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Sample records for processes euclidean quantum

  1. Scattering in the Euclidean formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyzou, Wayne

    2013-10-01

    Euclidean relativistic quantum mechanics is a formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics based on the Osterwalder-Schrader reconstruction theorem that exploits the logical independence of locality from the rest of the axioms of Euclidean field theory. I discuss the properties of Euclidean Green functions necessary for the existence of Møller wave operators and the construction of these wave operators in this formalism. Supported by the US Department of Energy, Grant - DE-AC02-81ER40038.

  2. Entropic Force and its Fluctuation in Euclidean Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue

    In this paper, we study the idea about gravity as entropic force proposed by Verlinde. By interpreting Euclidean gravity in the language of thermodynamic quantities on holographic screen, we find the gravitational force can be calculated from the change of entropy on the screen. We show that normal gravity calculation can be reinterpreted in the language of thermodynamic variables. We also study the fluctuation of the force and find the fluctuation acting on the point-like particle can never be larger than the expectation value of the force. For a black hole in AdS space, by gauge/gravity duality, the fluctuation may be interpreted as arising from thermal fluctuation in the boundary description. And for a black hole in flat space, the ratio between fluctuation and force goes to a constant (T)/(m) at infinity.

  3. Quantum Anomalies for Generalized Euclidean Taub-Newman Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinescu, Mihai; Visinescu, Anca

    2008-09-01

    We investigate the gravitational and axial anomalies with regard to quadratic constants of motion for the Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino (Taub-NUT) space and its generalizations as was done by Iwai and Katayama. The generalized Taub-NUT metrics exhibit in general gravitational anomalies. This is in contrast with the fact that the standard Taub-NUT metric does not exhibit gravitational anomalies, which is a consequence of the fact that it admits Killing-Yano tensors forming Stäckel-Killing tensors as products. For the axial anomaly, interpreted as the index of the Dirac operator, the role of Killing-Yano tensors is irrelevant. We compute the index of the Dirac operator for the generalized Taub-NUT metrics with the APS boundary conditions and find these metrics do not contribute to the axial anomaly for not too large deformations of the standard Taub-NUT metric.

  4. Towards spectral geometric methods for Euclidean quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panine, Mikhail; Kempf, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The unification of general relativity with quantum theory will also require a coming together of the two quite different mathematical languages of general relativity and quantum theory, i.e., of differential geometry and functional analysis, respectively. Of particular interest in this regard is the field of spectral geometry, which studies to which extent the shape of a Riemannian manifold is describable in terms of the spectra of differential operators defined on the manifold. Spectral geometry is hard because it is highly nonlinear, but linearized spectral geometry, i.e., the task to determine small shape changes from small spectral changes, is much more tractable and may be iterated to approximate the full problem. Here, we generalize this approach, allowing, in particular, nonequal finite numbers of shape and spectral degrees of freedom. This allows us to study how well the shape degrees of freedom are encoded in the eigenvalues. We apply this strategy numerically to a class of planar domains and find that the reconstruction of small shape changes from small spectral changes is possible if enough eigenvalues are used. While isospectral nonisometric shapes are known to exist, we find evidence that generically shaped isospectral nonisometric shapes, if existing, are exceedingly rare.

  5. Perceptual or Analytical Processing? Evidence from Children's and Adult's Performance on the Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooij, Iris; Schactman, Alissa; Kadlec, Helena; Stege, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    The Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem (E-TSP) is a useful task to study how humans optimize when faced with computational intractability. It has been found that humans are capable of finding high-quality solutions for E-TSP in a relatively short time and with seemingly little cognitive effort. This observation has led to two general…

  6. Quantum Stochastic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, William Joseph

    2009-04-13

    We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

  7. Euclidean Epstein-Glaser renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Kai J.

    2009-10-01

    In the framework of perturbative algebraic quantum field theory recently developed by Brunetti, Dütsch, and Fredenhagen (http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.2038) I give a general construction of so-called Euclidean time-ordered products, i.e., algebraic versions of the Schwinger functions, for scalar quantum field theories on spaces of Euclidean signature. This is done by generalizing the recursive construction of time-ordered products by Epstein and Glaser, originally formulated for quantum field theories on Minkowski space [Epstein and Glaser, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare 19, 211 (1973)]. An essential input of Epstein-Glaser renormalization is the causal structure of Minkowski space. The absence of this causal structure in the Euclidean framework makes it necessary to modify the original construction of Epstein and Glaser at two points. First, the whole construction has to be performed with an only partially defined product on (interaction) functionals. This is due to the fact that the fundamental solutions of the Helmholtz operator (-Δ+m2) of Euclidean quantum field theory have a unique singularity structure, i.e., they are unique up to a smooth part. Second, one needs to (re)introduce a (rather natural) "Euclidean causality" condition for the recursion of Epstein and Glaser to be applicable.

  8. Euclidean Epstein-Glaser renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Kai J.

    2009-10-15

    In the framework of perturbative algebraic quantum field theory recently developed by Brunetti, Duetsch, and Fredenhagen (http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.2038) I give a general construction of so-called Euclidean time-ordered products, i.e., algebraic versions of the Schwinger functions, for scalar quantum field theories on spaces of Euclidean signature. This is done by generalizing the recursive construction of time-ordered products by Epstein and Glaser, originally formulated for quantum field theories on Minkowski space [Epstein and Glaser, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare 19, 211 (1973)]. An essential input of Epstein-Glaser renormalization is the causal structure of Minkowski space. The absence of this causal structure in the Euclidean framework makes it necessary to modify the original construction of Epstein and Glaser at two points. First, the whole construction has to be performed with an only partially defined product on (interaction) functionals. This is due to the fact that the fundamental solutions of the Helmholtz operator (-{delta}+m{sup 2}) of Euclidean quantum field theory have a unique singularity structure, i.e., they are unique up to a smooth part. Second, one needs to (re)introduce a (rather natural) 'Euclidean causality' condition for the recursion of Epstein and Glaser to be applicable.

  9. Hybrid quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  10. Hybrid quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-01

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  11. Quantum deformations of D = 4 Euclidean, Lorentz, Kleinian and quaternionic o⋆ (4) symmetries in unified o (4 ; C) setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiec, A.; Lukierski, J.; Tolstoy, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    We employ new calculational technique and present complete list of classical r-matrices for D = 4 complex homogeneous orthogonal Lie algebra o (4 ; C), the rotational symmetry of four-dimensional complex space-time. Further applying reality conditions we obtain the classical r-matrices for all possible real forms of o (4 ; C): Euclidean o (4), Lorentz o (3 , 1), Kleinian o (2 , 2) and quaternionic o⋆ (4) Lie algebras. For o (3 , 1) we get known four classical D = 4 Lorentz r-matrices, but for other real Lie algebras (Euclidean, Kleinian, quaternionic) we provide new results and mention some applications.

  12. The origins of Schwinger's Euclidean Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael E.

    2015-05-01

    This paper places Julian Schwinger's development of the Euclidean Green's function formalism for quantum field theory in historical context. It traces the techniques employed in the formalism back to Schwinger's work on waveguides during World War II, and his subsequent formulation of the Minkowski space Green's function formalism for quantum field theory in 1951. Particular attention is dedicated to understanding Schwinger's physical motivation for pursuing the Euclidean extension of this formalism in 1958.

  13. PREFACE: Quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Andrew; Ferry, David; Stoneham, Marshall

    2006-05-01

    Microelectronics and the classical information technologies transformed the physics of semiconductors. Photonics has given optical materials a new direction. Quantum information technologies, we believe, will have immense impact on condensed matter physics. The novel systems of quantum information processing need to be designed and made. Their behaviours must be manipulated in ways that are intrinsically quantal and generally nanoscale. Both in this special issue and in previous issues (see e.g., Spiller T P and Munro W J 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 V1-10) we see the emergence of new ideas that link the fundamentals of science to the pragmatism of market-led industry. We hope these papers will be followed by many others on quantum information processing in the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.

  14. Quantum thermodynamics of general quantum processes.

    PubMed

    Binder, Felix; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Modi, Kavan; Goold, John

    2015-03-01

    Accurately describing work extraction from a quantum system is a central objective for the extension of thermodynamics to individual quantum systems. The concepts of work and heat are surprisingly subtle when generalizations are made to arbitrary quantum states. We formulate an operational thermodynamics suitable for application to an open quantum system undergoing quantum evolution under a general quantum process by which we mean a completely positive and trace-preserving map. We derive an operational first law of thermodynamics for such processes and show consistency with the second law. We show that heat, from the first law, is positive when the input state of the map majorizes the output state. Moreover, the change in entropy is also positive for the same majorization condition. This makes a strong connection between the two operational laws of thermodynamics. PMID:25871066

  15. The Development of Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Cosmologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses early Euclidean cosmologies, inadequacies in classical Euclidean cosmology, and the development of non-Euclidean cosmologies. Explains the present state of the theory of cosmology including the work of Dirac, Sandage, and Gott. (CP)

  16. Spacetime and Euclidean geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

    2006-04-01

    Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the spacetime Pythagoras theorem.

  17. Optical Hybrid Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira

    Historically, two complementary approaches to optical quantum information processing have been pursued: qubits and continuous-variables, each exploiting either particle or wave nature of light. However, both approaches have pros and cons. In recent years, there has been a significant progress in combining both approaches with a view to realizing hybrid protocols that overcome the current limitations. In this chapter, we first review the development of the two approaches with a special focus on quantum teleportation and its applications. We then introduce our recent research progress in realizing quantum teleportation by a hybrid scheme, and mention its future applications to universal and fault-tolerant quantum information processing.

  18. Hybrid quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Akira

    2013-03-01

    There are two types of schemes for quantum information processing (QIP). One is based on qubits, and the other is based on continuous variables (CVs), where the computational basis for qubit QIP is { | 0 > , | 1 > } and that for CV QIP is { | x > } (- ∞ < x < ∞). A universal gate set for qubit QIP is {`bit flip'σx, `phase flip'σz, `Hadamard gate'H, ` π / 8 gate', `controlled NOT (CNOT) gate'}. Similarly, a universal gate set for CV QIP is {` x-displacement' D& circ; (x) , ` p-displacement' D& circ; (ip) , `Fourier gate' F& circ;, `cubic phase gate'e ikxcirc;3, `quantum non-demolition (QND) gate'}. There is one-to-one correspondence between them. CV version of `bit flip'σx is ` x-displacement' D& circ; (x) , which changes the value of the computational basis. Similarly, CV version of `phase flip'σz is ` p-displacement' D& circ; (ip) , where `phase flip'σz switches the ``value'' of `conjugate basis' of qubit { | + > , | - > } (| +/- > = (| 0 > +/- | 1 >) / √{ 2}) and ` p-displacement' D& circ; (ip) changes the value of CV conjugate basis { | p > }. `Hadamard' and `Fourier' gates transform computational bases to respective conjugate bases. CV version of ` π / 8 gate' is a `cubic phase gate'e ikxcirc;3, and CV version of CNOT gate is a QND gate. However, the origin of nonlinearity for QIP is totally different, here the very basic nonlinear operation is calculation of multiplication and of course it is the heart of information processing. The nonlinearity of qubit QIP comes from a CNOT gate, while that of CV QIP comes from a cubic phase gate. Since nonlinear operations are harder to realize compared to linear operations, the most difficult operation for qubit is a CNOT gate, while the counter part, a QND gate, is not so difficult. CNOT and QND gates are both entangling gates, it follows that creating entanglement is easier for CV QIP compared to qubit QIP. Here, creating entanglement is the heart of QIP. So, it is a big advantage of CV QIP. On

  19. Quantum communication and information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beals, Travis Roland

    Quantum computers enable dramatically more efficient algorithms for solving certain classes of computational problems, but, in doing so, they create new problems. In particular, Shor's Algorithm allows for efficient cryptanalysis of many public-key cryptosystems. As public key cryptography is a critical component of present-day electronic commerce, it is crucial that a working, secure replacement be found. Quantum key distribution (QKD), first developed by C.H. Bennett and G. Brassard, offers a partial solution, but many challenges remain, both in terms of hardware limitations and in designing cryptographic protocols for a viable large-scale quantum communication infrastructure. In Part I, I investigate optical lattice-based approaches to quantum information processing. I look at details of a proposal for an optical lattice-based quantum computer, which could potentially be used for both quantum communications and for more sophisticated quantum information processing. In Part III, I propose a method for converting and storing photonic quantum bits in the internal state of periodically-spaced neutral atoms by generating and manipulating a photonic band gap and associated defect states. In Part II, I present a cryptographic protocol which allows for the extension of present-day QKD networks over much longer distances without the development of new hardware. I also present a second, related protocol which effectively solves the authentication problem faced by a large QKD network, thus making QKD a viable, information-theoretic secure replacement for public key cryptosystems.

  20. Quantum information processing : science & technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, Rebecca; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Tarman, Thomas David

    2010-09-01

    Qubits demonstrated using GaAs double quantum dots (DQD). The qubit basis states are the (1) singlet and (2) triplet stationary states. Long spin decoherence times in silicon spurs translation of GaAs qubit in to silicon. In the near term the goals are: (1) Develop surface gate enhancement mode double quantum dots (MOS & strained-Si/SiGe) to demonstrate few electrons and spin read-out and to examine impurity doped quantum-dots as an alternative architecture; (2) Use mobility, C-V, ESR, quantum dot performance & modeling to feedback and improve upon processing, this includes development of atomic precision fabrication at SNL; (3) Examine integrated electronics approaches to RF-SET; (4) Use combinations of numerical packages for multi-scale simulation of quantum dot systems (NEMO3D, EMT, TCAD, SPICE); and (5) Continue micro-architecture evaluation for different device and transport architectures.

  1. Euclidean black hole vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowker, Fay; Gregory, Ruth; Traschen, Jennie

    1991-01-01

    We argue the existence of solutions of the Euclidean Einstein equations that correspond to a vortex sitting at the horizon of a black hole. We find the asymptotic behaviors, at the horizon and at infinity, of vortex solutions for the gauge and scalar fields in an abelian Higgs model on a Euclidean Schwarzschild background and interpolate between them by integrating the equations numerically. Calculating the backreaction shows that the effect of the vortex is to cut a slice out of the Schwarzschild geometry. Consequences of these solutions for black hole thermodynamics are discussed.

  2. Efficient Quantum Information Processing via Quantum Compressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Luo, M. X.; Ma, S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose is to improve the quantum transmission efficiency and reduce the resource cost by quantum compressions. The lossless quantum compression is accomplished using invertible quantum transformations and applied to the quantum teleportation and the simultaneous transmission over quantum butterfly networks. New schemes can greatly reduce the entanglement cost, and partially solve transmission conflictions over common links. Moreover, the local compression scheme is useful for approximate entanglement creations from pre-shared entanglements. This special task has not been addressed because of the quantum no-cloning theorem. Our scheme depends on the local quantum compression and the bipartite entanglement transfer. Simulations show the success probability is greatly dependent of the minimal entanglement coefficient. These results may be useful in general quantum network communication.

  3. Euclidean supergravity in five dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Wafic A.; Vaughan, Owen

    2016-09-01

    We construct a 5D, N = 2 Euclidean theory of supergravity coupled to vector multiplets. Upon reducing this theory over a circle we recover the action of 4D, N = 2 Euclidean supergravity coupled to vector multiplets.

  4. Enjoyment of Euclidean Planar Triangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    This article adopts the following classification for a Euclidean planar [triangle]ABC, purely based on angles alone. A Euclidean planar triangle is said to be acute angled if all the three angles of the Euclidean planar [triangle]ABC are acute angles. It is said to be right angled at a specific vertex, say B, if the angle ?ABC is a right angle…

  5. Practicality of quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan

    Quantum Information Processing (QIP) is expected to bring revolutionary enhancement to various technological areas. However, today's QIP applications are far from being practical. The problem involves both hardware issues, i.e., quantum devices are imperfect, and software issues, i.e., the functionality of some QIP applications is not fully understood. Aiming to improve the practicality of QIP, in my PhD research I have studied various topics in quantum cryptography and ion trap quantum computation. In quantum cryptography, I first studied the security of position-based quantum cryptography (PBQC). I discovered a wrong assumption in the previous literature that the cheaters are not allowed to share entangled resources. I proposed entanglement attacks that could cheat all known PBQC protocols. I also studied the practicality of continuous-variable (CV) quantum secret sharing (QSS). While the security of CV QSS was considered by the literature only in the limit of infinite squeezing, I found that finitely squeezed CV resources could also provide finite secret sharing rate. Our work relaxes the stringent resources requirement of implementing QSS. In ion trap quantum computation, I studied the phase error of quantum information induced by dc Stark effect during ion transportation. I found an optimized ion trajectory for which the phase error is the minimum. I also defined a threshold speed, above which ion transportation would induce significant error. In addition, I proposed a new application for ion trap systems as universal bosonic simulators (UBS). I introduced two architectures, and discussed their respective strength and weakness. I illustrated the implementations of bosonic state initialization, transformation, and measurement by applying radiation fields or by varying the trap potential. When comparing with conducting optical experiments, the ion trap UBS is advantageous in higher state initialization efficiency and higher measurement accuracy. Finally, I

  6. Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Christian

    Trapped ions constitute a well-isolated small quantum system that offers low decoherence rates and excellent opportunities for quantum control and measurement by laser-induced manipulation of the ions. These properties make trapped ions an attractive system for experimental investigations of quantum information processing. In the following, the basics of storing, manipulating and measuring quantum information encoded in a string of trapped ions will be discussed. Based on these techniques, entanglement can be created and simple quantum protocols like quantum teleportation be realized. This chapter concludes with a discussion of the use of entangling laser-ion interactions for quantum simulations and quantum logic spectroscopy.

  7. Lateral Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Matthew Gregory

    The possibility of building a computer that takes advantage of the most subtle nature of quantum physics has been driving a lot of research in atomic and solid state physics for some time. It is still not clear what physical system or systems can be used for this purpose. One possibility that has been attracting significant attention from researchers is to use the spin state of an electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. The electron spin is magnetic in nature, so it naturally is well isolated from electrical fluctuations that can a loss of quantum coherence. It can also be manipulated electrically, by taking advantage of the exchange interaction. In this work we describe several experiments we have done to study the electron spin properties of lateral quantum dots. We have developed lateral quantum dot devices based on the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor, and studied the physics of electrons confined in these quantum dots. We measured the electron spin excited state lifetime, which was found to be as long as 30 ms at the lowest magnetic fields that we could measure. We fabricated and characterized a silicon double quantum dot. Using this double quantum dot design, we fabricated devices which combined a silicon double quantum dot with a superconducting microwave resonator. The microwave resonator was found to be sensitive to two-dimensional electrons in the transistor channel, which we measured and characterized. We developed a new method for extracting information from random telegraph signals, which are produced when we observe thermal fluctuations of electrons in quantum dots. The new statistical method, based on the hidden Markov model, allows us to detect spin-dependent effects in such fluctuations even though we are not able to directly observe the electron spin. We use this analysis technique on data from two experiments involving gallium arsenide quantum dots and use it to measure spin-dependent tunneling rates. Our results advance the

  8. Experimental Quantum Randomness Processing Using Superconducting Qubits.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Zhaopeng; Vijay, R; Sun, Luyan; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Coherently manipulating multipartite quantum correlations leads to remarkable advantages in quantum information processing. A fundamental question is whether such quantum advantages persist only by exploiting multipartite correlations, such as entanglement. Recently, Dale, Jennings, and Rudolph negated the question by showing that a randomness processing, quantum Bernoulli factory, using quantum coherence, is strictly more powerful than the one with classical mechanics. In this Letter, focusing on the same scenario, we propose a theoretical protocol that is classically impossible but can be implemented solely using quantum coherence without entanglement. We demonstrate the protocol by exploiting the high-fidelity quantum state preparation and measurement with a superconducting qubit in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and a nearly quantum-limited parametric amplifier. Our experiment shows the advantage of using quantum coherence of a single qubit for information processing even when multipartite correlation is not present. PMID:27419550

  9. Experimental Quantum Randomness Processing Using Superconducting Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Zhaopeng; Vijay, R.; Sun, Luyan; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Coherently manipulating multipartite quantum correlations leads to remarkable advantages in quantum information processing. A fundamental question is whether such quantum advantages persist only by exploiting multipartite correlations, such as entanglement. Recently, Dale, Jennings, and Rudolph negated the question by showing that a randomness processing, quantum Bernoulli factory, using quantum coherence, is strictly more powerful than the one with classical mechanics. In this Letter, focusing on the same scenario, we propose a theoretical protocol that is classically impossible but can be implemented solely using quantum coherence without entanglement. We demonstrate the protocol by exploiting the high-fidelity quantum state preparation and measurement with a superconducting qubit in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and a nearly quantum-limited parametric amplifier. Our experiment shows the advantage of using quantum coherence of a single qubit for information processing even when multipartite correlation is not present.

  10. Experimental Quantum Randomness Processing Using Superconducting Qubits.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Zhaopeng; Vijay, R; Sun, Luyan; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Coherently manipulating multipartite quantum correlations leads to remarkable advantages in quantum information processing. A fundamental question is whether such quantum advantages persist only by exploiting multipartite correlations, such as entanglement. Recently, Dale, Jennings, and Rudolph negated the question by showing that a randomness processing, quantum Bernoulli factory, using quantum coherence, is strictly more powerful than the one with classical mechanics. In this Letter, focusing on the same scenario, we propose a theoretical protocol that is classically impossible but can be implemented solely using quantum coherence without entanglement. We demonstrate the protocol by exploiting the high-fidelity quantum state preparation and measurement with a superconducting qubit in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and a nearly quantum-limited parametric amplifier. Our experiment shows the advantage of using quantum coherence of a single qubit for information processing even when multipartite correlation is not present.

  11. Whiteheadian process and quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.

    1998-08-01

    There are deep similarities between Whitehead's idea of the process by which nature unfolds and the ideas of quantum theory. Whitehead says that the world is made of ''actual occasions'', each of which arises from potentialities created by prior actual occasions. These actual occasions are happenings modeled on experiential events, each of which comes into being and then perishes, only to be replaced by a successor. It is these experience-like happenings that are the basic realities of nature, according to Whitehead, not the persisting physical particles that Newtonian physics took be the basic entities. Similarly, Heisenberg says that what is really happening in a quantum process is the emergence of an actual from potentialities created by prior actualities. In the orthodox Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory the actual things to which the theory refer are increments in ''our knowledge''. These increments are experiential events. The particles of classical physics lose their fundamental status: they dissolve into diffuse clouds of possibilities. At each stage of the unfolding of nature the complete cloud of possibilities acts like the potentiality for the occurrence of a next increment in knowledge, whose occurrence can radically change the cloud of possibilities/potentialities for the still-later increments in knowledge. The fundamental difference between these ideas about nature and the classical ideas that reigned from the time of Newton until this century concerns the status of the experiential aspects of nature. These are things such as thoughts, ideas, feelings, and sensations. They are distinguished from the physical aspects of nature, which are described in terms of quantities explicitly located in tiny regions of space and time. According to the ideas of classical physics the physical world is made up exclusively of things of this latter type, and the unfolding of the physical world is determined by causal connections involving only these things

  12. Debugging quantum processes using monitoring measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yangjia; Ying, Mingsheng

    2014-04-01

    Since observation on a quantum system may cause the system state collapse, it is usually hard to find a way to monitor a quantum process, which is a quantum system that continuously evolves. We propose a protocol that can debug a quantum process by monitoring, but not disturb the evolution of the system. This protocol consists of an error detector and a debugging strategy. The detector is a projection operator that is orthogonal to the anticipated system state at a sequence of time points, and the strategy is used to specify these time points. As an example, we show how to debug the computational process of quantum search using this protocol. By applying the Skolem-Mahler-Lech theorem in algebraic number theory, we find an algorithm to construct all of the debugging protocols for quantum processes of time-independent Hamiltonians.

  13. Photonic qubits for remote quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunz, P.; Olmschenk, S.; Hayes, D.; Matsukevich, D. N.; Duan, L.-M.; Monroe, C.

    2009-05-01

    Quantum information processing between remote quantum memories relies on a fast and faithful quantum channel. Recent experiments employed both, the photonic polarization and frequency qubits, in order to entangle remote atoms [1, 2], to teleport quantum information [3] and to operate a quantum gate between distant atoms. Here, we compare the dierent schemes used in these experiments and analyze the advantages of the dierent choices of atomic and photonic qubits and their coherence properties. [4pt] [1] D. L. Moehring et al. Nature 449, 68 (2007).[0pt] [2] D. N. Matsukevich et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 150404 2008).[0pt] [3] S. Olmschenk et al. Science, 323, 486 (2009).

  14. Quantum information processing with atoms and photons.

    PubMed

    Monroe, C

    2002-03-14

    Quantum information processors exploit the quantum features of superposition and entanglement for applications not possible in classical devices, offering the potential for significant improvements in the communication and processing of information. Experimental realization of large-scale quantum information processors remains a long-term vision, as the required nearly pure quantum behaviour is observed only in exotic hardware such as individual laser-cooled atoms and isolated photons. But recent theoretical and experimental advances suggest that cold atoms and individual photons may lead the way towards bigger and better quantum information processors, effectively building mesoscopic versions of 'Schrödinger's cat' from the bottom up.

  15. Quantum-information processing in disordered and complex quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Ahufinger, Veronica; Briegel, Hans J.; Sanpera, Anna; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2006-12-15

    We study quantum information processing in complex disordered many body systems that can be implemented by using lattices of ultracold atomic gases and trapped ions. We demonstrate, first in the short range case, the generation of entanglement and the local realization of quantum gates in a disordered magnetic model describing a quantum spin glass. We show that in this case it is possible to achieve fidelities of quantum gates higher than in the classical case. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ions chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be used to model neural network Hamiltonians. For such systems, where both long range interactions and disorder appear, it is possible to generate long range bipartite entanglement. We provide an efficient analytical method to calculate the time evolution of a given initial state, which in turn allows us to calculate its quantum correlations.

  16. Ideas of Space - Euclidean, Non-Euclidean, and Relativistic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Jeremy

    1989-09-01

    Now in a revised and expanded new edition, this volume chronologically traces the evolution of Euclidean, non-Euclidean, and relativistic theories regarding the shape of the universe. A unique, highly readable, and entertaining account, the book assumes no special mathematical knowledge. It reviews the failed classical attempts to prove the parallel postulate and provides coverage of the role of Gauss, Lobachevskii, and Bolyai in setting the foundations of modern differential geometry, which laid the groundwork for Einstein's theories of special and general relativity. This updated account includes a new chapter on Islamic contributions to this area, as well as additional information on gravitation, the nature of space and black holes.

  17. Virtual Processes and Quantum Tunnelling as Fictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Richard T. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that virtual processes are dispensable fictions. The argument proceeds by a comparison with the phenomenon of quantum tunnelling. Building on an analysis of Levy-Leblond and Balibar, it is argued that, although the phenomenon known as quantum tunnelling certainly occurs and is at the basis of many paradigmatic quantum…

  18. Trapped Atomic Ions and Quantum Information Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Wineland, D. J.; Leibfried, D.; Bergquist, J. C.; Blakestad, R. B.; Bollinger, J. J.; Britton, J.; Chiaverini, J.; Epstein, R. J.; Hume, D. B.; Itano, W. M.; Jost, J. D.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Langer, C.; Ozeri, R.; Reichle, R.; Rosenband, T.; Schaetz, T.; Schmidt, P. O.; Seidelin, S.; Shiga, N.

    2006-11-07

    The basic requirements for quantum computing and quantum simulation (single- and multi-qubit gates, long memory times, etc.) have been demonstrated in separate experiments on trapped ions. Construction of a large-scale information processor will require synthesis of these elements and implementation of high-fidelity operations on a very large number of qubits. This is still well in the future. NIST and other groups are addressing part of the scaling issue by trying to fabricate multi-zone arrays of traps that would allow highly-parallel and scalable processing. In the near term, some simple quantum processing protocols are being used to aid in quantum metrology, such as in atomic clocks. As the number of qubits increases, Schroedinger's cat paradox and the measurement problem in quantum mechanics become more apparent; with luck, trapped ion systems might be able to shed light on these fundamental issues.

  19. Experimental Monte Carlo Quantum Process Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, L.; da Silva, M. P.; Fedorov, A.; Baur, M.; Wallraff, A.

    2012-06-01

    Experimental implementations of quantum information processing have now reached a level of sophistication where quantum process tomography is impractical. The number of experimental settings as well as the computational cost of the data postprocessing now translates to days of effort to characterize even experiments with as few as 8 qubits. Recently a more practical approach to determine the fidelity of an experimental quantum process has been proposed, where the experimental data are compared directly with an ideal process using Monte Carlo sampling. Here, we present an experimental implementation of this scheme in a circuit quantum electrodynamics setup to determine the fidelity of 2-qubit gates, such as the CPHASE and the CNOT gate, and 3-qubit gates, such as the Toffoli gate and two sequential CPHASE gates.

  20. Euclidean, Spherical, and Hyperbolic Shadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoban, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Many classical problems in elementary calculus use Euclidean geometry. This article takes such a problem and solves it in hyperbolic and in spherical geometry instead. The solution requires only the ability to compute distances and intersections of points in these geometries. The dramatically different results we obtain illustrate the effect…

  1. Experimental Monte Carlo Quantum Process Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Lars; Fedorov, Arkady; Baur, Matthias; Palmer da Silva, Marcus; Wallraff, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Experimental implementations of quantum information processing have now reached a state, at which quantum process tomography starts to become impractical, since the number of experimental settings as well as the computational cost of the post processing required to extract the process matrix from the measurements scales exponentially with the number of qubits in the system. In order to determine the fidelity of an implemented process relative to the ideal one, a more practical approach called Monte Carlo quantum process certification was proposed in Ref. [1]. Here we present an experimental implementation of this scheme in a circuit quantum electrodynamics setup. Our system is realized with three superconducting transmon qubits coupled to a coplanar microwave resonator which is used for the joint-readout of the qubit states. We demonstrate an implementation of Monte Carlo quantum process certification and determine the fidelity of different two- and three-qubit gates such as cphase-, cnot-, 2cphase- and Toffoli-gates. The obtained results are compared with the values obtained from conventional process tomography and the errors of the obtained fidelities are determined. [4pt] [1] M. P. da Silva, O. Landon-Cardinal and D. Poulin, arXiv:1104.3835(2011)

  2. Ancilla-assisted quantum process tomography.

    PubMed

    Altepeter, J B; Branning, D; Jeffrey, E; Wei, T C; Kwiat, P G; Thew, R T; O'Brien, J L; Nielsen, M A; White, A G

    2003-05-16

    Complete and precise characterization of a quantum dynamical process can be achieved via the method of quantum process tomography. Using a source of correlated photons, we have implemented several methods, each investigating a wide range of processes, e.g., unitary, decohering, and polarizing. One of these methods, ancilla-assisted process tomography (AAPT), makes use of an additional "ancilla system," and we have theoretically determined the conditions when AAPT is possible. Surprisingly, entanglement is not required. We present data obtained using both separable and entangled input states. The use of entanglement yields superior results, however. PMID:12785945

  3. Euclidean Circles and Their Modular Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1990-01-01

    Shows a series of Euclidean equations using the Euclidean algorithm to get the greatest common divisor of two integers. Describes the use of the equations to generate a series of circles. Discusses computer generation of Euclidean circles and provides a BASIC program. (YP)

  4. Engineering Photonic Switches for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Neal N.

    In this dissertation, we describe, characterize, and demonstrate the operation of a dual-in, dual-out, all-optical, fiber-based quantum switch. This "cross-bar" switch is particularly useful for applications in quantum information processing because of its low-loss, high-speed, low-noise, and quantum-state-retention properties. Building upon on our lab's prior development of an ultrafast demultiplexer [1-3] , the new cross-bar switch can be used as a tunable multiplexer and demultiplexer. In addition to this more functional geometry, we present results demonstrating faster performance with a switching window of ≈45 ps, corresponding to >20-GHz switching rates. We show a switching fidelity of >98%, i. e., switched polarization-encoded photonic qubits are virtually identical to unswitched photonic qubits. We also demonstrate the ability to select one channel from a two-channel quantum data stream with the state of the measured (recovered) quantum channel having >96% relative fidelity with the state of that channel transmitted alone. We separate the two channels of the quantum data stream by 155 ps, corresponding to a 6.5-GHz datastream. Finally, we describe, develop, and demonstrate an application that utilizes the switch's higher-speed, lower-loss, and spatio-temporal-encoding features to perform quantum state tomographies on entangled states in higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Since many previous demonstrations show bipartite entanglement of two-level systems, we define "higher" as d > 2 where d represents the dimensionality of a photon. We show that we can generate and measure time-bin-entangled, two-photon, qutrit (d = 3) and ququat (d = 4) states with >85% and >64% fidelity to an ideal maximally entangled state, respectively. Such higher-dimensional states have applications in dense coding [4] , loophole-free tests of nonlocality [5] , simplifying quantum logic gates [6] , and increasing tolerance to noise and loss for quantum information processing [7] .

  5. Euclidean Geometry via Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filimonov, Rossen; Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Plane Geometry System computer software developed at the Educational Computer Systems laboratory in Sofia, Bulgaria. The system enables students to use the concept of "algorithm" to correspond to the process of "deductive proof" in the development of plane geometry. Provides an example of the software's capability and compares it to…

  6. Quantum information processing by weaving quantum Talbot carpets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías, Osvaldo Jiménez; de Melo, Fernando; Milman, Pérola; Walborn, Stephen P.

    2015-06-01

    Single-photon interference due to passage through a periodic grating is considered in a novel proposal for processing D -dimensional quantum systems (quDits) encoded in the spatial degrees of freedom of light. We show that free-space propagation naturally implements basic single-quDit gates by means of the Talbot effect: an intricate time-space carpet of light in the near-field diffraction regime. By adding a diagonal phase gate, we show that a complete set of single-quDit gates can be implemented. We then introduce a spatially dependent beam splitter that allows for projective measurements in the computational basis and can be used for the implementation of controlled operations between two quDits. Universal quantum information processing can then be implemented with linear optics and ancilla photons via postselection and feed-forward following the original proposal of Knill-Laflamme and Milburn. Although we consider photons, our scheme should be directly applicable to a number of other physical systems. Interpretation of the Talbot effect as a quantum logic operation provides a beautiful and interesting way to visualize quantum computation through wave propagation and interference.

  7. Non-Local Euclidean Medians.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Kunal N; Singer, Amit

    2012-11-01

    In this letter, we note that the denoising performance of Non-Local Means (NLM) can be improved at large noise levels by replacing the mean by the Euclidean median. We call this new denoising algorithm the Non-Local Euclidean Medians (NLEM). At the heart of NLEM is the observation that the median is more robust to outliers than the mean. In particular, we provide a simple geometric insight that explains why NLEM performs better than NLM in the vicinity of edges, particularly at large noise levels. NLEM can be efficiently implemented using iteratively reweighted least squares, and its computational complexity is comparable to that of NLM. We provide some preliminary results to study the proposed algorithm and to compare it with NLM.

  8. General Nth order integrals of motion in the Euclidean plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, S.; Winternitz, P.

    2015-10-01

    The general form of an integral of motion that is a polynomial of order N in the momenta is presented for a Hamiltonian system in two-dimensional Euclidean space. The classical and the quantum cases are treated separately, emphasizing both the similarities and the differences between the two. The main application will be to study Nth order superintegrable systems that allow separation of variables in the Hamilton-Jacobi and Schrödinger equations, respectively.

  9. Sub-Poissonian processes in quantum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidovich, Luiz

    1996-01-01

    The author reviews methods for generating sub-Poissonian light and related concepts. This light has energy fluctuations reduced below the level which corresponds to a classical Poissonian process (shot-noise level). After an introduction to the concept of nonclassical light, an overview is given of the main methods of quantum-noise reduction. Sub-Poissonian processes are exemplified in different areas of optics, ranging from single-atom resonance fluorescence to nonlinear optics, laser physics, and cavity quantum electrodynamics. Emphasis is placed on the conceptual foundations, and on developments in laser theory that lead to the possibility, already demonstrated experimentally, of linewidth narrowing and sub-Poissonian light generation in lasers and masers. The sources of quantum noise in these devices are analyzed, and four noise-suppression methods are discussed in detail: regularization of the pumping, suppression of spontaneous-emission noise, nonadiabatic evolution of the atomic variables, and twin-beam generation.

  10. Reversibility in Quantum Models of Stochastic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gier, David; Crutchfield, James; Mahoney, John; James, Ryan

    Natural phenomena such as time series of neural firing, orientation of layers in crystal stacking and successive measurements in spin-systems are inherently probabilistic. The provably minimal classical models of such stochastic processes are ɛ-machines, which consist of internal states, transition probabilities between states and output values. The topological properties of the ɛ-machine for a given process characterize the structure, memory and patterns of that process. However ɛ-machines are often not ideal because their statistical complexity (Cμ) is demonstrably greater than the excess entropy (E) of the processes they represent. Quantum models (q-machines) of the same processes can do better in that their statistical complexity (Cq) obeys the relation Cμ >= Cq >= E. q-machines can be constructed to consider longer lengths of strings, resulting in greater compression. With code-words of sufficiently long length, the statistical complexity becomes time-symmetric - a feature apparently novel to this quantum representation. This result has ramifications for compression of classical information in quantum computing and quantum communication technology.

  11. Exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    Large momentum transfer exclusive processes and the short distance structure of hadronic wave functions can be systematically analyzed within the context of perturbative QCD. Predictions for meson form factors, two-photon processes ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. M anti M, hadronic decays of heavy quark systems, and a number of other related QCD phenomena are reviewed.

  12. Measurement and Fundamental Processes in Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Gregg

    2015-07-01

    In the standard mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, measurement is an additional, exceptional fundamental process rather than an often complex, but ordinary process which happens also to serve a particular epistemic function: during a measurement of one of its properties which is not already determined by a preceding measurement, a measured system, even if closed, is taken to change its state discontinuously rather than continuously as is usual. Many, including Bell, have been concerned about the fundamental role thus given to measurement in the foundation of the theory. Others, including the early Bohr and Schwinger, have suggested that quantum mechanics naturally incorporates the unavoidable uncontrollable disturbance of physical state that accompanies any local measurement without the need for an exceptional fundamental process or a special measurement theory. Disturbance is unanalyzable for Bohr, but for Schwinger it is due to physical interactions' being borne by fundamental particles having discrete properties and behavior which is beyond physical control. Here, Schwinger's approach is distinguished from more well known treatments of measurement, with the conclusion that, unlike most, it does not suffer under Bell's critique of quantum measurement. Finally, Schwinger's critique of measurement theory is explicated as a call for a deeper investigation of measurement processes that requires the use of a theory of quantum fields.

  13. Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Peter Lepage, G.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * NONRELATIVISTIC FORM FACTORS FOR HEAVY-QUARK MESONS * HADRONIC WAVEFUNCTIONS * DEFINITIONS * LIGHT-CONE BOUND-STATE EQUATIONS * GENERAL PROPERTIES OF LIGHT-CONE WAVEFUNCTIONS * RENORMALIZATION * CALCULATING * A PERTURBATIVE ANALYSIS * FACTORIZATION—LEADING ORDER ANALYSIS * THE QUARK DISTRIBUTION AMPLITUDE * DETERMINATION OF DISTRIBUTION AMPLITUDES * HIGHER ORDER ANALYSIS * COMPLICATIONS * How LARGE IS ASYMPTOTIC Q? * APPLICATIONS OF QCD TO THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF EXCLUSIVE REACTIONS * GENERAL FEATURES OF EXCLUSIVE PROCESSES IN QCD * ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM FACTORS * COMPARISON OF QCD SCALING WITH EXPERIMENT * EXCLUSIVE ANTI-PROTON PROTON ANNIHILATION PROCESSES * ADDITIONAL TESTS OF GLUON SPIN IN EXCLUSIVE PROCESSES * HADRONIC WAVEFUNCTION PHENOMENOLOGY * CALCULATING TH * THE PRE-QCD DEVELOPMENT OF EXCLUSIVE REACTIONS * EXCLUSIVE e+ e- ANNIHILATION PROCESSES * J/ψ DECAY TO HADRON PAIRS * THE π-ρ PUZZLE * FORM FACTOR ZEROS IN QCD * EXCLUSIVE γγ REACTIONS * QCD PROCESSES IN NUCLEI * EXCLUSIVE NUCLEAR REACTIONS - REDUCED AMPLITUDES * COLOR TRANSPARENCY * SPIN CORRELATIONS IN PROTON-PROTON SCATTERING * CONCLUSIONS * APPENDIX I BARYON FORM FACTORS AND EVOLUTION EQUATIONS * APPENDIX II LIGHT CONE QUANTIZATION AND PERTURBATION THEORY * APPENDIX III A NONPERTURBATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXCLUSIVE REACTIONS-DISCRETIZED LIGHT-CONE QUANTIZATION * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  14. A unified framework for quantum Zeno processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Home, D.; Whitaker, M. A. B.

    1993-02-01

    The genesis of quantum Zeno type results is shown to be in the suppression of “regeneration” terms in the state-vector. In the absence of intermediate effects, the “decayed” component of the state-vector at one time gives rise to a “surviving” component at later times. Intermediate effects can suppress this effect; they may be observations as in the original quantum Zeno “paradox”, or microscopic interactions. Thus all such processes are shown to be analogous formally, though of different status conceptually.

  15. Quantum imaging as an ancilla-assisted process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalaii, M.; Afsary, M.; Alipour, S.; Rezakhani, A. T.

    2016-10-01

    We show how a recent experiment of quantum imaging with undetected photons can basically be described as an (a partial) ancilla-assisted process tomography in which the object is described by an amplitude-damping quantum channel. We propose a simplified quantum circuit version of this scenario, which also enables one to recast quantum imaging in quantum computation language. Our analogy and analysis may help us to better understand the role of classical and/or quantum correlations in imaging experiments.

  16. Self-duality in Euclidean supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, G. M.; Tchrakian, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    The compatibility conditions for curvatures satisfying self-duality (Hawking, 1978) and double-duality (Hehl et al., 1978) ansaetze in the theory of vacuum (Euclidean) supergravity and for the double-duality ansatz in Minkowski theory are investigated theoretically. It is found that the equations of motion of Euclidean supergravity admit solutions with self-dual curvature which correspond to nontrivial field configurations, and that the double-duality ansatz leads to nontrival configurations in both Euclidean and Minkowski cases.

  17. A Case Example of Insect Gymnastics: How Is Non-Euclidean Geometry Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junius, Premalatha

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the article is on the complex cognitive process involved in learning the concept of "straightness" in Non-Euclidean geometry. Learning new material is viewed through a conflict resolution framework, as a student questions familiar assumptions understood in Euclidean geometry. A case study reveals how mathematization of the straight…

  18. Primordial scalar power spectrum from the Euclidean big bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schander, Susanne; Barrau, Aurélien; Bolliet, Boris; Linsefors, Linda; Mielczarek, Jakub; Grain, Julien

    2016-01-01

    In effective models of loop quantum cosmology, the holonomy corrections are associated with deformations of space-time symmetries. The most evident manifestation of the deformations is the emergence of a Euclidean phase accompanying the nonsingular bouncing dynamics of the scale factor. In this article, we compute the power spectrum of scalar perturbations generated in this model, with a massive scalar field as the matter content. Instantaneous and adiabatic vacuum-type initial conditions for scalar perturbations are imposed in the contracting phase. The evolution through the Euclidean region is calculated based on the extrapolation of the time direction pointed by the vectors normal to the Cauchy hypersurface in the Lorentzian domains. The obtained power spectrum is characterized by a suppression in the IR regime and oscillations in the intermediate energy range. Furthermore, the speculative extension of the analysis in the UV reveals a specific rise of the power leading to results incompatible with the data.

  19. From geometry to algebra: the Euclidean way with technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarello, Daniela; Flavia Mammana, Maria; Pennisi, Mario

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of an experimental classroom activity, history-based with a phylogenetic approach, to achieve algebra properties through geometry. In particular, we used Euclidean propositions, processed them by a dynamic geometry system and translate them into algebraic special products.

  20. Quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of discrete processes

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1981-03-01

    Here the results of other work on quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of Turing machines are extended to include any discrete process T on a countably infinite set A. The models are constructed here by use of scattering phase shifts from successive scatterers to turn on successive step interactions. Also a locality requirement is imposed. The construction is done by first associating with each process T a model quantum system M with associated Hilbert space H/sub M/ and step operator U/sub T/. Since U/sub T/ is not unitary in general, M, H/sub M/, and U/sub T/ are extended into a (continuous time) Hamiltonian model on a larger space which satisfies the locality requirement. The construction is compared with the minimal unitary dilation of U/sub T/. It is seen that the model constructed here is larger than the minimal one. However, the minimal one does not satisfy the locality requirement.

  1. Process tomography for unitary quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Gutoski, Gus; Johnston, Nathaniel

    2014-03-15

    We study the number of measurements required for quantum process tomography under prior information, such as a promise that the unknown channel is unitary. We introduce the notion of an interactive observable and we show that any unitary channel acting on a d-level quantum system can be uniquely identified among all other channels (unitary or otherwise) with only O(d{sup 2}) interactive observables, as opposed to the O(d{sup 4}) required for tomography of arbitrary channels. This result generalizes to the problem of identifying channels with at most q Kraus operators, and slight improvements can be obtained if we wish to identify such a channel only among unital channels or among other channels with q Kraus operators. These results are proven via explicit construction of large subspaces of Hermitian matrices with various conditions on rank, eigenvalues, and partial trace. Our constructions are built upon various forms of totally nonsingular matrices.

  2. Quantum-Chemical Studies on TATB Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, R. S.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Jadhav, P. M.; Ghule, V. D.; Soman, T.

    2010-04-01

    Quantum chemical studies have gained paramount importance in screening of thermodynamically feasible chemical processes. The current investigation attempts to select an appropriate process for the synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitro benzene (TATB), a reasonably powerful insensitive high explosive (IHE) through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Although, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (THB) routes for synthesis of TATB have been well established, this article demonstrates the predictive capability of thermochemical computations for the identification of a viable process. Thermochemical parameters of reaction species have been obtained from DFT B3LYP/6-31G* calculations and feasibility of the process has been worked out on the basis of free energies of reactions and equilibrium constant as derived from standard enthalpy and entropy of the reaction species. The detailed computational studies have revealed that the THB route is thermodynamically feasible and the same has been supported experimentally.

  3. Cold atom quantum emulation of ultrafast processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Shankari; Geiger, Zachary; Fujiwara, Kurt; Singh, Kevin; Senaratne, Ruwan; Weld, David

    2016-05-01

    Pulsed lasers are an invaluable probe of fast electron dynamics in condensed matter systems. However, despite tremendous progress, physical limitations on lasers and a lack of exact theoretical models still limit the exploration of ultrafast processes in solids. We discuss a possible complementary approach, in which lattice-trapped cold neutral atoms driven far from equilibrium are used as a quantum emulator of ultrafast physics at sub-cycle timescales. The cold atom context is in many ways a natural choice for such experiments: equilibration timescales are more than ten orders of magnitude slower than those in solids, and strong driving forces are easily produced and manipulated. Our experimental approach uses ultracold strontium in optical traps. Multiple stable isotopes and a long-lived metastable state provide control over interaction strengths, while a narrow-linewidth transition expands the typical cold-atom toolbox of readout techniques. We discuss initial efforts in quantum emulation of tunnel ionization and development of a platform for more complicated endeavors, including the study of multiple-pulse sequences and recollision processes. We acknowledge support from the NSF GRFP, the AFOSR, the ARO and DURIP program, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the University of California Office of the President.

  4. Compact component for integrated quantum optic processing.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2015-01-01

    Quantum interference is indispensable to derive integrated quantum optic technologies (1-2). For further progress in large scale integration of quantum optic circuit, we have introduced first time two mode interference (TMI) coupler as an ultra compact component. The quantum interference varying with coupling length corresponding to the coupling ratio is studied and the larger HOM dip with peak visibility ~0.963 ± 0.009 is found at half coupling length of TMI coupler. Our results also demonstrate complex quantum interference with high fabrication tolerance and quantum visibility in TMI coupler.

  5. Fast Encoding Method for Image Vector Quantization Based on Multiple Appropriate Features to Estimate Euclidean Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhibin; Kotani, Koji; Ohmi, Tadahiro

    The encoding process of finding the best-matched codeword (winner) for a certain input vector in image vector quantization (VQ) is computationally very expensive due to a lot of k-dimensional Euclidean distance computations. In order to speed up the VQ encoding process, it is beneficial to firstly estimate how large the Euclidean distance is between the input vector and a candidate codeword by using appropriate low dimensional features of a vector instead of an immediate Euclidean distance computation. If the estimated Euclidean distance is large enough, it implies that the current candidate codeword could not be a winner so that it can be rejected safely and thus avoid actual Euclidean distance computation. Sum (1-D), L2 norm (1-D) and partial sums (2-D) of a vector are used together as the appropriate features in this paper because they are the first three simplest features. Then, four estimations of Euclidean distance between the input vector and a codeword are connected to each other by the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality to realize codeword rejection. For typical standard images with very different details (Lena, F-16, Pepper and Baboon), the final remaining must-do actual Euclidean distance computations can be eliminated obviously and the total computational cost including all overhead can also be reduced obviously compared to the state-of-the-art EEENNS method meanwhile keeping a full search (FS) equivalent PSNR.

  6. Quantum Information Processing using Scalable Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanneke, D.; Bowler, R.; Jost, J. D.; Home, J. P.; Lin, Y.; Tan, T.-R.; Leibfried, D.; Wineland, D. J.

    2011-05-01

    We report progress towards improving our previous demonstrations that combined all the fundamental building blocks required for scalable quantum information processing using trapped atomic ions. Included elements are long-lived qubits; a laser-induced universal gate set; state initialization and readout; and information transport, including co-trapping a second ion species to reinitialize motion without qubit decoherence. Recent efforts have focused on reducing experimental overhead and increasing gate fidelity. Most of the experimental duty cycle was previously used for transport, separation, and recombination of ion chains as well as re-cooling of motional excitation. We have addressed these issues by developing and implementing an arbitrary waveform generator with an update rate far above the ions' motional frequencies. To reduce gate errors, we actively stabilize the position of several UV (313 nm) laser beams. We have also switched the two-qubit entangling gate to one that acts directly on 9Be+ hyperfine qubit states whose energy separation is magnetic-fluctuation insensitive. This work is supported by DARPA, NSA, ONR, IARPA, Sandia, and the NIST Quantum Information Program.

  7. Entropy Transfer of Quantum Gravity Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2015-05-01

    We introduce the term smooth entanglement entropy transfer, a phenomenon that is a consequence of the causality-cancellation property of the quantum gravity environment. The causality-cancellation of the quantum gravity space removes the causal dependencies of the local systems. We study the physical effects of the causality-cancellation and show that it stimulates entropy transfer between the quantum gravity environment and the independent local systems of the quantum gravity space. The entropy transfer reduces the entropies of the contributing local systems and increases the entropy of the quantum gravity environment. We discuss the space-time geometry structure of the quantum gravity environment and the local quantum systems. We propose the space-time geometry model of the smooth entropy transfer. We reveal on a smooth Cauchy slice that the space-time geometry of the quantum gravity environment dynamically adapts to the vanishing causality. We prove that the Cauchy area expansion, along with the dilation of the Rindler horizon area of the quantum gravity environment, is a corollary of the causality-cancellation of the quantum gravity environment. This work was partially supported by the GOP-1.1.1-11-2012-0092 (Secure quantum key distribution between two units on optical fiber network) project sponsored by the EU and European Structural Fund, and by the COST Action MP1006.

  8. Gate fidelity fluctuations and quantum process invariants

    SciTech Connect

    Magesan, Easwar; Emerson, Joseph; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2011-07-15

    We characterize the quantum gate fidelity in a state-independent manner by giving an explicit expression for its variance. The method we provide can be extended to calculate all higher order moments of the gate fidelity. Using these results, we obtain a simple expression for the variance of a single-qubit system and deduce the asymptotic behavior for large-dimensional quantum systems. Applications of these results to quantum chaos and randomized benchmarking are discussed.

  9. Material Processing of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, Jay Ira

    1995-01-01

    The material and device characterization of furnace and rapid thermally annealed (RTA) GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) infrared (IR) photodetectors (QWIPs) epitaxially grown on GaAs and Si substrates is presented. The advances in epitaxial growth allow the precise control of the dimensions, doping, and matrix concentration of the MQW. Therefore, the design of a QWIP with particular electrical and optical characteristics may be undertaken. To utilize a post-growth anneal to improve the QWIP's performance, the trade-offs must be considered to determine its usefulness. Depending on the application, the anneal may be deemed unnecessary due to its detrimental effect on a particular aspect of the operation. The availability of high quality GaAs and Si substrates, complemented by the maturity of GaAs device processing techniques, makes the QWIP an ideal candidate for 8-14 μm long wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection. An extensive exploration of the interdiffusion process leads to the development of a suitable technique for shifting the optical response without harming the electrical characteristics. This, however, is a difficult task in light of the out-diffusion of the dopant from the wells into the barriers, which results in a high dark current. Reading-out the QWIP focal plane array (FPA) (on GaAs substrate) is accomplished by indium bump-bonding the FPA to a Si multiplexer. Thermal cycling the hybrid, unfortunately, results in destroyed bonds due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of the two substrates. Growing the QWIP on a Si substrate better satisfies the packaging requirements; however, the dark current is higher. The technique of annealing for the purpose of defect annihilation results in improvements in the absolute response and a reduction in the dark current.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processing

    PubMed Central

    Serra, R. M.; Oliveira, I. S.

    2012-01-01

    For the past decade, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been established as a main experimental technique for testing quantum protocols in small systems. This Theme Issue presents recent advances and major challenges of NMR quantum information possessing (QIP), including contributions by researchers from 10 different countries. In this introduction, after a short comment on NMR-QIP basics, we briefly anticipate the contents of this issue. PMID:22946031

  11. Using quantum filters to process images of diffuse axonal injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Osorio, Mateo

    2014-06-01

    Some images corresponding to a diffuse axonal injury (DAI) are processed using several quantum filters such as Hermite Weibull and Morse. Diffuse axonal injury is a particular, common and severe case of traumatic brain injury (TBI). DAI involves global damage on microscopic scale of brain tissue and causes serious neurologic abnormalities. New imaging techniques provide excellent images showing cellular damages related to DAI. Said images can be processed with quantum filters, which accomplish high resolutions of dendritic and axonal structures both in normal and pathological state. Using the Laplacian operators from the new quantum filters, excellent edge detectors for neurofiber resolution are obtained. Image quantum processing of DAI images is made using computer algebra, specifically Maple. Quantum filter plugins construction is proposed as a future research line, which can incorporated to the ImageJ software package, making its use simpler for medical personnel.

  12. Controlled Hawking process by quantum energy teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, a new quantum mechanical method to extract energy from black holes with contracting horizons is proposed. The method is based on a gedanken experiment on quantum energy teleportation, which has been recently proposed in quantum information theory. We consider this quantum energy teleportation protocol for N massless fields in near-horizon regions of large-mass black holes with near-horizon geometry described by the Minkowski metric. For each field, a two-level spin is strongly coupled with the local quantum fluctuation outside the horizon during a short time period. After the measurement of N fields, N-bit information is obtained. During the measurement, positive-energy wave packets of the fields form and then fall into the black hole. The amount of excitation energy is independent of the measurement result. After absorption of the wave packets and increase of the black-hole mass, a measurement-result-dependent local operation of the N fields is performed outside the horizon. Then, accompanying the extraction of positive energy from the quantum fluctuation by the operation, negative-energy wave packets of the fields form and then fall into the black hole, decreasing the black-hole mass. This implies that a part of the absorbed positive energy emitted from the measurement devices is effectively retrieved from the black hole via the measurement results.

  13. Manipulation of Entangled States for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, S.; Huelga, S. F.; Jonathan, D.; Knight, P. L.; Murao, M.; Plenio, M. B.; Vedral, V.

    Entanglement manipulation, and especially Entanglement Swapping is at the heart of current work on quantum information processing, purification and quantum teleportation. We will discuss how it may be generalized to multiparticle systems and how this enables multi-user quantum cryptographic protocols to be developed. Our scheme allows us to establish multiparticle entanglement between particles which belong to distant users in a communication network through a prior distribution of Bell state singlets followed by local measurements. We compare our method for generating entanglement with existing schemes using simple quantum networks, and highlight the advantages and applications in cryptographic conferencing and in reading messages from more than one source through a single quantum measurement. We also discuss how entanglement leads to the idea of `telecloning', in which a teleportation-like protocol can be found which reproduces the output of an optimal quantum cloning machine.

  14. Understanding Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2008-05-01

    Ever since Erwin Schrodinger shocked the physics world by killing (and not killing) his cat, entanglement has played a critical role in attempts to understand quantum mechanics. More recently, entanglement has been shown to be a valuable resource, of central importance for quantum computation and the processing of quantum information. In this talk, I will describe a new diagrammatic approach to understanding why entanglement is so valuable, the key idea being that entanglement between two systems ``creates'' multiple images of the state of a third. By way of example, I will show how to ``visualize'' teleportation of unknown quantum states, and how to use entanglement to implement an interaction between spatially separated (and therefore non-interacting!) systems. These ideas have also proven useful in quantum state discrimination, where the state of a quantum system is unknown and is to be determined.

  15. Quantum coherence, wormholes, and the cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Unruh, W.G. )

    1989-08-15

    Coleman has argued that if wormhole solutions to the Euclidean action coupled to matter dominate the Euclidean path integral for quantum gravity, they do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence for wave functions in our Universe. Furthermore, they also lead to the prediction that the ultimate'' cosmological constant is zero. I analyze the assumptions that go into this result and argue that the presence of wormhole solutions does lead to a loss of quantum coherence and, furthermore, completely destroys the Euclidean quantum theory by producing a highly nonlocal effective Euclidean action which is violently unbounded from below.

  16. Limit theorems for dilute quantum systems leading to quantum poisson processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicki, Robert; Rudnicki, Sławomir; Sadowski, Sławomir

    1993-12-01

    The limit theorems for sums of independent or correlated operators representing observables of dilute quantum systems and leading to quantum Poisson processes are proved. Examples of systems of unstable particles and a Fermi lattice gas are discussed. For the latter, relations between low density limit and central limit are given.

  17. Making Euclidean Geometry Compulsory: Are We Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Putten, Sonja; Howie, Sarah; Stols, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude towards, as well as the level of understanding of Euclidean geometry in pre-service mathematics education (PME) students. In order to do so, a case study was undertaken within which a one group pre-post-test procedure was conducted around a geometry module, and a representative group of students was interviewed…

  18. Non-Hermitian Euclidean random matrix theory.

    PubMed

    Goetschy, A; Skipetrov, S E

    2011-07-01

    We develop a theory for the eigenvalue density of arbitrary non-Hermitian Euclidean matrices. Closed equations for the resolvent and the eigenvector correlator are derived. The theory is applied to the random Green's matrix relevant to wave propagation in an ensemble of pointlike scattering centers. This opens a new perspective in the study of wave diffusion, Anderson localization, and random lasing.

  19. Scalable quantum information processing with photons and atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jian-Wei

    Over the past three decades, the promises of super-fast quantum computing and secure quantum cryptography have spurred a world-wide interest in quantum information, generating fascinating quantum technologies for coherent manipulation of individual quantum systems. However, the distance of fiber-based quantum communications is limited due to intrinsic fiber loss and decreasing of entanglement quality. Moreover, probabilistic single-photon source and entanglement source demand exponentially increased overheads for scalable quantum information processing. To overcome these problems, we are taking two paths in parallel: quantum repeaters and through satellite. We used the decoy-state QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon source, and used the measurement-device-independent QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon detectors--two main loopholes in quantum cryptograph. Based on these techniques, we are now building world's biggest quantum secure communication backbone, from Beijing to Shanghai, with a distance exceeding 2000 km. Meanwhile, we are developing practically useful quantum repeaters that combine entanglement swapping, entanglement purification, and quantum memory for the ultra-long distance quantum communication. The second line is satellite-based global quantum communication, taking advantage of the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the atmosphere. We realized teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100 km, and later on a rapidly moving platform. We are also making efforts toward the generation of multiphoton entanglement and its use in teleportation of multiple properties of a single quantum particle, topological error correction, quantum algorithms for solving systems of linear equations and machine learning. Finally, I will talk about our recent experiments on quantum simulations on ultracold atoms. On the one hand, by applying an optical Raman lattice technique, we realized a two-dimensional spin-obit (SO

  20. Quantum information processing with electronic and nuclear spins in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Paul Victor

    Traditional electronic and communication devices operate by processing binary information encoded as bits. Such digital devices have led to the most advanced technologies that we encounter in our everyday lives and they influence virtually every aspect of our society. Nonetheless, there exists a much richer way to encode and process information. By encoding information in quantum mechanical states as qubits, phenomena such as coherence and entanglement can be harnessed to execute tasks that are intractable to digital devices. Under this paradigm, it should be possible to realize quantum computers, quantum communication networks and quantum sensors that outperform their classical counterparts. The electronic spin states of color-center defects in the semiconductor silicon carbide have recently emerged as promising qubit candidates. They have long-lived quantum coherence up to room temperature, they can be controlled with mature magnetic resonance techniques, and they have a built-in optical interface operating near the telecommunication bands. In this thesis I will present two of our contributions to this field. The first is the electric-field control of electron spin qubits. This development lays foundation for quantum electronics that operate via electrical gating, much like traditional electronics. The second is the universal control and entanglement of electron and nuclear spin qubits in an ensemble under ambient conditions. This development lays foundation for quantum devices that have a built-in redundancy and can operate in real-world conditions. Both developments represent important steps towards practical quantum devices in an electronic grade material.

  1. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  2. Heralded processes on continuous-variable spaces as quantum maps

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreyrol, Franck; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Blandino, Rémi; Barbieri, Marco; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa

    2014-12-04

    Heralding processes, which only work when a measurement on a part of the system give the good result, are particularly interesting for continuous-variables. They permit non-Gaussian transformations that are necessary for several continuous-variable quantum information tasks. However if maps and quantum process tomography are commonly used to describe quantum transformations in discrete-variable space, they are much rarer in the continuous-variable domain. Also, no convenient tool for representing maps in a way more adapted to the particularities of continuous variables have yet been explored. In this paper we try to fill this gap by presenting such a tool.

  3. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  4. Quantum decay processes and Gamov states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castagnino, M.; Betan, R. Id; Laura, R.; Liotta, R. J.

    2002-07-01

    By extending the notion of states to functionals acting on the space of observables we obtain a well-defined complex spectral decomposition for the time evolution of quantum-decaying systems, where Gamov states play a fundamental role. It is shown that Gamov vectors are well-defined state functionals and, therefore, they stand on the same footing as plane waves.

  5. Experimental generation of quantum discord via noisy processes.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, B P; Jurcevic, P; Hempel, C; Gessner, M; Vedral, V; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2013-09-01

    Quantum systems in mixed states can be unentangled and yet still nonclassically correlated. These correlations can be quantified by the quantum discord and might provide a resource for quantum information processing tasks. By precisely controlling the interaction of two ionic qubits with their environment, we investigate the capability of noise to generate discord. Firstly, we show that noise acting on only one quantum system can generate discord between two. States generated in this way are restricted in terms of the rank of their correlation matrix. Secondly, we show that classically correlated noise processes are capable of generating a much broader range of discordant states with correlation matrices of any rank. Our results show that noise processes prevalent in many physical systems can automatically generate nonclassical correlations and highlight fundamental differences between discord and entanglement.

  6. Occam’s Quantum Strop: Synchronizing and Compressing Classical Cryptic Processes via a Quantum Channel

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, John R.; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-01-01

    A stochastic process’ statistical complexity stands out as a fundamental property: the minimum information required to synchronize one process generator to another. How much information is required, though, when synchronizing over a quantum channel? Recent work demonstrated that representing causal similarity as quantum state-indistinguishability provides a quantum advantage. We generalize this to synchronization and offer a sequence of constructions that exploit extended causal structures, finding substantial increase of the quantum advantage. We demonstrate that maximum compression is determined by the process’ cryptic order–a classical, topological property closely allied to Markov order, itself a measure of historical dependence. We introduce an efficient algorithm that computes the quantum advantage and close noting that the advantage comes at a cost–one trades off prediction for generation complexity. PMID:26876796

  7. The Euclidean distribution of fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, Niels; Connor, Liam D.; Pen, Ue-Li

    2016-09-01

    We investigate whether current data on the distribution of observed flux densities of fast radio bursts (FRBs) are consistent with a constant source density in Euclidean space. We use the number of FRBs detected in two surveys with different characteristics along with the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the detected FRBs in a formalism similar to a V/Vmax-test to constrain the distribution of flux densities. We find consistency between the data and a Euclidean distribution. Any extension of this model is therefore not data-driven and needs to be motivated separately. As a byproduct we also obtain new improved limits for the FRB rate at 1.4 GHz, which had not been constrained in this way before.

  8. On the sensitivity of a Euclidean projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailov, A. F.; Kurennoy, A. S.

    2014-03-01

    The structure and behavior of Euclidean projections of a point onto a set defined by parametric constraints is studied. Under the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, it is shown that the projection is locally unique and continuous and, if the feasible set is constant, locally Lipschitz continuous as well. Quantitative results are obtained characterizing the asymptotic behavior of projections under perturbations in a given direction.

  9. Survey of control performance in quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocker, David; Zheng, Yicong; Kosut, Robert; Brun, Todd; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-08-01

    There is a rich variety of physics underlying the fundamental gating operations for quantum information processing (QIP). A key aspect of a QIP system is how noise may enter during quantum operations and how suppressing or correcting its effects can best be addressed. Quantum control techniques have been developed to specifically address this effort, although a detailed classification of the compatibility of controls schemes with noise sources found in common quantum systems has not yet been performed. This work numerically examines the performance of modern control methods for suppressing decoherence in the presence of noise forms found in viable quantum systems. The noise-averaged process matrix for controlled one-qubit and two-qubit operations are calculated across noise found in systems driven by Markovian open quantum dynamics. Rather than aiming to describe the absolute best control scheme for a given physical circumstance, this work serves instead to classify quantum control behavior across a large class of noise forms so that opportunities for improving QIP performance may be identified.

  10. Quantum correlation dynamics in photosynthetic processes assisted by molecular vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, G.L.; Roncaglia, M.; Raffa, F.A.; Genovese, M.

    2015-10-15

    During the long course of evolution, nature has learnt how to exploit quantum effects. In fact, recent experiments reveal the existence of quantum processes whose coherence extends over unexpectedly long time and space ranges. In particular, photosynthetic processes in light-harvesting complexes display a typical oscillatory dynamics ascribed to quantum coherence. Here, we consider the simple model where a dimer made of two chromophores is strongly coupled with a quasi-resonant vibrational mode. We observe the occurrence of wide oscillations of genuine quantum correlations, between electronic excitations and the environment, represented by vibrational bosonic modes. Such a quantum dynamics has been unveiled through the calculation of the negativity of entanglement and the discord, indicators widely used in quantum information for quantifying the resources needed to realize quantum technologies. We also discuss the possibility of approximating additional weakly-coupled off-resonant vibrational modes, simulating the disturbances induced by the rest of the environment, by a single vibrational mode. Within this approximation, one can show that the off-resonant bath behaves like a classical source of noise.

  11. Quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process in Lorentzian plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae

    2014-08-15

    The quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process between a positive ion and a neutral atom collision is investigated in nonthermal generalized Lorentzian plasmas. The result shows that the nonthermal effect enhances the resonant electron transfer cross section in Lorentzian plasmas. It is found that the nonthermal effect on the classical resonant electron transfer cross section is more significant than that on the quantum tunneling resonant charge transfer cross section. It is shown that the nonthermal effect on the resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with an increase of the Debye length. In addition, the nonthermal effect on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with increasing collision energy. The variation of nonthermal and plasma shielding effects on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process is also discussed.

  12. Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudziak, Martin Joseph

    Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain

  13. Quantum stochastic processes for maps on Hilbert C*-modules

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Jaeseong; Ji, Un Cig

    2011-05-15

    We discuss pairs ({phi}, {Phi}) of maps, where {phi} is a map between C*-algebras and {Phi} is a {phi}-module map between Hilbert C*-modules, which are generalization of representations of Hilbert C*-modules. A covariant version of Stinespring's theorem for such a pair ({phi}, {Phi}) is established, and quantum stochastic processes constructed from pairs ({l_brace}{phi}{sub t{r_brace}}, {l_brace}{Phi}{sub t{r_brace}}) of families of such maps are studied. We prove that the quantum stochastic process J={l_brace}J{sub t{r_brace}} constructed from a {phi}-quantum dynamical semigroup {Phi}={l_brace}{Phi}{sub t{r_brace}} is a j-map for the quantum stochastic process j={l_brace}j{sub t{r_brace}} constructed from the given quantum dynamical semigroup {phi}={l_brace}{phi}{sub t{r_brace}}, and that J is covariant if the {phi}-quantum dynamical semigroup {Phi} is covariant.

  14. Differential topology of adiabatically controlled quantum processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, Edmond A.; Rezakhani, Ali T.; Ahmad, Farooq

    2013-03-01

    It is shown that in a controlled adiabatic homotopy between two Hamiltonians, H 0 and H 1, the gap or "anti-crossing" phenomenon can be viewed as the development of cusps and swallow tails in the region of the complex plane where two critical value curves of the quadratic map associated with the numerical range of H 0 + i H 1 come close. The "near crossing" in the energy level plots happens to be a generic situation, in the sense that a crossing is a manifestation of the quadratic numerical range map being unstable in the sense of differential topology. The stable singularities that can develop are identified and it is shown that they could occur near the gap, making those singularities of paramount importance. Various applications, including the quantum random walk, are provided to illustrate this theory.

  15. Quantum-Classical Hybrid for Information Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. The idea is to implement instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances via a quantum-classical hybrid that preserves superposition of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such a hybrid system reinforces the advantages, and minimizes the limitations, of both quantum and classical characteristics. Consider n observers, and assume that each of them gets a copy of the system and runs it separately. Although they run identical systems, the outcomes of even synchronized runs may be different because the solutions of these systems are random. However, the global constrain must be satisfied. Therefore, if the observer #1 (the sender) made a measurement of the acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, then the receiver, by measuring the corresponding acceleration v(sub 1) at t =T, may get a wrong value because the accelerations are random, and only their ratios are deterministic. Obviously, the transmission of this knowledge is instantaneous as soon as the measurements have been performed. In addition to that, the distance between the observers is irrelevant because the x-coordinate does not enter the governing equations. However, the Shannon information transmitted is zero. None of the senders can control the outcomes of their measurements because they are random. The senders cannot transmit intentional messages. Nevertheless, based on the transmitted knowledge, they can coordinate their actions based on conditional information. If the observer #1 knows his own measurements, the measurements of the others can be fully determined. It is important to emphasize that the origin of entanglement of all the observers is the joint probability density that couples their actions. There is no centralized source

  16. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-05-18

    In this study, we briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices.

  17. On the general constraints in single qubit quantum process tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    We briefly review single-qubit quantum process tomography for trace-preserving and nontrace-preserving processes, and derive explicit forms of the general constraints for fitting experimental data. These forms provide additional insight into the structure of the process matrix. We illustrate this with several examples, including a discussion of qubit leakage error models and the intuition which can be gained from their process matrices. PMID:27188691

  18. Colloidal quantum dot solids for solution-processed solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Mingjian; Liu, Mengxia; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-03-01

    Solution-processed photovoltaic technologies represent a promising way to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of solar energy harvesting. Among these, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot photovoltaics have the advantage of a spectrally tuneable infrared bandgap, which enables use in multi-junction cells, as well as the benefit of generating and harvesting multiple charge carrier pairs per absorbed photon. Here we review recent progress in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics, focusing on three fronts. First, we examine strategies to manage the abundant surfaces of quantum dots, strategies that have led to progress in the removal of electronic trap states. Second, we consider new device architectures that have improved device performance to certified efficiencies of 10.6%. Third, we focus on progress in solution-phase chemical processing, such as spray-coating and centrifugal casting, which has led to the demonstration of manufacturing-ready process technologies.

  19. Experimental reversion of the optimal quantum cloning and flipping processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sciarrino, Fabio; Secondi, Veronica; De Martini, Francesco

    2006-04-15

    The quantum cloner machine maps an unknown arbitrary input qubit into two optimal clones and one optimal flipped qubit. By combining linear and nonlinear optical methods we experimentally implement a scheme that, after the cloning transformation, restores the original input qubit in one of the output channels, by using local measurements, classical communication, and feedforward. This nonlocal method demonstrates how the information on the input qubit can be restored after the cloning process. The realization of the reversion process is expected to find useful applications in the field of modern multipartite quantum cryptography.

  20. Quantum processing of images by continuous wave optical parametric amplification.

    PubMed

    Lopez, L; Treps, N; Chalopin, B; Fabre, C; Maître, A

    2008-01-11

    We have experimentally shown that a degenerate optical parametric oscillator pumped by a cw laser, inserted in a cavity having degenerate transverse modes such as a hemiconfocal or confocal cavity, and operating below the oscillation threshold in the regime of phase sensitive amplification, is able to process input images of various shapes in the quantum regime. More precisely, when deamplified, the image is amplitude squeezed; when amplified, its two polarization components are intensity correlated at the quantum level. In addition, the amplification process of the images is shown to take place in the noiseless regime.

  1. The FEYNMAN tools for quantum information processing: Design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, S.

    2014-06-01

    The FEYNMAN tools have been re-designed with the goal to establish and implement a high-level (computer) language that is capable to deal with the physics of finite, n-qubit systems, from frequently required computations to mathematically advanced tasks in quantum information processing. In particular, emphasis has been placed to introduce a small but powerful set of keystring-driven commands in order to support both, symbolic and numerical computations. Though the current design is implemented again within the framework of MAPLE, it is general and flexible enough to be utilized and combined with other languages and computational environments. The present implementation facilitates a large number of computational tasks, including the definition, manipulation and parametrization of quantum states, the evaluation of quantum measures and quantum operations, the evolution of quantum noise in discrete models, quantum measurements and state estimation, and several others. The design is based on a few high-level commands, with a syntax close to the mathematical notation and its use in the literature, and which can be generalized quite readily in order to solve computational tasks at even higher degree of complexity. In this work, I present and discuss the (re-design of the) FEYNMAN tools and make major parts of the code available for public use. Moreover, a few selected examples are shown and demonstrate possible application of this toolbox. The FEYNMAN tools are provided as MAPLE library and can hence be used on all platforms on which this computer-algebra system is accessible.

  2. Quantum control and process tomography of a semiconductor quantum dot hybrid qubit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohun; Shi, Zhan; Simmons, C B; Ward, D R; Prance, J R; Koh, Teck Seng; Gamble, John King; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N; Eriksson, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    The similarities between gated quantum dots and the transistors in modern microelectronics--in fabrication methods, physical structure and voltage scales for manipulation--have led to great interest in the development of quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor quantum dots. Although quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications, such as factoring. Furthermore, scalability and manufacturability are enhanced when qubits are as simple as possible. Previous work has increased the speed of spin qubit rotations by making use of integrated micromagnets, dynamic pumping of nuclear spins or the addition of a third quantum dot. Here we demonstrate a qubit that is a hybrid of spin and charge. It is simple, requiring neither nuclear-state preparation nor micromagnets. Unlike previous double-dot qubits, the hybrid qubit enables fast rotations about two axes of the Bloch sphere. We demonstrate full control on the Bloch sphere with π-rotation times of less than 100 picoseconds in two orthogonal directions, which is more than an order of magnitude faster than any other double-dot qubit. The speed arises from the qubit's charge-like characteristics, and its spin-like features result in resistance to decoherence over a wide range of gate voltages. We achieve full process tomography in our electrically controlled semiconductor quantum dot qubit, extracting high fidelities of 85 per cent for X rotations (transitions between qubit states) and 94 per cent for Z rotations (phase accumulation between qubit states).

  3. Synchronization of optical photons for quantum information processing

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Kenzo; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Ohdan, Hideaki; Toyama, Takeshi; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental element of quantum information processing with photonic qubits is the nonclassical quantum interference between two photons when they bunch together via the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect. Ultimately, many such photons must be processed in complex interferometric networks. For this purpose, it is essential to synchronize the arrival times of the flying photons and to keep their purities high. On the basis of the recent experimental success of single-photon storage with high purity, we demonstrate for the first time the HOM interference of two heralded, nearly pure optical photons synchronized through two independent quantum memories. Controlled storage times of up to 1.8 μs for about 90 events per second were achieved with purities that were sufficiently high for a negative Wigner function confirmed with homodyne measurements. PMID:27386536

  4. Founding Gravitation in 4D Euclidean Space-Time Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Franz-Guenter

    2010-11-24

    The Euclidean interpretation of special relativity which has been suggested by the author is a formulation of special relativity in ordinary 4D Euclidean space-time geometry. The natural and geometrically intuitive generalization of this view involves variations of the speed of light (depending on location and direction) and a Euclidean principle of general covariance. In this article, a gravitation model by Jan Broekaert, which implements a view of relativity theory in the spirit of Lorentz and Poincare, is reconstructed and shown to fulfill the principles of the Euclidean approach after an appropriate reinterpretation.

  5. MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the

  6. Fast Quantum Algorithms for Numerical Integrals and Stochastic Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, D.; Williams, C.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss quantum algorithms that calculate numerical integrals and descriptive statistics of stochastic processes. With either of two distinct approaches, one obtains an exponential speed increase in comparison to the fastest known classical deterministic algotithms and a quadratic speed increase incomparison to classical Monte Carlo methods.

  7. Post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiktenko, Evgeny; Trushechkin, Anton; Kurochkin, Yury; Fedorov, Aleksey

    2016-08-01

    We present algorithmic solutions aimed on post-processing procedure for industrial quantum key distribution systems with hardware sifting. The main steps of the procedure are error correction, parameter estimation, and privacy amplification. Authentication of classical public communication channel is also considered.

  8. Quantum states for quantum processes: A toy model for ammonia inversion spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Arteca, Gustavo A.; Tapia, O.

    2011-07-15

    Chemical transformations are viewed here as quantum processes modulated by external fields, that is, as shifts in reactant to product amplitudes within a quantum state represented by a linear (coherent) superposition of electronuclear basis functions; their electronic quantum numbers identify the ''chemical species.'' This basis set can be mapped from attractors built from a unique electronic configurational space that is invariant with respect to the nuclear geometry. In turn, the quantum numbers that label these basis functions and the semiclassical potentials for the electronic attractors may be used to derive reaction coordinates to monitor progress as a function of the applied field. A generalization of Feynman's three-state model for the ammonia inversion process illustrates the scheme; to enforce symmetry for the entire inversion process model and ensure invariance with respect to nuclear configurations, the three attractors and their basis functions are computed with a grid of fixed floating Gaussian functions. The external-field modulation of the effective inversion barrier is discussed within this conceptual approach. This analysis brings the descriptions of chemical processes near modern technologies that employ molecules to encode information by means of confinement and external fields.

  9. Novel classical post-processing for quantum key distribution-based quantum private query

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Cao, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-09-01

    Existing classical post-processing (CPP) schemes for quantum key distribution (QKD)-based quantum private queries (QPQs) including the kN→ N, N→ N, and rM→ N ones have been found imperfect in terms of communication efficiency and security. In this paper, we propose a novel CPP scheme for QKD-based QPQs. The proposed CPP scheme reduces the communication complexity and improves the security of QKD-based QPQ protocols largely. Furthermore, the proposed CPP scheme can provide a multi-bit query efficiently.

  10. Fast Quantum Algorithm for Predicting Descriptive Statistics of Stochastic Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams Colin P.

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic processes are used as a modeling tool in several sub-fields of physics, biology, and finance. Analytic understanding of the long term behavior of such processes is only tractable for very simple types of stochastic processes such as Markovian processes. However, in real world applications more complex stochastic processes often arise. In physics, the complicating factor might be nonlinearities; in biology it might be memory effects; and in finance is might be the non-random intentional behavior of participants in a market. In the absence of analytic insight, one is forced to understand these more complex stochastic processes via numerical simulation techniques. In this paper we present a quantum algorithm for performing such simulations. In particular, we show how a quantum algorithm can predict arbitrary descriptive statistics (moments) of N-step stochastic processes in just O(square root of N) time. That is, the quantum complexity is the square root of the classical complexity for performing such simulations. This is a significant speedup in comparison to the current state of the art.

  11. Understanding Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2009-03-01

    Ever since Erwin Schrodinger shocked the physics world by killing (and not killing) his cat, entanglement has played a critical role in attempts to understand quantum mechanics. More recently, entanglement has been shown to be a valuable resource, of central importance for quantum computation and the processing of quantum information. In this talk, I will describe a new diagrammatic approach to understanding why entanglement is so valuable, the key idea being that entanglement between two systems ``creates'' multiple images of the state of a third. By way of example, I will show how to ``visualize'' teleportation of unknown quantum states, and how to use entanglement to determine the (unknown) state of a spatially distributed, multipartite quantum system. Illustrative examples of this entanglement-assisted local state discrimination are sets of orthogonal product states exhibiting what is known as ``non-locality without entanglement'', including unextendible product bases. These ideas have also proven useful in using entanglement to implement a unitary interaction between spatially separated (and therefore non-interacting!) systems.

  12. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    SciTech Connect

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-12-18

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schroedinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schroedinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  13. Quantum state and process tomography via adaptive measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, HengYan; Zheng, WenQiang; Yu, NengKun; Li, KeRen; Lu, DaWei; Xin, Tao; Li, Carson; Ji, ZhengFeng; Kribs, David; Zeng, Bei; Peng, XinHua; Du, JiangFeng

    2016-10-01

    We investigate quantum state tomography (QST) for pure states and quantum process tomography (QPT) for unitary channels via adaptive measurements. For a quantum system with a d-dimensional Hilbert space, we first propose an adaptive protocol where only 2 d - 1 measurement outcomes are used to accomplish the QST for all pure states. This idea is then extended to study QPT for unitary channels, where an adaptive unitary process tomography (AUPT) protocol of d 2+ d-1 measurement outcomes is constructed for any unitary channel. We experimentally implement the AUPT protocol in a 2-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance system. We examine the performance of the AUPT protocol when applied to Hadamard gate, T gate ( π/8 phase gate), and controlled-NOT gate, respectively, as these gates form the universal gate set for quantum information processing purpose. As a comparison, standard QPT is also implemented for each gate. Our experimental results show that the AUPT protocol that reconstructing unitary channels via adaptive measurements significantly reduce the number of experiments required by standard QPT without considerable loss of fidelity.

  14. Nonparametric estimation of quantum states, processes and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougovski, Pavel; Bennink, Ryan

    Quantum state, process, and measurement estimation methods traditionally use parametric models, in which the number and role of relevant parameters is assumed to be known. When such an assumption cannot be justified, a common approach in many disciplines is to fit the experimental data to multiple models with different sets of parameters and utilize an information criterion to select the best fitting model. However, it is not always possible to assume a model with a finite (countable) number of parameters. This typically happens when there are unobserved variables that stem from hidden correlations that can only be unveiled after collecting experimental data. How does one perform quantum characterization in this situation? We present a novel nonparametric method of experimental quantum system characterization based on the Dirichlet Process (DP) that addresses this problem. Using DP as a prior in conjunction with Bayesian estimation methods allows us to increase model complexity (number of parameters) adaptively as the number of experimental observations grows. We illustrate our approach for the one-qubit case and show how a probability density function for an unknown quantum process can be estimated.

  15. Silicon nanophotonic networks for quantum optical information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hach, Edwin E.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon nanophotonics show a lot of promise as the basic architecture for quantum information processing devices. This is particularly the case in relation to the scalability of such devices. During this talk I will review our simple theoretical model of a structure that we have identified as a `fundamental circuit element' for linear optical quantum information processing in silicon nanophotonics. In particular, we have shown that, owing to an effect we call Passive Quantum Optical Feedback (PQOF), the topology of this circuit element allows for certain possible operational advantages, in addition to inherent scalability, not expected in bulk linear optics. I will emphasize the extension of our work to larger networks, including the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM) Controlled-Not (CNOT) gate and its important constituent, the so-called Nonlinear Sign (NS) shifter. Further, I will discuss our ongoing effort to design and optimize scalable networks that seem to have useful applications in quantum metrology and sensing. In developing the discussion, I will examine recent developments related to incorporation of losses and spectral properties in such a way as to generalize our simple, continuous-wave (cw) model of essentially lossless operation. I will also discuss on-chip generation and control of entangled photons within the nanophotonic material itself, especially as related to potentially useful applications in information processing.

  16. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-12-01

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schrödinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schrödinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  17. Passage from quantum systems with continuous spectrum to quantum Poisson processes on Hilbert modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yun-Gang

    1995-01-01

    The present article is devoted to the explanation of the irreversible behavior of quantum systems as a limiting case (in a sense to be made precise) of usual quantum dynamics. One starts with a system, whose Hamiltonian has a continuous spectrum, interacting with a reservoir and studies the limits of quantities related to the whole compound system. A macroscopic equation is obtained for the limit of the compound system, which is a quantum stochastic differential equation of Poisson type on some Hilbert module (no longer a space) and whose coefficients are uniquely determined by the one-particle Hamiltonian of the original system and whose driving noises are the creation, annihilation, and number (or gauge) processes living on the Fock module over this module.

  18. Supersymmetric solutions to Euclidean Romans supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alday, Luis F.; Fluder, Martin; Gregory, Carolina Matte; Richmond, Paul; Sparks, James

    2016-02-01

    We study Euclidean Romans supergravity in six dimensions with a non-trivial Abelian R-symmetry gauge field. We show that supersymmetric solutions are in one-to-one correspondence with solutions to a set of differential constraints on an SU(2) structure. As an application of our results we (i) show that this structure reduces at a conformal boundary to the five-dimensional rigid supersymmetric geometry previously studied by the authors, (ii) find a general expression for the holographic dual of the VEV of a BPS Wilson loop, matching an exact field theory computation, (iii) construct holographic duals to squashed Sasaki-Einstein backgrounds, again matching to a field theory computation, and (iv) find new analytic solutions.

  19. Straight monotonic embedding of data sets in Euclidean spaces.

    PubMed

    Courrieu, Pierre

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a fast incremental algorithm for embedding data sets belonging to various topological spaces in Euclidean spaces. This is useful for networks whose input consists of non-Euclidean (possibly non-numerical) data, for the on-line computation of spatial maps in autonomous agent navigation problems, and for building internal representations from empirical similarity data. PMID:12425437

  20. Semi-Euclidean quasi-elliptic planar motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Murat; Yayli, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the algebra of split semi-quaternions with their basic properties. Also, the results of the Euclidean planar motion given by Blaschke and Grünwald is generalized to semi-Euclidean planar motion by using the algebra of split semi-quaternions.

  1. Straight monotonic embedding of data sets in Euclidean spaces.

    PubMed

    Courrieu, Pierre

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a fast incremental algorithm for embedding data sets belonging to various topological spaces in Euclidean spaces. This is useful for networks whose input consists of non-Euclidean (possibly non-numerical) data, for the on-line computation of spatial maps in autonomous agent navigation problems, and for building internal representations from empirical similarity data.

  2. Minimal Paths in the City Block: Human Performance on Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwyn, Amy L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment is reported comparing human performance on two kinds of visually presented traveling salesperson problems (TSPs), those reliant on Euclidean geometry and those reliant on city block geometry. Across multiple array sizes, human performance was near-optimal in both geometries, but was slightly better in the Euclidean format. Even so,…

  3. Quantum measurement in coherence-vector representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao

    2016-04-01

    We consider the quantum measurements on a finite quantum system in coherence-vector representation. In this representation, all the density operators of an N-level ( N ⩾ 2) quantum system constitute a convex set M (N) embedded in an ( N 2 - 1)-dimensional Euclidean space R^{N^2 - 1}, and we find that an orthogonal measurement is an ( N - 1)-dimensional projector operator on R^{N^2 - 1}. The states unchanged by an orthogonal measurement form an ( N - 1)-dimensional simplex, and in the case when N is prime or power of prime, the space of the density operator is a direct sum of ( N + 1) such simplices. The mathematical description of quantum measurement is plain in this representation, and this may have further applications in quantum information processing.

  4. Quantum tomography of near-unitary processes in high-dimensional quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysne, Nathan; Sosa Martinez, Hector; Jessen, Poul; Baldwin, Charles; Kalev, Amir; Deutsch, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Quantum Tomography (QT) is often considered the ideal tool for experimental debugging of quantum devices, capable of delivering complete information about quantum states (QST) or processes (QPT). In practice, the protocols used for QT are resource intensive and scale poorly with system size. In this situation, a well behaved model system with access to large state spaces (qudits) can serve as a useful platform for examining the tradeoffs between resource cost and accuracy inherent in QT. In past years we have developed one such experimental testbed, consisting of the electron-nuclear spins in the electronic ground state of individual Cs atoms. Our available toolkit includes high fidelity state preparation, complete unitary control, arbitrary orthogonal measurements, and accurate and efficient QST in Hilbert space dimensions up to d = 16. Using these tools, we have recently completed a comprehensive study of QPT in 4, 7 and 16 dimensions. Our results show that QPT of near-unitary processes is quite feasible if one chooses optimal input states and efficient QST on the outputs. We further show that for unitary processes in high dimensional spaces, one can use informationally incomplete QPT to achieve high-fidelity process reconstruction (90% in d = 16) with greatly reduced resource requirements.

  5. Quantum processing through a manifold of dark states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Deepak

    2012-10-01

    We propose a scalable network, in which all quantum operations can be executed through external controls. Nodes of this network are high-finesse electromagnetic cavities, each coupled to a single three-level atom. The nodes are connected by optical fibers. Each atom is addressed by a control laser, which along with the cavity field drives atomic transitions. The network can be in the form of arrays of N-cavities connected by NB fibers in one to three dimensions. We find that under certain conditions, the system possesses two kinds of degenerate dark states. The first kind are N states corresponding to atomic excitations at each node and these are our logical states for quantum processing. The second kind are NB states on pairs of sites connected by a fibre. By manipulating intensities and phases of control lasers on the cavities, one can pass adiabatically among these dark states due to their degeneracy. This network operates as a N-level quantum system in which one can generate computationally useful states by protocols of external controls. We obtain numerical results for small chains and square lattices to demonstrate some quantum operations like the transport of states across the array, generation of superposed states and phase-flipping in a network. We also discuss effects of dissipation and limitations of the model.

  6. Classical Wave Model of Quantum-Like Processing in Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the conjecture on quantum-like (QL) processing of information in the brain. It is not based on the physical quantum brain (e.g., Penrose) - quantum physical carriers of information. In our approach the brain created the QL representation (QLR) of information in Hilbert space. It uses quantum information rules in decision making. The existence of such QLR was (at least preliminary) confirmed by experimental data from cognitive psychology. The violation of the law of total probability in these experiments is an important sign of nonclassicality of data. In so called "constructive wave function approach" such data can be represented by complex amplitudes. We presented 1,2 the QL model of decision making. In this paper we speculate on a possible physical realization of QLR in the brain: a classical wave model producing QLR . It is based on variety of time scales in the brain. Each pair of scales (fine - the background fluctuations of electromagnetic field and rough - the cognitive image scale) induces the QL representation. The background field plays the crucial role in creation of "superstrong QL correlations" in the brain.

  7. Quantum Process Tomography for Energy Transfer Systems via Ultrafast Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen-Zhou, Joel

    2012-02-01

    The description of excited state dynamics in energy transfer systems constitutes a theoretical and experimental challenge in modern chemical physics. A spectroscopic protocol that systematically characterizes both coherent and dissipative processes of the probed chromophores is desired [1,2]. In this talk, I show that a set of two-color photon-echo experiments performs quantum state tomography (QST) of the one-exciton manifold of a dimer by reconstructing its density matrix in real time. This possibility in turn allows for a complete description of excited state dynamics via quantum process tomography (QPT). Simulations of a noisy QPT experiment for an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of model excitonic dimers show that the protocol distills rich information about dissipative excitonic dynamics, which appears nontrivially hidden in the signal monitored in single realizations of four-wave mixing experiments Progress on the experimental side will be discussed, as well as new insights that QPT has offered on the understanding of 2D electronic and vibrational spectroscopy. [1] J. Yuen-Zhou, J. J. Krich, A. Aspuru-Guzik, Quantum state and process tomography of energy transfer systems via ultrafast spectroscopy Joel Yuen-Zhou, Jacob J. Krich, Masoud Mohseni and Al'an Aspuru-Guzik Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, Early Edition (2011). [2] J. Yuen-Zhou, A. Aspuru-Guzik, Quantum process tomography of molecular dimers from two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy I: General theory and application to homodimers Joel Yuen-Zhou and Al'an Aspuru-Guzik . Chem. Phys. 134, 134505 (2011).

  8. Limits Of Quantum Information In Weak Interaction Processes Of Hyperons

    PubMed Central

    Hiesmayr, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay Σ+→ pπ0). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities where α is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated, the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this information theoretic insight we show how entanglement can be measured in these systems and why Bell’s nonlocality (in contradiction to common misconception in literature) cannot be revealed in hyperon decays. Last but not least we study under which circumstances contextuality can be revealed. PMID:26144247

  9. Noisy processing and distillation of private quantum States.

    PubMed

    Renes, Joseph M; Smith, Graeme

    2007-01-12

    We provide a simple security proof for prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols employing noisy processing and one-way postprocessing of the key. This is achieved by showing that the security of such a protocol is equivalent to that of an associated key distribution protocol in which, instead of the usual maximally entangled states, a more general private state is distilled. In addition to a more general target state, the usual entanglement distillation tools are employed (in particular, Calderbank-Shor-Steane-like codes), with the crucial difference that noisy processing allows some phase errors to be left uncorrected without compromising the privacy of the key.

  10. Birth and death processes and quantum spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünbaum, F. Alberto; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2013-06-01

    This paper underscores the intimate connection between the quantum walks generated by certain semi-infinite spin chain Hamiltonians and classical birth and death processes. It is observed that transition amplitudes between single excitation states of the spin chains have an expression in terms of orthogonal polynomials which is analogous to the Karlin-McGregor representation formula of the transition probability functions for classes of birth and death processes. As an application, we present a characterization of spin systems for which the probability to return to the point of origin at some time is 1 or almost 1.

  11. Quantum processes as a mechanism in olfaction for smell recognition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, Jennifer

    2011-03-01

    The physics of smell is not well understood. The biological processes that occur following a signalling event are well understood (Buck 1991). However, the reasons how and why a signalling event occurs when a particular smell molecule and receptor combination is made, remains un-established. Luca Turin proposes a signalling mechanism which determines smell molecules by quantum mechanics (Turin 1996). Investigation of this mechanism shows it to be physically robust (Brookes,et al, 2007), and consequences of the theory provides quantitative measurements of smell and interesting potential experiments that may determine whether the recognition of smell is a quantum event. Brookes, J.C, Hartoutsiou, F, Horsfield, A.P and Stoneham, A.M. (2007). Physical Review Letters 98, no. 3 038101 Buck, L. (1991) Cell, 65, no.1 (4): 175-187. Turin, L. (1996) Chemical Sences 21, no 6. 773-791 With many thanks to the Wellcome Trust.

  12. Review of solar fuel-producing quantum conversion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. B.; Biddle, J. R.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The status and potential of fuel-producing solar photochemical processes are discussed. Research focused on splitting water to produce dihydrogen and is at a relatively early stage of development. Current emphasis is primarily directed toward understanding the basic chemistry underlying such quantum conversion processes. Theoretical analyses by various investigators predict a limiting thermodynamic efficiency of 31% for devices with a single photosystem operating with unfocused sunlight at 300 K. When non-idealities are included, it appears unlikely that actual devices will have efficiencies greater than 12 to 15%. Observed efficiencies are well below theoretical limits. Cyclic homogeneous photochemical processes for splitting water have efficiencies considerably less than 1%. Efficiency can be significantly increased by addition of a sacrificial reagent; however, such systems are no longer cyclic and it is doubtful that they would be economical on a commercial scale. The observed efficiencies for photoelectrochemical processes are also low but such systems appear more promising than homogeneous photochemical systems. Operating and systems options, including operation at elevated temperature and hybrid and coupled quantum-thermal conversion processes, are also considered.

  13. Quantum optical implementation of quantum information processing and classical simulation of many-body physics from quantum information perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin

    This thesis is composed of two parts. In the first part we summarize our study on implementation of quantum information processing (QIP) in optical cavity QED systems, while in the second part we present our numerical investigations on strongly interacting Fermi systems using a powerful numerical algorithm developed from the perspective of quantum information theory. We explore various possible applications of cavity QED in the strong coupling regime to quantum information processing tasks theoretically, including efficient preparation of Schrodinger-cat states for traveling photon pulses, robust implementation of conditional quantum gates on neutral atoms, as well as implementation of a hybrid controlled SWAP gate. We analyze the feasibility and performance of our schemes by solving corresponding physical models either numerically or analytically. We implement a novel numerical algorithm called Time Evolving Block Decimation (TEBD), which was proposed by Vidal from the perspective of quantum information science. With this algorithm, we numerically study the ground state properties of strongly interacting fermions in an anisotropic optical lattice across a wide Feshbach resonance. The interactions in this system can be described by a general Hubbard model with particle assisted tunneling. For systems with equal spin population, we find that the Luther-Emery phase, which has been known to exist only for attractive on-site interactions in the conventional Hubbard model, could also be found even in the case with repulsive on-site interactions in the general Hubbard model. Using the TEBD algorithm, we also study the effect of particle assisted tunneling in spin-polarized systems. Fermi systems with unequal spin population and attractive interaction could allow the existence of exotic superfluidity, such as the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state. In the general Hubbard model, such exotic FFLO pairing of fermions could be suppressed by high particle assisted

  14. An Overview of HP's Research Towards Optical Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beausoleil, Ray

    2006-05-01

    Quantum Information Science is an emerging discipline with the potential to revolutionize computation and communication, but with an extremely high barrier to realizing practical results. After describing a framework for performing optical quantum information processing [1], we will outline a set of key scientific and engineering challenges which must be met before a quantum information technology industry can materialize. As a first step toward developing scalable systems, we will describe experiments showing coherent population trapping in nitrogen- vacancy centers in diamond under optical excitation at zero magnetic field. [2] In addition, we will describe experiments demonstrating fabrication of massive photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography, and the construction of an all-fiber self-calibrating random number generator based on polarization-entangled photons that generates high-quality cryptographic random numbers and is immune to back-door attacks. [1] W. J. Munro, et al., J. Opt. B: Quant. Semiclass. Opt. 7, S135--S140 (2005). [2] C. Santori et. al., arXiv:cond-mat/0602573 (2006).

  15. Wick rotation for quantum field theories on degenerate Moyal space(-time)

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, Harald; Lechner, Gandalf; Ludwig, Thomas; Verch, Rainer

    2013-02-15

    In this paper the connection between quantum field theories on flat noncommutative space(-times) in Euclidean and Lorentzian signature is studied for the case that time is still commutative. By making use of the algebraic framework of quantum field theory and an analytic continuation of the symmetry groups which are compatible with the structure of Moyal space, a general correspondence between field theories on Euclidean space satisfying a time zero condition and quantum field theories on Moyal Minkowski space is presented ('Wick rotation'). It is then shown that field theories transferred to Moyal space(-time) by Rieffel deformation and warped convolution fit into this framework, and that the processes of Wick rotation and deformation commute.

  16. All-optical processes in double quantum dot structure.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Ektefaa; Al-Khursan, Amin H

    2016-09-10

    The ladder-plus-Y double quantum dot structure was modeled for all-optical processing by combining the density matrix theory with the pulse width description of the applied pulse. The momentum matrix elements are calculated including the wetting layer. The ladder-plus-Y structure exhibits pattern-free output with high bit rate (50 Tbps), which is critical in optical communication applications. It is shown that very high ground-state occupation with periodic shape for state occupations is critical in obtaining a pattern-free eye diagram.

  17. All-optical processes in double quantum dot structure.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Ektefaa; Al-Khursan, Amin H

    2016-09-10

    The ladder-plus-Y double quantum dot structure was modeled for all-optical processing by combining the density matrix theory with the pulse width description of the applied pulse. The momentum matrix elements are calculated including the wetting layer. The ladder-plus-Y structure exhibits pattern-free output with high bit rate (50 Tbps), which is critical in optical communication applications. It is shown that very high ground-state occupation with periodic shape for state occupations is critical in obtaining a pattern-free eye diagram. PMID:27661371

  18. Quantum Mechanics and Perceptive Processes: A Reply to Elio Conte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirardi, GianCarlo

    2015-07-01

    Recently, Elio Conte has commented a paper by the present author devoted to analyze the possibility of checking experimentally whether the perceptual process can lead to the collapse of the wavefunction. Here we answer to the comments by Conte and we show that he has missed to grasp the crucial elements of our proposal. Morever, we discuss some ideas put forward by Conte concerning the occurrence of quantum superpositions of different states of consciousness and we show that they are rather vague and not cogent.

  19. Experimental characterization of quantum correlated triple beams generated by cascaded four-wave mixing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Zhongzhong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2015-05-25

    Quantum correlations and entanglement shared among multiple modes are fundamental ingredients of most continuous-variable quantum technologies. Recently, a method used to generate multiple quantum correlated beams using cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes was theoretically proposed and experimentally realized by our group [Z. Qin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)]. Our study of triple-beam quantum correlation paves the way to showing the tripartite entanglement in our system. Our system also promises to find applications in quantum information and precision measurement such as the controlled quantum communications, the generation of multiple quantum correlated images, and the realization of a multiport nonlinear interferometer. For its applications, the degree of quantum correlation is a crucial figure of merit. In this letter, we experimentally study how various parameters, such as the cell temperatures, one-photon, and two-photon detunings, influence the degree of quantum correlation between the triple beams generated from the cascaded two-FWM configuration.

  20. Principles of the Quantum Control of Molecular Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Moshe; Brumer, Paul

    2003-02-01

    Principles and Applications of Quantum Control Over the past fifteen years, significant developments have been made in utilizing quantum attributes of light and matter to assume unprecedented control over the dynamics of atomic and molecular systems. This growth reflects a confluence of factors including the maturation of quantum mechanics as a tool for chemistry and physics, the development of new laser devices increasing our ability to manipulate light, and the recognition that coherent laser light can be used to imprint information on atoms and molecules for practical purposes. Written by two of the world's leading researchers in the field, Principles of the Quantum Control of Molecular Processes offers a systematic introduction to the fundamental principles of coherent control, and to the physics and chemistry necessary to master it. Designed as both a resource for self-study and as a graduate textbook, this survey of the subject provides a step-by-step discussion of light-matter interactions along with coverage of such essential topics as: Molecular dynamics and control The dynamics of photodissociation Bimolecular collision processes The control of chirality and asymmetric synthesis Application of control using moderate and strong fields Tuning the system and laser parameters to achieve optimal control Decoherence and methods for countering it Both authoritative and comprehensive, this first in-depth treatment of coherent control is destined to become the standard reference in an increasingly influential field. PAUL W. BRUMER, PhD, is University Professor-Theoretical Chemical Physics and holds the Roel Buck Chair in Chemical Physics at the University of Toronto. He received his BSc. from Brooklyn College and his PhD from Harvard University. MOSHE SHAPIRO, PhD, is the Jacques Mimran Professor of Chemical Physics at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, and a Professor of Chemistry and Physics at the University of British Columbia. He received his

  1. Myoelectric control of artificial limb inspired by quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siomau, Michael; Jiang, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Precise and elegant coordination of a prosthesis across many degrees of freedom represents a significant challenge to efficient rehabilitation of people with limb deficiency. Processing the electrical neural signals collected from the surface of the remnant muscles of the stump is a common way to initiate and control the different movements available to the artificial limb. Based on the assumption that there are distinguishable and repeatable signal patterns among different types of muscular activation, the problem of prosthesis control reduces to one of pattern recognition. Widely accepted classical methods for pattern recognition, however, cannot provide simultaneous and proportional control of the artificial limb. Here we show that, in principle, quantum information processing of the neural signals allows us to overcome the above-mentioned difficulties, suggesting a very simple scheme for myoelectric control of artificial limb with advanced functionalities.

  2. A universal quantum frequency converter via four-wave-mixing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Mingfei; Fang, Jinghuai

    2016-06-01

    We present a convenient and flexible way to realize a universal quantum frequency converter by using nondegenerate four-wave-mixing processes in the ladder-type three-level atomic system. It is shown that quantum state exchange between two fields with large frequency difference can be readily achieved, where one corresponds to the atomic resonant transition in the visible spectral region for quantum memory and the other to the telecommunication range wavelength (1550 nm) for long-distance transmission over optical fiber. This method would bring great facility in realistic quantum information processing protocols with atomic ensembles as quantum memory and low-loss optical fiber as transmission channel.

  3. A Scalable Microfabricated Ion Trap for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunz, Peter; Haltli, Raymond; Hollowell, Andrew; Lobser, Daniel; Mizrahi, Jonathan; Rembetski, John; Resnick, Paul; Sterk, Jonathan D.; Stick, Daniel L.; Blain, Matthew G.

    2016-05-01

    Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing (QIP) relies on complex microfabricated trap structures to enable scaling of the number of quantum bits. Building on previous demonstrations of surface-electrode ion traps, we have designed and characterized the Sandia high-optical-access (HOA-2) microfabricated ion trap. This trap features high optical access, high trap frequencies, low heating rates, and negligible charging of dielectric trap components. We have observed trap lifetimes of more than 100h, measured trap heating rates for ytterbium of less than 40quanta/s, and demonstrated shuttling of ions from a slotted to an above surface region and through a Y-junction. Furthermore, we summarize demonstrations of high-fidelity single and two-qubit gates realized in this trap. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA).

  4. The quantum formulation derived from assumptions of epistemic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helland, Inge S.

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by Quantum Bayesianism I give background for a general epistemic approach to quantum mechanics, where complementarity and symmetry are the only essential features. A general definition of a symmetric epistemic setting is introduced, and for this setting the basic Hilbert space formalism is arrived at under certain technical assumptions. Other aspects of ordinary quantum mechanics will be developed from the same basis elsewhere.

  5. Flexible intuitions of Euclidean geometry in an Amazonian indigene group.

    PubMed

    Izard, Véronique; Pica, Pierre; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-06-14

    Kant argued that Euclidean geometry is synthesized on the basis of an a priori intuition of space. This proposal inspired much behavioral research probing whether spatial navigation in humans and animals conforms to the predictions of Euclidean geometry. However, Euclidean geometry also includes concepts that transcend the perceptible, such as objects that are infinitely small or infinitely large, or statements of necessity and impossibility. We tested the hypothesis that certain aspects of nonperceptible Euclidian geometry map onto intuitions of space that are present in all humans, even in the absence of formal mathematical education. Our tests probed intuitions of points, lines, and surfaces in participants from an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucu, as well as adults and age-matched children controls from the United States and France and younger US children without education in geometry. The responses of Mundurucu adults and children converged with that of mathematically educated adults and children and revealed an intuitive understanding of essential properties of Euclidean geometry. For instance, on a surface described to them as perfectly planar, the Mundurucu's estimations of the internal angles of triangles added up to ~180 degrees, and when asked explicitly, they stated that there exists one single parallel line to any given line through a given point. These intuitions were also partially in place in the group of younger US participants. We conclude that, during childhood, humans develop geometrical intuitions that spontaneously accord with the principles of Euclidean geometry, even in the absence of training in mathematics.

  6. On refractive processes in strong laser field quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Di Piazza, A.

    2013-11-15

    Refractive processes in strong-field QED are pure quantum processes, which involve only external photons and the background electromagnetic field. We show analytically that such processes occurring in a plane-wave field and involving external real photons are all characterized by a surprisingly modest net exchange of energy and momentum with the laser field, corresponding to a few laser photons, even in the limit of ultra-relativistic laser intensities. We obtain this result by a direct calculation of the transition matrix element of an arbitrary refractive QED process and accounting exactly for the background plane-wave field. A simple physical explanation of this modest net exchange of laser photons is provided, based on the fact that the laser field couples with the external photons only indirectly through virtual electron–positron pairs. For stronger and stronger laser fields, the pairs cover a shorter and shorter distance before they annihilate again, such that the laser can transfer to them an energy corresponding to only a few photons. These results can be relevant for the future experiments aiming to test strong-field QED at present and next-generation facilities. -- Highlights: •Investigation of the one-loop amplitude of refractive QED processes in a laser field. •The amplitude is suppressed for a large number of net-exchanged laser photons. •Suggestion for first observation of high-nonlinear vacuum effects in a laser field.

  7. The Hippocampus and Entorhinal Cortex Encode the Path and Euclidean Distances to Goals during Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Lorelei R.; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Yu, Yichao; Mill, Ravi D.; Morrison, Laura C.; Knight, Rebecca; Loftus, Michelle M.; Staskute, Laura; Spiers, Hugo J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Despite decades of research on spatial memory, we know surprisingly little about how the brain guides navigation to goals. While some models argue that vectors are represented for navigational guidance, other models postulate that the future path is computed. Although the hippocampal formation has been implicated in processing spatial goal information, it remains unclear whether this region processes path- or vector-related information. Results We report neuroimaging data collected from subjects navigating London’s Soho district; these data reveal that both the path distance and the Euclidean distance to the goal are encoded by the medial temporal lobe during navigation. While activity in the posterior hippocampus was sensitive to the distance along the path, activity in the entorhinal cortex was correlated with the Euclidean distance component of a vector to the goal. During travel periods, posterior hippocampal activity increased as the path to the goal became longer, but at decision points, activity in this region increased as the path to the goal became closer and more direct. Importantly, sensitivity to the distance was abolished in these brain areas when travel was guided by external cues. Conclusions The results indicate that the hippocampal formation contains representations of both the Euclidean distance and the path distance to goals during navigation. These findings argue that the hippocampal formation houses a flexible guidance system that changes how it represents distance to the goal depending on the fluctuating demands of navigation. PMID:24909328

  8. Symmetric-bounce quantum state of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2009-09-01

    A proposal is made for the quantum state of the universe that has an initial state that is macroscopically time symmetric about a homogeneous, isotropic bounce of extremal volume and that at that bounce is microscopically in the ground state for inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic perturbation modes. The coarse-grained entropy is minimum at the bounce and then grows during inflation as the modes become excited away from the bounce and interact (assuming the presence of an inflaton, and in the part of the quantum state in which the inflaton is initially large enough to drive inflation). The part of this pure quantum state that dominates for observations is well approximated by quantum processes occurring within a Lorentzian expanding macroscopic universe. Because this part of the quantum state has no negative Euclidean action, one can avoid the early-time Boltzmann brains and Boltzmann solar systems that appear to dominate observations in the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary wavefunction.

  9. Capture process in nuclear reactions with a quantum master equation

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

    2009-09-15

    Projectile-nucleus capture by a target nucleus at bombarding energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier is treated with the reduced-density-matrix formalism. The effects of dissipation and fluctuations on the capture process are taken self-consistently into account within the quantum model suggested. The excitation functions for the capture in the reactions {sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 28}Si, {sup 32,34,36,38}S, {sup 40,48}Ca, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr+{sup 208}Pb with spherical nuclei are calculated and compared with the experimental data. At bombarding energies about (15-25) MeV above the Coulomb barrier the maximum of capture cross section is revealed for the {sup 58}Ni+{sup 208}Pb reaction.

  10. Dark Energy due to Late Time Quantum Decay Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Macorra, A.; Briscese, F.

    2010-06-01

    We show that the dark energy field can be dynamically obtained at a low scale, e.g. at E = O(eV), via a quantum transitions process. This is achieved if the φ field is coupled with a relativistic scalar field which we call J. The 2<-->2 coupling has a transition rate Γ~g2TJ and the fields are coupled at low energies when Γ/H ≡ Tgen/TJ~g2/TJ is larger than one, i.e. at T

  11. Quantum superpositions and entanglement of thermal states at high temperatures and their applications to quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunseok; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2007-10-15

    We study characteristics of superpositions and entanglement of thermal states at high temperatures and discuss their applications to quantum-information processing. We introduce thermal-state qubits and thermal-Bell states, which are a generalization of pure-state qubits and Bell states to thermal mixtures. A scheme is then presented to discriminate between the four thermal-Bell states without photon number resolving detection but with Kerr nonlinear interactions and two single-photon detectors. This enables one to perform quantum teleportation and gate operations for quantum computation with thermal-state qubits.

  12. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na

    2010-04-01

    Digital radiography has gained popularity in many areas of clinical practice. This transition brings interest in advancing the methodologies for image quality characterization. However, as the methodologies for such characterizations have not been standardized, the results of these studies cannot be directly compared. The primary objective of this study was to standardize methodologies for image quality characterization. The secondary objective was to evaluate affected factors to Modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) according to image processing algorithm. Image performance parameters such as MTF, NPS, and DQE were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) images of hand posterior-anterior (PA) for measuring signal to noise ratio (SNR), slit image for measuring MTF, white image for measuring NPS were obtained and various Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification (MUSICA) parameters were applied to each of acquired images. In results, all of modified images were considerably influence on evaluating SNR, MTF, NPS, and DQE. Modified images by the post-processing had higher DQE than the MUSICA=0 image. This suggests that MUSICA values, as a post-processing, have an affect on the image when it is evaluating for image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing could be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study could be guided as a baseline to evaluate imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by measuring MTF, NPS, and DQE.

  13. Black hole thermodynamics from Euclidean horizon constraints.

    PubMed

    Carlip, S

    2007-07-13

    To explain black hole thermodynamics in quantum gravity, one must introduce constraints to ensure that a black hole is actually present. I show that for a large class of black holes, such "horizon constraints" allow the use of conformal field theory techniques to compute the density of states, reproducing the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in a nearly model-independent manner. One standard string theory approach to black hole entropy arises as a special case, lending support to the claim that the mechanism may be "universal." I argue that the relevant degrees of freedom are Goldstone-boson-like excitations arising from the weak breaking of symmetry by the constraints. PMID:17678209

  14. Black hole thermodynamics from Euclidean horizon constraints.

    PubMed

    Carlip, S

    2007-07-13

    To explain black hole thermodynamics in quantum gravity, one must introduce constraints to ensure that a black hole is actually present. I show that for a large class of black holes, such "horizon constraints" allow the use of conformal field theory techniques to compute the density of states, reproducing the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in a nearly model-independent manner. One standard string theory approach to black hole entropy arises as a special case, lending support to the claim that the mechanism may be "universal." I argue that the relevant degrees of freedom are Goldstone-boson-like excitations arising from the weak breaking of symmetry by the constraints.

  15. Parameterized runtime analyses of evolutionary algorithms for the planar euclidean traveling salesperson problem.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Andrew M; Neumann, Frank; Nallaperuma, Samadhi

    2014-01-01

    Parameterized runtime analysis seeks to understand the influence of problem structure on algorithmic runtime. In this paper, we contribute to the theoretical understanding of evolutionary algorithms and carry out a parameterized analysis of evolutionary algorithms for the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem (Euclidean TSP). We investigate the structural properties in TSP instances that influence the optimization process of evolutionary algorithms and use this information to bound their runtime. We analyze the runtime in dependence of the number of inner points k. In the first part of the paper, we study a [Formula: see text] EA in a strictly black box setting and show that it can solve the Euclidean TSP in expected time [Formula: see text] where A is a function of the minimum angle [Formula: see text] between any three points. Based on insights provided by the analysis, we improve this upper bound by introducing a mixed mutation strategy that incorporates both 2-opt moves and permutation jumps. This strategy improves the upper bound to [Formula: see text]. In the second part of the paper, we use the information gained in the analysis to incorporate domain knowledge to design two fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) evolutionary algorithms for the planar Euclidean TSP. We first develop a [Formula: see text] EA based on an analysis by M. Theile, 2009, "Exact solutions to the traveling salesperson problem by a population-based evolutionary algorithm," Lecture notes in computer science, Vol. 5482 (pp. 145-155), that solves the TSP with k inner points in [Formula: see text] generations with probability [Formula: see text]. We then design a [Formula: see text] EA that incorporates a dynamic programming step into the fitness evaluation. We prove that a variant of this evolutionary algorithm using 2-opt mutation solves the problem after [Formula: see text] steps in expectation with a cost of [Formula: see text] for each fitness evaluation.

  16. Efficient Algorithm for Optimizing Adaptive Quantum Metrology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Alexander; Sanders, Barry C.

    2011-12-01

    Quantum-enhanced metrology infers an unknown quantity with accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL). Feedback-based metrological techniques are promising for beating the SQL but devising the feedback procedures is difficult and inefficient. Here we introduce an efficient self-learning swarm-intelligence algorithm for devising feedback-based quantum metrological procedures. Our algorithm can be trained with simulated or real-world trials and accommodates experimental imperfections, losses, and decoherence.

  17. Efficient algorithm for optimizing adaptive quantum metrology processes.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Alexander; Sanders, Barry C

    2011-12-01

    Quantum-enhanced metrology infers an unknown quantity with accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL). Feedback-based metrological techniques are promising for beating the SQL but devising the feedback procedures is difficult and inefficient. Here we introduce an efficient self-learning swarm-intelligence algorithm for devising feedback-based quantum metrological procedures. Our algorithm can be trained with simulated or real-world trials and accommodates experimental imperfections, losses, and decoherence.

  18. Equivalence between Euclidean and in-in formalisms in de Sitter QFT

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Marolf, Donald; Morrison, Ian A.

    2011-04-15

    We study the relation between two sets of correlators in interacting quantum field theory on de Sitter space. The first are correlators computed using in-in perturbation theory in the expanding cosmological patch of de Sitter space (also known as the conformal patch, or the Poincare patch), and for which the free propagators are taken to be those of the free Euclidean vacuum. The second are correlators obtained by analytic continuation from Euclidean de Sitter; i.e., they are correlators in the fully interacting Hartle-Hawking state. We give an analytic argument that these correlators coincide for interacting massive scalar fields with any m{sup 2}>0. We also verify this result via direct calculation in simple examples. The correspondence holds diagram by diagram, and at any finite value of an appropriate Pauli-Villars regulator mass M. Along the way, we note interesting connections between various prescriptions for perturbation theory in general static spacetimes with bifurcate Killing horizons.

  19. Certifying single-system steering for quantum-information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Lambert, Neill; Chiu, Ching-Yi; Nori, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes how different ensembles of quantum states can be remotely prepared by measuring one particle of an entangled pair. Here, we investigate quantum steering for single quantum d -dimensional systems (qudits) and devise efficient conditions to certify the steerability therein, which we find are applicable both to single-system steering and EPR steering. In the single-system case our steering conditions enable the unambiguous ruling out of generic classical means of mimicking steering. Ruling out "false-steering" scenarios has implications for securing channels against both cloning-based individual attack and coherent attacks when implementing quantum key distribution using qudits. We also show that these steering conditions also have applications in quantum computation, in that they can serve as an efficient criterion for the evaluation of quantum logic gates of arbitrary size. Finally, we describe how the nonlocal EPR variant of these conditions also function as tools for identifying faithful one-way quantum computation, secure entanglement-based quantum communication, and genuine multipartite EPR steering.

  20. Peripatetic and Euclidean theories of the visual ray.

    PubMed

    Jones, A

    1994-01-01

    The visual ray of Euclid's Optica is endowed with properties that reveal the concept to be an abstraction of a specific physical account of vision. The evolution of a physical theory of vision compatible with the Euclidean model can be traced in Peripatetic writings of the late fourth and third centuries B.C.

  1. Controlling Atomic, Solid-State and Hybrid Systems for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullans, Michael John

    Quantum information science involves the use of precise control over quantum systems to explore new technologies. However, as quantum systems are scaled up they require an ever deeper understanding of many-body physics to achieve the required degree of control. Current experiments are entering a regime which requires active control of a mesoscopic number of coupled quantum systems or quantum bits (qubits). This thesis describes several approaches to this goal and shows how mesoscopic quantum systems can be controlled and utilized for quantum information tasks. The first system we consider is the nuclear spin environment of GaAs double quantum dots containing two electrons. We show that the through appropriate control of dynamic nuclear polarization one can prepare the nuclear spin environment in three distinct collective quantum states which are useful for quantum information processing with electron spin qubits. We then investigate a hybrid system in which an optical lattice is formed in the near field scattering off an array of metallic nanoparticles by utilizing the plasmonic resonance of the nanoparticles. We show that such a system would realize new regimes of dense, ultra-cold quantum matter and can be used to create a quantum network of atoms and plasmons. Finally we investigate quantum nonlinear optical systems. We show that the intrinsic nonlinearity for plasmons in graphene can be large enough to make a quantum gate for single photons. We also consider two nonlinear optical systems based on ultracold gases of atoms. In one case, we demonstrate an all-optical single photon switch using cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) and slow light. In the second case, we study few photon physics in strongly interacting Rydberg polariton systems, where we demonstrate the existence of two and three photon bound states and study their properties.

  2. On a Quantum Model of the Recognition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Karl-Heinz; Fichtner, Lars; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2008-03-01

    One of the main activities of the brain is the recognition of signals. As it was pointed out in [23, 26] the procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an "expexted view of the world". Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory. That changes the state of both signals in such a manner that after the procedure the signals coincide in a certain sense. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from "excited" to "nonexcited". For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both - the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. According to the general conception of quantum theory the procedure of recognition should be described by operators acting on a certain Hilbert space. In the present paper which is based on [7] we describe in detail the activity in different parts of the brain by using so-called beam splitters well-known in quantum optics. Application of such a beam splitter may be interpreted as an exchange of the support (excited neurons) of the input signals and the signal chosen from the memory, a procedure which was mentioned in [26]. Recognition takes place if one of the outputs of the splitting procedure is collapsing. One can show (cf. Theorem 3.3) that for sufficiently high intensities of the signals this operator equals approximately the operator of projection onto the vacuum state in the considered region of the brain. In the present paper we want to give some overview of the basic ideas, structures and notions of the proposed model of the recognition process. Most of the proofs are omitted and will be given in some forthcoming papers [5, 6]. In this series also the

  3. Fixed points of quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Litim, Daniel F

    2004-05-21

    Euclidean quantum gravity is studied with renormalization group methods. Analytical results for a nontrivial ultraviolet fixed point are found for arbitrary dimensions and gauge fixing parameters in the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. Implications for quantum gravity in four dimensions are discussed.

  4. Quantum cognition: The possibility of processing with nuclear spins in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2015-11-01

    The possibility that quantum processing with nuclear spins might be operative in the brain is explored. Phosphorus is identified as the unique biological element with a nuclear spin that can serve as a qubit for such putative quantum processing-a neural qubit-while the phosphate ion is the only possible qubit-transporter. We identify the "Posner molecule", Ca9(PO4)6, as the unique molecule that can protect the neural qubits on very long times and thereby serve as a (working) quantum-memory. A central requirement for quantum-processing is quantum entanglement. It is argued that the enzyme catalyzed chemical reaction which breaks a pyrophosphate ion into two phosphate ions can quantum entangle pairs of qubits. Posner molecules, formed by binding such phosphate pairs with extracellular calcium ions, will inherit the nuclear spin entanglement. A mechanism for transporting Posner molecules into presynaptic neurons during vesicle endocytosis is proposed. Quantum measurements can occur when a pair of Posner molecules chemically bind and subsequently melt, releasing a shower of intra-cellular calcium ions that can trigger further neurotransmitter release and enhance the probability of post-synaptic neuron firing. Multiple entangled Posner molecules, triggering non-local quantum correlations of neuron firing rates, would provide the key mechanism for neural quantum processing. Implications, both in vitro and in vivo, are briefly mentioned.

  5. All-optical quantum computing with a hybrid solid-state processing unit

    SciTech Connect

    Pei Pei; Zhang Fengyang; Li Chong; Song Heshan

    2011-10-15

    We develop an architecture of a hybrid quantum solid-state processing unit for universal quantum computing. The architecture allows distant and nonidentical solid-state qubits in distinct physical systems to interact and work collaboratively. All the quantum computing procedures are controlled by optical methods using classical fields and cavity QED. Our methods have a prominent advantage of the insensitivity to dissipation process benefiting from the virtual excitation of subsystems. Moreover, the quantum nondemolition measurements and state transfer for the solid-state qubits are proposed. The architecture opens promising perspectives for implementing scalable quantum computation in a broader sense that different solid-state systems can merge and be integrated into one quantum processor afterward.

  6. Discrimination of correlated and entangling quantum channels with selective process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Eugene; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-10-01

    The accurate and reliable characterization of quantum dynamical processes underlies efforts to validate quantum technologies, where discrimination between competing models of observed behaviors inform efforts to fabricate and operate qubit devices. We present a protocol for quantum channel discrimination that leverages advances in direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) codes. We demonstrate that DCQD codes enable selective process tomography to improve discrimination between entangling and correlated quantum dynamics. Numerical simulations show selective process tomography requires only a few measurement configurations to achieve a low false alarm rate and that the DCQD encoding improves the resilience of the protocol to hidden sources of noise. Our results show that selective process tomography with DCQD codes is useful for efficiently distinguishing sources of correlated crosstalk from uncorrelated noise in current and future experimental platforms.

  7. Discrimination of correlated and entangling quantum channels with selective process tomography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dumitrescu, Eugene; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-10-10

    The accurate and reliable characterization of quantum dynamical processes underlies efforts to validate quantum technologies, where discrimination between competing models of observed behaviors inform efforts to fabricate and operate qubit devices. We present a protocol for quantum channel discrimination that leverages advances in direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) codes. We demonstrate that DCQD codes enable selective process tomography to improve discrimination between entangling and correlated quantum dynamics. Numerical simulations show selective process tomography requires only a few measurement configurations to achieve a low false alarm rate and that the DCQD encoding improves the resilience of the protocol to hiddenmore » sources of noise. Lastly, our results show that selective process tomography with DCQD codes is useful for efficiently distinguishing sources of correlated crosstalk from uncorrelated noise in current and future experimental platforms.« less

  8. Physical Meaning of the Optimum Measurement Process in Quantum Detection Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osaki, Masao; Kozuka, Haruhisa; Hirota, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    The optimum measurement processes are represented as the optimum detection operators in the quantum detection theory. The error probability by the optimum detection operators goes beyond the standard quantum limit automatically. However the optimum detection operators are given by pure mathematical descriptions. In order to realize a communication system overcoming the standard quantum limit, we try to give the physical meaning of the optimum detection operators.

  9. [Effects of quantum nonlocality in the water activation process].

    PubMed

    Zatsepina, O V; Stekhin, A A; Yakovleva, G V

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic alterations of the magnetic flux density of the water volume, activated with structurally stressed calcium carbonate in micellar form have been investigated. The phase of the associated water was established to exhibit electrical and magnetic properties, recorded by in B&E meter in the frequency range of 5Hz - 2kHz. Alterations in water Eh (redox) potential and the magnetic flux density B testify to synchronous auto-oscillatory changes. This gives evidence of non-linearity of the relationship between auto-oscillatory processes excited in the water; and reflects the nonlocal in time the relationship between the states of water, manifesting in a change of water activity on the 1st and 2nd day in negative time. The mechanism of action of associated water phase is shown to be described by de Broglie concept of matter waves with taking into account delocalized in time states of phase of electron wave packet in accordance with the transactional interpretation of quantum physics. PMID:24749297

  10. (e,3e) process on a quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, M.K.

    2004-12-01

    The exact initial state wave function of an interacting electron pair in a quantum dot under parabolic confinement and neutralization of the dot by the substrate after ejection of electrons is exploited to obtain the fivefold differential cross section (X) of the (e,3e) process on the dot. The reflections of the center-of-mass (c.m.) motion and relative motion on X are decoupled if the incident and scattered electrons are energetic and the ejected electrons are slow. The results are studied in fixed mutual angle (with zero c.m. momentum K) and Bethe ridge modes which allow the 'cleanest' analysis of the contribution of the relative motion. The Coulomb interaction between the emitted electrons is found to qualitatively change the angular distribution of X. In the mode in which the magnitude of K is equal to the momentum transfer q, the angular distribution of X with respect to {theta}{sub Kq}=cos{sup -1}(K{center_dot}q) leads to a mapping of the initial c.m. wave function of the ejected pair. However, the c.m. motion is found to be best studied in the kinematics where the relative momentum k-vector of the ejected pair is equal to q-vector.

  11. Intensity correlations and dynamical processes in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Stephen Lawrence

    1998-10-01

    Dynamical processes in a cavity quantum electrodynamical system are studied with two-level atoms in an optical cavity. The initial condition for the dynamics is either an internal or external step. The internal step is caused by the escape of a photon from the system, and the external step by a change in the driving intensity. After either step there is an oscillatory exchange of energy as the system reaches steady state. The frequency of oscillation decreases with increasing input intensity. The experimental results are compared quantitatively to theoretical calculations and to transmission spectroscopy measurements. After the external step, the output intensity oscillates to a value many times larger than the steady state. Response to the internal step is measured by photon correlations. Antibunched light with sub-Poissonian statistics is observed. Antibunched light with super-Poissonian statistics, as well as bunched light with larger correlations for non-zero times are also observed. All three effects are nonclassical. The latter two have not previously been observed, and violate the Schwarz inequality.

  12. [Effects of quantum nonlocality in the water activation process].

    PubMed

    Zatsepina, O V; Stekhin, A A; Yakovleva, G V

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic alterations of the magnetic flux density of the water volume, activated with structurally stressed calcium carbonate in micellar form have been investigated. The phase of the associated water was established to exhibit electrical and magnetic properties, recorded by in B&E meter in the frequency range of 5Hz - 2kHz. Alterations in water Eh (redox) potential and the magnetic flux density B testify to synchronous auto-oscillatory changes. This gives evidence of non-linearity of the relationship between auto-oscillatory processes excited in the water; and reflects the nonlocal in time the relationship between the states of water, manifesting in a change of water activity on the 1st and 2nd day in negative time. The mechanism of action of associated water phase is shown to be described by de Broglie concept of matter waves with taking into account delocalized in time states of phase of electron wave packet in accordance with the transactional interpretation of quantum physics.

  13. Quantum Simulation of Dissipative Processes without Reservoir Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Di Candia, R.; Pedernales, J. S.; del Campo, A.; Solano, E.; Casanova, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantum algorithm to simulate general finite dimensional Lindblad master equations without the requirement of engineering the system-environment interactions. The proposed method is able to simulate both Markovian and non-Markovian quantum dynamics. It consists in the quantum computation of the dissipative corrections to the unitary evolution of the system of interest, via the reconstruction of the response functions associated with the Lindblad operators. Our approach is equally applicable to dynamics generated by effectively non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. We confirm the quality of our method providing specific error bounds that quantify its accuracy. PMID:26024437

  14. Quantum simulation of dissipative processes without reservoir engineering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Di Candia, R.; Pedernales, J. S.; del Campo, A.; Solano, E.; Casanova, J.

    2015-05-29

    We present a quantum algorithm to simulate general finite dimensional Lindblad master equations without the requirement of engineering the system-environment interactions. The proposed method is able to simulate both Markovian and non-Markovian quantum dynamics. It consists in the quantum computation of the dissipative corrections to the unitary evolution of the system of interest, via the reconstruction of the response functions associated with the Lindblad operators. Our approach is equally applicable to dynamics generated by effectively non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. We confirm the quality of our method providing specific error bounds that quantify its accuracy.

  15. Quantum information processing in phase space: A modular variables approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketterer, A.; Keller, A.; Walborn, S. P.; Coudreau, T.; Milman, P.

    2016-08-01

    Binary quantum information can be fault-tolerantly encoded in states defined in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Such states define a computational basis, and permit a perfect equivalence between continuous and discrete universal operations. The drawback of this encoding is that the corresponding logical states are unphysical, meaning infinitely localized in phase space. We use the modular variables formalism to show that, in a number of protocols relevant for quantum information and for the realization of fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, it is possible to loosen the requirements on the logical subspace without jeopardizing their usefulness or their successful implementation. Such protocols involve measurements of appropriately chosen modular variables that permit the readout of the encoded discrete quantum information from the corresponding logical states. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental feasibility of our approach by applying it to the transverse degrees of freedom of single photons.

  16. Quantum fields and poisson processes: Interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Jacqueline; Gaveau, Bernard; Rideau, Guy

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schrödinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful.

  17. Quantum information processing with long-wavelength radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, David; Weidt, Sebastian; Randall, Joseph; Lekitsch, Bjoern; Webster, Simon; Navickas, Tomas; Grounds, Anton; Rodriguez, Andrea; Webb, Anna; Standing, Eamon; Pearce, Stuart; Sari, Ibrahim; Kiang, Kian; Rattanasonti, Hwanjit; Kraft, Michael; Hensinger, Winfried

    To this point, the entanglement of ions has predominantly been performed using lasers. Using long wavelength radiation with static magnetic field gradients provides an architecture to simplify construction of a large scale quantum computer. The use of microwave-dressed states protects against decoherence from fluctuating magnetic fields, with radio-frequency fields used for qubit manipulation. I will report the realisation of spin-motion entanglement using long-wavelength radiation, and a new method to efficiently prepare dressed-state qubits and qutrits, reducing experimental complexity of gate operations. I will also report demonstration of ground state cooling using long wavelength radiation, which may increase two-qubit entanglement fidelity. I will then report demonstration of a high-fidelity long-wavelength two-ion quantum gate using dressed states. Combining these results with microfabricated ion traps allows for scaling towards a large scale ion trap quantum computer, and provides a platform for quantum simulations of fundamental physics. I will report progress towards the operation of microchip ion traps with extremely high magnetic field gradients for multi-ion quantum gates.

  18. Percolation threshold on planar Euclidean Gabriel graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrenbrock, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In the present article, numerical simulations have been performed to find the bond and site percolation thresholds on two-dimensional Gabriel graphs (GG) for Poisson point processes. GGs belong to the family of "proximity graphs" and are discussed, e.g., in context of the construction of backbones for wireless ad-hoc networks. Finite-size scaling analyses have been performed to find the critical points and critical exponents ν, β and γ. The critical exponents obtained this way verify that the associated universality class is that of standard 2D percolation.

  19. Tackling higher derivative ghosts with the Euclidean path integral

    SciTech Connect

    Fontanini, Michele; Trodden, Mark

    2011-05-15

    An alternative to the effective field theory approach to treat ghosts in higher derivative theories is to attempt to integrate them out via the Euclidean path integral formalism. It has been suggested that this method could provide a consistent framework within which we might tolerate the ghost degrees of freedom that plague, among other theories, the higher derivative gravity models that have been proposed to explain cosmic acceleration. We consider the extension of this idea to treating a class of terms with order six derivatives, and find that for a general term the Euclidean path integral approach works in the most trivial background, Minkowski. Moreover we see that even in de Sitter background, despite some difficulties, it is possible to define a probability distribution for tensorial perturbations of the metric.

  20. The efficient algorithms for achieving Euclidean distance transformation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Frank Y; Wu, Yi-Ta

    2004-08-01

    Euclidean distance transformation (EDT) is used to convert a digital binary image consisting of object (foreground) and nonobject (background) pixels into another image where each pixel has a value of the minimum Euclidean distance from nonobject pixels. In this paper, the improved iterative erosion algorithm is proposed to avoid the redundant calculations in the iterative erosion algorithm. Furthermore, to avoid the iterative operations, the two-scan-based algorithm by a deriving approach is developed for achieving EDT correctly and efficiently in a constant time. Besides, we discover when obstacles appear in the image, many algorithms cannot achieve the correct EDT except our two-scan-based algorithm. Moreover, the two-scan-based algorithm does not require the additional cost of preprocessing or relative-coordinates recording.

  1. Riemannian means on special euclidean group and unipotent matrices group.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaomin; Sun, Huafei; Peng, Linyu

    2013-01-01

    Among the noncompact matrix Lie groups, the special Euclidean group and the unipotent matrix group play important roles in both theoretic and applied studies. The Riemannian means of a finite set of the given points on the two matrix groups are investigated, respectively. Based on the left invariant metric on the matrix Lie groups, the geodesic between any two points is gotten. And the sum of the geodesic distances is taken as the cost function, whose minimizer is the Riemannian mean. Moreover, a Riemannian gradient algorithm for computing the Riemannian mean on the special Euclidean group and an iterative formula for that on the unipotent matrix group are proposed, respectively. Finally, several numerical simulations in the 3-dimensional case are given to illustrate our results.

  2. Optimal recovery of linear operators in non-Euclidean metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Osipenko, K Yu

    2014-10-31

    The paper looks at problems concerning the recovery of operators from noisy information in non-Euclidean metrics. A number of general theorems are proved and applied to recovery problems for functions and their derivatives from the noisy Fourier transform. In some cases, a family of optimal methods is found, from which the methods requiring the least amount of original information are singled out. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  3. Euclidean Complex Relativistic Mechanics: A New Special Relativity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias

    2015-09-01

    Relativity Theory (RT) was fundamental for the development of Quantum Mechanics (QMs). Special Relativity (SR), as is applied until now, cancels the transitive attribute in parallelism, when three observers are related, because Lorentz Boost (LB) is not closed transformation. In this presentation, considering Linear Spacetime Transformation (LSTT), we demand the maintenance of Minkowski Spacetime Interval (S2). In addition, we demand this LSTT to be closed, so there is no need for axes rotation. The solution is the Vossos Matrix (ΛB) containing real and imaginary numbers. As a result, space becomes complex, but time remains real. Thus, the transitive attribute in parallelism, which is equivalent to the Euclidean Request (ER), is also valid for moving observers. Choosing real spacetime for the unmoved observer (O), all the natural sizes are real, too. Using Vossos Transformation (VT) for moving observers, the four-vectors’ zeroth component (such as energy) is real, in contrast with spatial components that are complex, but their norm is real. It is proved that moving (relative to O) human O' meter length, according to Lorentz Boost (LB). In addition, we find Rotation Matrix Vossos-Lorentz (RBL) that turns natural sizes’ complex components to real. We also prove that Speed of Light in Vacuum (c) is invariant, when complex components are used and VT is closed for three sequential observers. After, we find out the connection between two moving (relative to O) observers: X"= ΛLO"(o) ΛLO(O') X', using Lorentz Matrix (ΛL). We applied this theory, finding relations between natural sizes, that are the same as these extracted by Classic Relativity (CR), when two observers are related (i.e. relativistic Doppler shift is the same). But, the results are different, when more than two observers are related. VT of Electromagnetic Tensor (Fμv), leads to Complex Electromagnetic Fields (CEMFs) for a moving observer. When the unmoved observer O and a moving observer O' are

  4. Scheme for Quantum Cloning and Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Zhi-Ming

    In this paper, a scheme is presented to implement the 1→2 universal quantum cloning machine (UQCM) with trapped ions. In this way, we also show that quantum information can be directly transferred from one ion to another. The distinct advantage of the scheme lies in the fact that it does not use the vibrational mode as the data bus. The vibrational mode is only virtually excited, which makes our scheme insensitive to heating, provided the system remains in the Lamb-Dicke regime.

  5. Relaxation process of quantum system: Stochastic Liouville equation and initial correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, Masashi; Kitajima, Sachiko; Shibata, Fumiaki

    2010-08-15

    Time evolution of a quantum system which is influenced by a stochastically fluctuating environment is studied by means of the stochastic Liouville equation. The two different types of the stochastic Liouville equation and their relation are discussed. The stochastic Liouville equation is shown to be derived from the quantum master equation of the Lindblad under certain conditions. Relaxation processes of single and bipartite quantum systems which are initially correlated with a stochastic environment are investigated. It is shown the possibility that the stochastic fluctuation can create coherence and entanglement of a quantum system with the assistance of the initial correlation. The results are examined in the pure dephasing processes of qubits, which are caused by the nonstationary Gauss-Markov process and two-state jump Markov process.

  6. Fractal and Euclidean descriptors of platelet shape.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Max-Joseph; Neeb, Heiko; Strasser, Erwin F

    2014-01-01

    Platelet shape change is a dynamic membrane surface process that exhibits remarkable morphological heterogeneity. Once the outline of an irregular shape is identified and segmented from a digital image, several mathematical descriptors can be applied to numerical characterize the irregularity of the shapes surface. 13072 platelet outlines (PLO) were segmented automatically from 1928 microscopic images using a newly developed algorithm for the software product Matlab R2012b. The fractal dimension (FD), circularity, eccentricity, area and perimeter of each PLO were determined. 972 PLO were randomly assigned for computer-assisted manual measurement of platelet diameter as well as number, width and length of filopodia per platelet. FD can be used as a surrogate parameter for determining the roughness of the PLO and circularity can be used as a surrogate to estimate the number and length of filopodia. The relationship between FD and perimeter of the PLO reveals the existence of distinct groups of platelets with significant structural differences which may be caused by platelet activation. This new method allows for the standardized continuous numerical classification of platelet shape and its dynamic change, which is useful for the analysis of altered platelet activity (e.g. inflammatory diseases, contact activation, drug testing).

  7. Quantum Fisher information flow and non-Markovian processes of open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Xiaoming; Wang Xiaoguang; Sun, C. P.

    2010-10-15

    We establish an information-theoretic approach for quantitatively characterizing the non-Markovianity of open quantum processes. Here, the quantum Fisher information (QFI) flow provides a measure to statistically distinguish Markovian and non-Markovian processes. A basic relation between the QFI flow and non-Markovianity is unveiled for quantum dynamics of open systems. For a class of time-local master equations, the exactly analytic solution shows that for each fixed time the QFI flow is decomposed into additive subflows according to different dissipative channels.

  8. Energy transfer processes in ZnSe/(Zn,Mn)Se double quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, Stephanie; Horst, Swantje; Chernikov, Alexej; Chatterjee, Sangam; Heimbrodt, Wolfram

    2009-10-01

    The complex interplay of energy transfer and tunneling processes in a series of asymmetric ZnSe/(Zn,Mn)Se double quantum-well (DQW) structures is investigated. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence at low temperatures and external magnetic fields up to 7 T in this system show remarkable differences to earlier studies on CdTe/(Cd,Mn)Te DQWs. The pure quantum-mechanical tunneling process is only a minor contribution to the magnetic field dependence of the emission even in case of small barriers and strong QW coupling. The experimental results are supported by quantum-well calculations.

  9. Elementary Quantum Mechanics in a High-Energy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denville, A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Compares two approaches to strong absorption in elementary quantum mechanics; the black sphere and a model based on the continuum theory of nuclear reactions. Examines the application to proton-antiproton interactions at low momenta and concludes that the second model is the appropriate and simplest to use. (Author/GA)

  10. Quantum broadcasting problem in classical low-power signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Janzing, Dominik; Steudel, Bastian

    2007-02-15

    We prove a no-broadcasting theorem for the Holevo information of a noncommuting ensemble stating that no operation can generate a bipartite ensemble such that both copies have the same information as the original. We argue that upper bounds on the average information over both copies imply lower bounds on the quantum capacity required to send the ensemble without information loss. This is because a channel with zero quantum capacity has a unitary extension transferring at least as much information to its environment as it transfers to the output. For an ensemble being the time orbit of a pure state under a Hamiltonian evolution, we derive such a bound on the required quantum capacity in terms of properties of the input and output energy distribution. Moreover, we discuss relations between the broadcasting problem and entropy power inequalities. The broadcasting problem arises when a signal should be transmitted by a time-invariant device such that the outgoing signal has the same timing information as the incoming signal had. Based on previous results we argue that this establishes a link between quantum information theory and the theory of low power computing because the loss of timing information implies loss of free energy.

  11. Optimizing the choice of spin-squeezed states for detecting and characterizing quantum processes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rozema, Lee A.; Mahler, Dylan H.; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Steinberg, Aephraim M.

    2014-11-07

    Quantum metrology uses quantum states with no classical counterpart to measure a physical quantity with extraordinary sensitivity or precision. Most such schemes characterize a dynamical process by probing it with a specially designed quantum state. The success of such a scheme usually relies on the process belonging to a particular one-parameter family. If this assumption is violated, or if the goal is to measure more than one parameter, a different quantum state may perform better. In the most extreme case, we know nothing about the process and wish to learn everything. This requires quantum process tomography, which demands an informationallymore » complete set of probe states. It is very convenient if this set is group covariant—i.e., each element is generated by applying an element of the quantum system’s natural symmetry group to a single fixed fiducial state. In this paper, we consider metrology with 2-photon (“biphoton”) states and report experimental studies of different states’ sensitivity to small, unknown collective SU(2) rotations [“SU(2) jitter”]. Maximally entangled N00N states are the most sensitive detectors of such a rotation, yet they are also among the worst at fully characterizing an a priori unknown process. We identify (and confirm experimentally) the best SU(2)-covariant set for process tomography; these states are all less entangled than the N00N state, and are characterized by the fact that they form a 2-design.« less

  12. Quantum information processing using acceptors in silicon and phonon entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Susan; Reinke, Charles; McGuinness, Hayden; El-Kady, Ihab

    2014-03-01

    Quantum computing with large numbers of qubits remains challenging due to the decoherence and complexity that arise as more qubits are added to a system. Here I propose a new platform for semiconductor quantum computing which may be robust to common sources of decoherence and may not be difficult to fabricate repeatedly. This system consists of a hole bound to an acceptor in silicon which has been implanted in the center of a mechanical cavity (similar to a photonic crystal cavity) and connected to other cavities by a system of waveguides. I will outline a basic entangling gate and calculations showing the promise of this platform as the ideal qubit. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Integrated System Technologies for Modular Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Stephen G.

    Although trapped ion technology is well-suited for quantum information science, scalability of the system remains one of the main challenges. One of the challenges associated with scaling the ion trap quantum computer is the ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, laser beams are focused on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Multiple single qubit gates are demonstrated on trapped 171Yb+ qubits and the gate performance is characterized using quantum state tomography. The system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (< 3e-4), and switching speeds comparable to typical single qubit gate times (< 2 mus). In a separate experiment, photons scattered from the 171Yb+ ion are coupled into an optical fiber with 63% efficiency using a high numerical aperture lens (0.6 NA). The coupled photons are directed to superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPD), which provide a higher detector efficiency (69%) compared to traditional photomultiplier tubes (35%). The total system photon collection efficiency is increased from 2.2% to 3.4%, which allows for fast state detection of the qubit. For a detection beam intensity of 11 mW/cm 2, the average detection time is 23.7 mus with 99.885(7)% detection fidelity. The technologies demonstrated in this thesis can be integrated to form a single quantum register with all of the necessary resources to perform local gates as well as high fidelity readout and provide a photon link to other systems.

  14. A Model of the Creative Process Based on Quantum Physics and Vedic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Laura Hall

    1988-01-01

    Using tenets from Vedic science and quantum physics, this model of the creative process suggests that the unified field of creation is pure consciousness, and that the development of the creative process within individuals mirrors the creative process within the universe. Rational and supra-rational creative thinking techniques are also described.…

  15. Theoretical analysis of on-chip linear quantum optical information processing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hach, Edwin E.; Preble, Stefan F.; Steidle, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a quantum optical analysis of waveguides directionally coupled to ring resonators, an architecture realizable using silicon nanophotonics. The innate scalability of the silicon platform allows for the possibility of "on-chip" quantum computation and information processing. In this paper, we briefly review a comprehensive method for analyzing the quantum mechanical output of such a network for an arbitrary input state of the quantized, traveling electromagnetic field in the continuous wave (cw) limit. Specifically, we briefly review a recent theoretical result identifying a particular device topology that yields, via Passive Quantum Optical Feedback (PQOF), dramatic and unexpected enhancements of the Hong-Ou-Mandel Effect, an effect central to the operation of many quantum information processing systems. Next, we extend the analysis to our proposal for a scalable, on-chip realization of the Nonlinear Sign (NS) shifter essential for implementation of the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM) protocol for Linear Optical Quantum Computing (LOQC). Finally, we discuss generalizations to arbitrary networks of directionally coupled ring resonators along with possible applications is the areas of quantum metrology and sensitive photon detection.

  16. Quantum-like model of processing of information in the brain based on classical electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-09-01

    We propose a model of quantum-like (QL) processing of mental information. This model is based on quantum information theory. However, in contrast to models of "quantum physical brain" reducing mental activity (at least at the highest level) to quantum physical phenomena in the brain, our model matches well with the basic neuronal paradigm of the cognitive science. QL information processing is based (surprisingly) on classical electromagnetic signals induced by joint activity of neurons. This novel approach to quantum information is based on representation of quantum mechanics as a version of classical signal theory which was recently elaborated by the author. The brain uses the QL representation (QLR) for working with abstract concepts; concrete images are described by classical information theory. Two processes, classical and QL, are performed parallely. Moreover, information is actively transmitted from one representation to another. A QL concept given in our model by a density operator can generate a variety of concrete images given by temporal realizations of the corresponding (Gaussian) random signal. This signal has the covariance operator coinciding with the density operator encoding the abstract concept under consideration. The presence of various temporal scales in the brain plays the crucial role in creation of QLR in the brain. Moreover, in our model electromagnetic noise produced by neurons is a source of superstrong QL correlations between processes in different spatial domains in the brain; the binding problem is solved on the QL level, but with the aid of the classical background fluctuations.

  17. Towards quantum information processing with impurity spins insilicon

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, T.; Liddle, J.A.; Bokor, J.; Rangelow, I.W.; Park,S.J.; Persaud, A.

    2004-03-01

    The finding of algorithms for factoring and data base search that promise substantially increased computational power, as well as the expectation for efficient simulation of quantum systems have spawned an intense interest in the realization of quantum information processors [1]. Solid state implementations of quantum computers scaled to >1000 quantum bits ('qubits') promise to revolutionize information technology, but requirements with regard to sources of decoherence in solid state environments are sobering. Here, we briefly review basic approaches to impurity spin based qubits and present progress in our effort to form prototype qubit test structures. Since Kane's bold silicon based spin qubit proposal was first published in 1998 [2], several groups have taken up the challenge of fabricating elementary building blocks [3-5], and several exciting variations of single donor qubit schemes have emerged [6]. Single donor atoms, e. g. {sup 31}P, are 'natural quantum dots' in a silicon matrix, and the spins of electrons and nuclei of individual donor atoms are attractive two level systems for encoding of quantum information. The coupling to the solid state environment is weak, so that decoherence times are long (hours for nuclear spins, and {approx}60 ms for electron spins of isolated P atoms in silicon [7]), while control over individual spins for one qubit operations becomes possible when individual qubits are aligned to electrodes that allow shifting of electron spin resonances in global magnetic fields by application of control voltages. Two qubit operations require an interaction that couples, and entangles qubits. The exchange interaction, J, is a prime candidate for mediation of two qubit operations, since it can be turned on and off by variation of the wave function overlap between neighboring qubits, and coherent manipulation of quantum information with the exchange interaction alone has been shown to be universal [8]. However, detailed band structure

  18. On quantum mechanical transport coefficients in nonequilibrium nuclear processes with application to heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdouni, Yamen

    2010-12-01

    The elements of the quantum mechanical Markovian diffusion matrix leading to a Gibbs equilibrium state for a set of N coupled quantum harmonic oscillators are derived within Lindblad's axiomatic approach. Consequences of the fundamental constraints on the quantum friction coefficients are discussed. We derive the equations of motion for the expectation values and variances, and we solve them analytically. We apply our results to the description of the charge and mass asymmetry coordinates in heavy-ion collisions, and we investigate the effect of dissipation on tunneling in sub-barrier processes.

  19. Quantum learning of classical stochastic processes: The completely positive realization problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monràs, Alex; Winter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Among several tasks in Machine Learning, a specially important one is the problem of inferring the latent variables of a system and their causal relations with the observed behavior. A paradigmatic instance of this is the task of inferring the hidden Markov model underlying a given stochastic process. This is known as the positive realization problem (PRP), [L. Benvenuti and L. Farina, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 49(5), 651-664 (2004)] and constitutes a central problem in machine learning. The PRP and its solutions have far-reaching consequences in many areas of systems and control theory, and is nowadays an important piece in the broad field of positive systems theory. We consider the scenario where the latent variables are quantum (i.e., quantum states of a finite-dimensional system) and the system dynamics is constrained only by physical transformations on the quantum system. The observable dynamics is then described by a quantum instrument, and the task is to determine which quantum instrument — if any — yields the process at hand by iterative application. We take as a starting point the theory of quasi-realizations, whence a description of the dynamics of the process is given in terms of linear maps on state vectors and probabilities are given by linear functionals on the state vectors. This description, despite its remarkable resemblance with the hidden Markov model, or the iterated quantum instrument, is however devoid of any stochastic or quantum mechanical interpretation, as said maps fail to satisfy any positivity conditions. The completely positive realization problem then consists in determining whether an equivalent quantum mechanical description of the same process exists. We generalize some key results of stochastic realization theory, and show that the problem has deep connections with operator systems theory, giving possible insight to the lifting problem in quotient operator systems. Our results have potential applications in quantum machine

  20. On cohomogeneity one biharmonic hypersurfaces into the Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, S.; Oniciuc, C.; Ratto, A.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove that there exists no cohomogeneity one G-invariant proper biharmonic hypersurface into the Euclidean space Rn, where G denotes a transformation group which acts on Rn by isometries, with codimension two principal orbits. This result may be considered in the context of the Chen conjecture, since this family of hypersurfaces includes examples with up to seven distinct principal curvatures. The paper uses the methods of equivariant differential geometry. In particular, the technique of proof provides a unified treatment for all these G-actions.

  1. Stable hypersurfaces with zero scalar curvature in Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencar, Hilário; do Carmo, Manfredo; Neto, Gregório Silva

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we prove some results concerning stability of hypersurfaces in the four dimensional Euclidean space with zero scalar curvature. First we prove there is no complete stable hypersurface with zero scalar curvature, polynomial growth of integral of the mean curvature, and with the Gauss-Kronecker curvature bounded away from zero. We conclude this paper giving a sufficient condition for a regular domain to be stable in terms of the mean and the Gauss-Kronecker curvatures of the hypersurface and the radius of the smallest extrinsic ball which contains the domain.

  2. Multi-stability in folded shells: non-Euclidean origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    Both natural and man-made structures benefit from having multiple mechanically stable states, from the quick snapping motion of hummingbird beaks to micro-textured surfaces with tunable roughness. Rather than discuss special fabrication techniques for creating bi-stability through material anisotropy, in this talk I will present several examples of how folding a structure can modify the energy landscape and thus lead to multiple stable states. Using ideas from origami and differential geometry, I will discuss how deforming a non-Euclidean surface can be done either continuously or discontinuously, and explore the effects that global constraints have on the ultimate stability of the surface.

  3. Phase shift extraction algorithm based on Euclidean matrix norm.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian; Wang, Hankun; Zhang, Desi; Zhong, Liyun; Fan, Jinping; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2013-05-01

    In this Letter, the character of Euclidean matrix norm (EMN) of the intensity difference between phase-shifting interferograms, which changes in sinusoidal form with the phase shifts, is presented. Based on this character, an EMN phase shift extraction algorithm is proposed. Both the simulation calculation and experimental research show that the phase shifts with high precision can be determined with the proposed EMN algorithm easily. Importantly, the proposed EMN algorithm will supply a powerful tool for the rapid calibration of the phase shifts.

  4. A consistent quantum model for continuous photodetection processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, M. C.; Mizrahi, S. S.; Dodonov, V. V.

    2003-06-01

    We modify some aspects of the continuous photodetection theory proposed by Srinivas and Davies (SD) (1981 Opt. Acta 28 981), which describes the non-unitary evolution of a quantum field state subjected to a continuous photocount measurement. In order to remedy inconsistencies that appear in their approach, we redefine the 'annihilation' and 'creation' operators that enter in the photocount super-operators. We show that this new approach not only still satisfies all the requirements for a consistent photocount theory according to SD precepts, but also avoids some weird result appearing when previous definitions are used.

  5. Space–time-bounded quantum fields for detection processes

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo, Fernando J.; Jaroszkiewicz, George

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a quantum field detection model comprising two types of detection procedures: maximal detection, where the initial state of the system and detectors undergoes an irreversible evolution, and minimal detection, where the system–detector interaction consists of a small, reversible coupling and posterior maximal detection performed over the detector system. Combined, these detection procedures allow for a time-dependent description of signalling experiments involving yes/no type of questions. A particular minimal detection model, stable in the presence of the vacuum, is presented and studied, successfully reproducing the localization of the state after a detection. PMID:24711717

  6. Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xingliang; Zhang, Zhenxing; Jin, Yizheng; Niu, Yuan; Cao, Hujia; Liang, Xiaoyong; Chen, Liwei; Wang, Jianpu; Peng, Xiaogang

    2014-11-01

    Solution-processed optoelectronic and electronic devices are attractive owing to the potential for low-cost fabrication of large-area devices and the compatibility with lightweight, flexible plastic substrates. Solution-processed light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using conjugated polymers or quantum dots as emitters have attracted great interest over the past two decades. However, the overall performance of solution-processed LEDs--including their efficiency, efficiency roll-off at high current densities, turn-on voltage and lifetime under operational conditions--remains inferior to that of the best vacuum-deposited organic LEDs. Here we report a solution-processed, multilayer quantum-dot-based LED with excellent performance and reproducibility. It exhibits colour-saturated deep-red emission, sub-bandgap turn-on at 1.7 volts, high external quantum efficiencies of up to 20.5 per cent, low efficiency roll-off (up to 15.1 per cent of the external quantum efficiency at 100 mA cm-2), and a long operational lifetime of more than 100,000 hours at 100 cd m-2, making this device the best-performing solution-processed red LED so far, comparable to state-of-the-art vacuum-deposited organic LEDs. This optoelectronic performance is achieved by inserting an insulating layer between the quantum dot layer and the oxide electron-transport layer to optimize charge balance in the device and preserve the superior emissive properties of the quantum dots. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for further research, leading to high-performance, all-solution-processed quantum-dot-based LEDs ideal for next-generation display and solid-state lighting technologies.

  7. Merging quantum dots, biomolecules, and polymers for record performance from solution-processed optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Edward H.

    2006-02-01

    We apply discoveries in nanoscience towards applications relevant to health, environment, security, and connectedness. A materials fundamental to our research is the quantum dot. Each quantum dot is a particle of semiconductor only a few nanometers in diameter. These semiconductor nanoparticles confine electrons to within their characteristic wavelength. Thus, just as changing the length of a guitar string changes the frequency of sound produced, so too does changing the size of a quantum dot alter the frequency - hence energy - the electron can adopt. As a result, quantum dots are tunable matter (Fig. 2). We work with colloidal quantum dots, nanoparticles produced in, and processed from, solution. They can be coated onto nearly anything - a semiconductor substrate, a window, a wall, fabric. Compared to epitaxially-grown semiconductors used to make optical detectors, lasers, and modulators, they are cheap, safe to work with, and easy to produce. Much of our work with quantum dots involves infrared light - its measurement, production, modulation, and harnessing. While there exists an abundance of work in colloidal quantum dots active in the visible, there are fewer results in the infrared. The wavelengths between 1000 and 2000 nm are nonetheless of great practical importance: half of the sun's power reaching the earth lies in this wavelength range; 'biological windows' in which tissue is relatively transparent and does not emit background light (autofluorescence) exist in the infrared; fiber-optic networks operate at 1.3 and 1.5 um.

  8. Continuous-variable quantum information processing with squeezed states of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezawa, H.; Furusawa, A.

    2010-02-01

    We investigate experiments of continuous-variable quantum information processing based on the teleportation scheme. Quantum teleportation, which is realized by a two-mode squeezed vacuum state and measurement-and-feedforward, is considered as an elementary quantum circuit as well as quantum communication. By modifying ancilla states or measurement-and-feedforwards, we can realize various quantum circuits which suffice for universal quantum computation. In order to realize the teleportation-based computation we improve the level of squeezing, and fidelity of teleportation. With a high-fidelity teleporter we demonstrate some advanced teleportation experiments, i.e., teleportation of a squeezed state and sequential teleportation of a coherent state. Moreover, as an example of the teleportation-based computation, we build a QND interaction gate which is a continuous-variable analog of a CNOT gate. A QND interaction gate is constructed only with ancillary squeezed vacuum states and measurement-and-feedforwards. We also create continuous-variable four mode cluster type entanglement for further application, namely, one-way quantum computation.

  9. Vacuum viscosity and entropy generation in quantum gravitational processes in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B. L.

    Entropy generation in quantum gravitational processes due to vacuum polarization and particle production in the early universe is discussed. The quantum processes of spontaneous and induced particle production from the vacuum and n-particle state as well as the classical process of non-adiabatic frequency shifts of normal modes of the system are described in the context of an adiabatic formulation of finite temperature quantum field theory and the thermodynamics of relativistic imperfect fluids. Vacuum viscosity arising from the interaction of the field vacua with dynamical spacetimes and kinematic viscosity arising from the non-adiabatic expansion of relativistic gases are defined and calculated for a number of representative systems of fields and background spacetimes. Their use in the description of dissipative processes in the early universe and their role in the definition of gravitational entropy are explored.

  10. Non-Euclidean geometry of twisted filament bundle packing

    PubMed Central

    Bruss, Isaac R.; Grason, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    Densely packed and twisted assemblies of filaments are crucial structural motifs in macroscopic materials (cables, ropes, and textiles) as well as synthetic and biological nanomaterials (fibrous proteins). We study the unique and nontrivial packing geometry of this universal material design from two perspectives. First, we show that the problem of twisted bundle packing can be mapped exactly onto the problem of disc packing on a curved surface, the geometry of which has a positive, spherical curvature close to the center of rotation and approaches the intrinsically flat geometry of a cylinder far from the bundle center. From this mapping, we find the packing of any twisted bundle is geometrically frustrated, as it makes the sixfold geometry of filament close packing impossible at the core of the fiber. This geometrical equivalence leads to a spectrum of close-packed fiber geometries, whose low symmetry (five-, four-, three-, and twofold) reflect non-Euclidean packing constraints at the bundle core. Second, we explore the ground-state structure of twisted filament assemblies formed under the influence of adhesive interactions by a computational model. Here, we find that the underlying non-Euclidean geometry of twisted fiber packing disrupts the regular lattice packing of filaments above a critical radius, proportional to the helical pitch. Above this critical radius, the ground-state packing includes the presence of between one and six excess fivefold disclinations in the cross-sectional order. PMID:22711799

  11. Subvoxel accurate graph search using non-Euclidean graph space.

    PubMed

    Abràmoff, Michael D; Wu, Xiaodong; Lee, Kyungmoo; Tang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Graph search is attractive for the quantitative analysis of volumetric medical images, and especially for layered tissues, because it allows globally optimal solutions in low-order polynomial time. However, because nodes of graphs typically encode evenly distributed voxels of the volume with arcs connecting orthogonally sampled voxels in Euclidean space, segmentation cannot achieve greater precision than a single unit, i.e. the distance between two adjoining nodes, and partial volume effects are ignored. We generalize the graph to non-Euclidean space by allowing non-equidistant spacing between nodes, so that subvoxel accurate segmentation is achievable. Because the number of nodes and edges in the graph remains the same, running time and memory use are similar, while all the advantages of graph search, including global optimality and computational efficiency, are retained. A deformation field calculated from the volume data adaptively changes regional node density so that node density varies with the inverse of the expected cost. We validated our approach using optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the retina and 3-D MR of the arterial wall, and achieved statistically significant increased accuracy. Our approach allows improved accuracy in volume data acquired with the same hardware, and also, preserved accuracy with lower resolution, more cost-effective, image acquisition equipment. The method is not limited to any specific imaging modality and readily extensible to higher dimensions.

  12. Dynamics, Processes and Characterization in Classical and Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamel, Omar

    We pursue topics in optics that follow three major themes; time averaged dynamics with the associated Effective Hamiltonian theory, quantification and transformation of polarization, and periodicity within quantum circuits. Within the first theme, we develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of a time averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an Effective Hamiltonian, as well as decoherence terms that sometimes manifest in a Lindblad-like form. We also apply the theory to examples of the AC Stark Shift and Three-Level Raman Transitions. In the theme of polarization, the most general physical transformation on the polarization state has been represented as an ensemble of Jones matrix transformations, equivalent to a completely positive map on the polarization matrix. This has been directly assumed without proof by most authors. We follow a novel approach to derive this expression from simple physical principles, basic coherence optics and the matrix theory of positive maps. Addressing polarization measurement, we first establish the equivalence of classical polarization and quantum purity, which leads to the identical structure of the Poincare and Bloch spheres. We analyze and compare various measures of polarization / purity for general dimensionality proposed in the literature, with a focus on the three dimensional case. In pursuit of the final theme of periodic quantum circuits, we introduce a procedure that synthesizes the circuit for the simplest periodic function that is one-to-one within a single period, of a given period p. Applying this procedure, we synthesize these circuits for p up to five bits. We conjecture that such a circuit will need at most n Toffoli gates, where p is an n-bit number. Moreover, we apply our circuit synthesis to compiled versions of Shor's algorithm, showing that it can create more efficient circuits than ones previously proposed. We provide some new compiled circuits for

  13. Spintronic characteristics of self-assembled neurotransmitter acetylcholine molecular complexes enable quantum information processing in neural networks and brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulis, Arvydas; Majauskaite, Kristina; Kairys, Visvaldas; Zborowski, Krzysztof; Adhikari, Kapil; Krisciukaitis, Sarunas

    2016-09-01

    Implementation of liquid state quantum information processing based on spatially localized electronic spin in the neurotransmitter stable acetylcholine (ACh) neutral molecular radical is discussed. Using DFT quantum calculations we proved that this molecule possesses stable localized electron spin, which may represent a qubit in quantum information processing. The necessary operating conditions for ACh molecule are formulated in self-assembled dimer and more complex systems. The main quantum mechanical research result of this paper is that the neurotransmitter ACh systems, which were proposed, include the use of quantum molecular spintronics arrays to control the neurotransmission in neural networks.

  14. Multiple particle production processes in the light'' of quantum optics

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, E.M.

    1990-09-01

    Ever since the observation that high-energy nuclear active'' cosmic-ray particles create bunches of penetrating particles upon hitting targets, a controversy has raged about whether these secondaries are created in a single act'' or whether many hadrons are just the result of an intra-nuclear cascade, yielding one meson in every step. I cannot escape the impression that: the latter kind of model appeals naturally as a consequence of an innate bio-morphism in our way of thinking and that in one guise or another it has tenaciously survived to this day, also for hadron-hadron collisions, via multi-peripheral models to the modern parton shower approach. Indeed, from the very beginning of theoretical consideration of multiparticle production, the possibility of many particles arising from a single hot'' system has been explored, with many fruitful results, not the least of which are the s{sup 1/4} dependence of the mean produced particle multiplicity and the thermal'' shape of the P{sub T} spectra. An important consequence of the thermodynamical-hydrodynamical models is that particle emission is treated in analogy to black-body radiation, implying for the secondaries a set of specific Quantum-Statistical properties, very similar to those observed in quantum optics. From here on I shall try to review a number of implications and applications of this QS analogy in the study of multiplicity distributions of the produced secondaries. I will touch only in passing another very important topic of this class, the Bose-Einstein two-particle correlations.

  15. Quantum chemical methods for the investigation of photoinitiated processes in biological systems: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Dreuw, Andreas

    2006-11-13

    With the advent of modern computers and advances in the development of efficient quantum chemical computer codes, the meaningful computation of large molecular systems at a quantum mechanical level became feasible. Recent experimental effort to understand photoinitiated processes in biological systems, for instance photosynthesis or vision, at a molecular level also triggered theoretical investigations in this field. In this Minireview, standard quantum chemical methods are presented that are applicable and recently used for the calculation of excited states of photoinitiated processes in biological molecular systems. These methods comprise configuration interaction singles, the complete active space self-consistent field method, and time-dependent density functional theory and its variants. Semiempirical approaches are also covered. Their basic theoretical concepts and mathematical equations are briefly outlined, and their properties and limitations are discussed. Recent successful applications of the methods to photoinitiated processes in biological systems are described and theoretical tools for the analysis of excited states are presented.

  16. 3D Lorentzian loop quantum gravity and the spinor approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girelli, Florian; Sellaroli, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    We consider the generalization of the "spinor approach" to the Lorentzian case, in the context of three-dimensional loop quantum gravity with cosmological constant Λ =0 . The key technical tool that allows this generalization is the recoupling theory between unitary infinite-dimensional representations and nonunitary finite-dimensional ones, obtained in the process of generalizing the Wigner-Eckart theorem to SU(1,1). We use SU(1,1) tensor operators to build observables and a solvable quantum Hamiltonian constraint, analogous to the one introduced by V. Bonzom and his collaborators in the Euclidean case (with both Λ =0 and Λ ≠0 ). We show that the Lorentzian Ponzano-Regge amplitude is the solution of the quantum Hamiltonian constraint by recovering the Biedenharn-Elliott relation [generalized to the case where unitary and nonunitary SU(1,1) representations are coupled to each other]. Our formalism is sufficiently general that both the Lorentzian and the Euclidean case can be recovered (with Λ =0 ).

  17. Chip-scale Photonic Devices for Light-matter Interactions and Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jie

    Chip-scale photonic devices such as microdisks, photonic crystal cavities and slow-light photonic crystal waveguides possess strong light localization and long photon lifetime, which will significantly enhance the light-matter interactions and can be used to implement new functionalities for both classical and quantum information processing, optical computation and optical communication in integrated nanophotonic circuits. This thesis will focus on three topics about light matter interactions and quantum information processing with chip-scale photonic devices, including 1) Design and characterization of asymmetric resonate cavity with radiation directionality and air-slot photonic crystal cavity with ultrasmall effective mode volume, 2) Exciton-photon interactions between quantum dots and photonic crystal devices and non-classical photon source from a single quantum dot, and 3) Quantum controlled phase gate and phase switching based on quantum dots and photonic crystal waveguide. The first topic is engineered control of radiation directionality and effective mode volume for optical mode in chip-scale silicon micro-/nano-cavities. High quality factor (Q), subwavelength mode volume ( V) and controllable radiation directionality are the major properties for optical cavities designs. In Chapter 2, asymmetric resonant cavities with rational caustics are proposed and interior whispering gallery modes in monolithic silicon mesoscopic microcavities are experimentally demonstrated. These microcavities possess unique robustness of cavity quality factor against roughness Rayleigh scattering. In Chapter 3, air-slot mode-gap photonic crystal cavities with quality factor of 104 and effective mode volume ˜ 0.02 cubic wavelengths are experimentally demonstrated. The origin of the high Q air-slot cavity mode is the mode-gap effect from the slotted photonic crystal waveguide mode with negative dispersion. The second topic is exciton-photon coupling between quantum dots and

  18. Optimizing the choice of spin-squeezed states for detecting and characterizing quantum processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rozema, Lee A.; Mahler, Dylan H.; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Steinberg, Aephraim M.

    2014-11-07

    Quantum metrology uses quantum states with no classical counterpart to measure a physical quantity with extraordinary sensitivity or precision. Most such schemes characterize a dynamical process by probing it with a specially designed quantum state. The success of such a scheme usually relies on the process belonging to a particular one-parameter family. If this assumption is violated, or if the goal is to measure more than one parameter, a different quantum state may perform better. In the most extreme case, we know nothing about the process and wish to learn everything. This requires quantum process tomography, which demands an informationally complete set of probe states. It is very convenient if this set is group covariant—i.e., each element is generated by applying an element of the quantum system’s natural symmetry group to a single fixed fiducial state. In this paper, we consider metrology with 2-photon (“biphoton”) states and report experimental studies of different states’ sensitivity to small, unknown collective SU(2) rotations [“SU(2) jitter”]. Maximally entangled N00N states are the most sensitive detectors of such a rotation, yet they are also among the worst at fully characterizing an a priori unknown process. We identify (and confirm experimentally) the best SU(2)-covariant set for process tomography; these states are all less entangled than the N00N state, and are characterized by the fact that they form a 2-design.

  19. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  20. Sensor Network Localization by Eigenvector Synchronization Over the Euclidean Group

    PubMed Central

    CUCURINGU, MIHAI; LIPMAN, YARON; SINGER, AMIT

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach to localization of sensors from noisy measurements of a subset of their Euclidean distances. Our algorithm starts by finding, embedding, and aligning uniquely realizable subsets of neighboring sensors called patches. In the noise-free case, each patch agrees with its global positioning up to an unknown rigid motion of translation, rotation, and possibly reflection. The reflections and rotations are estimated using the recently developed eigenvector synchronization algorithm, while the translations are estimated by solving an overdetermined linear system. The algorithm is scalable as the number of nodes increases and can be implemented in a distributed fashion. Extensive numerical experiments show that it compares favorably to other existing algorithms in terms of robustness to noise, sparse connectivity, and running time. While our approach is applicable to higher dimensions, in the current article, we focus on the two-dimensional case. PMID:23946700

  1. On the Euclidean version of the photon number integral

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijsenaars, S.; Stodolsky, L.

    2008-02-15

    We reconsider the Euclidean version of the photon number integral introduced by Stodolsky [Acta Phys. Pol. B 33, 2659 (2002), e-print hep-th/02053131].This integral is well defined for any smooth non-self-intersecting curve in R{sup N}. Besides studying general features of this integral (including its conformal invariance), we evaluate it explicitly for the ellipse. The result is n{sub ellipse}=({xi}{sup -1}+{xi}){pi}{sup 2}, where {xi} is the ratio of the minor and major axes. This is in agreement with the previous result n{sub circle}=2{pi}{sup 2} and also with the conjecture that the minimum value of n for any plane curve occurs for the circle.

  2. Complex networks in the Euclidean space of communicability distances.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2012-06-01

    We study the properties of complex networks embedded in a Euclidean space of communicability distances. The communicability distance between two nodes is defined as the difference between the weighted sum of walks self-returning to the nodes and the weighted sum of walks going from one node to the other. We give some indications that the communicability distance identifies the least crowded routes in networks where simultaneous submission of packages is taking place. We define an index Q based on communicability and shortest path distances, which allows reinterpreting the "small-world" phenomenon as the region of minimum Q in the Watts-Strogatz model. It also allows the classification and analysis of networks with different efficiency of spatial uses. Consequently, the communicability distance displays unique features for the analysis of complex networks in different scenarios.

  3. Sensor Network Localization by Eigenvector Synchronization Over the Euclidean Group.

    PubMed

    Cucuringu, Mihai; Lipman, Yaron; Singer, Amit

    2012-07-01

    We present a new approach to localization of sensors from noisy measurements of a subset of their Euclidean distances. Our algorithm starts by finding, embedding, and aligning uniquely realizable subsets of neighboring sensors called patches. In the noise-free case, each patch agrees with its global positioning up to an unknown rigid motion of translation, rotation, and possibly reflection. The reflections and rotations are estimated using the recently developed eigenvector synchronization algorithm, while the translations are estimated by solving an overdetermined linear system. The algorithm is scalable as the number of nodes increases and can be implemented in a distributed fashion. Extensive numerical experiments show that it compares favorably to other existing algorithms in terms of robustness to noise, sparse connectivity, and running time. While our approach is applicable to higher dimensions, in the current article, we focus on the two-dimensional case.

  4. On the high-density expansion for Euclidean random matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigera, T. S.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Parisi, G.; Urbani, P.; Verrocchio, P.

    2011-02-01

    Diagrammatic techniques to compute perturbatively the spectral properties of Euclidean random matrices (ERM) in the high-density regime are introduced and discussed in detail. Such techniques are developed in two alternative and very different formulations of the mathematical problem and are shown to give identical results up to second order in the perturbative expansion. One method, based on writing the so-called resolvent function as a Taylor series, allows us to group the diagrams into a small number of topological classes, providing a simple way to determine the infrared (small momenta) behaviour of the theory up to third order, which is of interest for the comparison with experiments. The other method, which reformulates the problem as a field theory, can instead be used to study the infrared behaviour at any perturbative order.

  5. Hybrid light emitting diodes based on solution processed polymers, colloidal quantum dots, and colloidal metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin

    This dissertation focuses on solution-processed light-emitting devices based on polymer, polymer/PbS quantum dot, and polymer/silver nanoparticle hybrid materials. Solution based materials and organic/inorganic hybrid light emitting diodes attracted significant interest recently due to many of their advantages over conventional light emitting diodes (LEDs) including low fabrication cost, flexible, high substrate compatibility, as well as tunable emission wavelength of the quantum dot materials. However, the application of these novel solution processed materials based devices is still limited due to their low performances. Material properties and fabrication parameters need to be carefully examined and understood for further device improvement. This thesis first investigates the impact of solvent property and evaporation rate on the polymer molecular chain morphology and packaging in device structures. Solvent is a key component to make the active material solution for spin coating fabrication process. Their impacts are observed and examined on both polymer blend system and mono-polymer device. Secondly, PbS colloidal quantum dot are introduced to form hybrid device with polymer and to migrate the device emission into near-IR range. As we show, the dithiol molecules used to cross-link quantum dots determine the optical and electrical property of the resulting thin films. By choosing a proper ligand for quantum dot ligand exchange, a high performance polymer/quantum dot hybrid LED is fabricated. In the end, the interaction of polymer exciton with surface plasmon mode in colloidal silver nanoparticles and the use of this effect to enhance solution processed LEDs' performances are investigated.

  6. Quantum Process Tomography of an Optically-Controlled Kerr Non-linearity.

    PubMed

    Kupchak, Connor; Rind, Samuel; Jordaan, Bertus; Figueroa, Eden

    2015-01-01

    Any optical quantum information processing machine would be comprised of fully-characterized constituent devices for both single state manipulations and tasks involving the interaction between multiple quantum optical states. Ideally for the latter, would be an apparatus capable of deterministic optical phase shifts that operate on input quantum states with the action mediated solely by auxiliary signal fields. Here we present the complete experimental characterization of a system designed for optically controlled phase shifts acting on single-photon level probe coherent states. Our setup is based on a warm vapor of rubidium atoms under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency with its dispersion properties modified through the use of an optically triggered N-type Kerr non-linearity. We fully characterize the performance of our device by sending in a set of input probe states and measuring the corresponding output via time-domain homodyne tomography and subsequently performing the technique of coherent state quantum process tomography. This method provides us with the precise knowledge of how our optical phase shift will modify any arbitrary input quantum state engineered in the mode of the reconstruction. PMID:26585904

  7. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Christopher D; Grigoriev, Roman O

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals. PMID:26117110

  8. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, Christopher D.; Grigoriev, Roman O.

    2015-06-15

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals.

  9. Application of Euclidean distance measurement and principal component analysis for gene identification.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Antara; Barman, Soma

    2016-06-01

    Gene systems are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and noisy in nature. Many statistical tools which are used to extract relevant feature from genes provide fuzzy and ambiguous information. High-dimensional gene expression database available in public domain usually contains thousands of genes. Efficient prediction method is demanding nowadays for accurate identification of such database. Euclidean distance measurement and principal component analysis methods are applied on such databases to identify the genes. In both methods, prediction algorithm is based on homology search approach. Digital Signal Processing technique along with statistical method is used for analysis of genes in both cases. A two-level decision logic is used for gene classification as healthy or cancerous. This binary logic minimizes the prediction error and improves prediction accuracy. Superiority of the method is judged by receiver operating characteristic curve. PMID:26877227

  10. Application of Euclidean distance measurement and principal component analysis for gene identification.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Antara; Barman, Soma

    2016-06-01

    Gene systems are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and noisy in nature. Many statistical tools which are used to extract relevant feature from genes provide fuzzy and ambiguous information. High-dimensional gene expression database available in public domain usually contains thousands of genes. Efficient prediction method is demanding nowadays for accurate identification of such database. Euclidean distance measurement and principal component analysis methods are applied on such databases to identify the genes. In both methods, prediction algorithm is based on homology search approach. Digital Signal Processing technique along with statistical method is used for analysis of genes in both cases. A two-level decision logic is used for gene classification as healthy or cancerous. This binary logic minimizes the prediction error and improves prediction accuracy. Superiority of the method is judged by receiver operating characteristic curve.

  11. Artificial immune system via Euclidean Distance Minimization for anomaly detection in bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montechiesi, L.; Cocconcelli, M.; Rubini, R.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years new diagnostics methodologies have emerged, with particular interest into machinery operating in non-stationary conditions. In fact continuous speed changes and variable loads make non-trivial the spectrum analysis. A variable speed means a variable characteristic fault frequency related to the damage that is no more recognizable in the spectrum. To overcome this problem the scientific community proposed different approaches listed in two main categories: model-based approaches and expert systems. In this context the paper aims to present a simple expert system derived from the mechanisms of the immune system called Euclidean Distance Minimization, and its application in a real case of bearing faults recognition. The proposed method is a simplification of the original process, adapted by the class of Artificial Immune Systems, which proved to be useful and promising in different application fields. Comparative results are provided, with a complete explanation of the algorithm and its functioning aspects.

  12. Inclusive and Exclusive Compton Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ales Psaker

    2005-12-31

    In our work, we describe two types of Compton processes. As an example of an inclusive process, we consider the high-energy photoproduction of massive muon pairs off the nucleon. We analyze the process in the framework of the QCD parton model, in which the usual parton distributions emerge as a tool to describe the nucleon in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. To study its exclusive version, a new class of phenomenological functions is required, namely, generalized parton distributions. They can be considered as a generalization of the usual parton distributions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) may be observed in hard exclusive reactions such as deeply virtual Compton scattering. We develop an extension of this particular process into the weak interaction sector. We also investigate a possible application of the GPD formalism to wide-angle real Compton scattering.

  13. A linearization of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  14. Random Coulomb antiferromagnets: From diluted spin liquids to Euclidean random matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehn, J.; Sen, Arnab; Andreanov, A.; Damle, Kedar; Moessner, R.; Scardicchio, A.

    2015-08-01

    We study a disordered classical Heisenberg magnet with uniformly antiferromagnetic interactions which are frustrated on account of their long-range Coulomb form, i.e., J (r )˜-A lnr in d =2 and J (r )˜A /r in d =3 . This arises naturally as the T →0 limit of the emergent interactions between vacancy-induced degrees of freedom in a class of diluted Coulomb spin liquids (including the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets in checkerboard, SCGO, and pyrochlore lattices) and presents a novel variant of a disordered long-range spin Hamiltonian. Using detailed analytical and numerical studies we establish that this model exhibits a very broad paramagnetic regime that extends to very large values of A in both d =2 and d =3 . In d =2 , using the lattice-Green-function-based finite-size regularization of the Coulomb potential (which corresponds naturally to the underlying low-temperature limit of the emergent interactions between orphans), we find evidence that freezing into a glassy state occurs only in the limit of strong coupling, A =∞ , while no such transition seems to exist in d =3 . We also demonstrate the presence and importance of screening for such a magnet. We analyze the spectrum of the Euclidean random matrices describing a Gaussian version of this problem and identify a corresponding quantum mechanical scattering problem.

  15. Quantum Process Tomography of a Room Temperature Optically-Controlled Phase Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupchak, Connor; Rind, Samuel; Figueroa, Eden; Stony Brook University Team

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a room temperature setup capable of optically controlled phase shifts on a weak probe field. Our system is realized in a vapor of 87Rb atoms under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency utilizing a N-type energy level scheme coupled by three optical fields. By varying the power of the signal field, we can control the size of an optical phase shift experienced by weak coherent state pulses of < n > ~ 1 , propagating through the vapor. We quantify the optical phase shift by measuring the process output via balanced homodyne tomography which provides us with the complete quadrature and phase information of the output states. Furthermore, we measure the output for a set of states over a subspace of the coherent state basis and gain the information to completely reconstruct our phase shift procedure by coherent state quantum process tomography. The reconstruction yields a rank-4 process superoperator which grants the ability to predict how our phase shift process will behave on an arbitrary quantum optical state in the mode of the reconstruction. Our results demonstrate progress towards room temperature systems for possible quantum gates; a key component of a future quantum processor designed to operate at room temperature. US-Navy Office of Naval Research N00141410801, National Science Foundation PHY-1404398, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  16. Shortcuts to adiabaticity in classical and quantum processes for scale-invariant driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deffner, Sebastian; Jarzynski, Christopher; Del Campo, Adolfo

    2014-03-01

    All real physical processes in classical as well as in quantum devices operate in finite-time. For most applications, however, adiabatic, i.e. infinitely-slow processes, are more favorable, as these do not cause unwanted, parasitic excitations. A shortcut to adiabaticity is a driving protocol which reproduces in a short time the same final state that would result from an adiabatic process. A particular powerful technique to engineer such shortcuts is transitionless quantum driving by means of counterdiabatic fields. However, determining closed form expressions for the counterdiabatic field has generally proven to be a daunting task. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach, with which we find the explicit form of the counterdiabatic driving field in arbitrary scale-invariant dynamical processes, encompassing expansions and transport. Our approach originates in the formalism of generating functions, and unifies previous approaches independently developed for classical and quantum systems. We show how this new approach allows to design shortcuts to adiabaticity for a large class of classical and quantum, single-particle, non-linear, and many-body systems. SD and CJ acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (USA) under grant DMR-1206971. This research is further supported by the U.S Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program and a LANL J. Robert Oppenheimer fellowship (AdC).

  17. Study of the self-organization processes in lead sulfide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, S. A. Aleksandrova, O. A.; Maksimov, A. I.; Maraeva, E. V.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Men’kovich, E. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Musikhin, S. F.

    2014-12-15

    A procedure is described for the synthesis of nanoparticles based on lead chalcogenides. The procedure combines the synthesis of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous solutions with simultaneous organization of the QDs into ordered arrays. The processes of the self-organization of QDs are analyzed at the nano- and microscopic levels by the photoluminescence method, atomic-force microscopy, and optical microscopy.

  18. Overspinning a nearly extreme charged black hole via a quantum tunneling process.

    PubMed

    Matsas, George E A; da Silva, André R R

    2007-11-01

    We examine a nearly extreme macroscopic Reissner-Nördstrom black hole in the context of semiclassical gravity. The absorption rate associated with the quantum tunneling process of scalar particles whereby this black hole can acquire enough angular momentum to violate the weak cosmic-censorship conjecture is shown to be nonzero. PMID:17995395

  19. Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Foundations: 1. Spacetime as a quantum object; 2. Physics without time; 3. Gravity; 4. Classical discretization; Part II. The 3D Theory: 5. 3D Euclidean theory; 6. Bubbles and cosmological constant; Part III. The Real World: 7. The real world: 4D Lorentzian theory; 8. Classical limit; 9. Matter; Part IV. Physical Applications: 10. Black holes; 11. Cosmology; 12. Scattering; 13. Final remarks; References; Index.

  20. Isolated many-body quantum systems far from equilibrium: Relaxation process and thermalization

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Herrera, E. J.; Santos, Lea F.

    2014-10-15

    We present an overview of our recent numerical and analytical results on the dynamics of isolated interacting quantum systems that are taken far from equilibrium by an abrupt perturbation. The studies are carried out on one-dimensional systems of spins-1/2, which are paradigmatic models of many-body quantum systems. Our results show the role of the interplay between the initial state and the post-perturbation Hamiltonian in the relaxation process, the size of the fluctuations after equilibration, and the viability of thermalization.

  1. Fluctuations and Stochastic Processes in One-Dimensional Many-Body Quantum Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stimming, H.-P.; Mauser, N. J.; Mazets, I. E.

    2010-07-02

    We study the fluctuation properties of a one-dimensional many-body quantum system composed of interacting bosons and investigate the regimes where quantum noise or, respectively, thermal excitations are dominant. For the latter, we develop a semiclassical description of the fluctuation properties based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic process. As an illustration, we analyze the phase correlation functions and the full statistical distributions of the interference between two one-dimensional systems, either independent or tunnel-coupled, and compare with the Luttinger-liquid theory.

  2. Geostatistical analysis of groundwater level using Euclidean and non-Euclidean distance metrics and variable variogram fitting criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoridou, Panagiota G.; Karatzas, George P.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.; Corzo Perez, Gerald A.

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater level is an important information in hydrological modelling. Geostatistical methods are often employed to map the free surface of an aquifer. In geostatistical analysis using Kriging techniques the selection of the optimal variogram model is very important for the optimal method performance. This work compares three different criteria, the least squares sum method, the Akaike Information Criterion and the Cressie's Indicator, to assess the theoretical variogram that fits to the experimental one and investigates the impact on the prediction results. Moreover, five different distance functions (Euclidean, Minkowski, Manhattan, Canberra, and Bray-Curtis) are applied to calculate the distance between observations that affects both the variogram calculation and the Kriging estimator. Cross validation analysis in terms of Ordinary Kriging is applied by using sequentially a different distance metric and the above three variogram fitting criteria. The spatial dependence of the observations in the tested dataset is studied by fitting classical variogram models and the Matérn model. The proposed comparison analysis performed for a data set of two hundred fifty hydraulic head measurements distributed over an alluvial aquifer that covers an area of 210 km2. The study area is located in the Prefecture of Drama, which belongs to the Water District of East Macedonia (Greece). This area was selected in terms of hydro-geological data availability and geological homogeneity. The analysis showed that a combination of the Akaike information Criterion for the variogram fitting assessment and the Brays-Curtis distance metric provided the most accurate cross-validation results. The Power-law variogram model provided the best fit to the experimental data. The aforementioned approach for the specific dataset in terms of the Ordinary Kriging method improves the prediction efficiency in comparison to the classical Euclidean distance metric. Therefore, maps of the spatial

  3. Confined optical-phonon-assisted cyclotron resonance in quantum wells via two-photon absorption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc, Huynh Vinh; Hien, Nguyen Dinh; Dinh, Le; Phong, Tran Cong

    2016-06-01

    The effect of confined phonons on the phonon-assisted cyclotron resonance (PACR) via both one and two photon absorption processes in a quantum well is theoretically studied. We consider cases when electrons are scattered by confined optical phonons described by the Fuchs-Kliewer slab, Ridley's guided, and Huang-Zhu models. The analytical expression of the magneto-optical absorption coefficient (MOAC) is obtained by relating it to the transition probability for the absorption of photons. It predicts resonant peaks caused by transitions between Landau levels and electric subband accompanied by confined phonons emission in the absorption spectrum. The MOAC and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the intra- and inter-subband transitions are given as functions of the magnetic field, temperature, and quantum well width. In narrow quantum wells, the phonon confinement becomes more important and should be taken into account in studying FWHM.

  4. Description of quantum coherence in thermodynamic processes requires constraints beyond free energy

    PubMed Central

    Lostaglio, Matteo; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have developed fundamental limitations on nanoscale thermodynamics, in terms of a set of independent free energy relations. Here we show that free energy relations cannot properly describe quantum coherence in thermodynamic processes. By casting time-asymmetry as a quantifiable, fundamental resource of a quantum state, we arrive at an additional, independent set of thermodynamic constraints that naturally extend the existing ones. These asymmetry relations reveal that the traditional Szilárd engine argument does not extend automatically to quantum coherences, but instead only relational coherences in a multipartite scenario can contribute to thermodynamic work. We find that coherence transformations are always irreversible. Our results also reveal additional structural parallels between thermodynamics and the theory of entanglement. PMID:25754774

  5. Certifying quantumness: Benchmarks for the optimal processing of generalized coherent and squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-10-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionary advantages in information processing and transmission compared to classical technology; however, determining which specific resources are needed to surpass the capabilities of classical machines often remains a nontrivial problem. To address such a problem, one first needs to establish the best classical solutions, which set benchmarks that must be beaten by any implementation claiming to harness quantum features for an enhanced performance. Here we introduce and develop a self-contained formalism to obtain the ultimate, generally probabilistic benchmarks for quantum information protocols including teleportation and approximate cloning, with arbitrary ensembles of input states generated by a group action, so-called Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states. This allows us to construct explicit fidelity thresholds for the transmission of multimode Gaussian and non-Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems, as well as qubit and qudit pure states drawn according to nonuniform distributions on the Bloch hypersphere, which accurately model the current laboratory facilities. The performance of deterministic classical procedures such as square-root measurement strategies is further compared with the optimal probabilistic benchmarks, and the state-of-the-art performance of experimental quantum implementations against our newly derived thresholds is discussed. This work provides a comprehensive collection of directly useful criteria for the reliable certification of quantum communication technologies.

  6. Two-photon exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1986-07-01

    QCD predictions for ..gamma gamma.. annihilation into single mesons, meson pairs, and baryon pairs are reviewed. Two-photon exclusive processes provide the most sensitive and practical measure of the distribution amplitudes, and thus a critical confrontation between QCD and experiment. Both the angular distribution and virtual photon mass dependence of these amplitudes are sensitive to the shapes of the phi (chi, Q). Novel effects involving the production of qq anti q anti q states at threshold are also discussed, and a new method is presented for systematically incorporating higher-order QCD corrections in ..gamma gamma.. reactions.

  7. Quantum properties of field modes in trilinear optical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobný, Gabriel; Jex, Igor

    1992-07-01

    We consider a trilinear Hamiltonian in boson operators describing various physical processes such as frequency conversion, Raman or Brillouin scattering, or the interaction of N two-level atoms with a single-mode radiation field. Due to the fact that two independent integrals of motion can be found, the solution of the dynamics of the system is reduced to the diagonalization of a finite matrix (as was already shown by Walls and Barakat [Phys. Rev. A 1, 446 (1970)]). Performing a numerical diagonalization, we analyze the statistical properties of the field modes (sub-Poissonian statistics, anticorrelation, squeezing). We also pay attention to the appearance of collapses and revivals in the mean photon number of the modes. The relation of this model to the model of two coupled modes with an intensity-dependent coupling constant is pointed out.

  8. Simple algorithm for computing the communication complexity of quantum communication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Montina, A.; Wolf, S.

    2016-04-01

    A two-party quantum communication process with classical inputs and outcomes can be simulated by replacing the quantum channel with a classical one. The minimal amount of classical communication required to reproduce the statistics of the quantum process is called its communication complexity. In the case of many instances simulated in parallel, the minimal communication cost per instance is called the asymptotic communication complexity. Previously, we reduced the computation of the asymptotic communication complexity to a convex minimization problem. In most cases, the objective function does not have an explicit analytic form, as the function is defined as the maximum over an infinite set of convex functions. Therefore, the overall problem takes the form of a minimax problem and cannot directly be solved by standard optimization methods. In this paper, we introduce a simple algorithm to compute the asymptotic communication complexity. For some special cases with an analytic objective function one can employ available convex-optimization libraries. In the tested cases our method turned out to be notably faster. Finally, using our method we obtain 1.238 bits as a lower bound on the asymptotic communication complexity of a noiseless quantum channel with the capacity of 1 qubit. This improves the previous bound of 1.208 bits.

  9. Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinfurter, Harald; Zeilinger, Anton

    Quantum entanglement lies at the heart of the new field of quantum communication and computation. For a long time, entanglement was seen just as one of those fancy features which make quantum mechanics so counterintuitive. But recently, quantum information theory has shown the tremendous importance of quantum correlations for the formulation of new methods of information transfer and for algorithms exploiting the capabilities of quantum computers.This chapter describes the first experimental realizations of quantum communication schemes using entangled photon pairs. We show how to make communication secure against eavesdropping using entanglement-based quantum cryptography, how to increase the information capacity of a quantum channel by quantum dense coding and, finally, how to communicate quantum information itself in the process of quantum teleportation.

  10. Percolation thresholds on planar Euclidean relative-neighborhood graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchert, O.

    2013-04-01

    In the present article, statistical properties regarding the topology and standard percolation on relative neighborhood graphs (RNGs) for planar sets of points, considering the Euclidean metric, are put under scrutiny. RNGs belong to the family of “proximity graphs”; i.e., their edgeset encodes proximity information regarding the close neighbors for the terminal nodes of a given edge. Therefore they are, e.g., discussed in the context of the construction of backbones for wireless ad hoc networks that guarantee connectedness of all underlying nodes. Here, by means of numerical simulations, we determine the asymptotic degree and diameter of RNGs and we estimate their bond and site percolation thresholds, which were previously conjectured to be nontrivial. We compare the results to regular 2D graphs for which the degree is close to that of the RNG. Finally, we deduce the common percolation critical exponents from the RNG data to verify that the associated universality class is that of standard 2D percolation.

  11. Algebraic field descriptions in three-dimensional Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salingaros, Nikos; Ilamed, Yehiel

    1984-08-01

    In this paper, we use the differential forms of three-dimensional Euclidean space to realize a Clifford algebra which is isomorphic to the algebra of the Pauli matrices or the complex quaternions. This is an associative vector-antisymmetric tensor algebra with division: We provide the algebraic inverse of an eight-component spinor field which is the sum of a scalar + vector + pseudovector + pseudoscalar. A surface of singularities is defined naturally by the inverse of an eight-component spinor and corresponds to a generalized Minkowski “double” light cone in the parameter space. A general description of finite spatial rotations, which utilizes the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula, generalizes the usual infinitesimal treatments of the rotation group. We derive an explicit expression for the angle corresponding to two successive finite rotations in any direction. We also discuss Lorentz transformations and duality rotations of the electromagnetic field and exhibit a relationship between the algebraic inverse and a duality rotated field. Using a combined transformation, one can always transform an arbitrary electromagnetic field ( E≠0) into a pure electric field, but never into a pure magnetic field.

  12. Quantum state and process tomography of energy transfer systems via ultrafast spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yuen-Zhou, Joel; Krich, Jacob J; Mohseni, Masoud; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2011-10-25

    The description of excited state dynamics in energy transfer systems constitutes a theoretical and experimental challenge in modern chemical physics. A spectroscopic protocol that systematically characterizes both coherent and dissipative processes of the probed chromophores is desired. Here, we show that a set of two-color photon-echo experiments performs quantum state tomography (QST) of the one-exciton manifold of a dimer by reconstructing its density matrix in real time. This possibility in turn allows for a complete description of excited state dynamics via quantum process tomography (QPT). Simulations of a noisy QPT experiment for an inhomogeneously broadened ensemble of model excitonic dimers show that the protocol distills rich information about dissipative excitonic dynamics, which appears nontrivially hidden in the signal monitored in single realizations of four-wave mixing experiments. PMID:21997214

  13. Quantum process tomography of a Mølmer-Sørensen interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, Nir; Akerman, Nitzan; Kotler, Shlomi; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-07-01

    We present a simple tomographic protocol, for two-qubit systems, that relies on a single discriminatory transition and no direct spatially selective imaging. This scheme exploits excess micromotion in the trap to realize all operations required to prepare all input states and analyze all output states. We demonstrate a two-qubit entangling gate with a Bell state production fidelity of 0.981(6), and apply the above protocol to perform the first quantum process tomography of a Mølmer-Sørensen entangling gate. We characterize its χ-process matrix, the simplest for an entanglement gate on a separable-states basis, and observe that our dominant source of error is accurately modeled by a quantum depolarization channel.

  14. Implications of the general constraints for single-qubit quantum process tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Ramesh; Peters, Nicholas

    We revisit the general constraints of single qubit quantum process tomography and derive simplified forms in the Pauli basis. These forms give insight into the structure of the process matrix, which we examine in light of several examples. Specifically, we study some qubit leakage error models and show how different error models are manifest in the process matrix. NAP's research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy.

  15. PEET: a Matlab tool for estimating physical gate errors in quantum information processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocker, David; Kosut, Robert; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-09-01

    A Physical Error Estimation Tool (PEET) is introduced in Matlab for predicting physical gate errors of quantum information processing (QIP) operations by constructing and then simulating gate sequences for a wide variety of user-defined, Hamiltonian-based physical systems. PEET is designed to accommodate the interdisciplinary needs of quantum computing design by assessing gate performance for users familiar with the underlying physics of QIP, as well as those interested in higher-level computing operations. The structure of PEET separates the bulk of the physical details of a system into Gate objects, while the construction of quantum computing gate operations are contained in GateSequence objects. Gate errors are estimated by Monte Carlo sampling of noisy gate operations. The main utility of PEET, though, is the implementation of QuantumControl methods that act to generate and then test gate sequence and pulse-shaping techniques for QIP performance. This work details the structure of PEET and gives instructive examples for its operation.

  16. Microscopic model calculations for the magnetization process of layered triangular-lattice quantum antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Marmorini, Giacomo; Danshita, Ippei

    2015-01-16

    Magnetization processes of spin-1/2 layered triangular-lattice antiferromagnets (TLAFs) under a magnetic field H are studied by means of a numerical cluster mean-field method with a scaling scheme. We find that small antiferromagnetic couplings between the layers give rise to several types of extra quantum phase transitions among different high-field coplanar phases. Especially, a field-induced first-order transition is found to occur at H≈0.7H_{s}, where H_{s} is the saturation field, as another common quantum effect of ideal TLAFs in addition to the well-established one-third plateau. Our microscopic model calculation with appropriate parameters shows excellent agreement with experiments on Ba_{3}CoSb_{2}O_{9} [T. Susuki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267201 (2013)]. Given this fact, we suggest that the Co^{2+}-based compounds may allow for quantum simulations of intriguing properties of this simple frustrated model, such as quantum criticality and supersolid states. PMID:25635561

  17. Dynamics of the fully stripped ion-hydrogen atom charge exchange process in dense quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling-yu; Wan, Jiang-feng; Zhao, Xiao-ying; Xiao, Guo-qing; Duan, Wen-shan; Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei

    2014-09-15

    The plasma screening effects of dense quantum plasmas on charge exchange processes of a fully stripped ion colliding with a hydrogen atom are studied by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. The inter-particle interactions are described by the exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. It is found that in weak screening conditions, cross sections increase with the increase of the ionic charge Z. However, in strong screening conditions, the dependence of cross sections on the ionic charge is related to the incident particle energy. At high energies, cross sections show a linear increase with the increase of Z, whereas at low energies, cross sections for Z≥4 become approximately the same. The He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+} impacting charge exchange cross sections in dense quantum plasmas are also compared with those in weakly coupled plasmas. The interactions are described by the static screened Coulomb potential. It is found that for both He{sup 2+} and C{sup 6+}, the oscillatory screening effects of dense quantum plasmas are almost negligible in weak screening conditions. However, in strong screening conditions, the oscillatory screening effects enhance the screening effects of dense quantum plasmas, and the enhancement becomes more and more significant with the increase of the screening parameter and the ionic charge.

  18. Circuit-QED-based scalable architectures for quantum information processing with superconducting qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billangeon, P.-M.; Tsai, J. S.; Nakamura, Y.

    2015-03-01

    We discuss different ways of generating entanglement in the original picture of circuit QED (XcQED) and several restrictions that arise in the context of a large-scale quantum architecture. To alleviate some of the issues posed by the presence of the nonlinearities inherent to these systems, we introduce a layout for circuit QED, wherein an artificial atom is coupled to a quantized radiation field via its longitudinal degree of freedom (ZcQED). This system is akin to ion traps used in atomic physics, but it relies on fixed coupling between the atom and the resonator. We describe a scalable architecture for processing quantum information with superconducting qubits, which is free from any type of residual interaction between the atomic and photonic degrees of freedom. Tunable interactions can be realized based on sideband transitions, and the system can be operated out of the Lamb-Dicke regime, allowing it to benefit from the possibility of achieving large coupling strengths between atoms and resonators. We also discuss a readout scheme that does not require any extra circuits and allows a qubit-specific measurement of the state of the quantum register inspired by the electron shelving technique. This scheme is quantum nondemolition (QND)-like, and allows for single-shot determination of the qubit states.

  19. Necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for classical simulations of quantum communication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montina, Alberto; Wolf, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    We consider the process consisting of preparation, transmission through a quantum channel, and subsequent measurement of quantum states. The communication complexity of the channel is the minimal amount of classical communication required for classically simulating it. Recently, we reduced the computation of this quantity to a convex minimization problem with linear constraints. Every solution of the constraints provides an upper bound on the communication complexity. In this paper, we derive the dual maximization problem of the original one. The feasible points of the dual constraints, which are inequalities, give lower bounds on the communication complexity, as illustrated with an example. The optimal values of the two problems turn out to be equal (zero duality gap). By this property, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality in terms of a set of equalities and inequalities. We use these conditions and two reasonable but unproven hypotheses to derive the lower bound n ×2n -1 for a noiseless quantum channel with capacity equal to n qubits. This lower bound can have interesting consequences in the context of the recent debate on the reality of the quantum state.

  20. Transfer of entangled state, entanglement swapping and quantum information processing via the Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Li; Chen, Ai-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Song

    2011-11-01

    We provide a scheme with which the transfer of the entangled state and the entanglement swapping can be realized in a system of neutral atoms via the Rydberg blockade. Our idea can be extended to teleport an unknown atomic state. According to the latest theoretical research of the Rydberg excitation and experimental reports of the Rydberg blockade effect in quantum information processing, we discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.

  1. Scattering Solutions of Bethe-Salpeter Equation in Minkowski and Euclidean Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, J.; Karmanov, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    We shortly review different methods to obtain the scattering solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space. We emphasize the possibility to obtain the zero energy observables in terms of the Euclidean scattering amplitude.

  2. Euclidean wormhole solutions of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in diverse dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Hirenzaki, S. ); Shiraishi, K. )

    1990-09-15

    We solve the Euclidean Einstein equations with non-Abelian gauge fields of sufficiently large symmetry in various dimensions. In higher-dimensional spaces, we find the solutions which are similar to so-called scalar wormholes. In four-dimensional space-time, we find singular wormhole solutions with infinite Euclidean action. Wormhole solutions in the three-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a Chern-Simons term are also constructed.

  3. Euclidean sections of protein conformation space and their implications in dimensionality reduction.

    PubMed

    Duan, Mojie; Li, Minghai; Han, Li; Huo, Shuanghong

    2014-10-01

    Dimensionality reduction is widely used in searching for the intrinsic reaction coordinates for protein conformational changes. We find the dimensionality-reduction methods using the pairwise root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) as the local distance metric face a challenge. We use Isomap as an example to illustrate the problem. We believe that there is an implied assumption for the dimensionality-reduction approaches that aim to preserve the geometric relations between the objects: both the original space and the reduced space have the same kind of geometry, such as Euclidean geometry vs. Euclidean geometry or spherical geometry vs. spherical geometry. When the protein free energy landscape is mapped onto a 2D plane or 3D space, the reduced space is Euclidean, thus the original space should also be Euclidean. For a protein with N atoms, its conformation space is a subset of the 3N-dimensional Euclidean space R(3N). We formally define the protein conformation space as the quotient space of R(3N) by the equivalence relation of rigid motions. Whether the quotient space is Euclidean or not depends on how it is parameterized. When the pairwise RMSD is employed as the local distance metric, implicit representations are used for the protein conformation space, leading to no direct correspondence to a Euclidean set. We have demonstrated that an explicit Euclidean-based representation of protein conformation space and the local distance metric associated to it improve the quality of dimensionality reduction in the tetra-peptide and β-hairpin systems.

  4. Distribution of chirality in the quantum walk: Markov process and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Romanelli, Alejandro

    2010-06-15

    The asymptotic behavior of the quantum walk on the line is investigated, focusing on the probability distribution of chirality independently of position. It is shown analytically that this distribution has a longtime limit that is stationary and depends on the initial conditions. This result is unexpected in the context of the unitary evolution of the quantum walk as it is usually linked to a Markovian process. The asymptotic value of the entanglement between the coin and the position is determined by the chirality distribution. For given asymptotic values of both the entanglement and the chirality distribution, it is possible to find the corresponding initial conditions within a particular class of spatially extended Gaussian distributions.

  5. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  6. Entangled coherent states versus entangled photon pairs for practical quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kimin; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2010-12-15

    We compare effects of decoherence and detection inefficiency on entangled coherent states (ECSs) and entangled photon pairs (EPPs), both of which are known to be particularly useful for quantum-information processing (QIP). When decoherence effects caused by photon losses are heavy, the ECSs outperform the EPPs as quantum channels for teleportation both in fidelities and in success probabilities. On the other hand, when inefficient detectors are used, the teleportation scheme using the ECSs suffers undetected errors that result in the degradation of fidelity, while this is not the case for the teleportation scheme using the EPPs. Our study reveals the merits and demerits of the two types of entangled states in realizing practical QIP under realistic conditions.

  7. Electron-exchange effects on the charge capture process in degenerate quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Young-Dae; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-03-15

    The electron-exchange effects on the charge capture process are investigated in degenerate quantum plasmas. The Bohr-Lindhard formalism with the effective interaction potential is employed to obtain the charge capture radius, capture probability, and capture cross section as functions of the impact parameter, projectile energy, electron-exchange parameter, Fermi energy, and plasmon energy. The result shows that the electron-exchange effect enhances the charge capture radius and the charge capture cross section in semiconductor quantum plasmas. It is also found that the charge capture radius and charge capture cross section increases with an increase of the Fermi energy and, however, decreases with increasing plasmon energy. Additionally, it is found that the peak position of the charge capture cross section is receded from the collision center with an increase of the electron-exchange parameter.

  8. Entanglement and the process of measuring the position of a quantum particle

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, V.M.; Curilef, S.; Plastino, A.R.

    2015-03-15

    We explore the entanglement-related features exhibited by the dynamics of a composite quantum system consisting of a particle and an apparatus (here referred to as the “pointer”) that measures the position of the particle. We consider measurements of finite duration, and also the limit case of instantaneous measurements. We investigate the time evolution of the quantum entanglement between the particle and the pointer, with special emphasis on the final entanglement associated with the limit case of an impulsive interaction. We consider entanglement indicators based on the expectation values of an appropriate family of observables, and also an entanglement measure computed on particular exact analytical solutions of the particle–pointer Schrödinger equation. The general behavior exhibited by the entanglement indicators is consistent with that shown by the entanglement measure evaluated on particular analytical solutions of the Schrödinger equation. In the limit of instantaneous measurements the system’s entanglement dynamics corresponds to that of an ideal quantum measurement process. On the contrary, we show that the entanglement evolution corresponding to measurements of finite duration departs in important ways from the behavior associated with ideal measurements. In particular, highly localized initial states of the particle lead to highly entangled final states of the particle–pointer system. This indicates that the above mentioned initial states, in spite of having an arbitrarily small position uncertainty, are not left unchanged by a finite-duration position measurement process. - Highlights: • We explore entanglement features of a quantum position measurement. • We consider instantaneous and finite-duration measurements. • We evaluate the entanglement of exact time-dependent particle–pointer states.

  9. Initial conditions and quantum cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartle, James B.

    1987-01-01

    A theory of initial conditions is necessary for a complete explanation of the presently observed large scale structural features of the universe, and a quantum theory of cosmology is probably needed for its formulation. The kinematics of quantum cosmology are reviewed, and some candidates for a law of initial conditions are discussed. The proposal that the quantum state of a closed universe is the natural analog of the ground state for closed cosmologies and is specified by a Euclidean sum over histories is sketched. When implemented in simple models, this proposal is consistent with the most important large-scale observations.

  10. Ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulation of electron transfer process: Fractional electron approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Xiancheng; Hu Hao; Hu Xiangqian; Cohen, Aron J.; Yang Weitao

    2008-03-28

    Electron transfer (ET) reactions are one of the most important processes in chemistry and biology. Because of the quantum nature of the processes and the complicated roles of the solvent, theoretical study of ET processes is challenging. To simulate ET processes at the electronic level, we have developed an efficient density functional theory (DFT) quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanical (MM) approach that uses the fractional number of electrons as the order parameter to calculate the redox free energy of ET reactions in solution. We applied this method to study the ET reactions of the aqueous metal complexes Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup 2+/3+} and Ru(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup 2+/3+}. The calculated oxidation potentials, 5.82 eV for Fe(II/III) and 5.14 eV for Ru(II/III), agree well with the experimental data, 5.50 and 4.96 eV, for iron and ruthenium, respectively. Furthermore, we have constructed the diabatic free energy surfaces from histogram analysis based on the molecular dynamics trajectories. The resulting reorganization energy and the diabatic activation energy also show good agreement with experimental data. Our calculations show that using the fractional number of electrons (FNE) as the order parameter in the thermodynamic integration process leads to efficient sampling and validate the ab initio QM/MM approach in the calculation of redox free energies.

  11. Failure mode and effects analysis using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted Euclidean distance operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Liu, Long; Li, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has shown its effectiveness in examining potential failures in products, process, designs or services and has been extensively used for safety and reliability analysis in a wide range of industries. However, its approach to prioritise failure modes through a crisp risk priority number (RPN) has been criticised as having several shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to develop an efficient and comprehensive risk assessment methodology using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted Euclidean distance (IFHWED) operator to overcome the limitations and improve the effectiveness of the traditional FMEA. The diversified and uncertain assessments given by FMEA team members are treated as linguistic terms expressed in intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs). Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA) operator is used to aggregate the FMEA team members' individual assessments into a group assessment. IFHWED operator is applied thereafter to the prioritisation and selection of failure modes. Particularly, both subjective and objective weights of risk factors are considered during the risk evaluation process. A numerical example for risk assessment is given to illustrate the proposed method finally.

  12. Random sequential addition of hard spheres in high Euclidean dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, S.; Uche, O. U.; Stillinger, F. H.

    2006-12-01

    Sphere packings in high dimensions have been the subject of recent theoretical interest. Employing numerical and theoretical methods, we investigate the structural characteristics of random sequential addition (RSA) of congruent spheres in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd in the infinite-time or saturation limit for the first six space dimensions (1≤d≤6) . Specifically, we determine the saturation density, pair correlation function, cumulative coordination number and the structure factor in each of these dimensions. We find that for 2≤d≤6 , the saturation density ϕs scales with dimension as ϕs=c1/2d+c2d/2d , where c1=0.202048 and c2=0.973872 . We also show analytically that the same density scaling is expected to persist in the high-dimensional limit, albeit with different coefficients. A byproduct of this high-dimensional analysis is a relatively sharp lower bound on the saturation density for any d given by ϕs≥(d+2)(1-S0)/2d+1 , where S0ɛ[0,1] is the structure factor at k=0 (i.e., infinite-wavelength number variance) in the high-dimensional limit. We demonstrate that a Palàsti-type conjecture (the saturation density in Rd is equal to that of the one-dimensional problem raised to the d th power) cannot be true for RSA hyperspheres. We show that the structure factor S(k) must be analytic at k=0 and that RSA packings for 1≤d≤6 are nearly “hyperuniform.” Consistent with the recent “decorrelation principle,” we find that pair correlations markedly diminish as the space dimension increases up to six. We also obtain kissing (contact) number statistics for saturated RSA configurations on the surface of a d -dimensional sphere for dimensions 2≤d≤5 and compare to the maximal kissing numbers in these dimensions. We determine the structure factor exactly for the related “ghost” RSA packing in Rd and demonstrate that its distance from “hyperuniformity” increases as the space dimension increases, approaching a constant asymptotic value

  13. Quantum information processing using quasiclassical electromagnetic interactions between qubits and electrical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerman, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Electrical resonators are widely used in quantum information processing with any qubits that are manipulated via electromagnetic interactions. In most cases they are engineered to interact with qubits via real or virtual exchange of (typically microwave) photons, and the resonator must therefore have both a high quality factor and strong quantum fluctuations, corresponding to the strong-coupling limit of cavity QED. Although great strides in the control of quantum information have been made using this so-called ``circuit QED'' architecture, it also comes with some important disadvantages. In this talk, we discuss a new paradigm for coupling qubits electromagnetically via resonators, in which the qubits do not exchange photons with the resonator, but instead exert quasi-classical, effective ``forces'' on it. We show how this type of interaction is similar to that induced between the internal state of a trapped atomic ion and its center-of-mass motion by the photon recoil momentum, and that the resulting entangling operations are insensitive both to the state of the resonator and to its quality factor. The methods we describe are applicable to a variety of qubit-resonator systems, including superconducting and semiconducting solid-state qubits, and trapped molecular ions. This work is sponsored by the ASDR&E under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, recommendations and conclusions are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

  14. Solution-Processed Gas Sensors Employing SnO2 Quantum Dot/MWCNT Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Wenkai; Yu, Haoxiong; Gao, Liang; Song, Zhilong; Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Wang, Yang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2016-01-13

    Solution-processed SnO2 colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged as an important new class of gas-sensing materials due to their potential for low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. Here we employed the design strategy based on the synergetic effect from highly sensitive SnO2 CQDs and excellent conductive properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to overcome the transport barrier in CQD gas sensors. The attachment and coverage of SnO2 CQDs on the MWCNT surfaces were achieved by simply mixing the presynthesized SnO2 CQDs and MWCNTs at room temperature. Compared to the pristine SnO2 CQDs, the sensor based on SnO2 quantum dot/MWCNT nanocomposites exhibited a higher response upon exposure to H2S, and the response toward 50 ppm of H2S at 70 °C was 108 with the response and recovery time being 23 and 44 s. Because of the favorable energy band alignment, the MWCNTs can serve as the acceptor of the electrons that are injected from H2S into SnO2 quantum dots in addition to the charge transport highway to direct the electron flow to the electrode, thereby enhancing the sensor response. Our research results open an easy pathway for developing highly sensitive and low-cost gas sensors.

  15. Quantum electrodynamics processes in the interaction of high-energy particles with atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krachkov, P. A.; Lee, R. N.; Mil'shtein, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    The recently developed method of quasiclassical Green's functions of the Dirac equation in the variously configured external fields has provided breakthrough insight into fundamental quantum electrodynamics processes whereby high-energy particles interact with atoms. This paper reviews latest calculated results, exact in the atomic field parameters, on the cross sections for electron-positron high-energy photoproduction, the single bremsstrahlung cross section for relativistic electrons and muons in an atomic field, double bremsstrahlung cross sections, etc. In many cases, the calculations are performed in the quasiclassical approximation with the inclusion of the first-order quasiclassical correction.

  16. Solution of relativistic quantum optics problems using clusters of graphical processing units

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.F. Hafizi, B.; Helle, M.H.

    2014-06-15

    Numerical solution of relativistic quantum optics problems requires high performance computing due to the rapid oscillations in a relativistic wavefunction. Clusters of graphical processing units are used to accelerate the computation of a time dependent relativistic wavefunction in an arbitrary external potential. The stationary states in a Coulomb potential and uniform magnetic field are determined analytically and numerically, so that they can used as initial conditions in fully time dependent calculations. Relativistic energy levels in extreme magnetic fields are recovered as a means of validation. The relativistic ionization rate is computed for an ion illuminated by a laser field near the usual barrier suppression threshold, and the ionizing wavefunction is displayed.

  17. The free energy in a class of quantum spin systems and interchange processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnberg, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    We study a class of quantum spin systems in the mean-field setting of the complete graph. For spin S = 1/2, the model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet, and for general spin S ∈ 1/2 N, it has a probabilistic representation as a cycle-weighted interchange process. We determine the free energy and the critical temperature (recovering results by Tóth and by Penrose when S = 1/2). The critical temperature is shown to coincide (as a function of S) with that of the q = 2S + 1 state classical Potts model, and the phase transition is discontinuous when S ≥ 1.

  18. Constructing the davies process of resonance fluorescence with quantum stochastic calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouten, L.; Maassen, H.; Kümmerer, B.

    2003-06-01

    The starting point is a given semigroup of completely positive maps on the 2×2 matrices. This semigroup describes the irreversible evolution of a decaying two-level atom. By using the integral-sum kernel approach to quantum stochastic calculus, the two-level atom is coupled to an environment, which in this case will be interpreted as the electromagnetic field. The irreversible time evolution of the two-level atom then stems from the reversible time evolution of the atom and the field together. Mathematically speaking, a Markov dilation of the semigroup has been constructed. The next step is to drive the atom by a laser and to count the photons emitted into the field by the decaying two-level atom. For every possible sequence of photon counts, a map is constructed that gives the time evolution of the two-level atom implied by that sequence. The family of maps obtained in this way forms a so-called Davies process. In his book, Davies describes the structure of these processes, which brings us into the field of quantum trajectories. Within the model presented in this paper, the jump operators are calculated and the resulting counting process is briefly described.

  19. Optimization of the Multi-Spectral Euclidean Distance Calculation for FPGA-based Spaceborne Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cristo, Alejandro; Fisher, Kevin; Perez, Rosa M.; Martinez, Pablo; Gualtieri, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the high quantity of operations that spaceborne processing systems must carry out in space, new methodologies and techniques are being presented as good alternatives in order to free the main processor from work and improve the overall performance. These include the development of ancillary dedicated hardware circuits that carry out the more redundant and computationally expensive operations in a faster way, leaving the main processor free to carry out other tasks while waiting for the result. One of these devices is SpaceCube, a FPGA-based system designed by NASA. The opportunity to use FPGA reconfigurable architectures in space allows not only the optimization of the mission operations with hardware-level solutions, but also the ability to create new and improved versions of the circuits, including error corrections, once the satellite is already in orbit. In this work, we propose the optimization of a common operation in remote sensing: the Multi-Spectral Euclidean Distance calculation. For that, two different hardware architectures have been designed and implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA, the same model of FPGAs used by SpaceCube. Previous results have shown that the communications between the embedded processor and the circuit create a bottleneck that affects the overall performance in a negative way. In order to avoid this, advanced methods including memory sharing, Native Port Interface (NPI) connections and Data Burst Transfers have been used.

  20. Robust Automatic Pectoral Muscle Segmentation from Mammograms Using Texture Gradient and Euclidean Distance Regression.

    PubMed

    Bora, Vibha Bafna; Kothari, Ashwin G; Keskar, Avinash G

    2016-02-01

    In computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of mediolateral oblique (MLO) view of mammogram, the accuracy of tissue segmentation highly depends on the exclusion of pectoral muscle. Robust methods for such exclusions are essential as the normal presence of pectoral muscle can bias the decision of CAD. In this paper, a novel texture gradient-based approach for automatic segmentation of pectoral muscle is proposed. The pectoral edge is initially approximated to a straight line by applying Hough transform on Probable Texture Gradient (PTG) map of the mammogram followed by block averaging with the aid of approximated line. Furthermore, a smooth pectoral muscle curve is achieved with proposed Euclidean Distance Regression (EDR) technique and polynomial modeling. The algorithm is robust to texture and overlapping fibro glandular tissues. The method is validated with 340 MLO views from three databases-including 200 randomly selected scanned film images from miniMIAS, 100 computed radiography images and 40 full-field digital mammogram images. Qualitatively, 96.75 % of the pectoral muscles are segmented with an acceptable pectoral score index. The proposed method not only outperforms state-of-the-art approaches but also accurately quantifies the pectoral edge. Thus, its high accuracy and relatively quick processing time clearly justify its suitability for CAD.

  1. Loop-quantum-gravity vertex amplitude.

    PubMed

    Engle, Jonathan; Pereira, Roberto; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-10-19

    Spin foam models are hoped to provide the dynamics of loop-quantum gravity. However, the most popular of these, the Barrett-Crane model, does not have the good boundary state space and there are indications that it fails to yield good low-energy n-point functions. We present an alternative dynamics that can be derived as a quantization of a Regge discretization of Euclidean general relativity, where second class constraints are imposed weakly. Its state space matches the SO(3) loop gravity one and it yields an SO(4)-covariant vertex amplitude for Euclidean loop gravity.

  2. Epileptic Seizure Detection with Log-Euclidean Gaussian Kernel-Based Sparse Representation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shasha; Zhou, Weidong; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-01

    Epileptic seizure detection plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy and reducing the massive workload of reviewing electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. In this work, a novel algorithm is developed to detect seizures employing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based sparse representation (SR) in long-term EEG recordings. Unlike the traditional SR for vector data in Euclidean space, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR framework is proposed for seizure detection in the space of the symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices, which form a Riemannian manifold. Since the Riemannian manifold is nonlinear, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel function is applied to embed it into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) for performing SR. The EEG signals of all channels are divided into epochs and the SPD matrices representing EEG epochs are generated by covariance descriptors. Then, the testing samples are sparsely coded over the dictionary composed by training samples utilizing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR. The classification of testing samples is achieved by computing the minimal reconstructed residuals. The proposed method is evaluated on the Freiburg EEG dataset of 21 patients and shows its notable performance on both epoch-based and event-based assessments. Moreover, this method handles multiple channels of EEG recordings synchronously which is more speedy and efficient than traditional seizure detection methods.

  3. Schrödinger problem, Lévy processes, and noise in relativistic quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr; Klauder, John R.; Olkiewicz, Robert

    1995-05-01

    The main purpose of the paper is an essentially probabilistic analysis of relativistic quantum mechanics. It is based on the assumption that whenever probability distributions arise, there exists a stochastic process that is either responsible for the temporal evolution of a given measure or preserves the measure in the stationary case. Our departure point is the so-called Schrödinger problem of probabilistic evolution, which provides for a unique Markov stochastic interpolation between any given pair of boundary probability densities for a process covering a fixed, finite duration of time, provided we have decided a priori what kind of primordial dynamical semigroup transition mechanism is involved. In the nonrelativistic theory, including quantum mechanics, Feynman-Kac-like kernels are the building blocks for suitable transition probability densities of the process. In the standard ``free'' case (Feynman-Kac potential equal to zero) the familiar Wiener noise is recovered. In the framework of the Schrödinger problem, the ``free noise'' can also be extended to any infinitely divisible probability law, as covered by the Lévy-Khintchine formula. Since the relativistic Hamiltonians ||∇|| and √-Δ+m2 -m are known to generate such laws, we focus on them for the analysis of probabilistic phenomena, which are shown to be associated with the relativistic wave (D'Alembert) and matter-wave (Klein-Gordon) equations, respectively. We show that such stochastic processes exist and are spatial jump processes. In general, in the presence of external potentials, they do not share the Markov property, except for stationary situations. A concrete example of the pseudodifferential Cauchy-Schrödinger evolution is analyzed in detail. The relativistic covariance of related wave equations is exploited to demonstrate how the associated stochastic jump processes comply with the principles of special relativity.

  4. Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gigov, Nikolay; Higgins, Brendon L.; Yan, Zhizhong; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Khandani, Amir K.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating a secure key while experimentally emulating the varying losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of a secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of a secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21 570 bits of a secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.

  5. Process-Dependent Properties in Colloidally Synthesized “Giant” Core/Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Dennis, Allison M.; Mangum, Benjamin D.; Park, Young-Shin; Kundu, Janardan; Htoon, Han

    2012-06-07

    Due to their characteristic bright and stable photoluminescence, semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) have attracted much interest as efficient light emitters for applications from single-particle tracking to solid-state lighting. Despite their numerous enabling traits, however, NQD optical properties are frustratingly sensitive to their chemical environment, exhibit fluorescence intermittency ('blinking'), and are susceptible to Auger recombination, an efficient nonradiative decay process. Previously, we showed for the first time that colloidal CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) comprising ultrathick shells (number of shell monolayers, n, > 10) grown by protracted successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) leads to remarkable photostability and significantly suppressed blinking behavior as a function of increasing shell thickness. We have also shown that these so-called 'giant' NQDs (g-NQDs) afford nearly complete suppression of non-radiative Auger recombination, revealed in our studies as long biexciton lifetimes and efficient multiexciton emission. The unique behavior of this core/shell system prompted us to assess correlations between specific physicochemical properties - beyond shell thickness - and functionality. Here, we demonstrate the ability of particle shape/faceting, crystalline phase, and core size to determine ensemble and single-particle optical properties (quantum yield/brightness, blinking, radiative lifetimes). Significantly, we show how reaction process parameters (surface-stabilizing ligands, ligand:NQD ratio, choice of 'inert' solvent, and modifications to the SILAR method itself) can be tuned to modify these function-dictating NQD physical properties, ultimately leading to an optimized synthetic approach that results in the complete suppression of blinking. We find that the resulting 'guiding principles' can be applied to other NQD compositions, allowing us to achieve non-blinking behavior in the near

  6. Versatile microwave-driven trapped ion spin system for quantum information processing.

    PubMed

    Piltz, Christian; Sriarunothai, Theeraphot; Ivanov, Svetoslav S; Wölk, Sabine; Wunderlich, Christof

    2016-07-01

    Using trapped atomic ions, we demonstrate a tailored and versatile effective spin system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation. By simply applying microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system and, thus, can serve as a quantum memory, while simultaneously, other coupled spins perform conditional quantum dynamics. Also, microwave pulses can change the sign of spin-spin couplings, as well as their effective strength, even during the course of a quantum algorithm. Taking advantage of the simultaneous long-range coupling between three spins, a coherent quantum Fourier transform-an essential building block for many quantum algorithms-is efficiently realized. This approach, which is based on microwave-driven trapped ions and is complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcoming technical and physical challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and a quantum computer. PMID:27419233

  7. Versatile microwave-driven trapped ion spin system for quantum information processing.

    PubMed

    Piltz, Christian; Sriarunothai, Theeraphot; Ivanov, Svetoslav S; Wölk, Sabine; Wunderlich, Christof

    2016-07-01

    Using trapped atomic ions, we demonstrate a tailored and versatile effective spin system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation. By simply applying microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system and, thus, can serve as a quantum memory, while simultaneously, other coupled spins perform conditional quantum dynamics. Also, microwave pulses can change the sign of spin-spin couplings, as well as their effective strength, even during the course of a quantum algorithm. Taking advantage of the simultaneous long-range coupling between three spins, a coherent quantum Fourier transform-an essential building block for many quantum algorithms-is efficiently realized. This approach, which is based on microwave-driven trapped ions and is complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcoming technical and physical challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and a quantum computer.

  8. Versatile microwave-driven trapped ion spin system for quantum information processing

    PubMed Central

    Piltz, Christian; Sriarunothai, Theeraphot; Ivanov, Svetoslav S.; Wölk, Sabine; Wunderlich, Christof

    2016-01-01

    Using trapped atomic ions, we demonstrate a tailored and versatile effective spin system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation. By simply applying microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system and, thus, can serve as a quantum memory, while simultaneously, other coupled spins perform conditional quantum dynamics. Also, microwave pulses can change the sign of spin-spin couplings, as well as their effective strength, even during the course of a quantum algorithm. Taking advantage of the simultaneous long-range coupling between three spins, a coherent quantum Fourier transform—an essential building block for many quantum algorithms—is efficiently realized. This approach, which is based on microwave-driven trapped ions and is complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcoming technical and physical challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and a quantum computer. PMID:27419233

  9. A Closer Look into the Traditional Purification Process of CdSe Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Behtash; Meulenberg, Robert W

    2015-12-15

    This paper describes how the postprocessing procedure for wurtzite CdSe quantum dots (QDs) 4.8 and 6.7 nm in diameter is affected by both the choice of nonsolvent and the number of processing steps. Using a host of analytical techniques (ultraviolet-visible, photoluminescence, nuclear magnetic, X-ray photoelectron, and infrared spectroscopy, as well as thermogravimetric analysis), we find that control over the ligand type and surface density can be achieved simply by the number of washing steps used during the postprocessing procedure. Using multiple washing steps we can achieve colloidally stable solutions of QDs with organic mass fractions as low as 13% by mass. For CdSe QDs passivated with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and stearic acid (SA), essentially no TOPO is bound to the particle surface after three or four washing steps, with a plateau in the amount of SA being removed. The results can be explained using the L- and X-type ligand classification system for QDs, with L-type ligands (TOPO) removed in the early processing steps but the removal of X-type (SA) ligand stalling at a large number of washing steps due to charging of the QDs. Importantly, very little change is observed in the photoluminescence (PL) properties, suggesting that the choice of nonsolvent during postprocessing will allow the production of QD materials with very low organic content by mass but with good PL quantum yields. PMID:26625188

  10. Exploring the charge/energy transfer process at the graphene/giant nanocrystal quantum dots interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yongqian; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Karan, Niladri; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Hollingsworth, Jennifer; Doorn, Stevphen; Htoon, Han

    2014-03-01

    Due to its transparency in wide spectral range and high charge mobilities, graphene has been considered to utilize as transparent electrode for nanocrystal based photo-voltaic and light emitting diodes. A detail understanding on charge/energy transfer (CT/ET) processes between zero dimensional quantum dots and 2D graphene layer hold the key in optimizing the performance of these devices. To attain this understanding, we conduct a systematic study on CT and ET processes between a graphene layer and CdSe/CdS giant nanocrystal quantum dots (g-NQD) as the function of CdS shell thickness. In addition to analyzing PL quenching and change of PL decay dynamic, we also perform 2nd order photon correlation spectroscopy studies to investigate the effect of graphene layer on dynamic and emission efficiency of g-NQDs' multi-exciton states. In case of g-NQDs over coated with a thick 16 ML CdS shell, we observed a surprising increase of multi-exciton emission efficiency.

  11. Fabrication of novel quantum cascade lasers using focused ion beam (FIB) processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, I. M.; Ng, W. H.; Wilson, L. R.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Cockburn, J. W.; Krysa, A.; Cullis, A. G.; Roberts, J. S.

    2006-02-01

    Focussed ion beam (FIB) processing has been applied to the fabrication of novel InP-based cleaved coupled cavity (CCC) quantum cascade lasers (QCL). Gas assisted etching using XeF2 has been shown to significantly reduce the redeposition of sputtered material onto the mirror surfaces during final milling. For the unprocessed laser a broad spread of lasing peaks are observed between 9.72µm to 9.78µm at a current of 380mA (1kA/cm-2). After FIB processing, substantial side mode suppression is observed on applying a current of 20mA (100A/cm-2) to the short section and the main lasing peak is observed at 9.77µm.

  12. 10D to 4D Euclidean supergravity over a Calabi-Yau three-fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, Wafic A.; Vaughan, Owen

    2016-01-01

    We dimensionally reduce the bosonic sector of 10D Euclidean type IIA supergravity over a Calabi-Yau three-fold. The resulting theory describes the bosonic sector of 4D, {N}=2 Euclidean supergravity coupled to vector- and hyper-multiplets. We show that the scalar target manifold of the vector-multiplets is projective special para-Kähler, and is therefore of split signature, whereas the target manifold of the hyper-multiplets is (positive-definite) quaternionic Kähler.

  13. Generalized Thomson problem in arbitrary dimensions and non-euclidean geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batle, J.; Bagdasaryan, Armen; Abdel-Aty, M.; Abdalla, S.

    2016-06-01

    Systems of identical particles with equal charge are studied under a special type of confinement. These classical particles are free to move inside some convex region S and on the boundary of it Ω (the S d - 1 -sphere, in our case). We shall show how particles arrange themselves under the sole action of the Coulomb repulsion in many dimensions in the usual Euclidean space, therefore generalizing the so called Thomson problem to many dimensions. Also, we explore how the problem varies when non-Euclidean geometries are considered. We shall see that optimal configurations in all cases possess a high degree of symmetry, regardless of the concomitant dimension or geometry.

  14. Generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation for photoinduced nonequilibrium processes with positive definiteness condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seogjoo

    2016-06-01

    This work provides a detailed derivation of a generalized quantum Fokker-Planck equation (GQFPE) appropriate for photo-induced quantum dynamical processes. The path integral method pioneered by Caldeira and Leggett (CL) [Physica A 121, 587 (1983)] is extended by utilizing a nonequilibrium influence functional applicable to different baths for the ground and the excited electronic states. Both nonequilibrium and non-Markovian effects are accounted for consistently by expanding the paths in the exponents of the influence functional up to the second order with respect to time. This procedure results in approximations involving only single time integrations for the exponents of the influence functional but with additional time dependent boundary terms that have been ignored in previous works. The boundary terms complicate the derivation of a time evolution equation but do not affect position dependent physical observables or the dynamics in the steady state limit. For an effective density operator with the boundary terms factored out, a time evolution equation is derived, through short time expansion of the effective action and Gaussian integration in analytically continued complex domain of space. This leads to a compact form of the GQFPE with time dependent kernels and additional terms, which renders the resulting equation to be in the Dekker form [Phys. Rep. 80, 1 (1981)]. Major terms of the equation are analyzed for the case of Ohmic spectral density with Drude cutoff, which shows that the new GQFPE satisfies the positive definiteness condition in medium to high temperature limit. Steady state limit of the GQFPE is shown to approach the well-known expression derived by CL in the high temperature and Markovian bath limit and also provides additional corrections due to quantum and non-Markovian effects of the bath.

  15. Application of Non-Kolmogorovian Probability and Quantum Adaptive Dynamics to Unconscious Inference in Visual Perception Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Luigi; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Recently a novel quantum information formalism — quantum adaptive dynamics — was developed and applied to modelling of information processing by bio-systems including cognitive phenomena: from molecular biology (glucose-lactose metabolism for E.coli bacteria, epigenetic evolution) to cognition, psychology. From the foundational point of view quantum adaptive dynamics describes mutual adapting of the information states of two interacting systems (physical or biological) as well as adapting of co-observations performed by the systems. In this paper we apply this formalism to model unconscious inference: the process of transition from sensation to perception. The paper combines theory and experiment. Statistical data collected in an experimental study on recognition of a particular ambiguous figure, the Schröder stairs, support the viability of the quantum(-like) model of unconscious inference including modelling of biases generated by rotation-contexts. From the probabilistic point of view, we study (for concrete experimental data) the problem of contextuality of probability, its dependence on experimental contexts. Mathematically contextuality leads to non-Komogorovness: probability distributions generated by various rotation contexts cannot be treated in the Kolmogorovian framework. At the same time they can be embedded in a “big Kolmogorov space” as conditional probabilities. However, such a Kolmogorov space has too complex structure and the operational quantum formalism in the form of quantum adaptive dynamics simplifies the modelling essentially.

  16. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  17. Three-dimensional analytical infinite order sudden quantum theory for triatomic indirect photodissociation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Horacio; Freed, Karl F.; Williams, Carl J.

    1997-08-01

    Our previously developed analytical infinite order sudden (IOS) quantum theory of triatomic photodissociation is extended to describe indirect photodissociation processes through a real or virtual intermediate state. The theory uses the IOS approximation for the dynamics in the final dissociative channels and an Airy function approximation for the continuum states. These approximations enable us to evaluate the multi-dimensional non-separable transition amplitudes analytically (as one-dimensional quadratures), despite the different natural coordinates for the initial bound, the intermediate resonant, and the final dissociative states. The fragment internal energy distributions are described as a function of the initial and final quantum states and the photon excitation energy. The theory readily permits the evaluation of rotational distributions for high values of the total angular momentum J in the initial bound molecular state, a feature that would be very difficult with close-coupled methods. In paper II we apply the theory to describe the photofragment yield spectrum of NOCl in the region of the T1(13A″)←S0(11A') transition.

  18. Time-dependent simulations of large-scale quantum mechanical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    Time dependent linear and nonlinear equations govern the evolution of an extensive set of physical systems and processes describing, to enumerate just a few, Bose-Einstein condensates; soliton propagation in optical and photonic band-gap fibers; quantum control of atomic and molecular collisions and reactions; highly-compressed liquids; and dense and ultracold plasmas. While the media vary substantially, the basic computational procedures have many common features. We focus on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and discuss two powerful approaches to its propagation: the Arnoldi/Lanczos(AL)l and Real Space Product Formula(RSPF)2. Both provide efficient systematic approximations to the short-time exponential propagator that moves the solution between time steps. We implement the former in a discrete variable representation (DVR)3 both in spatial grid and finite element forms and the latter in a spatial mesh with a finite difference representation of the kinetic energy operator. Both approaches require O(N) operations to propagate the wavefunction between time steps and handle multidimensional systems. We shall also draw connections with Liouville formulations used in quantum molecular dynamics simulations of large collections of atoms and molecules. After briefly outlining these formulations, we shall discuss some of the varied applications.

  19. Ultra-low-loss optical fiber cavities for applications in quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uphoff, Manuel; Brekenfeld, Manuel; Niemietz, Dominik; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    Single atoms strongly coupled to optical cavities are well suited as light-matter interfaces at the single photon level. The strength of the coupling is inversely proportional to the square root of the mode volume of the cavity, which depends on the radius of curvature of the mirrors. We report on the fabrication of near-spherical surfaces with small radii of curvature on the end facets of optical fibers using a CO2 laser at 9.3 μm wavelength. The surfaces are coated with a commercial, highly reflective, dielectric coating. Cavities built from two of these fibers show a finesse of up to 190000. Due to the small radii of curvature and the high finesse of these cavities, deviations from the paraxial approximation become relevant. This results in a frequency splitting of polarization eigenmodes depending on the eccentricity of the mirrors. Our analytic model that explains this effect is in excellent agreement with our measurements. This allows for the control of the frequency splitting by the geometry of the mirror surfaces. Our results confirm the great prospects of laser-machined cavities for experiments in quantum information processing. The possibility of implementing a quantum repeater node based on our cavity technologies will also be discussed.

  20. Applications of rigged Hilbert spaces in quantum mechanics and signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celeghini, E.; Gadella, M.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous use of discrete and continuous bases in quantum systems is not possible in the context of Hilbert spaces, but only in the more general structure of rigged Hilbert spaces (RHS). In addition, the relevant operators in RHS (but not in Hilbert space) are a realization of elements of a Lie enveloping algebra and support representations of semigroups. We explicitly construct here basis dependent RHS of the line and half-line and relate them to the universal enveloping algebras of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra and su(1, 1), respectively. The complete sub-structure of both RHS and of the operators acting on them is obtained from their algebraic structures or from the related fractional Fourier transforms. This allows us to describe both quantum and signal processing states and their dynamics. Two relevant improvements are introduced: (i) new kinds of filters related to restrictions to subspaces and/or the elimination of high frequency fluctuations and (ii) an operatorial structure that, starting from fix objects, describes their time evolution.

  1. Quantum Fluctuations and Thermodynamic Processes in the Presence of Closed Timelike Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tsunefumi

    1997-10-01

    A closed timelike curve (CTC) is a closed loop in spacetime whose tangent vector is everywhere timelike. A spacetime which contains CTC's will allow time travel. One of these spacetimes is Grant space. It can be constructed from Minkowski space by imposing periodic boundary conditions in spatial directions and making the boundaries move toward each other. If Hawking's chronology protection conjecture is correct, there must be a physical mechanism preventing the formation of CTC's. Currently the most promising candidate for the chronology protection mechanism is the back reaction of the metric to quantum vacuum fluctuations. In this thesis the quantum fluctuations for a massive scalar field, a self-interacting field, and for a field at nonzero temperature are calculated in Grant space. The stress-energy tensor is found to remain finite everywhere in Grant space for the massive scalar field with sufficiently large field mass. Otherwise it diverges on chronology horizons like the stress-energy tensor for a massless scalar field. If CTC's exist they will have profound effects on physical processes. Causality can be protected even in the presence of CTC's if the self-consistency condition is imposed on all processes. Simple classical thermodynamic processes of a box filled with ideal gas in the presence of CTC's are studied. If a system of boxes is closed, its state does not change as it travels through a region of spacetime with CTC's. But if the system is open, the final state will depend on the interaction with the environment. The second law of thermodynamics is shown to hold for both closed and open systems. A similar problem is investigated at a statistical level for a gas consisting of multiple selves of a single particle in a spacetime with CTC's.

  2. Quantum circuit for the proof of the security of quantum key distribution without encryption of error syndrome and noisy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go

    2010-02-15

    One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.

  3. Quantum-dot single-photon sources: Prospects for applications in linear optics quantum-information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraz, A.; Atatüre, M.; Imamoǧlu, A.

    2004-03-01

    An optical source that produces single-photon pulses on demand has potential applications in linear optics quantum computation, provided that stringent requirements on indistinguishability and collection efficiency of the generated photons are met. We show that these are conflicting requirements for anharmonic emitters that are incoherently pumped via reservoirs. As a model for a coherently pumped single photon source, we propose cavity-assisted spin-flip Raman transitions in a single electron charged quantum dot embedded in a microcavity. We demonstrate that using such a source, arbitrarily high collection efficiency and indistinguishability of the generated photons can be obtained simultaneously with increased cavity coupling. We analyze the role of errors that arise from distinguishability of the single-photon pulses in linear optics quantum gates by relating the gate fidelity to the strength of the two-photon interference dip in photon cross-correlation measurements. We find that performing controlled phase operations with error <1 % requires nanocavities with Purcell factors FP ⩾40 in the absence of dephasing, without necessitating the strong coupling limit.

  4. Conjugated Quantum Dots Inhibit the Amyloid β (1–42) Fibrillation Process

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Garima; Micic, Miodrag; Yang, Yuehai; Li, Wenzhi; Movia, Dania; Giordani, Silvia; Zhang, Hongzhou; Leblanc, Roger M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles have enormous potential in diagnostic and therapeutic studies. We have demonstrated that the amyloid beta mixed with and conjugated to dihydrolipoic acid- (DHLA) capped CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) of size approximately 2.5 nm can be used to reduce the fibrillation process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used as tools for analysis of fibrillation. There is a significant change in morphology of fibrils when amyloid β (1–42) (Aβ (1–42)) is mixed or conjugated to the QDs. The length and the width of the fibrils vary under modified conditions. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence supports the decrease in fibril formation in presence of DHLA-capped QDs. PMID:21423556

  5. Chemiresistive gas sensors employing solution-processed metal oxide quantum dot films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Huan Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Shao, Gang; Zhang, Wenkai; Wei, Wendian; He, Mingze; Song, Huaibing; Gao, Liang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2014-10-20

    We report low-temperature chemiresistive gas sensors based on tin oxide colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), in which the benefits of CQDs such as extremely small crystal size, solution-processability, and tunable surface activity are exploited to enhance the gas-sensing effect. The sensor fabrication is simply employing spin-coating followed by a solid-state ligand exchange treatment at room temperature in air ambient. The optimal gas sensor exhibited rapid and significant decrease in resistance upon H{sub 2}S gas exposure when operated at 70 °C, and it was fully recoverable upon gas release. We observed a power law correlation between the sensor response and H{sub 2}S gas concentration, and the sensing mechanism was discussed using the completely depletion model with a flat band diagram.

  6. Rare-earth doped transparent ceramics for spectral filtering and quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Nathalie; Ferrier, Alban; Thiel, Charles W.; Ramírez, Mariola O.; Bausá, Luisa E.; Cone, Rufus L.; Ikesue, Akio; Goldner, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Homogeneous linewidths below 10 kHz are reported for the first time in high-quality Eu3+ doped Y 2O3 transparent ceramics. This result is obtained on the 7F0→5D0 transition in Eu3+ doped Y 2O3 ceramics and corresponds to an improvement of nearly one order of magnitude compared to previously reported values in transparent ceramics. Furthermore, we observed spectral hole lifetimes of ˜15 min that are long enough to enable efficient optical pumping of the nuclear hyperfine levels. Additionally, different Eu3+ concentrations (up to 1.0%) were studied, resulting in an increase of up to a factor of three in the peak absorption coefficient. These results suggest that transparent ceramics can be useful in applications where narrow and deep spectral holes can be burned into highly absorbing lines, such as quantum information processing and spectral filtering.

  7. Integrated Technologies for Large-Scale Trapped-Ion Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorace-Agaskar, C.; Bramhavar, S.; Kharas, D.; Mehta, K. K.; Loh, W.; Panock, R.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; McConnell, R.; Ram, R. J.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

    2016-05-01

    Atomic ions trapped and controlled using electromagnetic fields hold great promise for practical quantum information processing due to their inherent coherence properties and controllability. However, to realize this promise, the ability to maintain and manipulate large-scale systems is required. We present progress toward the development of, and proof-of-principle demonstrations and characterization of, several technologies that can be integrated with ion-trap arrays on-chip to enable such scaling to practically useful sizes. Of particular use are integrated photonic elements for routing and focusing light throughout a chip without the need for free-space optics. The integration of CMOS electronics and photo-detectors for on-chip control and readout, and methods for monolithic fabrication and wafer-scale integration to incorporate these capabilities into tile-able 2D ion-trap array cells, are also explored.

  8. Nearly deterministic bell measurement for multiphoton qubits and its application to quantum information processing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Park, Kimin; Ralph, Timothy C; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2015-03-20

    We propose a Bell-measurement scheme by employing a logical qubit in Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement with an arbitrary number of photons. Remarkably, the success probability of the Bell measurement as well as teleportation of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement can be made arbitrarily high using only linear optics elements and photon on-off measurements as the number of photons increases. Our scheme outperforms previous proposals using single-photon qubits when comparing the success probabilities in terms of the average photon usages. It has another important advantage for experimental feasibility in that it does not require photon-number-resolving measurements. Our proposal provides an alternative candidate for all-optical quantum information processing. PMID:25839269

  9. Solution-processed high-performance colloidal quantum dot tandem photodetectors on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zhenyu; You, Guanjun; Wang, Li; Liu, Jie; Xu, Jian; Hu, Wenjia; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-28

    We report a high-performance colloidal quantum dot (CQD)-based near-infrared tandem photodetector fabricated on flexible substrates via solution-processed method. The tandem photodetector on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates exhibited low dark current and high detectivities over ∼8.8 × 10{sup 11} Jones at near infrared range at −0.5 V bias and over ∼10{sup 13} Jones near 0 bias. The critical bend radii of ∼8 mm and ∼3 mm have been demonstrated for tensile and compressive bending, respectively. The performance of photodetectors remains stable under mechanical stress, making PbSe CQD material a promise candidate for flexible infrared sensing applications.

  10. An orbit analysis approach to the study of superintegrable systems in the Euclidean plane

    SciTech Connect

    Adlam, C. M. McLenaghan, R. G. Smirnov, R. G.

    2007-03-15

    We classify the superintegrable potentials in the Euclidean plane by means of an orbit analysis of the space of valence two Killing tensors under the action of the group of rigid motions. Our approach generalizes the classical approach of Winternitz and collaborators by considering pairs of Killing tensors that are not both in canonical form.

  11. Studies in Mathematics, Volume II. Euclidean Geometry Based on Ruler and Protractor Axioms. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles W.; And Others

    These materials were developed to help high school teachers to become familiar with the approach to tenth-grade Euclidean geometry which was adopted by the School Mathematics Study Group (SMSG). It is emphasized that the materials are unsuitable as a high school textbook. Each document contains material too difficult for most high school students.…

  12. The Twisted Euclidean GREEN’S Function in the Spacetime of a Cosmic String

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linet, B.

    In a conical spacetime, we determine the twisted Euclidean Green’s function for a massive scalar field. In particular, we give a convenient form for studying the vacuum averages. We then derive an integral expression of the vacuum expectation value <Φ2(x)>. In the Minkowski spacetime, we express <Φ2(x)> in terms of elementary functions.

  13. System of Schwinger-Dyson equations and asymptotic behavior in the Euclidean region

    SciTech Connect

    Rochev, V. E.

    2015-05-15

    A system of Schwinger-Dyson equations for the model of scalar-field interaction is studied in a deep Euclidean region. It is shown that there exists a critical coupling constant that separates the weak-coupling region characterized by the asymptotically free behavior and the strong-coupling region, where the asymptotic behavior of field propagators becomes ultralocal.

  14. Ab-initio reconstruction of complex Euclidean networks in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujarathi, S. R.; Farrow, C. L.; Glosser, C.; Granlund, L.; Duxbury, P. M.

    2014-05-01

    Reconstruction of complex structures is an inverse problem arising in virtually all areas of science and technology, from protein structure determination to bulk heterostructure solar cells and the structure of nanoparticles. We cast this problem as a complex network problem where the edges in a network have weights equal to the Euclidean distance between their endpoints. We present a method for reconstruction of the locations of the nodes of the network given only the edge weights of the Euclidean network. The theoretical foundations of the method are based on rigidity theory, which enables derivation of a polynomial bound on its efficiency. An efficient implementation of the method is discussed and timing results indicate that the run time of the algorithm is polynomial in the number of nodes in the network. We have reconstructed Euclidean networks of about 1000 nodes in approximately 24 h on a desktop computer using this implementation. We also reconstruct Euclidean networks corresponding to polymer chains in two dimensions and planar graphene nanoparticles. We have also modified our base algorithm so that it can successfully solve random point sets when the input data are less precise.

  15. Non-CMC solutions of the Einstein constraint equations on asymptotically Euclidean manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilts, James; Isenberg, Jim; Mazzeo, Rafe; Meier, Caleb

    2014-03-01

    In this note we prove two existence theorems for the Einstein constraint equations on asymptotically Euclidean manifolds. The first is for arbitrary mean curvature functions with restrictions on the size of the transverse-traceless data and the non-gravitational field data, while the second assumes a near-CMC condition, with no other restrictions.

  16. Ab-initio reconstruction of complex Euclidean networks in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Gujarathi, S R; Farrow, C L; Glosser, C; Granlund, L; Duxbury, P M

    2014-05-01

    Reconstruction of complex structures is an inverse problem arising in virtually all areas of science and technology, from protein structure determination to bulk heterostructure solar cells and the structure of nanoparticles. We cast this problem as a complex network problem where the edges in a network have weights equal to the Euclidean distance between their endpoints. We present a method for reconstruction of the locations of the nodes of the network given only the edge weights of the Euclidean network. The theoretical foundations of the method are based on rigidity theory, which enables derivation of a polynomial bound on its efficiency. An efficient implementation of the method is discussed and timing results indicate that the run time of the algorithm is polynomial in the number of nodes in the network. We have reconstructed Euclidean networks of about 1000 nodes in approximately 24 h on a desktop computer using this implementation. We also reconstruct Euclidean networks corresponding to polymer chains in two dimensions and planar graphene nanoparticles. We have also modified our base algorithm so that it can successfully solve random point sets when the input data are less precise.

  17. Thinking Outside the Euclidean Box: Riemannian Geometry and Inter-Temporal Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Himanshu; Mishra, Arul

    2016-01-01

    Inter-temporal decisions involves assigning values to various payoffs occurring at different temporal distances. Past research has used different approaches to study these decisions made by humans and animals. For instance, considering that people discount future payoffs at a constant rate (e.g., exponential discounting) or at variable rate (e.g., hyperbolic discounting). In this research, we question the widely assumed, but seldom questioned, notion across many of the existing approaches that the decision space, where the decision-maker perceives time and monetary payoffs, is a Euclidean space. By relaxing the rigid assumption of Euclidean space, we propose that the decision space is a more flexible Riemannian space of Constant Negative Curvature. We test our proposal by deriving a discount function, which uses the distance in the Negative Curvature space instead of Euclidean temporal distance. The distance function includes both perceived values of time as well as money, unlike past work which has considered just time. By doing so we are able to explain many of the empirical findings in inter-temporal decision-making literature. We provide converging evidence for our proposal by estimating the curvature of the decision space utilizing manifold learning algorithm and showing that the characteristics (i.e., metric properties) of the decision space resembles those of the Negative Curvature space rather than the Euclidean space. We conclude by presenting new theoretical predictions derived from our proposal and implications for how non-normative behavior is defined.

  18. A Quasi-Nonmetric Method for Multidimensional Scaling via an Extended Euclidean Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsberg, Suzanne; Carroll, J. Douglas

    1989-01-01

    An Extended Two-Way Euclidean Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) model that assumes both common and specific dimensions is described and contrasted with the "standard" (Two-Way) MDS model. Illustrations with both artificial and real data on the judged similarity of nations are provided. (TJH)

  19. On the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ related to extended Euclidean algorithm and continued fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Khairun Nisak; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza

    2016-06-01

    The extended Euclidean Algorithm is a practical technique used in many cryptographic applications, where it computes the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ that always satisfy ri = si a+ tib. The integer ri is the remainder in the ith sequences. The sequences si and ti arising from the extended Euclidean algorithm are equal, up to sign, to the convergents of the continued fraction expansion of a/b. The values of (ri, si, ti) satisfy various properties which are used to solve the shortest vector problem in representing point multiplications in elliptic curves cryptography, namely the GLV (Gallant, Lambert & Vanstone) integer decomposition method and the ISD (integer sub decomposition) method. This paper is to extend the proof for each of the existing properties on (ri, si, ti). We also generate new properties which are relevant to the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ. The concepts of Euclidean algorithm, extended Euclidean algorithm and continued fractions are intertwined and the properties related to these concepts are proved. These properties together with the existing properties of the sequence (ri, si, ti) are regarded as part and parcel of the building blocks of a new generation of an efficient cryptographic protocol.

  20. Usability Evaluation of an Augmented Reality System for Teaching Euclidean Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Gonzalez, Anabel; Chi-Poot, Angel; Uc-Cetina, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the emerging technologies that has demonstrated to be an efficient technological tool to enhance learning techniques. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of an AR system for teaching Euclidean vectors in physics and mathematics. The goal of this pedagogical tool is to facilitate user's…

  1. On the Partitioning of Squared Euclidean Distance and Its Applications in Cluster Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Randy L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The partitioning of squared Euclidean--E(sup 2)--distance between two vectors in M-dimensional space into the sum of squared lengths of vectors in mutually orthogonal subspaces is discussed. Applications to specific cluster analysis problems are provided (i.e., to design Monte Carlo studies for performance comparisons of several clustering methods…

  2. Thinking Outside the Euclidean Box: Riemannian Geometry and Inter-Temporal Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Inter-temporal decisions involves assigning values to various payoffs occurring at different temporal distances. Past research has used different approaches to study these decisions made by humans and animals. For instance, considering that people discount future payoffs at a constant rate (e.g., exponential discounting) or at variable rate (e.g., hyperbolic discounting). In this research, we question the widely assumed, but seldom questioned, notion across many of the existing approaches that the decision space, where the decision-maker perceives time and monetary payoffs, is a Euclidean space. By relaxing the rigid assumption of Euclidean space, we propose that the decision space is a more flexible Riemannian space of Constant Negative Curvature. We test our proposal by deriving a discount function, which uses the distance in the Negative Curvature space instead of Euclidean temporal distance. The distance function includes both perceived values of time as well as money, unlike past work which has considered just time. By doing so we are able to explain many of the empirical findings in inter-temporal decision-making literature. We provide converging evidence for our proposal by estimating the curvature of the decision space utilizing manifold learning algorithm and showing that the characteristics (i.e., metric properties) of the decision space resembles those of the Negative Curvature space rather than the Euclidean space. We conclude by presenting new theoretical predictions derived from our proposal and implications for how non-normative behavior is defined. PMID:27018787

  3. Schwinger-Dyson equations in large-N quantum field theories and nonlinear random processes

    SciTech Connect

    Buividovich, P. V.

    2011-02-15

    We propose a stochastic method for solving Schwinger-Dyson equations in large-N quantum field theories. Expectation values of single-trace operators are sampled by stationary probability distributions of the so-called nonlinear random processes. The set of all the histories of such processes corresponds to the set of all planar diagrams in the perturbative expansions of the expectation values of singlet operators. We illustrate the method on examples of the matrix-valued scalar field theory and the Weingarten model of random planar surfaces on the lattice. For theories with compact field variables, such as sigma models or non-Abelian lattice gauge theories, the method does not converge in the physically most interesting weak-coupling limit. In this case one can absorb the divergences into a self-consistent redefinition of expansion parameters. A stochastic solution of the self-consistency conditions can be implemented as a 'memory' of the random process, so that some parameters of the process are estimated from its previous history. We illustrate this idea on the two-dimensional O(N) sigma model. The extension to non-Abelian lattice gauge theories is discussed.

  4. The rigorous stochastic matrix multiplication scheme for the calculations of reduced equilibrium density matrices of open multilevel quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xin

    2014-04-21

    Understanding the roles of the temporary and spatial structures of quantum functional noise in open multilevel quantum molecular systems attracts a lot of theoretical interests. I want to establish a rigorous and general framework for functional quantum noises from the constructive and computational perspectives, i.e., how to generate the random trajectories to reproduce the kernel and path ordering of the influence functional with effective Monte Carlo methods for arbitrary spectral densities. This construction approach aims to unify the existing stochastic models to rigorously describe the temporary and spatial structure of Gaussian quantum noises. In this paper, I review the Euclidean imaginary time influence functional and propose the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme to calculate reduced equilibrium density matrices (REDM). In addition, I review and discuss the Feynman-Vernon influence functional according to the Gaussian quadratic integral, particularly its imaginary part which is critical to the rigorous description of the quantum detailed balance. As a result, I establish the conditions under which the influence functional can be interpreted as the average of exponential functional operator over real-valued Gaussian processes for open multilevel quantum systems. I also show the difference between the local and nonlocal phonons within this framework. With the stochastic matrix multiplication scheme, I compare the normalized REDM with the Boltzmann equilibrium distribution for open multilevel quantum systems.

  5. Spin-vibronic quantum dynamics for ultrafast excited-state processes.

    PubMed

    Eng, Julien; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Gindensperger, Etienne; Daniel, Chantal

    2015-03-17

    Ultrafast intersystem crossing (ISC) processes coupled to nuclear relaxation and solvation dynamics play a central role in the photophysics and photochemistry of a wide range of transition metal complexes. These phenomena occurring within a few hundred femtoseconds are investigated experimentally by ultrafast picosecond and femtosecond transient absorption or luminescence spectroscopies, and optical laser pump-X-ray probe techniques using picosecond and femtosecond X-ray pulses. The interpretation of ultrafast structural changes, time-resolved spectra, quantum yields, and time scales of elementary processes or transient lifetimes needs robust theoretical tools combining state-of-the-art quantum chemistry and developments in quantum dynamics for solving the electronic and nuclear problems. Multimode molecular dynamics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation has been successfully applied to many small polyatomic systems. Its application to large molecules containing a transition metal atom is still a challenge because of the nuclear dimensionality of the problem, the high density of electronic excited states, and the spin-orbit coupling effects. Rhenium(I) α-diimine carbonyl complexes, [Re(L)(CO)3(N,N)](n+) are thermally and photochemically robust and highly flexible synthetically. Structural variations of the N,N and L ligands affect the spectroscopy, the photophysics, and the photochemistry of these chromophores easily incorporated into a complex environment. Visible light absorption opens the route to a wide range of applications such as sensors, probes, or emissive labels for imaging biomolecules. Halide complexes [Re(X)(CO)3(bpy)] (X = Cl, Br, or I; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) exhibit complex electronic structure and large spin-orbit effects that do not correlate with the heavy atom effects. Indeed, the (1)MLCT → (3)MLCT intersystem crossing (ISC) kinetics is slower than in [Ru(bpy)3](2+) or [Fe(bpy)3](2+) despite the presence of a third-row transition metal

  6. Processing of AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-cascade structures for terahertz laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szerling, Anna; Kosiel, Kamil; Szymański, Michał; Wasilewski, Zbig; Gołaszewska, Krystyna; Łaszcz, Adam; Płuska, Mariusz; Trajnerowicz, Artur; Sakowicz, Maciej; Walczakowski, Michał; Pałka, Norbert; Jakieła, Rafał; Piotrowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We report research results with regard to AlGaAs/GaAs structure processing for THz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs). We focus on the processes of Ti/Au cladding fabrication for metal-metal waveguides and wafer bonding with indium solder. Particular emphasis is placed on optimization of technological parameters for the said processes that result in working devices. A wide range of technological parameters was studied using test structures and the analysis of their electrical, optical, chemical, and mechanical properties performed by electron microscopic techniques, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and circular transmission line method. On that basis, a set of technological parameters was selected for the fabrication of devices lasing at a maximum temperature of 130 K from AlGaAs/GaAs structures grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy. Their resulting threshold-current densities were on a level of 1.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, initial stage research regarding fabrication of Cu-based claddings is reported as these are theoretically more promising than the Au-based ones with regard to low-loss waveguide fabrication for THz QCLs.

  7. Ultrafast Electronic Processes At Semiconductor Polymer Heterojunctions: A Molecular-Level, Quantum-Dynamical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Burghardt, I.; Tamura, H.; Bittner, E. R.

    2009-03-09

    This contribution gives an overview of our recent study of phonon-driven exciton dissociation at semiconductor polymer heterojunctions, using a quantum dynamical analysis based on a linear vibronic coupling model parametrized for three electronic states and 20-30 phonon modes. The decay of the photogenerated exciton towards an interfacial charge transfer state is an ultrafast (femtosecond to picosecond scale) process which initiates the photocurrent generation. We consider several representative interface configurations, which are shown to exhibit an efficient exciton dissociation. The process depends critically on the presence of intermediate states, and on the dynamical interplay between high-frequency (C=C stretch) and low-frequency (ring-torsional) modes. The dynamical mechanism is interpreted in terms of a hierarchical electron-phonon model which allows one to identify generalized reaction coordinates for the nonadiabatic process. This analysis highlights that the electron-phonon coupling is dominated by the high-frequency modes, but the low-frequency modes are crucial in mediating the transition to a charge-separated state. The ultra-fast, highly nonequilibrium dynamics is in accordance with spectroscopic observations.

  8. Ultrafast Electronic Processes At Semiconductor Polymer Heterojunctions: A Molecular-Level, Quantum-Dynamical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghardt, I.; Bittner, E. R.; Tamura, H.

    2009-03-01

    This contribution gives an overview of our recent study of phonon-driven exciton dissociation at semiconductor polymer heterojunctions, using a quantum dynamical analysis based on a linear vibronic coupling model parametrized for three electronic states and 20-30 phonon modes. The decay of the photogenerated exciton towards an interfacial charge transfer state is an ultrafast (femtosecond to picosecond scale) process which initiates the photocurrent generation. We consider several representative interface configurations, which are shown to exhibit an efficient exciton dissociation. The process depends critically on the presence of intermediate states, and on the dynamical interplay between high-frequency (C=C stretch) and low-frequency (ring-torsional) modes. The dynamical mechanism is interpreted in terms of a hierarchical electron-phonon model which allows one to identify generalized reaction coordinates for the nonadiabatic process. This analysis highlights that the electron-phonon coupling is dominated by the high-frequency modes, but the low-frequency modes are crucial in mediating the transition to a charge-separated state. The ultra-fast, highly nonequilibrium dynamics is in accordance with spectroscopic observations.

  9. All-solution-processed PbS quantum dot solar modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jihoon; Shim, Hyung Cheoul; Ju, Yeonkyeong; Song, Jung Hoon; An, Hyejin; Yu, Jong-Su; Kwak, Sun-Woo; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Inyoung; Jeong, Sohee

    2015-05-01

    A rapid increase in power conversion efficiencies in colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been achieved recently with lead sulphide (PbS) QDs by adapting a heterojunction architecture, which consists of small-area devices associated with a vacuum-deposited buffer layer with metal electrodes. The preparation of QD solar modules by low-cost solution processes is required to further increase the power-to-cost ratio. Herein we demonstrate all-solution-processed flexible PbS QD solar modules with a layer-by-layer architecture comprising polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO)/titanium oxide (TiO2)/PbS QD/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)/Ag, with an active area of up to 30 cm2, exhibiting a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.3% under AM 1.5 conditions (PCE of 2.2% for a 1 cm2 unit cell). Our approach affords trade-offs between power and the active area of the photovoltaic devices, which results in a low-cost power source, and which is scalable to larger areas.A rapid increase in power conversion efficiencies in colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been achieved recently with lead sulphide (PbS) QDs by adapting a heterojunction architecture, which consists of small-area devices associated with a vacuum-deposited buffer layer with metal electrodes. The preparation of QD solar modules by low-cost solution processes is required to further increase the power-to-cost ratio. Herein we demonstrate all-solution-processed flexible PbS QD solar modules with a layer-by-layer architecture comprising polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO)/titanium oxide (TiO2)/PbS QD/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)/Ag, with an active area of up to 30 cm2, exhibiting a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.3% under AM 1.5 conditions (PCE of 2.2% for a 1 cm2 unit cell). Our approach affords trade

  10. The Measurement Process in the Generalized Contexts Formalism for Quantum Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, Marcelo; Vanni, Leonardo; Laura, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    In the interpretations of quantum mechanics involving quantum histories there is no collapse postulate and the measurement is considered as a quantum interaction between the measured system and the measured instrument. For two consecutive non ideal measurements on the same system, we prove that both pointer indications at the end of each measurement are compatible properties in our generalized context formalism for quantum histories. Inmediately after the first measurement an effective state for the measured system is deduced from the formalism, generalizing the state that would be obtained by applying the state collapse postulate.

  11. Adiabatically implementing quantum gates

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng Liu, Fang

    2014-06-14

    We show that, through the approach of quantum adiabatic evolution, all of the usual quantum gates can be implemented efficiently, yielding running time of order O(1). This may be considered as a useful alternative to the standard quantum computing approach, which involves quantum gates transforming quantum states during the computing process.

  12. Quantum tunneling with global charge

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K. )

    1994-10-15

    We investigate quantum tunneling in the theory of a complex scalar field with a global U(1) symmetry when the charge density of the initial configuration does not vanish. We discuss the possible final configurations and set up the Euclidean path integral formalism to find the bubble nucleation and to study the bubble evolution. For the stationary path, or the bounce solution, in the Euclidean time, the phase variable becomes pure imaginary so that the charge density remains real. We apply this formalism to examples when the initial charge density is small. While the phase transition considered here occurs in zero temperature, the bubble dynamics is richly complicated, involving conserved charge, the sound wave, and the supersonic bubble wall.

  13. Quantum wormholes and harmonic oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Luis J.

    1993-01-01

    The quantum state of a wormhole can be represented by a path integral over all asymptotically Euclidean four-geometries and all matter fields which have prescribed values, the arguments of the wave function, on a three-surface which divides the space time manifold into two disconnected parts. Minisuperspace models which consist of a homogeneous massless scalar field coupled to a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space time are considered. Once the path integral over the lapse function is performed, the requirement that the space time be asymptotically Euclidean can be accomplished by fixing the asymptotic gravitational momentum in the remaining path integral. It is argued that there does not exist any wave function which corresponds to asymptotic field configurations such that the effective gravitational constant is negative in the asymptotic region. Then, the wormhole wave functions can be written as linear combinations of harmonic oscillator wave functions.

  14. Graviton propagator from background-independent quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2006-10-13

    We study the graviton propagator in Euclidean loop quantum gravity. We use spin foam, boundary-amplitude, and group-field-theory techniques. We compute a component of the propagator to first order, under some approximations, obtaining the correct large-distance behavior. This indicates a way for deriving conventional spacetime quantities from a background-independent theory.

  15. Electron capture and excitation processes in H+‑H collisions in dense quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakimovski, D.; Markovska, N.; Janev, R. K.

    2016-10-01

    Electron capture and excitation processes in proton–hydrogen atom collisions taking place in dense quantum plasmas are studied by employing the two-centre atomic orbital close-coupling (TC-AOCC) method. The Debye–Hückel cosine (DHC) potential is used to describe the plasma screening effects on the Coulomb interaction between charged particles. The properties of a hydrogen atom with DHC potential are investigated as a function of the screening strength of the potential. It is found that the decrease in binding energy of nl levels with increasing screening strength is considerably faster than in the case of the Debye–Hückel (DH) screening potential, appropriate for description of charged particle interactions in weakly coupled classical plasmas. This results in a reduction in the number of bound states in the DHC potential with respect to that in the DH potential for the same plasma screening strength, and is reflected in the dynamics of excitation and electron capture processes for the two screened potentials. The TC-AOCC cross sections for total and state-selective electron capture and excitation cross sections with the DHC potential are calculated for a number of representative screening strengths in the 1–300 keV energy range and compared with those for the DH and pure Coulomb potential. The total capture cross sections for a selected number of screening strengths are compared with the available results from classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations.

  16. General route for the decomposition of InAs quantum dots during the capping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, D.; Reyes, D. F.; Utrilla, A. D.; Ben, T.; Braza, V.; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A.; Ulloa, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of the capping process on the morphology of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) by using different GaAs-based capping layers (CLs), ranging from strain reduction layers to strain compensating layers, has been studied by transmission microscopic techniques. For this, we have measured simultaneously the height and diameter in buried and uncapped QDs covering populations of hundreds of QDs that are statistically reliable. First, the uncapped QD population evolves in all cases from a pyramidal shape into a more homogenous distribution of buried QDs with a spherical-dome shape, despite the different mechanisms implicated in the QD capping. Second, the shape of the buried QDs depends only on the final QD size, where the radius of curvature is function of the base diameter independently of the CL composition and growth conditions. An asymmetric evolution of the QDs’ morphology takes place, in which the QD height and base diameter are modified in the amount required to adopt a similar stable shape characterized by a averaged aspect ratio of 0.21. Our results contradict the traditional model of QD material redistribution from the apex to the base and point to a different universal behavior of the overgrowth processes in self-organized InAs QDs.

  17. Quantum control of a molecular ionization process by using Fourier-synthesized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmura, Hideki; Saito, Naoaki

    2015-11-01

    In photoexcitation processes, if the motion of excited electrons can be precisely steered by the instantaneous electric field of an arbitrary waveform of a Fourier-synthesized laser field, the resultant matter response can be achieved within one optical cycle, usually within the attosecond (1 as =10-18s) regime. Fourier synthesis of laser fields has been achieved in various ways. However, the general use of Fourier-synthesized laser fields for the control of matter is extremely limited. Here, we report the quantum control of a nonlinear response of a molecular ionization process by using Fourier-synthesized laser fields. The directionally asymmetric molecular tunneling ionization induced by intense (5.0 ×1012W /c m2) Fourier-synthesized laser fields consisting of fundamental, second-, third-, and fourth-harmonic light achieves the orientation-selective ionization; we utilized the orientation-selective ionization for measurement of the relative phase differences between the fundamental and each harmonic light. Our findings impact not only light-wave engineering but also the control of matter, possibly triggering the creation and establishment of a new methodology that uses Fourier-synthesized laser fields.

  18. Decoherence of an entangled state of a strongly correlated double quantum dot structure through tunneling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büsser, C. A.; de Vega, I.; Heidrich-Meisner, F.

    2014-11-01

    We consider two quantum dots described by the Anderson-impurity model with one electron per dot. The goal of our work is to study the decay of a maximally entangled state between the two electrons localized in the dots. We prepare the system in a perfect singlet and then tunnel couple one of the dots to leads, which induces nonequilibrium dynamics. We identify two cases: If the leads are subject to a sufficiently large voltage and thus a finite current, then direct-tunneling processes cause decoherence and the entanglement as well as spin correlations decay exponentially fast. At zero voltage or small voltages and beyond the mixed-valence regime, virtual-tunneling processes dominate and lead to a slower loss of coherence. We analyze this problem by studying the real-time dynamics of the spin correlations and the concurrence using two techniques, namely, the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method and a master-equation method. The results from these two approaches are in excellent agreement in the direct-tunneling regime for the case in which the dot is weakly tunnel coupled to the leads. We present a quantitative analysis of the decay rates of the spin correlations and the concurrence as a function of tunneling rate, interaction strength, and voltage.

  19. Accelerating Correlated Quantum Chemistry Calculations Using Graphical Processing Units and a Mixed Precision Matrix Multiplication Library.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Watson, Mark A; Edgar, Richard G; Vogt, Leslie; Shao, Yihan; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2010-01-12

    Two new tools for the acceleration of computational chemistry codes using graphical processing units (GPUs) are presented. First, we propose a general black-box approach for the efficient GPU acceleration of matrix-matrix multiplications where the matrix size is too large for the whole computation to be held in the GPU's onboard memory. Second, we show how to improve the accuracy of matrix multiplications when using only single-precision GPU devices by proposing a heterogeneous computing model, whereby single- and double-precision operations are evaluated in a mixed fashion on the GPU and central processing unit, respectively. The utility of the library is illustrated for quantum chemistry with application to the acceleration of resolution-of-the-identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory calculations for molecules, which we were previously unable to treat. In particular, for the 168-atom valinomycin molecule in a cc-pVDZ basis set, we observed speedups of 13.8, 7.8, and 10.1 times for single-, double- and mixed-precision general matrix multiply (SGEMM, DGEMM, and MGEMM), respectively. The corresponding errors in the correlation energy were reduced from -10.0 to -1.2 kcal mol(-1) for SGEMM and MGEMM, respectively, while higher accuracy can be easily achieved with a different choice of cutoff parameter.

  20. Quantum-Like Model for Decision Making Process in Two Players Game. A Non-Kolmogorovian Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-03-01

    In experiments of games, players frequently make choices which are regarded as irrational in game theory. In papers of Khrennikov (Information Dynamics in Cognitive, Psychological and Anomalous Phenomena. Fundamental Theories of Physics, Kluwer Academic, Norwell, 2004; Fuzzy Sets Syst. 155:4-17, 2005; Biosystems 84:225-241, 2006; Found. Phys. 35(10):1655-1693, 2005; in QP-PQ Quantum Probability and White Noise Analysis, vol. XXIV, pp. 105-117, 2009), it was pointed out that statistics collected in such the experiments have "quantum-like" properties, which can not be explained in classical probability theory. In this paper, we design a simple quantum-like model describing a decision-making process in a two-players game and try to explain a mechanism of the irrational behavior of players. Finally we discuss a mathematical frame of non-Kolmogorovian system in terms of liftings (Accardi and Ohya, in Appl. Math. Optim. 39:33-59, 1999).

  1. Dynamical Processes in Open Quantum Systems from a TDDFT Perspective: Resonances and Electron Photoemission.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth; De Giovannini, Umberto; Rubio, Angel

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of different computational methods to describe time-dependent phenomena in open quantum systems and their extension to a density-functional framework. We focus the discussion on electron emission processes in atoms and molecules addressing excited-state lifetimes and dissipative processes. Initially we analyze the concept of an electronic resonance, a central concept in spectroscopy associated with a metastable state from which an electron eventually escapes (electronic lifetime). Resonances play a fundamental role in many time-dependent molecular phenomena but can be rationalized from a time-independent context in terms of scattering states. We introduce the method of complex scaling, which is used to capture resonant states as localized states in the spirit of usual bound-state methods, and work on its extension to static and time-dependent density-functional theory. In a time-dependent setting, complex scaling can be used to describe excitations in the continuum as well as wave packet dynamics leading to electron emission. This process can also be treated by using open boundary conditions which allow time-dependent simulations of emission processes without artificial reflections at the boundaries (i.e., borders of the simulation box). We compare in detail different schemes to implement open boundaries, namely transparent boundaries using Green functions, and absorbing boundaries in the form of complex absorbing potentials and mask functions. The last two are regularly used together with time-dependent density-functional theory to describe the electron emission dynamics of atoms and molecules. Finally, we discuss approaches to the calculation of energy and angle-resolved time-dependent pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular systems. PMID:25860253

  2. Post-processing Free Quantum Random Number Generator Based on Avalanche Photodiode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Sheng-Kai, Liao; Fu-Tian, Liang; Qi, Shen; Hao, Liang; Cheng-Zhi, Peng

    2016-03-01

    Not Available Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, Shanghai Branch, University of Science and Technology of China, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No 11405172.

  3. Degradation processes in high power multi-mode InGaAs strained quantum well lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Yongkun; Presser, Nathan; Foran, Brendan; Moss, Steven C.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, broad-area InGaAs-AlGaAs strained quantum well (QW) lasers have attracted much attention because of their unparalleled high optical output power characteristics that narrow stripe lasers or tapered lasers can not achieve. However, broad-area lasers suffer from poor beam quality and their high reliability operation has not been proven for communications applications. This paper concerns reliability and degradation aspects of broad-area lasers. Good facet passivation techniques along with optimized structural designs have led to successful demonstration of reliable 980nm single-mode lasers, and the dominant failure mode of both single-mode and broadarea lasers is catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD), which limits maximum output powers and also determines operating output powers. Although broad-area lasers have shown characteristics unseen from singlemode lasers including filamentation, their effects on long-term reliability and degradation processes have not been fully investigated. Filamentation can lead to instantaneous increase in optical power density and thus temperature rise at localized areas through spatial-hole burning and thermal lensing which significantly reduces filament sizes under high power operation, enhancing the COMD process. We investigated degradation processes in commercial MOCVD-grown broad-area InGaAs-AlGaAs strained QW lasers at ~975nm with and without passivation layers by performing accelerated lifetests of these devices followed by failure mode analyses with various micro-analytical techniques. Since instantaneous fluctuations of filaments can lead to faster wear-out of passivation layer thus leading to facet degradation, both passivated and unpassivated broad-area lasers were studied that yielded catastrophic failures at the front facet and also in the bulk. Electron beam induced current technique was employed to study dark line defects (DLDs) generated in degraded lasers stressed under different test conditions and focused

  4. Inverting the Nakanishi Integral Relation for a Bound State Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter Amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederico, T.; Carbonell, J.; Gigante, V.; Karmanov, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    The extraction of the weight function g of the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude is investigated. We studied the numerical inversion of the discretized Nakanishi kernel in the case of an Euclidean bound state. The discretized kernel is regularized by adding the identity operator times a small regularisation parameter {\\varepsilon} to avoid numerically unstabilities. We have found that the weight function g as well as the associated light-front valence wave function are unstable against variation of {\\varepsilon}. These results suggest that the extraction of the Nakanishi weight function from an Euclidean amplitude, is an ill-defined problem. Without further assumptions on the solution or/and without developing more elaborate methods, the Nakanishi weight function, as well as the corresponding light-front valence wave function, cannot be safely determined.

  5. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications.

    PubMed

    Revathy, M; Saravanan, R

    2015-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures. PMID:26065017

  6. Mimicking within Euclidean space a cosmological time dilation of gamma-ray burst durations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    If gamma-ray burst sources are cosmological in origin, then the time dilation at large z can correlate a burst's duration with its peak flux. Detection of this effect is thought by many to be strong evidence for a cosmological burst origin. In this Letter I show that an apparent time distortion--either a dilation or contraction--is generally expected for an ensemble of bursts that is spatially limited within Euclidean space. The appearance of this effect is correlated with the falling away of the log N-log P curve from a -3/2 slope line. An example of this effect is provided by the relativistic bulk motion model, which produces a strong time dilation when spatially limited in Euclidean space. As a consequence, envidence that weak bursts have longer durations than strong bursts is not evidence of a cosmological burst origin.

  7. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications

    PubMed Central

    Revathy, M.; Saravanan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures. PMID:26065017

  8. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications.

    PubMed

    Revathy, M; Saravanan, R

    2015-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures.

  9. Non-Euclidean basis function based level set segmentation with statistical shape prior.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Esmeralda; Reisert, Marco; Bai, Li

    2013-01-01

    We present a new framework for image segmentation with statistical shape model enhanced level sets represented as a linear combination of non-Euclidean radial basis functions (RBFs). The shape prior for the level set is represented as a probabilistic map created from the training data and registered with the target image. The new framework has the following advantages: 1) the explicit RBF representation of the level set allows the level set evolution to be represented as ordinary differential equations and reinitialization is no longer required. 2) The non-Euclidean distance RBFs makes it possible to incorporate image information into the basis functions, which results in more accurate and topologically more flexible solutions. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the method, as well as critical analysis of level sets versus the combination of both methods.

  10. Spatially adaptive log-euclidean polyaffine registration based on sparse matches.

    PubMed

    Taquet, Maxime; Macq, Benoît; Warfield, Simon K

    2011-01-01

    Log-euclidean polyaffine transforms have recently been introduced to characterize the local affine behavior of the deformation in principal anatomical structures. The elegant mathematical framework makes them a powerful tool for image registration. However, their application is limited to large structures since they require the pre-definition of affine regions. This paper extends the polyaffine registration to adaptively fit a log-euclidean polyaffine transform that captures deformations at smaller scales. The approach is based on the sparse selection of matching points in the images and the formulation of the problem as an expectation maximization iterative closest point problem. The efficiency of the algorithm is shown through experiments on inter-subject registration of brain MRI between a healthy subject and patients with multiple sclerosis.

  11. Two-dimensional maximum local variation based on image euclidean distance for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Quanxue; Gao, Feifei; Zhang, Hailin; Hao, Xiu-Juan; Wang, Xiaogang

    2013-10-01

    Manifold learning concerns the local manifold structure of high dimensional data, and many related algorithms are developed to improve image classification performance. None of them, however, consider both the relationships among pixels in images and the geometrical properties of various images during learning the reduced space. In this paper, we propose a linear approach, called two-dimensional maximum local variation (2DMLV), for face recognition. In 2DMLV, we encode the relationships among pixels in images using the image Euclidean distance instead of conventional Euclidean distance in estimating the variation of values of images, and then incorporate the local variation, which characterizes the diversity of images and discriminating information, into the objective function of dimensionality reduction. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  12. Recovering Euclidean structure from principal-axes paralleled conics: applications to camera calibration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zijian; Weng, Ying

    2014-06-01

    We focus on recovering the 2D Euclidean structure further for camera calibration from the projections of N parallel similar conics in this paper. This work demonstrates that the conic dual to the absolute points (CDAP) is the general form of the conic dual to the circular points, so it encodes the 2D Euclidean structure. However, the geometric size of the conic should be known if we utilize the CDAP. Under some special conditions (concentric conics), we proposed the rank-1 and rank-2 constraints. Our work relaxes the problem conditions and gives a more general framework than before. Experiments with simulated and real data are carried out to show the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Geometric properties of the magnetic Laplacian on the Euclidean 4-space

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmierowski, Dominique; Zinoun, Azzouz; Intissar, Ahmed

    2010-12-15

    When the four-dimensional Euclidean space is endowed with a covariant derivative that is either self-dual or antiself-dual and of constant curvature, the corresponding magnetic Laplacian is closely related to the sub-Laplacian of the quaternionic Heisenberg group. Some geometric properties of this operator are studied. In particular, it is proved that there exists a canonical orthogonal complex structure which provides a factorization in the sense of Schroedinger.

  14. A functional technique based on the Euclidean algorithm with applications to 2-D acoustic diffractal diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés-Vega, Luis

    2015-09-01

    We built, based on the Euclidean algorithm, a functional technique, which allows to discover a direct proof of Chinese Remainder Theorem. Afterwards, by using this functional approach, we present some applications to 2-D acoustic diffractal diffusers. The novelty of the method is their functional algorithmic character, which improves ideas, as well as, other results of the author and his collaborators in a previous work.

  15. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Modeling of Enzymatic Processes: Caveats and Breakthroughs.

    PubMed

    Quesne, Matthew G; Borowski, Tomasz; de Visser, Sam P

    2016-02-18

    Nature has developed large groups of enzymatic catalysts with the aim to transfer substrates into useful products, which enables biosystems to perform all their natural functions. As such, all biochemical processes in our body (we drink, we eat, we breath, we sleep, etc.) are governed by enzymes. One of the problems associated with research on biocatalysts is that they react so fast that details of their reaction mechanisms cannot be obtained with experimental work. In recent years, major advances in computational hardware and software have been made and now large (bio)chemical systems can be studied using accurate computational techniques. One such technique is the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) technique, which has gained major momentum in recent years. Unfortunately, it is not a black-box method that is easily applied, but requires careful set-up procedures. In this work we give an overview on the technical difficulties and caveats of QM/MM and discuss work-protocols developed in our groups for running successful QM/MM calculations.

  16. Quantum processes in 8-Oxo-Guanine-Ru(bipyridine)32+ photosynthetic systems of artificial minimal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulis, Arvydas; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Krisciukaitis, Sarunas; Medzevicius, Giedrius

    2011-06-01

    Density functional theory methods were used to investigate various self-assembled photoactive bioorganic systems of interest for artificial minimal cells. The cell systems studied are based on nucleotides or their compounds and consisted of up to 123 atoms (not including the associated water or methanol solvent shells) and are up to 2.5 nm in diameter. The electron correlation interactions responsible for the weak hydrogen and Van derWaals chemical bonds increase due to the addition of a polar solvent (water or methanol). The precursor fatty acid molecules of the system also play a critical role in the quantum mechanical interaction based self-assembly of the photosynthetic center and the functioning of the photosynthetic processes of the artificial minimal cells. The distances between the separated sensitizer, fatty acid precursor, and methanol molecules are comparable to Van derWaals and hydrogen bonding radii. As a result the associated electron correlation interactions compress the overall system, resulting in an even smaller gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) electron energy levels and photoexcited electron tunnelling occurs from the sensitizer (either Ru(bpy)32+ or [Ru(bpy)2(4-Bu-4'-Me-2,2'-bpy)]2++ derivatives) to the precursor fatty acid molecules (notation used: Me = methyl; Bu = butyl; bpy = bipyridine). The shift of the absorption spectrum to the red for the artificial protocell photosynthetic centers might be considered as the measure of the complexity of these systems.

  17. Rare-earth doped transparent ceramics for spectral filtering and quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, Nathalie Goldner, Philippe; Ferrier, Alban; Thiel, Charles W.; Cone, Rufus L.; Ramírez, Mariola O.; Bausá, Luisa E.; Ikesue, Akio

    2015-09-01

    Homogeneous linewidths below 10 kHz are reported for the first time in high-quality Eu{sup 3+} doped Y {sub 2}O{sub 3} transparent ceramics. This result is obtained on the {sup 7}F{sub 0}→{sup 5}D{sub 0} transition in Eu{sup 3+} doped Y {sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics and corresponds to an improvement of nearly one order of magnitude compared to previously reported values in transparent ceramics. Furthermore, we observed spectral hole lifetimes of ∼15 min that are long enough to enable efficient optical pumping of the nuclear hyperfine levels. Additionally, different Eu{sup 3+} concentrations (up to 1.0%) were studied, resulting in an increase of up to a factor of three in the peak absorption coefficient. These results suggest that transparent ceramics can be useful in applications where narrow and deep spectral holes can be burned into highly absorbing lines, such as quantum information processing and spectral filtering.

  18. Coupled-channels quantum theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic processes: fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Diestler, D J

    2012-03-22

    The Born-Oppenheimer (BO) description of electronically adiabatic molecular processes predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (j(e)), =1/2∫dR[Δ(b) (x;R) - Δ(a) (x;R)] even though the electrons certainly move in response to the movement of the nuclei. This article, the first of a pair, proposes a quantum-mechanical "coupled-channels" (CC) theory that allows the approximate extraction of j(e) from the electronically adiabatic BO wave function . The CC theory is detailed for H(2)(+), in which case j(e) can be resolved into components associated with two channels α (=a,b), each of which corresponds to the "collision" of an "internal" atom α (proton a or b plus electron) with the other nucleus β (proton b or a). The dynamical role of the electron, which accommodates itself instantaneously to the motion of the nuclei, is submerged in effective electronic probability (population) densities, Δ(α), associated with each channel (α). The Δ(α) densities are determined by the (time-independent) BO electronic energy eigenfunction, which depends parametrically on the configuration of the nuclei, the motion of which is governed by the usual BO nuclear Schrödinger equation. Intuitively appealing formal expressions for the electronic flux density are derived for H(2)(+).

  19. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Modeling of Enzymatic Processes: Caveats and Breakthroughs.

    PubMed

    Quesne, Matthew G; Borowski, Tomasz; de Visser, Sam P

    2016-02-18

    Nature has developed large groups of enzymatic catalysts with the aim to transfer substrates into useful products, which enables biosystems to perform all their natural functions. As such, all biochemical processes in our body (we drink, we eat, we breath, we sleep, etc.) are governed by enzymes. One of the problems associated with research on biocatalysts is that they react so fast that details of their reaction mechanisms cannot be obtained with experimental work. In recent years, major advances in computational hardware and software have been made and now large (bio)chemical systems can be studied using accurate computational techniques. One such technique is the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) technique, which has gained major momentum in recent years. Unfortunately, it is not a black-box method that is easily applied, but requires careful set-up procedures. In this work we give an overview on the technical difficulties and caveats of QM/MM and discuss work-protocols developed in our groups for running successful QM/MM calculations. PMID:26696271

  20. Two-phonon processes of intraband relaxation in the terahertz regime in quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Wu; Li, Shu-Shen

    2011-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the intraband relaxation of quantum dots in the terahertz regime due to two acoustic phonon scattering by applying a lattice relaxation approach based on the deformation potential coupling between electrons and acoustic phonons. In particular, we find that the relaxation time depends strongly on the ratio of two acoustic phonons. The influences of the energy separation between the ground and first excited state, the quantum dot height, and the lattice temperature on the relaxation time are also discussed. Our theoretical results not only give a reasonable explanation for the current experimental measurement but also provide some insight into two-phonon intraband relaxation in quantum dots.

  1. ETEA: a Euclidean minimum spanning tree-based evolutionary algorithm for multi-objective optimization.

    PubMed

    Li, Miqing; Yang, Shengxiang; Zheng, Jinhua; Liu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    The Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST), widely used in a variety of domains, is a minimum spanning tree of a set of points in space where the edge weight between each pair of points is their Euclidean distance. Since the generation of an EMST is entirely determined by the Euclidean distance between solutions (points), the properties of EMSTs have a close relation with the distribution and position information of solutions. This paper explores the properties of EMSTs and proposes an EMST-based evolutionary algorithm (ETEA) to solve multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). Unlike most EMO algorithms that focus on the Pareto dominance relation, the proposed algorithm mainly considers distance-based measures to evaluate and compare individuals during the evolutionary search. Specifically, in ETEA, four strategies are introduced: (1) An EMST-based crowding distance (ETCD) is presented to estimate the density of individuals in the population; (2) A distance comparison approach incorporating ETCD is used to assign the fitness value for individuals; (3) A fitness adjustment technique is designed to avoid the partial overcrowding in environmental selection; (4) Three diversity indicators-the minimum edge, degree, and ETCD-with regard to EMSTs are applied to determine the survival of individuals in archive truncation. From a series of extensive experiments on 32 test instances with different characteristics, ETEA is found to be competitive against five state-of-the-art algorithms and its predecessor in providing a good balance among convergence, uniformity, and spread.

  2. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED): A New Class of Adaptable Distance Transforms.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Theo E; van den Broek, Egon L

    2014-11-01

    A new unique class of foldable distance transforms of digital images (DT) is introduced, baptized: Fast exact euclidean distance (FEED) transforms. FEED class algorithms calculate the DT starting-directly from the definition or rather its inverse. The principle of FEED class algorithms is introduced, followed by strategies for their efficient implementation. It is shown that FEED class algorithms unite properties of ordered propagation, raster scanning, and independent scanning DT. Moreover, FEED class algorithms shown to have a unique property: they can be tailored to the images under investigation. Benchmarks are conducted on both the Fabbri et al. data set and on a newly developed data set. Three baseline, three approximate, and three state-of-the-art DT algorithms were included, in addition to two implementations of FEED class algorithms. It illustrates that FEED class algorithms i) provide truly exact Euclidean DT; ii) do no suffer from disconnected Voronoi tiles, which is a unique feature for non-parallel but fast DT; iii) outperform any other approximate and exact Euclidean DT with its time complexity O(N), even after their optimization; and iv) are unequaled in that they can be adapted to the characteristics of the image class at hand.

  3. The Colloidal Stabilization of Quantum Dots: Towards Manufacturable, Efficient Solution-Processed Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollny, Lisa

    Understanding colloidal stabilization can influence the design of optoelectronic devices and enable improvements to their performance and stability. For photovoltaics, important characteristics of the active layer material are high conductivity along with a minimum of recombination centers. In order to capitalize on the benefits of solution-processed materials, it is important to minimize the number of processing steps: ideally, to achieve a low-cost solution, materials would be deposited using a single process step compatible with roll-to-roll manufacturing. Prior to this work, the highest-performing colloidal quantum dots (CQD) solar cells have relied on several deposition steps that are repeated in a layer-by-layer (LBL) fashion. The purpose of these process steps has been to remove the long insulating ligands used in synthesis and replace them with short ligands that allow electrical conduction. The large number of steps combined, typically implemented via spin coating, leads to inefficient materials utilization and fails to show a path to a manufacturable solution. In this work, the first CQD solar cells were designed, built, and characterized combining state-of-art performance with scalable manufacture. Firstly, I report the first automated CQD synthesis to result in CQDs that form high-performance CQD solar cells. I analyze the CQD synthesis and by separating it into two phases---nucleation and growth phase---my insights are used to create higher-quality CQDs exhibiting enhanced monodispersity. I then proceed to develop a CQD ink: a CQD solution ready for direct deposition to form a semiconducting film exhibiting low trap state density. In early trials the CQD ink showed only limited power conversion efficiencies of 2%. I designed a new ink strategy, which I term cleavable hemiketal ligands. This novel two-component ligand strategy enables the combination of colloidal stabilization (via this longer two-component ligand) and cleavability (enabling excellent

  4. The perception of minimal structures: performance on open and closed versions of visually presented Euclidean travelling salesperson problems.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Douglas; Bovet, Pierre; Lee, Michael D; Hughes, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The planar Euclidean version of the travelling salesperson problem (TSP) requires finding a tour of minimal length through a two-dimensional set of nodes. Despite the computational intractability of the TSP, people can produce rapid, near-optimal solutions to visually presented versions of such problems. To explain this, MacGregor et al (1999, Perception 28 1417-1428) have suggested that people use a global-to-local process, based on a perceptual tendency to organise stimuli into convex figures. We review the evidence for this idea and propose an alternative, local-to-global hypothesis, based on the detection of least distances between the nodes in an array. We present the results of an experiment in which we examined the relationships between three objective measures and performance measures of optimality and response uncertainty in tasks requiring participants to construct a closed tour or an open path. The data are not well accounted for by a process based on the convex hull. In contrast, results are generally consistent with a locally focused process based initially on the detection of nearest-neighbour clusters. Individual differences are interpreted in terms of a hierarchical process of constructing solutions, and the findings are related to a more general analysis of the role of nearest neighbours in the perception of structure and motion. PMID:12974572

  5. Quantum control limited by quantum decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Fei; Sun, C. P.; Yu, S. X.

    2006-01-15

    We describe quantum controllability under the influences of the quantum decoherence induced by the quantum control itself. It is shown that, when the controller is considered as a quantum system, it will entangle with its controlled system and then cause quantum decoherence in the controlled system. In competition with this induced decoherence, the controllability will be limited by some uncertainty relation in a well-armed quantum control process. In association with the phase uncertainty and the standard quantum limit, a general model is studied to demonstrate the possibility of realizing a decoherence-free quantum control with a finite energy within a finite time. It is also shown that if the operations of quantum control are to be determined by the initial state of the controller, then due to the decoherence which results from the quantum control itself, there exists a low bound for quantum controllability.

  6. Transitivity vs. intransitivity in decision making process - an example in quantum game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Marcin

    2009-06-01

    We compare two different ways of quantum modification in a simple sequential game called Cat's Dilemma in the context of the debate on intransitive and transitive preferences. This kind of analysis can have essential meaning for research on artificial intelligence (some possibilities are discussed). Nature has both transitive and intransitive properties and perhaps quantum models will be more able to capture this dualism than the classical models. We also present an electoral interpretation of the game.

  7. Quantum Correlations and the Measurement Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, Jeffrey

    2014-10-01

    The transition from classical to quantum mechanics rests on the recognition that the structure of information is not what we thought it was: there are operational, i.e., phenomenal, probabilistic correlations that lie outside the polytope of local correlations. Such correlations cannot be simulated with classical resources, which generate classical correlations represented by the points in a simplex, where the vertices of the simplex represent joint deterministic states that are the common causes of the correlations. The `no go' hidden variable theorems tell us that we can't shoe-horn phenomenal correlations outside the local polytope into a classical simplex by supposing that something has been left out of the story. The replacement of the classical simplex by the quantum convex set as the structure representing probabilistic correlations is the analogue for quantum mechanics of the replacement of Newton's Euclidean space and time by Minkowski spacetime in special relativity. The nonclassical features of quantum mechanics, including the irreducible information loss on measurement, are generic features of correlations that lie outside the classical simplex. This paper is an elaboration of these ideas, which have their source in work by Pitowsky (J. Math. Phys. 27:1556, 1986; Math. Program. 50:395, 1991; Phys. Rev. A 77:062109, 2008), Garg and Mermin (Found. Phys. 14:1-39, 1984), Barrett (Phys. Rev. A 75:032304, 2007; Phys. Rev. A 7:022101, 2005) and others, e.g., Brunner et al. (arXiv:1303.2849, 2013), but the literature goes back to Boole (An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, Dover, New York, 1951). The final section looks at the measurement problem of quantum mechanics in this context. A large part of the problem is removed by seeing that the inconsistency in reconciling the entangled state at the end of a quantum measurement process with the definiteness of the macroscopic pointer reading and the definiteness of the correlated value of the measured micro

  8. Will spin-relaxation times in molecular magnets permit quantum information processing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardavan, Arzhang

    2007-03-01

    Certain computational tasks can be efficiently implemented using quantum logic, in which the information-carrying elements are permitted to exist in quantum superpositions. To achieve this in practice, a physical system that is suitable for embodying quantum bits (qubits) must be identified. Some proposed scenarios employ electron spins in the solid state, for example phosphorous donors in silicon, quantum dots, heterostructures and endohedral fullerenes, motivated by the long electron-spin relaxation times exhibited by these systems. An alternative electron-spin based proposal exploits the large number of quantum states and the non-degenerate transitions available in high spin molecular magnets. Although these advantages have stimulated vigorous research in molecular magnets, the key question of whether the intrinsic spin relaxation times are long enough has hitherto remained unaddressed. Using X-band pulsed electron spin resonance, we measure the intrinsic spin-lattice (T1) and phase coherence (T2) relaxation times in molecular nanomagnets for the first time. In Cr7M heterometallic wheels, with M = Ni and Mn, phase coherence relaxation is dominated by the coupling of the electron spin to protons within the molecule. In deuterated samples T2 reaches 3 μs at low temperatures, which is several orders of magnitude longer than the duration of spin manipulations, satisfying a prerequisite for the deployment of molecular nanomagnets in quantum information applications.

  9. Relaxation times of the two-phonon processes with spin-flip and spin-conserving in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zi-Wu; Liu, Lei; Li, Shu-Shen

    2014-04-07

    We perform a theoretical investigation on the two-phonon processes of the spin-flip and spin-conserving relaxation in quantum dots in the frame of the Huang-Rhys' lattice relaxation model. We find that the relaxation time of the spin-flip is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the spin-conserving, which is in agreement with previous experimental measurements. Moreover, the opposite variational trends of the relaxation time as a function of the energy separation for two-phonon processes are obtained in different temperature regime. The relaxation times display the oscillatory behaviors at the demarcation point with increasing magnetic field, where the energy separation matches the optical phonon energy and results in the optical phonon resonance. These results are useful in understanding the intraband levels' relaxation in quantum dots and could be helpful in designing photoelectric and spin-memory devices.

  10. Quantum seismography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas, Salvador

    2016-05-01

    A major scientific thrust from recent years has been to try to harness quantum phenomena to increase the performance of a wide variety of information processing devices. In particular, quantum radar has emerged as an intriguing theoretical concept that could revolutionize electromagnetic standoff sensing. In this paper we will discuss how the techniques developed for quantum radar could also be used towards the design of novel seismographs able to detect small ground vibrations., We use a hypothetical earthquake warning system in order to compare quantum seismography with traditional seismographic techniques.

  11. Quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes associated with adiabatic intramolecular processes.

    PubMed

    Bredtmann, Timm; Diestler, Dennis J; Li, Si-Dian; Manz, Jörn; Pérez-Torres, Jhon Fredy; Tian, Wen-Juan; Wu, Yan-Bo; Yang, Yonggang; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2015-11-28

    An elementary molecular process can be characterized by the flow of particles (i.e., electrons and nuclei) that compose the system. The flow, in turn, is quantitatively described by the flux (i.e., the time-sequence of maps of the rate of flow of particles though specified surfaces of observation) or, in more detail, by the flux density. The quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes (CENFs) associated with electronically adiabatic intramolecular processes is presented. In particular, it is emphasized how the electronic continuity equation can be employed to circumvent the failure of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, which always predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (EFD). It is also shown that all CENFs accompanying coherent tunnelling between equivalent "reactant" and "product" configurations of isolated molecules are synchronous. The theory is applied to three systems of increasing complexity. The first application is to vibrating, aligned H2(+)((2)Σg(+)), or vibrating and dissociating H2(+)((2)Σg(+), J = 0, M = 0). The EFD maps manifest a rich and surprising structure in this simplest of systems; for example, they show that the EFD is not necessarily synchronous with the nuclear flux density and can alternate in direction several times over the length of the molecule. The second application is to coherent tunnelling isomerization in the model inorganic system B4, in which all CENFs are synchronous. The contributions of core and valence electrons to the EFD are separately computed and it is found that core electrons flow with the nuclei, whereas the valence electrons flow obliquely to the core electrons in distinctive patterns. The third application is to the Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, which also involves coherent tunnelling. An especially interesting discovery is that the so-called "pericyclic" electrons do not behave in the manner typically portrayed by the traditional Lewis structures with appended arrows. Indeed, it is

  12. Converting Coherence to Quantum Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jiajun; Yadin, Benjamin; Girolami, Davide; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile

    2016-04-01

    Recent results in quantum information theory characterize quantum coherence in the context of resource theories. Here, we study the relation between quantum coherence and quantum discord, a kind of quantum correlation which appears even in nonentangled states. We prove that the creation of quantum discord with multipartite incoherent operations is bounded by the amount of quantum coherence consumed in its subsystems during the process. We show how the interplay between quantum coherence consumption and creation of quantum discord works in the preparation of multipartite quantum correlated states and in the model of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit.

  13. Converting Coherence to Quantum Correlations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiajun; Yadin, Benjamin; Girolami, Davide; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile

    2016-04-22

    Recent results in quantum information theory characterize quantum coherence in the context of resource theories. Here, we study the relation between quantum coherence and quantum discord, a kind of quantum correlation which appears even in nonentangled states. We prove that the creation of quantum discord with multipartite incoherent operations is bounded by the amount of quantum coherence consumed in its subsystems during the process. We show how the interplay between quantum coherence consumption and creation of quantum discord works in the preparation of multipartite quantum correlated states and in the model of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit.

  14. Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks.

  15. Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks. PMID:26173556

  16. Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks. PMID:26173556

  17. Quantum microbiology.

    PubMed

    Trevors, J T; Masson, L

    2011-01-01

    During his famous 1943 lecture series at Trinity College Dublin, the reknown physicist Erwin Schrodinger discussed the failure and challenges of interpreting life by classical physics alone and that a new approach, rooted in Quantum principles, must be involved. Quantum events are simply a level of organization below the molecular level. This includes the atomic and subatomic makeup of matter in microbial metabolism and structures, as well as the organic, genetic information code of DNA and RNA. Quantum events at this time do not elucidate, for example, how specific genetic instructions were first encoded in an organic genetic code in microbial cells capable of growth and division, and its subsequent evolution over 3.6 to 4 billion years. However, due to recent technological advances, biologists and physicists are starting to demonstrate linkages between various quantum principles like quantum tunneling, entanglement and coherence in biological processes illustrating that nature has exerted some level quantum control to optimize various processes in living organisms. In this article we explore the role of quantum events in microbial processes and endeavor to show that after nearly 67 years, Schrödinger was prophetic and visionary in his view of quantum theory and its connection with some of the fundamental mechanisms of life. PMID:21368338

  18. Spectral methods in quantum field theory and quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giampiero; Fucci, Guglielmo; Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu; Kirsten, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    We review the application of the spectral zeta function to the one-loop properties of quantum field theories on manifolds with boundary, with emphasis on Euclidean quantum gravity and quantum cosmology. As was shown in the literature some time ago, the only boundary conditions that are completely invariant under infinitesimal diffeomorphisms on metric perturbations suffer from a drawback, i.e. lack of strong ellipticity of the resulting boundary-value problem. Nevertheless, at least on the Euclidean 4-ball background, it remains possible to evaluate the ζ(0) value, which describes in this case a universe which, in the limit of small 3-geometry, has vanishing probability of approaching the cosmological singularity. An assessment of this result is performed here, discussing its physical and mathematical implications. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker’s 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.

  19. A Quantum-BDI Model for Information Processing and Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisconti, Cristian; Corallo, Angelo; Fortunato, Laura; Gentile, Antonio A.

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to develop a novel BDI agent programming framework, which embeds the reasoning under uncertainty (probabilistic logic) and is capable of a realistic simulation of human reasoning. We claim that such a development can be addressed through the adoption of the mathematical and logical formalism derived from Quantum Mechanics: a scheme fulfilling the necessary requirements is described, useful for both the interpretation of some peculiarities in human behavior, and eventually the adoption of `quantum computing' formalism for the agent programming. This last possibility could exploit the power of quantum parallelism in practical reasoning applications. Integration with the BDI paradigm enables the straightforward adoption of efficient learning algorithms and procedures, enhancing the behavior and adaptation of the agent to the environment.

  20. Simulation of the Burgers equation by NMR quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhiying; Cory, David G.; Yepez, Jeffrey

    2006-10-15

    We report on the implementation of Burgers equation as a type-II quantum computation on a NMR quantum-information processor. Since the flow field evolving under the Burgers equation develops sharp features over time, this is a better test of liquid-state NMR implementations of type-II quantum computers than the previous examples using the diffusion equation. In particular, we show that Fourier approximations used in the encoding step are not the dominant error. Small systematic errors in the collision operator accumulate and swamp all other errors. We propose, and demonstrate, that the accumulation of this error can be avoided to a large extent by replacing the single collision operator with a set of operators with random errors and similar fidelities. Experiments have been implemented on 16 two-qubit sites for eight successive time steps for the Burgers equation.

  1. Microscopic Modeling of Intersubband Optical Processes in Type II Semiconductor Quantum Wells: Linear Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Kolokolov, Kanstantin I.; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Linear absorption spectra arising from intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum well heterostructures are analyzed using quantum kinetic theory by treating correlations to the first order within Hartree-Fock approximation. The resulting intersubband semiconductor Bloch equations take into account extrinsic dephasing contributions, carrier-longitudinal optical phonon interaction and carrier-interface roughness interaction which is considered with Ando s theory. As input for resonance lineshape calculation, a spurious-states-free 8-band kp Hamiltonian is used, in conjunction with the envelop function approximation, to compute self-consistently the energy subband structure of electrons in type II InAs/AlSb single quantum well structures. We demonstrate the interplay of nonparabolicity and many-body effects in the mid-infrared frequency range for such heterostructures.

  2. Surface processing with sulfonic acid for quantum dot and its characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiohara, Amane; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2006-02-01

    We developed the smaller sized quantum dots covered with sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate which has a sulfonyl group (QDs-SO 3-), and compared its stability in acid, salt and buffer solutions with that of the quantum dots covered with the mercaptoundecanoic acid (QDs-MUA) and covered with the NH II group (QDs-NH II). We found that the QD-SO 3- well disperses in these solutions without quenching and this stability holds on 24 hours. Next, we observed the cell damage caused by the quantum dots. In the evaluation of cell damage, QD-SO 3- did not show noticeable cell damage in the 0.2mg/mL by the comet assay as well as QD-MUA and QD-NH II in the same concentration. All these results could suggest that SO 3- might be useful for the biomedical engineering.

  3. Collective dynamics of solid-state spin chains and ensembles in quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Yuting

    This thesis is concerned with the collective dynamics in different spin chains and spin ensembles in solid-state materials. The focus is on the manipulation of electron spins, through spin-spin and spin-photon couplings controlled by voltage potentials or electromagnetic fields. A brief review of various systems is provided to describe the possible physical implementation of the ideas, and also outlines the basis of the adopted effective interaction models. The first two ideas presented explore the collective behaviour of non-interacting spin chains with external couplings. One focuses on mapping the identical state of spin-singlet pairs in two currents onto two distant, static spins downstream, creating distributed entanglement that may be accessed. The other studies a quantum memory consisting of an array of non-interacting, static spins, which may encode and decode multiple flying spins. Both chains could effectively `enhance' weak couplings in a cumulative fashion, and neither scheme requires active quantum control. Moreover, the distributed entanglement generated can offer larger separation between the qubits than more conventional protocols that only exploit the tunnelling effects between quantum dots. The quantum memory can also `smooth' the statistical fluctuations in the effects of local errors when the stored information is spread. Next, an interacting chain of static spins with nearest-neighbour interactions is introduced to connect distant end spins. Previously, it has been shown that this approach provides a cubic speed-up when compared with the direct coupling between the target spins. The practicality of this scheme is investigated by analysing realistic error effects via numerical simulations, and from that perspective relaxation of the nearest-neighbour assumption is proposed. Finally, a non-interacting electron spin ensemble is reviewed as a quantum memory to store single photons from an on-chip stripline cavity. It is then promoted to a full

  4. Generating superposition of up-to three photons for continuous variable quantum information processing.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miyata, Kazunori; Mizuta, Takahiro; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim; Furusawa, Akira

    2013-03-11

    We develop an experimental scheme based on a continuous-wave (cw) laser for generating arbitrary superpositions of photon number states. In this experiment, we successfully generate superposition states of zero to three photons, namely advanced versions of superpositions of two and three coherent states. They are fully compatible with developed quantum teleportation and measurement-based quantum operations with cw lasers. Due to achieved high detection efficiency, we observe, without any loss correction, multiple areas of negativity of Wigner function, which confirm strongly nonclassical nature of the generated states. PMID:23482124

  5. Toward quantum processing in molecules: a THz-bandwidth coherent memory for light.

    PubMed

    Bustard, Philip J; Lausten, Rune; England, Duncan G; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2013-08-23

    The unusual features of quantum mechanics are enabling the development of technologies not possible with classical physics. These devices utilize nonclassical phenomena in the states of atoms, ions, and solid-state media as the basis for many prototypes. Here we investigate molecular states as a distinct alternative. We demonstrate a memory for light based on storing photons in the vibrations of hydrogen molecules. The THz-bandwidth molecular memory is used to store 100-fs pulses for durations up to ~1 ns, enabling ~10(4) operational time bins. The results demonstrate the promise of molecules for constructing compact ultrafast quantum photonic technologies. PMID:24010439

  6. Toward quantum processing in molecules: a THz-bandwidth coherent memory for light.

    PubMed

    Bustard, Philip J; Lausten, Rune; England, Duncan G; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2013-08-23

    The unusual features of quantum mechanics are enabling the development of technologies not possible with classical physics. These devices utilize nonclassical phenomena in the states of atoms, ions, and solid-state media as the basis for many prototypes. Here we investigate molecular states as a distinct alternative. We demonstrate a memory for light based on storing photons in the vibrations of hydrogen molecules. The THz-bandwidth molecular memory is used to store 100-fs pulses for durations up to ~1 ns, enabling ~10(4) operational time bins. The results demonstrate the promise of molecules for constructing compact ultrafast quantum photonic technologies.

  7. Simplified optical quantum-information processing via weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Qi; Bai Juan; Cheng Liuyong; Wang Hongfu; Zhang Shou; Shao Xiaoqiang

    2011-05-15

    We propose a simplified parity meter for photonic qubits with cross-Kerr nonlinearities, homodyne measurement, and some optical elements. Our scheme has lower error probability than the protocol proposed in Nemoto and Munro [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250502 (2004)]. Based on the present parity meter, we achieve cluster-state preparation, a complete Bell-state analyzer, and quantum teleportation. All of these schemes are nearly deterministic in the regime with little noise and include less optical elements, which makes our schemes more meaningful for large-scale quantum computing.

  8. Multi-metastable states induced by the optical pump-probe process in terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.; Guo, X. G. Wang, C.; Cao, J. C.

    2014-07-14

    The optical pump-probe process in terahertz quantum cascade lasers is studied theoretically by using the open system simulation method. The emitter injection is considered and the charge neutrality in the active region is broken. We find that nonequilibrium oscillations may appear in the recovery processes. In particular, the formation of different equilibrium values of the population change after the periodic pulse pumping is observed clearly. Here, the phenomenon of multi-metastable states stems from the electron regulation by the emitter injection. Finally, we discuss the important impacts of the equilibrium stabilization time and obtain an in-depth understanding of the emitter injection.

  9. Quantum-state storage and processing for polarization qubits in an inhomogeneously broadened {Lambda}-type three-level medium

    SciTech Connect

    Viscor, D.; Ferraro, A.; Mompart, J.; Ahufinger, V.; Loiko, Yu.

    2011-10-15

    We address the propagation of a single-photon pulse with two polarization components, i.e., a polarization qubit, in an inhomogeneously broadened ''phaseonium''{Lambda}-type three-level medium. We combine some of the nontrivial propagation effects characteristic for this kind of coherently prepared systems and the controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening technique to propose several quantum information-processing applications, such as a protocol for polarization qubit filtering and sieving as well as a tunable polarization beam splitter. Moreover, we show that by imposing a spatial variation of the atomic coherence phase, an efficient quantum memory for the incident polarization qubit can be also implemented in {Lambda}-type three-level systems.

  10. Kinetic-quantum chemical model for catalytic cycles: the Haber-Bosch process and the effect of reagent concentration.

    PubMed

    Kozuch, Sebastian; Shaik, Sason

    2008-07-01

    A combined kinetic-quantum chemical model is developed with the goal of estimating in a straightforward way the turnover frequency (TOF) of catalytic cycles, based on the state energies obtained by quantum chemical calculations. We describe how the apparent activation energy of the whole cycle, so-called energetic span (delta E), is influenced by the energy levels of two species: the TOF determining transition state (TDTS) and the TOF determining intermediate (TDI). Because these key species need not be adjoining states, we conclude that for catalysis there are no rate-determining steps, only rate determining states. In addition, we add here the influence of reactants concentrations. And, finally, the model is applied to the Haber-Bosch process of ammonia synthesis, for which we show how to calculate which catalyst will be the most effective under specific reagents conditions.

  11. The co-adaptive neural network approach to the Euclidean Travelling Salesman Problem.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, E M; Beasley, J E

    2003-12-01

    In this paper we consider the Euclidean Travelling Salesman Problem (ETSP). This is the problem of finding the shortest tour around a number of cities where the cities correspond to points in the Euclidean plane and the distances between cities are given by the usual Euclidean distance metric. We present a review of the literature with respect to neural network (NN) approaches for the ETSP, and the computational results that have been reported. Based upon this review we highlight two areas that are, in our judgement, currently neglected/lacking in the literature. These are: failure to make significant use of publicly available ETSP test problems in computational work, failure to address co-operation between neurons. Drawing upon our literature survey this paper presents a new Self-Organising NN approach, called the Co-Adaptive Net, which involves not just unsupervised learning to train neurons, but also allows neurons to co-operate and compete amongst themselves depending on their situation. Our Co-Adaptive Net algorithm also includes a number of algorithmic mechanisms that, based upon our literature review, we consider to have contributed to the computational success of previous algorithms. Results for 91 publicly available standard ETSP's are presented in this paper. The largest of these problems involves 85,900 cities. This paper presents: the most extensive computational evaluation of any NN approach on publicly available ETSP test problems that has been made to date in the literature, a NN approach that performs better, with respect to solution quality and/or computation time, than other NN approaches given previously in the literature. Drawing upon computational results produced as a result of the DIMACS TSP Challenge, we highlight the fact that none of the current NN approaches for the ETSP can compete with state of the art Operations Research heuristics. We discuss why we consider continuing to study and develop NN approaches for the ETSP to be of value.

  12. Self-assembly and photoluminescence evolution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic quantum dots in sol–gel processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping; Matras-Postolek, Katarzyna; Song, Xueling; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Yumeng; Ding, Kun; Nie, Shijie

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) wavelength were assembled into various morphologies including chain, hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures through sol–gel processes. The PL properties during assembly as investigated. - Highlights: • Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized from several ligands. • The evolution of PL in self-assembly via sol–gel processes was investigated. • CdTe QDs were assembled into a chain by controlling hydrolysis and condensation reactions. • Hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures were created via CdSe/ZnS QDs in sol–gel processes. - Abstract: Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) wavelength were synthesized from several ligands to investigate the PL evolution in QD self-assembly via sol–gel processes. After ligand exchange, CdTe QDs were assembled into a chain by controlling the hydrolysis and condensation reaction of 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. The chain was then coated with a SiO{sub 2} shell from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Hollow spheres, fibers, and ring structures were created from CdSe/ZnS QDs via various sol–gel processes. CdTe QDs revealed red-shifted and narrowed PL spectrum after assembly compared with their initial one. In contrast, the red-shift of PL spectra of CdSe/ZnS QDs is small. By optimizing experimental conditions, SiO{sub 2} spheres with multiple CdSe/ZnS QDs were fabricated using TEOS and MPS. The QDs in these SiO{sub 2} spheres retained their initial PL properties. This result is useful for application because of their high stability and high PL efficiency of 33%.

  13. On the measure of conformal difference between Euclidean and Lobachevsky spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorich, Vladimir A.

    2011-12-01

    Euclidean space R^n and Lobachevsky space H^n are known to be not equivalent either conformally or quasiconformally. In this work we give exact asymptotics of the critical order of growth at infinity for the quasiconformality coefficient of a diffeomorphism f\\colon R^n\\to H^n for which such a mapping f is possible. We also consider the general case of immersions f\\colon M^n\\to N^n of conformally parabolic Riemannian manifolds. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  14. Dynamics of Euclideanized Einstein-Yang-Mills systems with arbitrary gauge groups

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolami, O.; Picken, R.F. ); Maurao, J.M. ); Volobujev, I.P. )

    1991-09-30

    This paper describes the dynamics of euclideanized SO(4)-symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) systems with arbitrary compact gauge groups K. For the case of SO(n) and SU(n) gauge groups and simple embeddings of the isotropy group in K, the authors show that in the resulting dynamical system, the Friedmann equation decouples from the Yang-Mills equations. Furthermore, the latter can be reduced to a system of two second-order differential equations. This allows the authors to find a broad class of instanton (wormhole) solutions of the EYM equations. These solutions are not afflicted by the giant-wormhole catastrophe.

  15. Emergence of Euclidean dynamical symmetry as a consequence of shape phase mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budaca, R.; Budaca, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    A hybrid model which combines γ-stable and γ-rigid collective conditions through a rigidity parameter, is used to study the critical point of the phase transition between spherical and axially symmetric shapes. The model in the equally mixed case, called X (4), exhibits properties of the Euclidean symmetry in four dimensions. The spectral properties of the new model are investigated in connection to the exact symmetry. Experimental realisation of the X (4) model is found in two N = 90 nuclei and two Pt isotopes in vicinity of experimentally observed critical point.

  16. Numerical generation of two-dimensional orthogonal curvilinear coordinates in an Euclidean space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warsi, Z. U. A.; Thompson, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    A noniterative method for the numerical generation of orthogonal curvilinear coordinates for plane annular regions between two arbitrary smooth closed curves was developed. The basic generating equation is the Gaussian equation for an Euclidean space which is solved analytically. The method is applied in many cases and these test results demonstrate that the proposed method can be readily applied to a wide variety of problems. The method can also be used for simply connected regions only by obtaining the solution of the linear equation under the changed boundary conditions.

  17. Area Spectrum of Btz Black Holes from the Periodicity in Euclidean Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrañaga, Alexis

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we analyze the area spectrum of BTZ three-dimensional black holes by considering an outgoing wave and relating its period of motion with the period of the gravitational system with respect to Euclidean time. The area spectra obtained for the rotating and non-rotating black holes are equally spaced and it is important to note that in this paper, we do not need to use the small angular momentum assumption which is necessary in the quasinormal mode approach for rotating black holes. The results suggest that the periodicity of the black hole gravitational system may be the origin of area quantization.

  18. Relation between Darboux and type-2 Bishop frames in Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Amine; Özyilmaz, Emin

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we investigate relationships between Darboux and type-2 Bishop frames in Euclidean space. Then, we obtain the geodesic curvature of the spherical image curve of the Darboux vector of the type-2 Bishop frame. Also, we give transition matrix between the Darboux and type-2 Bishop frames of the type-2 Bishop frames of the spherical images of the edges N→1,N→2 and b→. Finally, we express some interesting relations and illustrate of the examples by the aid Maple programe.

  19. Study of the Gribov region in Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the maximal Abelian gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Capri, M. A. L.; Gomez, A. J.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.

    2009-01-15

    The properties of the Gribov region in SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the maximal Abelian gauge are investigated. This region turns out to be bounded in all off-diagonal directions, while it is unbounded along the diagonal one. The soft breaking of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin invariance due to the restriction of the domain of integration in the path integral to the Gribov region is scrutinized. Owing to the unboundedness in the diagonal direction, the invariance with respect to Abelian transformations is preserved, a property which is at the origin of the local U(1) Ward identity of the maximal Abelian gauge.

  20. Better Solar Cells and Manufacturing Processes Using NREL's Ultrafast Quantum Efficiency Method (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    Fact sheet on the FlashQE system, a 2011 R&D 100 Award winner. A solid-state optical system by NREL and Tau Science measures solar cell quantum efficiency in less than a second, enabling a suite of new capabilities for solar cell manufacturers.

  1. Process, System, Causality, and Quantum Mechanics: A Psychoanalysis of Animal Faith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etter, Tom; Noyes, H. Pierre

    We shall argue in this paper that a central piece of modern physics does not really belong to physics at all but to elementary probability theory. Given a joint probability distribution J on a set of random variables containing x and y, define a link between x and y to be the condition x=y on J. Define the {\\it state} D of a link x=y as the joint probability distribution matrix on x and y without the link. The two core laws of quantum mechanics are the Born probability rule, and the unitary dynamical law whose best known form is the Schrodinger's equation. Von Neumann formulated these two laws in the language of Hilbert space as prob(P) = trace(PD) and D'T = TD respectively, where P is a projection, D and D' are (von Neumann) density matrices, and T is a unitary transformation. We'll see that if we regard link states as density matrices, the algebraic forms of these two core laws occur as completely general theorems about links. When we extend probability theory by allowing cases to count negatively, we find that the Hilbert space framework of quantum mechanics proper emerges from the assumption that all D's are symmetrical in rows and columns. On the other hand, Markovian systems emerge when we assume that one of every linked variable pair has a uniform probability distribution. By representing quantum and Markovian structure in this way, we see clearly both how they differ, and also how they can coexist in natural harmony with each other, as they must in quantum measurement, which we'll examine in some detail. Looking beyond quantum mechanics, we see how both structures have their special places in a much larger continuum of formal systems that we have yet to look for in nature.

  2. Multi-resolution Shape Analysis via Non-Euclidean Wavelets: Applications to Mesh Segmentation and Surface Alignment Problems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hwa; Chung, Moo K; Singh, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of 3-D shape meshes is a fundamental problem in computer vision, graphics, and medical imaging. Frequently, the needs of the application require that our analysis take a multi-resolution view of the shape's local and global topology, and that the solution is consistent across multiple scales. Unfortunately, the preferred mathematical construct which offers this behavior in classical image/signal processing, Wavelets, is no longer applicable in this general setting (data with non-uniform topology). In particular, the traditional definition does not allow writing out an expansion for graphs that do not correspond to the uniformly sampled lattice (e.g., images). In this paper, we adapt recent results in harmonic analysis, to derive Non-Euclidean Wavelets based algorithms for a range of shape analysis problems in vision and medical imaging. We show how descriptors derived from the dual domain representation offer native multi-resolution behavior for characterizing local/global topology around vertices. With only minor modifications, the framework yields a method for extracting interest/key points from shapes, a surprisingly simple algorithm for 3-D shape segmentation (competitive with state of the art), and a method for surface alignment (without landmarks). We give an extensive set of comparison results on a large shape segmentation benchmark and derive a uniqueness theorem for the surface alignment problem.

  3. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:22331855

  4. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  5. Coupled-channels quantum theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic processes: application to the hydrogen molecule ion.

    PubMed

    Diestler, D J; Kenfack, A; Manz, J; Paulus, B

    2012-03-22

    This article presents the results of the first quantum simulations of the electronic flux density (j(e)) by the "coupled-channels" (CC) theory, the fundamentals of which are presented in the previous article [Diestler, D. J. J. Phys. Chem. A 2012, DOI: 10.1021/jp207843z]. The principal advantage of the CC scheme is that it employs exclusively standard methods of quantum chemistry and quantum dynamics within the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA). The CC theory goes beyond the BOA in that it yields a nonzero j(e) for electronically adiabatic processes, in contradistinction to the BOA itself, which always gives j(e) = 0. The CC is applied to oriented H(2)(+) vibrating in the electronic ground state ((2)Σ(g)(+)), for which the nuclear and electronic flux densities evolve on a common time scale of about 22 fs per vibrational period. The system is chosen as a touchstone for the CC theory, because it is the only one for which highly accurate flux densities have been calculated numerically without invoking the BOA [Barth et al, Chem. Phys. Lett. 2009, 481, 118]. Good agreement between CC and accurate results supports the CC approach, another advantage of which is that it allows a transparent interpretation of the temporal and spatial properties of j(e).

  6. Quasi-classical fluctuation-dissipation description of dielectric loss in oxides with implications for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Lawrence J.; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Alford, Neil Mcn.; Breeze, Jonathan; Aupi, Xavi; Brändas, Erkki J.

    One of the most important problems in developing devices for quantum computation is the coupling and dissipation of states by thermal noise. We present a study of a two-state electric dipole in a crystal coupling to noise from a reservoir. As a realization of such an energy-dissipating dipole, we report and analyze dielectric loss measurements in single crystal and polycrystalline Al2O3 over the temperature range 70-300 K. We are able to model the dielectric loss in terms of a quasi-classical model that uses the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Two key parameters in this model are the crystal oscillator energy and reservoir-lattice coupling constant. In polycrystalline samples, it is assumed that the main effect of structural disorder is a modification of the spectrum of the thermal phonons, so that acoustical vibrations acquire some optical mode character. The temperature dependence of the linewidth of the high dielectric strength infrared (IR) mode at 438 cm-1 and the quasi-degenerate Raman mode of the k = 0 (418 cm-1) transition are also investigated and are shown to be related simply to the dielectric loss. The model reproduces the unusual temperature dependence of the dielectric loss observed experimentally. The implications for the coupling of quantum mechanical objects to noise and quantum information processing are discussed.

  7. Facial expression recognition based on image Euclidean distance-supervised neighborhood preserving embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Li, Yingjie; Li, Haibin

    2014-11-01

    High-dimensional data often lie on relatively low-dimensional manifold, while the nonlinear geometry of that manifold is often embedded in the similarities between the data points. These similar structures are captured by Neighborhood Preserving Embedding (NPE) effectively. But NPE as an unsupervised method can't utilize class information to guide the procedure of nonlinear dimensionality reduction. They ignore the geometrical structure information of local data points and the spatial information of pixels, which leads to the failure of classification. For this problem, a feature extraction method based on Image Euclidean Distance-Supervised NPE (IED-SNPE) is proposed, and is applied to facial expression recognition. Firstly, it employs Image Euclidean Distance (IED) to characterize the dissimilarity of data points. And then the neighborhood graph of the input data is constructed according to a certain kind of dissimilarity between data points. Finally, it fuses prior nonlinear facial expression manifold of facial expression images and class-label information to extract discriminative features for expression recognition. In the classification experiments on JAFFE facial expression database, IED-SNPE is used for feature extraction and compared with NPE, SNPE, and IED-NPE. The results reveal that IED-SNPE not only the local structure of expression manifold preserves well but also explicitly considers the spatial relationships among pixels in the images. So it excels NPE in feature extraction and is highly competitive with those well-known feature extraction methods.

  8. Human dental arch shape evaluated by euclidean-distance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Tartaglia, G

    1993-04-01

    Form differences between biological structures can be evaluated using several approaches. When landmark data are available, a recently proposed method (euclidean-distance matrix analysis) seems to be able to differentiate between size and shape differences. This method also localizes those areas which differ most between the two structures. We have applied it to analyze the sexual dimorphism in dental arch form in a sample of 50 men and 45 women. Subjects ranged in age between 20 and 27 years, and had sound dentitions. Fourteen landmarks, corresponding to the centers of gravity (centroids) of the occlusal surfaces of all permanent teeth (right second molar to left second molar), were individualized on the dental casts of subjects. All the possible linear distances between pairs of teeth were computed, thus creating four mean form matrices (one for each arch within sex). Gender differences were tested by using euclidean-distance matrix analysis. No significant differences were demonstrated in the shape of arches, while male arches proved to be slightly bigger than female arches.

  9. Quantum-information-processing architecture with endohedral fullerenes in a carbon nanotube

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W. L.; Feng, M.; Xu, Z. Y.; Wei, H.; Suter, D.

    2010-03-15

    A potential quantum-information processor is proposed using an array of the endohedral fullerenes {sup 15}N-C{sub 60} or {sup 31}P-C{sub 60} contained in a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). The qubits are encoded in the nuclear spins of the doped atoms, while the electronic spins are used for initialization and readout, as well as for two-qubit operations.

  10. Resonance structures in the multichannel quantum-defect theory for the photofragmentation processes involving one closed and many open channels

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chun-Woo

    2002-11-01

    The transformation introduced by Giusti-Suzor and Fano, and extended by Lecomte and Ueda, for the study of resonance structures in the multichannel quantum-defect theory (MQDT) is used to reformulate MQDT into the forms having one-to-one correspondence with those in Fano's configuration mixing (CM) theory of resonance for the photofragmentation processes involving one closed and many open channels. The reformulation thus allows MQDT to have the full power of the CM theory, still keeping its own strengths such as the fundamental description of resonance phenomena without an assumption of the presence of a discrete state as in CM.

  11. Accelerating resolution-of-the-identity second-order Møller-Plesset quantum chemistry calculations with graphical processing units.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Leslie; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Kermes, Sean; Shao, Yihan; Amador-Bedolla, Carlos; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2008-03-13

    The modification of a general purpose code for quantum mechanical calculations of molecular properties (Q-Chem) to use a graphical processing unit (GPU) is reported. A 4.3x speedup of the resolution-of-the-identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (RI-MP2) execution time is observed in single point energy calculations of linear alkanes. The code modification is accomplished using the compute unified basic linear algebra subprograms (CUBLAS) library for an NVIDIA Quadro FX 5600 graphics card. Furthermore, speedups of other matrix algebra based electronic structure calculations are anticipated as a result of using a similar approach.

  12. Vanishing current hysteresis under competing nuclear spin pumping processes in a quadruplet spin-blockaded double quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Amaha, S.; Hatano, T.; Tarucha, S.; Gupta, J. A.; Austing, D. G.

    2015-04-27

    We investigate nuclear spin pumping with five-electron quadruplet spin states in a spin-blockaded weakly coupled vertical double quantum dot device. Two types of hysteretic steps in the leakage current are observed on sweeping the magnetic field and are associated with bidirectional polarization of nuclear spin. Properties of the steps are understood in terms of bias-voltage-dependent conditions for the mixing of quadruplet and doublet spin states by the hyperfine interaction. The hysteretic steps vanish when up- and down-nuclear spin pumping processes are in close competition.

  13. Indium incorporation processes investigated by pulsed and continuous growth of ultrathin InGaN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossow, U.; Hoffmann, L.; Bremers, H.; Buß, E. R.; Ketzer, F.; Langer, T.; Hangleiter, A.; Mehrtens, T.; Schowalter, M.; Rosenauer, A.

    2015-03-01

    We study the incorporation of indium into AlxGa1-x N/GaN quantum well (QW) structures with high indium concentrations above 25% for QW thicknesses in the range 2 nm down to half a c-lattice constant under pulsed and continuous growth conditions. We want to clarify which processes limit the incorporation of indium and lead to a degrading layer structure. The data are discussed in the context of the adlayer proposed by theory (Northrup et al., 2000) [1]. The interplay of the adlayer with the incoming flux, the high desorption rate and segregation of indium can consistently explain the various observed phenomena.

  14. Suppression of dark current through barrier engineer for solution-processed colloidal quantum-dots infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zhenyu E-mail: jianxu@engr.psu.edu; Liu, Yan; Mo, Chen; Wang, Li; Atalla, Mahmoud R. M.; Liu, Jie; Kurhade, Kandhar K.; Xu, Jian E-mail: jianxu@engr.psu.edu; Hu, Wenjia; Zhang, Wenjun; You, Guanjun; Zhang, Yu

    2015-08-31

    In an attempt to suppress the dark current, the barrier layer engineer for solution-processed PbSe colloidal quantum-dot (CQD) photodetectors has been investigated in the present study. It was found that the dark current can be significantly suppressed by implementing two types of carrier blocking layers, namely, hole blocking layer and electron blocking layer, sandwiched in between two active PbSe CQD layers. Meanwhile no adverse impact has been observed for the photo current. Our study suggests that this improvement resides on the transport pathway created via carrier recombination at intermediate layer, which provides wide implications for the suppression of dark current for infrared photodetectors.

  15. Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging

    SciTech Connect

    Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh

    2011-03-15

    We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.

  16. A simplified procedure for correcting both errors and erasures of a Reed-Solomon code using the Euclidean algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Eastman, W. L.; Reed, I. S.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that the Euclidean algorithm or its equivalent, continued fractions, can be used to find the error locator polynomial and the error evaluator polynomial in Berlekamp's key equation needed to decode a Reed-Solomon (RS) code. A simplified procedure is developed and proved to correct erasures as well as errors by replacing the initial condition of the Euclidean algorithm by the erasure locator polynomial and the Forney syndrome polynomial. By this means, the errata locator polynomial and the errata evaluator polynomial can be obtained, simultaneously and simply, by the Euclidean algorithm only. With this improved technique the complexity of time domain RS decoders for correcting both errors and erasures is reduced substantially from previous approaches. As a consequence, decoders for correcting both errors and erasures of RS codes can be made more modular, regular, simple, and naturally suitable for both VLSI and software implementation. An example illustrating this modified decoding procedure is given for a (15, 9) RS code.

  17. Diagrammatic quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Louis H.; Lomonaco, Samuel J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper explores how diagrams of quantum processes can be used for modeling and for quantum epistemology. The paper is a continuation of the discussion where we began this formulation. Here we give examples of quantum networks that represent unitary transformations by dint of coherence conditions that constitute a new form of non-locality. Local quantum devices interconnected in space can form a global quantum system when appropriate coherence conditions are maintained.

  18. Quantum state of wormholes and path integral

    SciTech Connect

    Garay, L.J. )

    1991-08-15

    The quantum state of a wormhole can be represented by a path integral over all asymptotically Euclidean four-geometries and all matter fields which have prescribed values, the arguments of the wave function, on a three-surface {ital S} which divides the spacetime manifold into two disconnected parts. The ground-state wave function is picked out by requiring that there be no matter excitations in the asymptotic region. Once the path integrals over the lapse and shift functions are evaluated, the requirement that the spacetime be asymptotically Euclidean can be accomplished by fixing the asymptotic gravitational momentum in the remaining path integral. It is claimed that no wave function exists which corresponds to asymptotic field configurations such that the effective gravitational constant is negative in the asymptotic region. The wormhole wave functions are worked out in minisuperspace models with massless minimal and conformal scalar fields.

  19. Phase retrieval by Euclidean distance in self-calibrating generalized phase-shifting interferometry of three steps.

    PubMed

    Meneses-Fabian, Cruz; Lara-Cortes, Francisco Alejandro

    2015-05-18

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for phase extraction based on the computation of the Euclidean distance from a point to an ellipse. The idea consists in extracting the intensities from a data row or column in three interferograms to form points of intensity and then fitting them to an ellipse by the method of least squares. The Euclidean distance for each intensity point is computed to find a parametric phase whose value is associated to the object phase. The main advantage of the present method is to avoid the use of tangent function, reducing the error in the desired phase computation.

  20. Correlation among genetic, Euclidean, temporal, and herd ownership distances of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease that has a major economic impact for the swine industry. Its control is mostly directed towards preventing its spread which requires a better understanding of the mechanisms of transmission of the virus between herds. The objectives of this study were to describe the genetic diversity and to assess the correlation among genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership to better understand pathways of transmission. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted on sites located in a high density area of swine production in Quebec. Geographical coordinates (longitude/latitude), date of submission and ownership were obtained for each site. ORF5 sequencing was attempted on PRRSV positive sites. Proportion of pairwise combinations of strains having ≥98% genetic homology were analysed according to Euclidean distances and ownership. Correlations between genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership were assessed using Mantel tests on continuous and binary matrices. Sensitivity of the correlations between genetic and Euclidean as well as temporal distances was evaluated for different Euclidean and temporal distance thresholds. An ORF5 sequence was identified for 132 of the 176 (75%) PRRSV positive sites; 122 were wild-type strains. The mean (min-max) genetic, Euclidean and temporal pairwise distances were 11.6% (0–18.7), 15.0 km (0.04-45.7) and 218 days (0–852), respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between genetic and ownership, genetic and Euclidean and between genetic and temporal binary distances. The relationship between genetic and ownership suggests either common sources of animals or semen, employees, technical services or vehicles, whereas that between genetic and Euclidean binary distances is compatible with area spread of the virus. The latter correlation was observed only up to 5 km. Conclusions This study suggests that

  1. Quantum theory of laser cooling: Statistical description of the process dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'enkov, R. Ya.; Prudnikov, O. N.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    The setting time of the stationary distribution over translational degrees of freedom of two-level atoms in the field of a one-dimensional standing light wave is studied. The dependences of this time on the problem parameters such as the light wave intensity, frequency detuning, and atom mass are obtained. Calculations are performed on the basis of the quantum-mechanical equation for the atomic density matrix taking completely into account the recoil and spatial localization effects in an arbitrarily intense light field.

  2. Decoherence processes during optical manipulation of excitonic qubits in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Q.; Muller, A.; Bianucci, P.; Rossi, E.; Xue, Q. K.; Takagahara, T.; Piermarocchi, C.; MacDonald, A. H.; Shih, C. K.

    2005-07-01

    Using photoluminescence spectroscopy, we have investigated the nature of Rabi oscillation damping during optical manipulation of excitonic qubits in self-assembled quantum dots. Rabi oscillations were recorded by varying the pulse amplitude for fixed pulse durations between 4ps and 10ps . Up to five periods are visible, making it possible to quantify the excitation dependent damping. We find that this damping is more pronounced for shorter pulse widths and show that its origin is the nonresonant excitation of carriers in the wetting layer, most likely involving bound-to-continuum and continuum-to-bound transitions.

  3. Quantum Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidar, Daniel A.; Brun, Todd A.

    2013-09-01

    Harold Baranger; 26. Critique of fault-tolerant quantum information processing Robert Alicki; References; Index.

  4. Enhancement of recombination process using silver and graphene quantum dot embedded intermediate layer for efficient organic tandem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Nhu Thuy; Tien, Huynh Ngoc; Jang, Se-Joeng; Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Park, Yun Chang; Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-07-01

    High performance of organic tandem solar cell is largely dependent on transparent and conductive intermediate layer (IML). The current work reports the design and fabrication of an IML using a simple solution process. The efficiency of a homo-tandem device with poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an active layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly(ethylenimine) as an IML was initially found to be 3.40%. Further enhancement of the cell efficiency was achieved using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) of different sizes and graphene quantum dot embedded IML. A maximum efficiency of 4.03% was achieved using 7 nm Ag-NPs that contribute to a better recombination process. Also, the performance of the tandem cell was solely based on the electrical improvements indicated by the current - voltage measurements, external quantum efficiency and impedance analysis. The use of Ag-NPs in the IML has been shown to lengthen the life time of electron-hole pairs in the device. This study thus paves way to develop such efficient IMLs for more efficient tandem solar cells.

  5. Enhancement of recombination process using silver and graphene quantum dot embedded intermediate layer for efficient organic tandem cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Nhu Thuy; Tien, Huynh Ngoc; Jang, Se-Joeng; Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Park, Yun Chang; Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    High performance of organic tandem solar cell is largely dependent on transparent and conductive intermediate layer (IML). The current work reports the design and fabrication of an IML using a simple solution process. The efficiency of a homo-tandem device with poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an active layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly(ethylenimine) as an IML was initially found to be 3.40%. Further enhancement of the cell efficiency was achieved using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) of different sizes and graphene quantum dot embedded IML. A maximum efficiency of 4.03% was achieved using 7 nm Ag-NPs that contribute to a better recombination process. Also, the performance of the tandem cell was solely based on the electrical improvements indicated by the current - voltage measurements, external quantum efficiency and impedance analysis. The use of Ag-NPs in the IML has been shown to lengthen the life time of electron-hole pairs in the device. This study thus paves way to develop such efficient IMLs for more efficient tandem solar cells. PMID:27453530

  6. Enhancement of recombination process using silver and graphene quantum dot embedded intermediate layer for efficient organic tandem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Nhu Thuy; Tien, Huynh Ngoc; Jang, Se-Joeng; Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Park, Yun Chang; Cho, Shinuk; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    High performance of organic tandem solar cell is largely dependent on transparent and conductive intermediate layer (IML). The current work reports the design and fabrication of an IML using a simple solution process. The efficiency of a homo-tandem device with poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester as an active layer and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)/poly(ethylenimine) as an IML was initially found to be 3.40%. Further enhancement of the cell efficiency was achieved using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) of different sizes and graphene quantum dot embedded IML. A maximum efficiency of 4.03% was achieved using 7 nm Ag-NPs that contribute to a better recombination process. Also, the performance of the tandem cell was solely based on the electrical improvements indicated by the current - voltage measurements, external quantum efficiency and impedance analysis. The use of Ag-NPs in the IML has been shown to lengthen the life time of electron-hole pairs in the device. This study thus paves way to develop such efficient IMLs for more efficient tandem solar cells. PMID:27453530

  7. Quantum reduced loop gravity: Semiclassical limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesci, Emanuele; Cianfrani, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    We discuss the semiclassical limit of quantum reduced loop gravity, a recently proposed model to address the quantum dynamics of the early Universe. We apply loop quantum gravity (LQG) techniques in order to define the semiclassical states in the kinematical Hilbert space and we demonstrate that the expectation value of the euclidean scalar constraint coincides with the classical expression, i.e., one of the local Bianchi I dynamics. The result holds as a leading order expansion in the scale factors of the Universe and opens the way to study the subleading corrections to the semiclassical dynamics. We outline how by retaining a suitable finite coordinate length for holonomies that our effective Hamiltonian at the leading order coincides with the one expected from loop quantum cosmology (LQC). This result is an important step in fixing the correspondence between LQG and LQC.

  8. Ultrafast dynamics of many-body processes and fundamental quantum mechanical phenomena in semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Chemla, Daniel S.; Shah, Jagdeep

    2000-01-01

    The large dielectric constant and small effective mass in a semiconductor allows a description of its electronic states in terms of envelope wavefunctions whose energy, time, and length scales are mesoscopic, i.e., halfway between those of atomic and those of condensed matter systems. This property makes it possible to demonstrate and investigate many quantum mechanical, many-body, and quantum kinetic phenomena with tabletop experiments that would be nearly impossible in other systems. This, along with the ability to custom-design semiconductor nanostructures, makes semiconductors an ideal laboratory for experimental investigations. We present an overview of some of the most exciting results obtained in semiconductors in recent years using the technique of ultrafast nonlinear optical spectrocopy. These results show that Coulomb correlation plays a major role in semiconductors and makes them behave more like a strongly interacting system than like an atomic system. The results provide insights into the physics of strongly interacting systems that are relevant to other condensed matter systems, but not easily accessible in other materials. PMID:10716981

  9. High quantum-efficiency photon-number-resolving detector for photonic on-chip information processing.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Brice; Mennea, Paolo L; Lita, Adriana E; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Kolthammer, W Steven; Lamas-Linares, Antia; Spring, Justin B; Humphreys, Peter C; Mirin, Richard P; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R; Walmsley, Ian A; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo

    2013-09-23

    The integrated optical circuit is a promising architecture for the realization of complex quantum optical states and information networks. One element that is required for many of these applications is a high-efficiency photon detector capable of photon-number discrimination. We present an integrated photonic system in the telecom band at 1550 nm based on UV-written silica-on-silicon waveguides and modified transition-edge sensors capable of number resolution and over 40 % efficiency. Exploiting the mode transmission failure of these devices, we multiplex three detectors in series to demonstrate a combined 79 % ± 2 % detection efficiency with a single pass, and 88 % ± 3 % at the operating wavelength of an on-chip terminal reflection grating. Furthermore, our optical measurements clearly demonstrate no significant unexplained loss in this system due to scattering or reflections. This waveguide and detector design therefore allows the placement of number-resolving single-photon detectors of predictable efficiency at arbitrary locations within a photonic circuit - a capability that offers great potential for many quantum optical applications. PMID:24104153

  10. Quantum information and computation

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.H.

    1995-10-01

    A new quantum theory of communication and computation is emerging, in which the stuff transmitted or processed is not classical information, but arbitrary superpositions of quantum states. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  11. ILP, the Blind, and the Elephant: Euclidean Embedding of Co-proven Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hannes; Kersting, Kristian; Karwath, Andreas

    Relational data is complex. This complexity makes one of the basic steps of ILP difficult: understanding the data and results. If the user cannot easily understand it, he draws incomplete conclusions. The situation is very much as in the parable of the blind men and the elephant that appears in many cultures. In this tale the blind work independently and with quite different pieces of information, thereby drawing very different conclusions about the nature of the beast. In contrast, visual representations make it easy to shift from one perspective to another while exploring and analyzing data. This paper describes a method for embedding interpretations and queries into a single, common Euclidean space based on their co-proven statistics. We demonstrate our method on real-world datasets showing that ILP results can indeed be captured at a glance.

  12. Three-frame generalized phase-shifting interferometry by a Euclidean matrix norm algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yawei; Ji, Ying; Han, Hao; Jin, Weifeng

    2016-09-01

    Generalized phase-shifting interferometry (GPSI) is one of the most effective techniques in imaging of a phase object, in which phase retrieval is an essential and important procedure. In this paper, a simple and rapid algorithm for retrieval of the unknown phase shifts in three-frame GPSI is proposed. Using this algorithm, the value of phase shift can be calculated by a determinate formula consisting of three different Euclidean matrix norms of the intensity difference between two phase shifted interferograms, and then the phase can be retrieved easily. The algorithm has the advantages of freeing from the background elimination and less computation, since it only needs three phase-shifted interferograms without no extra measurements, the iterative procedure or the integral transformation. The reliability and accuracy of this algorithm were demonstrated by simulation and experimental results.

  13. Non-perturbative BRST quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in Curci-Ferrari gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, A. D.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we address the issue of the non-perturbative quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. In particular, we construct a refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for this gauge, which takes into account the presence of gauge copies as well as the dynamical formation of dimension-two condensates. This action enjoys a non-perturbative BRST symmetry recently proposed in Capri et al. (Phys. Rev. D 92(4), 045039. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.045039 arXiv:1506.06995 [hep-th], 2015). Finally, we pay attention to the gluon propagator in different space-time dimensions.

  14. Distributed stochastic multi-vehicle routing in the Euclidean plane with no communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrabissa, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for the multi-vehicle routing problem with no communications among the vehicles. The scenario consists in a convex Euclidean mission space, where targets are generated according to a Poisson distribution in time and to a generic continuous spatial distribution. The targets must be visited by the vehicles, which, therefore, must act in coordination. Even if no communications are required, the proposed routing strategy succeeds in effectively partitioning the mission space among the vehicles: at low target generation rates, the algorithm leads to the well-known centroidal Voronoi tessellation, whereas at high target generation rates, simulation results show that it has better performances with respect to a reference algorithm with no communications among vehicles.

  15. New efficient algorithm for the isometric embedding of 2-surface metrics in three dimensional Euclidean space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, Wolfgang; McDonald, Jonathan R.; Miller, Warner A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for the isometric embedding of 2-geometries specified by their 2-metrics in three-dimensional Euclidean space. Our approach is to directly solve the fundamental embedding equation supplemented by six conditions that fix translations and rotations of the embedded surface. This set of equations is discretized by means of a pseudospectral collocation point method. The resulting nonlinear system of equations are then solved by a Newton-Raphson scheme. We explain our numerical algorithm in detail. By studying several examples we show that our method converges provided we start the Newton-Raphson scheme from a suitable initial guess. Our novel method is very efficient for smooth 2-metrics.

  16. Finite Size and Dimensional Dependence in the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percus, Allon G.; Martin, Olivier C.

    1996-02-01

    We consider the Euclidean traveling salesman problem for N cities randomly distributed in the unit d-dimensional hypercube, and investigate the finite size scaling of the mean optimal tour length LE. With toroidal boundary conditions we find, motivated by a remarkable universality in the kth nearest neighbor distribution, that LE\\(d = 2\\) = \\(0.7120+/-0.0002\\) N1/2 [1+O\\(1/N\\)] and LE\\(d = 3\\) = \\(0.6979+/-0.0002\\) N2/3[1+O\\(1/N\\)]. We then consider a mean-field approach in the limit N-->∞ which we find to be a good approximation (the error being less than 2.1% at d = 1,2, and 3), and which suggests that LE\\(d\\) = N1-1/dd/2πe \\(πd\\)1/2d[1+O\\(1/d\\)] at large d.

  17. Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of Using a Web 2.0 Technology as a Supportive Teaching-Learning Tool in a College Euclidean Geometry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Md. Mokter

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined preservice secondary mathematics teachers' perceptions of a blogging activity used as a supportive teaching-learning tool in a college Euclidean Geometry course. The effect of a 12-week blogging activity that was a standard component of a college Euclidean Geometry course offered for preservice secondary…

  18. Introduction to Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekert, A.

    A computation is a physical process. It may be performed by a piece of electronics or on an abacus, or in your brain, but it is a process that takes place in nature and as such it is subject to the laws of physics. Quantum computers are machines that rely on characteristically quantum phenomena, such as quantum interference and quantum entanglement in order to perform computation. In this series of lectures I want to elaborate on the computational power of such machines.

  19. Quasi-minimal Lorentz surfaces with pointwise 1-type Gauss map in pseudo-Euclidean 4-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milousheva, Velichka; Turgay, Nurettin Cenk

    2016-08-01

    A Lorentz surface in the four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space with neutral metric is called quasi-minimal if its mean curvature vector is lightlike at each point. In the present paper we obtain the complete classification of quasi-minimal Lorentz surfaces with pointwise 1-type Gauss map.

  20. Controlling atomistic processes on Pb films via quantum size effects and lattice rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Binz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The two main techniques used to record the data in this dissertation were Spot Profile Analysis - Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). A specific data analysis technique for LEED data called G(S) curves is described in depth. G(S) curves can provide a great deal of structural information about the surface; including step heights, island size, and island separation. The effects of quantum size effects (QSE) on the diffusion and critical island sizes of Pb and In on Pb films are reported. Pb depositions on the 2D In phases {radical}3 and {radical}31 to see how the phases affect the Pb growth and its strong QSE are reported.

  1. Quantum analysis of optical parametric fluorescence in the optical parametric amplification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bopeng; Zou, Xubo; Jing, Feng

    2015-07-01

    The temporal contrast of the ultra-intense laser pulse can be degraded by optical parametric fluorescence (OPF) in high-gain and pulse-pumped optical parametric amplification (OPA). However, to the best of our knowledge, no theory is proposed to describe the quantum noise in such conditions from the first principle. In this paper, we propose a theory based on the quantization of energy flux and a linearization method for investigating both lasers and the OPF in high-gain and pulse-pumped OPA. Following the proposal, the amplification of laser is consistent with classical nonlinear optics. Moreover, an analytical formula of OPF energy is obtained under undepleted and quasi-monochromatic pump conditions. A simplified formula is also obtained under the assumption of small spectral width and acceptant solid angle. Furthermore, a formula of the OPF duration is obtained with a Gaussian pump pulse. Excellent consistency is achieved between previous experiments and our theory.

  2. Photoinduced electron donor/acceptor processes in colloidal II-VI semiconductor quantum dots and nitroxide free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Poulami

    Electron transfer (ET) processes are one of the most researched topics for applications ranging from energy conversion to catalysis. An exciting variation is utilizing colloidal semiconductor nanostructures to explore such processes. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as a novel class of light harvesting, emitting and charge-separation materials for applications such as solar energy conversion. Detailed knowledge of the quantitative dissociation of the photogenerated excitons and the interfacial charge- (electron/hole) transfer is essential for optimization of the overall efficiency of many such applications. Organic free radicals are the attractive counterparts for studying ET to/from QDs because these undergo single-electron transfer steps in reversible fashion. Nitroxides are an exciting class of stable organic free radicals, which have recently been demonstrated to be efficient as redox mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells, making them even more interesting for the aforementioned studies. This dissertation investigates the interaction between nitroxide free radicals TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), 4-amino-TEMPO (4-amino- 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and II-VI semiconductor (CdSe and CdTe) QDs. The nature of interaction in these hybrids has been examined through ground-state UV-Vis absorbance, steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, transient absorbance, upconversion photoluminescence spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The detailed analysis of the PL quenching indicates that the intrinsic charge transfer is ultrafast however, the overall quenching is still limited by the lower binding capacities and slower diffusion related kinetics. Careful analysis of the time resolved PL decay kinetics reveal that the decay rate constants are distributed and that the trap states are involved in the overall quenching process. The ultrafast hole transfer from CdSe QDs to 4-Amino TEMPO observed

  3. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF2 radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, M.; Lang, N.; Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E.; Buchholtz, W.; Röpcke, J.; van Helden, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF2 radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF2 radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm-1. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν3 fundamental band of CF2 with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF2 radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

  4. Evidence for asymptotic safety from lattice quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Laiho, J; Coumbe, D

    2011-10-14

    We calculate the spectral dimension for nonperturbative quantum gravity defined via Euclidean dynamical triangulations. We find that it runs from a value of ∼3/2 at short distance to ∼4 at large distance scales, similar to results from causal dynamical triangulations. We argue that the short-distance value of 3/2 for the spectral dimension may resolve the tension between asymptotic safety and the holographic principle.

  5. Two-slit experiment: quantum and classical probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    Inter-relation between quantum and classical probability models is one of the most fundamental problems of quantum foundations. Nowadays this problem also plays an important role in quantum technologies, in quantum cryptography and the theory of quantum random generators. In this letter, we compare the viewpoint of Richard Feynman that the behavior of quantum particles cannot be described by classical probability theory with the viewpoint that quantum-classical inter-relation is more complicated (cf, in particular, with the tomographic model of quantum mechanics developed in detail by Vladimir Man'ko). As a basic example, we consider the two-slit experiment, which played a crucial role in quantum foundational debates at the beginning of quantum mechanics (QM). In particular, its analysis led Niels Bohr to the formulation of the principle of complementarity. First, we demonstrate that in complete accordance with Feynman's viewpoint, the probabilities for the two-slit experiment have the non-Kolmogorovian structure, since they violate one of basic laws of classical probability theory, the law of total probability (the heart of the Bayesian analysis). However, then we show that these probabilities can be embedded in a natural way into the classical (Kolmogorov, 1933) probability model. To do this, one has to take into account the randomness of selection of different experimental contexts, the joint consideration of which led Feynman to a conclusion about the non-classicality of quantum probability. We compare this embedding of non-Kolmogorovian quantum probabilities into the Kolmogorov model with well-known embeddings of non-Euclidean geometries into Euclidean space (e.g., the Poincaré disk model for the Lobachvesky plane).

  6. Non-linear optical processes involving excited subbands in laser-dressed quantum wires with triangular cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, A.; Duque, C. A.

    2015-08-01

    The conduction subband structure of a triangular cross-section GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well wire under intense laser field is theoretically investigated by taking into account a finite confining potential. The calculation of the subband energy levels is based on a two-dimensional finite element method within the effective mass approximation. It is shown that a transversally polarized laser field non-uniformly shifts the subband energy levels and could be used for tuning the intersubband transitions and altering the related optical susceptibilities. We found that the non-resonant laser field allows the magnification and the red- or blueshift of the third-order non-linear susceptibility peaks for particular polarizations of the pump light and proper laser parameter values. The effects of the laser dressing field on the intersubband third harmonic generation and quadratic electro-optical process are discussed.

  7. Euclidean Closed Linear Transformations of Complex Spacetime and generally of Complex Spaces of dimension four endowed with the Same or Different Metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias

    2016-08-01

    Relativity Theory and the corresponding Relativistic Quantum Mechanics are the fundamental theories of physics. Special Relativity (SR) relates the frames of Relativistic Inertial observers (RIOs), through Linear Spacetime Transformation (LSTT) of linear spacetime. Classic Special Relativity uses real spacetime endowed with Lorentz metric and the frames of two RIOs with parallel spatial axes are always related through Lorentz Boost (LB). This cancels the transitive attribute in parallelism, when three RIOs are related, because LB is not closed transformation, causing Thomas Rotation. In this presentation, we consider closed LSTT of Complex Spacetime, so there is no necessity for spatial axes rotation and all the frames are chosen having parallel spatial axes. The solution is expressed by a 4x4 matrix (Λ) containing components of the complex velocity of one Observer wrt another and two functions depended by the metric of Spacetime. Demanding isometric transformation, it emerges a class of metrics that are in accordance with the closed LSTT and the transformation matrix contains one parameter ω depended by the metric of Spacetime. In case that we relate RIOs with steady metric, it emerges one steady number (ωI ) depended by the metric of Spacetime of the specific SR. If ωI is an imaginary number, the elements of the Λ are complex numbers, so the corresponding spacetime is necessarily complex and there exists real Universal Speed (UI). The specific value ωI =±i gives Vossos transformation (VT) endowed with Lorentz metric (for gii=1) of complex spacetime and invariant spacetime interval (or equivalently invariant speed of light in vacuum), which produce the theory of Euclidean Complex Relativistic Mechanics (ECRMs). If ωI is a real number (ωI #0) the elements of the Λ are real numbers, so the corresponding spacetime is real, but there exist imaginary UI. The specific value ωI =0 gives Galileo Transformation (GT) with the invariant time, in which any other

  8. A multiplexed quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Lan, S-Y; Radnaev, A G; Collins, O A; Matsukevich, D N; Kennedy, T A; Kuzmich, A

    2009-08-01

    A quantum repeater is a system for long-distance quantum communication that employs quantum memory elements to mitigate optical fiber transmission losses. The multiplexed quantum memory (O. A. Collins, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060502 (2007)) has been shown theoretically to reduce quantum memory time requirements. We present an initial implementation of a multiplexed quantum memory element in a cold rubidium gas. We show that it is possible to create atomic excitations in arbitrary memory element pairs and demonstrate the violation of Bell's inequality for light fields generated during the write and read processes.

  9. Planarized process for resonant leaky-wave coupled phase-locked arrays of mid-IR quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Kirch, J. D.; Boyle, C.; Sigler, C.; Mawst, L. J.; Botez, D.; Zutter, B.; Buelow, P.; Schulte, K.; Kuech, T.; Earles, T.

    2015-03-01

    On-chip resonant leaky-wave coupling of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) emitting at 8.36 μm has been realized by selective regrowth of interelement layers in curved trenches, defined by dry and wet etching. The fabricated structure provides large index steps (Δn = 0.10) between antiguided-array element and interelement regions. In-phase-mode operation to 5.5 W front-facet emitted power in a near-diffraction-limited far-field beam pattern, with 4.5 W in the main lobe, is demonstrated. A refined fabrication process has been developed to produce phased-locked antiguided arrays of QCLs with planar geometry. The main fabrication steps in this process include non-selective regrowth of Fe:InP in interelement trenches, defined by inductive-coupled plasma (ICP) etching, a chemical polishing (CP) step to planarize the surface, non-selective regrowth of interelement layers, ICP selective etching of interelement layers, and non-selective regrowth of InP cladding layer followed by another CP step to form the element regions. This new process results in planar InGaAs/InP interelement regions, which allows for significantly improved control over the array geometry and the dimensions of element and interelement regions. Such a planar process is highly desirable to realize shorter emitting wavelength (4.6 μm) arrays, where fabrication tolerance for single-mode operation are tighter compared to 8 μm-emitting devices.

  10. Theoretical Study of the Inverting Mechanism in a Processive Cellobiohydrolase with Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Payne, C. M.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Hypocrea jecorina Family 6 cellobiohydrolase (Cel6A) is one of most efficient enzymes for cellulose deconstruction to soluble sugars and is thus of significant current interest for the growing biofuels industry. Cel6A is known to hydrolyze b(1,4)-glycosidic linkages in cellulose via an inverting mechanism, but there are still questions that remain regarding the role of water and the catalytic base. Here we study the inverting, single displacement, hydrolytic reaction mechanism in Cel6A using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The computational model used to follow the reaction is a truncated active site model with several explicit waters based on structural studies of H. jecorina Cel6A. Proposed mechanisms are evaluated with several density functionals. From our calculations, the role of the water in nucleophilic attack on the anomeric carbon, and the roles of several residues in the active site loops are elucidated explicitly for the first time. We also apply quantum mechanical calculations to understand the proton transfer reaction which completes the catalytic cycle.

  11. Is the Chain of Oxidation and Reduction Process Reversible in Luminescent Graphene Quantum Dots?

    PubMed

    Jang, Min-Ho; Ha, Hyun Dong; Lee, Eui-Sup; Liu, Fei; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Graphene-based quantum dots (QDs) have received a tremendous amount of attention as a new type of light-emitting materials. However, their luminescence origins remain controversial due to extrinsic states of the impurities and disorder structures. Especially, the function of oxygen-contents should be understood and controlled as a crucial element for tuning the optical properties of graphene-based QDs. Herein, a series of graphene oxide QDs (GOQDs) with different amounts of oxygen-contents are first synthesized via a direct oxidation route of graphite nanoparticle and thoroughly compared with a series of reduced GOQDs (rGOQDs) prepared by the conventional chemical reduction. Irreversible emission and different carrier dynamics are observed between the GOQDs and rGOQDs, although both routes show a similar tendency with regard to the variation of oxygen-functional components. Their luminescence mechanisms are closely associated with different atomic structures. The mechanism for the rGOQDs can be associated with a formation of small sp(2) nanodomains as luminescent centers, whereas those of GOQDs may be composed of oxygen-islands with difference sizes depending on oxidation conditions surrounded by a large area of sp(2) bonding. Important insights for understanding the optical properties of graphene-based QDs and how they are affected by oxygen-functional groups are shown.

  12. Determination of lung segments in computed tomography images using the Euclidean distance to the pulmonary artery

    SciTech Connect

    Stoecker, Christina; Moltz, Jan H.; Lassen, Bianca; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Welter, Stefan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) imaging is the modality of choice for lung cancer diagnostics. With the increasing number of lung interventions on sublobar level in recent years, determining and visualizing pulmonary segments in CT images and, in oncological cases, reliable segment-related information about the location of tumors has become increasingly desirable. Computer-assisted identification of lung segments in CT images is subject of this work.Methods: The authors present a new interactive approach for the segmentation of lung segments that uses the Euclidean distance of each point in the lung to the segmental branches of the pulmonary artery. The aim is to analyze the potential of the method. Detailed manual pulmonary artery segmentations are used to achieve the best possible segment approximation results. A detailed description of the method and its evaluation on 11 CT scans from clinical routine are given.Results: An accuracy of 2–3 mm is measured for the segment boundaries computed by the pulmonary artery-based method. On average, maximum deviations of 8 mm are observed. 135 intersegmental pulmonary veins detected in the 11 test CT scans serve as reference data. Furthermore, a comparison of the presented pulmonary artery-based approach to a similar approach that uses the Euclidean distance to the segmental branches of the bronchial tree is presented. It shows a significantly higher accuracy for the pulmonary artery-based approach in lung regions at least 30 mm distal to the lung hilum.Conclusions: A pulmonary artery-based determination of lung segments in CT images is promising. In the tests, the pulmonary artery-based determination has been shown to be superior to the bronchial tree-based determination. The suitability of the segment approximation method for application in the planning of segment resections in clinical practice has already been verified in experimental cases. However, automation of the method accompanied by an evaluation on a larger

  13. Quantum computing and probability.

    PubMed

    Ferry, David K

    2009-11-25

    Over the past two decades, quantum computing has become a popular and promising approach to trying to solve computationally difficult problems. Missing in many descriptions of quantum computing is just how probability enters into the process. Here, we discuss some simple examples of how uncertainty and probability enter, and how this and the ideas of quantum computing challenge our interpretations of quantum mechanics. It is found that this uncertainty can lead to intrinsic decoherence, and this raises challenges for error correction.

  14. Graphene quantum dots as a highly efficient solution-processed charge trapping medium for organic nano-floating gate memory.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yongsung; Kim, Juhan; Cha, An-Na; Lee, Sang-A; Lee, Myung Woo; Suh, Jung Sang; Bae, Sukang; Moon, Byung Joon; Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Dong Su; Wang, Gunuk; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2016-04-01

    A highly efficient solution-processible charge trapping medium is a prerequisite to developing high-performance organic nano-floating gate memory (NFGM) devices. Although several candidates for the charge trapping layer have been proposed for organic memory, a method for significantly increasing the density of stored charges in nanoscale layers remains a considerable challenge. Here, solution-processible graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were prepared by a modified thermal plasma jet method; the GQDs were mostly composed of carbon without any serious oxidation, which was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These GQDs have multiple energy levels because of their size distribution, and they can be effectively utilized as charge trapping media for organic NFGM applications. The NFGM device exhibited excellent reversible switching characteristics, with an on/off current ratio greater than 10(6), a stable retention time of 10(4) s and reliable cycling endurance over 100 cycles. In particular, we estimated that the GQDs layer trapped ∼7.2 × 10(12) cm(-2) charges per unit area, which is a much higher density than those of other solution-processible nanomaterials, suggesting that the GQDs layer holds promise as a highly efficient nanoscale charge trapping material. PMID:26905768

  15. Full quantum treatment of spin-dependent beam-beam processes at linear colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartin, Anthony

    2011-05-01

    Depolarisation processes at future linear colliders need to be understood as precisely as possible. To that end a theoretical consideration of the spin flip process and its radiative corrections is presented here. The spin flip process contains a divergence and it is useful to repeat the calculation of its transition rate using a coordinate system which makes the physical nature of the divergence apparent. It is argued that the radiative corrections to the spin flip process should be considered within the Furry Picture. The Electron Self Energy in the external field is being explicitly re-examined in order to establish the presence of UV divergences and the procedure required to remove them. A calculation of the Vertex Correction in an external field is being performed and results obtained so far for special kinematics are consistent with known results.

  16. Tests of quantum chromodynamics in exclusive e sup + e sup minus and. gamma. gamma. processes

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1989-09-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: Factorization theorem for exclusive processes; Electromagnetic form factors of baryons; Suppression of final state interactions; The {gamma}{pi}{sub 0} Transition form factor; Exclusive charmonium decays; The {pi}-{rho} puzzle; Time-like compton processes; Multi-hadron production; Heavy Quark exclusive states and form factor zeros in QCD; Exclusive {gamma}{gamma} reactions; Higher twist effects; and Tauonium and threshold {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup {minus}} production. 41 refs., 15 figs. (LSP)

  17. Quantum probabilities for inflation from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Hartle, James B.; Hawking, S.W.; Hertog, Thomas E-mail: S.W.Hawking@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the universe is determined by its quantum state. The wave function of the universe obeys the constraints of general relativity and in particular the Wheeler-DeWitt equation (WDWE). For non-zero Λ, we show that solutions of the WDWE at large volume have two domains in which geometries and fields are asymptotically real. In one the histories are Euclidean asymptotically anti-de Sitter, in the other they are Lorentzian asymptotically classical de Sitter. Further, the universal complex semiclassical asymptotic structure of solutions of the WDWE implies that the leading order in h-bar quantum probabilities for classical, asymptotically de Sitter histories can be obtained from the action of asymptotically anti-de Sitter configurations. This leads to a promising, universal connection between quantum cosmology and holography.

  18. Quantum fields and poisson processes II: Interaction of boson-boson and boson-fermion fields with a cut-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, J.; Gaveau, B.; Rideau, G.

    1985-05-01

    Quantum field evolutions are written as expectation values with respect to Poisson processes in two simple models: interaction of two boson fields (with conservation of the number of particles in one field) and interaction of a boson with a fermion field. The introduction of a cut-off ensures that the expectation values are well-defined.

  19. Realism vs. Constructivism in Contemporary Physics: The Impact of the Debate on the Understanding of Quantum Theory and Its Instructional Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Hadzidaki, Pandora

    2005-01-01

    In the present study we attempt to incorporate the philosophical dialogue about physical reality into the instructional process of quantum mechanics. Taking into account that both scientific realism and constructivism represent, on the basis of a rather broad spectrum, prevalent philosophical currents in the domain of science education, the…

  20. Quantum Walk Schemes for Universal Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Michael S.

    Random walks are a powerful tool for the efficient implementation of algorithms in classical computation. Their quantum-mechanical analogues, called quantum walks, hold similar promise. Quantum walks provide a model of quantum computation that has recently been shown to be equivalent in power to the standard circuit model. As in the classical case, quantum walks take place on graphs and can undergo discrete or continuous evolution, though quantum evolution is unitary and therefore deterministic until a measurement is made. This thesis considers the usefulness of continuous-time quantum walks to quantum computation from the perspectives of both their fundamental power under various formulations, and their applicability in practical experiments. In one extant scheme, logical gates are effected by scattering processes. The results of an exhaustive search for single-qubit operations in this model are presented. It is shown that the number of distinct operations increases exponentially with the number of vertices in the scattering graph. A catalogue of all graphs on up to nine vertices that implement single-qubit unitaries at a specific set of momenta is included in an appendix. I develop a novel scheme for universal quantum computation called the discontinuous quantum walk, in which a continuous-time quantum walker takes discrete steps of evolution via perfect quantum state transfer through small 'widget' graphs. The discontinuous quantum-walk scheme requires an exponentially sized graph, as do prior discrete and continuous schemes. To eliminate the inefficient vertex resource requirement, a computation scheme based on multiple discontinuous walkers is presented. In this model, n interacting walkers inhabiting a graph with 2n vertices can implement an arbitrary quantum computation on an input of length n, an exponential savings over previous universal quantum walk schemes. This is the first quantum walk scheme that allows for the application of quantum error correction

  1. Non-standard symmetries and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, Anca; Visinescu, Mihai

    2008-08-31

    Quantum anomalies are investigated on curved spacetimes. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard symmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. The axial anomaly in a background gravitational field is directly related with the index of the Dirac operator. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space.

  2. O(N) model in Euclidean de Sitter space: beyond the leading infrared approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacir, Diana López; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; Trombetta, Leonardo G.

    2016-09-01

    We consider an O( N) scalar field model with quartic interaction in d-dimensional Euclidean de Sitter space. In order to avoid the problems of the standard perturbative calculations for light and massless fields, we generalize to the O( N) theory a systematic method introduced previously for a single field, which treats the zero modes exactly and the nonzero modes perturbatively. We compute the two-point functions taking into account not only the leading infrared contribution, coming from the self-interaction of the zero modes, but also corrections due to the interaction of the ultraviolet modes. For the model defined in the corresponding Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime, we obtain the two-point functions by analytical continuation. We point out that a partial resummation of the leading secular terms (which necessarily involves nonzero modes) is required to obtain a decay at large distances for massless fields. We implement this resummation along with a systematic double expansion in an effective coupling constant √{λ } and in 1 /N . We explicitly perform the calculation up to the next-to-next-to-leading order in √{λ } and up to next-to-leading order in 1 /N . The results reduce to those known in the leading infrared approximation. We also show that they coincide with the ones obtained directly in Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime in the large N limit, provided the same renormalization scheme is used.

  3. Programs for kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation with locally varying anisotropy using non-Euclidean distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Jeff B.; Deutsch, Clayton V.

    2011-04-01

    Geological deposits display nonlinear features such as veins, channels or folds that result in complex spatial anisotropies that are difficult to model with currently available geostatistical techniques. The methodology presented in this paper for incorporating locally varying anisotropy in kriging or sequential Gaussian simulation is based on modifying how locations in space are related. Normally, the straight line path is used; however, when nonlinear features exist the appropriate path between locations follows along the features. The Dijkstra algorithm is used to determine the shortest path/distance between locations and a conventional covariance or variogram function is used. This nonlinear path is a non-Euclidean distance metric and positive definiteness of the resulting kriging system of equations is not guaranteed. Multidimensional scaling (landmark isometric mapping) is used to ensure positive definiteness. In addition to the variogram, the only parameters required for the implementation of kriging or sequential Gaussian simulation with locally varying anisotropy are (1) the local orientation and magnitude of anisotropy and (2) the number of dimensions required for multidimensional scaling. This paper presents a suite of programs that can be used to krige or simulate practically sized geostatistical models with locally varying anisotropy. The programs kt3d_LVA, SGS_LVA and gamv_LVA are provided.

  4. a Euclidean Formulation of Interior Orientation Costraints Imposed by the Fundamental Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisperakis, I.; Karras, G.; Petsa, E.

    2016-06-01

    Epipolar geometry of a stereopair can be expressed either in 3D, as the relative orientation (i.e. translation and rotation) of two bundles of optical rays in case of calibrated cameras or, in case of unclalibrated cameras, in 2D as the position of the epipoles on the image planes and a projective transformation that maps points in one image to corresponding epipolar lines on the other. The typical coplanarity equation describes the first case; the Fundamental matrix describes the second. It has also been proven in the Computer Vision literature that 2D epipolar geometry imposes two independent constraints on the parameters of camera interior orientation. In this contribution these constraints are expressed directly in 3D Euclidean space by imposing the equality of the dihedral angle of epipolar planes defined by the optical axes of the two cameras or by suitably chosen corresponding epipolar lines. By means of these constraints, new closed form algorithms are proposed for the estimation of a variable or common camera constant value given the fundamental matrix and the principal point position of a stereopair.

  5. Dental arch asymmetry in young healthy human subjects evaluated by Euclidean distance matrix analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Miani, A; Serrao, G

    1993-03-01

    Form differences between biological structures can be evaluated using several approaches. A recently proposed method (Euclidean distance matrix analysis; EDMA) seems to be able to differentiate between size and shape differences. Here it has been applied to study the asymmetry of mandibular and maxillary arches in 50 men and 45 women with sound dentitions. The centres of gravity (centroids) of the occlusal surfaces of all permanent teeth (right second molar to left second molar) were individualized on the dental casts of subjects. The form of the right and left maxillary and mandibular hemi-arches was separately assessed by calculating all the possible linear distances between pairs of teeth within arch and side. Side differences were tested by EDMA. In men, the maxillary and the mandibular arches were both symmetrical (i.e. there were no significant differences in size or shape between the left and right hemi-arches). In women, the mandibular arch was symmetrical, but in the maxillary arch the two antimeres had a significantly different shape. No size differences were found between the left and right female hemi-arches.

  6. Non-Hermitian systems of Euclidean Lie algebraic type with real energy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sanjib; Fring, Andreas; Mathanaranjan, Thilagarajah

    2014-07-01

    We study several classes of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems, which can be expressed in terms of bilinear combinations of Euclidean-Lie algebraic generators. The classes are distinguished by different versions of antilinear (PT)-symmetries exhibiting various types of qualitative behaviour. On the basis of explicitly computed non-perturbative Dyson maps we construct metric operators, isospectral Hermitian counterparts for which we solve the corresponding time-independent Schrödinger equation for specific choices of the coupling constants. In these cases general analytical expressions for the solutions are obtained in the form of Mathieu functions, which we analyze numerically to obtain the corresponding energy spectra. We identify regions in the parameter space for which the corresponding spectra are entirely real and also domains where the PT symmetry is spontaneously broken and sometimes also regained at exceptional points. In some cases it is shown explicitly how the threshold region from real to complex spectra is characterized by the breakdown of the Dyson maps or the metric operator. We establish the explicit relationship to models currently under investigation in the context of beam dynamics in optical lattices.

  7. Euclidean geodesic loops on high-genus surfaces applied to the morphometry of vestibular systems.

    PubMed

    Xin, Shi-Qing; He, Ying; Fu, Chi-Wing; Wang, Defeng; Lin, Shi; Chu, Winnie C W; Cheng, Jack C Y; Gu, Xianfeng; Lui, Lok Ming

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm to extract feature landmarks on the vestibular system (VS), for the analysis of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) disease. AIS is a 3-D spinal deformity commonly occurred in adolescent girls with unclear etiology. One popular hypothesis was suggested to be the structural changes in the VS that induce the disturbed balance perception, and further cause the spinal deformity. The morphometry of VS to study the geometric differences between the healthy and AIS groups is of utmost importance. However, the VS is a genus-3 structure situated in the inner ear. The high-genus topology of the surface poses great challenge for shape analysis. In this work, we present a new method to compute exact geodesic loops on the VS. The resultant geodesic loops are in Euclidean metric, thus characterizing the intrinsic geometric properties of the VS based on the real background geometry. This leads to more accurate results than existing methods, such as the hyperbolic Ricci flow method. Furthermore, our method is fully automatic and highly efficient, e.g., one order of magnitude faster than. We applied our algorithm to the VS of normal and AIS subjects. The promising experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our method and reveal more statistically significant shape difference in the VS between right-thoracic AIS and normal subjects.

  8. Multi-resolutional brain network filtering and analysis via wavelets on non-Euclidean space.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hwa; Adluru, Nagesh; Chung, Moo K; Charchut, Sylvia; GadElkarim, Johnson J; Altshuler, Lori; Moody, Teena; Kumar, Anand; Singh, Vikas; Leow, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    Advances in resting state fMRI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) have led to much interest in studies that evaluate hypotheses focused on how brain connectivity networks show variations across clinically disparate groups. However, various sources of error (e.g., tractography errors, magnetic field distortion, and motion artifacts) leak into the data, and make downstream statistical analysis problematic. In small sample size studies, such noise have an unfortunate effect that the differential signal may not be identifiable and so the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Traditionally, smoothing is often used to filter out noise. But the construction of convolving with a Gaussian kernel is not well understood on arbitrarily connected graphs. Furthermore, there are no direct analogues of scale-space theory for graphs--ones which allow to view the signal at multiple resolutions. We provide rigorous frameworks for performing 'multi-resolutional' analysis on brain connectivity graphs. These are based on the recent theory of non-Euclidean wavelets. We provide strong evidence, on brain connectivity data from a network analysis study (structural connectivity differences in adult euthymic bipolar subjects), that the proposed algorithm allows identifying statistically significant network variations, which are clinically meaningful, where classical statistical tests, if applied directly, fail.

  9. Confidence analysis of standard deviational ellipse and its extension into higher dimensional euclidean space.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shi, Wenzhong; Miao, Zelang

    2015-01-01

    Standard deviational ellipse (SDE) has long served as a versatile GIS tool for delineating the geographic distribution of concerned features. This paper firstly summarizes two existing models of calculating SDE, and then proposes a novel approach to constructing the same SDE based on spectral decomposition of the sample covariance, by which the SDE concept is naturally generalized into higher dimensional Euclidean space, named standard deviational hyper-ellipsoid (SDHE). Then, rigorous recursion formulas are derived for calculating the confidence levels of scaled SDHE with arbitrary magnification ratios in any dimensional space. Besides, an inexact-newton method based iterative algorithm is also proposed for solving the corresponding magnification ratio of a scaled SDHE when the confidence probability and space dimensionality are pre-specified. These results provide an efficient manner to supersede the traditional table lookup of tabulated chi-square distribution. Finally, synthetic data is employed to generate the 1-3 multiple SDEs and SDHEs. And exploratory analysis by means of SDEs and SDHEs are also conducted for measuring the spread concentrations of Hong Kong's H1N1 in 2009.

  10. Quantum abacus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Taksu; Tsutsui, Izumi; Fülöp, Tamás

    2004-09-01

    We show that the point interactions on a line can be utilized to provide U(2) family of qubit operations for quantum information processing. Qubits are realized as states localized in either side of the point interaction which represents a controllable gate. The qubit manipulation proceeds in a manner analogous to the operation of an abacus.

  11. Noisy cooperative intermittent processes: From blinking quantum dots to human consciousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Bedini, Remo; Gemignani, Angelo; Fronzoni, Leone

    2011-07-01

    We study the superposition of a non-Poisson renewal process with the presence of a superimposed Poisson noise. The non-Poisson renewals mark the passage between meta-stable states in system with self-organization. We propose methods to measure the amount of information due to the two independent processes independently, and we see that a superficial study based on the survival probabilities yield stretched-exponential relaxations. Our method is in fact able to unravel the inverse-power law relaxation of the isolated non-Poisson processes, even when noise is present. We provide examples of this behavior in system of diverse nature, from blinking nano-crystals to weak turbulence. Finally we focus our discussion on events extracted from human electroencephalograms, and we discuss their connection with emerging properties of integrated neural dynamics, i.e. consciousness.

  12. Euclidean distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses of multi-day auditory event-related potentials: a longitudinal stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durato, M. V.; Albano, A. M.; Rapp, P. E.; Nawang, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    The validity of ERPs as indices of stable neurophysiological traits is partially dependent on their stability over time. Previous studies on ERP stability, however, have reported diverse stability estimates despite using the same component scoring methods. This present study explores a novel approach in investigating the longitudinal stability of average ERPs—that is, by treating the ERP waveform as a time series and then applying Euclidean Distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses to evaluate the similarity or dissimilarity between the ERP time series of different sessions or run pairs. Nonlinear dynamical analysis show that in the absence of a change in medical condition, the average ERPs of healthy human adults are highly longitudinally stable—as evaluated by both the Euclidean distance and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.

  13. The effects of post-processing on the surface and the optical properties of copper indium sulfide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Akdas, Tugce; Distaso, Monica; Kuhri, Susanne; Winter, Benjamin; Birajdar, Balaji; Spiecker, Erdmann; Guldi, Dirk M; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    In the current contribution we report on investigations regarding the surface of CuInS2 quantum dots and on different strategies to control the amount of surface ligands in a post-processing step. In particular, the reactivity of the organic components, that is, 1-dodecanthiol and 1-octadecene as ligand and solvent, respectively, during nanocrystal formation was studied. A new method to remove residuals from the reaction mixture and to detach excess organics from the surface of the nanocrystals is reported. Our new method, which is based on the utilization of acids, is compared with standard purification procedures by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with particular focus on its efficiency to remove organics. As a complement, the surface chemistry is analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to shed light on the nature of the organic components still present after purification. Further analysis of the product by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) is performed to verify the influence of the new purification method on surface composition and properties. Moreover, steady state and time resolved spectroscopies give insights into excitonic behavior as well as recombination processes. Finally, the new method is optimized for the purification of CuInS2-ZnS nanocrystals, which show enhanced optical properties. PMID:25643961

  14. Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.; Horodecki, Michał

    2016-04-01

    Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics.

  15. Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Fernando G S L; Harrow, Aram W; Horodecki, Michał

    2016-04-29

    Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics. PMID:27176509

  16. Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Fernando G S L; Harrow, Aram W; Horodecki, Michał

    2016-04-29

    Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics.

  17. Soft learning vector quantization and clustering algorithms based on non-Euclidean norms: single-norm algorithms.

    PubMed

    Karayiannis, Nicolaos B; Randolph-Gips, Mary M

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents the development of soft clustering and learning vector quantization (LVQ) algorithms that rely on a weighted norm to measure the distance between the feature vectors and their prototypes. The development of LVQ and clustering algorithms is based on the minimization of a reformulation function under the constraint that the generalized mean of the norm weights be constant. According to the proposed formulation, the norm weights can be computed from the data in an iterative fashion together with the prototypes. An error analysis provides some guidelines for selecting the parameter involved in the definition of the generalized mean in terms of the feature variances. The algorithms produced from this formulation are easy to implement and they are almost as fast as clustering algorithms relying on the Euclidean norm. An experimental evaluation on four data sets indicates that the proposed algorithms outperform consistently clustering algorithms relying on the Euclidean norm and they are strong competitors to non-Euclidean algorithms which are computationally more demanding.

  18. Quantum coherence down the wormhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1987-09-01

    It is shown that pure quantum states will appear to decay into mixed states in any theory of quantum gravity that allows the topology of spacetime to be non simply connected. The reason is that the final state may contain little closed universes. There is no way one can detect the existence of these closed universes, or measure their quantum state. This means that the part of the final state that is in asymptotically flat spacetime, appears to be in a mixed state. The loss of quantum coherence in particle collisions is estimated. It comes from a wormhole connecting two asymptotically euclidean regions. The effect would be significant for scalar particles. It would make any scalar field that was not coupled to a Yang-Mills field constant throughout spacetime. It could have an important effect on Higgs particles but the effect would be small for particles of higher spin. I am grateful to Raymond Laflamme for checking my calculations and to Sidney Coleman for discussions. Further details will be published elsewhere.

  19. Pictures of Processes: Automated Graph Rewriting for Monoidal Categories and Applications to Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Bhupendra

    nanowire morphology of the p-Si photocathode on the homogeneous catalytic reduction of CO2 by using p-Si/Re-catalyst junction are also described in this dissertation. For phenyl ethyl modified p-Si photocathode, the rate of homogeneous catalysis for CO2 reduction by Re-catalyst is three times greater than glassy carbon electrode and six times greater than the hexyl modified and the hydrogen terminated p-Si photocathodes. When hexyl modified p-Si nanowires are used as photocathode, the homogeneous catalytic current density increased by a factor of two compared to planar p-Si (both freshly etched and hexyl modified) photocathode. A successful light assisted generation of syngas (H2:CO = 2:1) from CO2 and water is achieved by using p-Si/Re-catalyst. In this system, water is reduced heterogeneously on p-Si surface and CO2 is reduced homogeneously by Re-catalyst. The same principle is extended to the homogeneous proton reduction by using p-Si/[FeFe] complex junction where [FeFe] complex [Fe2(micro-bdt)(CO) 6] (bdt = benzene-1,2-dithiolate)] is a proton reduction molecular catalyst. A short circuit quantum efficiency of 79 % with 100 % Faradaic efficiency and 600 mV open circuit are achieved by using p-Si/[FeFe] complex for proton reduction with 300 mM perchloric acid as a proton source. Cobalt difluororyl-diglyoximate (Co-catalyst) is a proton reduction catalyst with only 200 mV of overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HRE). The Co-catalyst is photoelectrochemically reduced with a photovoltage of 470 mV on illuminated p-Si photocathode. For p-Si photocathodes, the overpotential for proton reduction is over 1 V. In principle, p-Si/Co-catalyst junction can reduce proton to hydrogen homogeneously at underpotential. In a concluding effort, a wireless monolithic dual face single photoelectrode (multi junction photovoltaic cell which can generate a voltage higher 1.7 V) based photochemical cell is proposed for direct conversion of solar energy into liquid fuel. In this

  20. Adiabatic topological quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesare, Chris; Landahl, Andrew J.; Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.; Neels, Alice

    2015-07-01

    Topological quantum computing promises error-resistant quantum computation without active error correction. However, there is a worry that during the process of executing quantum gates by braiding anyons around each other, extra anyonic excitations will be created that will disorder the encoded quantum information. Here, we explore this question in detail by studying adiabatic code deformations on Hamiltonians based on topological codes, notably Kitaev's surface codes and the more recently discovered color codes. We develop protocols that enable universal quantum computing by adiabatic evolution in a way that keeps the energy gap of the system constant with respect to the computation size and introduces only simple local Hamiltonian interactions. This allows one to perform holonomic quantum computing with these topological quantum computing systems. The tools we develop allow one to go beyond numerical simulations and understand these processes analytically.

  1. Rare-earth-doped materials with application to optical signal processing, quantum information science, and medical imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, R. L.; Thiel, C. W.; Sun, Y.; Böttger, Thomas; Macfarlane, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Unique spectroscopic properties of isolated rare earth ions in solids offer optical linewidths rivaling those of trapped single atoms and enable a variety of recent applications. We design rare-earth-doped crystals, ceramics, and fibers with persistent or transient "spectral hole" recording properties for applications including high-bandwidth optical signal processing where light and our solids replace the high-bandwidth portion of the electronics; quantum cryptography and information science including the goal of storage and recall of single photons; and medical imaging technology for the 700-900 nm therapeutic window. Ease of optically manipulating rare-earth ions in solids enables capturing complex spectral information in 105 to 108 frequency bins. Combining spatial holography and spectral hole burning provides a capability for processing high-bandwidth RF and optical signals with sub-MHz spectral resolution and bandwidths of tens to hundreds of GHz for applications including range-Doppler radar and high bandwidth RF spectral analysis. Simply stated, one can think of these crystals as holographic recording media capable of distinguishing up to 108 different colors. Ultra-narrow spectral holes also serve as a vibration-insensitive sub-kHz frequency reference for laser frequency stabilization to a part in 1013 over tens of milliseconds. The unusual properties and applications of spectral hole burning of rare earth ions in optical materials are reviewed. Experimental results on the promising Tm3+:LiNbO3 material system are presented and discussed for medical imaging applications. Finally, a new application of these materials as dynamic optical filters for laser noise suppression is discussed along with experimental demonstrations and theoretical modeling of the process.

  2. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. II. Bipartite systems, physical processes, and heterodyne squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    Extending the scheme developed for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in the preceding paper [

    F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033812 (2004)
    ], we introduce two-mode nonlinear canonical transformations depending on two heterodyne mixing angles. They are defined in terms of Hermitian nonlinear functions that realize heterodyne superpositions of conjugate quadratures of bipartite systems. The canonical transformations diagonalize a class of Hamiltonians describing nondegenerate and degenerate multiphoton processes. We determine the coherent states associated with the canonical transformations, which generalize the nondegenerate two-photon squeezed states. Such heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states are defined as the simultaneous eigenstates of the transformed, coupled annihilation operators. They are generated by nonlinear unitary evolutions acting on two-mode squeezed states. They are non-Gaussian, highly nonclassical, entangled states. For a quadratic nonlinearity the heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states define two-mode cubic phase states. The statistical properties of these states can be widely adjusted by tuning the heterodyne mixing angles, the phases of the nonlinear couplings, as well as the strength of the nonlinearity. For quadratic nonlinearity, we study the higher-order contributions to the susceptibility in nonlinear media and we suggest possible experimental realizations of multiphoton conversion processes generating the cubic-phase heterodyne squeezed states.

  3. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. II. Bipartite systems, physical processes, and heterodyne squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    Extending the scheme developed for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in the preceding paper [F. Dell'Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033812 (2004)], we introduce two-mode nonlinear canonical transformations depending on two heterodyne mixing angles. They are defined in terms of Hermitian nonlinear functions that realize heterodyne superpositions of conjugate quadratures of bipartite systems. The canonical transformations diagonalize a class of Hamiltonians describing nondegenerate and degenerate multiphoton processes. We determine the coherent states associated with the canonical transformations, which generalize the nondegenerate two-photon squeezed states. Such heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states are defined as the simultaneous eigenstates of the transformed, coupled annihilation operators. They are generated by nonlinear unitary evolutions acting on two-mode squeezed states. They are non-Gaussian, highly nonclassical, entangled states. For a quadratic nonlinearity the heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states define two-mode cubic phase states. The statistical properties of these states can be widely adjusted by tuning the heterodyne mixing angles, the phases of the nonlinear couplings, as well as the strength of the nonlinearity. For quadratic nonlinearity, we study the higher-order contributions to the susceptibility in nonlinear media and we suggest possible experimental realizations of multiphoton conversion processes generating the cubic-phase heterodyne squeezed states.

  4. Quantum computing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Shen; Long, Gui-Lu; Bai, Feng-Shan; Feng, Song-Lin; Zheng, Hou-Zhi

    2001-01-01

    Quantum computing is a quickly growing research field. This article introduces the basic concepts of quantum computing, recent developments in quantum searching, and decoherence in a possible quantum dot realization. PMID:11562459

  5. New family of tilings of three-dimensional Euclidean space by tetrahedra and octahedra.

    PubMed

    Conway, John H; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-07-01

    It is well known that two regular tetrahedra can be combined with a single regular octahedron to tile (complete fill) three-dimensional Euclidean space . This structure was called the "octet truss" by Buckminster Fuller. It was believed that such a tiling, which is the Delaunay tessellation of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice, and its closely related stacking variants, are the only tessellations of that involve two different regular polyhedra. Here we identify and analyze a unique family comprised of a noncountably infinite number of periodic tilings of whose smallest repeat tiling unit consists of one regular octahedron and six smaller regular tetrahedra. We first derive an extreme member of this unique tiling family by showing that the "holes" in the optimal lattice packing of octahedra, obtained by Minkowski over a century ago, are congruent tetrahedra. This tiling has 694 distinct concave (i.e., nonconvex) repeat units, 24 of which possess central symmetry, and hence is distinctly different and combinatorically richer than the fcc tetrahedra-octahedra tiling, which only has two distinct tiling units. Then we construct a one-parameter family of octahedron packings that continuously spans from the fcc to the optimal lattice packing of octahedra. We show that the "holes" in these packings, except for the two extreme cases, are tetrahedra of two sizes, leading to a family of periodic tilings with units composed four small tetrahedra and two large tetrahedra that contact an octahedron. These tilings generally possess 2,068 distinct concave tiling units, 62 of which are centrally symmetric.

  6. New family of tilings of three-dimensional Euclidean space by tetrahedra and octahedra

    PubMed Central

    Conway, John H.; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that two regular tetrahedra can be combined with a single regular octahedron to tile (complete fill) three-dimensional Euclidean space . This structure was called the “octet truss” by Buckminster Fuller. It was believed that such a tiling, which is the Delaunay tessellation of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice, and its closely related stacking variants, are the only tessellations of that involve two different regular polyhedra. Here we identify and analyze a unique family comprised of a noncountably infinite number of periodic tilings of whose smallest repeat tiling unit consists of one regular octahedron and six smaller regular tetrahedra. We first derive an extreme member of this unique tiling family by showing that the “holes” in the optimal lattice packing of octahedra, obtained by Minkowski over a century ago, are congruent tetrahedra. This tiling has 694 distinct concave (i.e., nonconvex) repeat units, 24 of which possess central symmetry, and hence is distinctly different and combinatorically richer than the fcc tetrahedra-octahedra tiling, which only has two distinct tiling units. Then we construct a one-parameter family of octahedron packings that continuously spans from the fcc to the optimal lattice packing of octahedra. We show that the “holes” in these packings, except for the two extreme cases, are tetrahedra of two sizes, leading to a family of periodic tilings with units composed four small tetrahedra and two large tetrahedra that contact an octahedron. These tilings generally possess 2,068 distinct concave tiling units, 62 of which are centrally symmetric. PMID:21690370

  7. A convenient method of preparing gene vector for real time monitoring transfection process based on the quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Li; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Li, Xiang-Yong; Wan, Min; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Rong-Ying; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► An easy and direct way to prepare QDs–DNA complexes was developed. ► Surface charge of QDs was tuned with different ratio of amino and glycolate. ► Transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface zeta potentials of QDs. ► Cellular toxicity of this gene vectors is much lower than commercial liposome. ► Whole intracellular behavior of QDs–DNA complexes can be monitored in real time. -- Abstract: Nanoparticle carrier has been developed by combining water-soluble quantum dots and plasmid DNA expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a convenient and direct way. First the QDs with different surface charges were obtained by coating with amino and carboxyl terminals at different ratios. Then plasmid DNA was conjugated to QDs via electrostatic interaction. The resultant QDs–DNA complexes showed enhanced resistance to DNase I digestion. The following transfection experiments demonstrated that the transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface charges on QDs. The real time imaging of the transfection process showed that the nanoparticles experienced binding, penetrating the cell membrane and entering cytoplasm in the first 6 h of transfection. The green fluorescence of EGFP began to appear after 18 h transfection and plasmid DNA was fully expressed in the following 6 h. This new QDs–DNA platform showed great potential as new gene delivery carrier.

  8. Quantum processes in 8-Oxo-Guanine-Ru(bipyridine){3/2+} photosynthetic systems of artificial minimal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulis, Arvydas; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Krisciukaitis, Sarunas; Medzevicius, Giedrius

    2011-06-01

    Density functional theory methods were used to investigate various self-assembled photoactive bioorganic systems of interest for artificial minimal cells. The cell systems studied are based on nucleotides or their compounds and consisted of up to 123 atoms (not including the associated water or methanol solvent shells) and are up to 2.5 nm in diameter. The electron correlation interactions responsible for the weak hydrogen and Van derWaals chemical bonds increase due to the addition of a polar solvent (water or methanol). The precursor fatty acid molecules of the system also play a critical role in the quantum mechanical interaction based self-assembly of the photosynthetic center and the functioning of the photosynthetic processes of the artificial minimal cells. The distances between the separated sensitizer, fatty acid precursor, and methanol molecules are comparable to Van derWaals and hydrogen bonding radii. As a result the associated electron correlation interactions compress the overall system, resulting in an even smaller gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) electron energy levels and photoexcited electron tunnelling occurs from the sensitizer (either Ru(bpy){3/2+} or [Ru(bpy)2(4-Bu-4'-Me-2,2'-bpy)]2++ derivatives) to the precursor fatty acid molecules (notation used: Me = methyl; Bu = butyl; bpy = bipyridine). The shift of the absorption spectrum to the red for the artificial protocell photosynthetic centers might be considered as the measure of the complexity of these systems.

  9. Pre-selection of optical transitions in rare-earth ions in crystals perspective for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiev, T. T.; Basieva, I. T.; Kornienko, A. A.; Osiko, V. V.; Pukhov, K. K.; Sekatskii, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic analysis of decoherence rates due to electron-phonon interactions for optical transitions of rare-earth dopant ions in crystals is presented in the frame of the point charge model. For this model, the large value of any one of the matrix elements of the unit tensor operator U ( k ) of rank k for transitions within the 4f-electronic configuration, viz. U2, U4 or U6, is enough to ensure the strong optical transition between different levels, while the Stark-Stark transitions within the multiplet can be characterized by the matrix element U2 alone, the influence of elements U4, U6 being of much smaller order of magnitude and neglected. The circumstance that exactly such Stark-Stark transitions within the multiplet define the efficiency of electron-phonon interaction and, consequently, the decoherence rate (except for the case of lowest, less than approximately 2-4 K, temperatures), enables selection of optical transitions which are strong enough and at the same time are characterized by relatively small decoherence rates. Correspondingly, these optical transitions, provided that they lie in an appropriate spectral range and the gap to the nearest neighboring energy level is large enough (>500 cm-1) to prevent eventual fast phonon-assisted relaxation, should be considered as prospective for subsequent use in quantum informatics processing and communication. The list of such pre-selected transitions is given; the applicability area and limitations of our approach are discussed.

  10. Lattice simulations of real-time quantum fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berges, J.; Borsányi, Sz.; Sexty, D.; Stamatescu, I.-O.

    2007-02-01

    We investigate lattice simulations of scalar and non-Abelian gauge fields in Minkowski space-time. For SU(2) gauge-theory expectation values of link variables in 3+1 dimensions are constructed by a stochastic process in an additional (5th) “Langevin-time.” A sufficiently small Langevin step size and the use of a tilted real-time contour leads to converging results in general. All fixed point solutions are shown to fulfil the infinite hierarchy of Dyson-Schwinger identities, however, they are not unique without further constraints. For the non-Abelian gauge theory the thermal equilibrium fixed point is only approached at intermediate Langevin-times. It becomes more stable if the complex time path is deformed towards Euclidean space-time. We analyze this behavior further using the real-time evolution of a quantum anharmonic oscillator, which is alternatively solved by diagonalizing its Hamiltonian. Without further optimization stochastic quantization can give accurate descriptions if the real-time extent of the lattice is small on the scale of the inverse temperature.

  11. Increasing complexity with quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline

    2011-09-01

    We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task. PMID:21974665

  12. Increasing complexity with quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline

    2011-09-01

    We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.

  13. On the Space-Time and State-Space Geometries of Random Processes in Geometric Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Rapoport, Diego L.

    2007-02-21

    We present the space-time and Hilbert-state space quantum geometries and their associated Brownian motions. We discuss the problem of the reduction of the wave function associated to these geometries and their Brownian motions.

  14. Quantum Field Theories on the Lattice : Concepts behind their Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    We review the basic ideas behind numerical simulations of quantum field theory, which lead to non-perturbative results in particle physics. We first sketch the functional integral formulation of quantum mechanics, its transition to Euclidean time and the link to statistical mechanics. Then we proceed to quantum field theory in the lattice regularization, and its applications to scalar fields, gauge fields and fermions. In particular we address the treatment of chiral symmetry. At last we describe the formulation of lattice QCD and comment on simulations and results.

  15. Optimizing multi-resolution segmentation scale using empirical methods: Exploring the sensitivity of the supervised discrepancy measure Euclidean distance 2 (ED2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witharana, Chandi; Civco, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Multiresolution segmentation (MRS) has proven to be one of the most successful image segmentation algorithms in the geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) framework. This algorithm is relatively complex and user-dependent; scale, shape, and compactness are the main parameters available to users for controlling the algorithm. Plurality of segmentation results is common because each parameter may take a range of values within its parameter space or different combinations of values among parameters. Finding optimal parameter values through a trial-and-error process is commonly practiced at the expense of time and labor, thus, several alternative supervised and unsupervised methods for supervised automatic parameter setting have been proposed and tested. In the case of supervised empirical assessments, discrepancy measures are employed for computing measures of dissimilarity between a reference polygon and an image object candidate. Evidently the reliability of the optimal-parameter prediction heavily relies on the sensitivity of the segmentation quality metric. The idea behind pursuing optimal parameter setting is that, for instance, a given scale setting provides image object candidates different from the other scale setting; thus, by design the supervised quality metric should capture this difference. In this exploratory study, we selected the Euclidean distance 2 (ED2) metric, a recently proposed supervised metric, whose main design goal is to optimize the geometrical discrepancy (potential segmentation error (PSE)) and arithmetic discrepancy between image objects and reference polygons (number-of segmentation ratio (NSR)) in two dimensional Euclidean space, as a candidate to investigate the validity and efficacy of empirical discrepancy measures for finding the optimal scale parameter setting of the MRS algorithm. We chose test image scenes from four different space-borne sensors with varying spatial resolutions and scene contents and systematically

  16. Resource Letter QI-1: Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, Frederick W.

    2016-07-01

    This Resource Letter surveys the history and modern developments in the field of quantum information. It is written to guide advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and other new researchers to the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. The topics covered include quantum states and processes, quantum coding and cryptography, quantum computation, the experimental implementation of quantum information processing, and the role of quantum information in the fundamental properties and foundations of physical theories.

  17. Continuous-variable quantum-state sharing via quantum disentanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tyc, Tomas; Ralph, T.C.

    2005-03-01

    Quantum-state sharing is a protocol where perfect reconstruction of quantum states is achieved with incomplete or partial information in a multipartite quantum network. Quantum-state sharing allows for secure communication in a quantum network where partial information is lost or acquired by malicious parties. This protocol utilizes entanglement for the secret-state distribution and a class of 'quantum disentangling' protocols for the state reconstruction. We demonstrate a quantum-state sharing protocol in which a tripartite entangled state is used to encode and distribute a secret state to three players. Any two of these players can collaborate to reconstruct the secret state, while individual players obtain no information. We investigate a number of quantum disentangling processes and experimentally demonstrate quantum-state reconstruction using two of these protocols. We experimentally measure a fidelity, averaged over all reconstruction permutations, of F=0.73{+-}0.02. A result achievable only by using quantum resources.

  18. Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auletta, Gennaro; Fortunato, Mauro; Parisi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction; Part I. Basic Features of Quantum Mechanics: 1. From classical mechanics to quantum mechanics; 2. Quantum observable and states; 3. Quantum dynamics; 4. Examples of quantum dynamics; 5. Density matrix; Part II. More Advanced Topics: 6. Angular momentum and spin; 7. Identical particles; 8. Symmetries and conservation laws; 9. The measurement problem; Part III. Matter and Light: 10. Perturbations and approximation methods; 11. Hydrogen and helium atoms; 12. Hydrogen molecular ion; 13. Quantum optics; Part IV. Quantum Information: State and Correlations: 14. Quantum theory of open systems; 15. State measurement in quantum mechanics; 16. Entanglement: non-separability; 17. Entanglement: quantum information; References; Index.

  19. Sorting quantum systems efficiently.

    PubMed

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) - which direct photons according to their polarization - and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705

  20. Quantum Social Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haven, Emmanuel; Khrennikov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Physics Concepts in Social Science? A Discussion: 1. Classical, statistical and quantum mechanics: all in one; 2. Econophysics: statistical physics and social science; 3. Quantum social science: a non-mathematical motivation; Part II. Mathematics and Physics Preliminaries: 4. Vector calculus and other mathematical preliminaries; 5. Basic elements of quantum mechanics; 6. Basic elements of Bohmian mechanics; Part III. Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Psychology: Basic Questions and Answers: 7. A brief overview; 8. Interference effects in psychology - an introduction; 9. A quantum-like model of decision making; Part IV. Other Quantum Probabilistic Effects in Economics, Finance and Brain Sciences: 10. Financial/economic theory in crisis; 11. Bohmian mechanics in finance and economics; 12. The Bohm-Vigier Model and path simulation; 13. Other applications to economic/financial theory; 14. The neurophysiological sources of quantum-like processing in the brain; Conclusion; Glossary; Index.