be non-diagonalizable; (ii) the Pontryagin number of the manifold has to be non-zero. The latter is a strong topological condition and rules out many of the known solutions to the Einstein field equations. This result leads us to evaluate the on-shell first-order Holst action and corresponding Euclidean partition function on the Taub-NUT-ADS solution. We find that γ shows up as a finite rotation of the on-shell partition function which corresponds to shifts in the energy and entropy of the NUT charge. In an appendix, we also evaluate the Holst action on the Taub-NUT and Taub-bolt solutions in flat spacetime and find that in that case as well γ shows up in the energy and entropy of the NUT and bolt charges. We also present an example whereby the Euler characteristic of the manifold has a non-trivial effect on black hole mergers. Communicated by PRLV Moniz

  14. Quantum Chemical Strain Analysis For Mechanochemical Processes.

    PubMed

    Stauch, Tim; Dreuw, Andreas

    2017-03-24

    The use of mechanical force to initiate a chemical reaction is an efficient alternative to the conventional sources of activation energy, i.e., heat, light, and electricity. Applications of mechanochemistry in academic and industrial laboratories are diverse, ranging from chemical syntheses in ball mills and ultrasound baths to direct activation of covalent bonds using an atomic force microscope. The vectorial nature of force is advantageous because specific covalent bonds can be preconditioned for rupture by selective stretching. However, the influence of mechanical force on single molecules is still not understood at a fundamental level, which limits the applicability of mechanochemistry. As a result, many chemists still resort to rules of thumb when it comes to conducting mechanochemical syntheses. In this Account, we show that comprehension of mechanochemistry at the molecular level can be tremendously advanced by quantum chemistry, in particular by using quantum chemical force analysis tools. One such tool is the JEDI (Judgement of Energy DIstribution) analysis, which provides a convenient approach to analyze the distribution of strain energy in a mechanically deformed molecule. Based on the harmonic approximation, the strain energy contribution is calculated for each bond length, bond angle and dihedral angle, thus providing a comprehensive picture of how force affects molecules. This Account examines the theoretical foundations of quantum chemical force analysis and provides a critical overview of the performance of the JEDI analysis in various mechanochemical applications. We explain in detail how this analysis tool is to be used to identify the "force-bearing scaffold" of a distorted molecule, which allows both the rationalization and the optimization of diverse mechanochemical processes. More precisely, we show that the inclusion of every bond, bending and torsion of a molecule allows a particularly insightful discussion of the distribution of mechanical

  15. Photonic Architecture for Scalable Quantum Information Processing in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Kae; Trupke, Michael; Devitt, Simon J.; Stephens, Ashley M.; Scharfenberger, Burkhard; Buczak, Kathrin; Nöbauer, Tobias; Everitt, Mark S.; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Munro, William J.

    2014-07-01

    Physics and information are intimately connected, and the ultimate information processing devices will be those that harness the principles of quantum mechanics. Many physical systems have been identified as candidates for quantum information processing, but none of them are immune from errors. The challenge remains to find a path from the experiments of today to a reliable and scalable quantum computer. Here, we develop an architecture based on a simple module comprising an optical cavity containing a single negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. Modules are connected by photons propagating in a fiber-optical network and collectively used to generate a topological cluster state, a robust substrate for quantum information processing. In principle, all processes in the architecture can be deterministic, but current limitations lead to processes that are probabilistic but heralded. We find that the architecture enables large-scale quantum information processing with existing technology.

  16. Frequency-encoded photonic qubits for scalable quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, Joseph M.; Lougovski, Pavel

    2016-12-21

    Among the objectives for large-scale quantum computation is the quantum interconnect: a device that uses photons to interface qubits that otherwise could not interact. However, the current approaches require photons indistinguishable in frequency—a major challenge for systems experiencing different local environments or of different physical compositions altogether. Here, we develop an entirely new platform that actually exploits such frequency mismatch for processing quantum information. Labeled “spectral linear optical quantum computation” (spectral LOQC), our protocol offers favorable linear scaling of optical resources and enjoys an unprecedented degree of parallelism, as an arbitrary Ν-qubit quantum gate may be performed in parallel on multiple Ν-qubit sets in the same linear optical device. Here, not only does spectral LOQC offer new potential for optical interconnects, but it also brings the ubiquitous technology of high-speed fiber optics to bear on photonic quantum information, making wavelength-configurable and robust optical quantum systems within reach.

  17. Limitations on post-processing assisted quantum programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Miyadera, Takayuki; Tukiainen, Mikko

    2017-03-01

    A quantum multimeter is a programmable device that can implement measurements of different observables depending on the programming quantum state inserted into it. The advantage of this arrangement over a single-purpose device is in its versatility: one can realize various measurements simply by changing the programming state. The classical manipulation of measurement output data is known as post-processing. In this work we study the post-processing assisted quantum programming, which is a protocol where quantum programming and classical post-processing are combined. We provide examples showing that these two processes combined can be more efficient than either of them used separately. Furthermore, we derive an inequality relating the programming resources to their corresponding programmed observables, thereby enabling us to study the limitations on post-processing assisted quantum programming.

  18. Quantum Transport in Solids: Two-Electron Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-01

    The central objective of this research program has been to study theoretically the underlying principles of quantum transport in solids. The area of...research investigated has emphasized the understanding of two electron processes in quantum transport . The problems have been treated analytically to...the extent possible through the use of dynamical localized Wannier functions. These results have been and are being incorporated in a full quantum

  19. Quantum Transport in Solids: Two-Electron Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    The central objective of this research program has been to study theoretically the underlying principles of quantum transport in solids. The area of...research investigated has emphasized the understanding of two electron processes in quantum transport . The problems have been treated analytically to...the extent possible through the use of dynamical localized Wannier functions. These results have been and are being incorporated in a full quantum

  20. Modular quantum-information processing by dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jeffrey; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    Dissipation can be used as a resource to control and simulate quantum systems. We discuss a modular model based on fast dissipation capable of performing universal quantum computation, and simulating arbitrary Lindbladian dynamics. The model consists of a network of elementary dissipation-generated modules and it is in principle scalable. In particular, we demonstrate the ability to dissipatively prepare all single-qubit gates, and the controlled-not gate; prerequisites for universal quantum computing. We also show a way to implement a type of quantum memory in a dissipative environment, whereby we can arbitrarily control the loss in both coherence, and concurrence, over the evolution. Moreover, our dissipation-assisted modular construction exhibits a degree of inbuilt robustness to Hamiltonian and, indeed, Lindbladian errors, and as such is of potential practical relevance.

  1. Minimized state complexity of quantum-encoded cryptic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Paul M.; Mahoney, John R.; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-05-01

    The predictive information required for proper trajectory sampling of a stochastic process can be more efficiently transmitted via a quantum channel than a classical one. This recent discovery allows quantum information processing to drastically reduce the memory necessary to simulate complex classical stochastic processes. It also points to a new perspective on the intrinsic complexity that nature must employ in generating the processes we observe. The quantum advantage increases with codeword length: the length of process sequences used in constructing the quantum communication scheme. In analogy with the classical complexity measure, statistical complexity, we use this reduced communication cost as an entropic measure of state complexity in the quantum representation. Previously difficult to compute, the quantum advantage is expressed here in closed form using spectral decomposition. This allows for efficient numerical computation of the quantum-reduced state complexity at all encoding lengths, including infinite. Additionally, it makes clear how finite-codeword reduction in state complexity is controlled by the classical process's cryptic order, and it allows asymptotic analysis of infinite-cryptic-order processes.

  2. Using quantum filters to process images of diffuse axonal injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Osorio, Mateo

    2014-06-01

    Some images corresponding to a diffuse axonal injury (DAI) are processed using several quantum filters such as Hermite Weibull and Morse. Diffuse axonal injury is a particular, common and severe case of traumatic brain injury (TBI). DAI involves global damage on microscopic scale of brain tissue and causes serious neurologic abnormalities. New imaging techniques provide excellent images showing cellular damages related to DAI. Said images can be processed with quantum filters, which accomplish high resolutions of dendritic and axonal structures both in normal and pathological state. Using the Laplacian operators from the new quantum filters, excellent edge detectors for neurofiber resolution are obtained. Image quantum processing of DAI images is made using computer algebra, specifically Maple. Quantum filter plugins construction is proposed as a future research line, which can incorporated to the ImageJ software package, making its use simpler for medical personnel.

  3. Quantum Information Processing with Modular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Clayton; Inlek, Ismail V.; Hucul, David; Sosnova, Ksenia; Vittorini, Grahame; Monroe, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Trapped atomic ions are qubit standards for the production of entangled states in quantum information science and metrology applications. Trapped ions can exhibit very long coherence times, external fields can drive strong local interactions via phonons, and remote qubits can be entangled via photons. Transferring quantum information across spatially separated ion trap modules for a scalable quantum network architecture relies on the juxtaposition of both phononic and photonic buses. We report the successful combination of these protocols within and between two ion trap modules on a unit structure of this architecture where the remote entanglement generation rate exceeds the experimentally measured decoherence rate. Additionally, we report an experimental implementation of a technique to maintain phase coherence between spatially and temporally distributed quantum gate operations, a crucial prerequisite for scalability. Finally, we discuss our progress towards addressing the issue of uncontrolled cross-talk between photonic qubits and memory qubits by implementing a second ion species, Barium, to generate the photonic link. This work is supported by the ARO with funding from the IARPA MQCO program, the DARPA Quiness Program, the ARO MURI on Hybrid Quantum Circuits, the AFOSR MURI on Quantum Transduction, and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.

  4. Controlled Hawking process by quantum energy teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, a new quantum mechanical method to extract energy from black holes with contracting horizons is proposed. The method is based on a gedanken experiment on quantum energy teleportation, which has been recently proposed in quantum information theory. We consider this quantum energy teleportation protocol for N massless fields in near-horizon regions of large-mass black holes with near-horizon geometry described by the Minkowski metric. For each field, a two-level spin is strongly coupled with the local quantum fluctuation outside the horizon during a short time period. After the measurement of N fields, N-bit information is obtained. During the measurement, positive-energy wave packets of the fields form and then fall into the black hole. The amount of excitation energy is independent of the measurement result. After absorption of the wave packets and increase of the black-hole mass, a measurement-result-dependent local operation of the N fields is performed outside the horizon. Then, accompanying the extraction of positive energy from the quantum fluctuation by the operation, negative-energy wave packets of the fields form and then fall into the black hole, decreasing the black-hole mass. This implies that a part of the absorbed positive energy emitted from the measurement devices is effectively retrieved from the black hole via the measurement results.

  5. Occam's Quantum Strop: Synchronizing and Compressing Classical Cryptic Processes via a Quantum Channel.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, John R; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P

    2016-02-15

    A stochastic process' statistical complexity stands out as a fundamental property: the minimum information required to synchronize one process generator to another. How much information is required, though, when synchronizing over a quantum channel? Recent work demonstrated that representing causal similarity as quantum state-indistinguishability provides a quantum advantage. We generalize this to synchronization and offer a sequence of constructions that exploit extended causal structures, finding substantial increase of the quantum advantage. We demonstrate that maximum compression is determined by the process' cryptic order--a classical, topological property closely allied to Markov order, itself a measure of historical dependence. We introduce an efficient algorithm that computes the quantum advantage and close noting that the advantage comes at a cost-one trades off prediction for generation complexity.

  6. Quantum information processing with superconducting circuits: a review.

    PubMed

    Wendin, G

    2017-10-01

    During the last ten years, superconducting circuits have passed from being interesting physical devices to becoming contenders for near-future useful and scalable quantum information processing (QIP). Advanced quantum simulation experiments have been shown with up to nine qubits, while a demonstration of quantum supremacy with fifty qubits is anticipated in just a few years. Quantum supremacy means that the quantum system can no longer be simulated by the most powerful classical supercomputers. Integrated classical-quantum computing systems are already emerging that can be used for software development and experimentation, even via web interfaces. Therefore, the time is ripe for describing some of the recent development of superconducting devices, systems and applications. As such, the discussion of superconducting qubits and circuits is limited to devices that are proven useful for current or near future applications. Consequently, the centre of interest is the practical applications of QIP, such as computation and simulation in Physics and Chemistry.

  7. Manipulation of Entangled States for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, S.; Huelga, S. F.; Jonathan, D.; Knight, P. L.; Murao, M.; Plenio, M. B.; Vedral, V.

    Entanglement manipulation, and especially Entanglement Swapping is at the heart of current work on quantum information processing, purification and quantum teleportation. We will discuss how it may be generalized to multiparticle systems and how this enables multi-user quantum cryptographic protocols to be developed. Our scheme allows us to establish multiparticle entanglement between particles which belong to distant users in a communication network through a prior distribution of Bell state singlets followed by local measurements. We compare our method for generating entanglement with existing schemes using simple quantum networks, and highlight the advantages and applications in cryptographic conferencing and in reading messages from more than one source through a single quantum measurement. We also discuss how entanglement leads to the idea of `telecloning', in which a teleportation-like protocol can be found which reproduces the output of an optimal quantum cloning machine.

  8. Quantum information processing with superconducting circuits: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendin, G.

    2017-10-01

    During the last ten years, superconducting circuits have passed from being interesting physical devices to becoming contenders for near-future useful and scalable quantum information processing (QIP). Advanced quantum simulation experiments have been shown with up to nine qubits, while a demonstration of quantum supremacy with fifty qubits is anticipated in just a few years. Quantum supremacy means that the quantum system can no longer be simulated by the most powerful classical supercomputers. Integrated classical-quantum computing systems are already emerging that can be used for software development and experimentation, even via web interfaces. Therefore, the time is ripe for describing some of the recent development of superconducting devices, systems and applications. As such, the discussion of superconducting qubits and circuits is limited to devices that are proven useful for current or near future applications. Consequently, the centre of interest is the practical applications of QIP, such as computation and simulation in Physics and Chemistry.

  9. Understanding Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2008-05-01

    Ever since Erwin Schrodinger shocked the physics world by killing (and not killing) his cat, entanglement has played a critical role in attempts to understand quantum mechanics. More recently, entanglement has been shown to be a valuable resource, of central importance for quantum computation and the processing of quantum information. In this talk, I will describe a new diagrammatic approach to understanding why entanglement is so valuable, the key idea being that entanglement between two systems ``creates'' multiple images of the state of a third. By way of example, I will show how to ``visualize'' teleportation of unknown quantum states, and how to use entanglement to implement an interaction between spatially separated (and therefore non-interacting!) systems. These ideas have also proven useful in quantum state discrimination, where the state of a quantum system is unknown and is to be determined.

  10. Quantum image processing using Gaussian-Hermite filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto Tirado, Esteban

    2013-05-01

    Some new filters for image processing are obtained from the wave functions of the two-dimensional quantum oscillator. Such filters are gaussians multiplied by Hermite polynomials and for this reason they will be called Gaussian- Hermite filters. These new quantum filters can be used as smoothing filters and they show good performance when elimination of noise is concerned. Besides of this the new quantum filters can be used to define blurred derivatives and blurred Laplacians for images and in this case the quantum filters are excellent edge detectors. Finally the quantum filters and their derivatives are used to define quantum curvature filters as the Ricci-scalar-curvature filter and the Gaussian-curvature filter. In this last case the quantum filters perform well as curvature detectors and contrast enhancement operators. Our experimental results show that the quantum filters are more efficient than the classical filters and we claim that the quantum image processing will be a very important trend in the near future sensing technology.

  11. Quantum Processes Which Do Not Use Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadin, Benjamin; Ma, Jiajun; Girolami, Davide; Gu, Mile; Vedral, Vlatko

    2016-10-01

    A major signature of quantum mechanics beyond classical physics is coherence, the existence of superposition states. The recently developed resource theory of quantum coherence allows the formalization of incoherent operations—those operations which cannot create coherence. We identify the set of operations which additionally do not use coherence. These are such that coherence cannot be exploited by a classical observer, who measures incoherent properties of the system, to go beyond classical dynamics. We give a physical interpretation in terms of interferometry and prove a dilation theorem, showing how these operations can always be constructed by the system interacting, in an incoherent way, with an ancilla. Such a physical justification is not known for the incoherent operations; thus, our results lead to a physically well-motivated resource theory of coherence. Next, we investigate the implications for coherence in multipartite systems. We show that quantum correlations can be defined naturally with respect to a fixed basis, providing a link between coherence and quantum discord. We demonstrate the interplay between these two quantities in the operations that we study and suggest implications for the theory of quantum discord by relating these operations to those which cannot create discord.

  12. Scalable quantum information processing with photons and atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jian-Wei

    Over the past three decades, the promises of super-fast quantum computing and secure quantum cryptography have spurred a world-wide interest in quantum information, generating fascinating quantum technologies for coherent manipulation of individual quantum systems. However, the distance of fiber-based quantum communications is limited due to intrinsic fiber loss and decreasing of entanglement quality. Moreover, probabilistic single-photon source and entanglement source demand exponentially increased overheads for scalable quantum information processing. To overcome these problems, we are taking two paths in parallel: quantum repeaters and through satellite. We used the decoy-state QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon source, and used the measurement-device-independent QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon detectors--two main loopholes in quantum cryptograph. Based on these techniques, we are now building world's biggest quantum secure communication backbone, from Beijing to Shanghai, with a distance exceeding 2000 km. Meanwhile, we are developing practically useful quantum repeaters that combine entanglement swapping, entanglement purification, and quantum memory for the ultra-long distance quantum communication. The second line is satellite-based global quantum communication, taking advantage of the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the atmosphere. We realized teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100 km, and later on a rapidly moving platform. We are also making efforts toward the generation of multiphoton entanglement and its use in teleportation of multiple properties of a single quantum particle, topological error correction, quantum algorithms for solving systems of linear equations and machine learning. Finally, I will talk about our recent experiments on quantum simulations on ultracold atoms. On the one hand, by applying an optical Raman lattice technique, we realized a two-dimensional spin-obit (SO

  13. Acetylcholine molecular arrays enable quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulis, Arvydas; Majauskaite, Kristina; Talaikis, Martynas; Zborowski, Krzysztof; Kairys, Visvaldas

    2017-09-01

    We have found self-assembly of four neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) molecular complexes in a water molecules environment by using geometry optimization with DFT B97d method. These complexes organizes to regular arrays of ACh molecules possessing electronic spins, i.e. quantum information bits. These spin arrays could potentially be controlled by the application of a non-uniform external magnetic field. The proper sequence of resonant electromagnetic pulses would then drive all the spin groups into the 3-spin entangled state and proceed large scale quantum information bits.

  14. Quantum-information processing with circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, Alexandre; Gambetta, Jay; Wallraff, A.; Schuster, D. I.; Girvin, S. M.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2007-03-01

    We theoretically study single and two-qubit dynamics in the circuit QED architecture. We focus on the current experimental design [Wallraff , Nature (London) 431, 162 (2004); Schuster , Nature (London) 445, 515 (2007)] in which superconducting charge qubits are capacitively coupled to a single high- Q superconducting coplanar resonator. In this system, logical gates are realized by driving the resonator with microwave fields. Advantages of this architecture are that it allows for multiqubit gates between non-nearest qubits and for the realization of gates in parallel, opening the possibility of fault-tolerant quantum computation with superconduting circuits. In this paper, we focus on one- and two-qubit gates that do not require moving away from the charge-degeneracy “sweet spot.” This is advantageous as it helps to increase the qubit dephasing time and does not require modification of the original circuit QED. However, these gates can, in some cases, be slower than those that do not use this constraint. Five types of two-qubit gates are discussed, these include gates based on virtual photons, real excitation of the resonator, and a gate based on the geometric phase. We also point out the importance of selection rules when working at the charge degeneracy point.

  15. Quantum information processing with electronic and nuclear spins in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Paul Victor

    Traditional electronic and communication devices operate by processing binary information encoded as bits. Such digital devices have led to the most advanced technologies that we encounter in our everyday lives and they influence virtually every aspect of our society. Nonetheless, there exists a much richer way to encode and process information. By encoding information in quantum mechanical states as qubits, phenomena such as coherence and entanglement can be harnessed to execute tasks that are intractable to digital devices. Under this paradigm, it should be possible to realize quantum computers, quantum communication networks and quantum sensors that outperform their classical counterparts. The electronic spin states of color-center defects in the semiconductor silicon carbide have recently emerged as promising qubit candidates. They have long-lived quantum coherence up to room temperature, they can be controlled with mature magnetic resonance techniques, and they have a built-in optical interface operating near the telecommunication bands. In this thesis I will present two of our contributions to this field. The first is the electric-field control of electron spin qubits. This development lays foundation for quantum electronics that operate via electrical gating, much like traditional electronics. The second is the universal control and entanglement of electron and nuclear spin qubits in an ensemble under ambient conditions. This development lays foundation for quantum devices that have a built-in redundancy and can operate in real-world conditions. Both developments represent important steps towards practical quantum devices in an electronic grade material.

  16. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  17. Efficient classical simulation of continuous variable quantum information processes.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Stephen D; Sanders, Barry C; Braunstein, Samuel L; Nemoto, Kae

    2002-03-04

    We obtain sufficient conditions for the efficient simulation of a continuous variable quantum algorithm or process on a classical computer. The resulting theorem is an extension of the Gottesman-Knill theorem to continuous variable quantum information. For a collection of harmonic oscillators, any quantum process that begins with unentangled Gaussian states, performs only transformations generated by Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the canonical operators, and involves only measurements of canonical operators (including finite losses) and suitable operations conditioned on these measurements can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer.

  18. Heralded processes on continuous-variable spaces as quantum maps

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreyrol, Franck; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Blandino, Rémi; Barbieri, Marco; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa

    2014-12-04

    Heralding processes, which only work when a measurement on a part of the system give the good result, are particularly interesting for continuous-variables. They permit non-Gaussian transformations that are necessary for several continuous-variable quantum information tasks. However if maps and quantum process tomography are commonly used to describe quantum transformations in discrete-variable space, they are much rarer in the continuous-variable domain. Also, no convenient tool for representing maps in a way more adapted to the particularities of continuous variables have yet been explored. In this paper we try to fill this gap by presenting such a tool.

  19. Making Euclidean Geometry Compulsory: Are We Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Putten, Sonja; Howie, Sarah; Stols, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude towards, as well as the level of understanding of Euclidean geometry in pre-service mathematics education (PME) students. In order to do so, a case study was undertaken within which a one group pre-post-test procedure was conducted around a geometry module, and a representative group of students was interviewed…

  20. Making Euclidean Geometry Compulsory: Are We Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Putten, Sonja; Howie, Sarah; Stols, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude towards, as well as the level of understanding of Euclidean geometry in pre-service mathematics education (PME) students. In order to do so, a case study was undertaken within which a one group pre-post-test procedure was conducted around a geometry module, and a representative group of students was interviewed…

  1. Non-Hermitian Euclidean random matrix theory.

    PubMed

    Goetschy, A; Skipetrov, S E

    2011-07-01

    We develop a theory for the eigenvalue density of arbitrary non-Hermitian Euclidean matrices. Closed equations for the resolvent and the eigenvector correlator are derived. The theory is applied to the random Green's matrix relevant to wave propagation in an ensemble of pointlike scattering centers. This opens a new perspective in the study of wave diffusion, Anderson localization, and random lasing.

  2. Measuring the heat exchange of a quantum process.

    PubMed

    Goold, John; Poschinger, Ulrich; Modi, Kavan

    2014-08-01

    Very recently, interferometric methods have been proposed to measure the full statistics of work performed on a driven quantum system [Dorner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230601 (2013) and Mazzola et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230602 (2013)]. The advantage of such schemes is that they replace the necessity to make projective measurements by performing phase estimation on an appropriately coupled ancilla qubit. These proposals are one possible route to the tangible experimental exploration of quantum thermodynamics, a subject which is the center of much current attention due to the current control of mesoscopic quantum systems. In this Rapid Communication we demonstrate that a modification of the phase estimation protocols can be used in order to measure the heat distribution of a quantum process. In addition, we demonstrate how our scheme maybe implemented using ion trap technology. Our scheme should pave the way for experimental explorations of the Landauer principle and hence the intricate energy to information conversion in mesoscopic quantum systems.

  3. Ultrafast Quantum Control and Quantum Processing in the Vibronic States of Molecules and Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Benjamin; Bustard, Philip; England, Duncan; Lausten, Rune

    2014-05-01

    The unusual features of quantum mechanics are enabling the development of technologies not possible with classical physics, including applications in secure communications, quantum processing, and enhanced measurement. Efforts to build these devices utilize nonclassical states in numerous quantum systems, including cavity quantum electrodynamics, trap ions, nuclear spins, etc. as the basis for many prototypes. Here we investigate vibronic states in both molecules and bulk solids as distinct alternatives. We demonstrate a memory for light based on storing photons in the vibrations of hydrogen molecules and the optical phonons of diamond. Both classical and nonclassical photon states are used. These THz-bandwidth memories can be used to store femtosecond pulses for many operational time bins before the states decohere, making them viable for local photonic processing. We investigate decoherence and major sources of competing noise. While sustaining quantum coherence is critical for most quantum processing, rapid dephasing can also be used as a resource in these systems for rapid quantum random number generation, suitable for high-performance cryptography. NSERC

  4. Occam’s Quantum Strop: Synchronizing and Compressing Classical Cryptic Processes via a Quantum Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, John R.; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-02-01

    A stochastic process’ statistical complexity stands out as a fundamental property: the minimum information required to synchronize one process generator to another. How much information is required, though, when synchronizing over a quantum channel? Recent work demonstrated that representing causal similarity as quantum state-indistinguishability provides a quantum advantage. We generalize this to synchronization and offer a sequence of constructions that exploit extended causal structures, finding substantial increase of the quantum advantage. We demonstrate that maximum compression is determined by the process’ cryptic order–a classical, topological property closely allied to Markov order, itself a measure of historical dependence. We introduce an efficient algorithm that computes the quantum advantage and close noting that the advantage comes at a cost–one trades off prediction for generation complexity.

  5. Quantum statistics of optical parametric processes with squeezed reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peřina, Jan; Křepelka, Jaromír

    2013-11-01

    Quantum statistics including joint photon-number and integrated-intensity probability distributions are derived in time evolution of general optical parametric process involving processes of frequency conversion, parametric amplification and subharmonic generation taking into account losses and noise described by squeezed reservoirs. Using these tools quantum entanglement of modes is considered and the other nonclassical properties of the process under discussion are demonstrated by means of conditional probability distributions and their Fano factors, difference-number probability distributions, quantum oscillations, squeezing of vacuum fluctuations and negative values of the joint and difference wave probability quasidistributions. Nonclassical properties are illustrated for spontaneous process as well as stimulated process by means of chaotic light and squeezed vacuum field. Multimode processes are investigated in the spirit of the Mandel-Rice photocount formula.

  6. Survey of control performance in quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocker, David; Zheng, Yicong; Kosut, Robert; Brun, Todd; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-11-01

    There is a rich variety of physics underlying the fundamental gating operations for quantum information processing (QIP). A key aspect of a QIP system is how noise may enter during quantum operations and how suppressing or correcting its effects can best be addressed. Quantum control techniques have been developed to specifically address this effort, although a detailed classification of the compatibility of controls schemes with noise sources found in common quantum systems has not yet been performed. This work numerically examines the performance of modern control methods for suppressing decoherence in the presence of noise forms found in viable quantum systems. The noise-averaged process matrix for controlled one-qubit and two-qubit operations are calculated across noise found in systems driven by Markovian open quantum dynamics. Rather than aiming to describe the absolute best control scheme for a given physical circumstance, this work serves instead to classify quantum control behavior across a large class of noise forms so that opportunities for improving QIP performance may be identified.

  7. Quantum correlation dynamics in photosynthetic processes assisted by molecular vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, G.L.; Roncaglia, M.; Raffa, F.A.; Genovese, M.

    2015-10-15

    During the long course of evolution, nature has learnt how to exploit quantum effects. In fact, recent experiments reveal the existence of quantum processes whose coherence extends over unexpectedly long time and space ranges. In particular, photosynthetic processes in light-harvesting complexes display a typical oscillatory dynamics ascribed to quantum coherence. Here, we consider the simple model where a dimer made of two chromophores is strongly coupled with a quasi-resonant vibrational mode. We observe the occurrence of wide oscillations of genuine quantum correlations, between electronic excitations and the environment, represented by vibrational bosonic modes. Such a quantum dynamics has been unveiled through the calculation of the negativity of entanglement and the discord, indicators widely used in quantum information for quantifying the resources needed to realize quantum technologies. We also discuss the possibility of approximating additional weakly-coupled off-resonant vibrational modes, simulating the disturbances induced by the rest of the environment, by a single vibrational mode. Within this approximation, one can show that the off-resonant bath behaves like a classical source of noise.

  8. Quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process in Lorentzian plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae

    2014-08-15

    The quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process between a positive ion and a neutral atom collision is investigated in nonthermal generalized Lorentzian plasmas. The result shows that the nonthermal effect enhances the resonant electron transfer cross section in Lorentzian plasmas. It is found that the nonthermal effect on the classical resonant electron transfer cross section is more significant than that on the quantum tunneling resonant charge transfer cross section. It is shown that the nonthermal effect on the resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with an increase of the Debye length. In addition, the nonthermal effect on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with increasing collision energy. The variation of nonthermal and plasma shielding effects on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process is also discussed.

  9. Employing Noisy Environments to Support Quantum Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Quantum Information Processing 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DAAD19-02-1-0161 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin B Plenio and Susana F Huelga...designated by other documentation. 12 a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 12 b ...entanglement dynamics can be achieved in such a system. The results of this work have been published in E. Jané, M.B. Plenio and D. Jonathan, ”Quantum

  10. Quantum Image Processing and Storage with Four Wave Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-10

    use of four-wave mixing (4WM) in atomic vapors. image processing, nonlinear optics, optical memory, quantum optics U U U UU INSTRUCTIONS FOR...the use of four-wave mixing (4WM) in atomic vapors. We have worked to study the propagation of quantum correlations, improve low- frequency squeezing...light near a Rb atomic resonance that has proven to be fairly easy to implement and robust to operate, and has been adopted by a number of groups

  11. Quantum stochastic processes for maps on Hilbert C*-modules

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Jaeseong; Ji, Un Cig

    2011-05-15

    We discuss pairs ({phi}, {Phi}) of maps, where {phi} is a map between C*-algebras and {Phi} is a {phi}-module map between Hilbert C*-modules, which are generalization of representations of Hilbert C*-modules. A covariant version of Stinespring's theorem for such a pair ({phi}, {Phi}) is established, and quantum stochastic processes constructed from pairs ({l_brace}{phi}{sub t{r_brace}}, {l_brace}{Phi}{sub t{r_brace}}) of families of such maps are studied. We prove that the quantum stochastic process J={l_brace}J{sub t{r_brace}} constructed from a {phi}-quantum dynamical semigroup {Phi}={l_brace}{Phi}{sub t{r_brace}} is a j-map for the quantum stochastic process j={l_brace}j{sub t{r_brace}} constructed from the given quantum dynamical semigroup {phi}={l_brace}{phi}{sub t{r_brace}}, and that J is covariant if the {phi}-quantum dynamical semigroup {Phi} is covariant.

  12. The Euclidean distribution of fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, Niels; Connor, Liam D.; Pen, Ue-Li

    2016-09-01

    We investigate whether current data on the distribution of observed flux densities of fast radio bursts (FRBs) are consistent with a constant source density in Euclidean space. We use the number of FRBs detected in two surveys with different characteristics along with the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the detected FRBs in a formalism similar to a V/Vmax-test to constrain the distribution of flux densities. We find consistency between the data and a Euclidean distribution. Any extension of this model is therefore not data-driven and needs to be motivated separately. As a byproduct we also obtain new improved limits for the FRB rate at 1.4 GHz, which had not been constrained in this way before.

  13. Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielnicki, Kevin

    Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on

  14. Frequency-encoded photonic qubits for scalable quantum information processing

    DOE PAGES

    Lukens, Joseph M.; Lougovski, Pavel

    2016-12-21

    Among the objectives for large-scale quantum computation is the quantum interconnect: a device that uses photons to interface qubits that otherwise could not interact. However, the current approaches require photons indistinguishable in frequency—a major challenge for systems experiencing different local environments or of different physical compositions altogether. Here, we develop an entirely new platform that actually exploits such frequency mismatch for processing quantum information. Labeled “spectral linear optical quantum computation” (spectral LOQC), our protocol offers favorable linear scaling of optical resources and enjoys an unprecedented degree of parallelism, as an arbitrary Ν-qubit quantum gate may be performed in parallel onmore » multiple Ν-qubit sets in the same linear optical device. Here, not only does spectral LOQC offer new potential for optical interconnects, but it also brings the ubiquitous technology of high-speed fiber optics to bear on photonic quantum information, making wavelength-configurable and robust optical quantum systems within reach.« less

  15. Frequency-encoded photonic qubits for scalable quantum information processing

    DOE PAGES

    Lukens, Joseph M.; Lougovski, Pavel

    2016-12-21

    Among the objectives for large-scale quantum computation is the quantum interconnect: a device that uses photons to interface qubits that otherwise could not interact. However, the current approaches require photons indistinguishable in frequency—a major challenge for systems experiencing different local environments or of different physical compositions altogether. Here, we develop an entirely new platform that actually exploits such frequency mismatch for processing quantum information. Labeled “spectral linear optical quantum computation” (spectral LOQC), our protocol offers favorable linear scaling of optical resources and enjoys an unprecedented degree of parallelism, as an arbitrary Ν-qubit quantum gate may be performed in parallel onmore » multiple Ν-qubit sets in the same linear optical device. Here, not only does spectral LOQC offer new potential for optical interconnects, but it also brings the ubiquitous technology of high-speed fiber optics to bear on photonic quantum information, making wavelength-configurable and robust optical quantum systems within reach.« less

  16. On the sensitivity of a Euclidean projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailov, A. F.; Kurennoy, A. S.

    2014-03-01

    The structure and behavior of Euclidean projections of a point onto a set defined by parametric constraints is studied. Under the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, it is shown that the projection is locally unique and continuous and, if the feasible set is constant, locally Lipschitz continuous as well. Quantitative results are obtained characterizing the asymptotic behavior of projections under perturbations in a given direction.

  17. Orientation Maps in V1 and Non-Euclidean Geometry.

    PubMed

    Afgoustidis, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    In the primary visual cortex, the processing of information uses the distribution of orientations in the visual input: neurons react to some orientations in the stimulus more than to others. In many species, orientation preference is mapped in a remarkable way on the cortical surface, and this organization of the neural population seems to be important for visual processing. Now, existing models for the geometry and development of orientation preference maps in higher mammals make a crucial use of symmetry considerations. In this paper, we consider probabilistic models for V1 maps from the point of view of group theory; we focus on Gaussian random fields with symmetry properties and review the probabilistic arguments that allow one to estimate pinwheel densities and predict the observed value of π. Then, in order to test the relevance of general symmetry arguments and to introduce methods which could be of use in modeling curved regions, we reconsider this model in the light of group representation theory, the canonical mathematics of symmetry. We show that through the Plancherel decomposition of the space of complex-valued maps on the Euclidean plane, each infinite-dimensional irreducible unitary representation of the special Euclidean group yields a unique V1-like map, and we use representation theory as a symmetry-based toolbox to build orientation maps adapted to the most famous non-Euclidean geometries, viz. spherical and hyperbolic geometry. We find that most of the dominant traits of V1 maps are preserved in these; we also study the link between symmetry and the statistics of singularities in orientation maps, and show what the striking quantitative characteristics observed in animals become in our curved models.

  18. Quantum-Classical Hybrid for Information Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantum-classical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the x-coordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source

  19. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-05-18

    In this study, we briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices.

  20. Colloidal quantum dot solids for solution-processed solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mingjian; Liu, Mengxia; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-03-01

    Solution-processed photovoltaic technologies represent a promising way to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of solar energy harvesting. Among these, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot photovoltaics have the advantage of a spectrally tuneable infrared bandgap, which enables use in multi-junction cells, as well as the benefit of generating and harvesting multiple charge carrier pairs per absorbed photon. Here we review recent progress in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics, focusing on three fronts. First, we examine strategies to manage the abundant surfaces of quantum dots, strategies that have led to progress in the removal of electronic trap states. Second, we consider new device architectures that have improved device performance to certified efficiencies of 10.6%. Third, we focus on progress in solution-phase chemical processing, such as spray-coating and centrifugal casting, which has led to the demonstration of manufacturing-ready process technologies.

  1. The Master Equations in the Euclidean Schwarzschild-Tangherlini Metric of a Small Static Perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Morales, José L.

    The master equations in the Euclidean Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time of a small static perturbation are studied. For each harmonic mode on the sphere there are two solutions that behave differently at infinity. One solution goes like the power 2-l-n of the radial variable, the other solution goes like the power l. These solutions occur in power series. The second main statement of the paper is that any eigentensor of the Lichnerowicz operator in a Euclidean Schwarzschild space-time with an eigenvalue different from zero is essentially singular at infinity. Possible applications of the stability of instantons are discussed. We present the analysis of a small static perturbation of the Euclidean Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metric tensor. The higher order perturbations will appear later. We determine independently the static perturbations of the Schwarzschild quantum black hole in dimension 1+n≥4, where the system of equations is reduced to master equations — ordinary differential equations. The solutions are hypergeometric functions which in some cases can be reduced to polynomials. In the same Schwarzschild background, we analyze static perturbations of the scalar mode and show that there does not exist any static perturbation that is regular everywhere outside the event horizon and is well-behaved at the spatial infinity. This confirms the uniqueness of the spherically symmetric static empty quantum black hole, within the perturbation framework. Our strategy for treating the stability problem is also applicable to other symmetric quantum black holes with a nonzero cosmological constant.

  2. Log-Euclidean metrics for fast and simple calculus on diffusion tensors.

    PubMed

    Arsigny, Vincent; Fillard, Pierre; Pennec, Xavier; Ayache, Nicholas

    2006-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DT-MRI or DTI) is an emerging imaging modality whose importance has been growing considerably. However, the processing of this type of data (i.e., symmetric positive-definite matrices), called "tensors" here, has proved difficult in recent years. Usual Euclidean operations on matrices suffer from many defects on tensors, which have led to the use of many ad hoc methods. Recently, affine-invariant Riemannian metrics have been proposed as a rigorous and general framework in which these defects are corrected. These metrics have excellent theoretical properties and provide powerful processing tools, but also lead in practice to complex and slow algorithms. To remedy this limitation, a new family of Riemannian metrics called Log-Euclidean is proposed in this article. They also have excellent theoretical properties and yield similar results in practice, but with much simpler and faster computations. This new approach is based on a novel vector space structure for tensors. In this framework, Riemannian computations can be converted into Euclidean ones once tensors have been transformed into their matrix logarithms. Theoretical aspects are presented and the Euclidean, affine-invariant, and Log-Euclidean frameworks are compared experimentally. The comparison is carried out on interpolation and regularization tasks on synthetic and clinical 3D DTI data. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Experimental reversion of the optimal quantum cloning and flipping processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sciarrino, Fabio; Secondi, Veronica; De Martini, Francesco

    2006-04-15

    The quantum cloner machine maps an unknown arbitrary input qubit into two optimal clones and one optimal flipped qubit. By combining linear and nonlinear optical methods we experimentally implement a scheme that, after the cloning transformation, restores the original input qubit in one of the output channels, by using local measurements, classical communication, and feedforward. This nonlocal method demonstrates how the information on the input qubit can be restored after the cloning process. The realization of the reversion process is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography.

  4. The FEYNMAN tools for quantum information processing: Design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, S.

    2014-06-01

    The FEYNMAN tools have been re-designed with the goal to establish and implement a high-level (computer) language that is capable to deal with the physics of finite, n-qubit systems, from frequently required computations to mathematically advanced tasks in quantum information processing. In particular, emphasis has been placed to introduce a small but powerful set of keystring-driven commands in order to support both, symbolic and numerical computations. Though the current design is implemented again within the framework of MAPLE, it is general and flexible enough to be utilized and combined with other languages and computational environments. The present implementation facilitates a large number of computational tasks, including the definition, manipulation and parametrization of quantum states, the evaluation of quantum measures and quantum operations, the evolution of quantum noise in discrete models, quantum measurements and state estimation, and several others. The design is based on a few high-level commands, with a syntax close to the mathematical notation and its use in the literature, and which can be generalized quite readily in order to solve computational tasks at even higher degree of complexity. In this work, I present and discuss the (re-design of the) FEYNMAN tools and make major parts of the code available for public use. Moreover, a few selected examples are shown and demonstrate possible application of this toolbox. The FEYNMAN tools are provided as MAPLE library and can hence be used on all platforms on which this computer-algebra system is accessible.

  5. Role of the Euclidean signature in lattice calculations of quasidistributions and other nonlocal matrix elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Hansen, Maxwell T.; Monahan, Christopher J.

    2017-07-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) provides the only known systematic, nonperturbative method for first-principles calculations of nucleon structure. However, for quantities such as light-front parton distribution functions (PDFs) and generalized parton distributions (GPDs), the restriction to Euclidean time prevents direct calculation of the desired observable. Recently, progress has been made in relating these quantities to matrix elements of spatially nonlocal, zero-time operators, referred to as quasidistributions. Still, even for these time-independent matrix elements, potential subtleties have been identified in the role of the Euclidean signature. In this work, we investigate the analytic behavior of spatially nonlocal correlation functions and demonstrate that the matrix elements obtained from Euclidean lattice QCD are identical to those obtained using the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formula in Minkowski space. After arguing the equivalence on general grounds, we also show that it holds in a perturbative calculation, where special care is needed to identify the lattice prediction. Finally we present a proof of the uniqueness of the matrix elements obtained from Minkowski and Euclidean correlation functions to all order in perturbation theory.

  6. Role of the Euclidean signature in lattice calculations of quasidistributions and other nonlocal matrix elements

    DOE PAGES

    Briceno, Raul A.; Hansen, Maxwell T.; Monahan, Christopher J.

    2017-07-11

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) provides the only known systematic, nonperturbative method for first-principles calculations of nucleon structure. However, for quantities such as light-front parton distribution functions (PDFs) and generalized parton distributions (GPDs), the restriction to Euclidean time prevents direct calculation of the desired observable. Recently, progress has been made in relating these quantities to matrix elements of spatially nonlocal, zero-time operators, referred to as quasidistributions. Still, even for these time-independent matrix elements, potential subtleties have been identified in the role of the Euclidean signature. In this work, we investigate the analytic behavior of spatially nonlocal correlation functions and demonstrate thatmore » the matrix elements obtained from Euclidean lattice QCD are identical to those obtained using the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formula in Minkowski space. After arguing the equivalence on general grounds, we also show that it holds in a perturbative calculation, where special care is needed to identify the lattice prediction. Lastly, we present a proof of the uniqueness of the matrix elements obtained from Minkowski and Euclidean correlation functions to all order in perturbation theory.« less

  7. Quantum control and process tomography of a semiconductor quantum dot hybrid qubit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohun; Shi, Zhan; Simmons, C B; Ward, D R; Prance, J R; Koh, Teck Seng; Gamble, John King; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N; Eriksson, Mark A

    2014-07-03

    The similarities between gated quantum dots and the transistors in modern microelectronics--in fabrication methods, physical structure and voltage scales for manipulation--have led to great interest in the development of quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor quantum dots. Although quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications, such as factoring. Furthermore, scalability and manufacturability are enhanced when qubits are as simple as possible. Previous work has increased the speed of spin qubit rotations by making use of integrated micromagnets, dynamic pumping of nuclear spins or the addition of a third quantum dot. Here we demonstrate a qubit that is a hybrid of spin and charge. It is simple, requiring neither nuclear-state preparation nor micromagnets. Unlike previous double-dot qubits, the hybrid qubit enables fast rotations about two axes of the Bloch sphere. We demonstrate full control on the Bloch sphere with π-rotation times of less than 100 picoseconds in two orthogonal directions, which is more than an order of magnitude faster than any other double-dot qubit. The speed arises from the qubit's charge-like characteristics, and its spin-like features result in resistance to decoherence over a wide range of gate voltages. We achieve full process tomography in our electrically controlled semiconductor quantum dot qubit, extracting high fidelities of 85 per cent for X rotations (transitions between qubit states) and 94 per cent for Z rotations (phase accumulation between qubit states).

  8. Synchronization of optical photons for quantum information processing.

    PubMed

    Makino, Kenzo; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Yoshikawa, Jun-Ichi; Ohdan, Hideaki; Toyama, Takeshi; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira

    2016-05-01

    A fundamental element of quantum information processing with photonic qubits is the nonclassical quantum interference between two photons when they bunch together via the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect. Ultimately, many such photons must be processed in complex interferometric networks. For this purpose, it is essential to synchronize the arrival times of the flying photons and to keep their purities high. On the basis of the recent experimental success of single-photon storage with high purity, we demonstrate for the first time the HOM interference of two heralded, nearly pure optical photons synchronized through two independent quantum memories. Controlled storage times of up to 1.8 μs for about 90 events per second were achieved with purities that were sufficiently high for a negative Wigner function confirmed with homodyne measurements.

  9. Synchronization of optical photons for quantum information processing

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Kenzo; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Ohdan, Hideaki; Toyama, Takeshi; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental element of quantum information processing with photonic qubits is the nonclassical quantum interference between two photons when they bunch together via the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect. Ultimately, many such photons must be processed in complex interferometric networks. For this purpose, it is essential to synchronize the arrival times of the flying photons and to keep their purities high. On the basis of the recent experimental success of single-photon storage with high purity, we demonstrate for the first time the HOM interference of two heralded, nearly pure optical photons synchronized through two independent quantum memories. Controlled storage times of up to 1.8 μs for about 90 events per second were achieved with purities that were sufficiently high for a negative Wigner function confirmed with homodyne measurements. PMID:27386536

  10. Quantum Process Tomography Quantifies Coherence Transfer Dynamics in Vibrational Exciton

    PubMed Central

    Chuntonov, Lev; Ma, Jianqiang

    2013-01-01

    Quantum coherence has been a subject of great interest in many scientific disciplines. However, detailed characterization of the quantum coherence in molecular systems, especially its transfer and relaxation mechanisms, still remains a major challenge. The difficulties arise in part because the spectroscopic signatures of the coherence transfer are typically overwhelmed by other excitation relaxation processes. We use quantum process tomography (QPT) via two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to quantify the rate of the elusive coherence transfer between two vibrational exciton states. QPT retrieves the dynamics of the dissipative quantum system directly from the experimental observables. It thus serves as an experimental alternative to theoretical models of the system-bath interaction, and can be used to validate these theories. Our results for coupled carbonyl groups of a diketone molecule in chloroform, used as a benchmark system, reveal the non-secular nature of the interaction between the exciton and the Markovian bath and open the door for the systematic studies of the dissipative quantum systems dynamics in detail. PMID:24079417

  11. The series product for gaussian quantum input processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, John E.; James, Matthew R.

    2017-02-01

    We present a theory for connecting quantum Markov components into a network with quantum input processes in a Gaussian state (including thermal and squeezed). One would expect on physical grounds that the connection rules should be independent of the state of the input to the network. To compute statistical properties, we use a version of Wicks' theorem involving fictitious vacuum fields (Fock space based representation of the fields) and while this aids computation, and gives a rigorous formulation, the various representations need not be unitarily equivalent. In particular, a naive application of the connection rules would lead to the wrong answer. We establish the correct interconnection rules, and show that while the quantum stochastic differential equations of motion display explicitly the covariances (thermal and squeezing parameters) of the Gaussian input fields we introduce the Wick-Stratonovich form which leads to a way of writing these equations that does not depend on these covariances and so corresponds to the universal equations written in terms of formal quantum input processes. We show that a wholly consistent theory of quantum open systems in series can be developed in this way, and as required physically, is universal and in particular representation-free.

  12. Harmonic and Monogenic Potentials in Euclidean Halfspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackx, F.; De Bie, H.; De Schepper, H.

    2011-09-01

    In the framework of Clifford analysis a chain of harmonic and monogenic potentials is constructed in the upper half of Euclidean space Rm+1. Their distributional limits at the boundary are computed, obtaining in this way well-known distributions in Rm such as the Dirac distribution, the Hilbert kernel, the square root of the negative Laplace operator, and the like. It is shown how each of those potentials may be recovered from an adjacent kernel in the chain by an appropriate convolution with such a distributional limit.

  13. Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Tyc, Tomás

    2009-01-02

    Invisibility and negative refraction are both applications of transformation optics where the material of a device performs a coordinate transformation for electromagnetic fields. The device creates the illusion that light propagates through empty flat space, whereas in physical space, light is bent around a hidden interior or seems to run backward in space or time. All of the previous proposals for invisibility require materials with extreme properties. Here we show that transformation optics of a curved, non-Euclidean space (such as the surface of a virtual sphere) relax these requirements and can lead to invisibility in a broad band of the spectrum.

  14. Post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiktenko, Evgeny; Trushechkin, Anton; Kurochkin, Yury; Fedorov, Aleksey

    2016-08-01

    We present algorithmic solutions aimed on post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems with hardware sifting. The main steps of the procedure are error correction, parameter estimation, and privacy amplification. Authentication of classical public communication channel is also considered.

  15. Fast Quantum Algorithms for Numerical Integrals and Stochastic Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, D.; Williams, C.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss quantum algorithms that calculate numerical integrals and descriptive statistics of stochastic processes. With either of two distinct approaches, one obtains an exponential speed increase in comparison to the fastest known classical deterministic algotithms and a quadratic speed increase incomparison to classical Monte Carlo methods.

  16. Quantum states for quantum processes: A toy model for ammonia inversion spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteca, Gustavo A.; Tapia, O.

    2011-07-01

    Chemical transformations are viewed here as quantum processes modulated by external fields, that is, as shifts in reactant to product amplitudes within a quantum state represented by a linear (coherent) superposition of electronuclear basis functions; their electronic quantum numbers identify the “chemical species.” This basis set can be mapped from attractors built from a unique electronic configurational space that is invariant with respect to the nuclear geometry. In turn, the quantum numbers that label these basis functions and the semiclassical potentials for the electronic attractors may be used to derive reaction coordinates to monitor progress as a function of the applied field. A generalization of Feynman's three-state model for the ammonia inversion process illustrates the scheme; to enforce symmetry for the entire inversion process model and ensure invariance with respect to nuclear configurations, the three attractors and their basis functions are computed with a grid of fixed floating Gaussian functions. The external-field modulation of the effective inversion barrier is discussed within this conceptual approach. This analysis brings the descriptions of chemical processes near modern technologies that employ molecules to encode information by means of confinement and external fields.

  17. Fast Quantum Algorithm for Predicting Descriptive Statistics of Stochastic Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams Colin P.

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic processes are used as a modeling tool in several sub-fields of physics, biology, and finance. Analytic understanding of the long term behavior of such processes is only tractable for very simple types of stochastic processes such as Markovian processes. However, in real world applications more complex stochastic processes often arise. In physics, the complicating factor might be nonlinearities; in biology it might be memory effects; and in finance is might be the non-random intentional behavior of participants in a market. In the absence of analytic insight, one is forced to understand these more complex stochastic processes via numerical simulation techniques. In this paper we present a quantum algorithm for performing such simulations. In particular, we show how a quantum algorithm can predict arbitrary descriptive statistics (moments) of N-step stochastic processes in just O(square root of N) time. That is, the quantum complexity is the square root of the classical complexity for performing such simulations. This is a significant speedup in comparison to the current state of the art.

  18. Fast Quantum Algorithm for Predicting Descriptive Statistics of Stochastic Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams Colin P.

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic processes are used as a modeling tool in several sub-fields of physics, biology, and finance. Analytic understanding of the long term behavior of such processes is only tractable for very simple types of stochastic processes such as Markovian processes. However, in real world applications more complex stochastic processes often arise. In physics, the complicating factor might be nonlinearities; in biology it might be memory effects; and in finance is might be the non-random intentional behavior of participants in a market. In the absence of analytic insight, one is forced to understand these more complex stochastic processes via numerical simulation techniques. In this paper we present a quantum algorithm for performing such simulations. In particular, we show how a quantum algorithm can predict arbitrary descriptive statistics (moments) of N-step stochastic processes in just O(square root of N) time. That is, the quantum complexity is the square root of the classical complexity for performing such simulations. This is a significant speedup in comparison to the current state of the art.

  19. A model of the measurement process in quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diel, H. H.

    2015-07-01

    The so-called measurement problem of quantum theory (QT) is still lacking a satisfactory, or at least widely agreed upon, solution. A number of theories, known as interpretations of quantum theory, have been proposed and found differing acceptance among physicists. Most of the proposed theories try to explain what happens during a QT measurement using a modification of the declarative equations that define the possible results of a measurement of QT observables or by making assumptions outside the scope of falsifiable physics. This paper proposes a solution to the QT measurement problem in terms of a model of the process for the evolution of two QT systems that interact in a way that represents a measurement. The model assumes that the interactions between the measured QT object and the measurement apparatus are ’’normal” interactions which adhere to the laws of quantum field theory.

  20. Fast ion swapping for quantum-information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, H.; Ruster, T.; Schmiegelow, C. T.; Luda, M. A.; Kaushal, V.; Schulz, J.; von Lindenfels, D.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Poschinger, U. G.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate a swap gate between laser-cooled ions in a segmented microtrap via fast physical swapping of the ion positions. This operation is used in conjunction with qubit initialization, manipulation, and readout and with other types of shuttling operations such as linear transport and crystal separation and merging. Combining these operations, we perform quantum process tomography of the swap gate, obtaining a mean process fidelity of 99.5(5)%. The swap operation is demonstrated with motional excitations below 0.05(1) quantum for all six collective modes of a two-ion crystal for a process duration of 42 μ s . Extending these techniques to three ions, we reverse the order of a three-ion crystal and reconstruct the truth table for this operation, resulting in a mean process fidelity of 99.96(13)% in the logical basis.

  1. Understanding Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2009-03-01

    Ever since Erwin Schrodinger shocked the physics world by killing (and not killing) his cat, entanglement has played a critical role in attempts to understand quantum mechanics. More recently, entanglement has been shown to be a valuable resource, of central importance for quantum computation and the processing of quantum information. In this talk, I will describe a new diagrammatic approach to understanding why entanglement is so valuable, the key idea being that entanglement between two systems ``creates'' multiple images of the state of a third. By way of example, I will show how to ``visualize'' teleportation of unknown quantum states, and how to use entanglement to determine the (unknown) state of a spatially distributed, multipartite quantum system. Illustrative examples of this entanglement-assisted local state discrimination are sets of orthogonal product states exhibiting what is known as ``non-locality without entanglement'', including unextendible product bases. These ideas have also proven useful in using entanglement to implement a unitary interaction between spatially separated (and therefore non-interacting!) systems.

  2. The role of quantum measurements in physical processes and protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Benjamin; Jacobs, Kurt

    2017-09-01

    In this mainly pedagogical article, we discuss under what circumstances measurements play a special role in quantum processes. In particular, we discuss the following facts that appear to be a common area of confusion. (i) From a fundamental point of view, measurements play no special role whatsoever: all dynamics that can be generated by measurements can be generated by unitary processes (for which post-selection is no exception). (ii) From a purely physical point of view, measurements are not ‘outside’ of quantum mechanics. (iii) The only difference between the abilities of measurement-based protocols and unitary circuits for quantum computing comes from practical (technology dependent) constraints. We emphasise the importance of distinguishing between differences that are (i) fundamental but without physical import; (ii) fundamental and possess physical import; and (iii) are not fundamental but have practical import. We also emphasise the importance of separating theoretical and experimental elements of measurement, primarily projection and amplification, which are physically very different. Note that since we are concerned with facts regarding physical processes, this article has little if anything to do with interpretations of quantum mechanics.

  3. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-12-01

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schrödinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schrödinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  4. Nonparametric estimation of quantum states, processes and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougovski, Pavel; Bennink, Ryan

    Quantum state, process, and measurement estimation methods traditionally use parametric models, in which the number and role of relevant parameters is assumed to be known. When such an assumption cannot be justified, a common approach in many disciplines is to fit the experimental data to multiple models with different sets of parameters and utilize an information criterion to select the best fitting model. However, it is not always possible to assume a model with a finite (countable) number of parameters. This typically happens when there are unobserved variables that stem from hidden correlations that can only be unveiled after collecting experimental data. How does one perform quantum characterization in this situation? We present a novel nonparametric method of experimental quantum system characterization based on the Dirichlet Process (DP) that addresses this problem. Using DP as a prior in conjunction with Bayesian estimation methods allows us to increase model complexity (number of parameters) adaptively as the number of experimental observations grows. We illustrate our approach for the one-qubit case and show how a probability density function for an unknown quantum process can be estimated.

  5. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    SciTech Connect

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-12-18

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schroedinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schroedinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  6. MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the

  7. MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the

  8. Founding Gravitation in 4D Euclidean Space-Time Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Franz-Guenter

    2010-11-24

    The Euclidean interpretation of special relativity which has been suggested by the author is a formulation of special relativity in ordinary 4D Euclidean space-time geometry. The natural and geometrically intuitive generalization of this view involves variations of the speed of light (depending on location and direction) and a Euclidean principle of general covariance. In this article, a gravitation model by Jan Broekaert, which implements a view of relativity theory in the spirit of Lorentz and Poincare, is reconstructed and shown to fulfill the principles of the Euclidean approach after an appropriate reinterpretation.

  9. State protection by quantum control before and after noise processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamura, Hiroaki; Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    We discuss protection of a quantum state that goes through a noise process by measurements and operations before and after the noise process. In our previous work, we showed the nonexistence of "truly quantum" protocols that protect an unknown qubit state against depolarizing noise better than "classical" ones. Toward identifying the class of noise processes that is optimally suppressed by such a "classical" protocol, we extend our previous result in two directions. First, we show that the statement is also true in any finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, which was previously conjectured; the optimal protocol is either the do nothing protocol or the discriminate and reprepare protocol, depending on the strength of the noise. Second, in the case of a single qubit, we show that essentially the same conclusion holds for any unital noise. Thus, the noise must be nonunital for a control protocol beyond "classical" ones to exist.

  10. Quantum tomography of near-unitary processes in high-dimensional quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysne, Nathan; Sosa Martinez, Hector; Jessen, Poul; Baldwin, Charles; Kalev, Amir; Deutsch, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Quantum Tomography (QT) is often considered the ideal tool for experimental debugging of quantum devices, capable of delivering complete information about quantum states (QST) or processes (QPT). In practice, the protocols used for QT are resource intensive and scale poorly with system size. In this situation, a well behaved model system with access to large state spaces (qudits) can serve as a useful platform for examining the tradeoffs between resource cost and accuracy inherent in QT. In past years we have developed one such experimental testbed, consisting of the electron-nuclear spins in the electronic ground state of individual Cs atoms. Our available toolkit includes high fidelity state preparation, complete unitary control, arbitrary orthogonal measurements, and accurate and efficient QST in Hilbert space dimensions up to d = 16. Using these tools, we have recently completed a comprehensive study of QPT in 4, 7 and 16 dimensions. Our results show that QPT of near-unitary processes is quite feasible if one chooses optimal input states and efficient QST on the outputs. We further show that for unitary processes in high dimensional spaces, one can use informationally incomplete QPT to achieve high-fidelity process reconstruction (90% in d = 16) with greatly reduced resource requirements.

  11. Euclidean supergravity and multi-centered solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, W. A.

    2017-04-01

    In ungauged supergravity theories, the no-force condition for BPS states implies the existence of stable static multi-centered solutions. The first solutions to Einstein-Maxwell theory with a positive cosmological constant describing an arbitrary number of charged black holes were found by Kastor and Traschen. Generalisations to five and higher dimensional theories were obtained by London. Multi-centered solutions in gauged supergravity, even with time-dependence allowed, have yet to be constructed. In this letter we construct supersymmetry-preserving multi-centered solutions for the case of D = 5, N = 2 Euclidean gauged supergravity coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets. Higher dimensional Einstein-Maxwell multi-centered solutions are also presented.

  12. Lattice reduction using a Euclidean algorithm.

    PubMed

    Mujica, A

    2017-01-01

    The need to reduce a periodic structure given in terms of a large supercell and associated lattice generators arises frequently in different fields of application of crystallography, in particular in the ab initio theoretical modelling of materials at the atomic scale. This paper considers the reduction of crystals and addresses the reduction associated with the existence of a commensurate translation that leaves the crystal invariant, providing a practical scheme for it. The reduction procedure hinges on a convenient integer factorization of the full period of the cycle (or grid) generated by the repeated applications of the invariant translation, and its iterative reduction into sub-cycles, each of which corresponds to a factor in the decomposition of the period. This is done in successive steps, each time solving a Diophantine linear equation by means of a Euclidean reduction algorithm in order to provide the generators of the reduced lattice.

  13. Shape Selection in Non-Euclidean Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmer, John; Venkataramani, Shankar

    2010-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of free non-Euclidean plates with a disc geometry and a prescribed metric that corresponds to a constant negative Gaussian curvature. We take the equilibrium configuration taken by the these sheets to be a minimum of a F"oppel Von-Kàrmàn type functional in which configurations free of any in plane stretching correspond to isometric embeddings of the metric. We show for all radii there exists low bending energy configurations free of any in plane stretching that obtain a periodic profile. The number of periods in these configurations is set by the condition that the principle curvatures of the surface remain finite and grows approximately exponentially with the radius of the disc.

  14. Microfabrication techniques for trapped ion quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Joe

    Quantum-mechanical principles can be used to process information. In one approach, linear arrays of trapped, laser cooled ion qubits (two-level quantum systems) are confined in segmented multi-zone electrode structures. Strong Coulomb coupling between ions is the basis for quantum gates mediated by phonon exchange. Applications of Quantum Information Processing (QIP) include solution of problems believed to be intractable on classical computers. The ion trap approach to QIP requires trapping and control of numerous ions in electrode structures with many trapping zones. In support of trapped ion QIP, I investigated microfabrication of structures to trap, transport and couple large numbers of ions. Using 24Mg + I demonstrated loading and transport between zones in microtraps made of boron doped silicon. This thesis describes the fundamentals of ion trapping, the characteristics of silicon-based traps amenable to QIP work and apparatus to trap ions and characterize traps. Microfabrication instructions appropriate for nonexperts are included. A key characteristic of ion traps is the rate at which ion motional modes heat. In my traps upper bounds on heating were determined; however, heating due to externally injected noise could not be completely ruled out. Noise on the RF potential responsible for providing confinement was identified as one source of injected noise. Using the microfabrication technology developed for ion traps, I made a cantilevered micromechanical oscillator and with coworkers demonstrated a method to reduce the kinetic energy of its lowest order mechanical mode via its capacitive coupling to a driven RF resonant circuit. Cooling results from a RF capacitive force, which is phase shifted relative to the cantilever motion. The technique was demonstrated by cooling a 7 kHz fundamental mode from room temperature to 45 K. Ground state cooling of the mechanical modes of motion of harmonically trapped ions is routine; equivalent cooling of a macroscopic

  15. High-performance computing with quantum processing units

    DOE PAGES

    Britt, Keith A.; Oak Ridge National Lab.; Humble, Travis S.; ...

    2017-03-01

    The prospects of quantum computing have driven efforts to realize fully functional quantum processing units (QPUs). Recent success in developing proof-of-principle QPUs has prompted the question of how to integrate these emerging processors into modern high-performance computing (HPC) systems. We examine how QPUs can be integrated into current and future HPC system architectures by accounting for func- tional and physical design requirements. We identify two integration pathways that are differentiated by infrastructure constraints on the QPU and the use cases expected for the HPC system. This includes a tight integration that assumes infrastructure bottlenecks can be overcome as well asmore » a loose integration that as- sumes they cannot. We find that the performance of both approaches is likely to depend on the quantum interconnect that serves to entangle multiple QPUs. As a result, we also identify several challenges in assessing QPU performance for HPC, and we consider new metrics that capture the interplay between system architecture and the quantum parallelism underlying computational performance.« less

  16. Classical Wave Model of Quantum-Like Processing in Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the conjecture on quantum-like (QL) processing of information in the brain. It is not based on the physical quantum brain (e.g., Penrose) - quantum physical carriers of information. In our approach the brain created the QL representation (QLR) of information in Hilbert space. It uses quantum information rules in decision making. The existence of such QLR was (at least preliminary) confirmed by experimental data from cognitive psychology. The violation of the law of total probability in these experiments is an important sign of nonclassicality of data. In so called "constructive wave function approach" such data can be represented by complex amplitudes. We presented 1,2 the QL model of decision making. In this paper we speculate on a possible physical realization of QLR in the brain: a classical wave model producing QLR . It is based on variety of time scales in the brain. Each pair of scales (fine - the background fluctuations of electromagnetic field and rough - the cognitive image scale) induces the QL representation. The background field plays the crucial role in creation of "superstrong QL correlations" in the brain.

  17. Quantum information processing and quantum-limited metrology using trapped ions at NIST.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wineland, David

    2007-03-01

    With the use of atomic ions confined in a multi-zone array, we implement simple quantum algorithms and study the problems in scaling such a device to tens of qubits [1]. Current work is devoted to better control of classical parameters such as laser intensity, suppression of heating from ambient fluctuating electric fields, and studying limitations caused by more fundamental sources of decoherence, such as spontaneous emission. Along with other groups, we are studying ways to increase the number of trap zones; in particular, we concentrate on a surface-electrode multi-zone geometry. Although a general purpose quantum computer appears to be a distant goal, simple applications of quantum information processing methods enable new techniques for spectroscopy and efficient quantum detection. [1] Current research in collaboration with D. Leibfried, J. Amini, J. C. Bergquist, R. B. Blakestad, J. J. Bollinger, J. Britton, K. Brown, R. J. Epstein, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Rosenband, S. Seidelin, N. Shiga, and J. H. Wesenberg.

  18. A sub-ensemble theory of ideal quantum measurement processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Balian, Roger; Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to elucidate the properties currently attributed to ideal measurements, one must explain how the concept of an individual event with a well-defined outcome may emerge from quantum theory which deals with statistical ensembles, and how different runs issued from the same initial state may end up with different final states. This so-called "measurement problem" is tackled with two guidelines. On the one hand, the dynamics of the macroscopic apparatus A coupled to the tested system S is described mathematically within a standard quantum formalism, where " q-probabilities" remain devoid of interpretation. On the other hand, interpretative principles, aimed to be minimal, are introduced to account for the expected features of ideal measurements. Most of the five principles stated here, which relate the quantum formalism to physical reality, are straightforward and refer to macroscopic variables. The process can be identified with a relaxation of S + A to thermodynamic equilibrium, not only for a large ensemble E of runs but even for its sub-ensembles. The different mechanisms of quantum statistical dynamics that ensure these types of relaxation are exhibited, and the required properties of the Hamiltonian of S + A are indicated. The additional theoretical information provided by the study of sub-ensembles remove Schrödinger's quantum ambiguity of the final density operator for E which hinders its direct interpretation, and bring out a commutative behaviour of the pointer observable at the final time. The latter property supports the introduction of a last interpretative principle, needed to switch from the statistical ensembles and sub-ensembles described by quantum theory to individual experimental events. It amounts to identify some formal " q-probabilities" with ordinary frequencies, but only those which refer to the final indications of the pointer. The desired properties of ideal measurements, in particular the uniqueness of the result for each individual

  19. Photons and evolution: quantum mechanical processes modulate sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Davis, George E; Lowell, Walter E

    2009-09-01

    This paper will show that the fractional difference in the human gender ratio (GR) between the GR(at death) for those born in solar cycle peak years (maxima) and the GR(at death) in those born in solar cycle non-peak years (minima), e.g., 0.023, divided by Pi, yields a reasonable approximation of the quantum mechanical constant, alpha, or the fine structure constant (FSC) approximately 0.007297... or approximately 1/137. This finding is based on a sample of approximately 50 million cases using common, readily available demographic data, e.g., state of birth, birth date, death date, and gender. Physicists Nair, Geim et al. had found precisely the same fractional difference, 0.023, in the absorption of white light (sunlight) by a single-atom thick layer of graphene, a carbon skeleton resembling chicken wire fencing. This absorption fraction, when divided by Pi, yielded the FSC and was the first time this constant could "so directly be assessed practically by the naked eye". As the GR is a reflection of sexual differentiation, this paper reveals that a quantum mechanical process, as manifested by the FSC, is playing a role in the primordial process of replication, a necessary requirement of life. Successful replication is the primary engine driving evolution, which at a biochemical level, is a quantum mechanical process dependent upon photonic energy from the Sun. We propose that a quantum-mechanical, photon-driven chemical evolution preceded natural selection in biology and the mechanisms of mitosis and meiosis are manifestations of this chemical evolution in ancient seas over 3 billion years ago. Evolutionary processes became extant first in self-replicating molecules forced to adapt to high energy photons, mostly likely in the ultraviolet spectrum. These events led to evolution by natural selection as complex mixing of genetic material within species creating the variety needed to match changing environments reflecting the same process initiated at the dawn of life

  20. Minimal Paths in the City Block: Human Performance on Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwyn, Amy L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment is reported comparing human performance on two kinds of visually presented traveling salesperson problems (TSPs), those reliant on Euclidean geometry and those reliant on city block geometry. Across multiple array sizes, human performance was near-optimal in both geometries, but was slightly better in the Euclidean format. Even so,…

  1. Minimal Paths in the City Block: Human Performance on Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwyn, Amy L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment is reported comparing human performance on two kinds of visually presented traveling salesperson problems (TSPs), those reliant on Euclidean geometry and those reliant on city block geometry. Across multiple array sizes, human performance was near-optimal in both geometries, but was slightly better in the Euclidean format. Even so,…

  2. Limits Of Quantum Information In Weak Interaction Processes Of Hyperons

    PubMed Central

    Hiesmayr, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay Σ+→ pπ0). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities where α is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated, the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this information theoretic insight we show how entanglement can be measured in these systems and why Bell’s nonlocality (in contradiction to common misconception in literature) cannot be revealed in hyperon decays. Last but not least we study under which circumstances contextuality can be revealed. PMID:26144247

  3. Limits Of Quantum Information In Weak Interaction Processes Of Hyperons.

    PubMed

    Hiesmayr, B C

    2015-07-06

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay Σ(+)→ pπ(0)). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities where α is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated, the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this information theoretic insight we show how entanglement can be measured in these systems and why Bell's nonlocality (in contradiction to common misconception in literature) cannot be revealed in hyperon decays. Last but not least we study under which circumstances contextuality can be revealed.

  4. Mean first-passage time of quantum transition processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Rong-Tao; Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of mean first-passage time (MFPT) in quantum mechanics; the MFPT is the average time of the transition from a given initial state, passing through some intermediate states, to a given final state for the first time. We apply the method developed in statistical mechanics for calculating the MFPT of random walks to calculate the MFPT of a transition process. As applications, we (1) calculate the MFPT for multiple-state systems, (2) discuss transition processes occurring in an environmental background, (3) consider a roundabout transition in a hydrogen atom, and (4) apply the approach to laser theory.

  5. Birth and death processes and quantum spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünbaum, F. Alberto; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2013-06-01

    This paper underscores the intimate connection between the quantum walks generated by certain semi-infinite spin chain Hamiltonians and classical birth and death processes. It is observed that transition amplitudes between single excitation states of the spin chains have an expression in terms of orthogonal polynomials which is analogous to the Karlin-McGregor representation formula of the transition probability functions for classes of birth and death processes. As an application, we present a characterization of spin systems for which the probability to return to the point of origin at some time is 1 or almost 1.

  6. Quantum processes as a mechanism in olfaction for smell recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, Jennifer

    2011-03-01

    The physics of smell is not well understood. The biological processes that occur following a signalling event are well understood (Buck 1991). However, the reasons how and why a signalling event occurs when a particular smell molecule and receptor combination is made, remains un-established. Luca Turin proposes a signalling mechanism which determines smell molecules by quantum mechanics (Turin 1996). Investigation of this mechanism shows it to be physically robust (Brookes,et al, 2007), and consequences of the theory provides quantitative measurements of smell and interesting potential experiments that may determine whether the recognition of smell is a quantum event. Brookes, J.C, Hartoutsiou, F, Horsfield, A.P and Stoneham, A.M. (2007). Physical Review Letters 98, no. 3 038101 Buck, L. (1991) Cell, 65, no.1 (4): 175-187. Turin, L. (1996) Chemical Sences 21, no 6. 773-791 With many thanks to the Wellcome Trust.

  7. Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David Kelley

    In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

  8. Counting statistics of non-Markovian quantum stochastic processes.

    PubMed

    Flindt, Christian; Novotný, Tomás; Braggio, Alessandro; Sassetti, Maura; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2008-04-18

    We derive a general expression for the cumulant generating function (CGF) of non-Markovian quantum stochastic transport processes. The long-time limit of the CGF is determined by a single dominating pole of the resolvent of the memory kernel from which we extract the zero-frequency cumulants of the current using a recursive scheme. The finite-frequency noise is expressed not only in terms of the resolvent, but also initial system-environment correlations. As an illustrative example we consider electron transport through a dissipative double quantum dot for which we study the effects of dissipation on the zero-frequency cumulants of high orders and the finite-frequency noise.

  9. Memory effects in attenuation and amplification quantum processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano

    2010-09-01

    With increasing communication rates via quantum channels, memory effects become unavoidable whenever the use rate of the channel is comparable to the typical relaxation time of the channel environment. We introduce a model of a bosonic memory channel, describing correlated noise effects in quantum-optical processes via attenuating or amplifying media. To study such a channel model, we make use of a proper set of collective field variables, which allows us to unravel the memory effects, mapping the n-fold concatenation of the memory channel to a unitarily equivalent, direct product of n single-mode bosonic channels. We hence estimate the channel capacities by relying on known results for the memoryless setting. Our findings show that the model is characterized by two different regimes, in which the cross correlations induced by the noise among different channel uses are either exponentially enhanced or exponentially reduced.

  10. Scalability, Complexity and Reliability in Quantum Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Information and Quantum Computation, Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, “Quantum algorithm for the hidden shift...Future (and Past) of Quantum Lower Bounds by Polynomials,” October 17, 2002 W. van Dam, Workshop on Quantum Information and Quantum Computation, Abdus ... Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, “Quantum algorithms: Fourier transforms and group theory,” October 21, 2002 K

  11. Review of solar fuel-producing quantum conversion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. B.; Biddle, J. R.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The status and potential of fuel-producing solar photochemical processes are discussed. Research focused on splitting water to produce dihydrogen and is at a relatively early stage of development. Current emphasis is primarily directed toward understanding the basic chemistry underlying such quantum conversion processes. Theoretical analyses by various investigators predict a limiting thermodynamic efficiency of 31% for devices with a single photosystem operating with unfocused sunlight at 300 K. When non-idealities are included, it appears unlikely that actual devices will have efficiencies greater than 12 to 15%. Observed efficiencies are well below theoretical limits. Cyclic homogeneous photochemical processes for splitting water have efficiencies considerably less than 1%. Efficiency can be significantly increased by addition of a sacrificial reagent; however, such systems are no longer cyclic and it is doubtful that they would be economical on a commercial scale. The observed efficiencies for photoelectrochemical processes are also low but such systems appear more promising than homogeneous photochemical systems. Operating and systems options, including operation at elevated temperature and hybrid and coupled quantum-thermal conversion processes, are also considered.

  12. Quantum optical implementation of quantum information processing and classical simulation of many-body physics from quantum information perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin

    This thesis is composed of two parts. In the first part we summarize our study on implementation of quantum information processing (QIP) in optical cavity QED systems, while in the second part we present our numerical investigations on strongly interacting Fermi systems using a powerful numerical algorithm developed from the perspective of quantum information theory. We explore various possible applications of cavity QED in the strong coupling regime to quantum information processing tasks theoretically, including efficient preparation of Schrodinger-cat states for traveling photon pulses, robust implementation of conditional quantum gates on neutral atoms, as well as implementation of a hybrid controlled SWAP gate. We analyze the feasibility and performance of our schemes by solving corresponding physical models either numerically or analytically. We implement a novel numerical algorithm called Time Evolving Block Decimation (TEBD), which was proposed by Vidal from the perspective of quantum information science. With this algorithm, we numerically study the ground state properties of strongly interacting fermions in an anisotropic optical lattice across a wide Feshbach resonance. The interactions in this system can be described by a general Hubbard model with particle assisted tunneling. For systems with equal spin population, we find that the Luther-Emery phase, which has been known to exist only for attractive on-site interactions in the conventional Hubbard model, could also be found even in the case with repulsive on-site interactions in the general Hubbard model. Using the TEBD algorithm, we also study the effect of particle assisted tunneling in spin-polarized systems. Fermi systems with unequal spin population and attractive interaction could allow the existence of exotic superfluidity, such as the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state. In the general Hubbard model, such exotic FFLO pairing of fermions could be suppressed by high particle assisted

  13. An Overview of HP's Research Towards Optical Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beausoleil, Ray

    2006-05-01

    Quantum Information Science is an emerging discipline with the potential to revolutionize computation and communication, but with an extremely high barrier to realizing practical results. After describing a framework for performing optical quantum information processing [1], we will outline a set of key scientific and engineering challenges which must be met before a quantum information technology industry can materialize. As a first step toward developing scalable systems, we will describe experiments showing coherent population trapping in nitrogen- vacancy centers in diamond under optical excitation at zero magnetic field. [2] In addition, we will describe experiments demonstrating fabrication of massive photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography, and the construction of an all-fiber self-calibrating random number generator based on polarization-entangled photons that generates high-quality cryptographic random numbers and is immune to back-door attacks. [1] W. J. Munro, et al., J. Opt. B: Quant. Semiclass. Opt. 7, S135--S140 (2005). [2] C. Santori et. al., arXiv:cond-mat/0602573 (2006).

  14. A quantum theoretical approach to information processing in neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barahona da Fonseca, José; Barahona da Fonseca, Isabel; Suarez Araujo, Carmen Paz; Simões da Fonseca, José

    2000-05-01

    A reinterpretation of experimental data on learning was used to formulate a law on data acquisition similar to the Hamiltonian of a mechanical system. A matrix of costs in decision making specifies values attributable to a barrier that opposed to hypothesis formation about decision making. The interpretation of the encoding costs as frequencies of oscillatory phenomena leads to a quantum paradigm based in the models of photoelectric effect as well as of a particle against a potential barrier. Cognitive processes are envisaged as complex phenomena represented by structures linked by valence bounds. This metaphor is used to find some prerequisites to certain types of conscious experience as well as to find an explanation for some pathological distortions of cognitive operations as they are represented in the context of the isolobal model. Those quantum phenomena are understood as representing an analogue programming for specific special purpose computations. The formation of complex chemical structures within the context of isolobal theory is understood as an analog quantum paradigm for complex cognitive computations.

  15. Quantum Mechanics and Perceptive Processes: A Reply to Elio Conte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirardi, GianCarlo

    2015-07-01

    Recently, Elio Conte has commented a paper by the present author devoted to analyze the possibility of checking experimentally whether the perceptual process can lead to the collapse of the wavefunction. Here we answer to the comments by Conte and we show that he has missed to grasp the crucial elements of our proposal. Morever, we discuss some ideas put forward by Conte concerning the occurrence of quantum superpositions of different states of consciousness and we show that they are rather vague and not cogent.

  16. Graphics Processing Unit Accelerated Hirsch-Fye Quantum Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Conrad; Abu Asal, Sameer; Rajagoplan, Kaushik; Poliakoff, David; Caprino, Joseph; Tomko, Karen; Thakur, Bhupender; Yang, Shuxiang; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2012-02-01

    In Dynamical Mean Field Theory and its cluster extensions, such as the Dynamic Cluster Algorithm, the bottleneck of the algorithm is solving the self-consistency equations with an impurity solver. Hirsch-Fye Quantum Monte Carlo is one of the most commonly used impurity and cluster solvers. This work implements optimizations of the algorithm, such as enabling large data re-use, suitable for the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) architecture. The GPU's sheer number of concurrent parallel computations and large bandwidth to many shared memories takes advantage of the inherent parallelism in the Green function update and measurement routines, and can substantially improve the efficiency of the Hirsch-Fye impurity solver.

  17. Neutron stars. [quantum mechanical processes associated with magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.

    1978-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical processes associated with the presence of high magnetic fields and the effect of such fields on the evolution of neutron stars are reviewed. A technical description of the interior of a neutron star is presented. The neutron star-pulsar relation is reviewed and consideration is given to supernovae explosions, flux conservation in neutron stars, gauge-invariant derivation of the equation of state for a strongly magnetized gas, neutron beta-decay, and the stability condition for a neutron star.

  18. Radiation Pressure Cooling as a Quantum Dynamical Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bing; Yang, Liu; Lin, Qing; Xiao, Min

    2017-06-01

    One of the most fundamental problems in optomechanical cooling is how small the thermal phonon number of a mechanical oscillator can be achieved under the radiation pressure of a proper cavity field. Different from previous theoretical predictions, which were based on an optomechanical system's time-independent steady states, we treat such cooling as a dynamical process of driving the mechanical oscillator from its initial thermal state, due to its thermal equilibrium with the environment, to a stabilized quantum state of higher purity. We find that the stabilized thermal phonon number left in the end actually depends on how fast the cooling process could be. The cooling speed is decided by an effective optomechanical coupling intensity, which constitutes an essential parameter for cooling, in addition to the sideband resolution parameter that has been considered in other theoretical studies. The limiting thermal phonon number that any cooling process cannot surpass exhibits a discontinuous jump across a certain value of the parameter.

  19. Quantum processes in short and intensive electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, Burkhard; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    This work provides an overview of our recent results in studying two most important and widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.g. laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process, and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that the probabilities of particle production in both processes are determined by interplay of two dynamical effects, where the first one is related to the shape and duration of the pulse and the second one is non-linear dynamics of the interaction of charged fermions with a strong electromagnetic field. We elaborate suitable expressions for the production probabilities and cross sections, convenient for studying evolution of the plasma in presence of strong electromagnetic fields.

  20. Wick rotation for quantum field theories on degenerate Moyal space(-time)

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, Harald; Lechner, Gandalf; Ludwig, Thomas; Verch, Rainer

    2013-02-15

    In this paper the connection between quantum field theories on flat noncommutative space(-times) in Euclidean and Lorentzian signature is studied for the case that time is still commutative. By making use of the algebraic framework of quantum field theory and an analytic continuation of the symmetry groups which are compatible with the structure of Moyal space, a general correspondence between field theories on Euclidean space satisfying a time zero condition and quantum field theories on Moyal Minkowski space is presented ('Wick rotation'). It is then shown that field theories transferred to Moyal space(-time) by Rieffel deformation and warped convolution fit into this framework, and that the processes of Wick rotation and deformation commute.

  1. Experimental characterization of quantum correlated triple beams generated by cascaded four-wave mixing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Zhongzhong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2015-05-25

    Quantum correlations and entanglement shared among multiple modes are fundamental ingredients of most continuous-variable quantum technologies. Recently, a method used to generate multiple quantum correlated beams using cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes was theoretically proposed and experimentally realized by our group [Z. Qin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)]. Our study of triple-beam quantum correlation paves the way to showing the tripartite entanglement in our system. Our system also promises to find applications in quantum information and precision measurement such as the controlled quantum communications, the generation of multiple quantum correlated images, and the realization of a multiport nonlinear interferometer. For its applications, the degree of quantum correlation is a crucial figure of merit. In this letter, we experimentally study how various parameters, such as the cell temperatures, one-photon, and two-photon detunings, influence the degree of quantum correlation between the triple beams generated from the cascaded two-FWM configuration.

  2. Experimental characterization of quantum correlated triple beams generated by cascaded four-wave mixing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhongzhong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2015-05-01

    Quantum correlations and entanglement shared among multiple modes are fundamental ingredients of most continuous-variable quantum technologies. Recently, a method used to generate multiple quantum correlated beams using cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes was theoretically proposed and experimentally realized by our group [Z. Qin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)]. Our study of triple-beam quantum correlation paves the way to showing the tripartite entanglement in our system. Our system also promises to find applications in quantum information and precision measurement such as the controlled quantum communications, the generation of multiple quantum correlated images, and the realization of a multiport nonlinear interferometer. For its applications, the degree of quantum correlation is a crucial figure of merit. In this letter, we experimentally study how various parameters, such as the cell temperatures, one-photon, and two-photon detunings, influence the degree of quantum correlation between the triple beams generated from the cascaded two-FWM configuration.

  3. Non-Euclidean properties of spike train metric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronov, Dmitriy; Victor, Jonathan D.

    2004-06-01

    Quantifying the dissimilarity (or distance) between two sequences is essential to the study of action potential (spike) trains in neuroscience and genetic sequences in molecular biology. In neuroscience, traditional methods for sequence comparisons rely on techniques appropriate for multivariate data, which typically assume that the space of sequences is intrinsically Euclidean. More recently, metrics that do not make this assumption have been introduced for comparison of neural activity patterns. These metrics have a formal resemblance to those used in the comparison of genetic sequences. Yet the relationship between such metrics and the traditional Euclidean distances has remained unclear. We show, both analytically and computationally, that the geometries associated with metric spaces of event sequences are intrinsically non-Euclidean. Our results demonstrate that metric spaces enrich the study of neural activity patterns, since accounting for perceptual spaces requires a non-Euclidean geometry.

  4. Time Series, Stochastic Processes and Completeness of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2011-03-01

    Most of physical experiments are usually described as repeated measurements of some random variables. Experimental data registered by on-line computers form time series of outcomes. The frequencies of different outcomes are compared with the probabilities provided by the algorithms of quantum theory (QT). In spite of statistical predictions of QT a claim was made that it provided the most complete description of the data and of the underlying physical phenomena. This claim could be easily rejected if some fine structures, averaged out in the standard descriptive statistical analysis, were found in time series of experimental data. To search for these structures one has to use more subtle statistical tools which were developed to study time series produced by various stochastic processes. In this talk we review some of these tools. As an example we show how the standard descriptive statistical analysis of the data is unable to reveal a fine structure in a simulated sample of AR (2) stochastic process. We emphasize once again that the violation of Bell inequalities gives no information on the completeness or the non locality of QT. The appropriate way to test the completeness of quantum theory is to search for fine structures in time series of the experimental data by means of the purity tests or by studying the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions.

  5. Infinitesimal rigidity of hyperquadrics in semi-Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, An Sook; Kim, Hobum; Han, Hyelim

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we show that hyperquadrics are infinitesimally rigid in a semi-Euclidean space. We also show that hypersurfaces of hyperquadrics cut by hyperplanes not passing through the origin are infinitesimally rigid in the hyperquadrics, whereas those cut by hyperplanes through the origin are not infinitesimally rigid in hyperquadrics. Furthermore, we prove that any hypersurface in a semi-Euclidean space containing some open subset of a hyperplane is not infinitesimally rigid.

  6. Principles of the Quantum Control of Molecular Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Moshe; Brumer, Paul

    2003-02-01

    Principles and Applications of Quantum Control Over the past fifteen years, significant developments have been made in utilizing quantum attributes of light and matter to assume unprecedented control over the dynamics of atomic and molecular systems. This growth reflects a confluence of factors including the maturation of quantum mechanics as a tool for chemistry and physics, the development of new laser devices increasing our ability to manipulate light, and the recognition that coherent laser light can be used to imprint information on atoms and molecules for practical purposes. Written by two of the world's leading researchers in the field, Principles of the Quantum Control of Molecular Processes offers a systematic introduction to the fundamental principles of coherent control, and to the physics and chemistry necessary to master it. Designed as both a resource for self-study and as a graduate textbook, this survey of the subject provides a step-by-step discussion of light-matter interactions along with coverage of such essential topics as: Molecular dynamics and control The dynamics of photodissociation Bimolecular collision processes The control of chirality and asymmetric synthesis Application of control using moderate and strong fields Tuning the system and laser parameters to achieve optimal control Decoherence and methods for countering it Both authoritative and comprehensive, this first in-depth treatment of coherent control is destined to become the standard reference in an increasingly influential field. PAUL W. BRUMER, PhD, is University Professor-Theoretical Chemical Physics and holds the Roel Buck Chair in Chemical Physics at the University of Toronto. He received his BSc. from Brooklyn College and his PhD from Harvard University. MOSHE SHAPIRO, PhD, is the Jacques Mimran Professor of Chemical Physics at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, and a Professor of Chemistry and Physics at the University of British Columbia. He received his

  7. Purification-based metric to measure the distance between quantum states and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osán, Tristán M.; Lamberti, Pedro W.

    2013-06-01

    In this work we study the properties of a purification-based entropic metric for measuring the distance between both quantum states and quantum processes. This metric is defined as the square root of the entropy of the average of two purifications of mixed quantum states which maximize the overlap between the purified states. We analyze this metric and show that it satisfies many appealing properties, which suggest this metric is an interesting proposal for theoretical and experimental applications of quantum information.

  8. Using quantum theory to simplify input-output processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jayne; Garner, Andrew J. P.; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile

    2017-02-01

    All natural things process and transform information. They receive environmental information as input, and transform it into appropriate output responses. Much of science is dedicated to building models of such systems-algorithmic abstractions of their input-output behavior that allow us to simulate how such systems can behave in the future, conditioned on what has transpired in the past. Here, we show that classical models cannot avoid inefficiency-storing past information that is unnecessary for correct future simulation. We construct quantum models that mitigate this waste, whenever it is physically possible to do so. This suggests that the complexity of general input-output processes depends fundamentally on what sort of information theory we use to describe them.

  9. Myoelectric control of artificial limb inspired by quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siomau, Michael; Jiang, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Precise and elegant coordination of a prosthesis across many degrees of freedom represents a significant challenge to efficient rehabilitation of people with limb deficiency. Processing the electrical neural signals collected from the surface of the remnant muscles of the stump is a common way to initiate and control the different movements available to the artificial limb. Based on the assumption that there are distinguishable and repeatable signal patterns among different types of muscular activation, the problem of prosthesis control reduces to one of pattern recognition. Widely accepted classical methods for pattern recognition, however, cannot provide simultaneous and proportional control of the artificial limb. Here we show that, in principle, quantum information processing of the neural signals allows us to overcome the above-mentioned difficulties, suggesting a very simple scheme for myoelectric control of artificial limb with advanced functionalities.

  10. A Scalable Microfabricated Ion Trap for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunz, Peter; Haltli, Raymond; Hollowell, Andrew; Lobser, Daniel; Mizrahi, Jonathan; Rembetski, John; Resnick, Paul; Sterk, Jonathan D.; Stick, Daniel L.; Blain, Matthew G.

    2016-05-01

    Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing (QIP) relies on complex microfabricated trap structures to enable scaling of the number of quantum bits. Building on previous demonstrations of surface-electrode ion traps, we have designed and characterized the Sandia high-optical-access (HOA-2) microfabricated ion trap. This trap features high optical access, high trap frequencies, low heating rates, and negligible charging of dielectric trap components. We have observed trap lifetimes of more than 100h, measured trap heating rates for ytterbium of less than 40quanta/s, and demonstrated shuttling of ions from a slotted to an above surface region and through a Y-junction. Furthermore, we summarize demonstrations of high-fidelity single and two-qubit gates realized in this trap. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA).

  11. Integrated optics architecture for trapped-ion quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielpinski, D.; Volin, C.; Streed, E. W.; Lenzini, F.; Lobino, M.

    2016-12-01

    Standard schemes for trapped-ion quantum information processing (QIP) involve the manipulation of ions in a large array of interconnected trapping potentials. The basic set of QIP operations, including state initialization, universal quantum logic, and state detection, is routinely executed within a single array site by means of optical operations, including various laser excitations as well as the collection of ion fluorescence. Transport of ions between array sites is also routinely carried out in microfabricated trap arrays. However, it is still not possible to perform optical operations in parallel across all array sites. The lack of this capability is one of the major obstacles to scalable trapped-ion QIP and presently limits exploitation of current microfabricated trap technology. Here we present an architecture for scalable integration of optical operations in trapped-ion QIP. We show theoretically that diffractive mirrors, monolithically fabricated on the trap array, can efficiently couple light between trap array sites and optical waveguide arrays. Integrated optical circuits constructed from these waveguides can be used for sequencing of laser excitation and fluorescence collection. Our scalable architecture supports all standard QIP operations, as well as photon-mediated entanglement channels, while offering substantial performance improvements over current techniques.

  12. On refractive processes in strong laser field quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Di Piazza, A.

    2013-11-15

    Refractive processes in strong-field QED are pure quantum processes, which involve only external photons and the background electromagnetic field. We show analytically that such processes occurring in a plane-wave field and involving external real photons are all characterized by a surprisingly modest net exchange of energy and momentum with the laser field, corresponding to a few laser photons, even in the limit of ultra-relativistic laser intensities. We obtain this result by a direct calculation of the transition matrix element of an arbitrary refractive QED process and accounting exactly for the background plane-wave field. A simple physical explanation of this modest net exchange of laser photons is provided, based on the fact that the laser field couples with the external photons only indirectly through virtual electron–positron pairs. For stronger and stronger laser fields, the pairs cover a shorter and shorter distance before they annihilate again, such that the laser can transfer to them an energy corresponding to only a few photons. These results can be relevant for the future experiments aiming to test strong-field QED at present and next-generation facilities. -- Highlights: •Investigation of the one-loop amplitude of refractive QED processes in a laser field. •The amplitude is suppressed for a large number of net-exchanged laser photons. •Suggestion for first observation of high-nonlinear vacuum effects in a laser field.

  13. One-dimensional Euclidean matching problem: exact solutions, correlation functions, and universality.

    PubMed

    Caracciolo, Sergio; Sicuro, Gabriele

    2014-10-01

    We discuss the equivalence relation between the Euclidean bipartite matching problem on the line and on the circumference and the Brownian bridge process on the same domains. The equivalence allows us to compute the correlation function and the optimal cost of the original combinatorial problem in the thermodynamic limit; moreover, we solve also the minimax problem on the line and on the circumference. The properties of the average cost and correlation functions are discussed.

  14. Quantum superpositions and entanglement of thermal states at high temperatures and their applications to quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunseok; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2007-10-15

    We study characteristics of superpositions and entanglement of thermal states at high temperatures and discuss their applications to quantum-information processing. We introduce thermal-state qubits and thermal-Bell states, which are a generalization of pure-state qubits and Bell states to thermal mixtures. A scheme is then presented to discriminate between the four thermal-Bell states without photon number resolving detection but with Kerr nonlinear interactions and two single-photon detectors. This enables one to perform quantum teleportation and gate operations for quantum computation with thermal-state qubits.

  15. Quantum thermodynamic processes: a control theory for machine cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjukov, J.; Jahnke, T.; Mahler, G.

    2008-07-01

    The minimal set of thermodynamic control parameters consists of a statistical (thermal) and a mechanical one. These suffice to introduce all the pertinent thermodynamic variables; thermodynamic processes can then be defined as paths on this 2-dimensional control plane. Putting aside coherence we show that for a large class of quantum objects with discrete spectra and for the cycles considered the Carnot efficiency applies as a universal upper bound. In the dynamic (finite time) regime renormalized thermodynamic variables allow to include non-equilibrium phenomena in a systematic way. The machine function ceases to exist in the large speed limit; the way, in which this limit is reached, depends on the type of cycle considered.

  16. Capture process in nuclear reactions with a quantum master equation

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

    2009-09-15

    Projectile-nucleus capture by a target nucleus at bombarding energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier is treated with the reduced-density-matrix formalism. The effects of dissipation and fluctuations on the capture process are taken self-consistently into account within the quantum model suggested. The excitation functions for the capture in the reactions {sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 28}Si, {sup 32,34,36,38}S, {sup 40,48}Ca, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr+{sup 208}Pb with spherical nuclei are calculated and compared with the experimental data. At bombarding energies about (15-25) MeV above the Coulomb barrier the maximum of capture cross section is revealed for the {sup 58}Ni+{sup 208}Pb reaction.

  17. Quantum signal processing-based visual cryptography with unexpanded shares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Surya Sarathi; Sharma, Kaushik Das; Chandra, Jayanta K.; Bera, Jitendra Nath

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a visual cryptography scheme (VCS) based on quantum signal processing (QSP). VCS is an image encryption technique that is very simple in formulation and is secure. In (k,n)-VCS, a secret binary image is encoded into n share images and minimum k shares are needed to decrypt the secret image. The efforts to encrypt a grayscale image are few in number and the majority are related to grayscale to binary conversion. Thus, a generalized approach of encryption for all types of images, i.e., binary, gray, and color is needed. Here, a generic VCS is proposed based on QSP where all types of images can be encrypted without pixel expansion along with a smoothing technique to enhance the quality of the decrypted image. The proposed scheme is tested and compared for benchmark images, and the result shows the effectiveness of the scheme.

  18. Ultrafast Quantum Process Tomography via Continuous Measurement and Convex Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Charles; Riofrio, Carlos; Deutsch, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Quantum process tomography (QPT) is an essential tool to diagnose the implementation of a dynamical map. However, the standard protocol is extremely resource intensive. For a Hilbert space of dimension d, it requires d2 different input preparations followed by state tomography via the estimation of the expectation values of d2 - 1 orthogonal observables. We show that when the process is nearly unitary, we can dramatically improve the efficiency and robustness of QPT through a collective continuous measurement protocol on an ensemble of identically prepared systems. Given the measurement history we obtain the process matrix via a convex program that optimizes a desired cost function. We study two estimators: least-squares and compressive sensing. Both allow rapid QPT due to the condition of complete positivity of the map; this is a powerful constraint to force the process to be physical and consistent with the data. We apply the method to a real experimental implementation, where optimal control is used to perform a unitary map on a d = 8 dimensional system of hyperfine levels in cesium atoms, and obtain the measurement record via Faraday spectroscopy of a laser probe. Supported by the NSF

  19. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na

    2010-04-01

    Digital radiography has gained popularity in many areas of clinical practice. This transition brings interest in advancing the methodologies for image quality characterization. However, as the methodologies for such characterizations have not been standardized, the results of these studies cannot be directly compared. The primary objective of this study was to standardize methodologies for image quality characterization. The secondary objective was to evaluate affected factors to Modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) according to image processing algorithm. Image performance parameters such as MTF, NPS, and DQE were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) images of hand posterior-anterior (PA) for measuring signal to noise ratio (SNR), slit image for measuring MTF, white image for measuring NPS were obtained and various Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification (MUSICA) parameters were applied to each of acquired images. In results, all of modified images were considerably influence on evaluating SNR, MTF, NPS, and DQE. Modified images by the post-processing had higher DQE than the MUSICA=0 image. This suggests that MUSICA values, as a post-processing, have an affect on the image when it is evaluating for image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing could be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study could be guided as a baseline to evaluate imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by measuring MTF, NPS, and DQE.

  20. Synthesis and engineering of diamond for nanoelectronics, photonics, and quantum information processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-25

    diamond and SiC”, Low Energy Electrodynamics of Solids conference (LEES-2012), Napa, California July 22-27, 2012. 21. D.D. Awschalom, “ Quantum control...SYSTHESIS AND ENGINEERING OF DIAMOND FOR NANOELECTRONICS, PHOTONICS AND QUANTUM INFORMATION PROCESSING RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS AFOSR #FA9550...motivate many applications from sensing to quantum information processing. Still, external electron and nuclear spin sensing are limited by weak

  1. A Euclidean bridge to the relativistic constituent quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Timothy; Alberg, Mary; Miller, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    We explore the potential of a Euclidean constituent quark model (ECQM) to bridge the lingering gap between Euclidean and Minkowski field theories in studies of nucleon structure. Specifically, we develop our ECQM using a simplified quark-scalar diquark picture of the nucleon as a first calculation. Our treatment in Euclidean space necessitates a hyperspherical formalism involving polynomial expansions of diquark propagators in order to marry our ECQM with results from Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE) analyses. From this framework, we define and compute a new quantity - a Euclidean density function (EDF) - an object that characterizes the nucleon's various charge distributions as functions of the quark's Euclidean momentum. Applying this technology and incorporating information from BSE analyses, we find the quenched dressing effect on the proton's axial-singlet charge to be small in magnitude and consistent with zero, while use of recent determinations of unquenched BSEs results in a large suppression. The substantial effect we obtain for the impact on the axial-singlet charge of the unquenched dressed vertex compared to the quenched demands further investigation. Work supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER-41014 and NSF Grant No. 1516105.

  2. Efficient algorithm for optimizing adaptive quantum metrology processes.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Alexander; Sanders, Barry C

    2011-12-02

    Quantum-enhanced metrology infers an unknown quantity with accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL). Feedback-based metrological techniques are promising for beating the SQL but devising the feedback procedures is difficult and inefficient. Here we introduce an efficient self-learning swarm-intelligence algorithm for devising feedback-based quantum metrological procedures. Our algorithm can be trained with simulated or real-world trials and accommodates experimental imperfections, losses, and decoherence. © 2011 American Physical Society

  3. Efficient Algorithm for Optimizing Adaptive Quantum Metrology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Alexander; Sanders, Barry C.

    2011-12-01

    Quantum-enhanced metrology infers an unknown quantity with accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL). Feedback-based metrological techniques are promising for beating the SQL but devising the feedback procedures is difficult and inefficient. Here we introduce an efficient self-learning swarm-intelligence algorithm for devising feedback-based quantum metrological procedures. Our algorithm can be trained with simulated or real-world trials and accommodates experimental imperfections, losses, and decoherence.

  4. One-loop diagrams in the random Euclidean matching problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucibello, Carlo; Parisi, Giorgio; Sicuro, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    The matching problem is a notorious combinatorial optimization problem that has attracted for many years the attention of the statistical physics community. Here we analyze the Euclidean version of the problem, i.e., the optimal matching problem between points randomly distributed on a d -dimensional Euclidean space, where the cost to minimize depends on the points' pairwise distances. Using Mayer's cluster expansion we write a formal expression for the replicated action that is suitable for a saddle point computation. We give the diagrammatic rules for each term of the expansion, and we analyze in detail the one-loop diagrams. A characteristic feature of the theory, when diagrams are perturbatively computed around the mean field part of the action, is the vanishing of the mass at zero momentum. In the non-Euclidean case of uncorrelated costs instead, we predict and numerically verify an anomalous scaling for the sub-sub-leading correction to the asymptotic average cost.

  5. Discontinuous automorphisms of the proper Galilei and Euclidean groups

    SciTech Connect

    Adeleke, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    The author shows that there are numerous discontinuous automorphisms of the three-dimensional Euclidean group and thus of the Galilei group, as numerous as the subsets of the real numbers, 2{sup aleph-null}, to be exact. These automorphisms arise from the derivations of the field of real numbers. Tits gave an example of a discontinuous automorphism for the semidirect product of the general linear group GL{sub n}(K) in n dimensions with the additive group of n {times} n matrices. He observes that if one uses the quaternion representation of the rotations and the form of Tits example, one obtains discontinuous automorphisms of the Euclidean group in three dimensions. He shows that all automorphisms of the Euclidean group in higher dimensions are continuous.

  6. Quantum information processing in the radical-pair mechanism: Haberkorn's theory violates the Ozawa entropy bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouloudakis, K.; Kominis, I. K.

    2017-02-01

    Radical-ion-pair reactions, central for understanding the avian magnetic compass and spin transport in photosynthetic reaction centers, were recently shown to be a fruitful paradigm of the new synthesis of quantum information science with biological processes. We show here that the master equation so far constituting the theoretical foundation of spin chemistry violates fundamental bounds for the entropy of quantum systems, in particular the Ozawa bound. In contrast, a recently developed theory based on quantum measurements, quantum coherence measures, and quantum retrodiction, thus exemplifying the paradigm of quantum biology, satisfies the Ozawa bound as well as the Lanford-Robinson bound on information extraction. By considering Groenewold's information, the quantum information extracted during the reaction, we reproduce the known and unravel other magnetic-field effects not conveyed by reaction yields.

  7. Quantum information processing in the radical-pair mechanism: Haberkorn's theory violates the Ozawa entropy bound.

    PubMed

    Mouloudakis, K; Kominis, I K

    2017-02-01

    Radical-ion-pair reactions, central for understanding the avian magnetic compass and spin transport in photosynthetic reaction centers, were recently shown to be a fruitful paradigm of the new synthesis of quantum information science with biological processes. We show here that the master equation so far constituting the theoretical foundation of spin chemistry violates fundamental bounds for the entropy of quantum systems, in particular the Ozawa bound. In contrast, a recently developed theory based on quantum measurements, quantum coherence measures, and quantum retrodiction, thus exemplifying the paradigm of quantum biology, satisfies the Ozawa bound as well as the Lanford-Robinson bound on information extraction. By considering Groenewold's information, the quantum information extracted during the reaction, we reproduce the known and unravel other magnetic-field effects not conveyed by reaction yields.

  8. Controlling Atomic, Solid-State and Hybrid Systems for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullans, Michael John

    Quantum information science involves the use of precise control over quantum systems to explore new technologies. However, as quantum systems are scaled up they require an ever deeper understanding of many-body physics to achieve the required degree of control. Current experiments are entering a regime which requires active control of a mesoscopic number of coupled quantum systems or quantum bits (qubits). This thesis describes several approaches to this goal and shows how mesoscopic quantum systems can be controlled and utilized for quantum information tasks. The first system we consider is the nuclear spin environment of GaAs double quantum dots containing two electrons. We show that the through appropriate control of dynamic nuclear polarization one can prepare the nuclear spin environment in three distinct collective quantum states which are useful for quantum information processing with electron spin qubits. We then investigate a hybrid system in which an optical lattice is formed in the near field scattering off an array of metallic nanoparticles by utilizing the plasmonic resonance of the nanoparticles. We show that such a system would realize new regimes of dense, ultra-cold quantum matter and can be used to create a quantum network of atoms and plasmons. Finally we investigate quantum nonlinear optical systems. We show that the intrinsic nonlinearity for plasmons in graphene can be large enough to make a quantum gate for single photons. We also consider two nonlinear optical systems based on ultracold gases of atoms. In one case, we demonstrate an all-optical single photon switch using cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) and slow light. In the second case, we study few photon physics in strongly interacting Rydberg polariton systems, where we demonstrate the existence of two and three photon bound states and study their properties.

  9. Modeling of Euclidean braided fiber architectures to optimize composite properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong-Carroll, E.; Pastore, C.; Ko, F. K.

    1992-01-01

    Three-dimensional braided fiber reinforcements are a very effective toughening mechanism for composite materials. The integral yarn path inherent to this fiber architecture allows for effective multidirectional dispersion of strain energy and negates delamination problems. In this paper a geometric model of Euclidean braid fiber architectures is presented. This information is used to determine the degree of geometric isotropy in the braids. This information, when combined with candidate material properties, can be used to quickly generate an estimate of the available load-carrying capacity of Euclidean braids at any arbitrary angle.

  10. Certifying single-system steering for quantum-information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Lambert, Neill; Chiu, Ching-Yi; Nori, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes how different ensembles of quantum states can be remotely prepared by measuring one particle of an entangled pair. Here, we investigate quantum steering for single quantum d -dimensional systems (qudits) and devise efficient conditions to certify the steerability therein, which we find are applicable both to single-system steering and EPR steering. In the single-system case our steering conditions enable the unambiguous ruling out of generic classical means of mimicking steering. Ruling out "false-steering" scenarios has implications for securing channels against both cloning-based individual attack and coherent attacks when implementing quantum key distribution using qudits. We also show that these steering conditions also have applications in quantum computation, in that they can serve as an efficient criterion for the evaluation of quantum logic gates of arbitrary size. Finally, we describe how the nonlocal EPR variant of these conditions also function as tools for identifying faithful one-way quantum computation, secure entanglement-based quantum communication, and genuine multipartite EPR steering.

  11. Parameterized runtime analyses of evolutionary algorithms for the planar euclidean traveling salesperson problem.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Andrew M; Neumann, Frank; Nallaperuma, Samadhi

    2014-01-01

    Parameterized runtime analysis seeks to understand the influence of problem structure on algorithmic runtime. In this paper, we contribute to the theoretical understanding of evolutionary algorithms and carry out a parameterized analysis of evolutionary algorithms for the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem (Euclidean TSP). We investigate the structural properties in TSP instances that influence the optimization process of evolutionary algorithms and use this information to bound their runtime. We analyze the runtime in dependence of the number of inner points k. In the first part of the paper, we study a [Formula: see text] EA in a strictly black box setting and show that it can solve the Euclidean TSP in expected time [Formula: see text] where A is a function of the minimum angle [Formula: see text] between any three points. Based on insights provided by the analysis, we improve this upper bound by introducing a mixed mutation strategy that incorporates both 2-opt moves and permutation jumps. This strategy improves the upper bound to [Formula: see text]. In the second part of the paper, we use the information gained in the analysis to incorporate domain knowledge to design two fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) evolutionary algorithms for the planar Euclidean TSP. We first develop a [Formula: see text] EA based on an analysis by M. Theile, 2009, "Exact solutions to the traveling salesperson problem by a population-based evolutionary algorithm," Lecture notes in computer science, Vol. 5482 (pp. 145-155), that solves the TSP with k inner points in [Formula: see text] generations with probability [Formula: see text]. We then design a [Formula: see text] EA that incorporates a dynamic programming step into the fitness evaluation. We prove that a variant of this evolutionary algorithm using 2-opt mutation solves the problem after [Formula: see text] steps in expectation with a cost of [Formula: see text] for each fitness evaluation.

  12. Quantum cognition: The possibility of processing with nuclear spins in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2015-11-01

    The possibility that quantum processing with nuclear spins might be operative in the brain is explored. Phosphorus is identified as the unique biological element with a nuclear spin that can serve as a qubit for such putative quantum processing-a neural qubit-while the phosphate ion is the only possible qubit-transporter. We identify the "Posner molecule", Ca9(PO4)6, as the unique molecule that can protect the neural qubits on very long times and thereby serve as a (working) quantum-memory. A central requirement for quantum-processing is quantum entanglement. It is argued that the enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction which breaks a pyrophosphate ion into two phosphate ions can quantum entangle pairs of qubits. Posner molecules, formed by binding such phosphate pairs with extracellular calcium ions, will inherit the nuclear spin entanglement. A mechanism for transporting Posner molecules into presynaptic neurons during vesicle endocytosis is proposed. Quantum measurements can occur when a pair of Posner molecules chemically bind and subsequently melt, releasing a shower of intra-cellular calcium ions that can trigger further neurotransmitter release and enhance the probability of post-synaptic neuron firing. Multiple entangled Posner molecules, triggering non-local quantum correlations of neuron firing rates, would provide the key mechanism for neural quantum processing. Implications, both in vitro and in vivo, are briefly mentioned.

  13. Discrimination of correlated and entangling quantum channels with selective process tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Dumitrescu, Eugene; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-10-10

    The accurate and reliable characterization of quantum dynamical processes underlies efforts to validate quantum technologies, where discrimination between competing models of observed behaviors inform efforts to fabricate and operate qubit devices. We present a protocol for quantum channel discrimination that leverages advances in direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) codes. We demonstrate that DCQD codes enable selective process tomography to improve discrimination between entangling and correlated quantum dynamics. Numerical simulations show selective process tomography requires only a few measurement configurations to achieve a low false alarm rate and that the DCQD encoding improves the resilience of the protocol to hiddenmore » sources of noise. Lastly, our results show that selective process tomography with DCQD codes is useful for efficiently distinguishing sources of correlated crosstalk from uncorrelated noise in current and future experimental platforms.« less

  14. Discrimination of correlated and entangling quantum channels with selective process tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitrescu, Eugene; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-10-10

    The accurate and reliable characterization of quantum dynamical processes underlies efforts to validate quantum technologies, where discrimination between competing models of observed behaviors inform efforts to fabricate and operate qubit devices. We present a protocol for quantum channel discrimination that leverages advances in direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) codes. We demonstrate that DCQD codes enable selective process tomography to improve discrimination between entangling and correlated quantum dynamics. Numerical simulations show selective process tomography requires only a few measurement configurations to achieve a low false alarm rate and that the DCQD encoding improves the resilience of the protocol to hidden sources of noise. Lastly, our results show that selective process tomography with DCQD codes is useful for efficiently distinguishing sources of correlated crosstalk from uncorrelated noise in current and future experimental platforms.

  15. Discrimination of correlated and entangling quantum channels with selective process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Eugene; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-10-01

    The accurate and reliable characterization of quantum dynamical processes underlies efforts to validate quantum technologies, where discrimination between competing models of observed behaviors inform efforts to fabricate and operate qubit devices. We present a protocol for quantum channel discrimination that leverages advances in direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) codes. We demonstrate that DCQD codes enable selective process tomography to improve discrimination between entangling and correlated quantum dynamics. Numerical simulations show selective process tomography requires only a few measurement configurations to achieve a low false alarm rate and that the DCQD encoding improves the resilience of the protocol to hidden sources of noise. Our results show that selective process tomography with DCQD codes is useful for efficiently distinguishing sources of correlated crosstalk from uncorrelated noise in current and future experimental platforms.

  16. Discrimination of correlated and entangling quantum channels with selective process tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitrescu, Eugene; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-10-10

    The accurate and reliable characterization of quantum dynamical processes underlies efforts to validate quantum technologies, where discrimination between competing models of observed behaviors inform efforts to fabricate and operate qubit devices. We present a protocol for quantum channel discrimination that leverages advances in direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) codes. We demonstrate that DCQD codes enable selective process tomography to improve discrimination between entangling and correlated quantum dynamics. Numerical simulations show selective process tomography requires only a few measurement configurations to achieve a low false alarm rate and that the DCQD encoding improves the resilience of the protocol to hidden sources of noise. Lastly, our results show that selective process tomography with DCQD codes is useful for efficiently distinguishing sources of correlated crosstalk from uncorrelated noise in current and future experimental platforms.

  17. Physical Meaning of the Optimum Measurement Process in Quantum Detection Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osaki, Masao; Kozuka, Haruhisa; Hirota, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    The optimum measurement processes are represented as the optimum detection operators in the quantum detection theory. The error probability by the optimum detection operators goes beyond the standard quantum limit automatically. However the optimum detection operators are given by pure mathematical descriptions. In order to realize a communication system overcoming the standard quantum limit, we try to give the physical meaning of the optimum detection operators.

  18. Demonstration of a Scalable, Multiplexed Ion Trap for Quantum Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-09

    ion shuttling, storage, and manipulation, Appl. Phys. Letters 88, pp. 034101. 6. M. Riebe, et al. (2004), Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms...Nature 429, pp. 734. 7. M. D. Barrett, et al. (2004), Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits, Nature 429, pp. 737. 8. J. Chiaverini...REPORT DEMONSTRATION OF A SCALABLE, MULTIPLEXED ION TRAPFOR QUANTUM INFORMATION PROCESSING 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: A scalable

  19. Energy transfer processes in semiconductor quantum dots: bacteriorhodopsin hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Sukhanova, Alyona; Bouchonville, Nicolas; Molinari, Michael; Troyon, Michel; Cohen, Jacques H. M.; Rakovich, Yury; Donegan, John F.; Nabiev, Igor

    2009-05-01

    The potential impact of nanoscience on energy transfer processes in biomolecules was investigated on the example of a complex between fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and photochromic membrane protein. The interactions between colloidal CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and bacteriorhodopsin (bR) protein were studied by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including integrated and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies, zeta potential and size measurement, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. QDs' luminescence was found to be strongly modulated by bacteriorhodopsin, but in a controllable way. Decreasing emission lifetimes and blue shifts in QDs' emission at increasing protein concentrations suggest that quenching occurs via Förster resonance energy transfer. On the other hand, concave Stern-Volmer plots and sigmoidal photoluminescence quenching curves imply that the self-assembling of NCs and bR exists, and the number of nanocrystals (NCs) per bacteriorhodopsin contributing to energy transfer can be determined from the inflection points of sigmoidal curves. This number was found to be highly dependent not only on the spectral overlap between NC emission and bR absorption bands, but also on nanocrystal surface charge. These results demonstrate the potential of how inorganic nanoscale materials can be employed to improve the generic molecular functions of biomolecules. The observed interactions between CdTe nanocrystals and bacteriorhodopsin can provide the basis for the development of novel functional materials with unique photonic properties and applications in areas such as all-optical switching, photovoltaics and data storage.

  20. Quantum Simulation of Dissipative Processes without Reservoir Engineering.

    PubMed

    Di Candia, R; Pedernales, J S; del Campo, A; Solano, E; Casanova, J

    2015-05-29

    We present a quantum algorithm to simulate general finite dimensional Lindblad master equations without the requirement of engineering the system-environment interactions. The proposed method is able to simulate both Markovian and non-Markovian quantum dynamics. It consists in the quantum computation of the dissipative corrections to the unitary evolution of the system of interest, via the reconstruction of the response functions associated with the Lindblad operators. Our approach is equally applicable to dynamics generated by effectively non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. We confirm the quality of our method providing specific error bounds that quantify its accuracy.

  1. Quantum simulation of dissipative processes without reservoir engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Di Candia, R.; Pedernales, J. S.; del Campo, A.; ...

    2015-05-29

    We present a quantum algorithm to simulate general finite dimensional Lindblad master equations without the requirement of engineering the system-environment interactions. The proposed method is able to simulate both Markovian and non-Markovian quantum dynamics. It consists in the quantum computation of the dissipative corrections to the unitary evolution of the system of interest, via the reconstruction of the response functions associated with the Lindblad operators. Our approach is equally applicable to dynamics generated by effectively non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. We confirm the quality of our method providing specific error bounds that quantify its accuracy.

  2. Quantum Simulation of Dissipative Processes without Reservoir Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Di Candia, R.; Pedernales, J. S.; del Campo, A.; Solano, E.; Casanova, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantum algorithm to simulate general finite dimensional Lindblad master equations without the requirement of engineering the system-environment interactions. The proposed method is able to simulate both Markovian and non-Markovian quantum dynamics. It consists in the quantum computation of the dissipative corrections to the unitary evolution of the system of interest, via the reconstruction of the response functions associated with the Lindblad operators. Our approach is equally applicable to dynamics generated by effectively non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. We confirm the quality of our method providing specific error bounds that quantify its accuracy. PMID:26024437

  3. Phase-sensitive cascaded four-wave-mixing processes for generating three quantum correlated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Hailong; Li, Sijin; Wang, Yaxian; Jing, Jietai

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical studies and experimental implementations of quantum correlation are the important contents of continuous variables quantum optics and quantum information science. There are various systems for the study of quantum correlation. Here, we study an experimental scheme for generating three quantum correlated beams based on phase-sensitive cascaded four-wave-mixing (FWM) processes in rubidium vapor. Quantum correlation including intensity difference or sum squeezing, two other combinatorial squeezing, and quantum entanglement among the three output light fields are theoretically analyzed in this paper. Also, the comparison of the quantum correlations have been made between the phase-sensitive cascaded FWM processes and the phase-insensitive cascaded FWM processes. By changing the phases and intensities of the input beams, it is interesting to find that the maximum degrees of various combinatorial squeezing are equal when the two FWM processes share a common intensity gain. When the common intensity gain of the two FWM processes changes, the maximum degrees of different combinatorial squeezing will be synchronously controlled. At last we discuss the genuine tripartite entanglement and steering in our phase-sensitive cascaded scheme, and compare them with the cases of the phase-insensitive cascaded scheme.

  4. Fixed points of quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Litim, Daniel F

    2004-05-21

    Euclidean quantum gravity is studied with renormalization group methods. Analytical results for a nontrivial ultraviolet fixed point are found for arbitrary dimensions and gauge fixing parameters in the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. Implications for quantum gravity in four dimensions are discussed.

  5. On the Nonnegative Rank of Euclidean Distance Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    The Euclidean distance matrix for n distinct points in ℝr is generically of rank r + 2. It is shown in this paper via a geometric argument that its nonnegative rank for the case r = 1 is generically n. PMID:23966751

  6. Peripatetic and Euclidean theories of the visual ray.

    PubMed

    Jones, A

    1994-01-01

    The visual ray of Euclid's Optica is endowed with properties that reveal the concept to be an abstraction of a specific physical account of vision. The evolution of a physical theory of vision compatible with the Euclidean model can be traced in Peripatetic writings of the late fourth and third centuries B.C.

  7. The Role of Structure in Learning Non-Euclidean Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmuth, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    How do people learn novel mathematical information that contradicts prior knowledge? The focus of this thesis is the role of structure in the acquisition of knowledge about hyperbolic geometry, a non-Euclidean geometry. In a series of three experiments, I contrast a more holistic structure--training based on closed figures--with a mathematically…

  8. The Role of Structure in Learning Non-Euclidean Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmuth, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    How do people learn novel mathematical information that contradicts prior knowledge? The focus of this thesis is the role of structure in the acquisition of knowledge about hyperbolic geometry, a non-Euclidean geometry. In a series of three experiments, I contrast a more holistic structure--training based on closed figures--with a mathematically…

  9. Vectorial moments of curves in Euclidean 3-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunçer, Yılmaz

    In this study, we introduced the vectorial moments as a new curves as w-dual curve, where w ∈{T(s),N(s),B(s)}, constructed by the Frenet vectors of a regular curve in Euclidean 3-space and we gave the Frenet apparatus of w-dual curves and also we applied to helices and curve pairs of constant breadth.

  10. Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaz, Edgard

    This book gives a new insight into the interpretation of quantum mechanics (stochastic, integral paths, decoherence), a completely new treatment of angular momentum (graphical spin algebra) and an introduction to Fermion fields (Dirac equation) and Boson fields (e.m. and Higgs) as well as an introduction to QED (quantum electrodynamics), supersymmetry and quantum cosmology.

  11. Quantum image processing: A review of advances in its security technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Iliyasu, Abdullah M.; Le, Phuc Q.

    In this review, we present an overview of the advances made in quantum image processing (QIP) comprising of the image representations, the operations realizable on them, and the likely protocols and algorithms for their applications. In particular, we focus on recent progresses on QIP-based security technologies including quantum watermarking, quantum image encryption, and quantum image steganography. This review is aimed at providing readers with a succinct, yet adequate compendium of the progresses made in the QIP sub-area. Hopefully, this effort will stimulate further interest aimed at the pursuit of more advanced algorithms and experimental validations for available technologies and extensions to other domains.

  12. Recent advances in exciton-based quantum information processing in quantum dot nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenner, Hubert J.; Stufler, Stefan; Sabathil, Matthias; Clark, Emily C.; Ester, Patrick; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan J.; Zrenner, Artur

    2005-08-01

    Recent experimental developments in the field of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) spectroscopy are discussed. Firstly, we report about single QD exciton two-level systems and their coherent properties in terms of single-qubit manipulations. In the second part, we report on coherent quantum coupling in a prototype 'two-qubit' system consisting of a vertically stacked pair of QDs. The interaction can be tuned in such QD molecule devices using an applied voltage as external parameter.

  13. Euclidean bridge to the relativistic constituent quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, T. J.; Alberg, Mary; Miller, Gerald A.

    2017-03-01

    Background: Knowledge of nucleon structure is today ever more of a precision science, with heightened theoretical and experimental activity expected in coming years. At the same time, a persistent gap lingers between theoretical approaches grounded in Euclidean methods (e.g., lattice QCD, Dyson-Schwinger equations [DSEs]) as opposed to traditional Minkowski field theories (such as light-front constituent quark models). Purpose: Seeking to bridge these complementary world views, we explore the potential of a Euclidean constituent quark model (ECQM). This formalism enables us to study the gluonic dressing of the quark-level axial-vector vertex, which we undertake as a test of the framework. Method: To access its indispensable elements with a minimum of inessential detail, we develop our ECQM using the simplified quark + scalar diquark picture of the nucleon. We construct a hyperspherical formalism involving polynomial expansions of diquark propagators to marry our ECQM with the results of Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) analyses, and constrain model parameters by fitting electromagnetic form factor data. Results: From this formalism, we define and compute a new quantity—the Euclidean density function (EDF)—an object that characterizes the nucleon's various charge distributions as functions of the quark's Euclidean momentum. Applying this technology and incorporating information from BSE analyses, we find the quenched dressing effect on the proton's axial-singlet charge to be small in magnitude and consistent with zero, while use of recent determinations of unquenched BSEs results in a large suppression. Conclusions: The quark + scalar diquark ECQM is a step toward a realistic quark model in Euclidean space, and needs additional refinements. The substantial effect we obtain for the impact on the axial-singlet charge of the unquenched dressed vertex compared to the quenched demands further investigation.

  14. Low-Loss, All-Optical, Quantum Switching For Interferometric Processing of Weak Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambo, Timothy M.

    Recent advances in optical switching have yielded an all-fiber, all-optical, device capable of routing single-photon quantum signals at high rates (≈25 GHz), with almost immeasurably small degradation of the quantum state[1, 2, 3]. These switches can facilitate complex quantum networking and quantum information processing schemes. However, the complexity of these applications is inherently limited by the insertion loss of the switching devices. The lowest demonstrated insertion loss for a two-input, two-output, all-optical quantum switch is ≈3 dB. In this thesis, I describe my work demonstrating all-optical quantum switching with insertion loss reduced as low as 0.16 dB. I also present several applications of quantum switching, including novel techniques for quantum computation and photon-starved classical communications, and present two experimental case studies showing that this improved switching can be used to implement complex information processing tasks. I show that the low-loss of this quantum switching technology can be used to multiplex the outputs of single-photon sources to improve the production rate, and that the technology can also be used to implement a novel receiver for deep-space optical communication.

  15. Euclidean path integral formalism in deformed space with minimum measurable length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2017-04-01

    We study time-evolution at the quantum level by developing the Euclidean path-integral approach for the general case where there exists a minimum measurable length. We derive an expression for the momentum-space propagator which turns out to be consistent with recently developed β-canonical transformation. We also construct the propagator for maximal localization which corresponds to the amplitude that a state which is maximally localized at location ξ' propagates to a state which is maximally localized at location ξ″ in a given time. Our expression for the momentum-space propagator and the propagator for maximal localization is valid for any form of time-independent Hamiltonian. The nonrelativistic free particle, particle in a linear potential, and the harmonic oscillator are discussed as examples.

  16. Quantum information processing with long-wavelength radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, David; Weidt, Sebastian; Randall, Joseph; Lekitsch, Bjoern; Webster, Simon; Navickas, Tomas; Grounds, Anton; Rodriguez, Andrea; Webb, Anna; Standing, Eamon; Pearce, Stuart; Sari, Ibrahim; Kiang, Kian; Rattanasonti, Hwanjit; Kraft, Michael; Hensinger, Winfried

    To this point, the entanglement of ions has predominantly been performed using lasers. Using long wavelength radiation with static magnetic field gradients provides an architecture to simplify construction of a large scale quantum computer. The use of microwave-dressed states protects against decoherence from fluctuating magnetic fields, with radio-frequency fields used for qubit manipulation. I will report the realisation of spin-motion entanglement using long-wavelength radiation, and a new method to efficiently prepare dressed-state qubits and qutrits, reducing experimental complexity of gate operations. I will also report demonstration of ground state cooling using long wavelength radiation, which may increase two-qubit entanglement fidelity. I will then report demonstration of a high-fidelity long-wavelength two-ion quantum gate using dressed states. Combining these results with microfabricated ion traps allows for scaling towards a large scale ion trap quantum computer, and provides a platform for quantum simulations of fundamental physics. I will report progress towards the operation of microchip ion traps with extremely high magnetic field gradients for multi-ion quantum gates.

  17. Quantum information processing, operational quantum logic, convexity, and the foundations of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Howard

    Quantum information science is a source of task-related axioms whose consequences can be explored in general settings encompassing quantum mechanics, classical theory, and more. Quantum states are compendia of probabilities for the outcomes of possible operations we may perform on a system: "operational states." I discuss general frameworks for "operational theories" (sets of possible operational states of a system), in which convexity plays key role. The main technical content of the paper is in a theorem that any such theory naturally gives rise to a "weak effect algebra" when outcomes having the same probability in all states are identified and in the introduction of a notion of "operation algebra" that also takes account of sequential and conditional operations. Such frameworks are appropriate for investigating what things look like from an "inside view," i.e., for describing perspectival information that one subsystem of the world can have about another. Understanding how such views can combine, and whether an overall "geometric" picture ("outside view") coordinating them all can be had, even if this picture is very different in structure from the perspectives within it, is the key to whether we may be able to achieve a unified, "objective" physical view in which quantum mechanics is the appropriate description for certain perspectives, or whether quantum mechanics is truly telling us we must go beyond this "geometric" conception of physics.

  18. Relaxation process of quantum system: Stochastic Liouville equation and initial correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, Masashi; Kitajima, Sachiko; Shibata, Fumiaki

    2010-08-15

    Time evolution of a quantum system which is influenced by a stochastically fluctuating environment is studied by means of the stochastic Liouville equation. The two different types of the stochastic Liouville equation and their relation are discussed. The stochastic Liouville equation is shown to be derived from the quantum master equation of the Lindblad under certain conditions. Relaxation processes of single and bipartite quantum systems which are initially correlated with a stochastic environment are investigated. It is shown the possibility that the stochastic fluctuation can create coherence and entanglement of a quantum system with the assistance of the initial correlation. The results are examined in the pure dephasing processes of qubits, which are caused by the nonstationary Gauss-Markov process and two-state jump Markov process.

  19. Quantum Dot-Photonic Crystal Cavity QED Based Quantum Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-14

    Vuckovic, Andrei Faraon . Integrated quantum optical networks based on quantum dots and photonic crystals, New Journal of Physics, (05 2011): 55025. doi...Review A, (04 2012): 41801. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.041801 2012/08/14 15:15:51 25 Arka Majumdar, Michal Bajcsy, Andrei Faraon , Pierre Petroff...at telecommunications wavelength, Applied Physics Letters, (02 2011): 83105. doi: 10.1063/1.3556644 2012/08/14 14:54:12 30 A. Majumdar, A. Faraon

  20. Pattern-recalling processes in quantum Hopfield networks far from saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2011-05-01

    As a mathematical model of associative memories, the Hopfield model was now well-established and a lot of studies to reveal the pattern-recalling process have been done from various different approaches. As well-known, a single neuron is itself an uncertain, noisy unit with a finite unnegligible error in the input-output relation. To model the situation artificially, a kind of 'heat bath' that surrounds neurons is introduced. The heat bath, which is a source of noise, is specified by the 'temperature'. Several studies concerning the pattern-recalling processes of the Hopfield model governed by the Glauber-dynamics at finite temperature were already reported. However, we might extend the 'thermal noise' to the quantum-mechanical variant. In this paper, in terms of the stochastic process of quantum-mechanical Markov chain Monte Carlo method (the quantum MCMC), we analytically derive macroscopically deterministic equations of order parameters such as 'overlap' in a quantum-mechanical variant of the Hopfield neural networks (let us call quantum Hopfield model or quantum Hopfield networks). For the case in which non-extensive number p of patterns are embedded via asymmetric Hebbian connections, namely, p/N → 0 for the number of neuron N → ∞ ('far from saturation'), we evaluate the recalling processes for one of the built-in patterns under the influence of quantum-mechanical noise.

  1. Photoinduced Single- and Multiple- Electron Dynamics Processes Enhanced by Quantum Confinement in Lead Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Dayton Jon; Kryjevski, Andrei; Inerbaev, Talgat M; Kilin, Dmitri S

    2017-03-21

    Methyl-ammonium lead iodide perovskite (MAPbI3) is a promising material for photovoltaic devices. A modification of the MAPbI3 into confined nanostructures is expected to further increase efficiency of solar energy conversion. Photo-excited dynamic processes in a MAPbI3 quantum dot (QD) have been modeled by many-body perturbation theory and nonadiabatic dynamics. A photoexcitation is followed by either exciton cooling (EC), its radiative (RR) or non-radiative recombination (NRR), or multi-exciton generation (MEG) processes. Computed times of these processes fall in the order of MEG < EC < RR < NRR, where MEG is in the order of a few femtoseconds, EC at the picosecond range while RR and NRR are in the order of nanoseconds. Computed timescales indicate which electronic transition pathways can contribute to increase in charge collection efficiency. Simulated mechanism relaxation rates show that quantum confinement promotes MEG in MAPbI3 QDs.

  2. Photoinduced Single- and Multiple-Electron Dynamics Processes Enhanced by Quantum Confinement in Lead Halide Perovskite Quantum Dots

    DOE PAGES

    Vogel, Dayton J.; Kryjevski, Andrei; Inerbaev, Talgat; ...

    2017-03-21

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (MAPbI3) is a promising material for photovoltaic devices. A modification of MAPbI3 into confined nanostructures is expected to further increase efficiency of solar energy conversion. Photoexcited dynamic processes in a MAPbI3 quantum dot (QD) have been modeled by many-body perturbation theory and nonadiabatic dynamics. A photoexcitation is followed by either exciton cooling (EC), its radiative (RR) or nonradiative recombination (NRR), or multiexciton generation (MEG) processes. Computed times of these processes fall in the order of MEG < EC < RR < NRR, where MEG is on the order of a few femtoseconds, EC is in themore » picosecond range, while RR and NRR are on the order of nanoseconds. Computed time scales indicate which electronic transition pathways can contribute to increase in charge collection efficiency. Simulated mechanisms of relaxation and their rates show that quantum confinement promotes MEG in MAPbI3 QDs.« less

  3. Percolation threshold on planar Euclidean Gabriel graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrenbrock, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In the present article, numerical simulations have been performed to find the bond and site percolation thresholds on two-dimensional Gabriel graphs (GG) for Poisson point processes. GGs belong to the family of "proximity graphs" and are discussed, e.g., in context of the construction of backbones for wireless ad-hoc networks. Finite-size scaling analyses have been performed to find the critical points and critical exponents ν, β and γ. The critical exponents obtained this way verify that the associated universality class is that of standard 2D percolation.

  4. Elementary Quantum Mechanics in a High-Energy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denville, A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Compares two approaches to strong absorption in elementary quantum mechanics; the black sphere and a model based on the continuum theory of nuclear reactions. Examines the application to proton-antiproton interactions at low momenta and concludes that the second model is the appropriate and simplest to use. (Author/GA)

  5. Toward quantum-like modeling of financial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choustova, Olga

    2007-05-01

    We apply methods of quantum mechanics for mathematical modeling of price dynamics at the financial market. We propose to describe behavioral financial factors (e.g., expectations of traders) by using the pilot wave (Bohmian) model of quantum mechanics. Trajectories of prices are determined by two financial potentials: classical-like V(q) ("hard" market conditions, e.g., natural resources) and quantum-like U(q) (behavioral market conditions). On the one hand, our Bohmian model is a quantum-like model for the financial market, cf. with works of W. Segal, I. E. Segal, E. Haven, E. W. Piotrowski, J. Sladkowski. On the other hand, (since Bohmian mechanics provides the possibility to describe individual price trajectories) it belongs to the domain of extended research on deterministic dynamics for financial assets (C.W.J. Granger, W.A. Barnett, A. J. Benhabib, W.A. Brock, C. Sayers, J. Y. Campbell, A. W. Lo, A. C. MacKinlay, A. Serletis, S. Kuchta, M. Frank, R. Gencay, T. Stengos, M. J. Hinich, D. Patterson, D. A. Hsieh, D. T. Caplan, J.A. Scheinkman, B. LeBaron and many others).

  6. Elementary Quantum Mechanics in a High-Energy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denville, A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Compares two approaches to strong absorption in elementary quantum mechanics; the black sphere and a model based on the continuum theory of nuclear reactions. Examines the application to proton-antiproton interactions at low momenta and concludes that the second model is the appropriate and simplest to use. (Author/GA)

  7. Optimizing the choice of spin-squeezed states for detecting and characterizing quantum processes

    DOE PAGES

    Rozema, Lee A.; Mahler, Dylan H.; Blume-Kohout, Robin; ...

    2014-11-07

    Quantum metrology uses quantum states with no classical counterpart to measure a physical quantity with extraordinary sensitivity or precision. Most such schemes characterize a dynamical process by probing it with a specially designed quantum state. The success of such a scheme usually relies on the process belonging to a particular one-parameter family. If this assumption is violated, or if the goal is to measure more than one parameter, a different quantum state may perform better. In the most extreme case, we know nothing about the process and wish to learn everything. This requires quantum process tomography, which demands an informationallymore » complete set of probe states. It is very convenient if this set is group covariant—i.e., each element is generated by applying an element of the quantum system’s natural symmetry group to a single fixed fiducial state. In this paper, we consider metrology with 2-photon (“biphoton”) states and report experimental studies of different states’ sensitivity to small, unknown collective SU(2) rotations [“SU(2) jitter”]. Maximally entangled N00N states are the most sensitive detectors of such a rotation, yet they are also among the worst at fully characterizing an a priori unknown process. We identify (and confirm experimentally) the best SU(2)-covariant set for process tomography; these states are all less entangled than the N00N state, and are characterized by the fact that they form a 2-design.« less

  8. Tackling higher derivative ghosts with the Euclidean path integral

    SciTech Connect

    Fontanini, Michele; Trodden, Mark

    2011-05-15

    An alternative to the effective field theory approach to treat ghosts in higher derivative theories is to attempt to integrate them out via the Euclidean path integral formalism. It has been suggested that this method could provide a consistent framework within which we might tolerate the ghost degrees of freedom that plague, among other theories, the higher derivative gravity models that have been proposed to explain cosmic acceleration. We consider the extension of this idea to treating a class of terms with order six derivatives, and find that for a general term the Euclidean path integral approach works in the most trivial background, Minkowski. Moreover we see that even in de Sitter background, despite some difficulties, it is possible to define a probability distribution for tensorial perturbations of the metric.

  9. Riemannian Means on Special Euclidean Group and Unipotent Matrices Group

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaomin; Sun, Huafei

    2013-01-01

    Among the noncompact matrix Lie groups, the special Euclidean group and the unipotent matrix group play important roles in both theoretic and applied studies. The Riemannian means of a finite set of the given points on the two matrix groups are investigated, respectively. Based on the left invariant metric on the matrix Lie groups, the geodesic between any two points is gotten. And the sum of the geodesic distances is taken as the cost function, whose minimizer is the Riemannian mean. Moreover, a Riemannian gradient algorithm for computing the Riemannian mean on the special Euclidean group and an iterative formula for that on the unipotent matrix group are proposed, respectively. Finally, several numerical simulations in the 3-dimensional case are given to illustrate our results. PMID:24282378

  10. Rigid body dynamics in non-Euclidean spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. V.; Mamaev, I. S.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we focus on the study of two-dimensional plate dynamics on the Lobachevskii plane L 2. First of all, we consider the free motion of such a plate, which is a pseudospherical analog of dynamics of the Euler top, and also present an analog of the Euler-Poisson equations enabling us to study the motion of the body in potential force fields having rotational symmetry. We present a series of integrable cases, having analogs in Euclidean space, for different fields. Moreover, in the paper, a partial qualitative analysis of the dynamics of free motion of a plate under arbitrary initial conditions is made and a number of computer illustrations are presented which show a substantial difference of the motion from the case of Euclidean space. The study undertaken in the present paper leads to interesting physical consequences, which enable us to detect the influence of curvature on the body dynamics.

  11. Euclidean to Minkowski Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, J.; Frederico, T.; Karmanov, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in Minkowski space given the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude - or alternatively the light-front wave function - as input. The method is based on the numerical inversion of the Nakanishi integral representation and computing the corresponding weight function. This inversion procedure is, in general, rather unstable, and we propose several ways to considerably reduce the instabilities. In terms of the Nakanishi weight function, one can easily compute the BS amplitude, the LF wave function and the electromagnetic form factor. The latter ones are very stable in spite of residual instabilities in the weight function. This procedure allows both, to continue the Euclidean BS solution in the Minkowski space and to obtain a BS amplitude from a LF wave function.

  12. Euclidean Complex Relativistic Mechanics: A New Special Relativity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias

    2015-09-01

    Relativity Theory (RT) was fundamental for the development of Quantum Mechanics (QMs). Special Relativity (SR), as is applied until now, cancels the transitive attribute in parallelism, when three observers are related, because Lorentz Boost (LB) is not closed transformation. In this presentation, considering Linear Spacetime Transformation (LSTT), we demand the maintenance of Minkowski Spacetime Interval (S2). In addition, we demand this LSTT to be closed, so there is no need for axes rotation. The solution is the Vossos Matrix (ΛB) containing real and imaginary numbers. As a result, space becomes complex, but time remains real. Thus, the transitive attribute in parallelism, which is equivalent to the Euclidean Request (ER), is also valid for moving observers. Choosing real spacetime for the unmoved observer (O), all the natural sizes are real, too. Using Vossos Transformation (VT) for moving observers, the four-vectors’ zeroth component (such as energy) is real, in contrast with spatial components that are complex, but their norm is real. It is proved that moving (relative to O) human O' meter length, according to Lorentz Boost (LB). In addition, we find Rotation Matrix Vossos-Lorentz (RBL) that turns natural sizes’ complex components to real. We also prove that Speed of Light in Vacuum (c) is invariant, when complex components are used and VT is closed for three sequential observers. After, we find out the connection between two moving (relative to O) observers: X"= ΛLO"(o) ΛLO(O') X', using Lorentz Matrix (ΛL). We applied this theory, finding relations between natural sizes, that are the same as these extracted by Classic Relativity (CR), when two observers are related (i.e. relativistic Doppler shift is the same). But, the results are different, when more than two observers are related. VT of Electromagnetic Tensor (Fμv), leads to Complex Electromagnetic Fields (CEMFs) for a moving observer. When the unmoved observer O and a moving observer O' are

  13. Optimal recovery of linear operators in non-Euclidean metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Osipenko, K Yu

    2014-10-31

    The paper looks at problems concerning the recovery of operators from noisy information in non-Euclidean metrics. A number of general theorems are proved and applied to recovery problems for functions and their derivatives from the noisy Fourier transform. In some cases, a family of optimal methods is found, from which the methods requiring the least amount of original information are singled out. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  14. Crosscap States for Orientifolds of Euclidean AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikida, Yasuaki

    2002-05-01

    Crosscap states for orientifolds of euclidean AdS3 are constructed. We show that our crosscap states describe the same orientifolds which were obtained by the classical analysis. The spectral density of open strings in the system with orientifold can be read from the Möbius strip amplitudes and it is compared to that of the open strings stretched between branes and their mirrors. We also compute the Klein bottle amplitudes.

  15. Fractal and Euclidean descriptors of platelet shape.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Max-Joseph; Neeb, Heiko; Strasser, Erwin F

    2014-01-01

    Platelet shape change is a dynamic membrane surface process that exhibits remarkable morphological heterogeneity. Once the outline of an irregular shape is identified and segmented from a digital image, several mathematical descriptors can be applied to numerical characterize the irregularity of the shapes surface. 13072 platelet outlines (PLO) were segmented automatically from 1928 microscopic images using a newly developed algorithm for the software product Matlab R2012b. The fractal dimension (FD), circularity, eccentricity, area and perimeter of each PLO were determined. 972 PLO were randomly assigned for computer-assisted manual measurement of platelet diameter as well as number, width and length of filopodia per platelet. FD can be used as a surrogate parameter for determining the roughness of the PLO and circularity can be used as a surrogate to estimate the number and length of filopodia. The relationship between FD and perimeter of the PLO reveals the existence of distinct groups of platelets with significant structural differences which may be caused by platelet activation. This new method allows for the standardized continuous numerical classification of platelet shape and its dynamic change, which is useful for the analysis of altered platelet activity (e.g. inflammatory diseases, contact activation, drug testing).

  16. Note on quantum Minkowski space

    SciTech Connect

    Bentalha, Z.; Tahiri, M.

    2008-09-15

    In this work, some interesting details about quantum Minkowski space and quantum Lorentz group structures are revealed. The task is accomplished by generalizing an approach adopted in a previous work where quantum rotation group and quantum Euclidean space structures have been investigated. The generalized method is based on a mapping relating the q-spinors (precisely the tensor product of dotted and undotted fondamental q-spinors) to Minkowski q-vectors. As a result of this mapping, the quantum analog of Minkowski space is constructed (with a definite metric). Also, the matrix representation of the quantum Lorentz group is determined together with its corresponding q-deformed orthogonality relation.

  17. Quantum information processing using acceptors in silicon and phonon entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Susan; Reinke, Charles; McGuinness, Hayden; El-Kady, Ihab

    2014-03-01

    Quantum computing with large numbers of qubits remains challenging due to the decoherence and complexity that arise as more qubits are added to a system. Here I propose a new platform for semiconductor quantum computing which may be robust to common sources of decoherence and may not be difficult to fabricate repeatedly. This system consists of a hole bound to an acceptor in silicon which has been implanted in the center of a mechanical cavity (similar to a photonic crystal cavity) and connected to other cavities by a system of waveguides. I will outline a basic entangling gate and calculations showing the promise of this platform as the ideal qubit. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Path integration and perturbation theory with complex Euclidean actions

    SciTech Connect

    Alexanian, Garnik; MacKenzie, R.; Paranjape, M. B.; Ruel, Jonathan

    2008-05-15

    The Euclidean path integral quite often involves an action that is not completely real, i.e. a complex action. This occurs when the Minkowski action contains t-odd CP-violating terms. This usually consists of topological terms, such as the Chern-Simons term in odd dimensions, the Wess-Zumino term, the {theta} term or Chern character in 4-dimensional gauge theories, or other topological densities. Analytic continuation to Euclidean time yields an imaginary term in the Euclidean action. It also occurs when the action contains fermions, the fermion path integral being in general a sum over positive and negative real numbers. Negative numbers correspond to the exponential of i{pi} and hence indicate the presence of an imaginary term in the action. In the presence of imaginary terms in the Euclidean action, the usual method of perturbative quantization can fail. Here the action is expanded about its critical points, the quadratic part serving to define the Gaussian free theory and the higher order terms defining the perturbative interactions. For a complex action, the critical points are generically obtained at complex field configurations. Hence the contour of path integration does not pass through the critical points and the perturbative paradigm cannot be directly implemented. The contour of path integration has to be deformed to pass through the complex critical point using a generalized method of steepest descent, in order to do so. Typically, this procedure is not followed. Rather, only the real part of the Euclidean action is considered, and its critical points are used to define the perturbation theory, a procedure that can lead to incorrect results. In this article we present a simple example to illustrate this point. The example consists of N scalar fields in 0+1 dimensions interacting with a U(1) gauge field in the presence of a Chern-Simons term. In this example the path integral can be done exactly, the procedure of deformation of the contour of path

  19. Lagrangian Coherent Structures in a Non-Euclidean Global Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Ramirez, U.; Flores, F.; Datta-Barua, S.

    2016-12-01

    Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) are manifolds of maximum divergence or convergence in 2D or 3D time-varying flow fields. The study of LCSs has been used to predict material transport in numerous geophysical flows. The most commonly used computational method for finding LCSs is to compute the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE), a scalar field measuring the ratio of stretching after a given interval of time among neighboring particles, relative to their initial separation. LCS ridges are located at the local maxima of the FTLE. The LCS must be objective (frame-invariant for different observers), and the technique for computing the FTLE that determines the LCS typically assumes a Euclidean domain. Previous work showed that LCSs are likely to exist globally at high latitudes using the Euclidean norm. Here we refine that calculation by deriving the FTLE calculation for the Riemannian manifold of a spherical surface, and applying it to the thermospheric layer of the atmosphere globally. The thermosphere is treated as a closed spherical 2D domain on which the fluid flows, assuming negligible vertical flow. The domain is discretized in longitude and latitude, and the Horizontal Wind Model 2014 (HWM14) is used to generate the 2D velocity field at each grid point, each of which is a ground speed in the local east-north-up (ENU) frame. To make the LCS objective, the ground speed in each local ENU frame is converted to angular velocity in the earth-centered earth-fixed (ECEF) coordinates. Using bilinear interpolation and including the rotational velocity of Earth to transform to an inertial frame, we trace the trajectory of each particle to compute the final positions after the integration time. Replacing the Euclidean distance between particles with the great circle distance gives the FTLE scalar field from which the LCSs can be identified. We find and illustrate objective LCSs in the neutral wind flow field at high latitudes by applying this algorithm for the

  20. A Model of the Creative Process Based on Quantum Physics and Vedic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Laura Hall

    1988-01-01

    Using tenets from Vedic science and quantum physics, this model of the creative process suggests that the unified field of creation is pure consciousness, and that the development of the creative process within individuals mirrors the creative process within the universe. Rational and supra-rational creative thinking techniques are also described.…

  1. A Model of the Creative Process Based on Quantum Physics and Vedic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Laura Hall

    1988-01-01

    Using tenets from Vedic science and quantum physics, this model of the creative process suggests that the unified field of creation is pure consciousness, and that the development of the creative process within individuals mirrors the creative process within the universe. Rational and supra-rational creative thinking techniques are also described.…

  2. Interacting Photons in Waveguide-QED and Applications in Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huaixiu

    Strong coupling between light and matter has been demonstrated both in classical cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) systems and in more recent circuit-QED experiments. This enables the generation of strong nonlinear photon-photon interactions at the single-photon level, which is of great interest for the observation of quantum nonlinear optical phenomena, the control of light quanta in quantum information protocols such as quantum networking, as well as the study of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems using light. Recently, strong coupling has also been realized in a variety of one-dimensional (1D) waveguide- QED experimental systems, which in turn makes them promising candidates for quantum information processing. Compared to cavity-QED systems, there are two new features in waveguide-QED: the existence of a continuum of states and the restricted 1D phase space, which together bring in new physical effects, such as the bound-state effects. This thesis consists of two parts: 1) understanding the fundamental interaction between local quantum objects, such as two-level systems and four-level systems, and photons confined in the waveguide; 2) exploring its implications in quantum information processing, in particular photonic quantum computation and quantum key distribution. First, we demonstrate that by coupling a two-level system (TLS) or three/four-level system to a 1D continuum, strongly-correlated photons can be generated inside the waveguide. Photon-photon bound states, which decay exponentially as a function of the relative coordinates of photons, appear in multiphoton scattering processes. As a result, photon bunching and antibunching can be observed in the photon-photon correlation function, and nonclassical light source can be generated on demand. In the case of an N-type four-level system, we show that the effective photon-photon interaction mediated by the four-level system, gives rise to a variety of nonlinear optical phenomena, including

  3. Quantum-like model of processing of information in the brain based on classical electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-09-01

    We propose a model of quantum-like (QL) processing of mental information. This model is based on quantum information theory. However, in contrast to models of "quantum physical brain" reducing mental activity (at least at the highest level) to quantum physical phenomena in the brain, our model matches well with the basic neuronal paradigm of the cognitive science. QL information processing is based (surprisingly) on classical electromagnetic signals induced by joint activity of neurons. This novel approach to quantum information is based on representation of quantum mechanics as a version of classical signal theory which was recently elaborated by the author. The brain uses the QL representation (QLR) for working with abstract concepts; concrete images are described by classical information theory. Two processes, classical and QL, are performed parallely. Moreover, information is actively transmitted from one representation to another. A QL concept given in our model by a density operator can generate a variety of concrete images given by temporal realizations of the corresponding (Gaussian) random signal. This signal has the covariance operator coinciding with the density operator encoding the abstract concept under consideration. The presence of various temporal scales in the brain plays the crucial role in creation of QLR in the brain. Moreover, in our model electromagnetic noise produced by neurons is a source of superstrong QL correlations between processes in different spatial domains in the brain; the binding problem is solved on the QL level, but with the aid of the classical background fluctuations.

  4. Classical analogs of quasifree quantum stochastic processes given by stochastic states of the quantized electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertfelder, C.; Kümmerer, B.

    2001-03-01

    The mathematical model describing a light beam prepared in an arbitrary quantum optical state is a quasifree quantum stochastic process on the C* algebra of the canonical commutatation relations. For such quantum stochastic processes the concept of stochastic states is introduced. Stochastic quantum states have a classical analog in the following sense: If the light beam is prepared in a stochastic state, one can construct a generalized classical stochastic process, such that the distributions of the quantum observables and the classical random variables coincide. A sufficient algebraic condition for the stochasticity of a quantum state is formulated. The introduced formalism generalizes the Wigner representation from a single field mode to a continuum of modes. For the special case of a single field mode the stochasticity condition provides a new criterion for the positivity of the Wigner function related to the given state. As an example the quantized eletromagnetic field in empty space at temperature T=0 is discussed. It turns out that the corresponding classical stochastic process is not a white noise but a colored noise with a linearly increasing spectrum.

  5. Applying the simplest Kochen-Specker set for quantum information processing.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Gustavo; Arias, Mauricio; Etcheverry, Sebastián; Gómez, Esteban S; Cabello, Adán; Xavier, Guilherme B; Lima, Gustavo

    2014-08-29

    Kochen-Specker (KS) sets are key tools for proving some fundamental results in quantum theory and also have potential applications in quantum information processing. However, so far, their intrinsic complexity has prevented experimentalists from using them for any application. The KS set requiring the smallest number of contexts has been recently found. Relying on this simple KS set, here we report an input state-independent experimental technique to certify whether a set of measurements is actually accessing a preestablished quantum six-dimensional space encoded in the transverse momentum of single photons.

  6. Quantum learning of classical stochastic processes: The completely positive realization problem

    SciTech Connect

    Monràs, Alex; Winter, Andreas

    2016-01-15

    Among several tasks in Machine Learning, a specially important one is the problem of inferring the latent variables of a system and their causal relations with the observed behavior. A paradigmatic instance of this is the task of inferring the hidden Markov model underlying a given stochastic process. This is known as the positive realization problem (PRP), [L. Benvenuti and L. Farina, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 49(5), 651–664 (2004)] and constitutes a central problem in machine learning. The PRP and its solutions have far-reaching consequences in many areas of systems and control theory, and is nowadays an important piece in the broad field of positive systems theory. We consider the scenario where the latent variables are quantum (i.e., quantum states of a finite-dimensional system) and the system dynamics is constrained only by physical transformations on the quantum system. The observable dynamics is then described by a quantum instrument, and the task is to determine which quantum instrument — if any — yields the process at hand by iterative application. We take as a starting point the theory of quasi-realizations, whence a description of the dynamics of the process is given in terms of linear maps on state vectors and probabilities are given by linear functionals on the state vectors. This description, despite its remarkable resemblance with the hidden Markov model, or the iterated quantum instrument, is however devoid of any stochastic or quantum mechanical interpretation, as said maps fail to satisfy any positivity conditions. The completely positive realization problem then consists in determining whether an equivalent quantum mechanical description of the same process exists. We generalize some key results of stochastic realization theory, and show that the problem has deep connections with operator systems theory, giving possible insight to the lifting problem in quotient operator systems. Our results have potential applications in quantum machine

  7. Quantum learning of classical stochastic processes: The completely positive realization problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monràs, Alex; Winter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Among several tasks in Machine Learning, a specially important one is the problem of inferring the latent variables of a system and their causal relations with the observed behavior. A paradigmatic instance of this is the task of inferring the hidden Markov model underlying a given stochastic process. This is known as the positive realization problem (PRP), [L. Benvenuti and L. Farina, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 49(5), 651-664 (2004)] and constitutes a central problem in machine learning. The PRP and its solutions have far-reaching consequences in many areas of systems and control theory, and is nowadays an important piece in the broad field of positive systems theory. We consider the scenario where the latent variables are quantum (i.e., quantum states of a finite-dimensional system) and the system dynamics is constrained only by physical transformations on the quantum system. The observable dynamics is then described by a quantum instrument, and the task is to determine which quantum instrument — if any — yields the process at hand by iterative application. We take as a starting point the theory of quasi-realizations, whence a description of the dynamics of the process is given in terms of linear maps on state vectors and probabilities are given by linear functionals on the state vectors. This description, despite its remarkable resemblance with the hidden Markov model, or the iterated quantum instrument, is however devoid of any stochastic or quantum mechanical interpretation, as said maps fail to satisfy any positivity conditions. The completely positive realization problem then consists in determining whether an equivalent quantum mechanical description of the same process exists. We generalize some key results of stochastic realization theory, and show that the problem has deep connections with operator systems theory, giving possible insight to the lifting problem in quotient operator systems. Our results have potential applications in quantum machine

  8. Temporal inequalities for sequential multi-time actions in quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żukowski, Marek

    2014-10-01

    A new kind of temporal inequalities are discussed, which apply to algorithmic processes, involving a finite memory processing unit. They are an alternative to the Leggett-Grag ones, as well as to the modified ones by Brukner et al. If one considers comparison of quantum and classical processes involving systems of finite memory (of the same capacity in both cases), the inequalities give a clear message why we can expect quantum speed-up. In a classical process one always has clearly defined values of possible measurements, or in terms of the information processing language, if we have a sequential computations of some function depending on data arriving at each step on an algorithm, the function always has a clearly defined value. In the quantum case only the final value, after the end of the algorithm, is defined. All intermediate values, in agreement with Bohr's complementarity, cannot be ascribed a definite value.

  9. Some remarks on quantum physics, stochastic processes, and nonlinear filtering theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, Bhashyam

    2016-05-01

    The mathematical similarities between quantum mechanics and stochastic processes has been studied in the literature. Some of the major results are reviewed, such as the relationship between the Fokker-Planck equation and the Schrödinger equation. Also reviewed are more recent results that show the mathematical similarities between quantum many particle systems and concepts in other areas of applied science, such as stochastic Petri nets. Some connections to filtering theory are discussed.

  10. Quantum Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laddha, Alok; Varadarajan, Madhavan

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Spatial Diffeomorphism Invariance * The Thiemann Construction * Euclidean Gravity: A Weak Coupling Limit * Hamiltonian Constraint in Euclidean Gravity * Conclusions * Acknowledgments * References

  11. Theoretical Study of Solid State Quantum Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-28

    odd effects of Heisenberg chains on long-range interaction and entanglement, Physical Review B, (10 2010): 140403. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.140403 08...interface-bound electrons in silicon: An effective mass study, Physical Review B, (10 2011): 0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.155320 08/31/2012 18.00 Xuedong...Xuedong Hu. Effect of randomness on quantum data buses of Heisenberg spin chains, Physical Review B, (06 2012): 0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.224418

  12. Quantum Coherent Multielectron Processes in an Atomic Scale Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Peter-Jan; Xu, Fei; Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Rastelli, Gianluca; Belzig, Wolfgang; Berndt, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The light emission from a scanning tunneling microscope operated on a Ag(111) surface at 6 K is analyzed from low conductances to values approaching the conductance quantum. Optical spectra recorded at sample voltages V reveal emission with photon energies h ν >2 e V . A model of electrons interacting coherently via a localized plasmon-polariton mode reproduces the experimental data, in particular, the kinks in the spectra at e V and 2 e V as well as the scaling of the intensity at low and intermediate conductances.

  13. Space–time-bounded quantum fields for detection processes

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo, Fernando J.; Jaroszkiewicz, George

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a quantum field detection model comprising two types of detection procedures: maximal detection, where the initial state of the system and detectors undergoes an irreversible evolution, and minimal detection, where the system–detector interaction consists of a small, reversible coupling and posterior maximal detection performed over the detector system. Combined, these detection procedures allow for a time-dependent description of signalling experiments involving yes/no type of questions. A particular minimal detection model, stable in the presence of the vacuum, is presented and studied, successfully reproducing the localization of the state after a detection. PMID:24711717

  14. Tuning quantum-cascade lasers by postgrowth rapid thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, S.; Schrenk, W.; Roch, T.; Pflügl, C.; Strasser, G.

    2004-01-01

    We report on postgrowth heat treatment of quantum-cascade lasers. Intermixing of the atoms at the barrier-well interfaces in the temperature range between 850 and 875 °C shifts the energy levels and thus the gain of the structure. The achieved emission wavelength shift is from 10.3 to 11.9 μm. X-ray rocking curves confirm Al-Ga interdiffusion at the interfaces. A fit to the data yields interface widths of 1-2 nm.

  15. Scalable and Robust Randomized Benchmarking of Quantum Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magesan, Easwar; Gambetta, J. M.; Emerson, Joseph

    2011-05-01

    In this Letter we propose a fully scalable randomized benchmarking protocol for quantum information processors. We prove that the protocol provides an efficient and reliable estimate of the average error-rate for a set operations (gates) under a very general noise model that allows for both time and gate-dependent errors. In particular we obtain a sequence of fitting models for the observable fidelity decay as a function of a (convergent) perturbative expansion of the gate errors about the mean error. We illustrate the protocol through numerical examples.

  16. Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xingliang; Zhang, Zhenxing; Jin, Yizheng; Niu, Yuan; Cao, Hujia; Liang, Xiaoyong; Chen, Liwei; Wang, Jianpu; Peng, Xiaogang

    2014-11-06

    Solution-processed optoelectronic and electronic devices are attractive owing to the potential for low-cost fabrication of large-area devices and the compatibility with lightweight, flexible plastic substrates. Solution-processed light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using conjugated polymers or quantum dots as emitters have attracted great interest over the past two decades. However, the overall performance of solution-processed LEDs--including their efficiency, efficiency roll-off at high current densities, turn-on voltage and lifetime under operational conditions-remains inferior to that of the best vacuum-deposited organic LEDs. Here we report a solution-processed, multilayer quantum-dot-based LED with excellent performance and reproducibility. It exhibits colour-saturated deep-red emission, sub-bandgap turn-on at 1.7 volts, high external quantum efficiencies of up to 20.5 per cent, low efficiency roll-off (up to 15.1 per cent of the external quantum efficiency at 100 mA cm(-2)), and a long operational lifetime of more than 100,000 hours at 100 cd m(-2), making this device the best-performing solution-processed red LED so far, comparable to state-of-the-art vacuum-deposited organic LEDs. This optoelectronic performance is achieved by inserting an insulating layer between the quantum dot layer and the oxide electron-transport layer to optimize charge balance in the device and preserve the superior emissive properties of the quantum dots. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for further research, leading to high-performance, all-solution-processed quantum-dot-based LEDs ideal for next-generation display and solid-state lighting technologies.

  17. The Euclidean gravitational action as black hole entropy, singularities, and spacetime voids

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Carlos

    2008-04-15

    We argue why the static spherically symmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's equations described by the textbook Hilbert metric g{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(r) is not diffeomorphic to the metric g{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(|r|) corresponding to the gravitational field of a point mass delta function source at r=0. By choosing a judicious radial function R(r)=r+2G|M|{theta}(r) involving the Heaviside step function, one has the correct boundary condition R(r=0)=0, while displacing the horizon from r=2G|M| to a location arbitrarily close to r=0 as one desires, r{sub h}{yields}0, where stringy geometry and quantum gravitational effects begin to take place. We solve the field equations due to a delta function point mass source at r=0, and show that the Euclidean gravitational action (in ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) units) is precisely equal to the black hole entropy (in Planck area units). This result holds in any dimensions D{>=}3. In the Reissner-Nordstrom (massive charged) and Kerr-Newman black hole case (massive rotating charged) we show that the Euclidean action in a bulk domain bounded by the inner and outer horizons is the same as the black hole entropy. When one smears out the point-mass and point-charge delta function distributions by a Gaussian distribution, the area-entropy relation is modified. We postulate why these modifications should furnish the logarithmic corrections (and higher inverse powers of the area) to the entropy of these smeared black holes. To finalize, we analyze the Bars-Witten stringy black hole in 1+1 dimension and its relation to the maximal acceleration principle in phase spaces and Finsler geometries.

  18. Quantum One Go Computation and the Physical Computation Level of Biological Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnoli, Giuseppe

    2010-02-01

    By extending the representation of quantum algorithms to problem-solution interdependence, the unitary evolution part of the algorithm entangles the register containing the problem with the register containing the solution. Entanglement becomes correlation, or mutual causality, between the two measurement outcomes: the string of bits encoding the problem and that encoding the solution. In former work, we showed that this is equivalent to the algorithm knowing in advance 50% of the bits of the solution it will find in the future, which explains the quantum speed up. Mutual causality between bits of information is also equivalent to seeing quantum measurement as a many body interaction between the parts of a perfect classical machine whose normalized coordinates represent the qubit populations. This “hidden machine” represents the problem to be solved. The many body interaction (measurement) satisfies all the constraints of a nonlinear Boolean network “together and at the same time”—in one go—thus producing the solution. Quantum one go computation can formalize the physical computation level of the theories that place consciousness in quantum measurement. In fact, in visual perception, we see, thus recognize, thus process, a significant amount of information “together and at the same time”. Identifying the fundamental mechanism of consciousness with that of the quantum speed up gives quantum consciousness, with respect to classical consciousness, a potentially enormous evolutionary advantage.

  19. Merging quantum dots, biomolecules, and polymers for record performance from solution-processed optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Edward H.

    2006-02-01

    We apply discoveries in nanoscience towards applications relevant to health, environment, security, and connectedness. A materials fundamental to our research is the quantum dot. Each quantum dot is a particle of semiconductor only a few nanometers in diameter. These semiconductor nanoparticles confine electrons to within their characteristic wavelength. Thus, just as changing the length of a guitar string changes the frequency of sound produced, so too does changing the size of a quantum dot alter the frequency - hence energy - the electron can adopt. As a result, quantum dots are tunable matter (Fig. 2). We work with colloidal quantum dots, nanoparticles produced in, and processed from, solution. They can be coated onto nearly anything - a semiconductor substrate, a window, a wall, fabric. Compared to epitaxially-grown semiconductors used to make optical detectors, lasers, and modulators, they are cheap, safe to work with, and easy to produce. Much of our work with quantum dots involves infrared light - its measurement, production, modulation, and harnessing. While there exists an abundance of work in colloidal quantum dots active in the visible, there are fewer results in the infrared. The wavelengths between 1000 and 2000 nm are nonetheless of great practical importance: half of the sun's power reaching the earth lies in this wavelength range; 'biological windows' in which tissue is relatively transparent and does not emit background light (autofluorescence) exist in the infrared; fiber-optic networks operate at 1.3 and 1.5 um.

  20. Lorentzian quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldbrugge, Job; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Turok, Neil

    2017-05-01

    We argue that the Lorentzian path integral is a better starting point for quantum cosmology than its Euclidean counterpart. In particular, we revisit the minisuperspace calculation of the Feynman path integral for quantum gravity with a positive cosmological constant. Instead of rotating to Euclidean time, we deform the contour of integration over metrics into the complex plane, exploiting Picard-Lefschetz theory to transform the path integral from a conditionally convergent integral into an absolutely convergent one. We show that this procedure unambiguously determines which semiclassical saddle point solutions are relevant to the quantum mechanical amplitude. Imposing "no-boundary" initial conditions, i.e., restricting attention to regular, complex metrics with no initial boundary, we find that the dominant saddle contributes a semiclassical exponential factor which is precisely the inverse of the famous Hartle-Hawking result.

  1. Understanding chemically processed solar cells based on quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Malgras, Victor; Nattestad, Andrew; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy conversion is one of the best alternatives to fossil fuel combustion. Petroleum resources are now close to depletion and their combustion is known to be responsible for the release of a considerable amount of greenhouse gases and carcinogenic airborne particles. Novel third-generation solar cells include a vast range of device designs and materials aiming to overcome the factors limiting the current technologies. Among them, quantum dot-based devices showed promising potential both as sensitizers and as colloidal nanoparticle films. A good example is the p-type PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) forming a heterojunction with a n-type wide-band-gap semiconductor such as TiO2 or ZnO. The confinement in these nanostructures is also expected to result in marginal mechanisms, such as the collection of hot carriers and generation of multiple excitons, which would increase the theoretical conversion efficiency limit. Ultimately, this technology could also lead to the assembly of a tandem-type cell with CQD films absorbing in different regions of the solar spectrum.

  2. Understanding chemically processed solar cells based on quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Malgras, Victor; Nattestad, Andrew; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Photovoltaic energy conversion is one of the best alternatives to fossil fuel combustion. Petroleum resources are now close to depletion and their combustion is known to be responsible for the release of a considerable amount of greenhouse gases and carcinogenic airborne particles. Novel third-generation solar cells include a vast range of device designs and materials aiming to overcome the factors limiting the current technologies. Among them, quantum dot-based devices showed promising potential both as sensitizers and as colloidal nanoparticle films. A good example is the p-type PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) forming a heterojunction with a n-type wide-band-gap semiconductor such as TiO2 or ZnO. The confinement in these nanostructures is also expected to result in marginal mechanisms, such as the collection of hot carriers and generation of multiple excitons, which would increase the theoretical conversion efficiency limit. Ultimately, this technology could also lead to the assembly of a tandem-type cell with CQD films absorbing in different regions of the solar spectrum. PMID:28567179

  3. Efficient All-Solution Processed Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diodes Based on Inkjet Printing Technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Fushan; Xu, Zhongwei; Zheng, Congxiu; Guo, Tailiang; Xie, Xiangwei; Qian, Lei; Fu, Dong; Yan, Xiaolin

    2017-08-02

    Quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs) are increasingly attractive owing to their compatibility with the inkjet printing process and potential application in low-cost large-area full-color pixelated display. The strategy for controlling the morphology of the quantum dot layer is definitely critical for realizing all-solution processed QLEDs with high performance, which certainly requires in-depth thinking regarding the design of ink composition and their optimization in the printing process. Herein, by carefully controlling the quantum dot ink composition and physicochemical properties, we demonstrate that the viscosity, contact angle, and the three-phase contact line moving would affect the final morphology of the quantum dot film formed by inkjet printing. We achieved coffee ring-free and low-roughness quantum dot film, and all-solution processed QLEDs with normal structure were fabricated for the first time. The devices have a low turn-on voltage of 2.0 V, a luminance of 12100 cd/m(2) at the voltage of 12 V, and a maximum current efficiency of 4.44 cd/A at the luminance of 1974 cd/m(2), which is the best result to date for inkjet-printed red QLEDs. The results will pave the way for future application of inkjet printing in solution processed pixelated QLED display.

  4. Space-time topology and quantum gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, J. L.

    Characteristic features are discussed of a theory of quantum gravity that allows space-time with a non-Euclidean topology. The review begins with a summary of the manifolds that can occur as classical vacuum space-times and as space-times with positive energy. Local structures with non-Euclidean topology - topological geons - collapse, and one may conjecture that in asymptotically flat space-times non-Euclidean topology is hiden from view. In the quantum theory, large diffeos can act nontrivially on the space of states, leading to state vectors that transform as representations of the corresponding symmetry group π0(Diff). In particular, in a quantum theory that, at energies E < EPlanck, is a theory of the metric alone, there appear to be ground states with half-integral spin, and in higher-dimensional gravity, with the kinematical quantum numbers of fundamental fermions.

  5. Chern-Simons quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, John Paul

    The first two chapters provide background information for the dissertation. In the first chapter, a brief history of Chern-Simons quantum field theories is given and motivation for studying these models is given by examining their physical properties and their mathematical difficulties. The second chapter gives a brief overview of quantum field theory, by presenting the Garding-Wightman formalism and the necessary modifications for studying quantum gauge field theories. Finally, the mathematical tools used in the following chapters are described. In the third chapter, Chern-Simons Quantum Electrodynamics is presented and its main features are developed. The gauge field is canonically quantized and the underlying indefinite metric is identified. Next, the physical subspace is characterized by functions that are analytic in harmonic oscillator coordinates. This property is used to show an equivalence between the Gauss vectors, gauge invariance, and positivity with respect to the indefinite metric. The fourth chapter presents the Euclidean formulation of this model, where the covariance for the free gauge field is calculated, and shown to generate a complex, Gaussian measure describing a real, random process. Next, a path-space formula on the Gauss vectors is developed, from which it follows that the physical vectors satisfy the Osterwalder-Schrader positivity requirement.

  6. Spintronic characteristics of self-assembled neurotransmitter acetylcholine molecular complexes enable quantum information processing in neural networks and brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulis, Arvydas; Majauskaite, Kristina; Kairys, Visvaldas; Zborowski, Krzysztof; Adhikari, Kapil; Krisciukaitis, Sarunas

    2016-09-01

    Implementation of liquid state quantum information processing based on spatially localized electronic spin in the neurotransmitter stable acetylcholine (ACh) neutral molecular radical is discussed. Using DFT quantum calculations we proved that this molecule possesses stable localized electron spin, which may represent a qubit in quantum information processing. The necessary operating conditions for ACh molecule are formulated in self-assembled dimer and more complex systems. The main quantum mechanical research result of this paper is that the neurotransmitter ACh systems, which were proposed, include the use of quantum molecular spintronics arrays to control the neurotransmission in neural networks.

  7. Ambient-processed colloidal quantum dot solar cells via individual pre-encapsulation of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Ratan; Tang, Jiang; Barkhouse, D Aaron; Wang, Xihua; Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G; Brzozowski, Lukasz; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H

    2010-05-05

    We report colloidal quantum dot solar cells fabricated under ambient atmosphere with an active area of 2.9 mm(2) that exhibit 3.6% solar power conversion efficiency. The devices are based on PbS tuned via the quantum size effect to have a first excitonic peak at 950 nm. Because the formation of native oxides and sulfates on PbS leads to p-type doping and deep trap formation and because such dopants and traps dramatically influence device performance, prior reports of colloidal quantum dot solar cells have insisted on processing under an inert atmosphere. Here we report a novel ligand strategy in which we first encapsulate the quantum dots in the solution phase with the aid of a strongly bound N-2,4,6-trimethylphenyl-N-methyldithiocarbamate ligand. This allows us to carry out film formation and all subsequent device fabrication under an air atmosphere.

  8. Entanglement, coherence, and redistribution of quantum resources in double spontaneous down-conversion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin

    2017-06-01

    We study the properties of bisqueezed tripartite Gaussian states created by two spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes that share a common idler. We give a complete description of the quantum correlations across all partitions, as well as of the genuine multipartite entanglement, obtaining analytical expressions for most of the quantities of interest. We find that the state contains genuine tripartite entanglement, in addition to the bipartite entanglement among the modes that are directly squeezed. We also investigate the effect of homodyne detection of the photons in the common idler mode, and analyze the final reduced state of the remaining two signal modes. We find that this measurement leads to a conversion of the coherence of the two signal modes into entanglement, a phenomenon that can be regarded as a redistribution of quantum resources between the modes. The applications of these results to quantum optics and circuit quantum electrodynamics platforms are also discussed.

  9. Quantum Catalytic Extraction Process{trademark}:Applications to low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, C.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation details the Quantum method for catalytic extraction processing of low-level radioactive wastes. Resource recovery, waste volume reduction, and fundamentals of the processing technology are discussed. The results of two case studies, and a description of two demonstration units are provided.

  10. Dynamics, Processes and Characterization in Classical and Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamel, Omar

    We pursue topics in optics that follow three major themes; time averaged dynamics with the associated Effective Hamiltonian theory, quantification and transformation of polarization, and periodicity within quantum circuits. Within the first theme, we develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of a time averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an Effective Hamiltonian, as well as decoherence terms that sometimes manifest in a Lindblad-like form. We also apply the theory to examples of the AC Stark Shift and Three-Level Raman Transitions. In the theme of polarization, the most general physical transformation on the polarization state has been represented as an ensemble of Jones matrix transformations, equivalent to a completely positive map on the polarization matrix. This has been directly assumed without proof by most authors. We follow a novel approach to derive this expression from simple physical principles, basic coherence optics and the matrix theory of positive maps. Addressing polarization measurement, we first establish the equivalence of classical polarization and quantum purity, which leads to the identical structure of the Poincare and Bloch spheres. We analyze and compare various measures of polarization / purity for general dimensionality proposed in the literature, with a focus on the three dimensional case. In pursuit of the final theme of periodic quantum circuits, we introduce a procedure that synthesizes the circuit for the simplest periodic function that is one-to-one within a single period, of a given period p. Applying this procedure, we synthesize these circuits for p up to five bits. We conjecture that such a circuit will need at most n Toffoli gates, where p is an n-bit number. Moreover, we apply our circuit synthesis to compiled versions of Shor's algorithm, showing that it can create more efficient circuits than ones previously proposed. We provide some new compiled circuits for

  11. Multi-stability in folded shells: non-Euclidean origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    Both natural and man-made structures benefit from having multiple mechanically stable states, from the quick snapping motion of hummingbird beaks to micro-textured surfaces with tunable roughness. Rather than discuss special fabrication techniques for creating bi-stability through material anisotropy, in this talk I will present several examples of how folding a structure can modify the energy landscape and thus lead to multiple stable states. Using ideas from origami and differential geometry, I will discuss how deforming a non-Euclidean surface can be done either continuously or discontinuously, and explore the effects that global constraints have on the ultimate stability of the surface.

  12. Pose Estimation using 1D Fourier Transform and Euclidean Distance Matching of CAD Model and Inspected Model Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkoffli, Zuliani; Abu Bakar, Elmi

    2016-02-01

    This paper present pose estimation relation of CAD model object and Projection Real Object (PRI). Image sequence of PRI and CAD model rotate on z axis at 10 degree interval in simulation and real scene used in this experiment. All this image is go through preprocessing stage to rescale object size and image size and transform all the image into silhouette. Correlation of CAD and PRI image is going through in this stage. Magnitude spectrum shows a reliable value in range 0.99 to 1.00 and Phase spectrum correlation shows a fluctuate graph in range 0.56 - 0.97. Euclidean distance correlation graph for CAD and PRI shows 2 zone of similar value due to almost symmetrical object shape. Processing stage of retrieval inspected PRI image in CAD database was carried out using range phase spectrum and maximum magnitude spectrum value within ±10% tolerance. Additional processing stage of retrieval inspected PRI image using Euclidean distance within ±5% tolerance also carried out. Euclidean matching shows a reliable result compared to range phase spectrum and maximum magnitude spectrum value by sacrificing more than 5 times processing time.

  13. Silicon surface-electrode ion traps for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doret, S. Charles; Slusher, Richart

    2010-03-01

    The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is designing, building, and testing scalable surface-electrode ion traps for quantum information applications, fabricated using silicon VLSI technology. A wide range of trap architectures have been developed, including a linear trap capable of holding long chains of equally spaced ions, a 90-degree X-junction, and an integrated micromirror with collection efficiency approaching 20%. Fabrication features that can be integrated with the surface electrodes include multilayer interconnects, optics for enhanced light collection, flexible optical access through beveled slots extending through the substrate, and recessed wire bonds for clear laser access across the trap surface. Traps are designed at GTRI using in-house codes that calculate trap fields, compute the full motion of ions confined in the trap, including micromotion, and optimize electrode shapes and transport waveforms using genetic algorithms. We will present designs and initial test results for several of these traps, as well as plans for their use in future experiments.

  14. Multiple particle production processes in the light'' of quantum optics

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, E.M.

    1990-09-01

    Ever since the observation that high-energy nuclear active'' cosmic-ray particles create bunches of penetrating particles upon hitting targets, a controversy has raged about whether these secondaries are created in a single act'' or whether many hadrons are just the result of an intra-nuclear cascade, yielding one meson in every step. I cannot escape the impression that: the latter kind of model appeals naturally as a consequence of an innate bio-morphism in our way of thinking and that in one guise or another it has tenaciously survived to this day, also for hadron-hadron collisions, via multi-peripheral models to the modern parton shower approach. Indeed, from the very beginning of theoretical consideration of multiparticle production, the possibility of many particles arising from a single hot'' system has been explored, with many fruitful results, not the least of which are the s{sup 1/4} dependence of the mean produced particle multiplicity and the thermal'' shape of the P{sub T} spectra. An important consequence of the thermodynamical-hydrodynamical models is that particle emission is treated in analogy to black-body radiation, implying for the secondaries a set of specific Quantum-Statistical properties, very similar to those observed in quantum optics. From here on I shall try to review a number of implications and applications of this QS analogy in the study of multiplicity distributions of the produced secondaries. I will touch only in passing another very important topic of this class, the Bose-Einstein two-particle correlations.

  15. Loop-erased random walk on a percolation cluster: crossover from Euclidean to fractal geometry.

    PubMed

    Daryaei, E; Rouhani, S

    2014-06-01

    We study loop-erased random walk (LERW) on the percolation cluster, with occupation probability p ≥ p_{c}, in two and three dimensions. We find that the fractal dimensions of LERW_{p} are close to normal LERW in a Euclidean lattice, for all p>p_{c}. However, our results reveal that LERW on critical incipient percolation clusters is fractal with d_{f}=1.217 ± 0.002 for d=2 and 1.43 ± 0.02 for d=3, independent of the coordination number of the lattice. These values are consistent with the known values for optimal path exponents in strongly disordered media. We investigate how the behavior of the LERW_{p} crosses over from Euclidean to fractal geometry by gradually decreasing the value of the parameter p from 1 to p_{c}. For finite systems, two crossover exponents and a scaling relation can be derived. This work opens up a theoretical window regarding the diffusion process on fractal and random landscapes.

  16. Two-stage sparse coding of region covariance via Log-Euclidean kernels to detect saliency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Cai; Zhang, Ping

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel bottom-up saliency detection algorithm from the perspective of covariance matrices on a Riemannian manifold. Each superpixel is described by a region covariance matrix on Riemannian Manifolds. We carry out a two-stage sparse coding scheme via Log-Euclidean kernels to extract salient objects efficiently. In the first stage, given background dictionary on image borders, sparse coding of each region covariance via Log-Euclidean kernels is performed. The reconstruction error on the background dictionary is regarded as the initial saliency of each superpixel. In the second stage, an improvement of the initial result is achieved by calculating reconstruction errors of the superpixels on foreground dictionary, which is extracted from the first stage saliency map. The sparse coding in the second stage is similar to the first stage, but is able to effectively highlight the salient objects uniformly from the background. Finally, three post-processing methods-highlight-inhibition function, context-based saliency weighting, and the graph cut-are adopted to further refine the saliency map. Experiments on four public benchmark datasets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision, recall and mean absolute error, and demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. Optimizing the choice of spin-squeezed states for detecting and characterizing quantum processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rozema, Lee A.; Mahler, Dylan H.; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Steinberg, Aephraim M.

    2014-11-07

    Quantum metrology uses quantum states with no classical counterpart to measure a physical quantity with extraordinary sensitivity or precision. Most such schemes characterize a dynamical process by probing it with a specially designed quantum state. The success of such a scheme usually relies on the process belonging to a particular one-parameter family. If this assumption is violated, or if the goal is to measure more than one parameter, a different quantum state may perform better. In the most extreme case, we know nothing about the process and wish to learn everything. This requires quantum process tomography, which demands an informationally complete set of probe states. It is very convenient if this set is group covariant—i.e., each element is generated by applying an element of the quantum system’s natural symmetry group to a single fixed fiducial state. In this paper, we consider metrology with 2-photon (“biphoton”) states and report experimental studies of different states’ sensitivity to small, unknown collective SU(2) rotations [“SU(2) jitter”]. Maximally entangled N00N states are the most sensitive detectors of such a rotation, yet they are also among the worst at fully characterizing an a priori unknown process. We identify (and confirm experimentally) the best SU(2)-covariant set for process tomography; these states are all less entangled than the N00N state, and are characterized by the fact that they form a 2-design.

  18. Some Foundations for Empirical Study in the Euclidean Spatial Model of Social Choice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    NPSOR-91-025 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A241 928 SOME FOUNDATIONS FOR EMPIRICAL STUDY IN THE EUCLIDEAN SPATIAL MODEL OF SOCIAL...EMPIRI AL STUDY IN THE EUCLIDEAN SPATIAL MODEL OF SOCIAL CHOICE 12 Personal Author(s) Craig A. Tovev 13a Type of Report | 3b Time Covered 14 Date of... Euclidean ; statistics, social choice; consistent estimators; spatial 19 Abstract (continue on re,’erse if aecessary and identify by block nwt er Recent

  19. Generating higher-order quantum dissipation from lower-order parametric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundhada, S. O.; Grimm, A.; Touzard, S.; Vool, U.; Shankar, S.; Devoret, M. H.; Mirrahimi, M.

    2017-06-01

    The stabilisation of quantum manifolds is at the heart of error-protected quantum information storage and manipulation. Nonlinear driven-dissipative processes achieve such stabilisation in a hardware efficient manner. Josephson circuits with parametric pump drives implement these nonlinear interactions. In this article, we propose a scheme to engineer a four-photon drive and dissipation on a harmonic oscillator by cascading experimentally demonstrated two-photon processes. This would stabilise a four-dimensional degenerate manifold in a superconducting resonator. We analyse the performance of the scheme using numerical simulations of a realisable system with experimentally achievable parameters.

  20. Non-Euclidean geometry of twisted filament bundle packing

    PubMed Central

    Bruss, Isaac R.; Grason, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    Densely packed and twisted assemblies of filaments are crucial structural motifs in macroscopic materials (cables, ropes, and textiles) as well as synthetic and biological nanomaterials (fibrous proteins). We study the unique and nontrivial packing geometry of this universal material design from two perspectives. First, we show that the problem of twisted bundle packing can be mapped exactly onto the problem of disc packing on a curved surface, the geometry of which has a positive, spherical curvature close to the center of rotation and approaches the intrinsically flat geometry of a cylinder far from the bundle center. From this mapping, we find the packing of any twisted bundle is geometrically frustrated, as it makes the sixfold geometry of filament close packing impossible at the core of the fiber. This geometrical equivalence leads to a spectrum of close-packed fiber geometries, whose low symmetry (five-, four-, three-, and twofold) reflect non-Euclidean packing constraints at the bundle core. Second, we explore the ground-state structure of twisted filament assemblies formed under the influence of adhesive interactions by a computational model. Here, we find that the underlying non-Euclidean geometry of twisted fiber packing disrupts the regular lattice packing of filaments above a critical radius, proportional to the helical pitch. Above this critical radius, the ground-state packing includes the presence of between one and six excess fivefold disclinations in the cross-sectional order. PMID:22711799

  1. Quantum-dynamical picture of a multistep enzymatic process: reaction catalyzed by phospholipase A(2).

    PubMed Central

    Bała, P; Grochowski, P; Nowiński, K; Lesyng, B; McCammon, J A

    2000-01-01

    A quantum-classical molecular dynamics model (QCMD), applying explicit integration of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (QD) and Newtonian equations of motion (MD), is presented. The model is capable of describing quantum dynamical processes in complex biomolecular systems. It has been applied in simulations of a multistep catalytic process carried out by phospholipase A(2) in its active site. The process includes quantum-dynamical proton transfer from a water molecule to histidine localized in the active site, followed by a nucleophilic attack of the resulting OH(-) group on a carbonyl carbon atom of a phospholipid substrate, leading to cleavage of an adjacent ester bond. The process has been simulated using a parallel version of the QCMD code. The potential energy function for the active site is computed using an approximate valence bond (AVB) method. The dynamics of the key proton is described either by QD or classical MD. The coupling between the quantum proton and the classical atoms is accomplished via Hellmann-Feynman forces, as well as the time dependence of the potential energy function in the Schrödinger equation (QCMD/AVB model). Analysis of the simulation results with an Advanced Visualization System revealed a correlated rather than a stepwise picture of the enzymatic process. It is shown that an sp(2)--> sp(3) configurational change at the substrate carbonyl carbon is mostly responsible for triggering the activation process. PMID:10968989

  2. 3D Lorentzian loop quantum gravity and the spinor approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girelli, Florian; Sellaroli, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    We consider the generalization of the "spinor approach" to the Lorentzian case, in the context of three-dimensional loop quantum gravity with cosmological constant Λ =0 . The key technical tool that allows this generalization is the recoupling theory between unitary infinite-dimensional representations and nonunitary finite-dimensional ones, obtained in the process of generalizing the Wigner-Eckart theorem to SU(1,1). We use SU(1,1) tensor operators to build observables and a solvable quantum Hamiltonian constraint, analogous to the one introduced by V. Bonzom and his collaborators in the Euclidean case (with both Λ =0 and Λ ≠0 ). We show that the Lorentzian Ponzano-Regge amplitude is the solution of the quantum Hamiltonian constraint by recovering the Biedenharn-Elliott relation [generalized to the case where unitary and nonunitary SU(1,1) representations are coupled to each other]. Our formalism is sufficiently general that both the Lorentzian and the Euclidean case can be recovered (with Λ =0 ).

  3. Experimentally modeling stochastic processes with less memory by the use of a quantum processor.

    PubMed

    Palsson, Matthew S; Gu, Mile; Ho, Joseph; Wiseman, Howard M; Pryde, Geoff J

    2017-02-01

    Computer simulation of observable phenomena is an indispensable tool for engineering new technology, understanding the natural world, and studying human society. However, the most interesting systems are often so complex that simulating their future behavior demands storing immense amounts of information regarding how they have behaved in the past. For increasingly complex systems, simulation becomes increasingly difficult and is ultimately constrained by resources such as computer memory. Recent theoretical work shows that quantum theory can reduce this memory requirement beyond ultimate classical limits, as measured by a process' statistical complexity, C. We experimentally demonstrate this quantum advantage in simulating stochastic processes. Our quantum implementation observes a memory requirement of Cq = 0.05 ± 0.01, far below the ultimate classical limit of C = 1. Scaling up this technique would substantially reduce the memory required in simulations of more complex systems.

  4. Microfabricated surface-electrode ion traps for scalable quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelin, Signe; Britton, Joe; Chiaverini, John; Reichle, Rainer; Bollinger, John; Leibfried, Didi; Wesenberg, Janus; Blakestad, Brad; Epstein, Ryan; Amini, Jason; Brown, Kenton; Home, Jonathan; Hume, David; Shiga, Nobu; Itano, Wayne; Jost, John; Knill, Emmanuel; Langer, Chris; Ozeri, Roee; Wineland, David

    2007-03-01

    We confine individual atomic ions in an rf Paul trap with a novel geometry where the electrodes are located in a single plane and the ions confined above this plane [1,2,3]. This device is realized with simple fabrication procedures, making it a potential candidate for a scalable ion trap for quantum information processing using large numbers of ions. We confine laser-cooled ions 40 micrometers above planar electrodes. These electrodes are fabricated from gold on a fused quartz substrate. The heating rate of the ions is low enough to make the trap useful for quantum information processing. [1] J. Chiaverini et al., Quantum Inf. Comput. 5, 419 (2005). [2] S. Seidelin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006). [3] J. Britton et al., quant-ph/0605170.

  5. Microfabricated surface-electrode ion traps for scalable quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelin, S.; Britton, J.; Chiaverini, J.; Reichle, R.; Bollinger, J. J.; Leibfried, D.; Wesenberg, J. H.; Blakestad, R. B.; Epstein, R. J.; Amini, J. M.; Brown, K. R.; Home, J. P.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Knill, E.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Shiga, N.; Wineland, D. J.

    2007-06-01

    We confine individual atomic ions in rf Paul traps with a novel geometry where the electrodes are located in a single plane and the ions are confined above this plane ootnotetextJ. Chiaverini et al., Quantum Inf. Comput. 5, 419 (2005).^, ootnotetextS. Seidelin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 253003 (2006).^, ootnotetextJ. Britton et al., quant-ph/0605170.. These devices are realized with simple fabrication procedures, making them potentially scalable for quantum information processing using large numbers of ions. For traps fabricated from gold on fused quartz, the ions are 40 micrometers above the planar electrodes and their heating rate is low enough to make the traps useful for quantum information processing.

  6. Characterization of Pairwise Correlations from Multiple Quantum Correlated Beams Generated from Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing Processes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically characterize the performance of the pairwise correlations (PCs) from multiple quantum correlated beams based on the cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes. The presence of the PCs with quantum corre- lation in these systems can be verified by calculating the degree of intensity difference squeezing for any pair of all the output fields. The quantum correlation characteristics of all the PCs under different cascaded schemes are also discussed in detail and the repulsion effect between PCs in these cascaded FWM processes is theoretically predicted. Our results open the way for the classification and application of quantum states generated from the cascaded FWM processes. PMID:28071759

  7. Quantum Process Tomography of an Optically-Controlled Kerr Non-linearity

    PubMed Central

    Kupchak, Connor; Rind, Samuel; Jordaan, Bertus; Figueroa, Eden

    2015-01-01

    Any optical quantum information processing machine would be comprised of fully-characterized constituent devices for both single state manipulations and tasks involving the interaction between multiple quantum optical states. Ideally for the latter, would be an apparatus capable of deterministic optical phase shifts that operate on input quantum states with the action mediated solely by auxiliary signal fields. Here we present the complete experimental characterization of a system designed for optically controlled phase shifts acting on single-photon level probe coherent states. Our setup is based on a warm vapor of rubidium atoms under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency with its dispersion properties modified through the use of an optically triggered N-type Kerr non-linearity. We fully characterize the performance of our device by sending in a set of input probe states and measuring the corresponding output via time-domain homodyne tomography and subsequently performing the technique of coherent state quantum process tomography. This method provides us with the precise knowledge of how our optical phase shift will modify any arbitrary input quantum state engineered in the mode of the reconstruction. PMID:26585904

  8. Inclusive and Exclusive Compton Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Psaker, Ales

    2005-12-01

    In our work, we describe two types of Compton processes. As an example of an inclusive process, we consider the high-energy photoproduction of massive muon pairs off the nucleon. We analyze the process in the framework of the QCD parton model, in which the usual parton distributions emerge as a tool to describe the nucleon in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. To study its exclusive version, a new class of phenomenological functions is required, namely, generalized parton distributions. They can be considered as a generalization of the usual parton distributions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) may be observed in hard exclusive reactions such as deeply virtual Compton scattering. We develop an extension of this particular process into the weak interaction sector. We also investigate a possible application of the GPD formalism to wide-angle real Compton scattering.

  9. Quantum Process Tomography of a Room Temperature Optically-Controlled Phase Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupchak, Connor; Rind, Samuel; Figueroa, Eden; Stony Brook University Team

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a room temperature setup capable of optically controlled phase shifts on a weak probe field. Our system is realized in a vapor of 87Rb atoms under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency utilizing a N-type energy level scheme coupled by three optical fields. By varying the power of the signal field, we can control the size of an optical phase shift experienced by weak coherent state pulses of < n > ~ 1 , propagating through the vapor. We quantify the optical phase shift by measuring the process output via balanced homodyne tomography which provides us with the complete quadrature and phase information of the output states. Furthermore, we measure the output for a set of states over a subspace of the coherent state basis and gain the information to completely reconstruct our phase shift procedure by coherent state quantum process tomography. The reconstruction yields a rank-4 process superoperator which grants the ability to predict how our phase shift process will behave on an arbitrary quantum optical state in the mode of the reconstruction. Our results demonstrate progress towards room temperature systems for possible quantum gates; a key component of a future quantum processor designed to operate at room temperature. US-Navy Office of Naval Research N00141410801, National Science Foundation PHY-1404398, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  10. Processes models, environmental analyses, and cognitive architectures: quo vadis quantum probability theory?

    PubMed

    Marewski, Julian N; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    A lot of research in cognition and decision making suffers from a lack of formalism. The quantum probability program could help to improve this situation, but we wonder whether it would provide even more added value if its presumed focus on outcome models were complemented by process models that are, ideally, informed by ecological analyses and integrated into cognitive architectures.

  11. Study of the self-organization processes in lead sulfide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, S. A. Aleksandrova, O. A.; Maksimov, A. I.; Maraeva, E. V.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Men’kovich, E. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Musikhin, S. F.

    2014-12-15

    A procedure is described for the synthesis of nanoparticles based on lead chalcogenides. The procedure combines the synthesis of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous solutions with simultaneous organization of the QDs into ordered arrays. The processes of the self-organization of QDs are analyzed at the nano- and microscopic levels by the photoluminescence method, atomic-force microscopy, and optical microscopy.

  12. Analysis of Patent Activity in the Field of Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarczyk, Ryszard; Gawron, Piotr; Miszczak, Jarosław Adam; Pawela, Łukasz; Puchała, Zbigniew

    2013-03-01

    This paper provides an analysis of patent activity in the field of quantum information processing. Data from the PatentScope database from the years 1993-2011 was used. In order to predict the future trends in the number of filed patents time series models were used.

  13. Shortcuts to adiabaticity in classical and quantum processes for scale-invariant driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffner, Sebastian; Jarzynski, Christopher; Del Campo, Adolfo

    2014-03-01

    All real physical processes in classical as well as in quantum devices operate in finite-time. For most applications, however, adiabatic, i.e. infinitely-slow processes, are more favorable, as these do not cause unwanted, parasitic excitations. A shortcut to adiabaticity is a driving protocol which reproduces in a short time the same final state that would result from an adiabatic process. A particular powerful technique to engineer such shortcuts is transitionless quantum driving by means of counterdiabatic fields. However, determining closed form expressions for the counterdiabatic field has generally proven to be a daunting task. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach, with which we find the explicit form of the counterdiabatic driving field in arbitrary scale-invariant dynamical processes, encompassing expansions and transport. Our approach originates in the formalism of generating functions, and unifies previous approaches independently developed for classical and quantum systems. We show how this new approach allows to design shortcuts to adiabaticity for a large class of classical and quantum, single-particle, non-linear, and many-body systems. SD and CJ acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (USA) under grant DMR-1206971. This research is further supported by the U.S Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program and a LANL J. Robert Oppenheimer fellowship (AdC).

  14. A graph-theoretical representation of multiphoton resonance processes in superconducting quantum circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jooya, Hossein Z.; Reihani, Kamran; Chu, Shih-I.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a graph-theoretical formalism to study generic circuit quantum electrodynamics systems consisting of a two level qubit coupled with a single-mode resonator in arbitrary coupling strength regimes beyond rotating-wave approximation. We define colored-weighted graphs, and introduce different products between them to investigate the dynamics of superconducting qubits in transverse, longitudinal, and bidirectional coupling schemes. The intuitive and predictive picture provided by this method, and the simplicity of the mathematical construction, are demonstrated with some numerical studies of the multiphoton resonance processes and quantum interference phenomena for the superconducting qubit systems driven by intense ac fields.

  15. A graph-theoretical representation of multiphoton resonance processes in superconducting quantum circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Jooya, Hossein Z.; Reihani, Kamran; Chu, Shih-I

    2016-11-21

    We propose a graph-theoretical formalism to study generic circuit quantum electrodynamics systems consisting of a two level qubit coupled with a single-mode resonator in arbitrary coupling strength regimes beyond rotating-wave approximation. We define colored-weighted graphs, and introduce different products between them to investigate the dynamics of superconducting qubits in transverse, longitudinal, and bidirectional coupling schemes. In conclusion, the intuitive and predictive picture provided by this method, and the simplicity of the mathematical construction, are demonstrated with some numerical studies of the multiphoton resonance processes and quantum interference phenomena for the superconducting qubit systems driven by intense ac fields.

  16. Generating optical Schrödinger kittens for quantum information processing.

    PubMed

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Laurat, Julien; Grangier, Philippe

    2006-04-07

    We present a detailed experimental analysis of a free-propagating light pulse prepared in a "Schrödinger kitten" state, which is defined as a quantum superposition of "classical" coherent states with small amplitudes. This kitten state is generated by subtracting one photon from a squeezed vacuum beam, and it clearly presents a negative Wigner function. The predicted influence of the experimental parameters is in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The amplitude of the coherent states can be amplified to transform our "Schrödinger kittens" into bigger Schrödinger cats, providing an essential tool for quantum information processing.

  17. A graph-theoretical representation of multiphoton resonance processes in superconducting quantum circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jooya, Hossein Z.; Reihani, Kamran; Chu, Shih-I

    2016-01-01

    We propose a graph-theoretical formalism to study generic circuit quantum electrodynamics systems consisting of a two level qubit coupled with a single-mode resonator in arbitrary coupling strength regimes beyond rotating-wave approximation. We define colored-weighted graphs, and introduce different products between them to investigate the dynamics of superconducting qubits in transverse, longitudinal, and bidirectional coupling schemes. The intuitive and predictive picture provided by this method, and the simplicity of the mathematical construction, are demonstrated with some numerical studies of the multiphoton resonance processes and quantum interference phenomena for the superconducting qubit systems driven by intense ac fields. PMID:27869230

  18. Fluctuations and Stochastic Processes in One-Dimensional Many-Body Quantum Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stimming, H.-P.; Mauser, N. J.; Mazets, I. E.

    2010-07-02

    We study the fluctuation properties of a one-dimensional many-body quantum system composed of interacting bosons and investigate the regimes where quantum noise or, respectively, thermal excitations are dominant. For the latter, we develop a semiclassical description of the fluctuation properties based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic process. As an illustration, we analyze the phase correlation functions and the full statistical distributions of the interference between two one-dimensional systems, either independent or tunnel-coupled, and compare with the Luttinger-liquid theory.

  19. Generating Optical Schrödinger Kittens for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Laurat, Julien; Grangier, Philippe

    2006-04-01

    We present a detailed experimental analysis of a free-propagating light pulse prepared in a ``Schrödinger kitten'' state, which is defined as a quantum superposition of ``classical'' coherent states with small amplitudes. This kitten state is generated by subtracting one photon from a squeezed vacuum beam, and it clearly presents a negative Wigner function. The predicted influence of the experimental parameters is in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The amplitude of the coherent states can be amplified to transform our ``Schrödinger kittens'' into bigger Schrödinger cats, providing an essential tool for quantum information processing.

  20. A graph-theoretical representation of multiphoton resonance processes in superconducting quantum circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Jooya, Hossein Z.; Reihani, Kamran; Chu, Shih-I

    2016-11-21

    We propose a graph-theoretical formalism to study generic circuit quantum electrodynamics systems consisting of a two level qubit coupled with a single-mode resonator in arbitrary coupling strength regimes beyond rotating-wave approximation. We define colored-weighted graphs, and introduce different products between them to investigate the dynamics of superconducting qubits in transverse, longitudinal, and bidirectional coupling schemes. The intuitive and predictive picture provided by this method, and the simplicity of the mathematical construction, are demonstrated with some numerical studies of the multiphoton resonance processes and quantum interference phenomena for the superconducting qubit systems driven by intense ac fields.

  1. Isolated many-body quantum systems far from equilibrium: Relaxation process and thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Herrera, E. J.; Santos, Lea F.

    2014-10-15

    We present an overview of our recent numerical and analytical results on the dynamics of isolated interacting quantum systems that are taken far from equilibrium by an abrupt perturbation. The studies are carried out on one-dimensional systems of spins-1/2, which are paradigmatic models of many-body quantum systems. Our results show the role of the interplay between the initial state and the post-perturbation Hamiltonian in the relaxation process, the size of the fluctuations after equilibration, and the viability of thermalization.

  2. Value of NMR Parameters and DFT Calculations for Quantum Information Processing Utilizing Phosphorus Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Lino, Jéssica B R; Rocha, Eduardo P; Ramalho, Teodorico C

    2017-06-15

    Quantum computing is the field of science that uses quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. The fundamental information unit used in quantum computing is the quantum bit or qubit. It is well-known that quantum computers could theoretically be able to solve problems much more quickly than any classical computers. Currently, the first and still the most successful implementations of quantum information processing (QIP) have been based on nuclear spins in liquids. However, molecules that enable many qubits NMR QIP implementations should meet some conditions: have large chemical shifts and be appropriately dispersed for qubit addressability, appreciable spin-spin coupling between any pair of spins, and a long relaxation time. In this line, benzyldene-2,3-dihydro-1H-[1,3]diphosphole (BDF) derivatives have been theoretically tested for maximizing large chemical shifts, spin-spin coupling, and minimizing the hyperfine coupling constant. Thus, the structures were optimized at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level and showed a significant similarity with the experimental geometrical parameters. The NMR spectroscopic parameters (δ and J) were calculated with six different DFT functionals. The τ-HCTH/6-31G(2d) level is in better agreement with the experimental data of (31)P and (13)C chemical shifts, while PCM-B3LYP/cc-pVDZ level shows a decrease on deviation between calculated and experimental values for P-P and P-C SSCC. The surface response technique was employed to rationalize how the hyperfine constant varies with the chemical shifts and coupling constants values. From our findings, BDF-NO2 was the best candidate for NMR quantum computations (NMR-QC) among the studied series.

  3. Solving the Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Euclidean Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorkin, S. M.; Kaptari, L. P.; Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Kämpfer, B.

    2011-03-01

    Different approaches to solve the spinor-spinor Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation in Euclidean space are considered. It is argued that the complete set of Dirac matrices is the most appropriate basis to define the partial amplitudes and to solve numerically the resulting system of equations with realistic interaction kernels. Other representations can be obtained by performing proper unitary transformations. A generalization of the iteration method for finding the energy spectrum of the BS equation is discussed and examples of concrete calculations are presented. Comparison of relativistic calculations with available experimental data and with corresponding non relativistic results together with an analysis of the role of Lorentz boost effects and relativistic corrections are presented. A novel method related to the use of hyperspherical harmonics is considered for a representation of the vertex functions suitable for numerical calculations.

  4. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  5. Sensor Network Localization by Eigenvector Synchronization Over the Euclidean Group

    PubMed Central

    CUCURINGU, MIHAI; LIPMAN, YARON; SINGER, AMIT

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach to localization of sensors from noisy measurements of a subset of their Euclidean distances. Our algorithm starts by finding, embedding, and aligning uniquely realizable subsets of neighboring sensors called patches. In the noise-free case, each patch agrees with its global positioning up to an unknown rigid motion of translation, rotation, and possibly reflection. The reflections and rotations are estimated using the recently developed eigenvector synchronization algorithm, while the translations are estimated by solving an overdetermined linear system. The algorithm is scalable as the number of nodes increases and can be implemented in a distributed fashion. Extensive numerical experiments show that it compares favorably to other existing algorithms in terms of robustness to noise, sparse connectivity, and running time. While our approach is applicable to higher dimensions, in the current article, we focus on the two-dimensional case. PMID:23946700

  6. On the Euclidean version of the photon number integral

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijsenaars, S.; Stodolsky, L.

    2008-02-15

    We reconsider the Euclidean version of the photon number integral introduced by Stodolsky [Acta Phys. Pol. B 33, 2659 (2002), e-print hep-th/02053131].This integral is well defined for any smooth non-self-intersecting curve in R{sup N}. Besides studying general features of this integral (including its conformal invariance), we evaluate it explicitly for the ellipse. The result is n{sub ellipse}=({xi}{sup -1}+{xi}){pi}{sup 2}, where {xi} is the ratio of the minor and major axes. This is in agreement with the previous result n{sub circle}=2{pi}{sup 2} and also with the conjecture that the minimum value of n for any plane curve occurs for the circle.

  7. Twistor Geometry of Null Foliations in Complex Euclidean Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavi-Chabert, Arman

    2017-01-01

    We give a detailed account of the geometric correspondence between a smooth complex projective quadric hypersurface Q^n of dimension n ≥ 3, and its twistor space PT, defined to be the space of all linear subspaces of maximal dimension of Q^n. Viewing complex Euclidean space CE^n as a dense open subset of Q^n, we show how local foliations tangent to certain integrable holomorphic totally null distributions of maximal rank on CE^n can be constructed in terms of complex submanifolds of PT. The construction is illustrated by means of two examples, one involving conformal Killing spinors, the other, conformal Killing-Yano 2-forms. We focus on the odd-dimensional case, and we treat the even-dimensional case only tangentially for comparison.

  8. BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2015-12-01

    We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelike Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d = 4 N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, d = 3 N = 2 super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and d = 3 N = 6 Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  9. Sensor Network Localization by Eigenvector Synchronization Over the Euclidean Group.

    PubMed

    Cucuringu, Mihai; Lipman, Yaron; Singer, Amit

    2012-07-01

    We present a new approach to localization of sensors from noisy measurements of a subset of their Euclidean distances. Our algorithm starts by finding, embedding, and aligning uniquely realizable subsets of neighboring sensors called patches. In the noise-free case, each patch agrees with its global positioning up to an unknown rigid motion of translation, rotation, and possibly reflection. The reflections and rotations are estimated using the recently developed eigenvector synchronization algorithm, while the translations are estimated by solving an overdetermined linear system. The algorithm is scalable as the number of nodes increases and can be implemented in a distributed fashion. Extensive numerical experiments show that it compares favorably to other existing algorithms in terms of robustness to noise, sparse connectivity, and running time. While our approach is applicable to higher dimensions, in the current article, we focus on the two-dimensional case.

  10. Curvature-driven morphing of non-Euclidean shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzulla, Matteo; Stoop, Norbert; Jiang, Xin; Holmes, D. P.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate how thin structures change their shape in response to non-mechanical stimuli that can be interpreted as variations in the structure's natural curvature. Starting from the theory of non-Euclidean plates and shells, we derive an effective model that reduces a three-dimensional stimulus to the natural fundamental forms of the mid-surface of the structure, incorporating expansion, or growth, in the thickness. Then, we apply the model to a variety of thin bodies, from flat plates to spherical shells, obtaining excellent agreement between theory and numerics. We show how cylinders and cones can either bend more or unroll, and eventually snap and rotate. We also study the nearly isometric deformations of a spherical shell and describe how this shape change is ruled by the geometry of a spindle. As the derived results stem from a purely geometrical model, they are general and scalable.

  11. Action with Acceleration II: Euclidean Hamiltonian and Jordan Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2013-10-01

    The Euclidean action with acceleration has been analyzed in Ref. 1, and referred to henceforth as Paper I, for its Hamiltonian and path integral. In this paper, the state space of the Hamiltonian is analyzed for the case when it is pseudo-Hermitian (equivalent to a Hermitian Hamiltonian), as well as the case when it is inequivalent. The propagator is computed using both creation and destruction operators as well as the path integral. A state space calculation of the propagator shows the crucial role played by the dual state vectors that yields a result impossible to obtain from a Hermitian Hamiltonian. When it is not pseudo-Hermitian, the Hamiltonian is shown to be a direct sum of Jordan blocks.

  12. Testing loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Loop quantum cosmology predicts that quantum gravity effects resolve the big-bang singularity and replace it by a cosmic bounce. Furthermore, loop quantum cosmology can also modify the form of primordial cosmological perturbations, for example by reducing power at large scales in inflationary models or by suppressing the tensor-to-scalar ratio in the matter bounce scenario; these two effects are potential observational tests for loop quantum cosmology. In this article, I review these predictions and others, and also briefly discuss three open problems in loop quantum cosmology: its relation to loop quantum gravity, the trans-Planckian problem, and a possible transition from a Lorentzian to a Euclidean space-time around the bounce point.

  13. Description of quantum coherence in thermodynamic processes requires constraints beyond free energy

    PubMed Central

    Lostaglio, Matteo; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have developed fundamental limitations on nanoscale thermodynamics, in terms of a set of independent free energy relations. Here we show that free energy relations cannot properly describe quantum coherence in thermodynamic processes. By casting time-asymmetry as a quantifiable, fundamental resource of a quantum state, we arrive at an additional, independent set of thermodynamic constraints that naturally extend the existing ones. These asymmetry relations reveal that the traditional Szilárd engine argument does not extend automatically to quantum coherences, but instead only relational coherences in a multipartite scenario can contribute to thermodynamic work. We find that coherence transformations are always irreversible. Our results also reveal additional structural parallels between thermodynamics and the theory of entanglement. PMID:25754774

  14. Experimentally modeling stochastic processes with less memory by the use of a quantum processor

    PubMed Central

    Palsson, Matthew S.; Gu, Mile; Ho, Joseph; Wiseman, Howard M.; Pryde, Geoff J.

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulation of observable phenomena is an indispensable tool for engineering new technology, understanding the natural world, and studying human society. However, the most interesting systems are often so complex that simulating their future behavior demands storing immense amounts of information regarding how they have behaved in the past. For increasingly complex systems, simulation becomes increasingly difficult and is ultimately constrained by resources such as computer memory. Recent theoretical work shows that quantum theory can reduce this memory requirement beyond ultimate classical limits, as measured by a process’ statistical complexity, C. We experimentally demonstrate this quantum advantage in simulating stochastic processes. Our quantum implementation observes a memory requirement of Cq = 0.05 ± 0.01, far below the ultimate classical limit of C = 1. Scaling up this technique would substantially reduce the memory required in simulations of more complex systems. PMID:28168218

  15. A linearization of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  16. Certifying quantumness: Benchmarks for the optimal processing of generalized coherent and squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-10-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionary advantages in information processing and transmission compared to classical technology; however, determining which specific resources are needed to surpass the capabilities of classical machines often remains a nontrivial problem. To address such a problem, one first needs to establish the best classical solutions, which set benchmarks that must be beaten by any implementation claiming to harness quantum features for an enhanced performance. Here we introduce and develop a self-contained formalism to obtain the ultimate, generally probabilistic benchmarks for quantum information protocols including teleportation and approximate cloning, with arbitrary ensembles of input states generated by a group action, so-called Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states. This allows us to construct explicit fidelity thresholds for the transmission of multimode Gaussian and non-Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems, as well as qubit and qudit pure states drawn according to nonuniform distributions on the Bloch hypersphere, which accurately model the current laboratory facilities. The performance of deterministic classical procedures such as square-root measurement strategies is further compared with the optimal probabilistic benchmarks, and the state-of-the-art performance of experimental quantum implementations against our newly derived thresholds is discussed. This work provides a comprehensive collection of directly useful criteria for the reliable certification of quantum communication technologies.

  17. Squared Euclidean distance: a statistical test to evaluate plant community change

    Treesearch

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Sylvia R. Mori

    1993-01-01

    The concepts and a procedure for evaluating plant community change using the squared Euclidean distance (SED) resemblance function are described. Analyses are based on the concept that Euclidean distances constitute a sample from a population of distances between sampling units (SUs) for a specific number of times and SUs. With different times, the distances will be...

  18. Application of Euclidean distance measurement and principal component analysis for gene identification.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Antara; Barman, Soma

    2016-06-01

    Gene systems are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and noisy in nature. Many statistical tools which are used to extract relevant feature from genes provide fuzzy and ambiguous information. High-dimensional gene expression database available in public domain usually contains thousands of genes. Efficient prediction method is demanding nowadays for accurate identification of such database. Euclidean distance measurement and principal component analysis methods are applied on such databases to identify the genes. In both methods, prediction algorithm is based on homology search approach. Digital Signal Processing technique along with statistical method is used for analysis of genes in both cases. A two-level decision logic is used for gene classification as healthy or cancerous. This binary logic minimizes the prediction error and improves prediction accuracy. Superiority of the method is judged by receiver operating characteristic curve.

  19. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, Christopher D.; Grigoriev, Roman O.

    2015-06-15

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals.

  20. Artificial immune system via Euclidean Distance Minimization for anomaly detection in bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montechiesi, L.; Cocconcelli, M.; Rubini, R.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years new diagnostics methodologies have emerged, with particular interest into machinery operating in non-stationary conditions. In fact continuous speed changes and variable loads make non-trivial the spectrum analysis. A variable speed means a variable characteristic fault frequency related to the damage that is no more recognizable in the spectrum. To overcome this problem the scientific community proposed different approaches listed in two main categories: model-based approaches and expert systems. In this context the paper aims to present a simple expert system derived from the mechanisms of the immune system called Euclidean Distance Minimization, and its application in a real case of bearing faults recognition. The proposed method is a simplification of the original process, adapted by the class of Artificial Immune Systems, which proved to be useful and promising in different application fields. Comparative results are provided, with a complete explanation of the algorithm and its functioning aspects.

  1. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Christopher D.; Grigoriev, Roman O.

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals.

  2. Efficient Optical Logic, Interconnections and Processing Using Quantum Confined Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-20

    controlling device, transmitter of telecommunications including interconnections for integrated circuits, and optical information processing. Among various...region, but the required voltage increases and therefore MV decreases. By incorporating a single reflector ( monolithically grown quarter-wavelength...reflectors ( DBRs ) as shown in Fig. IV.5. In the vicinity of the Bragg frequencies of the DBRs , the reflectivity of each mirror is assumed to have uniforM

  3. Superstrings and quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G. )

    1990-10-20

    This paper suggests that the quantum geometry of asymptotically locally Euclidean spaces underlies the dynamics of superstrings moving on Calabi-Yau manifolds. In particular, it is pointed out that solving the Wheeler-DeWitt equation is akin to using a neural network to color maps on a Riemann surface. In the infrared limit such map colorings are formally equivalent to Calabi-Yau vacua for superstrings.

  4. Two-photon exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1986-07-01

    QCD predictions for ..gamma gamma.. annihilation into single mesons, meson pairs, and baryon pairs are reviewed. Two-photon exclusive processes provide the most sensitive and practical measure of the distribution amplitudes, and thus a critical confrontation between QCD and experiment. Both the angular distribution and virtual photon mass dependence of these amplitudes are sensitive to the shapes of the phi (chi, Q). Novel effects involving the production of qq anti q anti q states at threshold are also discussed, and a new method is presented for systematically incorporating higher-order QCD corrections in ..gamma gamma.. reactions.

  5. Quantum effects in the diffusion process to form a heavy nucleus in heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Washiyama, Kouhei; Takigawa, Noboru; Yilmaz, Buelent; Ayik, Sakir

    2006-08-14

    We discuss quantum effects in the diffusion process which is used to describe the shape evolution from the touching configuration of fusing two nuclei to a compound nucleus. Applying the theory with quantum effects to the case where the potential field, the mass and friction parameters are adapted to realistic values of heavy-ion collisions, we show that the quantum effects play significant roles at low temperatures which are relevant to the synthesis of superheavy elements.

  6. Geostatistical analysis of groundwater level using Euclidean and non-Euclidean distance metrics and variable variogram fitting criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoridou, Panagiota G.; Karatzas, George P.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.; Corzo Perez, Gerald A.

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater level is an important information in hydrological modelling. Geostatistical methods are often employed to map the free surface of an aquifer. In geostatistical analysis using Kriging techniques the selection of the optimal variogram model is very important for the optimal method performance. This work compares three different criteria, the least squares sum method, the Akaike Information Criterion and the Cressie's Indicator, to assess the theoretical variogram that fits to the experimental one and investigates the impact on the prediction results. Moreover, five different distance functions (Euclidean, Minkowski, Manhattan, Canberra, and Bray-Curtis) are applied to calculate the distance between observations that affects both the variogram calculation and the Kriging estimator. Cross validation analysis in terms of Ordinary Kriging is applied by using sequentially a different distance metric and the above three variogram fitting criteria. The spatial dependence of the observations in the tested dataset is studied by fitting classical variogram models and the Matérn model. The proposed comparison analysis performed for a data set of two hundred fifty hydraulic head measurements distributed over an alluvial aquifer that covers an area of 210 km2. The study area is located in the Prefecture of Drama, which belongs to the Water District of East Macedonia (Greece). This area was selected in terms of hydro-geological data availability and geological homogeneity. The analysis showed that a combination of the Akaike information Criterion for the variogram fitting assessment and the Brays-Curtis distance metric provided the most accurate cross-validation results. The Power-law variogram model provided the best fit to the experimental data. The aforementioned approach for the specific dataset in terms of the Ordinary Kriging method improves the prediction efficiency in comparison to the classical Euclidean distance metric. Therefore, maps of the spatial

  7. Evidence for transcriptase quantum processing implies entanglement and decoherence of superposition proton states.

    PubMed

    Cooper, W Grant

    2009-08-01

    Evidence requiring transcriptase quantum processing is identified and elementary quantum methods are used to qualitatively describe origins and consequences of time-dependent coherent proton states populating informational DNA base pair sites in T4 phage, designated by G-C-->G'-C', G-C-->*G-*C and AT-->*A-*T. Coherent states at these 'point' DNA lesions are introduced as consequences of hydrogen bond arrangement, keto-amino-->enol-imine, where product protons are shared between two sets of indistinguishable electron lone-pairs, and thus, participate in coupled quantum oscillations at frequencies of approximately 10(13) s(-1). This quantum mixing of proton energy states introduces stability enhancements of approximately 0.25-7 kcal/mole. Transcriptase genetic specificity is determined by hydrogen bond components contributing to the formation of complementary interstrand hydrogen bonds which, in these cases, is variable due to coupled quantum oscillations of coherent enol-imine protons. The transcriptase deciphers and executes genetic specificity instructions by implementing measurements on superposition proton states at G'-C', *G-*C and *A-*T sites in an interval Deltat<10(-13) s. After initiation of transcriptase measurement, model calculations indicate proton decoherence time, tau(D), satisfies the relation DeltatT, G'-->C, *C-->T and *G-->A. Measurements of 37 degrees C lifetimes of the keto-amino DNA hydrogen bond indicate a range of approximately 3200-68,000 yrs. Arguments are presented that quantum uncertainty limits on amino protons may drive the keto-amino-->enol-imine arrangement. Data imply that natural selection at the quantum level has generated effective schemes (a) for introducing superposition proton states--at rates appropriate for DNA evolution--in decoherence-free subspaces and (b) for creating entanglement states that augment (i

  8. Process design of microdomains with quantum mechanics for giant pulse lasers.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoichi; Akiyama, Jun; Taira, Takunori

    2017-09-06

    The power scaling of laser devices can contribute to the future of humanity. Giant microphotonics have been advocated as a solution to this issue. Among various technologies in giant microphotonics, process control of microdomains with quantum mechanical calculations is expected to increase the optical power extracted per unit volume in gain media. Design of extensive variables influencing the Gibbs energy of controlled microdomains in materials can realize desired properties. Here we estimate the angular momentum quantum number of rare-earth ions in microdomains. Using this process control, we generate kilowatt-level laser output from orientation-controlled microdomains in a laser gain medium. We also consider the limitations of current samples, and discuss the prospects of power scaling and applications of our technology. This work overturns at least three common viewpoints in current advanced technologies, including material processing based on magnetohydrodynamics, grain-size control of transparent polycrystals in fine ceramics, and the crystallographic symmetry of laser ceramics in photonics.

  9. Intraband Auger processes and simple models of the ionization balance in semiconductor quantum-dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Janet L.

    1994-04-01

    The importance of intraband Auger processes in determining the ionization balance in quantum dots is reported. The numerically inexpensive binary-encounter model for a Coulomb collision between identical particles is found to be a good estimator of the intraband Auger rates out of a quantum dot. Intraband and the conventional interband Auger processes differ in that the former involve only intraband transitions whereas the latter always involve a radiationless interband transition. As such, intraband Auger rates do not involve the evaluation of the very small overlap integral of a conduction band with a valence band Bloch wave function and are thus much larger than interband Auger rates, especially for large-band-gap semiconductors like GaAs. Though intraband Auger processes are not strong enough to establish a quasiequilibrium within the entire conduction band at the room-temperature free-carrier concentrations (1016 cm-3) and bound energy separations (greater than an LO phonon energy) commonly assumed in the quantum-dot literature, they are capable of placing almost as many bound carriers in states near the band edge as would be predicted erroneously by a quasiequilibrium Fermi-Dirac distribution. Such large bound state occupations are important for quantum-dot laser design. A sufficient condition for a quasiequilibrium to exist within all of an energy (conduction or valence) band is found to be the existence of many inverse Auger processes faster than interband spontaneous emission, which occurs for total (bound plus free) electron concentrations greater than 5×1017 cm-3 at room temperature in 100 Å radius GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As quantum dots whose centers are separated by 400 Å. The nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium populations in quantum dots can be understood from a simple model in which states connected by fast Auger or phonon processes are in Saha-Boltzmann equilibrium. All other states have occupation factors which are determined by the ratio of intraband

  10. Non-CMC solutions to the Einstein constraint equations on asymptotically Euclidean manifolds with apparent horizon boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, Michael; Meier, Caleb

    2015-01-01

    In this article we further develop the solution theory for the Einstein constraint equations on an n-dimensional, asymptotically Euclidean manifold M with interior boundary Σ. Building on recent results for both the asymptotically Euclidean and compact with boundary settings, we show the existence of far-from-CMC and near-CMC solutions to the conformal formulation of the Einstein constraints when nonlinear Robin boundary conditions are imposed on Σ, similar to those analyzed previously by Dain (2004 Class. Quantum Grav. 21 555-73), by Maxwell (2004, 2005 Commun. Math. Phys. 253 561-83), and by Holst and Tsogtgerel (2013 Class. Quantum Grav. 30 205011) as a model of black holes in various CMC settings, and by Holst et al (2013 Non-CMC solutions to the einstein constraint equations with apparent horizon boundaries arXiv:1310.2302v1) in the setting of far-from-CMC solutions on compact manifolds with boundary. These ‘marginally trapped surface’ Robin conditions ensure that the expansion scalars along null geodesics perpendicular to the boundary region Σ are non-positive, which is considered the correct mathematical model for black holes in the context of the Einstein constraint equations. Assuming a suitable form of weak cosmic censorship, the results presented in this article guarantee the existence of initial data that will evolve into a space-time containing an arbitrary number of black holes. A particularly important feature of our results are the minimal restrictions we place on the mean curvature, giving both near- and far-from-CMC results that are new.

  11. Instanton-like self-dual solution to lattice Euclidean Gravity: Difference from Eguchi-Hanson solution to continuous gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergeles, S. N.

    2016-10-01

    The self-dual solution to lattice Euclidean gravity is constructed. In contrast to the well-known Eguchi-Hanson solution to continuous Euclidean Gravity, the lattice solution is asymptotically globally Euclidean, i.e., the boundary of the space as r → ∞ is S 3 = SU(2)

  12. A note on the possible existence of an instanton-like self-dual solution to lattice Euclidean gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergeles, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    The self-dual solution to lattice Euclidean gravity is constructed. In contrast to the well known Eguchi-Hanson solution to continuous Euclidean Gravity, the lattice solution is asymptotically globally Euclidean, i.e., the boundary of the space as r -→ ∞ is S 3 = SU(2).

  13. Speedup for quantum optimal control from automatic differentiation based on graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Nelson; Abdelhafez, Mohamed; Koch, Jens; Schuster, David

    2017-04-01

    We implement a quantum optimal control algorithm based on automatic differentiation and harness the acceleration afforded by graphics processing units (GPUs). Automatic differentiation allows us to specify advanced optimization criteria and incorporate them in the optimization process with ease. We show that the use of GPUs can speedup calculations by more than an order of magnitude. Our strategy facilitates efficient numerical simulations on affordable desktop computers and exploration of a host of optimization constraints and system parameters relevant to real-life experiments. We demonstrate optimization of quantum evolution based on fine-grained evaluation of performance at each intermediate time step, thus enabling more intricate control on the evolution path, suppression of departures from the truncated model subspace, as well as minimization of the physical time needed to perform high-fidelity state preparation and unitary gates.

  14. A chemometric approach for determining the reaction quantum yields in consecutive photochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Marcolongo, Juan P; Schmidt, Juan; Levin, Natalia; Slep, Leonardo D

    2017-08-16

    A chemometric procedure to deal with spectroscopically monitored processes involving photochemical steps is fully described. The methodology makes it possible to work with reactions that involve several components with unknown (and eventually overlapping) spectra and provides a tool for the simultaneous determination of both the quantum yields of the reaction and the spectra of all the species present in a multi-step photochemical process. As a benchmark, we apply these ideas to extract the quantum yields of photodetachment of coordinated ligands employing data recorded over the course of the decomposition of [Ru(tpm)(bpy)(CH3CN)](2+) and cis-[Ru(bpy)2(CH3CN)2](2+) under stationary photolysis conditions. The approach is fast and robust and it is easily implemented in scientific programming languages.

  15. Quantum process tomography of a Mølmer-Sørensen interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Nir; Akerman, Nitzan; Kotler, Shlomi; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-07-01

    We present a simple tomographic protocol, for two-qubit systems, that relies on a single discriminatory transition and no direct spatially selective imaging. This scheme exploits excess micromotion in the trap to realize all operations required to prepare all input states and analyze all output states. We demonstrate a two-qubit entangling gate with a Bell state production fidelity of 0.981(6), and apply the above protocol to perform the first quantum process tomography of a Mølmer-Sørensen entangling gate. We characterize its χ-process matrix, the simplest for an entanglement gate on a separable-states basis, and observe that our dominant source of error is accurately modeled by a quantum depolarization channel.

  16. All-solution-processed inverted quantum-dot light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Castan, Alice; Kim, Hyo-Min; Jang, Jin

    2014-02-26

    Quantum dots are a promising new candidate for the emissive material in light-emitting devices for display applications. The fabrication of such devices by solution processing allows considerable cost reduction and is therefore very attractive for industrial manufacturers. We report all solution-processed colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) with an inverted structure. The red, green, and blue devices showed maximum luminances of 12 510, 32 370, and 249 cd/m(2) and turn-on voltages of 2.8, 3.6, and 3.6 V, respectively. We investigate the effect of a surfactant addition in the hole injection layer (HIL), with the aim of facilitating layer deposition and thereby enhancing device performance. We demonstrate that in the device structure presented in this study, a small amount of surfactant in the HIL can significantly improve the performance of the QLED.

  17. Strong field control of the interatomic Coulombic decay process in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, Anika; Chiang, Ying-Chih; Menger, Maximilian; Aziz, Emad F.; Bande, Annika

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the laser-induced interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) process in paired quantum dots has been predicted (Bande, 2013). In this work we target the enhancement of ICD by scanning over a range of strong-field laser intensities. The GaAs quantum dots are modeled by a one-dimensional double-well potential in which simulations are done with the space-resolved multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method including antisymmetrization to account for the fermions. As a novelty a complementary state-resolved ansatz is developed to consolidate the interpretation of transient state populations, widths obtained for the ICD and the competing direct ionization channel, and Fano peak profiles in the photoelectron spectra. The major results are that multi-photon processes are unimportant even for the strongest fields. Further, below- π to π pulses display the highest ICD efficiency while the direct ionization becomes less dominant.

  18. Implications of the general constraints for single-qubit quantum process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas

    We revisit the general constraints of single qubit quantum process tomography and derive simplified forms in the Pauli basis. These forms give insight into the structure of the process matrix, which we examine in light of several examples. Specifically, we study some qubit leakage error models and show how different error models are manifest in the process matrix. NAP's research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  19. PEET: a Matlab tool for estimating physical gate errors in quantum information processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocker, David; Kosut, Robert; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-09-01

    A Physical Error Estimation Tool (PEET) is introduced in Matlab for predicting physical gate errors of quantum information processing (QIP) operations by constructing and then simulating gate sequences for a wide variety of user-defined, Hamiltonian-based physical systems. PEET is designed to accommodate the interdisciplinary needs of quantum computing design by assessing gate performance for users familiar with the underlying physics of QIP, as well as those interested in higher-level computing operations. The structure of PEET separates the bulk of the physical details of a system into Gate objects, while the construction of quantum computing gate operations are contained in GateSequence objects. Gate errors are estimated by Monte Carlo sampling of noisy gate operations. The main utility of PEET, though, is the implementation of QuantumControl methods that act to generate and then test gate sequence and pulse-shaping techniques for QIP performance. This work details the structure of PEET and gives instructive examples for its operation.

  20. Dynamics of the fully stripped ion-hydrogen atom charge exchange process in dense quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling-yu; Wan, Jiang-feng; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Xiao, Guo-qing; Duan, Wen-shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei

    2014-09-15

    The plasma screening effects of dense quantum plasmas on charge exchange processes of a fully stripped ion colliding with a hydrogen atom are studied by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. The inter-particle interactions are described by the exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. It is found that in weak screening conditions, cross sections increase with the increase of the ionic charge Z. However, in strong screening conditions, the dependence of cross sections on the ionic charge is related to the incident particle energy. At high energies, cross sections show a linear increase with the increase of Z, whereas at low energies, cross sections for Z≥4 become approximately the same. The He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+} impacting charge exchange cross sections in dense quantum plasmas are also compared with those in weakly coupled plasmas. The interactions are described by the static screened Coulomb potential. It is found that for both He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+}, the oscillatory screening effects of dense quantum plasmas are almost negligible in weak screening conditions. However, in strong screening conditions, the oscillatory screening effects enhance the screening effects of dense quantum plasmas, and the enhancement becomes more and more significant with the increase of the screening parameter and the ionic charge.

  1. Microscopic model calculations for the magnetization process of layered triangular-lattice quantum antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Marmorini, Giacomo; Danshita, Ippei

    2015-01-16

    Magnetization processes of spin-1/2 layered triangular-lattice antiferromagnets (TLAFs) under a magnetic field H are studied by means of a numerical cluster mean-field method with a scaling scheme. We find that small antiferromagnetic couplings between the layers give rise to several types of extra quantum phase transitions among different high-field coplanar phases. Especially, a field-induced first-order transition is found to occur at H≈0.7H_{s}, where H_{s} is the saturation field, as another common quantum effect of ideal TLAFs in addition to the well-established one-third plateau. Our microscopic model calculation with appropriate parameters shows excellent agreement with experiments on Ba_{3}CoSb_{2}O_{9} [T. Susuki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267201 (2013)]. Given this fact, we suggest that the Co^{2+}-based compounds may allow for quantum simulations of intriguing properties of this simple frustrated model, such as quantum criticality and supersolid states.

  2. Transfer of entangled state, entanglement swapping and quantum information processing via the Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Li; Chen, Ai-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Song

    2011-11-01

    We provide a scheme with which the transfer of the entangled state and the entanglement swapping can be realized in a system of neutral atoms via the Rydberg blockade. Our idea can be extended to teleport an unknown atomic state. According to the latest theoretical research of the Rydberg excitation and experimental reports of the Rydberg blockade effect in quantum information processing, we discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.

  3. Multifunctional Dendrimer Ligands for High-Efficiency, Solution-Processed Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ikjun; Jung, Heeyoung; Jeong, Byeong Guk; Chang, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Younghoon; Char, Kookheon; Lee, Doh C; Lee, Changhee; Cho, Jinhan; Bae, Wan Ki

    2017-01-24

    We present multifunctional dendrimer ligands that serve as the charge injection controlling layer as well as the adhesive layer at the interfaces between quantum dots (QDs) and the electron transport layer (ETL) in quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). Specifically, we use primary amine-functionalized dendrimer ligands (e.g., a series of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PADs, also referred to PAMAM)) that bind to the surface of QDs by replacing the native ligands (oleic acids) and also to the surface of ZnO ETL. PAD ligands control the electron injection rate from ZnO ETL into QDs by altering the electronic energy levels of the surface of ZnO ETL and thereby improve the charge balance within QDs in devices, leading to the enhancement of the device efficiency. As an ultimate achievement, the device efficiency (peak external quantum efficiency) improves by a factor of 3 by replacing the native ligands (3.86%) with PAD ligands (11.36%). In addition, multibranched dendrimer ligands keep the QD emissive layer intact during subsequent solution processing, enabling us to accomplish solution-processed QLEDs. The approach and results in the present study emphasize the importance of controlling the ligands of QDs to enhance QLED performance and also offer simple yet effective chemical mean toward all-solution-processed QLEDs.

  4. Euclidean supersymmetric solutions with the self-dual Weyl tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Masato

    2017-07-01

    We explore the Euclidean supersymmetric solutions admitting the self-dual gauge field in the framework of N = 2 minimal gauged supergravity in four dimensions. According to the classification scheme utilizing the spinorial geometry or the bilinears of Killing spinors, the general solution preserves one quarter of supersymmetry and is described by the Przanowski-Tod class with the self-dual Weyl tensor. We demonstrate that there exists an additional Killing spinor, provided the Przanowski-Tod metric admits a Killing vector that commutes with the principal one. The proof proceeds by recasting the metric into another Przanowski-Tod form. This formalism enables us to show that the self-dual Reissner-Nordström-Taub-NUT-AdS metric possesses a second Killing spinor, which has been missed over many years. We also address the supersymmetry when the Przanowski-Tod space is conformal to each of the self-dual ambi-toric Kähler metrics. It turns out that three classes of solutions are all reduced to the self-dual Carter family, by virtue of the nondegenerate Killing-Yano tensor.

  5. Aspects of type IIB theory on asymptotically locally Euclidean spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Clifford V.; Myers, Robert C.

    1997-05-01

    D-brane technology and strong/weak coupling duality supplement traditional orbifold techniques by making certain background geometries more accessible. In this spirit, we consider some of the geometric properties of the type IIB theory on R6×M, where M is an ``asymptotically locally Euclidean'' (ALE) gravitational instanton. Given the self-duality of the theory, we can extract the geometry (both singular and resolved) seen by the weakly coupled IIB string by studying the physics of a D1-brane probe. The construction is both amusing and instructive, as the physics of the probe completely captures the mathematics of the construction of ALE instantons via ``hyper-Kähler quotients,'' as presented by Kronheimer. This relation has been noted by Douglas and Moore for the A series. We extend the explicit construction to the case of the D and E series-uncovering a quite beautiful structure-and highlight how all of the elements of the mathematical construction find their counterparts in the physics of the type IIB D-string. We discuss the explicit ALE metrics which may be obtained using these techniques, and comment on the role duality plays in relating gauged linear σ models to conformal field theories.

  6. Surface ion trap structures with excellent optical access for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunz, P.; Blain, M.; Benito, F.; Chou, C.; Clark, C.; Descour, M.; Ellis, R.; Haltli, R.; Heller, E.; Kemme, S.; Sterk, J.; Tabakov, B.; Tigges, C.; Stick, D.

    2013-05-01

    Microfabricated surface electrode ion traps are necessary for the advancement of trapped ion quantum information processing as it offers a scalable way for realizing complex trap structures capable of storing and controlling many ions. The most promising way of performing two-qubit quantum gates in a chain of trapped ions is to focus laser beams on individual ions of the chain to drive gates. However, in surface ion traps the close proximity of the ions to the surface and the size of the chips usually cannot accommodate the tightly focused laser beams necessary to address individual ions parallel to the chip surface. Here we present a surface electrode ion trap monolithically fabricated in standard silicon technology that implements a linear quadrupole trap on a bowtie shaped chip with a narrow section that is only 1.2 mm wide. Laser beams parallel to the surface can be focused down to a waist of 4 μm with enough separation from the trap chip to prevent light scattering. The trap structure incorporates two Y-junctions for reordering ions and is optimized for quantum information processing. This work was supported by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Integer, fractional, and anomalous quantum Hall effects explained with Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept.

    PubMed

    Hao, Tian

    2017-02-22

    The Hall effects, especially the integer, fractional and anomalous quantum Hall effects, have been addressed using Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept. The basic assumptions are that the conduction process is a common rate controlled "reaction" process that can be described with Eyring's absolute rate process theory; the mobility of electrons should be dependent on the free volume available for conduction electrons. The obtained Hall conductivity is clearly quantized as with prefactors related to both the magnetic flux quantum number and the magnetic quantum number via the azimuthal quantum number, with and without an externally applied magnetic field. This article focuses on two dimensional (2D) systems, but the approaches developed in this article can be extended to 3D systems.

  8. Entangled coherent states versus entangled photon pairs for practical quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kimin; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2010-12-15

    We compare effects of decoherence and detection inefficiency on entangled coherent states (ECSs) and entangled photon pairs (EPPs), both of which are known to be particularly useful for quantum-information processing (QIP). When decoherence effects caused by photon losses are heavy, the ECSs outperform the EPPs as quantum channels for teleportation both in fidelities and in success probabilities. On the other hand, when inefficient detectors are used, the teleportation scheme using the ECSs suffers undetected errors that result in the degradation of fidelity, while this is not the case for the teleportation scheme using the EPPs. Our study reveals the merits and demerits of the two types of entangled states in realizing practical QIP under realistic conditions.

  9. Distribution of chirality in the quantum walk: Markov process and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Romanelli, Alejandro

    2010-06-15

    The asymptotic behavior of the quantum walk on the line is investigated, focusing on the probability distribution of chirality independently of position. It is shown analytically that this distribution has a longtime limit that is stationary and depends on the initial conditions. This result is unexpected in the context of the unitary evolution of the quantum walk as it is usually linked to a Markovian process. The asymptotic value of the entanglement between the coin and the position is determined by the chirality distribution. For given asymptotic values of both the entanglement and the chirality distribution, it is possible to find the corresponding initial conditions within a particular class of spatially extended Gaussian distributions.

  10. Advanced inductively coupled plasma etching processes for fabrication of resonator-quantum well infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J.; Choi, K. K.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Waczynski, A.; Olver, K.

    2015-05-01

    Resonator-quantum well infrared photodetectors (R-QWIPs) are the next generation of QWIP detectors that use resonances to increase the quantum efficiency (QE). To achieve the expected performance, the detector geometry must be produced in precise specification. In particular, the height of the diffractive elements (DE) and the thickness of the active resonator must be uniformly and accurately realized to within 0.05 μm accuracy and the substrates of the detectors have to be removed totally. To achieve these specifications, two optimized inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching processes are developed. Using these etching techniques, we have fabricated a number of R-QWIP test detectors and FPAs with the required dimensions and completely removed the substrates of the test detectors and FPAs. Their QE spectra were tested to be in close agreement with the theoretical predictions. The operability and spectral non-uniformity of the FPA is about 99.57% and 3% respectively.

  11. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  12. A microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelin, Signe; Chiaverini, John; Reichle, Rainer; Bollinger, John; Leibfried, Didi; Britton, Joe; Wesenberg, Janus; Blakestad, Brad; Epstein, Ryan; Hume, David; Jost, John; Langer, Chris; Ozeri, Roee; Shiga, Nobu; Wineland, David

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrate confinement of individual atomic ions in a radio-frequency Paul trap with a novel geometry where the electrodes are located in a single plane and the ions confined above this plane. This device is realized with a relatively simple fabrication procedure and has important implications for quantum state manipulation and quantum information processing using large numbers of ions. We confine laser-cooled Mg-24 ions approximately 40 micrometer above planar gold electrodes. We measure the ions' motional frequencies and compare them to simulations. From measurements of the escape time of ions from the trap, we also determine a heating rate of approximately five motional quanta per millisecond for a trap frequency of 5.3 MHz.

  13. Quantum spaces are modular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2016-11-01

    At present, our notion of space is a classical concept. Taking the point of view that quantum theory is more fundamental than classical physics, and that space should be given a purely quantum definition, we revisit the notion of Euclidean space from the point of view of quantum mechanics. Since space appears in physics in the form of labels on relativistic fields or Schrödinger wave functionals, we propose to define Euclidean quantum space as a choice of polarization for the Heisenberg algebra of quantum theory. We show, following Mackey, that generically, such polarizations contain a fundamental length scale and that contrary to what is implied by the Schrödinger polarization, they possess topologically distinct spectra. These are the modular spaces. We show that they naturally come equipped with additional geometrical structures usually encountered in the context of string theory or generalized geometry. Moreover, we show how modular space reconciles the presence of a fundamental scale with translation and rotation invariance. We also discuss how the usual classical notion of space comes out as a form of thermodynamical limit of modular space while the Schrödinger space is a singular limit.

  14. Entanglement and the process of measuring the position of a quantum particle

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, V.M.; Curilef, S.; Plastino, A.R.

    2015-03-15

    We explore the entanglement-related features exhibited by the dynamics of a composite quantum system consisting of a particle and an apparatus (here referred to as the “pointer”) that measures the position of the particle. We consider measurements of finite duration, and also the limit case of instantaneous measurements. We investigate the time evolution of the quantum entanglement between the particle and the pointer, with special emphasis on the final entanglement associated with the limit case of an impulsive interaction. We consider entanglement indicators based on the expectation values of an appropriate family of observables, and also an entanglement measure computed on particular exact analytical solutions of the particle–pointer Schrödinger equation. The general behavior exhibited by the entanglement indicators is consistent with that shown by the entanglement measure evaluated on particular analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation. In the limit of instantaneous measurements the system’s entanglement dynamics corresponds to that of an ideal quantum measurement process. On the contrary, we show that the entanglement evolution corresponding to measurements of finite duration departs in important ways from the behavior associated with ideal measurements. In particular, highly localized initial states of the particle lead to highly entangled final states of the particle–pointer system. This indicates that the above mentioned initial states, in spite of having an arbitrarily small position uncertainty, are not left unchanged by a finite-duration position measurement process. - Highlights: • We explore entanglement features of a quantum position measurement. • We consider instantaneous and finite-duration measurements. • We evaluate the entanglement of exact time-dependent particle–pointer states.

  15. Euclidean and fractal geometry of microvascular networks in normal and neoplastic pituitary tissue.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Grizzi, Fabio; Gaetani, Paolo; Goglia, Umberto; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Mortini, Pietro; Rodriguez y Baena, Riccardo

    2008-07-01

    In geometrical terms, tumour vascularity is an exemplary anatomical system that irregularly fills a three-dimensional Euclidean space. This physical characteristic and the highly variable shapes of the vessels lead to considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the delivery of oxygen, nutrients and drugs, and the removal of metabolites. Although these biological characteristics are well known, quantitative analyses of newly formed vessels in two-dimensional histological sections still fail to view their architecture as a non-Euclidean geometrical entity, thus leading to errors in visual interpretation and discordant results from different laboratories concerning the same tumour. We here review the literature concerning microvessel density estimates (a Euclidean-based approach quantifying vascularity in normal and neoplastic pituitary tissues) and compare the results. We also discuss the limitations of Euclidean quantitative analyses of vascularity and the helpfulness of a fractal geometry-based approach as a better means of quantifying normal and neoplastic pituitary microvasculature.

  16. Ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulation of electron transfer process: fractional electron approach.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiancheng; Hu, Hao; Hu, Xiangqian; Cohen, Aron J; Yang, Weitao

    2008-03-28

    Electron transfer (ET) reactions are one of the most important processes in chemistry and biology. Because of the quantum nature of the processes and the complicated roles of the solvent, theoretical study of ET processes is challenging. To simulate ET processes at the electronic level, we have developed an efficient density functional theory (DFT) quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical (MM) approach that uses the fractional number of electrons as the order parameter to calculate the redox free energy of ET reactions in solution. We applied this method to study the ET reactions of the aqueous metal complexes Fe(H(2)O)(6)(2+/3+) and Ru(H(2)O)(6)(2+/3+). The calculated oxidation potentials, 5.82 eV for Fe(II/III) and 5.14 eV for Ru(II/III), agree well with the experimental data, 5.50 and 4.96 eV, for iron and ruthenium, respectively. Furthermore, we have constructed the diabatic free energy surfaces from histogram analysis based on the molecular dynamics trajectories. The resulting reorganization energy and the diabatic activation energy also show good agreement with experimental data. Our calculations show that using the fractional number of electrons (FNE) as the order parameter in the thermodynamic integration process leads to efficient sampling and validate the ab initio QM/MM approach in the calculation of redox free energies.

  17. Packing hyperspheres in high-dimensional Euclidean spaces.

    PubMed

    Skoge, Monica; Donev, Aleksandar; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore

    2006-10-01

    We present a study of disordered jammed hard-sphere packings in four-, five-, and six-dimensional Euclidean spaces. Using a collision-driven packing generation algorithm, we obtain the first estimates for the packing fractions of the maximally random jammed (MRJ) states for space dimensions d=4, 5, and 6 to be phi(MRJ) approximately 0.46, 0.31, and 0.20, respectively. To a good approximation, the MRJ density obeys the scaling form phi(MRJ)=c1/2(d)+(c2d)/2d, where c1=-2.72 and c2=2.56, which appears to be consistent with the high-dimensional asymptotic limit, albeit with different coefficients. Calculations of the pair correlation function g2(r) and structure factor S(k) for these states show that short-range ordering appreciably decreases with increasing dimension, consistent with a recently proposed "decorrelation principle," which, among other things, states that unconstrained correlations diminish as the dimension increases and vanish entirely in the limit d-->infinity. As in three dimensions (where phi(MRJ) approximately 0.64), the packings show no signs of crystallization, are isostatic, and have a power-law divergence in g2(r) at contact with power-law exponent approximately 0.4. Across dimensions, the cumulative number of neighbors equals the kissing number of the conjectured densest packing close to where g2(r) has its first minimum. Additionally, we obtain estimates for the freezing and melting packing fractions for the equilibrium hard-sphere fluid-solid transition, phi(F) approximately 0.32 and phi(M) approximately 0.39, respectively, for d=4, and phi(F) approximately 0.20 and phi(M) approximately 0.25, respectively, for d=5. Although our results indicate the stable phase at high density is a crystalline solid, nucleation appears to be strongly suppressed with increasing dimension.

  18. Euclidean sections of protein conformation space and their implications in dimensionality reduction.

    PubMed

    Duan, Mojie; Li, Minghai; Han, Li; Huo, Shuanghong

    2014-10-01

    Dimensionality reduction is widely used in searching for the intrinsic reaction coordinates for protein conformational changes. We find the dimensionality-reduction methods using the pairwise root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) as the local distance metric face a challenge. We use Isomap as an example to illustrate the problem. We believe that there is an implied assumption for the dimensionality-reduction approaches that aim to preserve the geometric relations between the objects: both the original space and the reduced space have the same kind of geometry, such as Euclidean geometry vs. Euclidean geometry or spherical geometry vs. spherical geometry. When the protein free energy landscape is mapped onto a 2D plane or 3D space, the reduced space is Euclidean, thus the original space should also be Euclidean. For a protein with N atoms, its conformation space is a subset of the 3N-dimensional Euclidean space R(3N). We formally define the protein conformation space as the quotient space of R(3N) by the equivalence relation of rigid motions. Whether the quotient space is Euclidean or not depends on how it is parameterized. When the pairwise RMSD is employed as the local distance metric, implicit representations are used for the protein conformation space, leading to no direct correspondence to a Euclidean set. We have demonstrated that an explicit Euclidean-based representation of protein conformation space and the local distance metric associated to it improve the quality of dimensionality reduction in the tetra-peptide and β-hairpin systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Euclidean wormhole solutions of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in diverse dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Hirenzaki, S. ); Shiraishi, K. )

    1990-09-15

    We solve the Euclidean Einstein equations with non-Abelian gauge fields of sufficiently large symmetry in various dimensions. In higher-dimensional spaces, we find the solutions which are similar to so-called scalar wormholes. In four-dimensional space-time, we find singular wormhole solutions with infinite Euclidean action. Wormhole solutions in the three-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a Chern-Simons term are also constructed.

  20. Quantum photonic base states: concept and molecular modeling. Managing chemical process descriptions beyond semi-classic schemes.

    PubMed

    Tapia, O

    2014-02-01

    Four fundamental aspects bearing on molecular simulations are considered: (1) A different perception of quantum states; mappings from abstract Hilbert space down to laboratory levels; (2) Introduction of photon number Fock space; photonic bases tie together matter-to-photon quantum states: coherent photon-matter states. (3) Chemical tenets framed via photonic-base-states incorporating and defining multi-partite basis sets. (4) Entanglement provides a quantum-physical view connectable to a chemical bond concept. Amplitude modulations of physical quantum states realize (express) chemical change; Feshbach resonance states as a royal path to handle an equivalent to bond breaking/forming by coupling continuum-to-discrete base states. We observe that, for driving chemical processes within photonic framework, microwaves enter not only as heating sources but can act naturally in a quantum physical manner as causes for catalytic activity.

  1. Initial conditions and quantum cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, James B.

    1987-01-01

    A theory of initial conditions is necessary for a complete explanation of the presently observed large scale structural features of the universe, and a quantum theory of cosmology is probably needed for its formulation. The kinematics of quantum cosmology are reviewed, and some candidates for a law of initial conditions are discussed. The proposal that the quantum state of a closed universe is the natural analog of the ground state for closed cosmologies and is specified by a Euclidean sum over histories is sketched. When implemented in simple models, this proposal is consistent with the most important large-scale observations.

  2. Initial conditions and quantum cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, James B.

    1987-01-01

    A theory of initial conditions is necessary for a complete explanation of the presently observed large scale structural features of the universe, and a quantum theory of cosmology is probably needed for its formulation. The kinematics of quantum cosmology are reviewed, and some candidates for a law of initial conditions are discussed. The proposal that the quantum state of a closed universe is the natural analog of the ground state for closed cosmologies and is specified by a Euclidean sum over histories is sketched. When implemented in simple models, this proposal is consistent with the most important large-scale observations.

  3. Solution-Processed Gas Sensors Employing SnO2 Quantum Dot/MWCNT Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Wenkai; Yu, Haoxiong; Gao, Liang; Song, Zhilong; Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Wang, Yang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2016-01-13

    Solution-processed SnO2 colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged as an important new class of gas-sensing materials due to their potential for low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. Here we employed the design strategy based on the synergetic effect from highly sensitive SnO2 CQDs and excellent conductive properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to overcome the transport barrier in CQD gas sensors. The attachment and coverage of SnO2 CQDs on the MWCNT surfaces were achieved by simply mixing the presynthesized SnO2 CQDs and MWCNTs at room temperature. Compared to the pristine SnO2 CQDs, the sensor based on SnO2 quantum dot/MWCNT nanocomposites exhibited a higher response upon exposure to H2S, and the response toward 50 ppm of H2S at 70 °C was 108 with the response and recovery time being 23 and 44 s. Because of the favorable energy band alignment, the MWCNTs can serve as the acceptor of the electrons that are injected from H2S into SnO2 quantum dots in addition to the charge transport highway to direct the electron flow to the electrode, thereby enhancing the sensor response. Our research results open an easy pathway for developing highly sensitive and low-cost gas sensors.

  4. Quantum information processing using quasiclassical electromagnetic interactions between qubits and electrical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerman, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Electrical resonators are widely used in quantum information processing with any qubits that are manipulated via electromagnetic interactions. In most cases they are engineered to interact with qubits via real or virtual exchange of (typically microwave) photons, and the resonator must therefore have both a high quality factor and strong quantum fluctuations, corresponding to the strong-coupling limit of cavity QED. Although great strides in the control of quantum information have been made using this so-called ``circuit QED'' architecture, it also comes with some important disadvantages. In this talk, we discuss a new paradigm for coupling qubits electromagnetically via resonators, in which the qubits do not exchange photons with the resonator, but instead exert quasi-classical, effective ``forces'' on it. We show how this type of interaction is similar to that induced between the internal state of a trapped atomic ion and its center-of-mass motion by the photon recoil momentum, and that the resulting entangling operations are insensitive both to the state of the resonator and to its quality factor. The methods we describe are applicable to a variety of qubit-resonator systems, including superconducting and semiconducting solid-state qubits, and trapped molecular ions. This work is sponsored by the ASDR&E under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, recommendations and conclusions are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

  5. Experimental implementation of quantum information processing by Zeeman-perturbed nuclear quadrupole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teles, João; Rivera-Ascona, Christian; Polli, Roberson S.; Oliveira-Silva, Rodrigo; Vidoto, Edson L. G.; Andreeta, José P.; Bonagamba, Tito J.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used in the context of quantum information processing (QIP). However, despite the great similarities between NMR and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), no experimental implementation for QIP using NQR has been reported. We describe the implementation of basic quantum gates and their applications on the creation and manipulation of pseudopure states using linearly polarized radiofrequency pulses under static magnetic field perturbation. The NQR quantum operations were implemented using a single-crystal sample of and observing nuclei, which possess spin 3/2 and give rise to a two-qubit system. The results are very promising and indicate that NQR can be successfully used for performing fundamental experiments in QIP. One advantage of NQR in comparison with NMR is that the main interaction is internal to the sample, which makes the system more compact, lowering its cost and making it easier to be miniaturized to solid-state devices. Furthermore, as an example, the study of squeezed spin states could receive relevant contributions from NQR.

  6. First observation of quantum interference in the process ϕ→KK→ππππ: A test of quantum mechanics and CPT symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KLOE Collaboration; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Beltrame, P.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocchetta, S.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Bowring, D.; Branchini, P.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ceradini, F.; Chi, S.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; de Lucia, E.; de Santis, A.; de Simone, P.; de Zorzi, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; di Domenico, A.; di Donato, C.; di Falco, S.; di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fiore, S.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D.; Martini, M.; Massarotti, P.; Mei, W.; Meola, S.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Müller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Xu, G.

    2006-11-01

    We present the first observation of quantum interference in the process ϕ→KK→ππππ, using the KLOE detector at the Frascati ee collider DAΦNE. From about 5×10 neutral kaon pairs both decaying to ππ pairs we obtain the distribution of Δt, the difference between the two kaon decay times, which allows testing the validity of quantum mechanics and CPT invariance: no violation of either is observed. New or improved limits on coherence loss and CPT violation are presented.

  7. Nonequilibrium charge susceptibility and dynamical conductance: identification of scattering processes in quantum transport.

    PubMed

    Ness, H; Dash, L K

    2012-03-23

    We calculate the nonequilibrium charge transport properties of nanoscale junctions in the steady state and extend the concept of charge susceptibility to the nonequilibrium conditions. We show that the nonequilibrium charge susceptibility is related to the nonlinear dynamical conductance. In spectroscopic terms, both contain the same features versus applied bias when charge fluctuation occurs in the corresponding electronic resonances. However, we show that, while the conductance exhibits features at biases corresponding to inelastic scattering with no charge fluctuations, the nonequilibrium charge susceptibility does not. We suggest that measuring both the nonequilibrium conductance and charge susceptibility in the same experiment will permit us to differentiate between different scattering processes in quantum transport.

  8. Solution of relativistic quantum optics problems using clusters of graphical processing units

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.F. Hafizi, B.; Helle, M.H.

    2014-06-15

    Numerical solution of relativistic quantum optics problems requires high performance computing due to the rapid oscillations in a relativistic wavefunction. Clusters of graphical processing units are used to accelerate the computation of a time dependent relativistic wavefunction in an arbitrary external potential. The stationary states in a Coulomb potential and uniform magnetic field are determined analytically and numerically, so that they can used as initial conditions in fully time dependent calculations. Relativistic energy levels in extreme magnetic fields are recovered as a means of validation. The relativistic ionization rate is computed for an ion illuminated by a laser field near the usual barrier suppression threshold, and the ionizing wavefunction is displayed.

  9. The free energy in a class of quantum spin systems and interchange processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnberg, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    We study a class of quantum spin systems in the mean-field setting of the complete graph. For spin S = 1/2, the model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet, and for general spin S ∈ 1/2 N, it has a probabilistic representation as a cycle-weighted interchange process. We determine the free energy and the critical temperature (recovering results by Tóth and by Penrose when S = 1/2). The critical temperature is shown to coincide (as a function of S) with that of the q = 2S + 1 state classical Potts model, and the phase transition is discontinuous when S ≥ 1.

  10. Microfabricated Surface-Electrode Ion Trap for Scalable Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelin, S.; Chiaverini, J.; Reichle, R.; Bollinger, J. J.; Leibfried, D.; Britton, J.; Wesenberg, J. H.; Blakestad, R. B.; Epstein, R. J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Shiga, N.; Wineland, D. J.

    2006-06-01

    Individual laser-cooled Mg+24 ions are confined in a linear Paul trap with a novel geometry where gold electrodes are located in a single plane and the ions are trapped 40μm above this plane. The relatively simple trap design and fabrication procedure are important for large-scale quantum information processing (QIP) using ions. Measured ion motional frequencies are compared to simulations. Measurements of ion recooling after cooling is temporarily suspended yield a heating rate of approximately 5 motional quanta per millisecond for a trap frequency of 2.83 MHz, sufficiently low to be useful for QIP.

  11. Failure mode and effects analysis using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted Euclidean distance operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Liu, Long; Li, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has shown its effectiveness in examining potential failures in products, process, designs or services and has been extensively used for safety and reliability analysis in a wide range of industries. However, its approach to prioritise failure modes through a crisp risk priority number (RPN) has been criticised as having several shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to develop an efficient and comprehensive risk assessment methodology using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted Euclidean distance (IFHWED) operator to overcome the limitations and improve the effectiveness of the traditional FMEA. The diversified and uncertain assessments given by FMEA team members are treated as linguistic terms expressed in intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs). Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA) operator is used to aggregate the FMEA team members' individual assessments into a group assessment. IFHWED operator is applied thereafter to the prioritisation and selection of failure modes. Particularly, both subjective and objective weights of risk factors are considered during the risk evaluation process. A numerical example for risk assessment is given to illustrate the proposed method finally.

  12. Acquisition of Information is achieved by the Measurement Process in Classical and Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchi, Paolo; Panella, Orlando

    2007-12-01

    No consensus seems to exist as to what constitutes a measurement which is still considered somewhat mysterious in many respects in quantum mechanics. At successive stages mathematical theory of measure, metrology and measurement theory tried to systematize this field but significant questions remain open about the nature of measurement, about the characterization of the observer, about the reliability of measurement processes etc. The present paper attempts to talk about these questions through the information science. We start from the idea, rather common and intuitive, that the measurement process basically acquires information. Next we expand this idea through four formal definitions and infer some corollaries regarding the measurement process from those definitions. Relativity emerges as the basic property of measurement from the present logical framework and this rather surprising result collides with the feeling of physicists who take measurement as a myth. In the closing this paper shows how the measurement relativity wholly consists with some effects calculated in QM and in Einstein's theory.

  13. Efficient vacuum-free-processed quantum dot light-emitting diodes with printable liquid metal cathodes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huiren; Jiang, Yibin; Chen, Shuming

    2016-10-20

    Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) are recognized as promising candidates for next generation displays. QLEDs can be fabricated by low-cost solution processing except for the metal electrodes, which, in general, are deposited by costly vacuum evaporation. To be fully compatible with the low-cost solution process, we herein demonstrate vacuum-free and solvent-free fabrication of electrodes using a printable liquid metal. With eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) based liquid metal cathodes, vacuum-free-processed QLEDs are demonstrated with superior external quantum efficiencies of 11.51%, 12.85% and 5.03% for red, green and blue devices, respectively, which are about 2-, 1.5- and 1.1-fold higher than those of the devices with thermally evaporated Al cathodes. The improved performance is attributable to the reduction of electron injection by the native oxide of EGaIn, which serves as an electron-blocking layer for the devices and thus improves the balance of carrier injection. Also, the T50 half-lifetime of the vacuum-free-processed QLEDs is about 2-fold longer than that of the devices with Al cathodes. Our results demonstrate that EGaIn-based solvent-free liquid metals are promising printable electrodes for realizing efficient, low-cost and vacuum-free-processed QLEDs. The elimination of vacuum and high-temperature processes significantly reduces the production cost and paves the way for industrial roll-to-roll manufacturing of large area displays.

  14. Process-Dependent Properties in Colloidally Synthesized “Giant” Core/Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Dennis, Allison M.; Mangum, Benjamin D.; Park, Young-Shin; Kundu, Janardan; Htoon, Han

    2012-06-07

    Due to their characteristic bright and stable photoluminescence, semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) have attracted much interest as efficient light emitters for applications from single-particle tracking to solid-state lighting. Despite their numerous enabling traits, however, NQD optical properties are frustratingly sensitive to their chemical environment, exhibit fluorescence intermittency ('blinking'), and are susceptible to Auger recombination, an efficient nonradiative decay process. Previously, we showed for the first time that colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) comprising ultrathick shells (number of shell monolayers, n, > 10) grown by protracted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) leads to remarkable photostability and significantly suppressed blinking behavior as a function of increasing shell thickness. We have also shown that these so-called 'giant' NQDs (g-NQDs) afford nearly complete suppression of non-radiative Auger recombination, revealed in our studies as long biexciton lifetimes and efficient multiexciton emission. The unique behavior of this core/shell system prompted us to assess correlations between specific physicochemical properties - beyond shell thickness - and functionality. Here, we demonstrate the ability of particle shape/faceting, crystalline phase, and core size to determine ensemble and single-particle optical properties (quantum yield/brightness, blinking, radiative lifetimes). Significantly, we show how reaction process parameters (surface-stabilizing ligands, ligand:NQD ratio, choice of 'inert' solvent, and modifications to the SILAR method itself) can be tuned to modify these function-dictating NQD physical properties, ultimately leading to an optimized synthetic approach that results in the complete suppression of blinking. We find that the resulting 'guiding principles' can be applied to other NQD compositions, allowing us to achieve non-blinking behavior in the near

  15. Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gigov, Nikolay; Higgins, Brendon L.; Yan, Zhizhong; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Khandani, Amir K.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating a secure key while experimentally emulating the varying losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of a secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of a secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21 570 bits of a secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.

  16. Convexity and the Euclidean Metric of Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeropoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-02-01

    We address the question about the reasons why the "Wick-rotated", positive-definite, space-time metric obeys the Pythagorean theorem. An answer is proposed based on the convexity and smoothness properties of the functional spaces purporting to provide the kinematic framework of approaches to quantum gravity. We employ moduli of convexity and smoothness which are eventually extremized by Hilbert spaces. We point out the potential physical significance that functional analytical dualities play in this framework. Following the spirit of the variational principles employed in classical and quantum Physics, such Hilbert spaces dominate in a generalized functional integral approach. The metric of space-time is induced by the inner product of such Hilbert spaces.

  17. Quantum cosmology of a conformal multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Pérez, Salvador J.

    2017-09-01

    This paper studies the cosmology of a homogeneous and isotropic spacetime endorsed with a conformally coupled massless scalar field. We find six different solutions of the Friedmann equation that represent six different types of universes, and all of them are periodically distributed along the complex time axis. From a classical point of view, they are then isolated, separated by Euclidean regions that represent quantum mechanical barriers. Quantum mechanically, however, there is a nonzero probability for the state of the universes to tunnel out through a Euclidean instanton and suffer a sudden transition to another state of the spacetime. We compute the probability of transition for this and other nonlocal processes like the creation of universes in entangled pairs and, generally speaking, in multipartite entangled states. We obtain the quantum state of a single universe within the formalism of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and give the semiclassical state of the universes that describes the quantum mechanics of a scalar field propagating in a de Sitter background spacetime. We show that the superposition principle of the quantum mechanics of matter fields alone is an emergent feature of the semiclassical description of the universe that is not valid, for instance, in the spacetime foam. We use the third quantization formalism to describe the creation of an entangled pair of universes with opposite signs of the momentum conjugated to the scale factor. Each universe of the entangled pair represents an expanding spacetime in terms of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) time experienced by internal observers in their particle physics experiments. We compute the effective value of the Friedmann equation of the background spacetime of the two entangled universes, and thus, the effect that the entanglement would have in their expansion rates. We analyze as well the effects of the interuniversal entanglement in the properties of the scalar fields that propagate in each

  18. Versatile microwave-driven trapped ion spin system for quantum information processing.

    PubMed

    Piltz, Christian; Sriarunothai, Theeraphot; Ivanov, Svetoslav S; Wölk, Sabine; Wunderlich, Christof

    2016-07-01

    Using trapped atomic ions, we demonstrate a tailored and versatile effective spin system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation. By simply applying microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system and, thus, can serve as a quantum memory, while simultaneously, other coupled spins perform conditional quantum dynamics. Also, microwave pulses can change the sign of spin-spin couplings, as well as their effective strength, even during the course of a quantum algorithm. Taking advantage of the simultaneous long-range coupling between three spins, a coherent quantum Fourier transform-an essential building block for many quantum algorithms-is efficiently realized. This approach, which is based on microwave-driven trapped ions and is complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcoming technical and physical challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and a quantum computer.

  19. Versatile microwave-driven trapped ion spin system for quantum information processing

    PubMed Central

    Piltz, Christian; Sriarunothai, Theeraphot; Ivanov, Svetoslav S.; Wölk, Sabine; Wunderlich, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Using trapped atomic ions, we demonstrate a tailored and versatile effective spin system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation. By simply applying microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system and, thus, can serve as a quantum memory, while simultaneously, other coupled spins perform conditional quantum dynamics. Also, microwave pulses can change the sign of spin-spin couplings, as well as their effective strength, even during the course of a quantum algorithm. Taking advantage of the simultaneous long-range coupling between three spins, a coherent quantum Fourier transform—an essential building block for many quantum algorithms—is efficiently realized. This approach, which is based on microwave-driven trapped ions and is complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcoming technical and physical challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and a quantum computer. PMID:27419233

  20. Efficient Red Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Solution-Processed Multiple Quantum Wells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuting; Yi, Chang; Wang, Nana; Sun, Yan; Zou, Wei; Wei, Yingqiang; Cao, Yu; Miao, Yanfeng; Li, Renzhi; Yin, Yao; Zhao, Ni; Wang, Jianpu; Huang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports a facile and scalable process to achieve high performance red perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by introducing inorganic Cs into multiple quantum well (MQW) perovskites. The MQW structure facilitates the formation of cubic CsPbI3 perovskites at low temperature, enabling the Cs-based QWs to provide pure and stable red electroluminescence. The versatile synthesis of MQW perovskites provides freedom to control the crystallinity and morphology of the emission layer. It is demonstrated that the inclusion of chloride can further improve the crystallization and consequently the optical properties of the Cs-based MQW perovskites, inducing a low turn-on voltage of 2.0 V, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 3.7%, a luminance of ≈440 cd m(-2) at 4.0 V. These results suggest that the Cs-based MQW LED is among the best performing red perovskite LEDs. Moreover, the LED device demonstrates a record lifetime of over 5 h under a constant current density of 10 mA cm(-2) . This work suggests that the MQW perovskites is a promising platform for achieving high performance visible-range electroluminescence emission through high-throughput processing methods, which is attractive for low-cost lighting and display applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Steven A; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Zhang, Shiguo; Cyr, Paul W; Klem, Ethan J D; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H

    2005-02-01

    In contrast to traditional semiconductors, conjugated polymers provide ease of processing, low cost, physical flexibility and large area coverage. These active optoelectronic materials produce and harvest light efficiently in the visible spectrum. The same functions are required in the infrared for telecommunications (1,300-1,600 nm), thermal imaging (1,500 nm and beyond), biological imaging (transparent tissue windows at 800 nm and 1,100 nm), thermal photovoltaics (>1,900 nm), and solar cells (800-2,000 nm). Photoconductive polymer devices have yet to demonstrate sensitivity beyond approximately 800 nm (refs 2,3). Sensitizing conjugated polymers with infrared-active nanocrystal quantum dots provides a spectrally tunable means of accessing the infrared while maintaining the advantageous properties of polymers. Here we use such a nanocomposite approach in which PbS nanocrystals tuned by the quantum size effect sensitize the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)] (MEH-PPV) into the infrared. We achieve, in a solution-processed device and with sensitivity far beyond 800 nm, harvesting of infrared-photogenerated carriers and the demonstration of an infrared photovoltaic effect. We also make use of the wavelength tunability afforded by the nanocrystals to show photocurrent spectra tailored to three different regions of the infrared spectrum.

  2. The Measurement Process in Local Quantum Physics and the EPR Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doplicher, Sergio

    2017-07-01

    We describe in a qualitative way a possible picture of the Measurement Process in Quantum Mechanics, which takes into account the finite and non zero time duration T of the interaction between the observed system and the microscopic part of the measurement apparatus; the finite space size R of that apparatus; and the fact that the macroscopic part of the measurement apparatus, having the role of amplifying the effect of that interaction to a macroscopic scale, is composed by a very large but finite number N of particles. The Schrödinger evolution of the composed system can be expected to deform into the conventional picture of the measurement, as an instantaneous action turning a pure state into a mixture, only in the limit N → ∞, T → 0, R → ∞ . Our main point is to discuss this picture for the measurement of local observables in Quantum Field Theory, where the dynamics of the theory and the measurement itself are described by the same time evolution complying with the Principle of Locality. We comment on the Einstein Podolski Rosen thought experiment, reformulated here only in terms of local observables (rather than global ones, as one particle or polarization observables).The local picture of the measurement process helps to make it clear that there is no conflict with the Principle of Locality.

  3. Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nana; Cheng, Lu; Ge, Rui; Zhang, Shuting; Miao, Yanfeng; Zou, Wei; Yi, Chang; Sun, Yan; Cao, Yu; Yang, Rong; Wei, Yingqiang; Guo, Qiang; Ke, You; Yu, Maotao; Jin, Yizheng; Liu, Yang; Ding, Qingqing; di, Dawei; Yang, Le; Xing, Guichuan; Tian, He; Jin, Chuanhong; Gao, Feng; Friend, Richard H.; Wang, Jianpu; Huang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Organometal halide perovskites can be processed from solutions at low temperatures to form crystalline direct-bandgap semiconductors with promising optoelectronic properties. However, the efficiency of their electroluminescence is limited by non-radiative recombination, which is associated with defects and leakage current due to incomplete surface coverage. Here we demonstrate a solution-processed perovskite light-emitting diode (LED) based on self-organized multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with excellent film morphologies. The MQW-based LED exhibits a very high external quantum efficiency of up to 11.7%, good stability and exceptional high-power performance with an energy conversion efficiency of 5.5% at a current density of 100 mA cm-2. This outstanding performance arises because the lower bandgap regions that generate electroluminescence are effectively confined by perovskite MQWs with higher energy gaps, resulting in very efficient radiative decay. Surprisingly, there is no evidence that the large interfacial areas between different bandgap regions cause luminescence quenching.

  4. Solution-processed colloidal quantum dot photodiodes for low-cost SWIR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klem, Ethan J. D.; Lewis, Jay; Gregory, Christopher; Cunningham, Garry; Temple, Dorota

    2012-06-01

    While InGaAs-based focal plane arrays (FPAs) provide excellent detectivity and low noise for SWIR imaging applications, wider scale adoption of systems capable of working in this spectral range is limited by high costs, limited spectral response, and costly integration with Si ROIC devices. RTI has demonstrated a novel photodiode technology based on IR-absorbing solution-processed PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQD) that can overcome these limitations of InGaAs FPAs. We have fabricated devices with quantum efficiencies exceeding 50%, and detectivities that are competitive with that of InGaAs. Dark currents of ~2 nA/cm2 were measured at temperatures compatible with solid state coolers. Additionally, by processing these devices entirely at room temperature we find them to be compatible with monolithic integration onto readout ICs, thereby removing any limitation on device size. We will show early efforts towards demonstrating a direct integration of this sensor technology onto a Si ROIC IC and describe a path towards fabricating sensors sensitive from the visible to 2200 nm at a cost comparable to that of CMOS based devices. This combination of high performance, dramatic cost reduction, and multispectral sensitivity is ideally suited to expand the use of SWIR imaging in current applications, as well as to address applications which require a multispectral sensitivity not met by existing technologies.

  5. Reprint of "Two-stage sparse coding of region covariance via Log-Euclidean kernels to detect saliency".

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Cai; Zhang, Ping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel bottom-up saliency detection algorithm from the perspective of covariance matrices on a Riemannian manifold. Each superpixel is described by a region covariance matrix on Riemannian Manifolds. We carry out a two-stage sparse coding scheme via Log-Euclidean kernels to extract salient objects efficiently. In the first stage, given background dictionary on image borders, sparse coding of each region covariance via Log-Euclidean kernels is performed. The reconstruction error on the background dictionary is regarded as the initial saliency of each superpixel. In the second stage, an improvement of the initial result is achieved by calculating reconstruction errors of the superpixels on foreground dictionary, which is extracted from the first stage saliency map. The sparse coding in the second stage is similar to the first stage, but is able to effectively highlight the salient objects uniformly from the background. Finally, three post-processing methods-highlight-inhibition function, context-based saliency weighting, and the graph cut-are adopted to further refine the saliency map. Experiments on four public benchmark datasets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision, recall and mean absolute error, and demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental quantum channel simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, He; Liu, Chang; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Yao, Xing-Can; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Sanders, Barry C.; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Quantum simulation is of great importance in quantum information science. Here, we report an experimental quantum channel simulator imbued with an algorithm for imitating the behavior of a general class of quantum systems. The reported quantum channel simulator consists of four single-qubit gates and one controlled-not gate. All types of quantum channels can be decomposed by the algorithm and implemented on this device. We deploy our system to simulate various quantum channels, such as quantum-noise channels and weak quantum measurement. Our results advance experimental quantum channel simulation, which is integral to the goal of quantum information processing.

  7. Loop-quantum-gravity vertex amplitude.

    PubMed

    Engle, Jonathan; Pereira, Roberto; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-10-19

    Spin foam models are hoped to provide the dynamics of loop-quantum gravity. However, the most popular of these, the Barrett-Crane model, does not have the good boundary state space and there are indications that it fails to yield good low-energy n-point functions. We present an alternative dynamics that can be derived as a quantization of a Regge discretization of Euclidean general relativity, where second class constraints are imposed weakly. Its state space matches the SO(3) loop gravity one and it yields an SO(4)-covariant vertex amplitude for Euclidean loop gravity.

  8. Quantum chaos inside black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addazi, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    We show how semiclassical black holes can be reinterpreted as an effective geometry, composed of a large ensemble of horizonless naked singularities (eventually smoothed at the Planck scale). We call these new items frizzy-balls, which can be rigorously defined by Euclidean path integral approach. This leads to interesting implications about information paradoxes. We demonstrate that infalling information will chaotically propagate inside this system before going to the full quantum gravity regime (Planck scale).

  9. a Robust Method for Stereo Visual Odometry Based on Multiple Euclidean Distance Constraint and Ransac Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Q.; Tong, X.; Liu, S.; Lu, X.; Liu, S.; Chen, P.; Jin, Y.; Xie, H.

    2017-07-01

    Visual Odometry (VO) is a critical component for planetary robot navigation and safety. It estimates the ego-motion using stereo images frame by frame. Feature points extraction and matching is one of the key steps for robotic motion estimation which largely influences the precision and robustness. In this work, we choose the Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB) features by considering both accuracy and speed issues. For more robustness in challenging environment e.g., rough terrain or planetary surface, this paper presents a robust outliers elimination method based on Euclidean Distance Constraint (EDC) and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm. In the matching process, a set of ORB feature points are extracted from the current left and right synchronous images and the Brute Force (BF) matcher is used to find the correspondences between the two images for the Space Intersection. Then the EDC and RANSAC algorithms are carried out to eliminate mismatches whose distances are beyond a predefined threshold. Similarly, when the left image of the next time matches the feature points with the current left images, the EDC and RANSAC are iteratively performed. After the above mentioned, there are exceptional remaining mismatched points in some cases, for which the third time RANSAC is applied to eliminate the effects of those outliers in the estimation of the ego-motion parameters (Interior Orientation and Exterior Orientation). The proposed approach has been tested on a real-world vehicle dataset and the result benefits from its high robustness.

  10. Optimization of the Multi-Spectral Euclidean Distance Calculation for FPGA-based Spaceborne Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cristo, Alejandro; Fisher, Kevin; Perez, Rosa M.; Martinez, Pablo; Gualtieri, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the high quantity of operations that spaceborne processing systems must carry out in space, new methodologies and techniques are being presented as good alternatives in order to free the main processor from work and improve the overall performance. These include the development of ancillary dedicated hardware circuits that carry out the more redundant and computationally expensive operations in a faster way, leaving the main processor free to carry out other tasks while waiting for the result. One of these devices is SpaceCube, a FPGA-based system designed by NASA. The opportunity to use FPGA reconfigurable architectures in space allows not only the optimization of the mission operations with hardware-level solutions, but also the ability to create new and improved versions of the circuits, including error corrections, once the satellite is already in orbit. In this work, we propose the optimization of a common operation in remote sensing: the Multi-Spectral Euclidean Distance calculation. For that, two different hardware architectures have been designed and implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA, the same model of FPGAs used by SpaceCube. Previous results have shown that the communications between the embedded processor and the circuit create a bottleneck that affects the overall performance in a negative way. In order to avoid this, advanced methods including memory sharing, Native Port Interface (NPI) connections and Data Burst Transfers have been used.

  11. High efficiency in Mode Selective Frequency Conversion for Optical Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, Nicolas; Sipe, J. E.

    Mode selective Frequency conversion (FC) is an enabling process in many quantum information protocols. Recently, it has been observed that upconversion efficiencies in single-photon, mode-selective FC are limited to around 80%. In this contribution we show that these limits can be understood as time ordering corrections (TOCs) that modify the joint conversion amplitude of the process. Furthermore we show, using a simple scaling argument, that recently proposed cascaded FC protocols that overcome the aforementioned limitations act as ``attenuators'' of the TOCs. This observation allows us to argue that very similar cascaded architectures can be used to attenuate TOCs in photon generation via spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Finally, by using the Magnus expansion, we argue that the TOCs, which are usually considered detrimental for FC efficiency, can also be used to increase the efficiency of conversion in partially mode selective FC.

  12. Harnessing temporal modes for multi-photon quantum information processing based on integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, G.; Ansari, V.; Bartley, T. J.; Brecht, B.; Silberhorn, C.

    2017-06-01

    In the last few decades, there has been much progress on low loss waveguides, very efficient photon-number detectors and nonlinear processes. Engineered sum-frequency conversion is now at a stage where it allows operation on arbitrary temporal broadband modes, thus making the spectral degree of freedom accessible for information coding. Hereby the information is often encoded into the temporal modes of a single photon. Here, we analyse the prospect of using multi-photon states or squeezed states in different temporal modes based on integrated optics devices. We describe an analogy between mode-selective sum-frequency conversion and a network of spatial beam splitters. Furthermore, we analyse the limits on the achievable squeezing in waveguides with current technology and the loss limits in the conversion process. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  13. Harnessing temporal modes for multi-photon quantum information processing based on integrated optics.

    PubMed

    Harder, G; Ansari, V; Bartley, T J; Brecht, B; Silberhorn, C

    2017-08-06

    In the last few decades, there has been much progress on low loss waveguides, very efficient photon-number detectors and nonlinear processes. Engineered sum-frequency conversion is now at a stage where it allows operation on arbitrary temporal broadband modes, thus making the spectral degree of freedom accessible for information coding. Hereby the information is often encoded into the temporal modes of a single photon. Here, we analyse the prospect of using multi-photon states or squeezed states in different temporal modes based on integrated optics devices. We describe an analogy between mode-selective sum-frequency conversion and a network of spatial beam splitters. Furthermore, we analyse the limits on the achievable squeezing in waveguides with current technology and the loss limits in the conversion process.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Efficient bit sifting scheme of post-processing in quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiong; Le, Dan; Wu, Xianyan; Niu, Xiamu; Guo, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Bit sifting is an important step in the post-processing of quantum key distribution (QKD). Its function is to sift out the undetected original keys. The communication traffic of bit sifting has essential impact on the net secure key rate of a practical QKD system. In this paper, an efficient bit sifting scheme is presented, of which the core is a lossless source coding algorithm. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the scheme is approaching the Shannon limit. The proposed scheme can greatly decrease the communication traffic of the post-processing of a QKD system, which means the proposed scheme can decrease the secure key consumption for classical channel authentication and increase the net secure key rate of the QKD system, as demonstrated by analyzing the improvement on the net secure key rate. Meanwhile, some recommendations on the application of the proposed scheme to some representative practical QKD systems are also provided.

  15. Epileptic Seizure Detection with Log-Euclidean Gaussian Kernel-Based Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shasha; Zhou, Weidong; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-01

    Epileptic seizure detection plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy and reducing the massive workload of reviewing electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. In this work, a novel algorithm is developed to detect seizures employing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based sparse representation (SR) in long-term EEG recordings. Unlike the traditional SR for vector data in Euclidean space, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR framework is proposed for seizure detection in the space of the symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices, which form a Riemannian manifold. Since the Riemannian manifold is nonlinear, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel function is applied to embed it into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) for performing SR. The EEG signals of all channels are divided into epochs and the SPD matrices representing EEG epochs are generated by covariance descriptors. Then, the testing samples are sparsely coded over the dictionary composed by training samples utilizing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR. The classification of testing samples is achieved by computing the minimal reconstructed residuals. The proposed method is evaluated on the Freiburg EEG dataset of 21 patients and shows its notable performance on both epoch-based and event-based assessments. Moreover, this method handles multiple channels of EEG recordings synchronously which is more speedy and efficient than traditional seizure detection methods.

  16. The Random Link Approximation for the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerf, N. J.; Boutet de Monvel, J.; Bohigas, O.; Martin, O. C.; Percus, A. G.

    1997-01-01

    The traveling salesman problem (TSP) consists of finding the length of the shortest closed tour visiting N “cities”. We consider the Euclidean TSP where the cities are distributed randomly and independently in a d-dimensional unit hypercube. Working with periodic boundary conditions and inspired by a remarkable universality in the kth nearest neighbor distribution, we find for the average optimum tour length <~ngle L_Erangle =β_E(d)N^{1-1/d}[1+O(1/N)] with β_E=0.7120± 0.0002 and β_E(3)=0.6979± 0.0002. We then derive analytical predictions for these quantities using the random link approximation, where the lengths between cities are taken as independent random variables. From the “cavity” equations developed by Krauth, Mézard and Parisi, we calculate the associated random link values β_RL(d). For d=1, 2, 3, numerical results show that the random link approximation is a good one, with a discrepancy of less than 2.1% between β_E(d) and β_RL(d). For large d, we argue that the approximation is exact up to O(1d^2) and give a conjecture for β_E(d), in terms of a power series in 1/d, specifying both leading and subleading coefficients. Le problème du voyageur de commerce (TSP) consiste à trouver le chemin fermé le plus court qui relie N “villes”. Nous étudions le TSP euclidien où les villes sont distribuées au hasard de manière décorrélée dans l'hypercube de côté 1, en dimension d. En imposant des conditions aux bords périodiques et guidés par une universalité remarquable de la distribution des kièmes voisins, nous trouvons la longueur moyenne du chemin optimal <~ngle L_Erangle = β_E(d)N^{1-1/d}[1+O(1/N)] , avec β_E= 0,7120 ± 0,0002 et β_E(3)= 0,6979 ± 0,0002. Nous établissons ensuite des prédictions analytiques sur ces quantités à l'aide de l'approximation de liens aléatoires, où les longueurs entre les villes sont des variables aléatoires indépendantes. Grâce aux équations “cavité” développées par Krauth, M

  17. Generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation for photoinduced nonequilibrium processes with positive definiteness condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seogjoo

    2016-06-01

    This work provides a detailed derivation of a generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation (GQFPE) appropriate for photo-induced quantum dynamical processes. The path integral method pioneered by Caldeira and Leggett (CL) [Physica A 121, 587 (1983)] is extended by utilizing a nonequilibrium influence functional applicable to different baths for the ground and the excited electronic states. Both nonequilibrium and non-Markovian effects are accounted for consistently by expanding the paths in the exponents of the influence functional up to the second order with respect to time. This procedure results in approximations involving only single time integrations for the exponents of the influence functional but with additional time dependent boundary terms that have been ignored in previous works. The boundary terms complicate the derivation of a time evolution equation but do not affect position dependent physical observables or the dynamics in the steady state limit. For an effective density operator with the boundary terms factored out, a time evolution equation is derived, through short time expansion of the effective action and Gaussian integration in analytically continued complex domain of space. This leads to a compact form of the GQFPE with time dependent kernels and additional terms, which renders the resulting equation to be in the Dekker form [Phys. Rep. 80, 1 (1981)]. Major terms of the equation are analyzed for the case of Ohmic spectral density with Drude cutoff, which shows that the new GQFPE satisfies the positive definiteness condition in medium to high temperature limit. Steady state limit of the GQFPE is shown to approach the well-known expression derived by CL in the high temperature and Markovian bath limit and also provides additional corrections due to quantum and non-Markovian effects of the bath.

  18. Generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation for photoinduced nonequilibrium processes with positive definiteness condition.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seogjoo

    2016-06-07

    This work provides a detailed derivation of a generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation (GQFPE) appropriate for photo-induced quantum dynamical processes. The path integral method pioneered by Caldeira and Leggett (CL) [Physica A 121, 587 (1983)] is extended by utilizing a nonequilibrium influence functional applicable to different baths for the ground and the excited electronic states. Both nonequilibrium and non-Markovian effects are accounted for consistently by expanding the paths in the exponents of the influence functional up to the second order with respect to time. This procedure results in approximations involving only single time integrations for the exponents of the influence functional but with additional time dependent boundary terms that have been ignored in previous works. The boundary terms complicate the derivation of a time evolution equation but do not affect position dependent physical observables or the dynamics in the steady state limit. For an effective density operator with the boundary terms factored out, a time evolution equation is derived, through short time expansion of the effective action and Gaussian integration in analytically continued complex domain of space. This leads to a compact form of the GQFPE with time dependent kernels and additional terms, which renders the resulting equation to be in the Dekker form [Phys. Rep. 80, 1 (1981)]. Major terms of the equation are analyzed for the case of Ohmic spectral density with Drude cutoff, which shows that the new GQFPE satisfies the positive definiteness condition in medium to high temperature limit. Steady state limit of the GQFPE is shown to approach the well-known expression derived by CL in the high temperature and Markovian bath limit and also provides additional corrections due to quantum and non-Markovian effects of the bath.

  19. Application of Non-Kolmogorovian Probability and Quantum Adaptive Dynamics to Unconscious Inference in Visual Perception Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Luigi; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Recently a novel quantum information formalism — quantum adaptive dynamics — was developed and applied to modelling of information processing by bio-systems including cognitive phenomena: from molecular biology (glucose-lactose metabolism for E.coli bacteria, epigenetic evolution) to cognition, psychology. From the foundational point of view quantum adaptive dynamics describes mutual adapting of the information states of two interacting systems (physical or biological) as well as adapting of co-observations performed by the systems. In this paper we apply this formalism to model unconscious inference: the process of transition from sensation to perception. The paper combines theory and experiment. Statistical data collected in an experimental study on recognition of a particular ambiguous figure, the Schröder stairs, support the viability of the quantum(-like) model of unconscious inference including modelling of biases generated by rotation-contexts. From the probabilistic point of view, we study (for concrete experimental data) the problem of contextuality of probability, its dependence on experimental contexts. Mathematically contextuality leads to non-Komogorovness: probability distributions generated by various rotation contexts cannot be treated in the Kolmogorovian framework. At the same time they can be embedded in a “big Kolmogorov space” as conditional probabilities. However, such a Kolmogorov space has too complex structure and the operational quantum formalism in the form of quantum adaptive dynamics simplifies the modelling essentially.

  20. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence OLEDs with fully solution processed organic layers exhibiting nearly 10% external quantum efficiency.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Ken; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Daisuke; Sakai, Yoshiya; Nakayama, Akira; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Yamamoto, Kimihisa

    2017-02-21

    New solution processable and laminatable terminally modified carbazole-triazine thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) dendrimers are reported. An OLED device with fully solution processed organic layers exhibited an external quantum efficiency of up to 9.4% at 100 cd m(-2).

  1. Non-Gaussian influence functional for quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allinger, Kurt; Carmeli, Benny; Chandler, David

    1986-02-01

    We consider the quantum paths (in Euclidean time) through a space of N multiparticle states, and we derive the influence functional for a subset of m primary states in this space. The influence functional results from integrating out the occupation of the N-m nonprimary or bath states holding fixed the time-dependent occupation path through the primary states. The division into bath states and primary states is completely general in principle, though in practice, physical considerations will guide the choice of partitioning. The exact influence functional is nonlocal in time and very complicated in form. We argue, however, by a variational calculation that a simplified approximate functional can be constructed which is very accurate. Unlike the standard Gaussian influence functionals which are inapplicable for processes involving the large amplitude fluctuations of charge transfer and fermionic exchange, the influence functionals described herein are appropriate for models of these processes.

  2. Usefulness of multiqubit W-type states in quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, P.; Adhikari, S.; Kumar, A.

    2016-10-15

    We analyze the efficiency of multiqubit W-type states as resources for quantum information. For this, we identify and generalize four-qubit W-type states. Our results show that these states can be used as resources for deterministic quantum information processing. The utility of results, however, is limited by the availability of experimental setups to perform and distinguish multiqubit measurements. We therefore emphasize protocols where two users want to establish an optimal bipartite entanglement using the partially entangled W-type states. We find that for such practical purposes, four-qubit W-type states can be a better resource in comparison to three-qubit W-type states. For a dense coding protocol, our states can be used deterministically to send two bits of classical message by locally manipulating a single qubit. In addition, we also propose a realistic experimental method to prepare the four-qubit W-type states using standard unitary operations and weak measurements.

  3. The Second Law as a Selection Principle: The Microscopic Theory of Dissipative Processes in Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigogine, I.; George, Cl.

    1983-07-01

    The second law of thermodynamics, for quantum systems, is formulated, on the microscopic level. As for classical systems, such a formulation is only possible when specific conditions are satisfied (continuous spectrum, nonvanishing of the collision operator, etc.). The unitary dynamical group can then be mapped into two contractive semigroups, reaching equilibrium either for t → +∞ or for t → -∞. The second law appears as a symmetry-breaking selection principle, limiting the observables and density functions to the class that tends to thermodynamic equilibrium in the future (for t → +∞). The physical content of the dynamical structure is now displayed in terms of the appropriate semigroup, which is realized through a nonunitary transformation. The superposition principle of quantum mechanics has to be reconsidered as irreversible processes transform pure states into mixtures and unitary transformations are limited by the requirement that entropy remains invariant. In the semigroup representation, interacting fields lead to units that behave incoherently at equilibrium. Inversely, nonequilibrium constraints introduce correlations between these units.

  4. Electrical Detection of Quantum Dot Hot Electrons Generated via a Mn(2+)-Enhanced Auger Process.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Charles J; Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Nagaoka, Hirokazu; deQuilettes, Dane W; Salvador, Michael; Chen, Jennifer I L; Ginger, David S; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2017-01-05

    An all-solid-state quantum-dot-based photon-to-current conversion device is demonstrated that selectively detects the generation of hot electrons. Photoexcitation of Mn(2+)-doped CdS quantum dots embedded in the device is followed by efficient picosecond energy transfer to Mn(2+) with a long-lived (millisecond) excited-state lifetime. Electrons injected into the QDs under applied bias then capture this energy via Auger de-excitation, generating hot electrons that possess sufficient energy to escape over a ZnS blocking layer, thereby producing current. This electrically detected hot-electron generation is correlated with a quench in the steady-state Mn(2+) luminescence and the introduction of a new nonradiative excited-state decay process, consistent with electron-dopant Auger cross-relaxation. The device's efficiency at detecting hot-electron generation provides a model platform for the study of hot-electron ionization relevant to the development of novel photodetectors and alternative energy-conversion devices.

  5. Applications of rigged Hilbert spaces in quantum mechanics and signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Celeghini, E.; Gadella, M. Olmo, M. A. del

    2016-07-15

    Simultaneous use of discrete and continuous bases in quantum systems is not possible in the context of Hilbert spaces, but only in the more general structure of rigged Hilbert spaces (RHS). In addition, the relevant operators in RHS (but not in Hilbert space) are a realization of elements of a Lie enveloping algebra and support representations of semigroups. We explicitly construct here basis dependent RHS of the line and half-line and relate them to the universal enveloping algebras of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra and su(1, 1), respectively. The complete sub-structure of both RHS and of the operators acting on them is obtained from their algebraic structures or from the related fractional Fourier transforms. This allows us to describe both quantum and signal processing states and their dynamics. Two relevant improvements are introduced: (i) new kinds of filters related to restrictions to subspaces and/or the elimination of high frequency fluctuations and (ii) an operatorial structure that, starting from fix objects, describes their time evolution.

  6. Position control of PbS quantum dot using nanohole on silicon substrate processed by scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Kohki; Hirota, Akinobu; Nakashima, Seisuke

    2015-04-01

    We report a method of processing of nanometer-size holes using an oxide mask drawn by scanning probe microscopy (SPM), and show that a nanohole can be used for the position control of a single colloidal quantum dot. An apertureless mask process was developed for the formation of nanometer-wide holes. The process conditions used to obtain a large slope angle at the edge of the oxide mask and high Si/oxide selectivity during dry etching were investigated to make a nanohole sufficiently deep to trap quantum dots. SPM observation suggested that a 6 nm PbS quantum dot was trapped by the smallest nanohole with a width of 10 × 18 nm2 and a depth of 5 nm.

  7. Aspects of nonlocality in quantum field theory, quantum gravity and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-02-01

    This paper contains a collection of essays on nonlocal phenomena in quantum field theory, gravity and cosmology. Mechanisms of nonlocal contributions to the quantum effective action are discussed within the covariant perturbation expansion in field strengths and spacetime curvatures. Euclidean version of the Schwinger-Keldysh technique for quantum expectation values is presented as a special rule of obtaining the nonlocal effective equations of motion for the mean quantum field from the Euclidean effective action. This rule is applied to a new model of ghost free nonlocal cosmology which can generate the de Sitter (dS) cosmological evolution at an arbitrary value of Λ — a model of dark energy with the dynamical scale selected by a kind of a scaling symmetry breaking mechanism. This model is shown to interpolate between the superhorizon phase of a scalar mediated gravity and the short distance general relativistic limit in a special metric frame related by a nonlocal conformal transformation to the original metric.

  8. Quantum Fluctuations and Thermodynamic Processes in the Presence of Closed Timelike Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tsunefumi

    1997-10-01

    A closed timelike curve (CTC) is a closed loop in spacetime whose tangent vector is everywhere timelike. A spacetime which contains CTC's will allow time travel. One of these spacetimes is Grant space. It can be constructed from Minkowski space by imposing periodic boundary conditions in spatial directions and making the boundaries move toward each other. If Hawking's chronology protection conjecture is correct, there must be a physical mechanism preventing the formation of CTC's. Currently the most promising candidate for the chronology protection mechanism is the back reaction of the metric to quantum vacuum fluctuations. In this thesis the quantum fluctuations for a massive scalar field, a self-interacting field, and for a field at nonzero temperature are calculated in Grant space. The stress-energy tensor is found to remain finite everywhere in Grant space for the massive scalar field with sufficiently large field mass. Otherwise it diverges on chronology horizons like the stress-energy tensor for a massless scalar field. If CTC's exist they will have profound effects on physical processes. Causality can be protected even in the presence of CTC's if the self-consistency condition is imposed on all processes. Simple classical thermodynamic processes of a box filled with ideal gas in the presence of CTC's are studied. If a system of boxes is closed, its state does not change as it travels through a region of spacetime with CTC's. But if the system is open, the final state will depend on the interaction with the environment. The second law of thermodynamics is shown to hold for both closed and open systems. A similar problem is investigated at a statistical level for a gas consisting of multiple selves of a single particle in a spacetime with CTC's.

  9. Approximability of the d-dimensional Euclidean capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Michael; Dubinin, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP) is the well known intractable combinatorial optimization problem, which remains NP-hard even in the Euclidean plane. Since the introduction of this problem in the middle of the 20th century, many researchers were involved into the study of its approximability. Most of the results obtained in this field are based on the well known Iterated Tour Partition heuristic proposed by M. Haimovich and A. Rinnoy Kan in their celebrated paper, where they construct the first Polynomial Time Approximation Scheme (PTAS) for the single depot CVRP in ℝ2. For decades, this result was extended by many authors to numerous useful modifications of the problem taking into account multiple depots, pick up and delivery options, time window restrictions, etc. But, to the best of our knowledge, almost none of these results go beyond the Euclidean plane. In this paper, we try to bridge this gap and propose a EPTAS for the Euclidean CVRP for any fixed dimension.

  10. Alternative Patterning Process for Realization of Large-Area, Full-Color, Active Quantum Dot Display.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon-Suh; Kyhm, Jihoon; Kim, Hong Hee; Jeong, Shinyoung; Kang, JoonHyun; Lee, Song-Ee; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Park, Kisun; Barange, Nilesh; Han, JiYeong; Song, Jin Dong; Choi, Won Kook; Han, Il Ki

    2016-11-09

    Although various colloidal quantum dot (QD) coating and patterning techniques have been developed to meet the demands in optoelectronic applications over the past years, each of the previously demonstrated methods has one or more limitations and trade-offs in forming multicolor, high-resolution, or large-area patterns of QDs. In this study, we present an alternative QD patterning technique using conventional photolithography combined with charge-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly to solve the trade-offs of the traditional patterning processes. From our demonstrations, we show repeatable QD patterning process that allows multicolor QD patterns in both large-area and microscale. Also, we show that the QD patterns are robust against additional photolithography processes and that the thickness of the QD patterns can be controlled at each position. To validate that this process can be applied to actual device applications as an active material, we have fabricated inverted, differently colored, active QD light-emitting device (QD-LED) on a pixelated substrate, which achieved maximum electroluminescence intensity of 23 770 cd/m(2), and discussed the results. From our findings, we believe that our process provides a solution to achieving both high-resolution and large-scale QD pattern applicable to not only display, but also to practical photonic device research and development.

  11. Quantum circuit for the proof of the security of quantum key distribution without encryption of error syndrome and noisy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go

    2010-02-15

    One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.

  12. Quantum circuit for the proof of the security of quantum key distribution without encryption of error syndrome and noisy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go

    2010-02-01

    One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.

  13. A Complete Physical Germanium-on-Silicon Quantum Dot Self-Assembly Process

    PubMed Central

    Alkhatib, Amro; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Achieving quantum dot self-assembly at precise pre-defined locations is of vital interest. In this work, a novel physical method for producing germanium quantum dots on silicon using nanoindentation to pre-define nucleation sites is described. Self-assembly of ordered ~10 nm height germanium quantum dot arrays on silicon substrates is achieved. Due to the inherent simplicity and elegance of the proposed method, the results describe an attractive technique to manufacture semiconductor quantum dot structures for future quantum electronic and photonic applications. PMID:23807261

  14. In situ monitoring of plasma etch processes with a quantum cascade laser arrangement in semiconductor industrial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, N.; Röpcke, J.; Zimmermann, H.; Steinbach, A.; Wege, S.

    2009-03-01

    Concentrations of the etch product SiF4 were measured online and in situ in technological etch plasmas with an especially designed quantum cascade laser arrangement for application in semiconductor industrial environment, the Q-MACS Etch. The combination of quantum cascade lasers and infra red absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) opens up new attractive possibilities for plasma process monitoring and control. With the realization of a specific interface the Q-MACS Etch system is synchronized to the etch process and allows therefore automated measurements, which is important in a high volume production environment.

  15. Extrinsic time formalism for the Euclidean black hole in a box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira-Neto, G.

    1996-02-01

    We return to the problem of Euclidean black holes in thermodynamical equilibrium with radiation, under the conditions of the statistical mechanical canonical ensemble. This time we use Kuchař's ``extrinsic time'' formalism in order to select the set of true dynamical variables. With this set of canonical variables, \\{R~,PR~,M,PM\\}, and York's proposal for the boundary and ``horizon'' terms, we compute a classically consistent total action for the Euclidean black hole. We show explicitly that the ``zero-loop'' partition function derived from this total action is identical to the one already in the literature of this area.

  16. Generalized Thomson problem in arbitrary dimensions and non-euclidean geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batle, J.; Bagdasaryan, Armen; Abdel-Aty, M.; Abdalla, S.

    2016-06-01

    Systems of identical particles with equal charge are studied under a special type of confinement. These classical particles are free to move inside some convex region S and on the boundary of it Ω (the S d - 1 -sphere, in our case). We shall show how particles arrange themselves under the sole action of the Coulomb repulsion in many dimensions in the usual Euclidean space, therefore generalizing the so called Thomson problem to many dimensions. Also, we explore how the problem varies when non-Euclidean geometries are considered. We shall see that optimal configurations in all cases possess a high degree of symmetry, regardless of the concomitant dimension or geometry.

  17. Quantum-Gravity Thermodynamics, Incorporating the Theory of Exactly Soluble Active Stochastic Processes, with Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, K.

    2009-08-01

    A re-visitation of QFT is first cited, deriving the Feynman integral from the theory of active stochastic processes (Glueck and Hueffler, Phys. Lett. B. 659(1-2):447-451, 2008; Hueffel and Kelnhofer, Phys. Lett. B 588(1-2):145-150, 2004). We factor the lie group “generator” of the inverse wavefunction over an entropy-maximizing basis. Performing term-by-term Ito-integration leads us to an analytical, evaluable trajectory for a charged particle in an arbitrary field given a Maximum-Entropy distribution. We generalize this formula to many-body electrodynamics. In theory, it is capable of predicting plasma’s thermodynamic properties from ionic spectral data and thermodynamic and optical distributions. Blessed with the absence of certain limitations (e.g., renormalization) strongly present in competing formalisms and the incorporation of research related to many different phenomena, we outline a candidate quantum gravity theory based on these developments.

  18. Synthesis and photochemical applications of processable polymers enclosing photoluminescent carbon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, Dario; Mazzier, Daniela; Silvestrini, Simone; Privitera, Alberto; Marega, Carla; Franco, Lorenzo; Moretto, Alessandro

    2015-04-28

    Herein, we propose convenient routes to produce hybrid-polymers that covalently enclosed, or confined, N-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs). We focus our attention on polyamide, polyurea-urethane, polyester, and polymethylmetacrylate polymers, some of the most common resources used to create everyday materials. These hybrid materials can be easily prepared and processed to obtain macroscopic objects of different shapes, i.e., fibers, transparent sheets, and bulky forms, where the characteristic luminescence properties of the native N-doped CQDs are preserved. More importantly we explore the potential use of these hybrid composites to achieve photochemical reactions as those of photoreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles (under UV-light), the selective photo-oxidation of benzylalcohol to the benzaldehyde (under vis-light), and the photocatalytic generation of H2 (under UV-light).

  19. Chemiresistive gas sensors employing solution-processed metal oxide quantum dot films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Shao, Gang; Song, Huaibing; Zhang, Wenkai; Wei, Wendian; He, Mingze; Gao, Liang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2014-10-01

    We report low-temperature chemiresistive gas sensors based on tin oxide colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), in which the benefits of CQDs such as extremely small crystal size, solution-processability, and tunable surface activity are exploited to enhance the gas-sensing effect. The sensor fabrication is simply employing spin-coating followed by a solid-state ligand exchange treatment at room temperature in air ambient. The optimal gas sensor exhibited rapid and significant decrease in resistance upon H2S gas exposure when operated at 70 °C, and it was fully recoverable upon gas release. We observed a power law correlation between the sensor response and H2S gas concentration, and the sensing mechanism was discussed using the completely depletion model with a flat band diagram.

  20. A review of silicon microfabricated ion traps for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Dong-Il "Dan"; Hong, Seokjun; Lee, Minjae; Kim, Taehyun

    2015-12-01

    Quantum information processing (QIP) has become a hot research topic as evidenced by S. Haroche and D. J. Wineland receiving the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2012. Various MEMS-based microfabrication methods will be a key enabling technology in implementing novel and scalable ion traps for QIP. This paper provides a brief introduction of ion trap devices, and reviews ion traps made using conventional precision machining as well as MEMS-based microfabrication. Then, microfabrication methods for ion traps are explained in detail. Finally, current research issues in microfabricated ion traps are presented. The QIP renders significant new challenges for MEMS, as various QIP technologies are being developed for secure encrypted communication and complex computing applications.

  1. Nonlinear processes in multi-quantum-well plasmonic metasurfaces: Electromagnetic response, saturation effects, limits, and potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Diaz, J. S.; Tymchenko, M.; Lee, J.; Belkin, M. A.; Alà, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Nonlinear metasurfaces based on coupling a locally enhanced plasmonic response to intersubband transitions of n -doped multi-quantum-wells (MQWs) can provide second-order susceptibilities orders of magnitude larger than any other nonlinear flat structure measured so far. Here we present a comprehensive theory to characterize the electromagnetic response of nonlinear processes occurring in ultrathin MQW-based plasmonic metasurfaces, providing a homogeneous model that takes phase matching at the unit-cell level and the influence of saturation and losses into account. In addition, the limits imposed by saturation of the MQW transitions on the nonlinear response of these metasurfaces are analytically derived, revealing useful guidelines to design devices with enhanced performance. Our approach is first validated using experimental data and then applied to theoretically investigate novel designs able to achieve significant second-harmonic generation efficiency in the infrared frequency band.

  2. Solution-processed high-performance colloidal quantum dot tandem photodetectors on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zhenyu; You, Guanjun; Wang, Li; Liu, Jie; Xu, Jian; Hu, Wenjia; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-28

    We report a high-performance colloidal quantum dot (CQD)-based near-infrared tandem photodetector fabricated on flexible substrates via solution-processed method. The tandem photodetector on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates exhibited low dark current and high detectivities over ∼8.8 × 10{sup 11} Jones at near infrared range at −0.5 V bias and over ∼10{sup 13} Jones near 0 bias. The critical bend radii of ∼8 mm and ∼3 mm have been demonstrated for tensile and compressive bending, respectively. The performance of photodetectors remains stable under mechanical stress, making PbSe CQD material a promise candidate for flexible infrared sensing applications.

  3. Schwinger-Dyson equations in large-N quantum field theories and nonlinear random processes

    SciTech Connect

    Buividovich, P. V.

    2011-02-15

    We propose a stochastic method for solving Schwinger-Dyson equations in large-N quantum field theories. Expectation values of single-trace operators are sampled by stationary probability distributions of the so-called nonlinear random processes. The set of all the histories of such processes corresponds to the set of all planar diagrams in the perturbative expansions of the expectation values of singlet operators. We illustrate the method on examples of the matrix-valued scalar field theory and the Weingarten model of random planar surfaces on the lattice. For theories with compact field variables, such as sigma models or non-Abelian lattice gauge theories, the method does not converge in the physically most interesting weak-coupling limit. In this case one can absorb the divergences into a self-consistent redefinition of expansion parameters. A stochastic solution of the self-consistency conditions can be implemented as a 'memory' of the random process, so that some parameters of the process are estimated from its previous history. We illustrate this idea on the two-dimensional O(N) sigma model. The extension to non-Abelian lattice gauge theories is discussed.

  4. Double vibronic process in the quantum spin ice candidate Tb2Ti2O7 revealed by terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, E.; Ballou, R.; Robert, J.; Decorse, C.; Brubach, J.-B.; Roy, P.; Lhotel, E.; Del-Rey, L.; Simonet, V.; Petit, S.; deBrion, S.

    2017-01-01

    The origin of quantum fluctuations responsible for the spin liquid state in Tb2Ti2O7 has remained a long-standing problem. By synchrotron-based terahertz measurements, we show evidence of strong coupling between the magnetic and lattice degrees of freedom that provides a path to the quantum melting process. As revealed by hybrid crystal electric field-phonon excitations that appear at 0.67 THz below 200 K, and around 0.42 THz below 50 K, the double vibronic process is unique for Tb3 + in the titanate family due to adequate energy matching and strong quadrupolar moments. The results suggest that lattice motion can indeed be the driving force behind spin flips within the hybridized ground and first excited states, promoting quantum terms in the effective Hamiltonian that describes Tb2Ti2O7 .

  5. Spin-vibronic quantum dynamics for ultrafast excited-state processes.

    PubMed

    Eng, Julien; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Gindensperger, Etienne; Daniel, Chantal

    2015-03-17

    Ultrafast intersystem crossing (ISC) processes coupled to nuclear relaxation and solvation dynamics play a central role in the photophysics and photochemistry of a wide range of transition metal complexes. These phenomena occurring within a few hundred femtoseconds are investigated experimentally by ultrafast picosecond and femtosecond transient absorption or luminescence spectroscopies, and optical laser pump-X-ray probe techniques using picosecond and femtosecond X-ray pulses. The interpretation of ultrafast structural changes, time-resolved spectra, quantum yields, and time scales of elementary processes or transient lifetimes needs robust theoretical tools combining state-of-the-art quantum chemistry and developments in quantum dynamics for solving the electronic and nuclear problems. Multimode molecular dynamics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation has been successfully applied to many small polyatomic systems. Its application to large molecules containing a transition metal atom is still a challenge because of the nuclear dimensionality of the problem, the high density of electronic excited states, and the spin-orbit coupling effects. Rhenium(I) α-diimine carbonyl complexes, [Re(L)(CO)3(N,N)](n+) are thermally and photochemically robust and highly flexible synthetically. Structural variations of the N,N and L ligands affect the spectroscopy, the photophysics, and the photochemistry of these chromophores easily incorporated into a complex environment. Visible light absorption opens the route to a wide range of applications such as sensors, probes, or emissive labels for imaging biomolecules. Halide complexes [Re(X)(CO)3(bpy)] (X = Cl, Br, or I; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) exhibit complex electronic structure and large spin-orbit effects that do not correlate with the heavy atom effects. Indeed, the (1)MLCT → (3)MLCT intersystem crossing (ISC) kinetics is slower than in [Ru(bpy)3](2+) or [Fe(bpy)3](2+) despite the presence of a third-row transition metal

  6. Quantum homogeneous spaces and special functions with a dimensional deformation parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonechi, F.; Giachetti, R.; del Olmo, M. A.; Sorace, E.; Tarlini, M.

    1996-12-01

    We study the most elementary aspects of harmonic analysis on a homogeneous space of a deformation of the two-dimensional Euclidean group, admitting generalizations to dimensions three and four, whose quantum parameter has the physical dimensions of length. The homogeneous space is recognized as a new quantum plane and the action of the Euclidean quantum group is used to determine an eigenvalue problem for the Casimir operator, which constitutes the analogue of the Schrödinger equation in the presence of such a deformation. The solutions are given in the plane-wave and angular-momentum bases and are expressed in terms of hypergeometric series with non-commuting parameters.

  7. Quantum cosmology with nontrivial topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, T.

    2008-10-10

    Quantum creation of a universe with a nontrivial spatial topology is considered. Using the Euclidean functional integral prescription, we calculate the wave function of such a universe with cosmological constant and without matter. The minisuperspace path integral is calculated in the semiclassical approximation, and it is shown that in order to include the nontrivial topologies in the path integral approach to quantum cosmology, it is necessary to generalize the sum over compact and smooth 4-manifolds to sum over finite-volume compact 4-orbifolds.

  8. The rigorous stochastic matrix multiplication scheme for the calculations of reduced equilibrium density matrices of open multilevel quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.

  9. The rigorous stochastic matrix multiplication scheme for the calculations of reduced equilibrium density matrices of open multilevel quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xin

    2014-04-21

    Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.

  10. Dynamics of Intraband and Interband Auger Processes in Colloidal Core-Shell Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Rabouw, Freddy T; Vaxenburg, Roman; Bakulin, Artem A; van Dijk-Moes, Relinde J A; Bakker, Huib J; Rodina, Anna; Lifshitz, Efrat; L Efros, Alexander; Koenderink, A Femius; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël

    2015-10-27

    Conventional colloidal quantum dots (QDs) suffer from rapid energy losses by nonradiative (Auger) processes, leading to sub-ns lifetimes in all excited states but the lowest-energy single exciton. Suppression of interband Auger decay, such as biexciton Auger recombination, has been achieved with the design of heterostructured core-shell QDs. Auger-like processes are also believed to be responsible for rapid intraband hot-electron cooling in QDs. However, the simultaneous effect of shell growth on interband Auger recombination and intraband hot-electron cooling has not been addressed. Here we investigate how the growth of a CdS shell affects these two relaxation processes in CdSe/CdS core-shell QDs. Using a combination of ultrafast pump-push-probe spectroscopy on the QD ensemble and analysis of the photon statistics from single QDs, we find that Auger losses in the biexciton state are suppressed with increasing shell thickness, while hot-electron cooling remains unaffected. Calculations conducted within an eight-band k·p model confirm the experimental dependence of the biexciton Auger decay on the shell thickness, and provide insights into the factors determining the cooling rate of hot carriers.

  11. Processing of AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-cascade structures for terahertz laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szerling, Anna; Kosiel, Kamil; Szymański, Michał; Wasilewski, Zbig; Gołaszewska, Krystyna; Łaszcz, Adam; Płuska, Mariusz; Trajnerowicz, Artur; Sakowicz, Maciej; Walczakowski, Michał; Pałka, Norbert; Jakieła, Rafał; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We report research results with regard to AlGaAs/GaAs structure processing for THz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs). We focus on the processes of Ti/Au cladding fabrication for metal-metal waveguides and wafer bonding with indium solder. Particular emphasis is placed on optimization of technological parameters for the said processes that result in working devices. A wide range of technological parameters was studied using test structures and the analysis of their electrical, optical, chemical, and mechanical properties performed by electron microscopic techniques, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and circular transmission line method. On that basis, a set of technological parameters was selected for the fabrication of devices lasing at a maximum temperature of 130 K from AlGaAs/GaAs structures grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy. Their resulting threshold-current densities were on a level of 1.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, initial stage research regarding fabrication of Cu-based claddings is reported as these are theoretically more promising than the Au-based ones with regard to low-loss waveguide fabrication for THz QCLs.

  12. Charge Carrier Processes in Photovoltaic Materials and Devices: Lead Sulfide Quantum Dots and Cadmium Telluride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, Paul

    Charge separation, transport, and recombination represent fundamental processes for electrons and holes in semiconductor photovoltaic devices. Here, two distinct materials systems, based on lead sulfide quantum dots and on polycrystalline cadmium telluride, are investigated to advance the understanding of their fundamental nature for insights into the material science necessary to improve the technologies. Lead sulfide quantum dots QDs have been of growing interest in photovoltaics, having recently produced devices exceeding 10% conversion efficiency. Carrier transport via hopping through the quantum dot thin films is not only a function of inter-QD distance, but of the QD size and dielectric media of the surrounding materials. By conducting temperature dependent transmission, photoluminescence, and time resolved photoluminescence measurements, we gain insight into photoluminescence quenching and size-dependent carrier transport through QD ensembles. Turning to commercially relevant cadmium telluride (CdTe), we explore the high concentrations of self-compensating defects (donors and acceptors) in polycrystalline thin films via photoluminescence from recombination at defect sites. Low temperature (25 K) photoluminescence measurements of CdTe reveal numerous radiative transitions due to exciton, trap assisted, and donor-acceptor pair recombination events linked with various defect states. Here we explore the difference between films deposited via close space sublimation (CSS) and radio frequency magnetron sputtering, both as-grown and following a cadmium chloride treatment. The as-grown CSS films exhibited a strong donor-acceptor pair transition associated with deep defect states. Constructing photoluminescence spectra as a function of time from time-resolved photoluminescence data, we report on the temporal evolution of this donor-acceptor transition. Having gained insight into the cadmium telluride film quality from low temperature photoluminescence measurements

  13. All-solution-processed PbS quantum dot solar modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jihoon; Shim, Hyung Cheoul; Ju, Yeonkyeong; Song, Jung Hoon; An, Hyejin; Yu, Jong-Su; Kwak, Sun-Woo; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Inyoung; Jeong, Sohee

    2015-05-01

    A rapid increase in power conversion efficiencies in colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been achieved recently with lead sulphide (PbS) QDs by adapting a heterojunction architecture, which consists of small-area devices associated with a vacuum-deposited buffer layer with metal electrodes. The preparation of QD solar modules by low-cost solution processes is required to further increase the power-to-cost ratio. Herein we demonstrate all-solution-processed flexible PbS QD solar modules with a layer-by-layer architecture comprising polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO)/titanium oxide (TiO2)/PbS QD/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)/Ag, with an active area of up to 30 cm2, exhibiting a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.3% under AM 1.5 conditions (PCE of 2.2% for a 1 cm2 unit cell). Our approach affords trade-offs between power and the active area of the photovoltaic devices, which results in a low-cost power source, and which is scalable to larger areas.A rapid increase in power conversion efficiencies in colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been achieved recently with lead sulphide (PbS) QDs by adapting a heterojunction architecture, which consists of small-area devices associated with a vacuum-deposited buffer layer with metal electrodes. The preparation of QD solar modules by low-cost solution processes is required to further increase the power-to-cost ratio. Herein we demonstrate all-solution-processed flexible PbS QD solar modules with a layer-by-layer architecture comprising polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO)/titanium oxide (TiO2)/PbS QD/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)/Ag, with an active area of up to 30 cm2, exhibiting a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.3% under AM 1.5 conditions (PCE of 2.2% for a 1 cm2 unit cell). Our approach affords trade

  14. Open parallel cooperative and competitive decision processes: a potential provenance for quantum probability decision models.

    PubMed

    Fuss, Ian G; Navarro, Daniel J

    2013-10-01

    In recent years quantum probability models have been used to explain many aspects of human decision making, and as such quantum models have been considered a viable alternative to Bayesian models based on classical probability. One criticism that is often leveled at both kinds of models is that they lack a clear interpretation in terms of psychological mechanisms. In this paper we discuss the mechanistic underpinnings of a quantum walk model of human decision making and response time. The quantum walk model is compared to standard sequential sampling models, and the architectural assumptions of both are considered. In particular, we show that the quantum model has a natural interpretation in terms of a cognitive architecture that is both massively parallel and involves both co-operative (excitatory) and competitive (inhibitory) interactions between units. Additionally, we introduce a family of models that includes aspects of the classical and quantum walk models.

  15. Thermally Activated Site Exchange and Quantum Exchange Coupling Processes in Unsymmetrical Trihydride Osmium Compounds.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Amaya; Barea, Guada; Esteruelas, Miguel A.; Lahoz, Fernando J.; LLedós, Agustí; Maseras, Feliu; Modrego, Javier; Oñate, Enrique; Oro, Luis A.; Ruiz, Natividad; Sola, Eduardo

    1999-04-19

    Reaction of the hexahydride complex OsH(6)(P(i)Pr(3))(2) (1) with pyridine-2-thiol leads to the trihydride derivative OsH(3){kappa-N,kappa-S-(2-Spy)}(P(i)Pr(3))(2) (2). The structure of 2 has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The geometry around the osmium atom can be described as a distorted pentagonal bipyramid with the phosphine ligands occupying axial positions. The equatorial plane contains the pyridine-2-thiolato group, attached through a bite angle of 65.7(1) degrees, and the three hydride ligands. The theoretical structure determination of the model complex OsH(3){kappa-N,kappa-S-(2-Spy)}(PH(3))(2) (2a) reveals that the hydride ligands form a triangle with sides of 1.623, 1.714, and 2.873 Å, respectively. A topological analysis of the electron density of 2a indicates that there is no significant electron density connecting the hydrogen atoms of the OsH(3) unit. In solution, the hydride ligands of 2 undergo two different thermally activated site exchange processes, which involve the central hydride with each hydride ligand situated close to the donor atoms of the chelate group. The activation barriers of both processes are similar. Theoretical calculations suggest that the transition states have a cis-hydride-dihydrogen nature. In addition to the thermally activated exchange processes, complex 2 shows quantum exchange coupling between the central hydride and the one situated close to the sulfur atom of the pyridine-2-thiolato group. The reactions of 1 with L-valine and 2-hydroxypyridine afford OsH(3){kappa-N,kappa-O-OC(O)CH[CH(CH(3))(2)]NH(2)}(P(i)Pr(3))(2) (3) and OsH(3){kappa-N,kappa-O-(2-Opy)}(P(i)Pr(3))(2) (4) respectively, which according to their spectroscopic data have a similar structure to that of 2. In solution, the hydride ligands of 3 and 4 also undergo two different thermally activated site exchange processes. However, they do not show quantum exchange coupling. The tetranuclear complexes [(P(i)Pr(3))(2)H(3)Os(&mgr;-biim)M(TFB)](2) [M = Rh

  16. Anomalies of Dirac Type Operators on Euclidean Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Alan; Grosse, Harald; Kaad, Jens

    2015-04-01

    We develop by example a type of index theory for non-Fredholm operators. A general framework using cyclic homology for this notion of index was introduced in a separate article (Carev and Kaad, Topological invariance of the homological index. arXiv:1402.0475 [math.KT], 2014) where it may be seen to generalise earlier ideas of Carey-Pincus and Gesztesy-Simon on this problem. Motivated by an example in two dimensions in Bollé et al. (J Math Phys 28:1512-1525, 1987) we introduce in this paper a class of examples of Dirac type operators on that provide non-trivial examples of our homological approach. Our examples may be seen as extending old ideas about the notion of anomaly introduced by physicists to handle topological terms in quantum action principles, with an important difference, namely, we are dealing with purely geometric data that can be seen to arise from the continuous spectrum of our Dirac type operators.

  17. Behavior in strong fields of Euclidean gauge theories. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Z.

    1984-04-01

    Functional determinants resulting from functional integration in quantum gauge theories are studied. We derive an expansion around the constant field strength for the (renormalized) spinor determinant detMF in QED. We show that, if the field strength F is large and its derivatives are bounded, then detMF≡exp(-W)~exp(cF2lnF2), where c>0. Hence, the effective action W in (four-dimensional) QED is unbounded from below. Moreover, we prove that exp(-W) is not integrable. A similar result is established in the Yukawa model [detMY~exp(φ4lnφ4)]. We estimate the scalar determinant detMA2 for a non-Abelian gauge field. We show that (like in the Abelian case studied earlier) detMA2=exp[c|F|2ln|F|2+r2(F,DF,DDF)], where c>0 and r2 is bounded by a quadratic form of the gauge-invariant variables |F|, |DF|, and |DDF|. We investigate the effect of gluon self-interaction on the stability of models with broken gauge symmetry G-->H (we discuss in detail the Georgi-Glashow model). We sum up (in an approximation) the contribution of massive gluons to the O(2)-invariant effective action. It is shown that this effective action is bounded from below for slowly varying fields, if the couplings are asymptotically free at the one-loop level.

  18. Pure Gaussian states from quantum harmonic oscillator chains with a single local dissipative process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shan; Woolley, Matthew J.; Petersen, Ian R.; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2017-03-01

    We study the preparation of entangled pure Gaussian states via reservoir engineering. In particular, we consider a chain consisting of (2\\aleph +1) quantum harmonic oscillators where the central oscillator of the chain is coupled to a single reservoir. We then completely parametrize the class of (2\\aleph +1) -mode pure Gaussian states that can be prepared by this type of quantum harmonic oscillator chain. This parametrization allows us to determine the steady-state entanglement properties of such quantum harmonic oscillator chains.

  19. Usability Evaluation of an Augmented Reality System for Teaching Euclidean Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Gonzalez, Anabel; Chi-Poot, Angel; Uc-Cetina, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the emerging technologies that has demonstrated to be an efficient technological tool to enhance learning techniques. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of an AR system for teaching Euclidean vectors in physics and mathematics. The goal of this pedagogical tool is to facilitate user's…

  20. An orbit analysis approach to the study of superintegrable systems in the Euclidean plane

    SciTech Connect

    Adlam, C. M. McLenaghan, R. G. Smirnov, R. G.

    2007-03-15

    We classify the superintegrable potentials in the Euclidean plane by means of an orbit analysis of the space of valence two Killing tensors under the action of the group of rigid motions. Our approach generalizes the classical approach of Winternitz and collaborators by considering pairs of Killing tensors that are not both in canonical form.