Science.gov

Sample records for processing material accountability

  1. Aqueous Processing Material Accountability Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean

    2007-09-01

    Increased use of nuclear power will require new facilities. The U.S. has not built a new spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility for decades. Reprocessing facilities must maintain accountability of their nuclear fuel. This survey report on the techniques used in current aqueous reprocessing facilities, and provides references to source materials to assist facility design efforts.

  2. Coprecal: materials accounting in the modified process

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.; Shipley, J.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an advanced materials accounting system for a uranium-plutonium nitrate-to-oxide coconversion facility based on the General Electric Coprecal process as modified by Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and DuPont Engineering. The modifications include adding small aliquot tanks to feed the process and reconfiguring the calciner filter systems. Diversion detection sensitivities for the modified Coprecal process are somewhat better than the original Coprecal design, but they are still significantly worse than a same-sized conversion facility based on the oxalate (III) precipitation process.

  3. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  4. Advanced material accountancy glove box assay system for process material at PFPF.

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, H.; Fujiwara, S.; Takahashi, S.; Kuno, K.; Menlove, Howard O.; Wenz, T. R.

    2002-01-01

    The Material Accountancv Glove Box Assay System (MAGB) is a neutron coincidence counting system that has been developed under the akeement between Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in order to measure plutonium in the MOX transfer container in the glove box at Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) in Japan. The system was installed at PFPF in August 1989 and afterwards it has been using for verification ofplutonium in the transfer container by inspectorate during inspection Process equipment to improve its performance has been installed in the PFPF fabrication line. As a result the number of sample requiredfor inspection increased. Since MAGBs were only used, it was anticipated that the reduction of the time of sampling and movement time of nuclear materialfor verification would be difficult. Furthermore, the sample has to be taken from the transfer containers that contain a large amount of plutonium. Therefore, in order to reduce the time for sampling, time required for the transfer container to arrive at sampling point, and personal radiation exposure, the integrated MAGB system combined with High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy (HRGS), called M G B, was developed. This system was installed at PFPF in August 2000, and then, the functional test and the calibration were carried out in the presence of inspectorate. In the course of these activities, the data that is necessary for evaluating the system were fully acquired The system is now being in the process of evaluation whether it can be used as an attended safeguards system for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Japan Safeguards Office (JSGO).

  5. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S. F.

    1999-03-24

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns.

  6. Quantification of UV-Visible and Laser Spectroscopic Techniques for Materials Accountability and Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwinski, Kenneth; Weck, Phil

    2013-09-13

    Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–Visible) and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) optical techniques can permit on-line analysis of actinide elements in a solvent extraction process in real time. These techniques have been used for measuring actinide speciation and concentration under laboratory conditions and are easily adaptable to multiple sampling geometries, such as dip probes, fiber-optic sample cells, and flow-through cell geometries. To fully exploit these techniques, researchers must determine the fundamental speciation of target actinides and the resulting influence on spectroscopic properties. Detection limits, process conditions, and speciation of key actinide components can be established and utilized in a range of areas, particularly those related to materials accountability and process control. Through this project, researchers will develop tools and spectroscopic techniques to evaluate solution extraction conditions and concentrations of U, Pu, and Cm in extraction processes, addressing areas of process control and materials accountability. The team will evaluate UV– Visible and TRLFS for use in solvent extraction-based separations. Ongoing research is examining efficacy of UV-Visible spectroscopy to evaluate uranium and plutonium speciation under conditions found in the UREX process and using TRLFS to evaluate Cm speciation and concentration in the TALSPEAK process. A uranyl and plutonium nitrate UV–Visible spectroscopy study met with success, which supports the utility and continued exploration of spectroscopic methods for evaluation of actinide concentrations and solution conditions for other aspects of the UREX+ solvent extraction scheme. This project will examine U and Pu absorbance in TRUEX and TALSPEAK, perform detailed examination of Cm in TRUEX and TALSPEAK, study U laser fluorescence, and apply project data to contactors. The team will also determine peak ratios as a function of solution concentrations for the

  7. Evaluating Safeguards Benefits of Process Monitoring as compared with Nuclear Material Accountancy

    SciTech Connect

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Reed Carlson

    2014-07-01

    This paper illustrates potential safeguards benefits that process monitoring (PM) may have as a diversion deterrent and as a complementary safeguards measure to nuclear material accountancy (NMA). This benefit is illustrated by quantifying the standard deviation associated with detecting a considered material diversion scenario using either an NMA-based method or a PM-based approach. To illustrate the benefits of PM for effective safeguards, we consider a reprocessing facility. We assume that the diversion of interest for detection manifests itself as a loss of Pu caused by abnormally operating a dissolver for an extended period to accomplish protracted diversion (or misdirection) of Pu to a retained (unconditioned) waste stream. For detecting the occurrence of this diversion (which involves anomalous operation of the dissolver), we consider two different data evaluation and integration (DEI) approaches, one based on NMA and the other based on PM. The approach based on PM does not directly do mass balance calculations, but rather monitors for the possible occurrence of anomaly patterns related to potential loss of nuclear material. It is thus assumed that the loss of a given mass amount of nuclear material can be directly associated with the execution of proliferation-driven activities that trigger the occurrence of an anomaly pattern consisting of series of events or signatures occurring at different unit operations and time instances. By effectively assessing these events over time and space, the PM-based DEI approach tries to infer whether this specific pattern of events has occurred and how many times within a given time period. To evaluate the goodness of PM, the 3 Sigma of the estimated mass loss is computed under both DEI approaches as function of the number of input batches processed. Simulation results are discussed.

  8. Detecting anomalous nuclear materials accounting transactions: Applying machine learning to plutonium processing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Vaccaro, H.S. )

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear materials accountancy is the only safeguards measure that provides direct evidence of the status of nuclear materials. Of the six categories that gives rise to inventory differences, the technical capability is now in place to implement the technical innovations necessary to reduce the human error categories. There are really three main approaches to detecting anomalies in materials control and accountability (MC A) data: (1) Statistical: numeric methods such as the Page's Test, CUSUM, CUMUF, SITMUF, etc., can detect anomalies in metric (numeric) data. (2) Expert systems: Human expert's rules can be encoded into software systems such as ART, KEE, or Prolog. (3) Machine learning: Training data, such as historical MC A records, can be fed to a classifier program or neutral net or other machine learning algorithm. The Wisdom Sense (W S) software is a combination of approaches 2 and 3. The W S program includes full features for adding administrative rules and expert judgment rules to the rule base. if desired, the software can enforce consistency among all rules in the rule base.

  9. Hybrid statistical testing for nuclear material accounting data and/or process monitoring data in nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; Sprinkle, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of nuclear safeguards is to ensure that special nuclear material is used for peaceful purposes. Historically, nuclear material accounting (NMA) has provided the quantitative basis for monitoring for nuclear material loss or diversion, and process monitoring (PM) data is collected by the operator to monitor the process. PM data typically support NMA in various ways, often by providing a basis to estimate some of the in-process nuclear material inventory. We develop options for combining PM residuals and NMA residuals (residual = measurement - prediction), using a hybrid of period-driven and data-driven hypothesis testing. The modified statistical tests can be used on time series of NMA residuals (the NMA residual is the familiar material balance), or on a combination of PM and NMA residuals. The PM residuals can be generated on a fixed time schedule or as events occur.

  10. Hybrid statistical testing for nuclear material accounting data and/or process monitoring data in nuclear safeguards

    DOE PAGES

    Burr, Tom; Hamada, Michael S.; Ticknor, Larry; ...

    2015-01-01

    The aim of nuclear safeguards is to ensure that special nuclear material is used for peaceful purposes. Historically, nuclear material accounting (NMA) has provided the quantitative basis for monitoring for nuclear material loss or diversion, and process monitoring (PM) data is collected by the operator to monitor the process. PM data typically support NMA in various ways, often by providing a basis to estimate some of the in-process nuclear material inventory. We develop options for combining PM residuals and NMA residuals (residual = measurement - prediction), using a hybrid of period-driven and data-driven hypothesis testing. The modified statistical tests canmore » be used on time series of NMA residuals (the NMA residual is the familiar material balance), or on a combination of PM and NMA residuals. The PM residuals can be generated on a fixed time schedule or as events occur.« less

  11. Development and Quantification of UV-Visible and Laser Spectroscopic Techniques for Materials Accountability and Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Czerwinski; Phil Weck; Frederic Poineau

    2010-12-29

    Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Visible) and Time Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) optical techniques can permit on-line, real-time analysis of the actinide elements in a solvent extraction process. UV-Visible and TRLFS techniques have been used for measuring the speciation and concentration of the actinides under laboratory conditions. These methods are easily adaptable to multiple sampling geometries, such as dip probes, fiber-optic sample cells, and flow-through cell geometries. To fully exploit these techniques for GNEP applications, the fundamental speciation of the target actinides and the resulting influence on 3 spectroscopic properties must be determined. Through this effort detection limits, process conditions, and speciation of key actinide components can be establish and utilized in a range of areas of interest to GNEP, especially in areas related to materials accountability and process control.

  12. Navy Stock Account (NSA) Material Expenditure Errors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    AD-A241 855 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California ,.V ST A C -,. S ’GR t- D TIQ : 0T.281 " THESIS & NAVY STOCK ACCOUNT (NSA: ATEP.AL...Stock Account (NSA) Material Expenditure Errors 12, PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Magsombol, Anacleto M. 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year...Continue on reverse if necessary andl identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Expenditures, Navy Stock Account (NSA), Recon- ciliation Process

  13. RISK REDUCTION FOR MATERIAL ACCOUNTABILITY UPGRADES.

    SciTech Connect

    FISHBONE, L.G.; SISKIND, B.

    2005-05-16

    We present in this paper a method for evaluating explicitly the contribution of nuclear material accountability upgrades to risk reduction at nuclear facilities. The method yields the same types of values for conditional risk reduction that physical protection and material control upgrades yield. Thereby, potential material accountability upgrades can be evaluated for implementation in the same way that protection and control upgrades are evaluated.

  14. ABACC`s nuclear material accountancy

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, R.O.

    1995-12-31

    This article is a review of the history and policies of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The discussion leads up to a description of the database (presently utilizing Fox Pro) developed for materials accountability, with its broad requirements listed.

  15. Revisiting Statistical Aspects of Nuclear Material Accounting

    DOE PAGES

    Burr, T.; Hamada, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear material accounting (NMA) is the only safeguards system whose benefits are routinely quantified. Process monitoring (PM) is another safeguards system that is increasingly used, and one challenge is how to quantify its benefit. This paper considers PM in the role of enabling frequent NMA, which is referred to as near-real-time accounting (NRTA). We quantify NRTA benefits using period-driven and data-driven testing. Period-driven testing makes a decision to alarm or not at fixed periods. Data-driven testing decides as the data arrives whether to alarm or continue testing. The difference between period-driven and datad-riven viewpoints is illustrated by using one-year andmore » two-year periods. For both one-year and two-year periods, period-driven NMA using once-per-year cumulative material unaccounted for (CUMUF) testing is compared to more frequent Shewhart and joint sequential cusum testing using either MUF or standardized, independently transformed MUF (SITMUF) data. We show that the data-driven viewpoint is appropriate for NRTA and that it can be used to compare safeguards effectiveness. In addition to providing period-driven and data-driven viewpoints, new features include assessing the impact of uncertainty in the estimated covariance matrix of the MUF sequence and the impact of both random and systematic measurement errors.« less

  16. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  17. Process Accountability in Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooler, Dennis D.; Grotelueschen, Arden

    This paper urges the curriculum developer to assume the accountability for his decisions necessitated by the actual ways our society functions. The curriculum developer is encouraged to recognize that he is a salesman with a commodity (the curriculum). He is urged to realize that if he cannot market the package to the customers (the various…

  18. Creating a Comprehensive, Efficient, and Sustainable Nuclear Regulatory Structure: A Process Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Troy L.; O'Brien, Patricia E.; Hazel, Michael J.; Tuttle, John D.; Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Schlegel, Steven C.

    2010-08-11

    With the congressionally mandated January 1, 2013 deadline for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) program to complete its transition of MPC&A responsibility to the Russian Federation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management directed its MPC&A program managers and team leaders to demonstrate that work in ongoing programs would lead to successful and timely achievement of these milestones. In the spirit of planning for successful project completion, the NNSA review of the Russian regulatory development process confirmed the critical importance of an effective regulatory system to a sustainable nuclear protection regime and called for an analysis of the existing Russian regulatory structure and the identification of a plan to ensure a complete MPC&A regulatory foundation. This paper describes the systematic process used by DOE’s MPC&A Regulatory Development Project (RDP) to develop an effective and sustainable MPC&A regulatory structure in the Russian Federation. This nuclear regulatory system will address all non-military Category I and II nuclear materials at State Corporation for Atomic Energy “Rosatom,” the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological, and Nuclear Oversight (Rostechnadzor), the Federal Agency for Marine and River Transport (FAMRT, within the Ministry of Transportation), and the Ministry of Industry and Trade (Minpromtorg). The approach to ensuring a complete and comprehensive nuclear regulatory structure includes five sequential steps. The approach was adopted from DOE’s project management guidelines and was adapted to the regulatory development task by the RDP. The five steps in the Regulatory Development Process are: 1) Define MPC&A Structural Elements; 2) Analyze the existing regulatory documents using the identified Structural Elements; 3) Validate the analysis with Russian colleagues and define the list of documents to be developed; 4) Prioritize and

  19. Accounting for the Material Stock of Nations.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Tomer; Schandl, Heinz; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Walker, Paul; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-05-01

    National material stock (MS) accounts have been a neglected field of analysis in industrial ecology, possibly because of the difficulty in establishing such accounts. In this research, we propose a novel method to model national MS based on historical material flow data. This enables us to avoid the laborious data work involved with bottom-up accounts for stocks and to arrive at plausible levels of stock accumulation for nations. We apply the method for the United States and Japan to establish a proof of concept for two very different cases of industrial development. Looking at a period of 75 years (1930-2005), we find that per capita MS has been much higher in the United States for the entire period, but that Japan has experienced much higher growth rates throughout, in line with Japan's late industrial development. By 2005, however, both Japan and the United States arrive at a very similar level of national MS of 310 to 375 tonnes per capita, respectively. This research provides new insight into the relationship between MS and flows in national economies and enables us to extend the debate about material efficiency from a narrow perspective of throughput to a broader perspective of stocks.

  20. Accounting for the Material Stock of Nations

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Tomer; Schandl, Heinz; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Walker, Paul; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    National material stock (MS) accounts have been a neglected field of analysis in industrial ecology, possibly because of the difficulty in establishing such accounts. In this research, we propose a novel method to model national MS based on historical material flow data. This enables us to avoid the laborious data work involved with bottom-up accounts for stocks and to arrive at plausible levels of stock accumulation for nations. We apply the method for the United States and Japan to establish a proof of concept for two very different cases of industrial development. Looking at a period of 75 years (1930–2005), we find that per capita MS has been much higher in the United States for the entire period, but that Japan has experienced much higher growth rates throughout, in line with Japan's late industrial development. By 2005, however, both Japan and the United States arrive at a very similar level of national MS of 310 to 375 tonnes per capita, respectively. This research provides new insight into the relationship between MS and flows in national economies and enables us to extend the debate about material efficiency from a narrow perspective of throughput to a broader perspective of stocks. PMID:25505368

  1. Nuclear material accounting software for Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, M.; Ewing, T.; Lindley, R.; McWilliams, C.; Roche, C.; Sakunov, I.; Walters, G.

    1999-07-26

    Among the needs identified during initial surveys of nuclear facilities in Ukraine was improved accounting software for reporting material inventories to the regulatory body. AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application written in Microsoft Access that was jointly designed by an US/Ukraine development team. The design is highly flexible and configurable, and supports a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements including situations where networks are not available or reliable. AIMAS has both English and Russian-language options for displays and reports, and it operates under Windows 3.1, 95, or NT 4.0{trademark}. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration, security, data backup and recovery). Security measures include multilevel password access control, all transactions logged with the user identification, and system administration control. Interfaces to external modules provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. AIMAS has been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP), Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry (SINEI), and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety/Nuclear Regulatory Administration (MEPNS/NRA). Facility specialists are being trained to use the application to track material movement and report to the national regulatory authority.

  2. MAC, material accounting database user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-09-22

    The K Basins Material Accounting (MAC) database system user guide describes the user features and functions, and the document is structured like the database menus. This document presents the MAC database system user instructions which explain how to record the movements and configuration of canisters and materials within the K Basins on the computer, the mechanics of handling encapsulation tracking, and administrative functions associated with the system. This document includes the user instructions, which also serve as the software requirements specification for the system implemented on the microcomputer. This includes suggested user keystrokes, examples of screens displayed by the system, and reports generated by the system. It shows how the system is organized, via menus and screens. It does not explain system design nor provide programmer instructions.

  3. Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with

  4. Energy Implications of Materials Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Earl T.

    1976-01-01

    Processing of materials could become energy-limited rather than resource-limited. Methods to extract metals, industrial minerals, and energy materials and convert them to useful states requires more than one-fifth of the United States energy budget. Energy accounting by industries must include a total systems analysis of costs to insure net energy…

  5. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1988-09-28

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Electrochemically modulated separations for material accountability measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, Sandra G.; Liezers, Martin; Naes, Benjamin E.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2012-07-08

    A method for the accurate and timely analysis of accountable materials is critical for safeguards measurements in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Non-destructive analysis (NDA) methods, such as gamma spectroscopy, are desirable for their ability to produce near real-time data. However, the high gamma background of the actinides and fission products in spent nuclear fuel limits the use of NDA for real-time online measurements. A simple approach for at-line separation of materials would facilitate the use of at-line detection methods. A promising at-line separation method for plutonium and uranium is electrochemically modulated separations (EMS). Using an electrochemical cell with an anodized glassy carbon electrode, Pu and U oxidation states can be altered by applying an appropriate voltage. Because the affinity of the actinides for the electrode depends on their oxidation states, selective deposition can be turned “on” and “off” with changes in the applied target electrode voltage. A high surface-area cell was designed in house for the separation of Pu from spent nuclear fuel. The cell is shown to capture over 1 µg of material, increasing the likelihood for gamma spectroscopic detection of Pu extracted from dissolver solutions. The large surface area of the electrode also reduces the impact of competitive interferences from some fission products. Flow rates of up to 1 mL min-1 with >50% analyte deposition efficiency are possible, allowing for rapid separations to be effected. Results from the increased surface-area EMS cell are presented, including dilute dissolver solution simulant data.

  7. Processing Accounts Payable Invoices. Student Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElveen, Peggy C.

    Supporting performance objective 38 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on processing accounts payable invoices are included in this packet, which is one of a series. The student materials include ten invoices and receiving documents and…

  8. Anomaly detection applied to a materials control and accounting database

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Spanks, L.; Yarbro, T.

    1995-09-01

    An important component of the national mission of reducing the nuclear danger includes accurate recording of the processing and transportation of nuclear materials. Nuclear material storage facilities, nuclear chemical processing plants, and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities collect and store large amounts of data describing transactions that involve nuclear materials. To maintain confidence in the integrity of these data, it is essential to identify anomalies in the databases. Anomalous data could indicate error, theft, or diversion of material. Yet, because of the complex and diverse nature of the data, analysis and evaluation are extremely tedious. This paper describes the authors work in the development of analysis tools to automate the anomaly detection process for the Material Accountability and Safeguards System (MASS) that tracks and records the activities associated with accountable quantities of nuclear material at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Using existing guidelines that describe valid transactions, the authors have created an expert system that identifies transactions that do not conform to the guidelines. Thus, this expert system can be used to focus the attention of the expert or inspector directly on significant phenomena.

  9. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Processing-refining of raw materials from extraterrestrial sources is detailed for a space materials handling facility. The discussion is constrained to those steps necessary to separate desired components from raw or altered input ores, semi-purified feedstocks, or process scrap and convert the material into elements, alloys, and consumables. The materials are regarded as originating from dead satellites and boosters, lunar materials, and asteroids. Strong attention will be given to recycling reagent substances to avoid the necessity of transporting replacements. It is assumed that since no aqueous processes exist on the moon, the distribution of minerals will be homogeneous. The processing-refining scenario will include hydrochemical, pyrochemical, electrochemical, and physical techniques selected for the output mass rate/unit plant mass ratio. Flow charts of the various materials processing operations which could be performed with lunar materials are provided, noting the necessity of delivering several alloying elements from the earth due to scarcities on the moon.

  10. 76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 72, 74, and 150 RIN 3150-AI61 Amendments to Material Control and Accounting... proposed rule language concerning the NRC's proposed amendments to the material control and accounting (MC... FNMC is an outdated term, as it does not include ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully describe...

  11. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.; Komashko, Aleksey M.; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Perry, Michael D.

    2000-05-01

    The use of femtosecond lasers allows materials processing of practically any material with extremely high precision and minimal collateral damage. Advantages over conventional laser machining (using pulses longer than a few tens of picoseconds) are realized by depositing the laser energy into the electrons of the material on a time scale short compared to the transfer time of this energy to the bulk of the material, resulting in increased ablation efficiency and negligible shock or thermal stress. The improvement in the morphology by using femtosecond pulses rather than nanosecond pulses has been studied in numerous materials from biological materials to dielectrics to metals. During the drilling process, we have observed the onset of small channels which drill faster than the surrounding material.

  12. Femtosecond Laser Materials Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P.S.; Stuart, B.C.; Komashko, A.M.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Perry, M.D.

    2000-03-06

    The use of femtosecond lasers allows materials processing of practically any material with extremely high precision and minimal collateral damage. Advantages over conventional laser machining (using pulses longer than a few tens of picoseconds) are realized by depositing the laser energy into the electrons of the material on a time scale short compared to the transfer time of this energy to the bulk of the material, resulting in increased ablation efficiency and negligible shock or thermal stress. The improvement in the morphology by using femtosecond pulses rather than nanosecond pulses has been studied in numerous materials from biologic materials to dielectrics to metals. During the drilling process, we have observed the onset of small channels which drill faster than the surrounding material.

  13. 78 FR 67225 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 40, 70, 72, 74, and 150 RIN 3150-AI61 Amendments to Material Control and Accounting... Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend its regulations for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special... would requirements be added to designate material balance areas, item control areas, and custodians?...

  14. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B

    1998-08-05

    Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area. Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to precision cuts in composites are possible by using this technology. For material removal at reasonable rates, we have developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

  15. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B. C., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to making high-aspect ratio cuts in metals with no heat-affected zone are made possible by this technology For material removal at reasonable rates, we developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

  16. Microwave Processing of Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    of peak output power of 100 megawatts at 10 GHz. Microwave Fundamentals 11 RESONANT HELIX TWT STO KLYSTRON CTf C 0 Grid oShadow Grid PPM FOCUS SPACE C...Rather, broadband and high-temperature measurement techniques that have been used in conjunction with microwave processing of materials-specifically... Broadband Dielectric Properties Measurement Techniques. Pp. 527-539 in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 269, Microwave Processing

  17. Materials Processing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A report describes investigations of materials processing in low-gravity environment. Ultimately, research could lead to new commercially-applicable materials and processes and to an understanding of constraints imposed by gravity. NASA-supported work is carried out in 46 academic, industrial, and Government laboratories, and covers a number of areas. An overview is given of objective and current state of development for over 100 tasks.

  18. IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL BALANCES AND THEIR STATISTICAL EVALUATION IN RUSSIAN MATERIAL, PROTECTION, CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING

    SciTech Connect

    FISHBONE,L.G.

    1999-07-25

    While substantial work has been performed in the Russian MPC&A Program, much more needs to be done at Russian nuclear facilities to complete four necessary steps. These are (1) periodically measuring the physical inventory of nuclear material, (2) continuously measuring the flows of nuclear material, (3) using the results to close the material balance, particularly at bulk processing facilities, and (4) statistically evaluating any apparent loss of nuclear material. The periodic closing of material balances provides an objective test of the facility's system of nuclear material protection, control and accounting. The statistical evaluation using the uncertainties associated with individual measurement systems involved in the calculation of the material balance provides a fair standard for concluding whether the apparent loss of nuclear material means a diversion or whether the facility's accounting system needs improvement. In particular, if unattractive flow material at a facility is not measured well, the accounting system cannot readily detect the loss of attractive material if the latter substantially derives from the former.

  19. Extraterrestrial materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The first year results of a multi-year study of processing extraterrestrial materials for use in space are summarized. Theoretically, there are potential major advantages to be derived from the use of such materials for future space endeavors. The types of known or postulated starting raw materials are described including silicate-rich mixed oxides on the Moon, some asteroids and Mars; free metals in some asteroids and in small quantities in the lunar soil; and probably volatiles like water and CO2 on Mars and some asteroids. Candidate processes for space materials are likely to be significantly different from their terrestrial counterparts largely because of: absence of atmosphere; lack of of readily available working fluids; low- or micro-gravity; no carbon-based fuels; readily available solar energy; and severe constraints on manned intervention. The extraction of metals and oxygen from lunar material by magma electrolysis or by vapor/ion phase separation appears practical.

  20. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  1. Superconducting materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, John S.; Karikari, Emmanuel K.; Hiamang, S. O.; Danjaji, M.; Bassey, Affiong; Morgan, Andre

    1995-08-01

    The effects of materials processing on the properties and behavior of high temperature yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconductors were investigated. Electrical, magnetic, and structural characteristics of thin films (300 nm) YBA2CU3O(delta) structures grown by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates were used to evaluate processing. Pole projection and thin film diffraction measurements were used to establish grain orientation and verify structural integrity of the samples. Susceptibility magnetization, and transport measurements were used to evaluate the magnetic and electrical transport properties of the samples. Our results verified that an unfortunate consequence of processing is inherent changes to the internal structure of the material. This effect translates into modifications in the properties of the materials, and undesired feature that makes it very difficult to consistently predict material behavior. The results show that processing evaluation must incorporate a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the materials. Future studies will emphasize microstructural characteristics of the materials, in particular, those microscopic properties that map macroscopic behavior.

  2. Superconducting materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, John S.; Karikari, Emmanuel K.; Hiamang, S. O.; Danjaji, M.; Bassey, Affiong; Morgan, Andre

    1995-01-01

    The effects of materials processing on the properties and behavior of high temperature yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconductors were investigated. Electrical, magnetic, and structural characteristics of thin films (300 nm) YBA2CU3O(delta) structures grown by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates were used to evaluate processing. Pole projection and thin film diffraction measurements were used to establish grain orientation and verify structural integrity of the samples. Susceptibility magnetization, and transport measurements were used to evaluate the magnetic and electrical transport properties of the samples. Our results verified that an unfortunate consequence of processing is inherent changes to the internal structure of the material. This effect translates into modifications in the properties of the materials, and undesired feature that makes it very difficult to consistently predict material behavior. The results show that processing evaluation must incorporate a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the materials. Future studies will emphasize microstructural characteristics of the materials, in particular, those microscopic properties that map macroscopic behavior.

  3. Plasma Processing of Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-22

    Estimates for Producing Alu -.. a from Domestic Raw Materials. U.S. Bureau ot Mines Information Circ lar 8648. 6. Barclay, James A., arti Frank A...heating occurs via joule -type heating, whereas cleaning is believed to occur via vaporization of thin oxide films from cathodic arc spots caused by a...Research Society Symposium on Plasma Processing and Synthesis of Materials, Boston, November. 43. Frind, G., C. P. Goody, and L. E. Prescott . 1983

  4. The Diagnostic Process in Accounting Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Ralph, Jr.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents ideas on developing a diagnostic accounting instrument, and answers the following questions: Are the diagnostic instruments given to accounting students measuring what they should measure? What advice can be given to students regarding questions that were missed? (CT)

  5. Processing Materials in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoller, L. K.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested program of material processing experiments in space described in 81 page report. For each experiment, report discusses influence of such gravitational effects as convection, buoyancy, sedimentation, and hydrostatic pressure. Report contains estimates of power and mission duration required for each experiment. Lists necessary equipment and appropriate spacecraft.

  6. Materials and Processes Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.; And Others

    This instructional resource guide is intended to assist the industrial arts (IA) teacher in implementing a comprehensive materials and Processes Technology program at the technical level in Virginia high schools. The course is designed to help students make informed educational and occupational choices and prepare them for advanced technical or…

  7. Laser material processing system

    DOEpatents

    Dantus, Marcos

    2015-04-28

    A laser material processing system and method are provided. A further aspect of the present invention employs a laser for micromachining. In another aspect of the present invention, the system uses a hollow waveguide. In another aspect of the present invention, a laser beam pulse is given broad bandwidth for workpiece modification.

  8. U.S. national nuclear material control and accounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S; Terentiev, V G

    1998-12-01

    Issues related to nuclear material control and accounting and illegal dealing in these materials were discussed at the April 19--20, 1996 Moscow summit meeting (G7 + Russia). The declaration from this meeting reaffirmed that governments are responsible for the safety of all nuclear materials in their possession and for the effectiveness of the national control and accounting system for these materials. The Russian delegation at this meeting stated that ''the creation of a nuclear materials accounting, control, and physical protection system has become a government priority''. Therefore, in order to create a government nuclear material control and accounting system for the Russian Federation, it is critical to study the structure, operating principles, and regulations supporting the control and accounting of nuclear materials in the national systems of nuclear powers. In particular, Russian specialists have a definite interest in learning about the National Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System of the US, which has been operating successfully as an automated system since 1968.

  9. Space processing of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, N.

    1996-12-31

    Materials processing in space derives unique benefits from reduced levels of gravity and hydrostatic pressure. The attenuation of buoyancy-driven convection and sedimentation have led to the realization of close-to-diffusion-limited conditions for the growth of semiconductors, metals/alloys, proteins, etc., in novel crystal growth configurations. One of the aims of the conference was to bring together scientists, experiment designers/engineers, and educators in a common forum to highlight different aspects of low-gravity research. Two spotlight topics were picked for the conference: materials for detectors and electronics, and thin film technology--theory and applications. In addition, the conference focused on space hardware, low-gravity experiment design, and educational outreach programs. Presentations in materials processing included low-gravity and terrestrial experiments on the growth of mercury cadmium telluride, crystal characterization techniques, and modeling efforts. The growth of heavy metal fluoride glasses and metal alloys in low gravity was also featured in presentations. The session on thin film technology was mainly comprised of papers reporting on investigations in nonlinear optics. The growth, response, and characterization of organic and polymeric thin film materials were discussed. Microgravity experiments ranging from the diverse areas of diffusion studies and thermo-solutal convection to optical pyrometry and the behavior of granular materials in low gravity, were presented in a separate session devoted to space experiment design and implementation. Educational outreach programs for student involvement in ground-based and low-gravity research for materials processing and device fabrication were also featured in a separate conference session. Existing hardware for experiments in low gravity and future hardware concepts for the International Space Station and beyond were presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers.

  10. Systems Analysis for Material Control and Accountancy Technology (SAMCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J., Bucher, R.G.; Rothman, A.B.; Cha, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    The Systems Analysis for Material Control and Accountancy Technology (SAMCAT) is an interactive computer-based management system developed for the Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security, to assist in defining and prioritizing measurement upgrades programs for Material Control and Accountancy (MC A). The accountancy upgrades options evaluated by SAMCAT in this study are: (1) improvement of the uncertainties in the SNM measurement methods, (2) reduction of throughputs and/or inventories of SNM, and (3) reduction of the material balance accounting period. The goals of the MC A upgrades program are reduced inventory differences and associated uncertainties, improved detection probabilities for theft/diversion, decreased operating costs, and enhanced material traceability. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  12. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  13. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  14. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  15. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  16. Integrated safeguards & security for material protection, accounting, and control.

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2009-10-01

    Traditional safeguards and security design for fuel cycle facilities is done separately and after the facility design is near completion. This can result in higher costs due to retrofits and redundant use of data. Future facilities will incorporate safeguards and security early in the design process and integrate the systems to make better use of plant data and strengthen both systems. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the integration of materials control and accounting (MC&A) measurements with physical security design for a nuclear reprocessing plant. Locations throughout the plant where data overlap occurs or where MC&A data could be a benefit were identified. This mapping is presented along with the methodology for including the additional data in existing probabilistic assessments to evaluate safeguards and security systems designs.

  17. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  18. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  19. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  20. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  1. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  2. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  3. Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T; Campbell, Billy J; Hammond, Glenn A; Meppen, Bruce W; Brown, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC&A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC&A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC&A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC&A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area [MBA]) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance factor reports on the

  4. Accountability and Data Processing in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Guy D.; North, Stewart D.

    The purpose of this article is to set forth a conceptual framework to help educational administrators understand the applications and potential of data processing activities in their institutions. It is expected that such a framework will provide a basis for data processing decisions and direction for future data processing activities. The model…

  5. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  6. A Measurement Control Program for Nuclear Material Accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R. J.; Roberts, F. P.; Merrill, J. A.; Brown, W. B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurements of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities. equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality.

  7. Two-stage decision approach to material accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Opelka, J.H.; Sutton, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    The validity of the alarm threshold 4sigma has been checked for hypothetical large and small facilities using a two-stage decision model in which the diverter's strategic variable is the quantity diverted, and the defender's strategic variables are the alarm threshold and the effectiveness of the physical security and material control systems in the possible presence of a diverter. For large facilities, the material accounting system inherently appears not to be a particularly useful system for the deterrence of diversions, and essentially no improvement can be made by lowering the alarm threshold below 4sigma. For small facilities, reduction of the threshold to 2sigma or 3sigma is a cost effective change for the accounting system, but is probably less cost effective than making improvements in the material control and physical security systems.

  8. Electronic materials processing and the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, A. F.

    1988-01-01

    The nature and origin of deficiencies in bulk electronic materials for device fabrication are analyzed. It is found that gravity generated perturbations during their formation account largely for the introduction of critical chemical and crystalline defects and, moreover, are responsible for the still existing gap between theory and experiment and thus for excessive reliance on proprietary empiricism in processing technology. Exploration of the potential of reduced gravity environment for electronic materials processing is found to be not only desirable but mandatory.

  9. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Bowen, H. K.; Kenney, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The goals and activities of the center are discussed. The center activities encompass all engineering materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, composites, superconductors, and thin films. Processes include crystallization, solidification, nucleation, and polymer synthesis.

  10. Attributes mode sampling schemes for international material accountancy verification

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, J.B.

    1982-12-01

    This paper addresses the question of detecting falsifications in material balance accountancy reporting by comparing independently measured values to the declared values of a randomly selected sample of items in the material balance. A two-level strategy is considered, consisting of a relatively large number of measurements made at low accuracy, and a smaller number of measurements made at high accuracy. Sampling schemes for both types of measurements are derived, and rigorous proofs supplied that guarantee desired detection probabilities. Sample sizes derived using these methods are sometimes considerably smaller than those calculated previously.

  11. Nuclear material control and accounting safeguards in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Woltermann, H.A.; Rudy, C.R.; Rakel, D.A.; DeVer, E.A.

    1982-07-01

    Material control and accounting (MC and A) of special nuclear material (SNM) must supplement physical security to protect SNM from unlawful use such as terrorist activities. This article reviews MC and A safeguards of SNM in the United States. The following topics are covered: a brief perspective and history of MC and A safeguards, current MC and A practices, measurement methods for SNM, historical MC and A performance, a description of near-real-time MC and A systems, and conclusions on the status of MC and A in the United States.

  12. Nuclear Material Management in Russia and New Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Martyanov,A A; Pitel,V A; Babcock,R A; Heinberg,C L; Tynan,D M

    2001-06-25

    The Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) is the federal authority empowered with the management of state-owned nuclear materials, with the exception of military applications. The Russian Federal Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Information System (FIS) is a key component in establishing an effective nuclear materials management system in the Russian Federation. In December 2000, the Russian government issued the decree to enter into force the regulation on the accounting and control of nuclear materials and directed the State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) of nuclear materials should begin October 2001. This regulation establishes the basic accounting documents and the requirement to report them to the FIS to launch the State Nuclear Material Registry of nuclear materials. The Nuclear Material Registry contains information on agencies and operating organizations that use nuclear material, along with the kinds, quantity and other characteristics of nuclear material. Minatom will use the Registry and the supporting database and functionality that reside in the FIS for carrying out the functions of nuclear materials management. At the same time, the FIS provides for reporting from material balance areas (MBA). With American support, 14 Russian enterprises are reporting material balance area level information to the FIS using full-function reporting (i.e., reporting inventory and inventory changes including closeout and reconciliation between the FIS and enterprises). Russian Federation regulations for nuclear material control and accounting and nuclear materials management have been or are being developed, some of which may impact the FIS, whether for full-function reporting or its support in preparing the Nuclear Material Registry. This paper discusses the role and the place of the FIS in nuclear material management, describes the goals and challenges facing the FIS based on Russian Federation regulations, and provides a brief

  13. Processing composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The fabrication of several composite structural articles including DC-10 upper aft rudders, L-1011 vertical fins and composite biomedical appliances are discussed. Innovative composite processing methods are included.

  14. Transparent materials processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A zero gravity processing furnace system was designed that will allow acquisition of photographic or other visual information while the sample is being processed. A low temperature (30 to 400 C) test model with a flat specimen heated by quartz-halide lamps was constructed. A high temperature (400 to 1000 C) test model heated by resistance heaters, utilizing a cylindrical specimen and optics, was also built. Each of the test models is discussed in detail. Recommendations are given.

  15. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Sindo

    1996-10-01

    An extremely useful guide to the theory and applications of transport phenomena in materials processing This book defines the unique role that transport phenomena play in materials processing and offers a graphic, comprehensive treatment unlike any other book on the subject. The two parts of the text are, in fact, two useful books. Part I is a very readable introduction to fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer for materials engineers and anyone not yet thoroughly familiar with the subject. It includes governing equations and boundary conditions particularly useful for studying materials processing. For mechanical and chemical engineers, and anyone already familiar with transport phenomena, Part II covers the many specific applications to materials processing, including a brief description of various materials processing technologies. Readable and unencumbered by mathematical manipulations (most of which are allocated to the appendixes), this book is also a useful text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in materials, mechanical, and chemical engineering. It includes hundreds of photographs of materials processing in action, single and composite figures of computer simulation, handy charts for problem solving, and more. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing: * Describes eight key materials processing technologies, including crystal growth, casting, welding, powder and fiber processing, bulk and surface heat treating, and semiconductor device fabrication * Covers the latest advances in the field, including recent results of computer simulation and flow visualization * Presents special boundary conditions for transport phenomena in materials processing * Includes charts that summarize commonly encountered boundary conditions and step-by-step procedures for problem solving * Offers a unique derivation of governing equations that leads to both overall and differential balance equations * Provides a list of publicly available computer

  16. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  17. A generic, computerized nuclear materials accountability system (NucMAS) and its layered products

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jr, J M

    1989-01-01

    NucMAS provides a material balance area with a computerized data management system for nuclear materials accountability. NucMAS is a generic application. It handles the data management and reporting functions for different processing facilities by storing all process-specific information as data rather than procedure. A NucMAS application is configured for each facility it supports. NucMAS and its layered products are compatible with three types of data clients. Core NucMAS has a screen-oriented user interface to support the accountability clerk as a client. Accountability clerks enter data from operating logs and laboratory analyses one to three days after actual processing. Layered products support process operators and automated systems as near-real-time and real-time data clients. The core and layered products use a data-driven approach which results in software that is configurable and maintainable. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Library Materials: Selection and Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Michael; And Others

    This script of a slide-tape presentation, which describes the selection and processing of materials for a university library, includes commentary with indicators for specific slide placement. Distinction is made between books and serial publications and the materials are followed from the ordering decision through processing. The role of the…

  19. Designing School Accountability Systems: Towards a Framework and Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Brian

    This document presents three different views of accountability to address state needs as their departments of education design, improve, or review their state accountability and reporting systems. The first of three sections presents the system-design decision process as a linear sequence of ten steps from defining the purposes of the…

  20. Regional material flow accounting and environmental pressures: the Spanish case.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Sergio; Carpintero, Óscar; Lomas, Pedro L

    2015-02-17

    This paper explores potential contributions of regional material flow accounting to the characterization of environmental pressures. With this aim, patterns of material extraction, trade, consumption, and productivity for the Spanish regions were studied within the 1996-2010 period. The main methodological variation as compared to whole-country based approaches is the inclusion of interregional trade, which can be separately assessed from the international exchanges. Each region was additionally profiled regarding its commercial exchanges with the rest of the regions and the rest of the world and the related environmental pressures. Given its magnitude, interregional trade is a significant source of environmental pressure. Most of the exchanges occur across regions and different extractive and trading patterns also arise at this scale. These differences are particularly great for construction minerals, which in Spain represent the largest share of extracted and consumed materials but do not cover long distances, so their impact is visible mainly at the regional level. During the housing bubble, economic growth did not improve material productivity.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamics in Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to melt, pump, stir, and stabilize liquid metals. This provides a nonintrusive means of controlling the flow of metal in commercial casting and refining operations. The quest for greater efficiency and more control in the production of steel, aluminum, and high-performance superalloys has led to a revolution in the application of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to process metallurgy. Three typical applications are described here, chosen partially on the basis of their general interest to fluid dynamicists, and partially because of their considerable industrial importance. We look first at magnetic stirring, where a rotating magnetic field is used to agitate and homogenize the liquid zone of a partially-solidified ingot. This is a study in Ekman pumping. Next, we consider magnetic damping, where an intense, static magnetic field is used to suppress fluid motion. In particular, we look at the damping of jets, vortices, and turbulence. We conclude with a discussion of the magnetic destabilization of liquid-liquid interfaces. This is of particular importance in aluminum production.

  2. Use of Imaging for Nuclear Material Control and Accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Mullens, James Allen; Hausladen, Paul; Bingham, Philip R; Archer, Daniel E; Grogan, Brandon R; Mihalczo, John T

    2007-01-01

    The recent addition of imaging to the Nuclear Materials and Identification System (NMIS) using a small portable DT neutron generator with an embedded alpha detector to time and directionally tag neutrons from the DT reaction is discussed. The generator weighs {approx}35 lbs including power supplies (5 x 10{sup 7} n/sec) and operates on 50 watts power. Thus, the source can be easily moved to a variety of locations within an operational facility with minimum impact on operations or can be used at a fixed location for example to monitor receipts. Imaging NMIS (INMIS) not only characterizes the detailed shape of a containerized object by transmission tomography but determines the presence of fissile material by measuring the emitted radiation from induced fission. Previous work has shown that this type of imaging has a variety of applications other than nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A). These include nonproliferation applications such as verification of configuration of nuclear weapons/components shipped or received, warhead authentication behind an information barrier, and traceability of weapons components both fissile and non fissile in dismantlement and counter terrorism. This paper concentrates on the use for NMC&A. Some of the NMC&A applications discussed are: verifying inventory and receipts, making more accurate holdup measurements especially where thicknesses of materials affect gamma ray spectrometry , determining the shape of unknown configurations of fissile materials where the material type may be known but not the form, determining the oxidation of fissile metal in storage cans, fingerprinting the content of storage containers going into a storage facility, and determining unknown configurations for criticality safety.

  3. Telerobotic electronic materials processing experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, Stanford

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Commercial Programs (OCP), working in conjunction with NASA engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center, is supporting research efforts in robot technology and microelectronics materials processing that will provide many spinoffs for science and industry. The Telerobotic Materials Processing Experiment (TRMPX) is a Shuttle-launched materials processing test payload using a Get Away Special can. The objectives of the project are to define, develop, and demonstrate an automated materials processing capability under realistic flight conditions. TRMPX will provide the capability to test the production processes that are dependent on microgravity. The processes proposed for testing include the annealing of amorphous silicon to increase grain size for more efficient solar cells, thin film deposition to demonstrate the potential of fabricating solar cells in orbit, and the annealing of radiation damaged solar cells.

  4. PROCESS OF FORMING POWDERED MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Glatter, J.; Schaner, B.E.

    1961-07-14

    A process of forming high-density compacts of a powdered ceramic material is described by agglomerating the powdered ceramic material with a heat- decompossble binder, adding a heat-decompossble lubricant to the agglomerated material, placing a quantity of the material into a die cavity, pressing the material to form a compact, pretreating the compacts in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to remove the binder and lubricant, and sintering the compacts. When this process is used for making nuclear reactor fuel elements, the ceramic material is an oxide powder of a fissionsble material and after forming, the compacts are placed in a cladding tube which is closed at its ends by vapor tight end caps, so that the sintered compacts are held in close contact with each other and with the interior wall of the cladding tube.

  5. Extraterrestrial materials processing and construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of available terrestrial skills to the gathering of lunar materials and the processing of raw lunar materials into industrial feed stock were investigated. The literature on lunar soils and rocks was reviewed and the chemical processes by which major oxides and chemical elements can be extracted were identified. The gathering of lunar soil by means of excavation equipment was studied in terms of terrestrial experience with strip mining operations on earth. The application of electrostatic benefication techniques was examined for use on the moon to minimize the quantity of materials requiring surface transport and to optimize the stream of raw materials to be transported off the moon for subsequent industrial use.

  6. Aviation security cargo inspection queuing simulation model for material flow and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Allgood, Glenn O; Rose, Terri A; Brumback, Daryl L

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in 2010, the U.S. will require that all cargo loaded in passenger aircraft be inspected. This will require more efficient processing of cargo and will have a significant impact on the inspection protocols and business practices of government agencies and the airlines. In this paper, we develop an aviation security cargo inspection queuing simulation model for material flow and accountability that will allow cargo managers to conduct impact studies of current and proposed business practices as they relate to inspection procedures, material flow, and accountability.

  7. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Durkee, Joe W.; Cipiti, Ben; Demuth, Scott Francis; Fallgren, Andrew James; Jarman, Ken; Li, Shelly; Meier, Dave; Miller, Mike; Osburn, Laura Ann; Pereira, Candido; Dasari, Venkateswara Rao; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Yoo, Tae-Sic

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  8. Using bar codes for material control and accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, B.

    1997-04-01

    Modern computers have become an important part of almost all business operations, including nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A). However the effectiveness of any computer hardware/software system is a function of the input data provided to it. To maximize the benefit from a computer, timely (ideally, real-time) and accurate data are required. This paper presents the benefits of using automatic data collection, and more specifically bar code technology. Bar coding is a simple and cost effective keyless data entry solution that has been widely adopted in world commerce and government agencies. Since its introduction to the first MINATOM facility in 1995, bar code activities at other facilities have increased. Tasks to integrate bar code technology with computerized MC&A, equipment, and training workshops have been an important part of the USDOE/MINATOM collaboration.

  9. Processes for treating cellulosic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladisch, Michael R. (Inventor); Kohlman, Karen L. (Inventor); Westgate, Paul L. (Inventor); Weil, Joseph R. (Inventor); Yang, Yiqi (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed are processes for pretreating cellulosic materials in liquid water by heating the materials in liquid water at a temperature at or above their glass transition temperature but not substantially exceeding 220.degree. C., while maintaining the pH of the reaction medium in a range that avoids substantial autohydrolysis of the cellulosic materials. Such pretreatments minimize chemical changes to the cellulose while leading to physical changes which substantially increase susceptibility to hydrolysis in the presence of cellulase.

  10. Microstructural processes in irradiated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Morgan, Dane; Jiao, Zhijie; Almer, Jonathan; Brown, Donald

    2016-04-01

    This is an editorial article (preface) for the publication of symposium papers in the Journal of Nuclear materials: These proceedings contain the papers presented at two symposia, the Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials (MPIM) and Characterization of Nuclear Reactor Materials and Components with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation, held in the TMS 2015, 144th Annual Meeting & Exhibition at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida, USA on March 15–19, 2015.

  11. Microstructural processes in irradiated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Morgan, Dane; Jiao, Zhijie; Almer, Jonathan; Brown, Donald

    2016-04-01

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at two symposia, the Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials (MPIM) and Characterization of Nuclear Reactor Materials and Components with Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation, held in the TMS 2015, 144th Annual Meeting & Exhibition at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida, USA on March 15-19, 2015.

  12. Laser Material Processing in Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Marshall

    2014-03-01

    This presentation will address some of the past, present, and potential uses of lasers for material processing in manufacturing. Laser processing includes welding, drilling, cutting, cladding, etc. The U.S. was the hot bed for initial uses of lasers for material processing in the past with Europe, especially Germany, presently leading the way. The future laser processing leader may still be Germany. Selected uses, past and present, of lasers within GE will also be highlighted as seen in such business units as Aviation, Lighting, Power and Water, Healthcare, and Transportation.

  13. Accounting for nonlinear material characteristics in modeling ferroresonant transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisine, J. T.

    1985-04-01

    A mathematical model relating core material properties, including nonlinear magnetization characteristics, to the performance of ferroresonant transformers has been developed. In accomplishing this, other factors such as fabrication destruction factors, leakage flux, air gap characteristics, loading, and coil resistances and self-inductances are also accounted for. From a material manufacturer's view, knowing such information facilitates isolating sources of performance variations between units of similar design and is therefore highly desirable. The model predicts the primary induction necessary to establish a specified secondary induction and determines peak induction at other points in the magnetic circuit. A study comparing the model with a transformer indicated that each predicted peak induction was within ±5% of the corresponding measured peak induction. A generalized 4-node magnetic circuit having two shunt paths was chosen and modeled. Such a circuit is easily modified facilitating the analyses of numerous other core designs. A computer program designed to run on an HP-41 programmable calculator was also developed and is briefly described.

  14. CPT Word Processing Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaymaker, Josephine; Eakman, Donna

    A project to develop a student word processing manual was developed by using input from: (1) information specialists, employees, and educators; and (2) students using the manual. These instructional materials provide workbook assignments and reading for an individualized unit on CPT word processing to be used by 30 to 40 high school students per…

  15. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  16. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  17. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  18. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  19. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and maintain a measurement system which assures that all quantities in the material accounting records...) In each inventory period, control total material control and accounting measurement uncertainty so... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for...

  20. Materials processing in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Work is reported on the Materials Processing Low Gravity Program in which the University of Alabama worked with scientists and engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center to design, implement and perform low gravity experiments with various scientific investigators in materials processing science through March 15, 1989. The facilities used in these short duration low gravity experiments include the Drop Tube and Drop Tower at MSFC, and the KC-135 aircraft at Ellington Field. The utilization of these ground-based low gravity facilities for materials processing was instrumental in determining the feasibility of either performing a particular experiment in the microgravity of Space or continuing on-going activities which may have been delayed due to the absence of shuttle flights during this contractual effort.

  1. The materials processing sciences glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traweek, Larry

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Processing Sciences Glovebox is a rack mounted workstation which allows on orbit sample preparation and characterization of specimens from various experiment facilities. It provides an isolated safe, clean, and sterile environment for the crew member to work with potentially hazardous materials. It has to handle a range of chemicals broader than even PMMS. The theme is that the Space Station Laboratory experiment preparation and characterization operations provide the fundamental glovebox design characteristics. Glovebox subsystem concepts and how internal material handling operations affect the design are discussed.

  2. Residual stresses in material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kozaczek, K.J.; Watkins, T.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    1994-09-01

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then adresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  3. Fiber lasers for material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiner, Bill

    2005-03-01

    Low power fiber lasers began entering the commercial markets in the early 1990s. Since their introduction, fiber lasers have rapidly progressed in power levels level with greatly improved beam quality to the point where they now exceed any other commercial material processing laser. These lasers, with single mode operation to 1 kilowatt and multi-mode operation to beyond 20 kilowatts, have high wall plug efficiency, an extremely compact footprint, are maintenance free and have a predicted diode life beyond 100,000 hours of continuous operation. Fiber lasers are making inroads into the scientific, medical, government, and in particular, material processing markets. These lasers have greatly expanded the application umbrella due to their unparallel performance combined with the ability to operate at different wavelengths, address remote applications and be propagated great distances in fiber. In the material processing markets, fiber lasers are rapidly gaining share in the automotive, microelectronic, medical device and marking markets, to name a few. The single mode lasers are redefining process parameters that have been accepted for decades. The high brightness multimode-kilowatt class lasers are achieving speeds and depths greater than comparable powered conventional lasers while providing the only commercial material processing lasers operating beyond 6 kilowatts at the 1 micron region.

  4. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  5. Ensuring the Sustainability of Russian Federation National Nuclear Material Accounting System

    SciTech Connect

    Pitel, V; Kasumova, L; Kushnaryov, M; Babcock, R

    2006-06-07

    The Federal Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Information System (FIS) is the national information source on nuclear material accounting of the Russian Federation (RF). RF regulations mandated the creation of a national nuclear material accounting system to be managed by Federal Agency For Atomic Energy (Rosatom), and for the past decade, the FIS has been developed for all organizations required to report to Rosatom. The system represents a successful integration of U.S. financial support and consulting with Russian vision and technical expertise, creating a viable national nuclear material accounting system. This paper discusses crucial elements to ensure Sustainability of the FIS. A long-term plan for operation and maintenance of the information system is critical to a sustainable national accounting system. Plans undertaken throughout the FIS Project lifecycle have supported the necessary elements to ensure success. Through the next two years, long-term planning will be reevaluated and the successful elements and new initiatives will become part of an overall Operations Management Program. FIS resource needs will be managed through prioritization and ranking for each Program element, including: system operation; revising and implementing supporting regulations; establishing monitoring and control mechanisms to ensure validity of the data reported; maintaining and improving communication channels; and establishing regular FIS training. The results of a survey on improving FIS reporting, expected in June 2006, will be used in the prioritization and ranking process. Developing the Program and planning for long-term sustainability of the FIS will ensure a viable national nuclear material accounting system for the future.

  6. 78 FR 71532 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Form 327 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... regulations for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special nuclear material (SNM) and the...

  7. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  8. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  9. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  10. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  11. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  12. Material Protection, Control, and Accountancy (MPC&A) Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Mark; Farmer, James; Haase, Michael; Mann, Greg; Soo Hoo, Mark; Toth, William

    1999-07-21

    To date, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accountancy (MPC and A) program has assisted in the implementation of operational site-wide MPC and A systems at several nuclear facilities in Russia. Eleven sites from the civilian sector have completed the site-wide installations and two have completed sub-site installations. By the end of 1999, several additional sites will have completed site-wide and sub-site system installations through DOE assistance. the effort at the completed sites has focused primarily on the design, integration, and installation of upgraded MPC and A systems. In most cases, little work has been performed to ensure that the installed systems will be sustained. Because of concerns that the installed systems would not be operated in the future, DOE established a sustainability pilot program involving the 11 sites. The purpose of DOE's MPC and A Sustainability Program is to ensure that MPC and A upgrades installed at sites in Russia are effective and will continue to operate over the long term. The program mission is to work with sites where rapid upgrades have been completed to cultivate enduring and consistent MPC and A practices. The program attempts to assist the Russian sites to develop MPC and A organizations that will operate, maintain, and continue to improve the systems and procedures. Future assistance will strive to understand and incorporate culturally sensitive approaches so that the sites take ownership for all MPC and A matters. This paper describes the efforts of the sustainability program to date.

  13. Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide a starting point for principals looking for a way through the accountability maze. Each publication views accountability differently, but collectively these readings argue that even in an era of state-mandated assessment, principals can pursue proactive strategies that serve students' needs. James A.…

  14. Space processing of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

    1975-01-01

    Materials and processes for the testing of aluminum-base fiber and particle composites, and of metal foams under extended-time low-g conditions were investigated. A wetting and dispersion technique was developed, based on the theory that under the absence of a gas phase all solids are wetted by liquids. The process is characterized by a high vacuum environment and a high temperature cycle. Successful wetting and dispersion experiments were carried out with sapphire fibers, whiskers and particles, and with fibers of silicon carbide, pyrolytic graphite and tungsten. The developed process and facilities permit the preparation of a precomposite which serves as sample material for flight experiments. Low-g processing consists then merely in the uniform redistribution of the reinforcements during a melting cycle. For the preparation of metal foams, gas generation by means of a thermally decomposing compound was found most adaptable to flight experiments. For flight experiments, the use of compacted mixture of the component materials limits low-g processing to a simple melt cycle.

  15. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latanision, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    An annual report of the research activities of the Materials Processing Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. Research on dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment, phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids, transport properties of droplet clusters in gravity-free fields, probes and monitors for the study of solidification of molten semiconductors, fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth, and heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification are discussed.

  16. 18 CFR 367.1540 - Account 154, Materials and operating supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... include the book cost of materials recovered in connection with construction, maintenance or the..., Materials and operating supplies. (a) This account must include the cost of materials purchased primarily... materials consisting of large individual items must be included in this account at original cost,...

  17. Process for preparing energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Lee, Ronald S [Livermore, CA; Tillotson, Thomas M [Tracy, CA; Hrubesh, Lawrence W [Pleasanton, CA; Swansiger, Rosalind W [Livermore, CA; Fox, Glenn A [Livermore, CA

    2011-12-13

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  18. 27 CFR 18.51 - Processing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processing material. 18.51... material. (a) General. A proprietor may produce processing material or receive processing material produced elsewhere. Fermented processing material may not be used in the manufacture of concentrate....

  19. 27 CFR 18.51 - Processing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Processing material. 18.51... material. (a) General. A proprietor may produce processing material or receive processing material produced elsewhere. Fermented processing material may not be used in the manufacture of concentrate....

  20. 27 CFR 18.51 - Processing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing material. 18.51... material. (a) General. A proprietor may produce processing material or receive processing material produced elsewhere. Fermented processing material may not be used in the manufacture of concentrate....

  1. Laser processing of siliceous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzner, Michael; Lenk, Andreas; Wiedemann, Guenter R.; Hauptmann, Jan; Weiss, Hans J.; Ruemenapp, Thomas; Morgenthal, Lothar; Beyer, Eckhard

    2000-08-01

    Laser processing of siliceous materials becomes increasingly important. Analogous to the laser processing of conventional materials there are applications in the fields of cleaning, surface processing, cutting, etc. The present paper concerns the state of the art and new applications: (1) Laser cleaning of natural stone surfaces. The good disability allows restoration work to be carried out conveniently, as for example the complete removal of crusts or the removal to such degree that moisture is not trapped beneath. (2) Non-slip finish of polished natural stone surfaces: The excellent focusing of laser beams on spots as small as 100 micrometer and below can be exploited to produce macroscopically invisible structures on the surfaces of different materials. This permits microscopically small craters and lentil shaped depressions to be generated on the stone surface. Therefore it is possible to provide a non-slip finish to polished natural stone surfaces without noticeably impairing the gloss. (3) Concrete cutting: In Europe, and particularly in Germany, there is a growing demand for redevelopment of concrete apartment buildings, involving the removal of non-bearing walls and the cutting of openings. The temporal relocation of residents due to the noise and moisture from the use of diamond tools could be avoided by applying a laser cutting technology. With a 3 kW-Nd-YAG-laser, 70 mm concrete can be cut with rates up to 25 mm/min.

  2. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... fundamentals of an SNM control and accounting system, including criteria for the receipt, internal control... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In...

  3. 78 FR 67223 - Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility; Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... for Fuel Cycle Facility; Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing NRC Form 327 and Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... and Accounting Plans and Completing NRC Form 327 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION:...

  4. 78 FR 79328 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Form 327 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... and accounting (MC&A) of special nuclear material (SNM). The public meeting has been rescheduled...

  5. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance on recordkeeping and reporting requirements with respect to material control and accounting. This guide applies to all...

  6. Materials accounting in a fast-breeder-reactor fuels-reprocessing facility: optimal allocation of measurement uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Dayem, H.A.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Kern, E.A.; Markin, J.T.; Martinez, D.P.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of a materials accounting system for the feed preparation and chemical separations processes of a fast breeder reactor spent-fuel reprocessing facility. For the proposed accounting system, optimization techniques are used to calculate instrument measurement uncertainties that meet four different accounting performance goals while minimizing the total development cost of instrument systems. We identify instruments that require development to meet performance goals and measurement uncertainty components that dominate the materials balance variance. Materials accounting in the feed preparation process is complicated by large in-process inventories and spent-fuel assembly inputs that are difficult to measure. To meet 8 kg of plutonium abrupt and 40 kg of plutonium protracted loss-detection goals, materials accounting in the chemical separations process requires: process tank volume and concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 1%; accountability and plutonium sample tank volume measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.3%, a shortterm correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.04%; and accountability and plutonium sample tank concentration measurements having a precision less than or equal to 0.4%, a short-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.1%, and a long-term correlated error less than or equal to 0.05%. The effects of process design on materials accounting are identified. Major areas of concern include the voloxidizer, the continuous dissolver, and the accountability tank.

  7. Computational Material Processing in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Working with Professor David Matthiesen at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) a computer model of the DPIMS (Diffusion Processes in Molten Semiconductors) space experiment was developed that is able to predict the thermal field, flow field and concentration profile within a molten germanium capillary under both ground-based and microgravity conditions as illustrated. These models are coupled with a novel nonlinear statistical methodology for estimating the diffusion coefficient from measured concentration values after a given time that yields a more accurate estimate than traditional methods. This code was integrated into a web-based application that has become a standard tool used by engineers in the Materials Science Department at CWRU.

  8. Material control and accounting in the Department of Energy's nuclear fuel complex

    SciTech Connect

    1989-01-01

    Material control and accounting takes place within an envelope of activities related to safeguards and security, as well as to safety, health, and environment, all of which need to be managed to assure that the entire nuclear fuel complex can operate in a societally accepted manner. Within this envelope the committee was directed to carry out the following scope of work: (1) Review the MCandA systems in use at selected DOE facilities that are processing special nuclear material (SNM) in various physical and chemical forms. (2) Design and convene a workshop for senior representatives from each of DOE's facilities on the flows and inventories of nuclear materials. (3) Plan and conduct a series of site visits to each of the facilities to observe first hand the processing operations and the related MCandA systems. (4) Review the potential improvement in overall safeguard systems effectiveness, as measured by expected reduction in inventory difference control limits and inventory differences for materials balance accounts and facilities, or other criteria as appropriate. Indicate how this affects the relative degree of uncertainty in the system. (5) Review the efficiency of operating the MCandA system with and without the upgrading options and assess whether upgrading will contribute further efficiencies in operation, which may reduce many of the current operations costs. Determine if the current system is cost-effective. (6) Recommend the most promising technical approaches for further development by DOE and further study as warranted.

  9. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  10. Lunar materials processing system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this paper is that governmental resources will not permit the simultaneous development of all viable lunar materials processing (LMP) candidates. Choices will inevitably be made, based on the results of system integration trade studies comparing candidates to each other for high-leverage applications. It is in the best long-term interest of the LMP community to lead the selection process itself, quickly and practically. The paper is in five parts. The first part explains what systems integration means and why the specialized field of LMP needs this activity now. The second part defines the integration context for LMP -- by outlining potential lunar base functions, their interrelationships and constraints. The third part establishes perspective for prioritizing the development of LMP methods, by estimating realistic scope, scale, and timing of lunar operations. The fourth part describes the use of one type of analytical tool for gaining understanding of system interactions: the input/output model. A simple example solved with linear algebra is used to illustrate. The fifth and closing part identifies specific steps needed to refine the current ability to study lunar base system integration. Research specialists have a crucial role to play now in providing the data upon which this refinement process must be based.

  11. Computer-based accountability system (Phase I) for special nuclear materials at Argonne-West

    SciTech Connect

    Ingermanson, R.S.; Proctor, A.E.

    1982-05-01

    An automated accountability system for special nuclear materials (SNM) is under development at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Phase I of the development effort has established the following basic features of the system: a unique file organization allows rapid updating or retrieval of the status of various SNM, based on batch numbers, storage location, serial number, or other attributes. Access to the program is controlled by an interactive user interface that can be easily understood by operators who have had no prior background in electronic data processing. Extensive use of structured programming techniques make the software package easy to understand and to modify for specific applications. All routines are written in FORTRAN.

  12. Infants' understanding of everyday social interactions: a dual process account.

    PubMed

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Melinder, Annika

    2010-02-01

    Six- and 12-month-old infant's eye movements were recorded as they observed feeding actions being performed in a rational or non-rational manner. Twelve-month-olds fixated the goal of these actions before the food arrived (anticipation); the latency of these gaze shifts being dependent (r=.69) on infants life experience being feed. In addition, 6- and 12-month-olds dilated their pupil during observation of non-rational feeding actions. This effect could not be attributed to light differences or differences in familiarity, but was interpreted to reflect sympathetic-like activity and arousal caused by a violation of infant's expectations about rationality. We argue that evaluation of rationality requires less experience than anticipations of action goals, suggesting a dual process account of preverbal infants' everyday action understanding.

  13. Materialism Moderates the Effect of Accounting for Time on Prosocial Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibo; Chen, Yingying; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Accounting for time is defined as putting a price on time. Researchers have demonstrated that accounting for time reduces the time individuals spend on others; however, its association with monetary donations has not been examined. We hypothesized that accounting for time will activate a utility mindset that would affect one's allocation of time and money. In Study 1, the mediating effect of utility mindsets on the relationship between accounting for time and prosocial behavior was examined. In Study 2, we examined the effect of accounting for time on time spent helping and donating money, and the moderating role of material values on the relationship between accounting for time and prosocial behavior. Results showed that accounting for time activated a mindset of utility maximization that, in turn, reduced participants' prosocial behavior; moreover, materialism moderated the effect of accounting for time on prosocial behavior.

  14. Arguments Against a Configural Processing Account of Familiar Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Burton, A Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Jenkins, Rob; Kaufmann, Jürgen M

    2015-07-01

    Face recognition is a remarkable human ability, which underlies a great deal of people's social behavior. Individuals can recognize family members, friends, and acquaintances over a very large range of conditions, and yet the processes by which they do this remain poorly understood, despite decades of research. Although a detailed understanding remains elusive, face recognition is widely thought to rely on configural processing, specifically an analysis of spatial relations between facial features (so-called second-order configurations). In this article, we challenge this traditional view, raising four problems: (1) configural theories are underspecified; (2) large configural changes leave recognition unharmed; (3) recognition is harmed by nonconfigural changes; and (4) in separate analyses of face shape and face texture, identification tends to be dominated by texture. We review evidence from a variety of sources and suggest that failure to acknowledge the impact of familiarity on facial representations may have led to an overgeneralization of the configural account. We argue instead that second-order configural information is remarkably unimportant for familiar face recognition.

  15. Cascaded Bayesian processes: an account of bias in orientation perception.

    PubMed

    Langley, Keith; Lefebvre, Veronique; Anderson, Stephen J

    2009-10-01

    Following adaptation to an oriented (1-d) signal in central vision, the orientation of subsequently viewed test signals may appear repelled away from or attracted towards the adapting orientation. Small angular differences between the adaptor and test yield 'repulsive' shifts, while large angular differences yield 'attractive' shifts. In peripheral vision, however, both small and large angular differences yield repulsive shifts. To account for these tilt after-effects (TAEs), a cascaded model of orientation estimation that is optimized using hierarchical Bayesian methods is proposed. The model accounts for orientation bias through adaptation-induced losses in information that arise because of signal uncertainties and neural constraints placed upon the propagation of visual information. Repulsive (direct) TAEs arise at early stages of visual processing from adaptation of orientation-selective units with peak sensitivity at the orientation of the adaptor (theta). Attractive (indirect) TAEs result from adaptation of second-stage units with peak sensitivity at theta and theta+90 degrees , which arise from an efficient stage of linear compression that pools across the responses of the first-stage orientation-selective units. A spatial orientation vector is estimated from the transformed oriented unit responses. The change from attractive to repulsive TAEs in peripheral vision can be explained by the differing harmonic biases resulting from constraints on signal power (in central vision) versus signal uncertainties in orientation (in peripheral vision). The proposed model is consistent with recent work by computational neuroscientists in supposing that visual bias reflects the adjustment of a rational system in the light of uncertain signals and system constraints.

  16. Termination of Safeguards for Accountable Nuclear Materials at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Holzemer; Alan Carvo

    2012-04-01

    Termination of safeguards ends requirements of Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) and thereby removes the safeguards basis for applying physical protection requirements for theft and diversion of nuclear material, providing termination requirements are met as described. Department of Energy (DOE) M 470.4 6 (Nuclear Material Control and Accountability [8/26/05]) stipulates: 1. Section A, Chapter I (1)( q) (1): Safeguards can be terminated on nuclear materials provided the following conditions are met: (a) 'If the material is special nuclear material (SNM) or protected as SNM, it must be attractiveness level E and have a measured value.' (b) 'The material has been determined by DOE line management to be of no programmatic value to DOE.' (c) 'The material is transferred to the control of a waste management organization where the material is accounted for and protected in accordance with waste management regulations. The material must not be collocated with other accountable nuclear materials.' Requirements for safeguards termination depend on the safeguards attractiveness levels of the material. For attractiveness level E, approval has been granted from the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) Safeguards and Security (S&S). In some cases, it may be necessary to dispose of nuclear materials of attractiveness level D or higher. Termination of safeguards for such materials must be approved by the Departmental Element (this is the DOE Headquarters Office of Nuclear Energy) after consultation with the Office of Security.

  17. 48 CFR 30.604 - Processing changes to disclosed or established cost accounting practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disclosed or established cost accounting practices. 30.604 Section 30.604 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Administration 30.604 Processing changes to disclosed or established cost accounting...

  18. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  19. Materials processing in space: Early experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Herring, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of the space environment were reviewed. Potential applications of space processing are discussed and include metallurgical processing, and processing of semiconductor materials. The behavior of fluid in low gravity is described. The evolution of apparatus for materials processing in space was reviewed.

  20. Process Diagnostics: Materials, Combustion Fusion. Volume 117. Materials Research Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    reference volume for professionals working in the area of materials process control as well as a graduate level textbook for a course in applied ... spectroscopy or process engineering that might be given as part of a chemistry, physics, chemical or materials engineering curriculum.

  1. Test and evaluation of computerized nuclear material accounting methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    In accordance with the definition of a Material Balance Area (MBA) as a well-defined geographical area involving an Integral operation, the building housing the BFS-1 and BFS-1 critical facilities is considered to consist of one MBA. The BFS materials are in the form of small disks clad in stainless steel and each disk with nuclear material has its own serial number. Fissile material disks in the BFS MBA can be located at three key monitoring points: BFS-1 facility, BFS-2 facility and main storage of BFS fissile materials (storage 1). When used in the BFS-1 or BFS-2 critical facilities, the fissile material disks are loaded in tubes (fuel rods) forming critical assembly cores. The following specific features of the BFS MBA should be taken into account for the purpose of computerized accounting of nuclear material: (1) very large number of nuclear material items (about 70,000 fissile material items); and (2) periodically very intensive shuffling of nuclear material items. Requirements for the computerized system are determined by basic objectives of nuclear material accounting: (1) providing accurate information on the identity and location of all items in the BFS material balance area; (2) providing accurate information on location and identity of tamper-indicating devices; (3) tracking nuclear material inventories; (4) issuing periodic reports; (5) assisting with the detection of material gains or losses; (6) providing a history of nuclear material transactions; (7) preventing unauthorized access to the system and data falsification. In August 1995, the prototype computerized accounting system was installed on the BFS facility for trial operation. Information on two nuclear material types was entered into the data base: weapon-grade plutonium metal and 36% enriched uranium dioxide. The total number of the weapon-grade plutonium disks is 12,690 and the total number of the uranium dioxide disks is 1,700.

  2. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  3. Materials Processing Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    of microstructural evolution, (5) development of Gamma and Beta-Gamma titanium alloys towards rolled sheets for thermal protection applications, ( 6 ...the hydrostatic stress. This work was published in Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A by Nicolaou, Miller, and Semiatin [ 6 ]. 4 2.2.2 The...observed values for the Titanium 6242s measured by Porter and John, as well as Ti6- 4 alloy reported on by Chan in Mater. Trans, 2008. In addition

  4. Hybrid Laser Processing of Transparent Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Hiroyuki

    The following chapter is an overview of processing fused silica and other transparent materials by pulsed-laser irradiation: (1) Direct excitation of materials with multi-wavelength excitation processes, and (2) Media-assisted process with a conventional pulsed laser. A method to etch transparent materials by using laserinduced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA), or laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE), has been described in detail.

  5. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Hirth, John P.

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  6. Materials processing in space bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Literature dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes or with ground based activities that provide supporting research is listed. Included are Government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles. Subdivisions of the bibliography include the five categories: crystal growth; metals, alloys, and composites, fluids and transport; glasses and ceramics; and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies, in addition to a list of patents and a compilation of anonymously authored collections and reports and a cross reference index.

  7. Quest for Accountability: Exploring the Evaluation Process of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minelli, Eliana; Rebora, Gianfranco; Turri, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the organisational impact of evaluation and control mechanisms on universities from the point of view of accountability. Three case studies are analysed with the aim of understanding the significance of these systems both at corporate governance level and in relation to their influence on the behaviour of the academic staff.…

  8. 10 CFR 60.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 60.78 Section 60.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 60.78 Material control...

  9. 10 CFR 60.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 60.78 Section 60.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 60.78 Material control...

  10. 10 CFR 60.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 60.78 Section 60.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 60.78 Material control...

  11. 10 CFR 60.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 60.78 Section 60.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 60.78 Material control...

  12. 10 CFR 60.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 60.78 Section 60.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections § 60.78 Material control...

  13. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  14. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  15. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  16. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  17. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  18. Possibilities of Laser Processing of Paper Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Saukkonen, Esa; Piili, Heidi

    Nowadays, lasers are applied in many industrial processes: the most developed technologies include such processes as laser welding, hybrid welding, laser cutting of steel, etc. In addition to laser processing of metallic materials, there are also many industrial applications of laser processing of non-metallic materials, like laser welding of polymers, laser marking of glass and laser cutting of wood-based materials. It is commonly known that laser beam is suitable for cutting of paper materials as well as all natural wood-fiber based materials. This study reveals the potential and gives overview of laser application in processing of paper materials. In 1990's laser technology increased its volume in papermaking industry; lasers at paper industry gained acceptance for different perforating and scoring applications. Nowadays, with reduction in the cost of equipment and development of laser technology (especially development of CO2 technology), laser processing of paper material has started to become more widely used and more efficient. However, there exists quite little published research results and reviews about laser processing of paper materials. In addition, forest industry products with pulp and paper products in particular are among major contributors for the Finnish economy with 20% share of total exports in the year 2013. This has been the standpoint of view and motivation for writing this literature review article: when there exists more published research work, knowledge of laser technology can be increased to apply it for processing of paper materials.

  19. Material control and accountancy at EDF PWR plants; GCN: Gestion du Combustible Nucleaire

    SciTech Connect

    de Cormis, F. )

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the comprehensive system which is developed and implemented at Electricite de France to provide a single reliable nuclear material control and accounting system for all nuclear plants. This software aims at several objectives among which are: the control and the accountancy of nuclear material at the plant, the optimization of the consistency of data by minimizing the possibility of transcription errors, the fulfillment of the statutory requirements by automatic transfer of reports to national and international safeguards authorities, the servicing of other EDF users of nuclear material data for technical or commercial purposes.

  20. Space processing of electronic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    The bulk growth of solid solution alloys of mercury telluride and cadmium telluride is discussed. These alloys are usually described by the formula Hg1-xCdxTe, and are useful for the construction of infrared detectors. The electronic energy band gap can be controlled between zero and 1.6 electron volts by adjusting the composition x. The most useful materials are at x approximately 20%, suitable for detection wavelengths of about 10 micrometers. The problems of growing large crystals are rooted in the wide phase diagram of the HgTe-CdTe pseudobinary system which leads to exaggerate segregation in freezing, constitutional supercooling, and other difficulties, and in the high vapor pressure of mercury at the growth temperatures, which leads to loss of stoichiometry and to the necessity of working in strong, pressure resistant sealed containers.

  1. Assessing the integrity of local area network materials accountability systems against insider threats

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Sicherman, A.

    1996-07-01

    DOE facilities rely increasingly on computerized systems to manage nuclear materials accountability data and to protect against diversion of nuclear materials or other malevolent acts (e.g., hoax due to falsified data) by insider threats. Aspects of modern computerized material accountability (MA) systems including powerful personal computers and applications on networks, mixed security environments, and more users with increased knowledge, skills and abilities help heighten the concern about insider threats to the integrity of the system. In this paper, we describe a methodology for assessing MA applications to help decision makers identify ways of and compare options for preventing or mitigating possible additional risks from the insider threat. We illustrate insights from applying the methodology to local area network materials accountability systems.

  2. Laser Material Processing for Microengineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helvajian, H.

    1995-01-01

    The processing of materials via laser irradiation is presented in a brief survey. Various techniques currently used in laser processing are outlined and the significance to the development of space qualified microinstrumentation are identified. In general the laser processing technique permits the transferring of patterns (i.e. lithography), machining (i.e. with nanometer precision), material deposition (e.g., metals, dielectrics), the removal of contaminants/debris/passivation layers and the ability to provide process control through spectroscopy.

  3. SNMSP II: A system to fully automate special nuclear materials accountability reporting for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pareto, V.; Venegas, R.

    1987-07-01

    The USNRC requires each licensee who is authorized to possess Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) to prepare and submit reports concerning SNM received, produced, possessed, transferred, consumed, disposed of, or lost. These SNM accountability reports, which need to be submitted twice a year, contain detailed information on the origin, quantity, and type of SNM for several locations. The amount of detail required makes these reports very time consuming and error prone when prepared manually. Yankee Atomic is developing an IBM PC-based computer code that fully automates the process of generating SNM accountability reports. The program, called SNMSP II, prints a number of summaries including facsimiles of the NRC/DOE-741, 742, 742C, and RW-859 reports in a format that can be submitted directly to the NRC/DOE. SNMSP II is menu-driven and is especially designed for people with little or no computer training. Input can be either from a mainframe-based corporate data base or manually through user-friendly screens. In addition, extensive quality assurance features are available to ensure the security and accuracy of the data. This paper discusses the major features of the code and describes its implementation at Yankee.

  4. Infrared Database for Process Support Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, K. E.; Boothe, R. E.; Burns, H. D.

    2003-01-01

    Process support materials' compatibility with cleaning processes is critical to ensure final hardware cleanliness and that performance requirements are met. Previous discovery of potential contaminants in process materials shows the need for incoming materials testing and establishment of a process materials database. The Contamination Control Team of the Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing (MP&M) Department at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has initiated the development of such an infrared (IR) database, called the MSFC Process Materials IR database, of the common process support materials used at MSFC. These process support materials include solvents, wiper cloths, gloves, bagging materials, etc. Testing includes evaluation of the potential of gloves, wiper cloths, and other items to transfer contamination to handled articles in the absence of solvent exposure, and the potential for solvent exposure to induce material degradation. This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the initial testing completed through December 2002. It is anticipated that additional testing will be conducted with updates provided in future TMs.Materials were analyzed using two different IR techniques: (1) Dry transference and (2) liquid extraction testing. The first of these techniques utilized the Nicolet Magna 750 IR spectrometer outfitted with a horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR) crystal accessory. The region from 650 to 4,000 wave numbers was analyzed, and 50 scans were performed per IR spectrum. A dry transference test was conducted by applying each sample with hand pressure to the HATR crystal to first obtain a spectrum of the parent material. The material was then removed from the HATR crystal and analyzed to determine the presence of any residues. If volatile, liquid samples were examined both prior to and following evaporation.The second technique was to perform an extraction test with each sample in five different solvents.Once the scans were complete for

  5. Roadmap for Process Equipment Materials Technology

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-10-01

    This Technology Roadmap addresses the ever-changing material needs of the chemical and allied process industries, and the energy, economic and environmental burdens associated with corrosion and other materials performance and lifetime issues. This Technology Roadmap outlines the most critical of these R&D needs, and how they can impact the challenges facing today’s materials of construction.

  6. Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to the Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN), which was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory of NASA-Marshall. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. The data base is NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET) to be hazardous to the environment. The data base also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these materials.

  7. Advanced processing and properties of superhard materials

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, J.

    1995-06-01

    The author reviews fundamental aspects of Superhard Materials with hardness close to that of diamond. These materials include cubic boron nitride (c-BN), carbon nitride ({beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and diamondlike carbon. Since these materials are metastable at normal temperatures and pressures, novel methods of synthesis and processing of these materials are required. This review focuses on synthesis and processing, detailed materials characterization and properties of c-BN and {beta}C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and diamondlike carbon films.

  8. Precision grinding process development for brittle materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L; Davis, P J; Piscotty, M A

    1999-04-01

    High performance, brittle materials are the materials of choice for many of today's engineering applications. This paper describes three separate precision grinding processes developed at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory to machine precision ceramic components. Included in the discussion of the precision processes is a variety of grinding wheel dressing, truing and profiling techniques.

  9. A Shape-Based Account for Holistic Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Faces are processed holistically, so selective attention to 1 face part without any influence of the others often fails. In this study, 3 experiments investigated what type of facial information (shape or surface) underlies holistic face processing and whether generalization of holistic processing to nonexperienced faces requires extensive…

  10. Thermal plasma processing of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J.

    1992-02-01

    Emphasis has been on plasma synthesis of fine powders, plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), on related diagnostics, and on modeling work. Since plasma synthesis as well as plasma CVD make frequent use of plasma jets, the beginning has been devoted of plasma jets and behavior of particulates injected into such plasma jets. Although most of the construction of the Triple-Torch Plasma Reactor (TTPR) has already been done, modifications have been made in particular modifications required for plasma CVD of diamond. A new reactor designed for Counter-Flow Liquid Injection Plasma Synthesis (CFLIPS) proved to be an excellent tool for synthesis of fine powders as well as for plasma CVD. An attempt was made to model flow and temperature fields in this reactor. Substantial efforts were made to single out those parameters which govern particle size, size distribution, and powder quality in our plasma synthesis experiments. This knowledge is crucial for controlling the process and for meaningful diagnostics and modeling work. Plasma CVD of diamond films using both reactors has been very successful and we have been approached by a number of companies interested in using this technology for coating of tools.

  11. Reasoning on the Autism Spectrum: A Dual Process Theory Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Lewton, Marcus; Ashwin, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Dual process theory proposes two distinct reasoning processes in humans, an intuitive style that is rapid and automatic and a deliberative style that is more effortful. However, no study to date has specifically examined these reasoning styles in relation to the autism spectrum. The present studies investigated deliberative and intuitive reasoning…

  12. Processes of believing - a review and conceptual account.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Rüdiger J; Angel, Hans-Ferdinand

    2012-05-03

    Processes of believing are thought to have an important impact on the control of human behavior. Recently, neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have shown that believe processes involve brain areas known to be involved in emotion-related and cognitive processing. But there is a discrepancy between the increasing interest in empirical research and the lack of coherent terminology and conceptualization. We will show that in processes of believing, the medial frontal cortex plays a critical role within a widespread cortico-subcortical network owing to its role in valuation of internal and external events and in subjective control of action. Also, we will describe a model of processes of believing that integrates the divergent neurophysiological and conceptual aspects as a starting point for further interdisciplinary research questions.

  13. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  14. Reasoning on the Autism Spectrum: A Dual Process Theory Account.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Mark; Lewton, Marcus; Ashwin, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Dual process theory proposes two distinct reasoning processes in humans, an intuitive style that is rapid and automatic and a deliberative style that is more effortful. However, no study to date has specifically examined these reasoning styles in relation to the autism spectrum. The present studies investigated deliberative and intuitive reasoning profiles in: (1) a non-clinical sample from the general population with varying degrees of autism traits (n = 95), and (2) males diagnosed with ASD (n = 17) versus comparisons (n = 18). Taken together, the results suggest reasoning on the autism spectrum is compatible with the processes proposed by Dual Process Theory and that higher autism traits and ASD are characterised by a consistent bias towards deliberative reasoning (and potentially away from intuition).

  15. Planning for Materials Processing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A systems design study to describe the conceptual evolution, the institutional interrelationshiphs, and the basic physical requirements to implement materials processing in space was conducted. Planning for a processing era, rather than hardware design, was emphasized. Product development in space was examined in terms of fluid phenomena, phase separation, and heat and mass transfer. The effect of materials processing on the environment was studied. A concept for modular, unmanned orbiting facilities using the modified external tank of the space shuttle is presented. Organizational and finding structures which would provide for the efficient movement of materials from user to space are discussed.

  16. Fluid bed technology in materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, C.K.; Sathiyamoorthy, D.

    1999-01-01

    The author explores the various aspects of fluidization engineering and examines its applications in a multitude of materials processing techniques. Topics include process metallurgy, fluidization in nuclear engineering, and the pros and cons of various fluidization equipment. Gupta emphasizes fluidization engineering in high temperature processing, and high temperature fluidized bed furnaces.

  17. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  18. Ultrafast laser processing of glass-phase materials: mathematical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Tatiana N.; Surmenko, Elena L.; Chebotarevsky, Yury V.; Konyushin, Alexander V.; Popov, Ivan A.; Bessonov, Dmitry A.

    2013-11-01

    Glass-phase materials, such as glass-carbon, ceramics etc., are a wide class of substances applied in electronic industry. These materials often need special technologies for their processing. Unlike traditional methods of micromachining, focused ultrashort laser pulses of sufficiently high fluence makes it possible not only to avoid the majority of side effects, including temperature, but also to create a qualitatively new laser technology for "hard materials". When using ultrafast lasers in micromachining processes it is necessary to account the possible negative effects that occur in the processing of brittle materials. Removing material from the surface in cold ablation process caused by laser light, in such a short period of time with such a high rate, creates the area of high pressure in the interaction zone that could cause a microdamage of brittle materials. To study the stress-strain state arising in brittle materials under the influence of ultrafast lasers, the special physicalmathematical model of the process was formulated. As a measure of the mechanical action of laser radiation on the processed material in cold ablation the reactive force was taken. As a mechanical reaction of the treated glass-carbon substrate a back pressure generated by the reactive force was considered. Brittle materials suffer plastic deformation, as a rule, only in the areas of high-temperature heating. Hence, in case of picosecond treatment in cold ablation process the material, from a mechanical point of view, was seen as a perfectly elastic up to its destruction. From a geometrical point of view, the processed object was presented in the form of a thin rectangular plate, loosely founded on the elastic base.

  19. Material hardship and 529 college savings plan participation: the mitigating effects of Child Development Accounts.

    PubMed

    Wikoff, Nora; Huang, Jin; Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Experience of material hardship can adversely affect a family's ability to make long-term investments in children's development. We examine whether material hardship is associated with one indicator of such investments: participation in a tax-advantaged college savings plan (529 plan). Data for this study come from the SEED for Oklahoma Kids (SEED OK) experiment, an intervention that offers Child Development Accounts with financial incentives to encourage the accumulation of college savings for children from the time of their birth. Results show that material hardship is negatively associated with 529-plan participation, and this association varies by treatment status. At all levels of material hardship, treatment-group mothers are more likely to hold accounts than control-group mothers. These findings suggest that CDAs can be a useful policy tool to support families' financial preparation for college.

  20. Laser Materials Processing for NASA's Aerospace Structural Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagarathnam, Karthik; Hunyady, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Lasers are useful for performing operations such as joining, machining, built-up freeform fabrication, and surface treatment. Due to the multifunctional nature of a single tool and the variety of materials that can be processed, these attributes are attractive in order to support long-term missions in space. However, current laser technology also has drawbacks for space-based applications. Specifically, size, power efficiency, lack of robustness, and problems processing highly reflective materials are all concerns. With the advent of recent breakthroughs in solidstate laser (e.g., diode-pumped lasers) and fiber optic technologies, the potential to perform multiple processing techniques in space has increased significantly. A review of the historical development of lasers from their infancy to the present will be used to show how these issues may be addressed. The review will also indicate where further development is necessary to realize a laser-based materials processing capability in space. The broad utility of laser beams in synthesizing various classes of engineering materials will be illustrated using state-of-the art processing maps for select lightweight alloys typically found on spacecraft. Both short- and long-term space missions will benefit from the development of a universal laser-based tool with low power consumption, improved process flexibility, compactness (e.g., miniaturization), robustness, and automation for maximum utility with a minimum of human interaction. The potential advantages of using lasers with suitable wavelength and beam properties for future space missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will be discussed. The laser processing experiments in the present report were performed using a diode pumped, pulsed/continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (50 W max average laser power), with a 1064 nm wavelength. The processed materials included Ti-6AI-4V, Al-2219 and Al-2090. For Phase I of this project, the laser process conditions were varied and optimized

  1. Process for gasification of carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M.S.; Gorin, E.

    1984-04-03

    A process of tar destruction in gasification of carbonaceous material comprises providing a mixture of finely divided calcium compound of a particle size smaller than 65 mesh and finely divided carbonaceous material of a particle size smaller than 65 mesh, the calcium compound to carbonaceous material ratio being from about 0.5 to 1.0 and contacting the mixture with CO/sub 2/ and tar exothermally whereby the tar is destroyed.

  2. Processing of disyllabic compound words in Chinese aphasia: evidence for the processing limitations account.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Hung, Daisy L; Tse, John K-P; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Jie-Li; Tzeng, Ovid J-L

    2005-02-01

    The current study addresses the debate between so-called 'structural' and 'processing limitation' accounts of aphasia, i.e., whether language impairments reflect the 'loss' of linguistic knowledge or its representations, or instead reflect a limitation in processing resources. Confrontation-naming task and category-judgment tasks were used to examine and compare the performance of non-fluent and fluent aphasics on different compound types of nouns and verbs. We demonstrate that aphasic patients' performance is modulated by the canonicity of the particular compound type, a result that holds true even for the category in which patients show a 'selective category deficit.' These findings weigh against the 'loss' of linguistic representations as the underlying cause of noun-verb deficits, instead supporting a 'processing limitations' approach.

  3. Integrated processing of anthracite into sorption materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sych, N.V.; Kartel, N.T.; Nikolaichuk, A.D.; Strelko, V.V.; Tsyba, N.N.; Denisovich, V.A.

    2006-05-15

    The possibility of using anthracite to produce activated carbon in the form of microporous and mesoporous anthracite, a cation exchanger, and composite sorption materials was analyzed and the porometric properties of a variety of sorption materials based on anthracite from the Donets coal basin were studied. A flowsheet for integrated processing of anthracite to give a set of four products was composed.

  4. Processing lunar soils for oxygen and other materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, Christian W.; Gibson, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of lunar materials are excellent candidates for lunar oxygen production: ilmenite and silicates such as anorthite. Both are lunar surface minable, occurring in soils, breccias, and basalts. Because silicates are considerably more abundant than ilmenite, they may be preferred as source materials. Depending on the processing method chosen for oxygen production and the feedstock material, various useful metals and bulk materials can be produced as byproducts. Available processing techniques include hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and electrochemical and chemical reductions of silicates. Processes in these categories are generally in preliminary development stages and need significant research and development support to carry them to practical deployment, particularly as a lunar-based operation. The goal of beginning lunar processing operations by 2010 requires that planning and research and development emphasize the simplest processing schemes. However, more complex schemes that now appear to present difficult technical challenges may offer more valuable metal byproducts later. While they require more time and effort to perfect, the more complex or difficult schemes may provide important processing and product improvements with which to extend and elaborate the initial lunar processing facilities. A balanced R&D program should take this into account. The following topics are discussed: (1) ilmenite--semi-continuous process; (2) ilmenite--continuous fluid-bed reduction; (3) utilization of spent ilmenite to produce bulk materials; (4) silicates--electrochemical reduction; and (5) silicates--chemical reduction.

  5. Plasma-assisted microwave processing of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin (Inventor); Ylin, Tzu-yuan (Inventor); Jackson, Henry (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave plasma assisted method and system for heating and joining materials. The invention uses a microwave induced plasma to controllably preheat workpiece materials that are poorly microwave absorbing. The plasma preheats the workpiece to a temperature that improves the materials' ability to absorb microwave energy. The plasma is extinguished and microwave energy is able to volumetrically heat the workpiece. Localized heating of good microwave absorbing materials is done by shielding certain parts of the workpiece and igniting the plasma in the areas not shielded. Microwave induced plasma is also used to induce self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) process for the joining of materials. Preferably, a microwave induced plasma preheats the material and then microwave energy ignites the center of the material, thereby causing a high temperature spherical wave front from the center outward.

  6. 10 CFR 63.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 63.78 Section 63.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections §...

  7. 10 CFR 63.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 63.78 Section 63.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections §...

  8. 10 CFR 63.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 63.78 Section 63.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections §...

  9. 10 CFR 63.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 63.78 Section 63.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections §...

  10. 10 CFR 63.78 - Material control and accounting records and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Material control and accounting records and reports. 63.78 Section 63.78 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Records, Reports, Tests, and Inspections §...

  11. Student Readership of Supplemental, In-Chapter Material in Introductory Accounting Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toerner, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the author explored the extent to which students read the supplemental, in-chapter material contained in introductory accounting textbooks. A total of 668 students enrolled in 2002 spring and fall semesters at 3 universities in the southern United States participated in the study. The results showed that the participants considered…

  12. Detecting errors and anomalies in computerized materials control and accountability databases

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteson, R.; Hench, K.; Yarbro, T.; Baumgart, C.

    1998-12-31

    The Automated MC and A Database Assessment project is aimed at improving anomaly and error detection in materials control and accountability (MC and A) databases and increasing confidence in the data that they contain. Anomalous data resulting in poor categorization of nuclear material inventories greatly reduces the value of the database information to users. Therefore it is essential that MC and A data be assessed periodically for anomalies or errors. Anomaly detection can identify errors in databases and thus provide assurance of the integrity of data. An expert system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that examines these large databases for anomalous or erroneous data. For several years, MC and A subject matter experts at Los Alamos have been using this automated system to examine the large amounts of accountability data that the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility generates. These data are collected and managed by the Material Accountability and Safeguards System, a near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system. This year they have expanded the user base, customizing the anomaly detector for the varying requirements of different groups of users. This paper describes the progress in customizing the expert systems to the needs of the users of the data and reports on their results.

  13. Extraterrestrial materials processing and construction. [space industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.; Mckenzie, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Three different chemical processing schemes were identified for separating lunar soils into the major oxides and elements. Feedstock production for space industry; an HF acid leach process; electrorefining processes for lunar free metal and metal derived from chemical processing of lunar soils; production and use of silanes and spectrally selective materials; glass, ceramics, and electrochemistry workshops; and an econometric model of bootstrapping space industry are discussed.

  14. Developing standard performance testing procedures for material control and accounting components at a site

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn P; Bushlya, Anatoly V; Efimenko, Vladimir F; Ilyanstev, Anatoly; Regoushevsky, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    The condition of a nuclear material control and accountability system (MC&A) and its individual components, as with any system combining technical elements and documentation, may be characterized through an aggregate of values for the various parameters that determine the system's ability to perform. The MC&A system's status may be functioning effectively, marginally or not functioning based on a summary of the values of the individual parameters. This work included a review of the following subsystems, MC&A and Detecting Material Losses, and their respective elements for the material control and accountability system: (a) Elements of the MC&A Subsystem - Information subsystem (Accountancy/Inventory), Measurement subsystem, Nuclear Material Access subsystem, including tamper-indicating device (TID) program, and Automated Information-gathering subsystem; (b) Elements for Detecting Nuclear Material Loses Subsystem - Inventory Differences, Shipper/receiver Differences, Confirmatory Measurements and differences with accounting data, and TID or Seal Violations. In order to detect the absence or loss of nuclear material there must be appropriate interactions among the elements and their respective subsystems from the list above. Additionally this work includes a review of regulatory requirements for the MC&A system component characteristics and criteria that support the evaluation of the performance of the listed components. The listed components had performance testing algorithms and procedures developed that took into consideration the regulatory criteria. The developed MC&A performance-testing procedures were the basis for a Guide for MC&A Performance Testing at the material balance areas (MBAs) of State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE).

  15. Automation in a material processing/storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.; Gordon, J.

    1997-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently developing a new facility, the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF), to process and store legacy materials from the United States nuclear stockpile. A variety of materials, with a variety of properties, packaging and handling/storage requirements, will be processed and stored at the facility. Since these materials are hazardous and radioactive, automation will be used to minimize worker exposure. Other benefits derived from automation of the facility include increased throughput capacity and enhanced security. The diversity of materials and packaging geometries to be handled poses challenges to the automation of facility processes. In addition, the nature of the materials to be processed underscores the need for safety, reliability and serviceability. The application of automation in this facility must, therefore, be accomplished in a rational and disciplined manner to satisfy the strict operational requirements of the facility. Among the functions to be automated are the transport of containers between process and storage areas via an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV), and various processes in the Shipping Package Unpackaging (SPU) area, the Accountability Measurements (AM) area, the Special Isotope Storage (SIS) vault and the Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) vault. Other areas of the facility are also being automated, but are outside the scope of this paper.

  16. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    PubMed

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware.

  17. Materials Processing in Space (MPS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Insight is provided into the scientific rotationale for materials processing in space (MPS), and a comprehensive and cohesive approach for implementation and integration of the many, diverse aspects of MPS is described. The programmatic and management functions apply to all projects and activities implemented under MPS. It is intended that specific project plans, providing project unique details, will be appended to this document for endeavors such as the Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) Project, the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA) Project, the MPS/Spacelab (MPS/SL) Project, and the Materials Experiment Carrier (MEC) Payloads.

  18. Mimicry of natural material designs and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, G.M.; Richman, R.H.; McNaughton, W.P.

    1995-06-01

    Biological structural materials, although composed of unremarkable substances synthesized at low temperatures, often exhibit superior mechanical properties. In particular, the quality in which nearly all biologically derived materials excel is toughness. The advantageous mechanical properties are attributable to the hierarchical, composite, structural arrangements common to biological systems. Materials scientists and engineers have increasingly recognized that biological designs or processing approaches applied to man-made materials (biomimesis) may offer improvements in performance over conventional designs and fabrication methods. In this survey, the structures and processing routes of marine shells, avian eggshells, wood, bone, and insect cuticle are briefly reviewed, and biomimesis research inspired by these materials is discussed. In addition, this paper describes and summarizes the applications of biomineralization, self-assembly, and templating with proteins to the fabrication of thin ceramic films and nanostructure devices.

  19. High power DUV lasers for material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimura, Toshio; Kakizaki, Kouji; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Fujimoto, Junichi; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2016-11-01

    A frontier in laser machining has been required by material processing in DUV region because it is hard to get high power solid-state lasers in this spectral region. DUV excimer lasers are the only solution, and now the time has come to examine the new applications of material processing with DUV excimer lasers. The excimer lasers at 193nm and 248nm have been used in the semiconductor manufacturing for long years, and have field-proven stability and reliability. The high photon energy of 6.4 eV at 193nm is expected to interact directly with the chemical bond of hard-machining materials, such as CFRP, diamond and tempered glasses. We report the latest results of material processing by 193nm high power DUV laser.

  20. Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S., LLNL

    1998-07-15

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

  1. Material protection, control, and accounting enhancements through the Russian/US cooperative MPC & A program

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.C.; Sude, S.; Buckley, W.M.

    1997-11-01

    The cooperative Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Khimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC & A) project was initiated in June 1996. Since then, the GKhK has collaborated with Brookhaven, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories to test, evaluate, and implement MPC & A elements including bar codes, computerized nuclear material accounting software, nondestructive assay technologies, bulk measurement systems, seals, video surveillance systems, radio communication systems, metal detectors, vulnerability assessment tools, personnel access control systems, and pedestrian nuclear material portal monitors. This paper describes the strategy for implementation of these elements at the GKhK and the status of the collaborative efforts. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT): Modeling and Simulation Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, Benjamin; Dunn, Timothy; Durbin, Samual; Durkee, Joe W.; England, Jeff; Jones, Robert; Ketusky, Edward; Li, Shelly; Lindgren, Eric; Meier, David; Miller, Michael; Osburn, Laura Ann; Pereira, Candido; Rauch, Eric Benton; Scaglione, John; Scherer, Carolynn P.; Sprinkle, James K.; Yoo, Tae-Sic

    2016-08-05

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal. This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling. To aid in framing its long-term goal, during FY16, a modeling and simulation roadmap is being developed for three major areas of investigation: (1) radiation transport and sensors, (2) process and chemical models, and (3) shock physics and assessments. For each area, current modeling approaches are described, and gaps and needs are identified.

  3. Synthesis and processing of nanostructured materials

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    Significant and growing interest is being exhibited in the novel and enhanced properties of nanostructured materials. These materials, with their constituent phase or grain structures modulated on a length scale less than 100 nm, are artificially synthesized by a wide variety of physical, chemical, and mechanical methods. In this NATO Advanced Study Institute, where mechanical behavior is emphasized, nanostructured materials with modulation dimensionalities from one (multilayers) to three (nanophase materials) are mainly considered. No attempt is made in this review to cover in detail all of the diverse methods available for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. Rather, the basic principles involved in their synthesis are discussed in terms of the special properties sought using examples of particular synthesis and processing methodologies. Some examples of the property changes that can result from one of these methods, cluster assembly of nanophase materials, are presented.

  4. Space Environmental Effects on Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabbann, Leslie M.

    2009-01-01

    The Materials and Processes (M&P) Branch of the Structural Engineering Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) seeks to uphold the production of dependable space hardware through materials research, which fits into NASA's purpose of advancing human exploration, use, and development of space. The Space Environmental Effects projects fully support these Agency goals. Two tasks were assigned to support M&P. Both assignments were to further the research of material behavior outside of Earth's atmosphere in order to determine which materials are most durable and safe to use in space for mitigating risks. One project, the Materials on International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) task, was to compile data from International Space Station (ISS) experiments to pinpoint beneficial space hardware. The other project was researching the effects on composite materials of exposure to high doses of radiation for a Lunar habitat project.

  5. Artificial intelligence in the materials processing laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Materials science and engineering provides a vast arena for applications of artificial intelligence. Advanced materials research is an area in which challenging requirements confront the researcher, from the drawing board through production and into service. Advanced techniques results in the development of new materials for specialized applications. Hand-in-hand with these new materials are also requirements for state-of-the-art inspection methods to determine the integrity or fitness for service of structures fabricated from these materials. Two problems of current interest to the Materials Processing Laboratory at UAH are an expert system to assist in eddy current inspection of graphite epoxy components for aerospace and an expert system to assist in the design of superalloys for high temperature applications. Each project requires a different approach to reach the defined goals. Results to date are described for the eddy current analysis, but only the original concepts and approaches considered are given for the expert system to design superalloys.

  6. An improved approach for process monitoring in laser material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Hans-Georg; Pütsch, Oliver; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Process monitoring is used in many different laser material processes due to the demand for reliable and stable processes. Among different methods, on-axis process monitoring offers multiple advantages. To observe a laser material process it is unavoidable to choose a wavelength for observation that is different to the one used for material processing, otherwise the light of the processing laser would outshine the picture of the process. By choosing a different wavelength, lateral chromatic aberration occurs in not chromatically corrected optical systems with optical scanning units and f-Theta lenses. These aberrations lead to a truncated image of the process on the camera or the pyrometer, respectively. This is the reason for adulterated measurements and non-satisfying images of the process. A new approach for solving the problem of field dependent lateral chromatic aberration in process monitoring is presented. Therefore, the scanner-based optical system is reproduced in a simulation environment, to predict the occurring lateral chromatic aberrations. In addition, a second deflecting system is integrated into the system. By using simulation, a predictive control is designed that uses the additional deflecting system to introduce reverse lateral deviations in order to compensate the lateral effect of chromatic aberration. This paper illustrates the concept and the implementation of the predictive control, which is used to eliminate lateral chromatic aberrations in process monitoring, the simulation on which the system is based the optical system as well as the control concept.

  7. 49 CFR 1242.46 - Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46). 1242.46 Section 1242.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.46 Computers and data processing equipment (account...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.46 - Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46). 1242.46 Section 1242.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.46 Computers and data processing equipment (account...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.46 - Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46). 1242.46 Section 1242.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.46 Computers and data processing equipment (account...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.46 - Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46). 1242.46 Section 1242.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.46 Computers and data processing equipment (account...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.46 - Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46). 1242.46 Section 1242.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.46 Computers and data processing equipment (account...

  12. 17 CFR 202.190 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board budget approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (Regulation P) § 202.190 Public Company Accounting Oversight Board budget approval process. (a) Purpose. These... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public Company Accounting Oversight Board budget approval process. 202.190 Section 202.190 Commodity and Securities...

  13. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.33 Section 74.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF...

  14. Sol-gel processing of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.H.; Fox, G.L.; Simpson, R.L.; Lee, R.W.; Swansiger, R.W.; Simpson, L.R.

    1997-08-18

    As part of a new materials effort, we are exploring the use of sol- gel chemistry to manufacture energetic materials. Traditional manufacturing of energetic materials involves processing of granular solids. One application is the production of detonators where powders of energetic material and a binder are typically mixed and compacted at high pressure to make pellets. Performance properties are strongly dependent on particle size distribution, surface area of its constituents, homogeneity of the mix, and void volume. The goal is to produce detonators with fast energy release rate the are insensitive to unintended initiation. In this paper, we report results of our early work in this field of research, including the preparation of detonators from xerogel molding powders and aerogels, comparing the material properties with present state-of-the-art technology.

  15. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  16. Production of an English/Russian glossary of terminology for nuclear materials control and accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Schachowskoj, S.; Smith, H.A. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    The program plans for Former Soviet Union National Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems Enhancements call for the development of an English/Russian Glossary of MC and A terminology. This glossary was envisioned as an outgrowth of the many interactions, training sessions, and other talking and writing exercises that would transpire in the course of carrying out these programs. This report summarizes the status of the production of this glossary, the most recent copy of which is attached to this report. The glossary contains over 950 terms and acronyms associated with nuclear material control and accounting for safeguards and nonproliferation. This document is organized as follows: English/Russian glossary of terms and acronyms; Russian/English glossary of terms and acronyms; English/Russian glossary of acronyms; and Russian/English glossary of acronyms.

  17. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the electrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Electrochemical Plant (ECP) is the one of the Russian Federation`s four uranium enrichment plants and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. ECP is located approximately 200 km east of Krasnoyarsk in the closed city of Zelenogorsk (formerly Krasnoyarsk- 45). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with ECP in September of 1996. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with ECP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at ECP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  18. Simulation of materials processing: Fantasy or reality?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Thomas J.; Bright, Victor M.

    1994-01-01

    This experiment introduces students to the application of computer-aided design (CAD) and analysis of materials processing in the context of integrated circuit (IC) fabrication. The fabrication of modern IC's is a complex process which consists of several sequential steps. These steps involve the precise control of processing variables such as temperature, humidity, and ambient gas composition. In essence, the particular process employed during the fabrication becomes a 'recipe'. Due to economic and other considerations, CAD is becoming an indispensable part of the development of new recipes for IC fabrication. In particular, this experiment permits the students to explore the CAD of the thermal oxidation of silicon.

  19. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  20. Deprivation, context, and processing of textual materials.

    PubMed

    Singh, T; Dwivedi, C B

    1993-03-01

    Levy's (1983) familiarization and proofreading paradigm was used to examine the context-processing relationship during reading of Hindi textual materials. Sixty high- and 60 low-deprived male students in Classes 11 and 12 were asked to proofread error-filled passages of easy and difficult text. Familiarity was manipulated by presenting error-free versions of the passages to some subjects but not to others for a single reading before their actual proofreading. Familiar passages were processed faster than unfamiliar passages irrespective of students' deprivation and passage difficulty. Slow processing was recorded for highly deprived subjects and for easy passages. Faster processing was associated with higher error detection and higher short-term retention scores, whereas the opposite was true for slower processing. Familiarity enhanced short-term retention, suggesting some involvement of conceptually driven process even after familiarization. Findings are discussed in light of interactive processing models of reading.

  1. Heat accumulation during pulsed laser materials processing.

    PubMed

    Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas; Berger, Peter; Onuseit, Volkher; Wiedenmann, Margit; Freitag, Christian; Feuer, Anne

    2014-05-05

    Laser materials processing with ultra-short pulses allows very precise and high quality results with a minimum extent of the thermally affected zone. However, with increasing average laser power and repetition rates the so-called heat accumulation effect becomes a considerable issue. The following discussion presents a comprehensive analytical treatment of multi-pulse processing and reveals the basic mechanisms of heat accumulation and its consequence for the resulting processing quality. The theoretical findings can explain the experimental results achieved when drilling microholes in CrNi-steel and for cutting of CFRP. As a consequence of the presented considerations, an estimate for the maximum applicable average power for ultra-shorts pulsed laser materials processing for a given pulse repetition rate is derived.

  2. Materials evaluation for a transuranic processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, S.A., Schwenk, E.B. ); Divine, J.R. )

    1990-11-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company, with the assistance of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is developing a transuranium extraction process for preheating double-shell tank wastes at the Hanford Site to reduce the volume of transuranic waste being sent to a repository. The bench- scale transuranium extraction process development is reaching a stage where a pilot plant design has begun for the construction of a facility in the existing B Plant. Because of the potential corrosivity of neutralized cladding removal waste process streams, existing embedded piping alloys in B Plant are being evaluated and new'' alloys are being selected for the full-scale plant screening corrosion tests. Once the waste is acidified with HNO{sub 3}, some of the process streams that are high in F{sup {minus}} and low in Al and zr can produce corrosion rates exceeding 30,000 mil/yr in austenitic alloys. Initial results results are reported concerning the applicability of existing plant materials to withstand expected process solutions and conditions to help determine the feasibility of locating the plant at the selected facility. In addition, process changes are presented that should make the process solutions less corrosive to the existing materials. Experimental work confirms that Hastelloy B is unsatisfactory for the expected process solutions; type 304L, 347 and 309S stainless steels are satisfactory for service at room temperature and 60{degrees}C, if process stream complexing is performed. Inconel 625 was satisfactory for all solutions. 17 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Alternative starting materials for industrial processes.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J W

    1992-01-01

    In the manufacture of chemical feedstocks and subsequent processing into derivatives and materials, the U.S. chemical industry sets the current standard of excellence for technological competitiveness. This world-class leadership is attributed to the innovation and advancement of chemical engineering process technology. Whether this status is sustained over the next decade depends strongly on meeting increasingly demanding challenges stimulated by growing concerns about the safe production and use of chemicals without harmful impacts on the environment. To comply with stringent environmental regulations while remaining economically competitive, industry must exploit alternative benign starting materials and develop environmentally neutral industrial processes. Opportunities are described for development of environmentally compatible alternatives and substitutes for some of the most abundantly produced, potentially hazardous industrial chemicals now labeled as "high-priority toxic chemicals." For several other uniquely important commodity chemicals where no economically competitive, environmentally satisfactory, nontoxic alternative starting material exists, we advocate the development of new dynamic processes for the on-demand generation of toxic chemicals. In this general concept, which obviates mass storage and transportation of chemicals, toxic raw materials are produced in real time, where possible, from less-hazardous starting materials and then chemically transformed immediately into the final product. As a selected example for semiconductor technology, recent progress is reviewed for the on-demand production of arsine in turnkey electrochemical generators. Innovation of on-demand chemical generators and alternative processes provide rich areas for environmentally responsive chemical engineering processing research and development for next-generation technology. Images PMID:11607260

  4. Microwave processing of lunar materials: potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, T.T.; Cocks, F.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Wright, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The microwave processing of lunar materials holds promise for the production of either water, oxygen, primary metals, or ceramic materials. Extra high frequency microwave (EHF) at between 100 and 500 gigahertz have the potential for selective coupling to specific atomic species and a concomitant low energy requirement for the extraction of specific materials, such as oxygen, from lunar ores. The coupling of ultra high frequency (UHF) (e.g., 2.45 gigahertz) microwave frequencies to hydrogen-oxygen bonds might enable the preferential and low energy cost removal (as H/sub 2/O) of implanted protons from the sun or of adosrbed water which might be found in lunar dust in permanently shadowed polar areas. Microwave melting and selective phase melting of lunar materials could also be used either in the preparation of simplified ceramic geometries (e.g., bricks) with custom-tailored microstructures, or for the direct preparation of hermetic walls in underground structures. Speculatively, the preparation of photovoltaic devices based on lunar materials, especially ilmenite, may be a potential use of microwave processing on the moon. Preliminary experiments on UHF melting of terrestrial basalt, basalt/ilmenite and mixtures show that microwave processing is feasible.

  5. Plasma characterization studies for materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J.

    1995-12-31

    New applications for plasma processing of materials require a more detailed understanding of the fundamental processes occurring in the processing reactors. We have developed reactors offering specific advantages for materials processing, and we are using modeling and diagnostic techniques for the characterization of these reactors. The emphasis is in part set by the interest shown by industry pursuing specific plasma processing applications. In this paper we report on the modeling of radio frequency plasma reactors for use in materials synthesis, and on the characterization of the high rate diamond deposition process using liquid precursors. In the radio frequency plasma torch model, the influence of specific design changes such as the location of the excitation coil on the enthalpy flow distribution is investigated for oxygen and air as plasma gases. The diamond deposition with liquid precursors has identified the efficient mass transport in form of liquid droplets into the boundary layer as responsible for high growth, and the chemical properties of the liquid for the film morphology.

  6. PREFACE: Processing, Microstructure and Performance of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Yu Lung; Chen, John J. J.; Hodgson, Michael A.; Thambyah, Ashvin

    2009-07-01

    A workshop on Processing, Microstructure and Performance of Materials was held at the University of Auckland, School of Engineering, on 8-9 April 2009. Organised by the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland, this meeting consisted of international participants and aimed at addressing the state-of-the-art research activities in processing, microstructure characterization and performance integrity investigation of materials. This two-day conference brought together scientists and engineers from New Zealand, Australia, Hong Kong, France, and the United Kingdom. Undoubtedly, this diverse group of participants brought a very international flair to the proceedings which also featured original research papers on areas such as Materials processing; Microstructure characterisation and microanalysis; Mechanical response at different length scales, Biomaterials and Material Structural integrity. There were a total of 10 invited speakers, 16 paper presentations, and 14 poster presentations. Consequently, the presentations were carefully considered by the scientific committee and participants were invited to submit full papers for this volume. All the invited paper submissions for this volume have been peer reviewed by experts in the various fields represented in this conference, this in accordance to the expected standards of the journal's Peer review policy for IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The works in this publication consists of new and original research as well as several expert reviews of current state-of-the art technologies and scientific developments. Knowing some of the real constraints on hard-copy publishing of high quality, high resolution images, the editors are grateful to IOP Publishing for this opportunity to have the papers from this conference published on the online open-access platform. Listed in this volume are papers on a range of topics on materials research, including Ferguson's high strain

  7. A Closer Look at the A-76 Process: Analysis of Opinions from the General Accounting Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS A CLOSER LOOK AT THE A-76 PROCESS : ANALYSIS OF OPINIONS FROM THE GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE by...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Closer Look at the A-76 Process : Analysis of Opinions from the General Accounting Office 5...PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK ii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A CLOSER LOOK AT THE A-76 PROCESS : ANALYSIS OF OPINIONS FROM THE

  8. Fragmentation processes in two-phase materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, H. A.; Guimarães, A. V.; Andrade, J. S.; Nikolakopoulos, I.; Wittel, F. K.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the fragmentation process of solid materials with crystalline and amorphous phases using the the discrete element method. Damage initiates inside spherical samples above the contact zone in a region where the circumferential stress field is tensile. Cracks initiated in this region grow to form meridional planes. If the collision energy exceeds a critical value which depends on the material's internal structure, cracks reach the sample surface resulting in fragmentation. We show that this primary fragmentation mechanism is very robust with respect to the internal structure of the material. For all configurations, a sharp transition from the damage to the fragmentation regime is observed, with smaller critical collision energies for crystalline samples. The mass distribution of the fragments follows a power law for small fragments with an exponent that is characteristic for the branching merging process of unstable cracks. Moreover this exponent depends only on the dimensionally of the system and not on the microstructure.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TOOLS FOR MATERIAL AND PROCESS SELECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of tools are being used within the Sustainable Technology Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide decision-makers with information on environmentally favorable materials and processes. These tools include LCA (Life Cycle Assessment), GREENSCOPE (...

  10. Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

  11. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The history, strategy, and overall goal of NASA's Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications program for materials processing in space are described as well as the organizational structures and personnel involved. An overview of each research task is presented and recent publications are listed.

  12. 27 CFR 18.51 - Processing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing material. 18.51 Section 18.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.51...

  13. Materials processing in space program support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin; Vanalstine, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Activities in support of NASA's Materials Processing in Space (MPS) program are reported. The overall task of the MPS project support contract was to provide the organization and administration of colloquiums, science reviews, workshops, technical meetings, bibliographic services, and visiting scientist programs. The research objectives and accomplishments of the University Space Research Association visiting scientist team are also summarized.

  14. Materials processing in space: Future technology trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barter, N. J.

    1980-01-01

    NASA's materials processing in space- (MPS) program involves both ground and space-based research and looks to frequent and cost effective access to the space environment for necessary progress. The first generation payloads for research are under active design and development. They will be hosted by the Space Shuttle/Spacelab on Earth orbital flights in the early 1980's. hese missions will focus on the acquisition of materials behavior research data, the potential enhancement of Earth based technology, and the implementation of space based processing for specialized, high value materials. Some materials to be studied in these payloads may provide future breakthroughs for stronger alloys, ultrapure glasses, superior electronic components, and new or better chemicals. An operational 25 kW power system is expected to be operational to support sustained, systematic space processing activity beyond shuttle capability for second generation payload systems for SPACELAB and free flyer missions to study solidification and crystal growth and to process metal/alloys, glasses/ceramics, and chemicals and biologicals.

  15. Processing of materials for uniform field emission

    DOEpatents

    Pam, L.S.; Felter, T.E.; Talin, A.; Ohlberg, D.; Fox, C.; Han, S.

    1999-01-12

    This method produces a field emitter material having a uniform electron emitting surface and a low turn-on voltage. Field emitter materials having uniform electron emitting surfaces as large as 1 square meter and turn-on voltages as low as 16V/{micro}m can be produced from films of electron emitting materials such as polycrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon by the method of the present invention. The process involves conditioning the surface of a field emitter material by applying an electric field to the surface, preferably by scanning the surface of the field emitter material with an electrode maintained at a fixed distance of at least 3 {micro}m above the surface of the field emitter material and at a voltage of at least 500V. In order to enhance the uniformity of electron emission the step of conditioning can be preceded by ion implanting carbon, nitrogen, argon, oxygen or hydrogen into the surface layers of the field emitter material. 2 figs.

  16. Processing of materials for uniform field emission

    DOEpatents

    Pam, Lawrence S.; Felter, Thomas E.; Talin, Alec; Ohlberg, Douglas; Fox, Ciaran; Han, Sung

    1999-01-01

    This method produces a field emitter material having a uniform electron emitting surface and a low turn-on voltage. Field emitter materials having uniform electron emitting surfaces as large as 1 square meter and turn-on voltages as low as 16V/.mu.m can be produced from films of electron emitting materials such as polycrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon by the method of the present invention. The process involves conditioning the surface of a field emitter material by applying an electric field to the surface, preferably by scanning the surface of the field emitter material with an electrode maintained at a fixed distance of at least 3 .mu.m above the surface of the field emitter material and at a voltage of at least 500V. In order to enhance the uniformity of electron emission the step of conditioning can be preceeded by ion implanting carbon, nitrogen, argon, oxygen or hydrogen into the surface layers of the field emitter material.

  17. Where do the Nuclear Materials Management functions fit in the Materials Control and Accountability (MC and A) plan

    SciTech Connect

    DeVer, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Safeguards had its beginning in the early 1940s and has continued to grow through the stormy years in dealing with nuclear materials. MC and A Plans have been developed for each facility which includes requirements for containment, surveillance, internal controls, measurements, statistics, records and report systems, and inventory certification of its nuclear materials, in the context of how precisely the inventory is known at stated risk or confidence levels. The I and E Regulations, the newest document affecting the control system, are used for testing the current MC and A plan in place at each facility. Nuclear Materials Management activities also have reporting requirements that include: (1) Annual Forecast, (2) Materials Management Plan, (3) Quarterly Status Report, (4) Assessment Report, and (5) Scrap and Excess Material Management. Data used to generate reports for both functions come from the same data base and source documents at most facilities. The separation of sponsoring groups at the DOE for NM Accountability and NM Management can and does pose problems for contractors. In this paper, we will try to separate and identify these overlaps at the Facility and DOE level.

  18. Chemically amplified photoresist: Materials and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawloski, Adam Richard

    2002-01-01

    Advances in microfabrication technology to construct smaller and faster integrated circuits depend on improving resolution capabilities of patterning thin films of photoresist materials by photolithographic imaging. Positive-tone, chemically amplified photoresists represent one of the most important classes of photoresist materials. These materials function by the generation of a photoacid catalyst from the decomposition of a photoacid generator with exposure that catalyzes chemical reactions that alter the development rate of the exposed resist. Chemical amplification is derived from the fact that a single molecule of photogenerated catalyst may participate in numerous reactions. Photoacid catalyzes the cleavage of acid-labile protecting groups from the backbone of the resin polymer, increasing the dissolution rate of the resist in aqueous base. A pattern is formed in the photoresist film from the difference between dissolution rates of the exposed and unexposed material. The continual improvement of the resolution of chemically amplified resists depends on understanding, controlling, and optimizing the chemical processes that govern pattern formation, namely photoacid generation, resin deprotection, and resist dissolution. To elucidate how the formulation of the resist affects these processes, a systematic methodology was designed, validated and implemented to analyze the materials and processing of chemically amplified photoresist systems. The efficiency of photoacid generation and the concentration of photoacid produced upon exposure were determined for a wide range of resist formulations, processing conditions, and exposure technologies. The chemical structure of photoacid generators and base quenchers were found to affect the processes of acid-base neutralization, resin deprotection, and resist development. The reaction-diffusion process of photoacid to deprotect the resin was identified to depend on the concentration of the photoacid generator. A much

  19. 76 FR 30509 - Court Orders and Legal Processes Affecting Thrift Savings Plan Accounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... Part 1653 Court Orders and Legal Processes Affecting Thrift Savings Plan Accounts AGENCY: Federal... amendment which subjects TSP accounts to orders issued pursuant to the Mandatory Victims Restitution Act... in which child support orders and MVRA orders are payable. The amendments clarify that these...

  20. NRC materials licensing business process reengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued 6550 active licenses that authorize possession and use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear material. In October 1994, the NRC staff began to examine the process used to issue these licenses to identify ways to improve the process. In addition to examining the current process, the staff was directed to develop a new process design that would accomplish the following goals: (1) Maintain or raise the level of public safety achieved by the current process, (2) Perform licensing reviews and associated tasks an order of magnitude faster than the current process, (3) Exploit modern information technology as a fundamental part of the new process, and (4) Reduce the resources needed to carry out the licensing program to meet the projected 1997-1999 staffing levels. The method used for this examination is called Business Process Reengineering (BPR). BPR is the process of fundamentally changing the way work is performed so as to achieve radical performance improvements in speed, cost, and quality. Features of the new licensing process, scheduled to begin in 1996, are outlined in this paper.

  1. Barcode Automation (BCAuto) for Los Alamos Material Control and Accountability System

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Benny J; Chang, Hee Jin

    2012-06-04

    The plutonium facility is actively processing material on a daily basis at LANL (4000-5000 transactions/month): (1) Physical operations, material transformations, material mixing, splitting, etc.; and (2) Electronic manipulations resulting primarily from updated NDA measurements. Improvements in efficiency and effectiveness are essential due to impacts of recent Voluntary Separation Program and the need to meet mission requirements with fewer personnel. New storage requirements (DOE M 441.1-1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual) to protect worker safety require tracking of material and its corresponding container over long periods of time. Material at Risk tracking is essential to protect public safety and to ensure continuous operations to meet national security mission needs.

  2. Dielectric barrier discharge processing of aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. J.; Figgures, C. C.; Dixon, D. G.

    2004-08-01

    We report the use of atmospheric pressure, air based, dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) to treat materials commonly used in the aerospace industries. The material samples were processed using a test-bed of a conventional DBD configuration in which the sample formed one of the electrodes and was placed in close proximity to a ceramic electrode. The discharges generated a powerful, cold oxidizing environment which was able to remove organic contaminants, etch primer and paint layers, oxidize aluminium and roughen carbon fibre composites by the selective removal of resin.

  3. Early space experiments in materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the flight experiments conducted in conjunction with the United States Materials Processing in Space Program is presented. Also included are a brief description of the conditions prevailing in an orbiting spacecraft and the research implications provided by this unique environment. What was done and what was learned are summarized in order to serve as a background for future experiments. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of the physical sciences but no background in spaceflight experimentation or in the materials science per se.

  4. Materials and processing science: Limits for microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, R.

    1988-09-01

    The theme of this talk will be to illustrate examples of technologies that will drive materials and processing sciences to the limit and to describe some of the research being pursued to understand materials interactions which are pervasive to projected structure fabrication. It is to be expected that the future will see a progression to nanostructures where scaling laws will be tested and quantum transport will become more in evidence, to low temperature operation for tighter control and improved performance, to complex vertical profiles where 3D stacking and superlattices will produce denser packing and device flexibility, to faster communication links with optoelectronics, and to compatible packaging technologies. New low temperature processing techniques, such as epitaxy of silicon, PECVD of dielectrics, low temperature high pressure oxidation, silicon-germanium heterostructures, etc., must be combined with shallow metallurgies, new lithographic technologies, maskless patterning, rapid thermal processing (RTP) to produce needed profile control, reduce process incompatibilities and develop new device geometries. Materials interactions are of special consequence for chip substrates and illustrations of work in metal-ceramic and metal-polymer adhesion will be offered.

  5. 76 FR 72902 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee (MPETAC) will meet... controls applicable to materials processing equipment and related technology. Agenda Open Session...

  6. 17 CFR 202.190 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board budget approval process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., processes, staff skills, information and other technologies, human resources, capital assets, and other... Oversight Board budget approval process. 202.190 Section 202.190 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... (Regulation P) § 202.190 Public Company Accounting Oversight Board budget approval process. (a) Purpose....

  7. Tubular filamentation for laser material processing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chen; Jukna, Vytautas; Milián, Carles; Giust, Remo; Ouadghiri-Idrissi, Ismail; Itina, Tatiana; Dudley, John M.; Couairon, Arnaud; Courvoisier, Francois

    2015-01-01

    An open challenge in the important field of femtosecond laser material processing is the controlled internal structuring of dielectric materials. Although the availability of high energy high repetition rate femtosecond lasers has led to many advances in this field, writing structures within transparent dielectrics at intensities exceeding 1013 W/cm2 has remained difficult as it is associated with significant nonlinear spatial distortion. This letter reports the existence of a new propagation regime for femtosecond pulses at high power that overcomes this challenge, associated with the generation of a hollow uniform and intense light tube that remains propagation invariant even at intensities associated with dense plasma formation. This regime is seeded from higher order nondiffracting Bessel beams, which carry an optical vortex charge. Numerical simulations are quantitatively confirmed by experiments where a novel experimental approach allows direct imaging of the 3D fluence distribution within transparent solids. We also analyze the transitions to other propagation regimes in near and far fields. We demonstrate how the generation of plasma in this tubular geometry can lead to applications in ultrafast laser material processing in terms of single shot index writing, and discuss how it opens important perspectives for material compression and filamentation guiding in atmosphere. PMID:25753215

  8. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckannan, E. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A list of active research tasks as of the end of 1978 of the Materials Processing in Space Program of the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, involving several NASA Centers and other organizations is reported. An overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university and government communities is provided. The program, its history, strategy and overall goal; the organizational structures and people involved; and each research task are described. Tasks are categorized by ground based research according to four process areas. Cross references to the performing organizations and principal investigators are provided.

  9. Commercialization of materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Charles F.

    1986-01-01

    NASA research to date on materials processing in space (MPS) has revealed that microgravity conditions to a large degree eliminate normal convection, sedimentation, buoyancy, and deformations due to gravity, and permit the exploration of containerless processing. The goals of current NASA MPS work is to augment the fundamental database on MPS and to foster commercial participation in MPS. Techniques being applied by NASA to fulfill the latter goal are described, including technical exchange, industrial guest investigator and joint endeavor agreements, and tangible market incentives. Guidelines for each type of agreement are summarized.

  10. Processing and Properties of Airframe Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    the first year of the three-year program to characterize the relationship between microstruc - ture and fatigue behavior of beta processed Ti-6A1-4V...determine how the microstructural variables affect the macroscopic deformation behavior . Experiments have been performed with 7475 Al having various grain...sizes. The flow stress vs strain rate behavior for the mixed grain size materials is best described using the iso-strain rate concept. Observations of

  11. Computational Modeling in Structural Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    High temperature materials such as silicon carbide, a variety of nitrides, and ceramic matrix composites find use in aerospace, automotive, machine tool industries and in high speed civil transport applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used in processing such structural materials. Variations of CVD include deposition on substrates, coating of fibers, inside cavities and on complex objects, and infiltration within preforms called chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Our current knowledge of the process mechanisms, ability to optimize processes, and scale-up for large scale manufacturing is limited. In this regard, computational modeling of the processes is valuable since a validated model can be used as a design tool. The effort is similar to traditional chemically reacting flow modeling with emphasis on multicomponent diffusion, thermal diffusion, large sets of homogeneous reactions, and surface chemistry. In the case of CVI, models for pore infiltration are needed. In the present talk, examples of SiC nitride, and Boron deposition from the author's past work will be used to illustrate the utility of computational process modeling.

  12. Semiconductor CMP Process Control Predicting Degradation Effect of Consumed Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Kenji; Kaneko, Shun'ichi

    This paper describes a methodology to build a virtual metrology (VM) model for semiconductor chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process control. The VM model predicts the polishing rate based on equipment-derived data as soon as allowed, and immediately applies the results to advanced process control (APC). The proposed methodology uses Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to build an analytical model with many parameters for individual consumed materials from historical data in small quantities. The mutual interference of two kinds of consumed materials: dresser and pad are modeled in a form of multilevel predictive model. The methodology uses MCMC methods again to identify the multilevel predictive model taking into account the assumed operation of an actual manufacturing line, for instance, using preliminary test result, learning a model parameter online, and being affected by metrology lag as disturbance. The simulation results show the APC with the proposed VM model is low sensitivity to metrology lag and high precision on polishing amount control.

  13. 18 CFR 367.1540 - Account 154, Materials and operating supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1540 Account 154... ascertained without undue refinement in accounting, must be included in this account at current prices new...

  14. 18 CFR 367.1540 - Account 154, Materials and operating supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1540 Account 154... ascertained without undue refinement in accounting, must be included in this account at current prices new...

  15. 18 CFR 367.1540 - Account 154, Materials and operating supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1540 Account 154... ascertained without undue refinement in accounting, must be included in this account at current prices new...

  16. 18 CFR 367.1540 - Account 154, Materials and operating supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1540 Account 154... ascertained without undue refinement in accounting, must be included in this account at current prices new...

  17. On-Orbit Testing of Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Luz, P.; Smith, G. A.; Spivey, R.; Jeter, L.; Volz, M. P.; Gillies, D. C.; Hua, F.; Anilkumar, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) and the In-Space Soldering Investigation (ISSI) were conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS) with the intent of promoting our understanding of materials processing in a low-gravity environment. The numerous experiments were conducted by telescience with the results evaluated by real time video and subsequently returned tapes and samples. In addition to discussing the experimental results and analysis the presentation will include an account of the ISS facilities (Microgravity Science Glovebox and Maintenance Work Area) used as well as some lessons-learned comments.

  18. Femtosecond laser processing of fuel injectors - a materials processing evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B C; Wynne, A

    2000-12-16

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a new laser-based machining technology that utilizes ultrashort-pulse (0.1-1.0 picosecond) lasers to cut materials with negligible generation of heat or shock. The ultrashort pulse laser, developed for the Department of Energy (Defense Programs) has numerous applications in operations requiring high precision machining. Due to the extremely short duration of the laser pulse, material removal occurs by a different physical mechanism than in conventional machining. As a result, any material (e.g., hardened steel, ceramics, diamond, silicon, etc.) can be machined with minimal heat-affected zone or damage to the remaining material. As a result of the threshold nature of the process, shaped holes, cuts, and textures can be achieved with simple beam shaping. Conventional laser tools used for cutting or high-precision machining (e.g., sculpting, drilling) use long laser pulses (10{sup -8} to over 1 sec) to remove material by heating it to the melting or boiling point (Figure 1.1a). This often results in significant damage to the remaining material and produces considerable slag (Figure 1.2a). With ultrashort laser pulses, material is removed by ionizing the material (Figure 1.1b). The ionized plasma expands away from the surface too quickly for significant energy transfer to the remaining material. This distinct mechanism produces extremely precise and clean-edged holes without melting or degrading the remaining material (Figures 1.2 and 1.3). Since only a very small amount of material ({approx} <0.5 microns) is removed per laser pulse, extremely precise machining can be achieved. High machining speed is achieved by operating the lasers at repetition rates up to 10,000 pulses per second. As a diagnostic, the character of the short-pulse laser produced plasma enables determination of the material being machined between pulses. This feature allows the machining of multilayer materials, metal on metal or metal on

  19. Materials processing in space program tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Active research areas as of the end of the fiscal year 1982 of the Materials Processing in Space Program, NASA-Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications, involving several NASA centers and other organizations are highlighted to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program is described as well as its history, strategy and overall goal; the organizational structures and people involved are identified and each research task is described together with a list of recent publications. The tasks are grouped into four categories: crystal growth; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, transports, and chemical processes; and ultrahigh vacuum and containerless processing technologies.

  20. Process Research of Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A passivation process (hydrogenation) that will improve the power generation of solar cells fabricated from presently produced, large grain, cast polycrystalline silicon (Semix), a potentially low cost material are developed. The first objective is to verify the operation of a DC plasma hydrogenation system and to investigate the effect of hydrogen on the electrical performance of a variety of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. The second objective is to parameterize and optimize a hydrogenation process for cast polycrystalline silicon, and will include a process sensitivity analysis. The sample preparation for the first phase is outlined. The hydrogenation system is described, and some early results that were obtained using the hydrogenation system without a plasma are summarized. Light beam induced current (LBIC) measurements of minicell samples, and their correlation to dark current voltage characteristics, are discussed.

  1. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  2. New automated inventory/material accounting system (AIMAS) version for former Soviet Union countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Sakunov, Igor; Drapey, Sergey; Nations, Jim

    2009-01-01

    AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application for site-level nuclear material accountancy that was originally developed in the late 90's as a part of the U.S Department of Energy Assistance Program to Ukraine. Designed to be flexible and secure, plus place minimal demands on computing infrastructure, it was originally developed to run in early Windows operating system (OS) environments like W98 and W3.1. The development, support, and maintenance of AIMAS were transferred to Ukraine in 2002. Because it is highly flexible and can be configured to meet diverse end-user's needs, the software has been used at several facilities in Ukraine. Incorporating added functionality is planned to support nuclear installations in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, as well. An improved 32-bit version of AIMAS has recently been developed to operate effectively on modern PCs running the latest Windows OS by AVIS, the Ukrainian developer. In the paper we discuss the status of AIMAS, plans for new functions, and describe the strategy for addressing a sustainable software life-cycle while meeting user requirements in multiple FSU countries.

  3. Manned Spacecraft Requirements for Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    A major cause of project failure can be attributed to an emphasized focus on end products and inadequate attention to resolving development risks during the initial phases of a project. The initial phases of a project, which we will call the "study period", are critical to determining project scope and costs, and can make or break most projects. If the requirements are not defined adequately, how can the scope be adequately determined, also how can the costs of the entire project be effectively estimated, and how can the risk of project success be accurately assessed? Using the proper material specifications and standards and incorporating these specifications and standards in the design process should be considered inherently crucial to the technical success of a project as just as importantly, crucial to the cost and schedule success. This paper will intertwine several important aspects or considerations for project success: 1) Characteristics of a "Good Material Requirement"; 2) Linking material requirements to the implementation of "Design for Manufacturing"; techniques and 3) The importance of decomposing materials requirements during the study phase/development phase to mitigate project risk for the maturation of technologies before the building of hardware.

  4. Short-pulse laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Myers, B.R.; Banks, P.S.; Honea, E.C.

    1997-06-18

    While there is much that we have learned about materials processing in the ultrashort-pulse regime, there is an enormous amount that we don`t know. How short does the pulse have to be to achieve a particular cut (depth, material, quality)? How deep can you cut? What is the surface roughness? These questions are clearly dependent upon the properties of the material of interest along with the short-pulse interaction physics. From a technology standpoint, we are asked: Can you build a 100 W average power system ? A 1000 W average power system? This proposal seeks to address these questions with a combined experimental and theoretical program of study. Specifically, To develop an empirical database for both metals and dielectrics which can be used to determine the pulse duration and wavelength necessary to achieve a specific machining requirement. To investigate Yb:YAG as a potential laser material for high average power short-pulse systems both directly and in combination with titanium doped sapphire. To develop a conceptual design for a lOOW and eventually 5OOW average power short-pulse system.

  5. Skylab materials processing facility experiment developer's report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the Skylab M512 Materials Processing Facility is traced from the design of a portable, self-contained electron beam welding system for terrestrial applications to the highly complex experiment system ultimately developed for three Skylab missions. The M512 experiment facility was designed to support six in-space experiments intended to explore the advantages of manufacturing materials in the near-zero-gravity environment of Earth orbit. Detailed descriptions of the M512 facility and related experiment hardware are provided, with discussions of hardware verification and man-machine interfaces included. An analysis of the operation of the facility and experiments during the three Skylab missions is presented, including discussions of the hardware performance, anomalies, and data returned to earth.

  6. Advancements in MEMS materials and processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivas, John D.; Bolin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    From achievements in display imaging to air bag deployment, microelectromechanical systems are becoming more commonplace in everyday life. With an abundance of opportunities for innovative R&D in the field, the research trends are not only directed toward novel sensor and actuator development, but also toward further miniaturization, specifically achieving micro- and nanoscaled integrated systems. R&D efforts in space, military, and commercial applications are directing specific research programs focused on the area of materials science as an enabling technology to be exploited by researchers and to further push the envelope of micrometerscaled device technology. These endeavors are making significant progress in bringing this aspect of the microelectro-mechanical field to maturation through advances in materials and processing technologies.

  7. Pulsed Laser Processing of Paper Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schechtel, Florian; Reg, Yvonne; Zimmermann, Maik; Stocker, Thomas; Knorr, Fabian; Mann, Vincent; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    At present the trends in paper and packaging industries are the personalization of products and the use of novel high-tech materials. Laser processes as non-contact and flexible techniques seem to be the obvious choice to address those developments. In this paper we present a basic understanding of the occurring mechanisms of laser based engraving of different paper and paperboard materials, using a picosecond laser source at 1064 nm. The influences on the beam-paper-interaction of grammage, the composition of the paper matrix, as well as the paper inherent cellulose fibers were investigated. Here the ablation threshold of commercially available paper was determined and a matrix ablation effect under the 1064 nm radiation observed. These results were characterized and qualified mainly by means of laser scanning microscope (LSM) micrographs in combination with color-space analytics.

  8. Cibachrome testing. [photographic processing and printing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The use of Cibachrome products as a solution to problems encountered when contact printing Kodak film type SO-397 onto Kodak Ektrachrome color reversal paper type 1993 is investigated. A roll of aerial imagery consisting of Kodak film types SO-397 and 2443 was contact printed onto Cibachrome and Kodak materials and compared in terms of color quality, resolution, cost, and compatibility with existing equipment and techniques. Objective measurements are given in terms of resolution and sensitometric response. Comparison prints and transparencies were viewed and ranked according to overall quality and aesthetic appeal. It is recommended that Cibachrome Print material be used in place of Kodak Ektachrome paper because it is more easily processed, the cost is equivalent, and it provides improved resolution, color quality, and image fade resistance.

  9. 2010 Membranes: Materials & Processes Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Lin

    2010-07-30

    The GRC series on Membranes: Materials and Processes have gained significant international recognition, attracting leading experts on membranes and other related areas from around the world. It is now known for being an interdisciplinary and synergistic meeting. The next summer's edition will keep with the past tradition and include new, exciting aspects of material science, chemistry, chemical engineering, computer simulation with participants from academia, industry and national laboratories. This edition will focus on cutting edge topics of membranes for addressing several grand challenges facing our society, in particular, energy, water, health and more generally sustainability. During the technical program, we want to discuss new membrane structure and characterization techniques, the role of advanced membranes and membrane-based processes in sustainability/environment (including carbon dioxide capture), membranes in water processes, and membranes for biological and life support applications. As usual, the informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the oral presentations and posters, and ample opportunity to meet many outstanding colleagues make this an excellent conference for established scientists as well as for students. A Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on the weekend prior to the GRC meeting will provide young researchers an opportunity to present their work and network with outstanding experts. It will also be a right warm-up for the conference participants to join and enjoy the main conference.

  10. Microwave processing of materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Garard, R.S.

    1997-11-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Lambda Technologies, Inc. (Lambda) of Raleigh, N.C., was initiated in May 1995. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research, Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion data for the Agreement was December 31, 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF); and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The VFMF, whose initial conception and design was funded by the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  11. Saving Material with Systematic Process Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerausch, M.

    2011-08-01

    Global competition is forcing the stamping industry to further increase quality, to shorten time-to-market and to reduce total cost. Continuous balancing between these classical time-cost-quality targets throughout the product development cycle is required to ensure future economical success. In today's industrial practice, die layout standards are typically assumed to implicitly ensure the balancing of company specific time-cost-quality targets. Although die layout standards are a very successful approach, there are two methodical disadvantages. First, the capabilities for tool design have to be continuously adapted to technological innovations; e.g. to take advantage of the full forming capability of new materials. Secondly, the great variety of die design aspects have to be reduced to a generic rule or guideline; e.g. binder shape, draw-in conditions or the use of drawbeads. Therefore, it is important to not overlook cost or quality opportunities when applying die design standards. This paper describes a systematic workflow with focus on minimizing material consumption. The starting point of the investigation is a full process plan for a typical structural part. All requirements are definedaccording to a predefined set of die design standards with industrial relevance are fulfilled. In a first step binder and addendum geometry is systematically checked for material saving potentials. In a second step, blank shape and draw-in are adjusted to meet thinning, wrinkling and springback targets for a minimum blank solution. Finally the identified die layout is validated with respect to production robustness versus splits, wrinkles and springback. For all three steps the applied methodology is based on finite element simulation combined with a stochastical variation of input variables. With the proposed workflow a well-balanced (time-cost-quality) production process assuring minimal material consumption can be achieved.

  12. Secondary Students' Accounts of Carbon-Transforming Processes before and after Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyancha, Kennedy M.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which more targeted instruction is helpful in eliciting students' scientific explanations of six selected carbon-transforming processes of combustion, cross processes, decomposition, growth, photosynthesis and respiration. We also examined these students' accounts regarding the corresponding…

  13. Opportunities for commercial materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, James A.

    1985-01-01

    The availability status (as of November 1985) of NASA space and ground facilities for commercial materials-processing activities is surveyed. The organizational structure of the agencies managing these activities is outlined; ongoing joint-endeavor agreements are listed and described; the legal procedures involved are considered; the capabilities and limitations of the Shuttle middeck and cargo bay and the Hitchhiker module are characterized; experiments using the Drop Tower are examined; and the Industrial Guest Investigator program is reviewed. Extensive drawings, diagrams, and tables are provided.

  14. Solar Energy: Materials, Materials Handling, and Fabrication Processes: Student Material. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, William Everet; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "Materials, Materials Handling, and Fabrication Processes," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, exercises, worksheets, bibliographies, and illustrations for 13 course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the…

  15. Process for Coating Substrates with Catalytic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klelin, Ric J. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A process for forming catalysts by coating substrates with two or more catalytic components, which comprises the following sequence of steps. First, the substrate is infused with an adequate amount of solution having a starting material comprising a catalytic component precursor, wherein the thermal decomposition product of the catalytic component precursor is a catalytic component. Second, the excess of the solution is removed from the substrate. thereby leaving a coating of the catalytic component precursor on the surface of the substrate. Third, the coating of the catalytic component precursor is converted to the catalytic component by thermal decomposition. Finally, the coated substance is etched to increase the surface area. The list three steps are then repeated for at least a second catalytic component. This process is ideally suited for application in producing efficient low temperature oxidation catalysts.

  16. Finite Element Analysis of Layered Fiber Composite Structures Accounting for the Material's Microstructure and Delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, Bertram; Simon, Jaan-Willem; Reese, Stefanie

    2015-04-01

    The present paper focuses on composite structures which consist of several layers of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). For such layered composite structures, delamination constitutes one of the major failure modes. Predicting its initiation is essential for the design of these composites. Evaluating stress-strength relation based onset criteria requires an accurate representation of the through-the-thickness stress distribution, which can be particularly delicate in the case of shell-like structures. Thus, in this paper, a solid-shell finite element formulation is utilized which allows to incorporate a fully three-dimensional material model while still being suitable for applications involving thin structures. Moreover, locking phenomena are cured by using both the EAS and the ANS concept, and numerical efficiency is ensured through reduced integration. The proposed anisotropic material model accounts for the material's micro-structure by using the concept of structural tensors. It is validated by comparison to experimental data as well as by application to numerical examples.

  17. Field mappers for laser material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Paul; Currie, Matthew; Trela, Natalia; Baker, Howard J.; Murphy, Eoin; Walker, Duncan; McBride, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The native shape of the single-mode laser beam used for high power material processing applications is circular with a Gaussian intensity profile. Manufacturers are now demanding the ability to transform the intensity profile and shape to be compatible with a new generation of advanced processing applications that require much higher precision and control. We describe the design, fabrication and application of a dual-optic, beam-shaping system for single-mode laser sources, that transforms a Gaussian laser beam by remapping - hence field mapping - the intensity profile to create a wide variety of spot shapes including discs, donuts, XY separable and rotationally symmetric. The pair of optics transform the intensity distribution and subsequently flatten the phase of the beam, with spot sizes and depth of focus close to that of a diffraction limited beam. The field mapping approach to beam-shaping is a refractive solution that does not add speckle to the beam, making it ideal for use with single mode laser sources, moving beyond the limits of conventional field mapping in terms of spot size and achievable shapes. We describe a manufacturing process for refractive optics in fused silica that uses a freeform direct-write process that is especially suited for the fabrication of this type of freeform optic. The beam-shaper described above was manufactured in conventional UV-fused silica using this process. The fabrication process generates a smooth surface (<1nm RMS), leading to laser damage thresholds of greater than 100J/cm2, which is well matched to high power laser sources. Experimental verification of the dual-optic filed mapper is presented.

  18. An analytical model accounting for tip shape evolution during atom probe analysis of heterogeneous materials.

    PubMed

    Rolland, N; Larson, D J; Geiser, B P; Duguay, S; Vurpillot, F; Blavette, D

    2015-12-01

    An analytical model describing the field evaporation dynamics of a tip made of a thin layer deposited on a substrate is presented in this paper. The difference in evaporation field between the materials is taken into account in this approach in which the tip shape is modeled at a mesoscopic scale. It was found that the non-existence of sharp edge on the surface is a sufficient condition to derive the morphological evolution during successive evaporation of the layers. This modeling gives an instantaneous and smooth analytical representation of the surface that shows good agreement with finite difference simulations results, and a specific regime of evaporation was highlighted when the substrate is a low evaporation field phase. In addition, the model makes it possible to calculate theoretically the tip analyzed volume, potentially opening up new horizons for atom probe tomographic reconstruction.

  19. Nuclear Material Accountability Applications of a Continuous Energy and Direction Gamma Ray Detector

    SciTech Connect

    David Gerts; Robert Bean; Marc Paff

    2010-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has recently developed a detector system based on the principle of a Wilson cloud chamber that gives the original energy and direction to a gamma ray source. This detector has the properties that the energy resolution is continuous and the direction to the source can be resolved to desired fidelity. Furthermore, the detector has low power requirements, is durable, operates in widely varying environments, and is relatively cheap to produce. This detector is expected, however, to require significant time to perform measurements. To mitigate the significant time for measurements, the detector is expected to scale to very large sizes with a linear increase in cost. For example, the proof of principle detector is approximately 30,000 cm3. This work describes the technical results that lead to these assertions. Finally, the applications of this detector are described in the context of nuclear material accountability.

  20. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L.

    1994-12-08

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility.

  1. 18 CFR 347.1 - Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies. 347.1 Section 347.1... REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE DEPRECIATION STUDIES § 347.1 Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies. (a) Means of...

  2. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  3. Material Control and Accounting Design Considerations for High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard; John Hockert

    2011-08-01

    The subject of this report is domestic safeguards and security by design (2SBD) for high-temperature gas reactors, focusing on material control and accountability (MC&A). The motivation for the report is to provide 2SBD support to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, which was launched by Congress in 2005. This introductory section will provide some background on the NGNP project and an overview of the 2SBD concept. The remaining chapters focus specifically on design aspects of the candidate high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) relevant to MC&A, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements, and proposed MC&A approaches for the two major HTGR reactor types: pebble bed and prismatic. Of the prismatic type, two candidates are under consideration: (1) GA's GT-MHR (Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor), and (2) the Modular High-Temperature Reactor (M-HTR), a derivative of Areva's Antares reactor. The future of the pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) for NGNP is uncertain, as the PBMR consortium partners (Westinghouse, PBMR [Pty] and The Shaw Group) were unable to agree on the path forward for NGNP during 2010. However, during the technology assessment of the conceptual design phase (Phase 1) of the NGNP project, AREVA provided design information and technology assessment of their pebble bed fueled plant design called the HTR-Module concept. AREVA does not intend to pursue this design for NGNP, preferring instead a modular reactor based on the prismatic Antares concept. Since MC&A relevant design information is available for both pebble concepts, the pebble-bed HTGRs considered in this report are: (1) Westinghouse PBMR; and (2) AREVA HTR-Module. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) sponsors the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program (FCR&D), which contains an element specifically focused on the domestic (or state) aspects of SBD. This Material Protection, Control and Accountancy Technology (MPACT) program supports the present work summarized in

  4. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-02-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  5. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  6. Self-healing behaviour in man-made engineering materials: bioinspired but taking into account their intrinsic character.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaag, S; van Dijk, N H; Jonkers, H M; Mookhoek, S D; Sloof, W G

    2009-05-13

    Man-made engineering materials generally demonstrate excellent mechanical properties, which often far exceed those of natural materials. However, all such engineering materials lack the ability of self-healing, i.e. the ability to remove or neutralize microcracks without (much) intentional human interaction. This inability is the unintentional consequence of the damage prevention paradigm underlying all current engineering material optimization strategies. The damage management paradigm observed in nature can be reproduced successfully in man-made engineering materials, provided the intrinsic character of the various types of engineering materials is taken into account.

  7. Business change process, creativity and the brain: a practitioner's reflective account with suggestions for future research.

    PubMed

    Yeats, Rowena M; Yeats, Martyn F

    2007-11-01

    Resolution of a critical organizational problem requires the use of carefully selected techniques. This is the work of a management consultant: facilitating a business change process in an organizational setting. Here, an account is provided of a practitioner's reflections on one such case study that demonstrates a structure for a business change process. The reflective account highlights certain affective states and social behaviors that were extracted from participants during the business change process. These affective states and social behaviors are mediated by specific neural networks in the brain that are activated during organizational intervention. By breaking down the process into the affective states and social behaviors highlighted, cognitive neuroscience can be a useful tool for investigating the neural substrates of such intervention. By applying a cognitive neuroscience approach to examine organizational change, it is possible to converge on a greater understanding of the neural substrates of everyday social behavior.

  8. 75 FR 71376 - Simplified Network Application Processing System, On-Line Registration and Account Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 748 RIN 0694-AE98 Simplified Network Application Processing System, On-Line Registration and Account Maintenance AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security,...

  9. A Process Analysis of the Uniform Chart of Accounts Personnel Utilization System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-23

    Graduate Dental Education Gen Residency Program Periodontics Residency Endodontics Residency Prosthodontics Residency Oral...cost-accounting systems. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy; 45, 1103-10. Dean, E.B. (1996). Business Process Reengineering. Retrieved from the...UCAPERS 53 Hughes, M. (1999). Nursing workload: an unquantifiable entity. Journal of Nursing Management, 7, 17-22

  10. 76 FR 7102 - Simplified Network Application Processing System, On-line Registration and Account Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 748 RIN 0694-AE98 Simplified Network Application Processing System, On-line Registration and Account Maintenance AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export...

  11. The Multiple-Use of Accountability Assessments: Implications for the Process of Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Implications of the multiple-use of accountability assessments for the process of validation are examined. Multiple-use refers to the simultaneous use of results from a single administration of an assessment for its intended use and for one or more additional uses. A theoretical discussion of the issues for validation which emerge from…

  12. Remote plasma processing of thin film materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastenmeier, Bernd E. E.

    1999-09-01

    In this thesis, phenomena and mechanisms of remote plasma processes are investigated. The plasmas are spatially separated from the sample surface. Chemically reactive species are produced in the discharge region from rather inert feed gases. They exit the discharge region and travel in the afterglow towards the reaction chamber, where primarily neutral species arrive. The interaction with the sample surface is purely chemical. The absence of direct plasma surface interactions distinguishes remote plasma Chemical Dry Etching (CDE) from other etch processes like Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) or Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etching. The etch reactions in CDE are isotropic, potentially offer great etch rate ratios and minimize substrate damage due to the absence of direct plasma-surface interactions. However, some materials like silicon dioxide (SiO2) or fluorocarbon deposits are difficult to remove because of the lack of activation energy otherwise provided by ion bombardment. In CDE, rates can be enhanced by the introduction of a new reaction pathway. Remote plasma CDE of silicon nitride (Si3N4) is an example for increasing the overall reaction rate by introducing a new reaction channel. Typically, the Si3N4 surface is exposed to the fluorine rich afterglow of a fluorocarbon, nitrogen trifluoride (NF 3) or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) based discharge. We find that the Si3N4 etch rate is dramatically enhanced when Nitric Oxide (NO) is present in the afterglow as compared to the case in which only fluorine is present. Presented here are detailed analyses of the etching of Si3N 4 and SiO2 in different chemistries. Several experimental techniques are employed to investigate the composition of the plasma and the afterglow, the surface modifications and the etch rates for tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and NF3 based processes. These measurements establish the effect of NO on the Si3N4 etch rate. The dominant mechanism for the etch rate enhancement is shown by mass spectrometry

  13. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Haori

    2016-03-31

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. In this work, high-energy delayed γ-rays were demonstrated to be signatures for detection, identification, and quantification of special nuclear materials. Such γ-rays were measured in between linac pulses using independent data acquisition systems. A list-mode system was developed to measure low-energy delayed γ-rays after irradiation. Photofission product yields of 238U and 239Pu were determined based on the measured delayed γ-ray spectra. The differential yields of delayed γ-rays were also proven to be able to discriminate nuclear from non-nuclear materials. The measurement outcomes were compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. It was demonstrated that the current available codes have capabilities and limitations in the simulation of photofission process. A two

  14. VALIDATION OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY (MC&A) SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS TOOL (MSET) AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Meppen, Bruce; Haga, Roger; Moedl, Kelley; Bean, Tom; Sanders, Jeff; Thom, Mary Alice

    2008-07-01

    A Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Functional Model has been developed to describe MC&A systems at facilities possessing Category I or II Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Emphasis is on achieving the objectives of 144 “Fundamental Elements” in key areas ranging from categorization of nuclear material to establishment of Material Balance Areas (MBAs), controlling access, performing quality measurements of inventories and transfers, timely reporting all activities, and detecting and investigating anomalies. An MC&A System Effectiveness Tool (MSET), including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology for evaluating MC&A effectiveness and relative risk, has been developed to accompany the Functional Model. The functional model and MSET were introduced at the 48th annual International Nuclear Material Management (INMM) annual meeting in July, 20071,2. A survey/questionnaire is used to accumulate comprehensive data regarding the MC&A elements at a facility. Data is converted from the questionnaire to numerical values using the DELPHI method and exercises are conducted to evaluate the overall effectiveness of an MC&A system. In 2007 a peer review was conducted and a questionnaire was completed for a hypothetical facility and exercises were conducted. In the first quarter of 2008, a questionnaire was completed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and MSET exercises were conducted. The experience gained from conducting the MSET exercises at INL helped evaluate the completeness and consistency of the MC&A Functional Model, descriptions of fundamental elements of the MC&A Functional Model, relationship between the MC&A Functional Model and the MC&A PRA tool and usefulness of the MSET questionnaire data collection process.

  15. 18 CFR 347.1 - Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies. 347.1 Section 347.1... REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE DEPRECIATION STUDIES § 347.1 Material to...

  16. 18 CFR 347.1 - Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies. 347.1 Section 347.1... REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE DEPRECIATION STUDIES § 347.1 Material to...

  17. 18 CFR 347.1 - Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies. 347.1 Section 347.1... REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE DEPRECIATION STUDIES § 347.1 Material to...

  18. 18 CFR 347.1 - Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Material to support request for newly established or changed property account depreciation studies. 347.1 Section 347.1... REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE DEPRECIATION STUDIES § 347.1 Material to...

  19. US/Russian program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute: 1997--1998

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Rumyantsev, A.; Shmelev, V.

    1998-12-31

    Six US Department of Energy Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute to improve nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) at Kurchatov. In 1997--1998 the primary thrust of this program has been directed to Building 106, which houses a number of test reactors and critical facilities. Substantial improvements in physical protection, upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, installation of equipment for the computerized materials accounting system, and installation of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment are being carried out at this facility. Software for the computerized accounting system, named KI-MACS, has been developed at Kurchatov and the system has been fully integrated with the bar code printing and reading equipment, electronic scales, and nondestructive assay equipment provided under this program. Additional 1997--1998 activities at Kurchatov include continuation of a tamper indicating device program, vulnerability assessments of several facilities, hosting of a Russian-American Workshop on Fissile Material Control and Accountability at Critical Facilities, and the development of accounting procedures for transfers of nuclear materials between material balance areas.

  20. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2015-11-24

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  1. RESEARCH ON RELAXATION PROCESSES IN MAGNETIC MATERIALS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES, FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS, FERRITES , EUROPIUM COMPOUNDS, GALLIUM COMPOUNDS, OXIDES, DYSPROSIUM, HOLMIUM...GARNET), (* MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, YTTRIUM, CRYSTALS, IRON COMPOUNDS, POROSITY, THEORY, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, SINGLE CRYSTALS, MAGNETIC MATERIALS

  2. Control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed-processing account of the Stroop effect. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.D.; Dunbar, K.; McClelland, J.L.

    1989-11-22

    A growing body of evidence suggests that traditional views of automaticity are in need of revision. For example, automaticity has often been treated as an all-or-none phenomenon, and traditional theories have held that automatic processes are independent of attention. Yet recent empirical data suggest that automatic processes are continuous, and furthermore are subject to attentional control. In this paper we present a model of attention which addresses these issues. Using a parallel distributed processing framework we propose that the attributes of automaticity depend upon the strength of a processing pathway and that strength increases with training. Using the Stroop effect as an example, we show how automatic processes are continuous and emerge gradually with practice. Specifically, we present a computational model of the Stroop task which simulates the time course of processing as well as the effects of learning. This was accomplished by combining the cascade mechanism described by McClelland (1979) with the back propagation learning algorithm (Rumelhart, Hinton, Williams, 1986). The model is able to simulate performance in the standard Stroop task, as well as aspects of performance in variants of this task which manipulate SOA, response set, and degree of practice. In the discussion we contrast our model with other models, and indicate how it relates to many of the central issues in the literature on attention, automaticity, and interference.

  3. Supercritical fluid processing: opportunities for new resist materials and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher-Wetmore, Paula M.; Ober, Christopher K.; Gabor, Allen H.; Allen, Robert D.

    1996-05-01

    Over the past two decades supercritical fluids have been utilized as solvents for carrying out separations of materials as diverse as foods, polymers, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, natural products, and explosives. More recently they have been used for non-extractive applications such as recrystallization, deposition, impregnation, surface modification, and as a solvent alternative for precision parts cleaning. Today, supercritical fluid extraction is being practiced in the foods and beverage industries; there are commercial plants for decaffeinating coffee and tea, extracting beer flavoring agents from hops, and separating oils and oleoresins from spices. Interest in supercritical fluid processing of polymers has grown over the last ten years, and many new purification, fractionation, and even polymerization techniques have emerged. One of the most significant motivations for applying this technology to polymers has been increased performance demands. More recently, with increasing scrutiny of traditional solvents, supercritical fluids, and in particular carbon dioxide, are receiving widespread attention as 'environmentally conscious' solvents. This paper describes several examples of polymers applications, including a few involving photoresists, which demonstrate that as next- generation advanced polymer systems emerge, supercritical fluids are certain to offer advantages as cutting edge processing tools.

  4. Quantifying the Material Processing Conditions for an Optimized FSW Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edgs of the seam together. This environmentally friendly, solid-state technique has been successfully used in the joining of materials that are difficult to fusion weld. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld, a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path and velocity is required. In this study the metal flow fields are marked by the use of thin (0.001 in. tungsten) wires embedded in the weld seam at various locations. X-ray radiographs record the position and segmentation of the wire and are used to elucidate the flow field. Microstructures observed in a FSW cross-section in an aluminum alloy are related to their respective strain-strain rate-temperature histones along their respective flow trajectories. Two kinds of trajectories, each subjecting the weld metal to a distinct thermomechanical process and imparting a distinct microstructure, can be differentiated within the weld structure.

  5. Unraveling the Material Processing Conditions for Optimizing FSW Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating threaded pin tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the edges of the seam together. This environmentally friendly, solid-state technique has been successfully used in the joining of materials that are difficult to fusion weld. To determine optimal processing parameters for producing a defect free weld a better understanding of the resulting metal deformation flow path and velocity is required. In this study the metal flow fields are marked by the use of thin (0.001? tungsten) wires embedded in the weld seam at various locations. X-ray radiographs record the position and segmentation of the wire and are used to elucidate the flow field. Microstructures observed in a FSW cross-section in an aluminum alloy are related to their respective strain-strain rate-temperature histories along their respective flow trajectories. Two kinds of trajectories, each subjecting the weld metal to a distinct thermomechanical process and imparting a distinct microstructure, can be differentiated within the weld structure.

  6. Science in the community: An ethnographic account of social material transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stuart Henry

    This dissertation is about the learning and use of science at the level of local community. It is an ethnographic account, and its theoretical approach draws on actor-network theory as well as neo-Marxist practice theory and the related notion of situated cognition. This theoretical basis supports a work that focuses on the many heterogeneous transformations that materials and people undergo as science is used to help bring about social and political change in a quasi-rural community. The activities that science becomes involved in, and the hybrid formations as it encounters local issues are stressed. Learning and knowing as outcomes of community action are theorized. The dissertation links four major themes throughout its narrative: scientific literacy, representations, relationships and participatory democracy. These four themes are not treated in isolation. Different facets of their relation to each other are stressed in different chapters, each of which analyze different particular case studies. This dissertation argues for the conception of a local scientific praxis, one that is markedly different than the usual notion of science, yet is necessary for the uptake of scientific information into a community.

  7. The space technology demand on materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauphin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Space technology requires a rational and accurate policy of materials and processes selection. This paper examines some areas of space technology where materials and process problems have occurred in the past and how they can be solved in the future.

  8. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrystalline silicon solar cells are summarized. Very small grain or short minority-carrier diffusion length silicon was used. Hydrogenated solar cells fabricated from this material appear to have effective minority-carrier diffusion lengths that are still not very long, as shown by the open-circuit voltages of passivated cells that are still significantly less than those of single-crystal solar cells. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. However, the open-circuit voltage, which is sensitive to grain boundary recombination, is sometimes 20 to 40 mV less. The goal was to minimize variations in open-circuit voltage and fill-factor caused by defects by passivating these defects using a hydrogenation process. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystaline silicon solar cells.

  9. Materials processing with intense pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    We review research investigating the application of intense pulsed ion beams (IPIBs) for the surface treatment and coating of materials. The short range (0.1-10 {mu}m) and high-energy density (1-50 J/cm{sup 2}) of these short-pulsed ({le} 1 {mu}s) beams (with ion currents I = 5 - 50 kA, and energies E = 100 - 1000 keV) make them ideal to flash-heat a target surface, similar to the more familiar pulsed laser processes. IPIB surface treatment induces rapid melt and solidification at up to 10{sup 10} K/s to cause amorphous layer formation and the production of non-equilibrium microstructures. At higher energy density the target surface is vaporized, and the ablated vapor is condensed as coatings onto adjacent substrates or as nanophase powders. Progress towards the development of robust, high-repetition rate IPIB accelerators is presented along with economic estimates for the cost of ownership of this technology.

  10. Vision Based Instrumentation For Microelectronic Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Donald W.

    1990-02-01

    Proper instrumentation, documentation, and analysis are crucial to the continued advance of micro-electronic materials science. Many important phenomenon are visible. Many of those are progressive events that need observation throughout their transitory period. Microelectronics scientists and engineers have long required optical systems tools which properly handle visible phenomena. An optical based system, called a high-resolution Still/Video system, to fulfill crucial microelec-tronic needs is available. Microelectronic dimensions require the highest possible resolution to resolve the small details. The system provides 1134 by 486 pixel video frames. The transient nature of many events requires video and the associated capability of video recording. The system stores over 14,000 high-resolution video frames on a single standard commercial VHS tape. The widespread use of microscopy requires the ability to operate with a variety of optical microscopes. The system is directly compatible with most microscopes. In addition, analysis requires the ability to produce film and computer processed results of all crucial images. The system has both a companion film printer and a direct computer interface.

  11. Open architecture control for laser materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmann, Juergen; Kahmen, A.; Kaierle, Stefan; Kreutz, Ernst-Wolfgang; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2001-12-01

    In laser materials processing, usually CNC controls come into operation that are fitted to conventional applications of machining, like milling. Because of the flexibility required and the large variety of applications in laser technology the use of an open architecture control is necessary. Open controls based on the OSACA (Open System Architecture for Controls within Automation systems) specification gain an increasing importance when innovative technology is integrated into controls. OSACA defines a uniform system platform that provides services for communication and configuration. The OSACA platform has been developed as a modular system for different operating systems with or without real-time capability and different hardware platforms. The functionality of the control is subdivided into single functional units, which communicate provided by the OSACA platform. Every unit can access the internal control data in a standardized way. The contribution reports about the implementation of an OSACA based control into a laser manufacturing plant. The problems and components concerning a linkage to the laser control and the implementation of some laser specific control units are discussed.

  12. Double Diffusive Convection in Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandra, Narayanan; Leslie, Fred W.

    1999-01-01

    A great number of crystals grown in space are plagued by convective motions which contribute to structural flaws. The character of these instabilities is not well understood but is associated with density variations in the presence of residual gravity (g-jitter). As a specific example, past HgCdTe crystal growth space experiments by Lehoczky and co-workers indicate radial compositional asymmetry in the grown crystals. In the case of HgCdTe the rejected component into the melt upon solidification is HgTe which is denser than the melt. The space grown crystals indicate the presence of three dimensional flow with the heavier HgTe-rich material clearly aligned with the residual gravity (0.55-1.55 micro g) vector. This flow stems from double-diffusive convection, namely, thermal and solutal buoyancy driven flow in the melt. The study of double-diffusive convection is multi-faceted and rather vast. In our investigation, we seek to focus on one specific aspect of this discipline that is of direct relevance to materials processing especially crystal growth, namely, the side ways heating regime. This problem has been widely studied, both experimentally and numerically, in the context of solar ponds wherein the system is characterized by a linear salt (solutal) gradient with an imposed lateral temperature gradient. The induced flow instabilities arise from the wide disparity between the fluid thermal diffusivity and the solute diffusivity. The extension of the analysis to practical crystal growth applications has however not been rigorously made and understood. One subtle but important difference in crystal growth systems is the fact that die system solute gradient is non-linear (typically exponential). Besides, the crystal growth problem has the added complexities of solidification, both lateral and longitudinal thermal gradients and segregation phenomena in systems where binary and ternary compounds are being grown. This paper treats the side ways heating problem alone in

  13. Materials processing in space; Proceedings of the Special Conference, Cincinnati, OH, May 4, 5, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, B. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    An international review of materials processing in space is provided, taking into account the NASA materials processing in space program, European activities in the field of microgravity research, and Japanese material processing tests in space. The subjects considered are related to materials processing in a microgravity environment, industrial and university applications and involvement, and challenges and prospectives of microgravity research in space. Attention is given to a review of the containerless processing technologies and facilities, glass research in space, bubble behavior in molten glass in a temperature gradient, semiconductor crystal growth and segregation problems on earth and space, seeded crystal growth of pseudobinary systems with large liquidus-solidus separation, avenues and incentives for commercial use of a low-gravity environment, and the Universities Space Research Association and its role in the materials processing in space program.

  14. Nonterrestrial material processing and manufacturing of large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G.

    1979-01-01

    Nonterrestrial processing of materials and manufacturing of large space system components from preprocessed lunar materials at a manufacturing site in space is described. Lunar materials mined and preprocessed at the lunar resource complex will be flown to the space manufacturing facility (SMF), where together with supplementary terrestrial materials, they will be final processed and fabricated into space communication systems, solar cell blankets, radio frequency generators, and electrical equipment. Satellite Power System (SPS) material requirements and lunar material availability and utilization are detailed, and the SMF processing, refining, fabricating facilities, material flow and manpower requirements are described.

  15. Materials Processing Technology Initiatives. Delivery Order 0019-08: Material Behavior Modeling for Optimization of Thermomechanical Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TM-2008-4056 MATERIALS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVES Delivery Order 0019-08: Material Behavior Modeling for Optimization of...5835-0019 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MATERIALS PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVES Delivery Order 0019-08: Material Behavior Modeling

  16. Hydrogenation process for solid carbonaceous materials

    DOEpatents

    Cox, John L.; Wilcox, Wayne A.

    1979-01-01

    Coal or other solid carbonaceous material is contacted with an organic solvent containing both hydrogen and a transition metal catalyst in solution to hydrogenate unsaturated bonds within the carbonaceous material. This benefaction step permits subsequent pyrolysis or hydrogenolysis of the carbonaceous fuel to form gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon products of increased yield and quality.

  17. The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Sustainability Program Implementation at the Electrochemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sirotenko, Vladimir; Antonov, Eduard; Sirotenko, Alexei; Kukartsev, Alexander; Krivenko, Vladimir; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Esther M.

    2008-06-10

    Joint efforts by the Electrochemical Plant (ECP) in Zelenogorsk, Russia, and the United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (US DOE/NNSA) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program to upgrade ECP security systems began in 1996. The commissioning of major MPC&A systems at ECP occurred in December 2004. Since that time, the US Project Team (USPT) and ECP personnel have focused jointly on the development and implementation of an enterprise-wide MPC&A Sustainability Program (SP) that address the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements. This paper describes current operational experience at the ECP with the full implementation of the site SP utilizing an earned-value methodology. In support of this site program, ECP has established a Document Control Program (DCP) for sustainability-related documents; developed a robust master Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that outlines all ECP MPC&A sustainability activities; and chartered an Enterprise-Wide Sustainability Working Group (ESWG) The earned value methodology uses ECP-completed (and USPT-verified) analyses to assess project performance on a quarterly basis. The MPC&A SP, presently operational through a contract between ECP and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), incorporates the seven essential MPC&A Program sustainability elements and governs all sustainability activities associated with MPC&A systems at ECP. The site SP is designed to ensure over the near term the upgraded MPC&A systems continuous operation at ECP as funding transitions from US-assisted to fully Russian supported and sustained.

  18. Neural Tuning Size in a Model of Primate Visual Processing Accounts for Three Key Markers of Holistic Face Processing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheston; Poggio, Tomaso

    2016-01-01

    Faces are an important and unique class of visual stimuli, and have been of interest to neuroscientists for many years. Faces are known to elicit certain characteristic behavioral markers, collectively labeled "holistic processing", while non-face objects are not processed holistically. However, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. The main aim of this computational simulation work is to investigate the neural mechanisms that make face processing holistic. Using a model of primate visual processing, we show that a single key factor, "neural tuning size", is able to account for three important markers of holistic face processing: the Composite Face Effect (CFE), Face Inversion Effect (FIE) and Whole-Part Effect (WPE). Our proof-of-principle specifies the precise neurophysiological property that corresponds to the poorly-understood notion of holism, and shows that this one neural property controls three classic behavioral markers of holism. Our work is consistent with neurophysiological evidence, and makes further testable predictions. Overall, we provide a parsimonious account of holistic face processing, connecting computation, behavior and neurophysiology.

  19. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525

  20. Study of materials for space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Materials were selected for device applications and their commercial use. Experimental arrangements were also made for electrical characterization of single crystals using electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements. The experimental set-up was tested with some standard samples.

  1. Generation of photon pairs through parametric processes in nonlinear waveguides with the account of losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavulin, D. N.; Sukhorukov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present an analytical description of the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing in a cubic nonlinear fiber with linear losses. We consider the generation of photon pairs in the fiber when in the input of fiber is fed the pumping wave and single signal photon. The focus of attention is on three cases: when the signal photon propagates in the fiber without generating of biphotons; when the photon pair is generated; and when the photon is lost in the fiber. We also consider the cascade processes, but do not give them an analytical description because of their smallness. Description of the biphotons generation process we provide using the Schrodinger-type equation, and take into account the losses in the fiber through the introduction of the virtual beam splitters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the generation of photon pairs through parametric processes.

  2. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center. Report for FY 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The work described, while involving research in the broad field of materials processing, has two common features: the problems are closed related to space precessing of materials and have both practical and fundamental significance. An interesting and important feature of many of the projects is that the interdisciplinary nature of the problem mandates complementary analytical modeling/experimental approaches. An other important aspect of many of the projects is the increasing use of mathematical modeling techniques as one of the research tools. The predictive capability of these models, when tested against measurements, plays a very important role in both the planning of experimental programs and in the rational interpretation of the results. Many of the projects described have a space experiment as their ultimate objective. Mathematical models are proving to be extremely valuable in projecting the findings of ground - based experiments to microgravity conditions.

  3. Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V.

    2009-03-10

    Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

  4. 30 CFR 206.181 - How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? 206.181 Section 206.181 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Processing Allowances § 206.181 How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I...

  5. Pulse thermal processing of functional materials using directed plasma arc

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Ronald D.; Blue, Craig A.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Harper, David C.

    2007-05-22

    A method of thermally processing a material includes exposing the material to at least one pulse of infrared light emitted from a directed plasma arc to thermally process the material, the pulse having a duration of no more than 10 s.

  6. Visual perception can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and computational fluency

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinlin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that numerosity processing (e.g., comparison of numbers of dots in two dot arrays) is significantly correlated with arithmetic performance. Researchers have attributed this association to the fact that both tasks share magnitude processing. The current investigation tested an alternative hypothesis, which states that visual perceptual ability (as measured by a figure-matching task) can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and arithmetic performance (computational fluency). Four hundred and twenty four third- to fifth-grade children (220 boys and 204 girls, 8.0–11.0 years old; 120 third graders, 146 fourth graders, and 158 fifth graders) were recruited from two schools (one urban and one suburban) in Beijing, China. Six classes were randomly selected from each school, and all students in each selected class participated in the study. All children were given a series of cognitive and mathematical tests, including numerosity comparison, figure matching, forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, choice reaction time, arithmetic tests and curriculum-based mathematical achievement test. Results showed that figure-matching ability had higher correlations with numerosity processing and computational fluency than did other cognitive factors (e.g., forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrix reasoning, mental rotation, and choice reaction time). More important, hierarchical multiple regression showed that figure matching ability accounted for the well-established association between numerosity processing and computational fluency. In support of the visual perception hypothesis, the results suggest that visual perceptual ability, rather than magnitude processing, may be the shared component of numerosity processing and arithmetic performance. PMID:26441740

  7. Materials and Processes for the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Paul W.; Richardson, Rod W.

    2004-01-01

    The single greatest threat to material availability over the last decade has been Compliance to New Environmental Regulations. Federal Regulations: a) Clean Air Acts Amendments - 1990 - Titles I, III and VI; b) NASA Interim Policy- 1995 end date; c) Montreal Protocol - 2000 and 2005 end dates; d) Industrial Toxics Project - HAP emissions by 1995; e) Florida DER - VOC limits by 1995 (CA); f) OSHA Health Related Regulations 1) Carcinogens 2) Mutagens 3). Material availability is complicated by local and state regulations and their own compliance schedules.

  8. Learning Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness of Print versus e-Book Instructional Material in an Introductory Financial Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annand, David

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the concurrent development of paper-based and e-book versions of a textbook and related instructional material used in an introductory-level financial accounting course. Break-even analysis is used to compare costs of the two media. A study conducted with 109 students is also used to evaluate the two media with respect to…

  9. Materials processing in space bibliography, 1983, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes, or ground based activities that provide supporting research are compiled. Six major categories: crystal growth; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, transports, and chemical processes; glasses and ceramics; ultrahigh vacuum and containerless processing technologies; and combustion are included. A list of patents and appendices providing a compilation of anonymously authored collections and reports and a cross reference index are included.

  10. A statistical RCL interconnect delay model taking account of process variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhang-Ming; Wan, Da-Jing; Yang, Yin-Tang; En, Yun-Fei

    2011-01-01

    As the feature size of the CMOS integrated circuit continues to shrink, process variations have become a key factor affecting the interconnect performance. Based on the equivalent Elmore model and the use of the polynomial chaos theory and the Galerkin method, we propose a linear statistical RCL interconnect delay model, taking into account process variations by successive application of the linear approximation method. Based on a variety of nano-CMOS process parameters, HSPICE simulation results show that the maximum error of the proposed model is less than 3.5%. The proposed model is simple, of high precision, and can be used in the analysis and design of nanometer integrated circuit interconnect systems.

  11. Electrochromic materials, devices and process of making

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2003-11-11

    Thin films of transition metal compositions formed with magnesium that are metals, alloys, hydrides or mixtures of alloys, metals and/or hydrides exhibit reversible color changes on application of electric current or hydrogen. Thin films of these materials are suitable for optical switching elements, thin film displays, sun roofs, rear-view mirrors and architectural glass.

  12. Containerless materials processing in the laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, L. L.; Nisen, D. B.; Rathz, T. J.; Robinson, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Drop tube makes possible preparation of exotic materials. The 100 foot tube is oriented precisely vertical to prevent free-falling drop from hitting tube walls. Inert-gas supply, evacuation pumps, viewing ports, and flexibility in choice of melt technique allow precise control and monitoring of solidification.

  13. Extraterrestrial materials processing and related transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K. N. R.; Sridhar, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    Several concepts for significant cost reductions in extraterrestrial resource utilization are described. After an introduction of the desirability of in situ resource utilization, several candidate chemical processes are mentioned. It is brought out that many of the key processes require fluid dynamics and heat transfer processes under reduced- and microgravity. These aspects are discussed within the broad framework of a two-phase thermal control systems. Another important aspect of space processing is that reliability and self-repairability are mandatory; automation aspects are discussed. In addition to these general considerations, the paper includes several specific processes that vary from solid electrolytic production of oxygen from carbon dioxide, to plasma-augmented reactions for reducing ilmenite on the moon.

  14. Metal containing material processing on coater/developer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Shinichiro; Mizunoura, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Koichi; Hontake, Koichi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shimura, Satoru; Enomoto, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    Challenges of processing metal containing materials need to be addressed in order apply this technology to Behavior of metal containing materials on coater/developer processing including coating process, developer process and tool metal contamination is studied using CLEAN TRACKTM LITHIUS ProTM Z (Tokyo Electron Limited). Through this work, coating uniformity and coating film defectivity were studied. Metal containing material performance was comparable to conventional materials. Especially, new dispense system (NDS) demonstrated up to 80% reduction in coating defect for metal containing materials. As for processed wafer metal contamination, coated wafer metal contamination achieved less than 1.0E10 atoms/cm2 with 3 materials. After develop metal contamination also achieved less than 1.0E10 atoms/cm2 with 2 materials. Furthermore, through the metal defect study, metal residues and metal contamination were reduced by developer rinse optimization.

  15. Early sensitivity for eyes within faces: a new neuronal account of holistic and featural processing.

    PubMed

    Nemrodov, Dan; Anderson, Thomas; Preston, Frank F; Itier, Roxane J

    2014-08-15

    Eyes are central to face processing however their role in early face encoding as reflected by the N170 ERP component is unclear. Using eye tracking to enforce fixation on specific facial features, we found that the N170 was larger for fixation on the eyes compared to fixation on the forehead, nasion, nose or mouth, which all yielded similar amplitudes. This eye sensitivity was seen in both upright and inverted faces and was lost in eyeless faces, demonstrating it was due to the presence of eyes at fovea. Upright eyeless faces elicited largest N170 at nose fixation. Importantly, the N170 face inversion effect (FIE) was strongly attenuated in eyeless faces when fixation was on the eyes but was less attenuated for nose fixation and was normal when fixation was on the mouth. These results suggest the impact of eye removal on the N170 FIE is a function of the angular distance between the fixated feature and the eye location. We propose the Lateral Inhibition, Face Template and Eye Detector based (LIFTED) model which accounts for all the present N170 results including the FIE and its interaction with eye removal. Although eyes elicit the largest N170 response, reflecting the activity of an eye detector, the processing of upright faces is holistic and entails an inhibitory mechanism from neurons coding parafoveal information onto neurons coding foveal information. The LIFTED model provides a neuronal account of holistic and featural processing involved in upright and inverted faces and offers precise predictions for further testing.

  16. Shaped Charge Liner Materials: Resources, Processes, Properties, Costs, and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Shaped Charge Liner Materials: Resources, Processes, Properties, Costs, and Applications 2 6. AUTHOC Steven M. Buc 7...summaries of the mineral availability, Cq prmarymetal refinement processeb, material costs in raw form and as finished shaped charge liners , relevant... liner materials. 94-11479 gI 14, SUBJECT TERMS iSt NUMBER OF PAGIS 13chrg wrhad :xplosively formed penetrators material R. PRCE COEV" processing

  17. Standard format and content acceptance criteria for the Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Reform Amendment: 10 CFR Part 74, Subpart E. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In 1987 the NRC revised the material control and accounting requirements for NRC licensees authorized to possess and use a formula quantity (i.e., 5 formula kilograms or more) of strategic special nuclear material. Those revisions issued as 10 CFR 74.51-59 require timely monitoring of in-process inventory and discrete items to detect anomalies potentially indicative of material losses. Timely detection and enhanced loss localization capabilities are beneficial to alarm resolution and also for material recovery in the event of an actual loss. NUREG-1280 was issued in 1987 to present criteria that could be used by applicants, licensees, and NRC license reviewers in the initial preparation and subsequent review of fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plans submitted in response to the Reform Amendment. This document is also intended for both licensees and license reviewers with respect to FNMC plan revisions. General performance objectives, system capabilities, process monitoring, item monitoring, alarm resolution, quality assurance, and accounting are addressed. This revision to NUREG-1280 is an expansion of the initial edition, which clarifies and expands upon several topics and addresses issues identified under Reform Amendment implementation experience.

  18. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Li, K. Y.; Hopper, J. R.; Fang, C. S.; Hansen, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    Results for process system properties, chemical engineering and economic analyses of the new technologies and processes being developed for the production of lower cost silicon for solar cells are presented. Analyses of process system properties are important for chemical materials involved in the several processes under consideration for semiconductor and solar cell grade silicon production. Major physical, thermodynamic and transport property data are reported for silicon source and processing chemical materials.

  19. Cooperative efforts of the materials protection control and accounting program at the electrochemical plant (Krasnoyarsk-45) in Russia-011

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.

    1998-07-22

    The USDOE Material Protection Control and Accountability Program (MPC&A) has established a Project Team with the goal of providing the Russian Electrochemical Plant (ECP) with equipment and training to enable ECP to evaluate, develop, and implement a comprehensive plan and systems for physical protection, material controls, and accountancy upgrades. The MPC&A project will provide for improvements such as risk assessments, access control upgrades, computerized MC&A, communications systems upgrades, building perimeter surveillance and intrusion detection upgrades, vault upgrades, metal and nuclear material detection upgrades, along with mass measurement and non- destructive analysis (NDA) instrumentation. This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A project at the Electrochemical Plant.

  20. Organic materials for ceramic molding processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, K.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramic molding processes are examined. Binders, wetting agents, lubricants, plasticizers, surface active agents, dispersants, etc., for pressing, rubber pressing, sip casting, injection casting, taping, extrusion, etc., are described, together with forming machines.

  1. Process for self-repair of insulation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured reactants within the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.

  2. Process for Self-Repair of Insulation Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A self-healing system for an insulation material initiates a self-repair process by rupturing a plurality of microcapsules disposed on the insulation material. When the plurality of microcapsules are ruptured reactants witlun the plurality of microcapsules react to form a replacement polymer in a break of the insulation material. This self-healing system has the ability to repair multiple breaks in a length of insulation material without exhausting the repair properties of the material.

  3. Laser processing for manufacturing nanocarbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van, Hai Hoang

    CNTs have been considered as the excellent candidate to revolutionize a broad range of applications. There have been many method developed to manipulate the chemistry and the structure of CNTs. Laser with non-contact treatment capability exhibits many processing advantages, including solid-state treatment, extremely fast processing rate, and high processing resolution. In addition, the outstanding monochromatic, coherent, and directional beam generates the powerful energy absorption and the resultant extreme processing conditions. In my research, a unique laser scanning method was developed to process CNTs, controlling the oxidation and the graphitization. The achieved controllability of this method was applied to address the important issues of the current CNT processing methods for three applications. The controllable oxidation of CNTs by laser scanning method was applied to cut CNT films to produce high-performance cathodes for FE devices. The production method includes two important self-developed techniques to produce the cold cathodes: the production of highly oriented and uniformly distributed CNT sheets and the precise laser trimming process. Laser cutting is the unique method to produce the cathodes with remarkable features, including ultrathin freestanding structure (~200 nm), greatly high aspect ratio, hybrid CNT-GNR emitter arrays, even emitter separation, and directional emitter alignment. This unique cathode structure was unachievable by other methods. The developed FE devices successfully solved the screening effect issue encounter by current FE devices. The laser-control oxidation method was further developed to sequentially remove graphitic walls of CNTs. The laser oxidation process was directed to occur along the CNT axes by the laser scanning direction. Additionally, the oxidation was further assisted by the curvature stress and the thermal expansion of the graphitic nanotubes, ultimately opening (namely unzipping) the tubular structure to

  4. 30 CFR 1206.181 - How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? 1206.181 Section 1206.181 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.181 How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting...

  5. Alternative Processing of High Temperature Hafnium and Zirconium Based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Gusman, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Irby, Edward; Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of refractory hafnium and zirconium based materials are being investigated at NASA Ames as part of ongoing research aimed at developing superior heat resistant materials for aerospace applications. Hafnium and zirconium diboride based materials have shown high temperature capabilities in simulated reentry environments indicating that these materials may successfully operate as reusable oxidation resistant components for leading edge applications. Due to the refractory nature of these materials, processing of fine-grained uniform microstructures poses a number of challenges. To better understand the process-property-microstructure relationship, processing of these materials has been carried out with conventional hot pressing in addition to the novel approach of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The two processing methods are compared and contrasted in an evaluation of the sintering behavior of high temperature diboride based materials and preliminary physical and mechanical properties are presented.

  6. Conflicting effects of context in change detection and visual search: A dual process account.

    PubMed

    LaPointe, Mitchell R P; Milliken, Bruce

    2017-03-01

    Congruent contexts often facilitate performance in visual search and categorisation tasks using natural scenes. A congruent context is thought to contain predictive information about the types of objects likely to be encountered, as well as their location. However, in change detection tasks, changes embedded in congruent contexts often produce impaired performance relative to incongruent contexts. Using a stimulus set controlled for object perceptual salience, we compare performance across change detection and visual search tasks, as well as a hybrid of these 2 tasks. The results support a dual process account with opposing influences of context congruency on change detection and object identification processes, which contribute differentially to performance in visual search and change detection tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. A complementary processes account of the development of childhood amnesia and a personal past.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J

    2015-04-01

    Personal-episodic or autobiographical memories are an important source of evidence for continuity of self over time. Numerous studies conducted with adults have revealed a relative paucity of personal-episodic or autobiographical memories of events from the first 3 to 4 years of life, with a seemingly gradual increase in the number of memories until approximately age 7 years, after which an adult distribution has been assumed. Historically, this so-called infantile amnesia or childhood amnesia has been attributed either to late development of personal-episodic or autobiographical memory (implying its absence in the early years of life) or to an emotional, cognitive, or linguistic event that renders early autobiographical memories inaccessible to later recollection. However, neither type of explanation alone can fully account for the shape of the distribution of autobiographical memories early in life. In contrast, the complementary processes account developed in this article acknowledges early, gradual development of the ability to form, retain, and later retrieve memories of personally relevant past events, as well as an accelerated rate of forgetting in childhood relative to adulthood. The adult distribution of memories is achieved as (a) the quality of memory traces increases, through addition of more, better elaborated, and more tightly integrated personal-episodic or autobiographical features; and (b) the vulnerability of mnemonic traces decreases, as a result of more efficient and effective neural, cognitive, and specifically mnemonic processes, thus slowing the rate of forgetting. The perspective brings order to an array of findings from the adult and developmental literatures.

  8. No support for dual process accounts of human affective learning in simple Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Purkis, Helena M

    2005-02-01

    Dual process accounts of affective learning state that the learning of likes and dislikes reflects a learning mechanism that is distinct from the one reflected in expectancy learning, the learning of signal relationships, and has different empirical characteristics. Affective learning, for example, is said not to be affected by: (a) extinction training; (b) occasion setting; (c) cue competition; and (d) awareness of the CS-US contingencies. These predictions were tested in a series of experiments that employed simple Pavlovian conditioning procedures. Neutral visual pictures of geometric shapes, or tactile conditional stimuli (CS) were paired with aversive electrotactile unconditional stimuli (US). Dependent measures were physiological (skin conductance, blink startle modulation) or verbal (US expectancy, on-line and off-line ratings of CS pleasantness). Different combinations of these dependent measures were employed across different experiments in an attempt to assess affective and expectancy learning simultaneously. Changes in CS pleasantness as indexed by ratings or blink startle modulation were readily observed. However, contrary to the predictions from dual-process accounts, results indicated that acquired CS unpleasantness is subject to extinction, occasion setting, cue competition, and not found in absence of CS-US contingency awareness.

  9. Process Research ON Semix Silicon Materials (PROSSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Warfield, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    A cost effective process sequence was identified, equipment was designed to implement a 6.6 MW per year automated production line, and a cost analysis projected a $0.56 per watt cell add-on cost for this line. Four process steps were developed for this program: glass beads back clean-up, hot spray antireflective coating, wave soldering of fronts, and ion milling for edging. While spray dopants were advertised as an off the shelf developed product, they were unreliable with shorter than advertised shelf life.

  10. Processing of monolayer materials via interfacial reactions

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Peter Werner; Sutter, Eli Anguelova

    2014-05-20

    A method of forming and processing of graphene is disclosed based on exposure and selective intercalation of the partially graphene-covered metal substrate with atomic or molecular intercalation species such as oxygen (O.sub.2) and nitrogen oxide (NO.sub.2). The process of intercalation lifts the strong metal-carbon coupling and restores the characteristic Dirac behavior of isolated monolayer graphene. The interface of graphene with metals or metal-decorated substrates also provides for controlled chemical reactions based on novel functionality of the confined space between a metal surface and a graphene sheet.

  11. Overview of methods for extraterrestrial materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.; Erstfeld, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A brief survey of processing systems suitable for conversion of lunar soil fractions to refined industrial feedstocks are given. Description of a 'baseline' process using hydrochemical or metallurgical separation of compounds of major and minor elements using HF acid leaching as the initial step is presented. Rough engineering parameters including power and heat rejection requirements, potential loss of earth supplied reagents during recycling, and mass: output ratios of equipment, reagent inventory, and associated power and radiator facilities are described. Minimal practical scales for such systems and manpower requirements are discussed.

  12. Process Research ON Semix Silicon Materials (PROSSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Warfield, D. B.

    1982-02-01

    A cost effective process sequence was identified, equipment was designed to implement a 6.6 MW per year automated production line, and a cost analysis projected a $0.56 per watt cell add-on cost for this line. Four process steps were developed for this program: glass beads back clean-up, hot spray antireflective coating, wave soldering of fronts, and ion milling for edging. While spray dopants were advertised as an off the shelf developed product, they were unreliable with shorter than advertised shelf life.

  13. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  14. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  15. 2005 Research Briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  16. Meniscus effect in microgravity materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    While the microgravity environment of orbit eliminates a number of effects that impede the formation of materials on Earth, the change can also cause new, unwanted effects. A mysterious phenomenon, known as detached solidification, apparently stems from a small hydrostatic force that turns out to be pervasive. The contact of the solid with the ampoule transfers stress to the growing crystal and causing unwanted dislocations and twins. William Wilcox and Liya Regel of Clarkson University theorize that the melt is in contact with the ampoule wall, while the solid is not, and the melt and solid are cornected by a meniscus. Their work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Researcxh, and builds on earlier work by Dr. David Larson of the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

  17. Microgravity Effects on Materials Processing: A Review. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.

    2003-01-01

    Materials processing in space has been studied both theoretically and experimentally for over 1/4 of a century. In the beginning, we naively spoke of zero gravity, elimination of convection, growth of perfect crystals, and eventual manufacturing in space. All of these appear to have fallen by the wayside. On the other hand, we have learned an unprecedented amount about the influences of gravity on materials processing. We have had many surprises, and not all experimental results have yet been satisfactorily explained. Gravity was found to influence processes that were thought to be gravity-independent. One consequence is that materials processing on earth has often been improved. And it is difficult to imagine how the materials-processing industries could have flourished without the engineers and scientists who received their training by working on microgravity materials processing.

  18. FLUORINE PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Brown, H.S.

    1958-05-01

    A process is described for separating plutoniunn from neutron-irradiated uranium, which consists of reacting the irradiated uranium mass with HF to form the tetrafluorides of U, Pu, and Np, and then reacting this mixture of tetrafluorides with fiuorine at temperature between 140 and 315 d C. This causes volatile hexafluorides of U and Np to form while at the temperature employed the Pu tetrafluoride is unaffected and remains as a residue.

  19. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  20. Process Feasibility Study in Support of Silicon Material, Task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Hansen, K. C.; Yaws, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    During this reporting period, major activies were devoted to process system properties, chemical engineering and economic analyses. Analyses of process system properties was continued for materials involved in the alternate processes under consideration for solar cell grade silicon. The following property data are reported for silicon tetrafluoride: critical constants, vapor pressure, heat of varporization, heat capacity, density, surface tension, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat of formation and Gibb's free energy of formation. Chemical engineering analysis of the BCL process was continued with primary efforts being devoted to the preliminary process design. Status and progress are reported for base case conditions; process flow diagram; reaction chemistry; material and energy balances; and major process equipment design.

  1. Early sensitivity for eyes within faces: a new neuronal account of holistic and featural processing

    PubMed Central

    Nemrodov, Dan; Anderson, Thomas; Preston, Frank F.; Itier, Roxane J.

    2017-01-01

    Eyes are central to face processing however their role in early face encoding as reflected by the N170 ERP component is unclear. Using eye tracking to enforce fixation on specific facial features, we found that the N170 was larger for fixation on the eyes compared to fixation on the forehead, nasion, nose or mouth, which all yielded similar amplitudes. This eye sensitivity was seen in both upright and inverted faces and was lost in eyeless faces, demonstrating it was due to the presence of eyes at fovea. Upright eyeless faces elicited largest N170 at nose fixation. Importantly, the N170 face inversion effect (FIE) was strongly attenuated in eyeless faces when fixation was on the eyes but was less attenuated for nose fixation and was normal when fixation was on the mouth. These results suggest the impact of eye removal on the N170 FIE is a function of the angular distance between the fixated feature and the eye location. We propose the Lateral Inhibition, Face Template and Eye Detector based (LIFTED) model which accounts for all the present N170 results including the FIE and its interaction with eye removal. Although eyes elicit the largest N170 response, reflecting the activity of an eye detector, the processing of upright faces is holistic and entails an inhibitory mechanism from neurons coding parafoveal information onto neurons coding foveal information. The LIFTED model provides a neuronal account of holistic and featural processing involved in upright and inverted faces and offers precise predictions for further testing. PMID:24768932

  2. Processing materials in space - The history and the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, Roger; Carswell, Bill

    1987-01-01

    The development of materials processing in space, and some of the Soyuz, Apollo, Skylab, and Shuttle orbital materials experiments are reviewed. Consideration is given to protein crystal growth, electrophoresis, low-gravity isoelectric focusing, phase partitioning, a monodisperse latex reactor, semiconductor crystal growth, solution crystal growth, the triglycine sulfate experiment, vapor crystal growth experiments, the mercuric iodide experiment, electronic and electrooptical materials, organic thin films and crystalline solids, deep undercooling of metals and alloys, magnetic materials, immiscible materials, metal solidification research, reluctant glass-forming materials, and containerless glass formation. The space processing apparatuses and ground facilities, for materials processing are described. Future facilities for commercial research, development, and manufacturing in space are proposed.

  3. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Davidson, Howard L.; Kerns, John A.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  4. Process Research On Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Performance limiting mechanisms in polycrystalline silicon are investigated by fabricating a matrix of solar cells of various thicknesses from polycrystalline silicon wafers of several bulk resistivities. The analysis of the results for the entire matrix indicates that bulk recombination is the dominant factor limiting the short circuit current in large grain (greater than 1 to 2 mm diameter) polycrystalline silicon, the same mechanism that limits the short circuit current in single crystal silicon. An experiment to investigate the limiting mechanisms of open circuit voltage and fill factor for large grain polycrystalline silicon is designed. Two process sequences to fabricate small cells are investigated.

  5. Directed Vapor Deposition: Low Vacuum Materials Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Directed Vapor Deposition: Low Vacuum Materials Processing Technology J.F. Groves*, G. Mattausch**, H. Morgner**, D.D. Hass*, H.N.G. Wadley...2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Directed Vapor Deposition: Low Vacuum Materials Processing Technology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  6. Nonterrestrial material processing and manufacturing of large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G. F.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide pertinent and readily usable information on the extraterrestrial processing of materials and manufacturing of components and elements of these planned large space systems from preprocessed lunar materials which are made available at a processing and manufacturing site in space. Required facilities, equipment, machinery, energy and manpower are defined.

  7. 77 FR 60482 - Regulatory Guide 5.67, Material Control and Accounting for Uranium Enrichment Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Authorized To Produce Special Nuclear Material of Low Strategic Significance AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)...

  8. The Infrastructure Necessary to Support a Sustainable Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner, Katherine M.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-20

    The NNSA Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program has been engaged for fifteen years in upgrading the security of nuclear materials in Russia. Part of the effort has been to establish the conditions necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of nuclear security. A sustainable program of nuclear security requires the creation of an indigenous infrastructure, starting with sustained high level government commitment. This includes organizational development, training, maintenance, regulations, inspections, and a strong nuclear security culture. The provision of modern physical protection, control, and accounting equipment to the Russian Federation alone is not sufficient. Comprehensive infrastructure projects support the Russian Federation's ability to maintain the risk reduction achieved through upgrades to the equipment. To illustrate the contributions to security, and challenges of implementation, this paper discusses the history and next steps for an indigenous Tamper Indication Device (TID) program, and a Radiation Portal Monitoring (RPM) program.

  9. Computer-Aided Process Model For Carbon/Phenolic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letson, Mischell A.; Bunker, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Computer program implements thermochemical model of processing of carbon-fiber/phenolic-matrix composite materials into molded parts of various sizes and shapes. Directed toward improving fabrication of rocket-engine-nozzle parts, also used to optimize fabrication of other structural components, and material-property parameters changed to apply to other materials. Reduces costs by reducing amount of laboratory trial and error needed to optimize curing processes and to predict properties of cured parts.

  10. Investigation of electromagnetic effects in materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Sorin Gabriel

    A new contactless inductive technique has been developed to evaluate both thermophysical and rheological properties of metals in solid and molten states. This is based on the theory that when a conductor moves in a magnetic field, circulating eddy currents are induced and the opposing mechanical torque created is directly proportional to the electrical conductivity and size of the sample. It was determined that the damping torque T, produced by rotating a sample in a magnetic field, is T=23swLR4 B2 , where s is the electrical conductivity of the sample, w is the angular velocity of the crucible, L and R are the length and radius of the sample, respectively, and B represents the strength of the magnetic induction. The technique was applied to a series of materials, including both pure metals and alloys. The results are in excellent agreement with existing data, and new data for several alloys are presented. The technique can also be used in characterization of microstructural condition for various metals, depending on specific applications. The continuous monitoring of electrical resistivity during heat treatment is sensitive to slight modifications in the metal's microscopic structure like solute content, precipitation hardening, and increasing dislocation densities. Isothermal transformation C-curves for 3024 aluminum-copper alloy were determined based on the electrical resistivity measurements. The C-curves were supplemented with hardness and x-ray diffraction measurements. The results obtained in this investigation were in very good agreement with published literature data. In addition, an electromagnetic-based permanent-magnet probe was designed and tested for monitoring velocity (as well as the temperature) in molten metals. It is shown that, when rotating a molten metal in a DC magnetic field, the azimuthal velocity in the vicinity of the crucible is significantly different from the one in the center, which is evidence of secondary flow induced by the DC

  11. Process for producing clad superconductive materials

    DOEpatents

    Cass, Richard B.; Ott, Kevin C.; Peterson, Dean E.

    1992-01-01

    A process for fabricating superconducting composite wire by the steps of placing a superconductive precursor admixture capable of undergoing a self propagating combustion in stoichiometric amounts sufficient to form a superconductive product within a metal tube, sealing one end of said tube, igniting said superconductive precursor admixture whereby said superconductive precursor admixture endburns along the length of the admixture, and cross-section reducing said tube at a rate substantially equal to the rate of burning of said superconductive precursor admixture and at a point substantially planar with the burnfront of the superconductive precursor mixture, whereby a clad superconductive product is formed in situ, the product characterized as superconductive without a subsequent sintering stage, is disclosed.

  12. Portable nuclear material detector and process

    DOEpatents

    Hofstetter, Kenneth J; Fulghum, Charles K; Harpring, Lawrence J; Huffman, Russell K; Varble, Donald L

    2008-04-01

    A portable, hand held, multi-sensor radiation detector is disclosed. The detection apparatus has a plurality of spaced sensor locations which are contained within a flexible housing. The detection apparatus, when suspended from an elevation, will readily assume a substantially straight, vertical orientation and may be used to monitor radiation levels from shipping containers. The flexible detection array can also assume a variety of other orientations to facilitate any unique container shapes or to conform to various physical requirements with respect to deployment of the detection array. The output of each sensor within the array is processed by at least one CPU which provides information in a usable form to a user interface. The user interface is used to provide the power requirements and operating instructions to the operational components within the detection array.

  13. Novel particulate production processes to create unique security materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampden-Smith, Mark; Kodas, Toivo; Haubrich, Scott; Oljaca, Miki; Einhorn, Rich; Williams, Darryl

    2006-02-01

    Particles are frequently used to impart security features to high value items. These particles are typically produced by traditional methods, and therefore the security must be derived from the chemical composition of the particles rather than the particle production process. Here, we present new and difficult-to-reproduce particle production processes based on spray pyrolysis that can produce unique particles and features that are dependent on the use of these new-to-the-world processes and process trade secrets. Specifically two examples of functional materials are described, luminescent materials and electrocatalytic materials.

  14. Violations of coherence in subjective probability: a representational and assessment processes account.

    PubMed

    Mandel, David R

    2008-01-01

    Coherent judgment is a cardinal feature of rational cognition. Six experiments revealed systematic violations of coherence in probability judgment in which participants assigned different probabilities to mathematically equiprobable events. Experiments 1-5 revealed a strict refocusing effect: Compared to an occurrence frame, a non-occurrence frame resulted in higher estimates if base-rate evidence favored occurrence, lower estimates if evidence favored non-occurrence, and similar estimates if evidence supported indifference. Moreover, Experiments 5 and 6 revealed a pessimistic bias in which the less favorable of two equiprobable events was assigned greater probability. The findings support a Representational and Assessment Processes account (RAP) in which subjective probability is influenced by the perceived compatibility between representations of focal events and representations of evidence.

  15. A survey of the economics of materials processing in space. [accenting biomedical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. P.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the economics of space materials processing has been performed with the objectives of identifying those areas of space materials processing that give preliminary indication of significant economic potential, and to identify possible approaches to quantify the economic potential. It is concluded that limited economic studies have been performed to date, primarily in the area of the processing of inorganic materials, but that the economics of space processing of biological material has not received adequate attention. Specific studies are recommended to evaluate the economic impact of human lymphocyte subgroup separation on organ transplantation, and on the separation and concentration of urokinase producing cells.

  16. Ground based research in microgravity materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

    1994-01-01

    The core activities performed during this time period have been concerned with tracking the TEMPEST experiments on the shuttle with drops of Zr, Ni, and Nb alloys. In particular a lot of Zr drops are being made to better define the recalescence characteristics of that system so that accurate comparisons of the drop tube results with Tempest can be made. A new liner, with minimal reflectivity characteristics, has been inserted into the drop tube in order to improve the recalescence measurements of the falling drops. The first installation to make the geometric measurements to ensure a proper fit has been made. The stovepipe sections are currently in the shop at MSFC being painted with low reflectivity black paint. Work has also continued on setting up the MEL apparatus obtained from Oak Ridge in the down stairs laboratory at the Drop Tube Facilities. Some ground-based experiments on the same metals as are being processed on TEMPEST are planned for the MEL. The flight schedules for the KC-135 experiments are still to be determined in the near future.

  17. Materials-based process tolerances for neutron generator encapsulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Ryan S.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Stavig, Mark Edwin

    2007-10-01

    Variations in the neutron generator encapsulation process can affect functionality. However, instead of following the historical path in which the effects of process variations are assessed directly through functional tests, this study examines how material properties key to generator functionality correlate with process variations. The results of this type of investigation will be applicable to all generators and can provide insight on the most profitable paths to process and material improvements. Surprisingly, the results at this point imply that the process is quite robust, and many of the current process tolerances are perhaps overly restrictive. The good news lies in the fact that our current process ensures reproducible material properties. The bad new lies in the fact that it would be difficult to solve functional problems by changes in the process.

  18. Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Monteiro, Othon R.

    2003-04-10

    A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes.

  19. 48 CFR 252.242-7004 - Material management and accounting system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... charged or allocated to a contract are based on valid time-phased requirements; and (iii) Maintains a consistent, equitable, and unbiased logic for costing of material transactions; and (2) Assess its MMAS and... progress payments by an appropriate percentage based on affected costs (in accordance with FAR...

  20. 48 CFR 252.242-7004 - Material Management and Accounting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... logic for costing of material transactions; and (2) Assess its MMAS and take reasonable action to comply... Government; (3) Provide a mechanism to identify, report, and resolve system control weaknesses and manual... proposed or completed corrective action; and (iii) System disapproval if the Contracting Officer...

  1. The Standards-Setting Process in Accounting: Lessons for Education and Workplace Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Donna; Bailey, Thomas R.

    This report presents the experiences and outcomes of accounting standards-setters who have, in many cases, been successful in establishing a national, uniform system of certification for public accountants. An executive summary appears first. The report begins with two sections that examine the evolution of accounting into a 20th-century…

  2. Inline quality prognosis of material condition induced process variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzler, Felix A.; Wortberg, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The main variation in a good quality production are induced by material condition. Processing technical polymers like PA, ABS or PBT possible influences are residual moisture conditions of the material or minor variations of raw material charges. Small changes in the material properties are difficult to detect at first quality controls and can be within the property tolerances. But even these small differences cause defects. The effects range from viscosity variations to varied crystalline properties. The influence of material properties on the processing have to be detected inline and combined with material analysis to a quality prognosis. The equipped sensors at injection molding machines enable an adequate process performance. The recently available solutions for power consumption monitoring enhance the available process control opportunities. Because of the high process speed of injection molding machines, the required sampling rate has to be minimal 500 Hz. A setup of high bandwidth data processing linked to the machine control enables precise characterization of the production. Identified index numbers, energetic data and characteristic development of measured process figures enable a high resolution detection of material induced variations. This prognosis enables inline classification of the produced parts and a compensation by correlating quality requirements with adjusted filling and packing parameters.

  3. Segregation and redistribution of end-of-process energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, R.A.; Cummins, B.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    1993-03-01

    A system recovering then recycling or reusing end-of-process energetic materials has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The system promotes separating energetic materials with high potential for reuse or recycling from those that have no further value. A feature of the system is a computerized electronic bulletin board for advertising the availability of surplus and recovered energetic materials and process chemicals to LLNL researchers, and for posting energetic materials, ``want ads.`` The system was developed and implemented to promote waste minimization and pollution prevention at LLNL.

  4. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2012-09-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  5. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2011-01-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  6. Process development for economical processing of various vanadium bearing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retelsdorf, H. J.; Rothmann, H.; Fichte, R.

    1982-06-01

    Three different vanadium bearing products were tested. It was proven feasible to recover a ferroalloy containing 73.5% of the vanadium contained in the leaching residues from blast furnace slags by reduction in an electric arc furnace. The composition of the obtained ferroalloy was 67% Fe, 2% V, 7% Cr, and 5.5% C. The vanadium recovery contained 0.5 to 6% in the fly ash, resulting from the combustion of fuel. Different fly ashes were tested by oxidation through roasting and subsequent basic leaching, or by reduction roasting with subsequent acid leaching, or bysoda roasting and leaching. The third source of vanadium tested was the waste salt, originating in alumina production, and containing about 4% V, 5% P, and 0.5% As. It was possible to produce a ferroalloy containing V2O5 and a secondary sodium phosphate, which could be applied in the phosphate processing industry.

  7. High-energy ion processing of materials for improved hardcoatings

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Rhoades, R.L.; Oliver, W.C.; Riester, L.; Tsui, T.Y.

    1994-02-01

    Research has been directed toward use of economically viable ion processing strategies for production and improvement of hardcoatings. Processing techniques were high-energy ion implantation and electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma processing. Subject materials were boron suboxides, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, CoCrMo alloy (a Stellite{trademark}), and electroplated Cr. These materials may be regarded either as coatings themselves (which might be deposited by thermal spraying, plasma processing, etc.) or in some cases, as substrates whose surfaces can be improved. hardness and other properties in relation to process variables are reported.

  8. Explicit accounting of electronic effects on the Hugoniot of porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Bishnupriya; Menon, S. V. G.

    2016-03-01

    A generalized enthalpy based equation of state, which includes thermal electron excitations explicitly, is formulated from simple considerations. Its application to obtain Hugoniot of materials needs simultaneous evaluation of pressure-volume curve and temperature, the latter requiring solution of a differential equation. The errors involved in two recent papers [Huayun et al., J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5917 (2002); 92, 5924 (2002)], which employed this approach, are brought out and discussed. In addition to developing the correct set of equations, the present work also provides a numerical method to implement this approach. Constant pressure specific heat of ions and electrons and ionic enthalpy parameter, needed for applications, are calculated using a three component equation of state. The method is applied to porous Cu with different initial porosities. Comparison of results with experimental data shows good agreement. It is found that temperatures along the Hugoniot of porous materials are significantly modified due to electronic effects.

  9. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2012-09-18

    The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

  10. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1996-06-01

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot isostatic pressing (HEPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. The results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Post consolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  11. Alternative processing methods for tungsten-base composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, E.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1995-12-31

    Tungsten composite materials contain large amounts of tungsten distributed in a continuous matrix phase. Current commercial materials include the tungsten-nickel-iron with cobalt replacing some or all of the iron, and also tungsten-copper materials. Typically, these are fabricated by liquid-phase sintering of blended powders. Liquid-phase sintering offers the advantages of low processing costs, established technology, and generally attractive mechanical properties. However, liquid-phase sintering is restricted to a very limited number of matrix alloying elements and a limited range of tungsten and alloying compositions. In the past few years, there has been interest in a wider range of matrix materials that offer the potential for superior composite properties. These must be processed by solid-state processes and at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid undesired reactions between the tungsten and the matrix phase. These processes, in order of decreasing process temperature requirements, include hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing), hot extrusion, and dynamic compaction. The HIPing and hot extrusion processes have also been used to improve mechanical properties of conventional liquid-phase-sintered materials. Results of laboratory-scale investigations of solid-state consolidation of a variety of matrix materials, including titanium, hafnium, nickel aluminide, and steels are reviewed. The potential advantages and disadvantages of each of the possible alternative consolidation processes are identified. Postconsolidation processing to control microstructure and macrostructure is discussed, including novel methods of controlling microstructure alignment.

  12. Challenge to advanced materials processing with lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu

    2003-02-01

    Japan is one of the most advanced countries in manufacturing technology, and lasers have been playing an important role for advancement of manufacturing technology in a variety of industrial fields. Contribution of laser materials processing to Japanese industry is significant for both macroprocessing and microprocessing. The present paper describes recent trend and topics of industrial applications in terms of the hardware and the software to show how Japanese industry challenges to advanced materials processing using lasers, and national products related to laser materials processing are also briefly introduced.

  13. Processing and Disposition of Special Actinide Target Materials - 13138

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sharon M.; Patton, Brad D.; Allender, Jeffrey S.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages an inventory of materials that contains a range of long-lived radioactive isotopes that were produced from the 1960's through the 1980's by irradiating targets in high-flux reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to produce special heavy isotopes for DOE programmatic use, scientific research, and industrial and medical applications. Among the products were californium-252, heavy curium (including Cm-246 through Cm-248), and plutonium-242 and -244. Many of the isotopes are still in demand today, and they can be recovered from the remaining targets previously irradiated at SRS or produced from the recovered isotopes. Should the existing target materials be discarded, the plutonium (Pu) and curium (Cm) isotopes cannot be replaced readily with existing production sources. Some of these targets are stored at SRS, while other target material is stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at several stages of processing. The materials cannot be stored in their present form indefinitely. Their long-term management involves processing items for beneficial use and/or for disposition, using storage and process facilities at SRS and ORNL. Evaluations are under way for disposition options for these materials, and demonstrations of improved flow sheets to process the materials are being conducted at ORNL and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The disposition options and a management evaluation process have been developed. Processing demonstrations and evaluations for these unique materials are under way. (authors)

  14. Oxidation processes in magneto-optic and related materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul A.; Armstrong, Neal R.; Danzinger, James L.; England, Craig D.

    1992-01-01

    The surface oxidation processes of thin films of magneto-optic materials, such as the rare-earth transition metal alloys have been studied, starting in ultrahigh vacuum environments, using surface analysis techniques, as a way of modeling the oxidation processes which occur at the base of a defect in an overcoated material, at the instant of exposure to ambient environments. Materials examined have included FeTbCo alloys, as well as those same materials with low percentages of added elements, such a Ta, and their reactivities to both O2 and H2O compared with materials such as thin Fe films coated with ultrathin adlayers of Ti. The surface oxidation pathways for these materials is reviewed, and XPS data presented which indicates the type of oxides formed, and a critical region of Ta concentration which provides optimum protection.

  15. Chalcogenide material strengthening through the lens molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J.; Scordato, M.; Lucas, Pierre; Coleman, Garrett J.

    2016-05-01

    The demand for infrared transmitting materials has grown steadily for several decades as markets realize new applications for longer wavelength sensing and imaging. With this growth has come the demand for new and challenging material requirements that cannot be satisfied with crystalline products alone. Chalcogenide materials, with their unique physical, thermal, and optical properties, have found acceptance by designers and fabricators to meet these demands. No material is perfect in every regard, and chalcogenides are no exception. A cause for concern has been the relatively low fracture toughness and the propensity of the bulk material to fracture. This condition is amplified when traditional subtractive manufacturing processes are employed. This form of processing leaves behind micro fractures and sub surface damage, which act as propagation points for both local and catastrophic failure of the material. Precision lens molding is not a subtractive process, and as a result, micro fractures and sub surface damage are not created. This results in a stronger component than one produced by traditional methods. New processing methods have also been identified that result in an even stronger surface that is more resistant to breakage, without the need for post processing techniques that may compromise surface integrity. This paper will discuss results achieved in the process of lens molding development at Edmund Optics that result in measurably stronger chalcogenide components. Various metrics will be examined and data will be presented that quantifies component strength for different manufacturing processes.

  16. Ultrasonic processing of hard materials for conformal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; Bechtold, Rob; Bechtold, Mike; Wolfs, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Hard ceramic optical materials such as sapphire, ALON, Spinel, or PCA can present a significant challenge in manufacturing precision optical components due to their tough mechanical properties. These are also the same mechanical properties that make them desirable materials when used in harsh environments. Tool wear and tool loading conditions during the grinding process for these materials can be especially problematic. Because of this, frequent dressing and reshaping of grinding wheels is often required. OptiPro systems is developing an ultrasonic grinding process called OptiSonic to minimize the forces during grinding and make the grinding process more efficient. The ultrasonic vibration of the grinding wheel allows for a grinding process that has the capacity for longer tool life and reduced tool wear for a more deterministic process. This presentation will discuss the OptiSonic process and present current results.

  17. Study of Photochromic Materials for Use in Optical Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    LDFP 07 C6 11. TITLE (kIclude Security Classification) STUDY OF PHOTOCHROMIC MATERIALS FOR USE IN OPZfCAL SIGNAL PROCESSING 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dr...the feasibility of using photochromic materials for programmable spatial filters and optical data storage/ applications. Write and erase times...Mercuay Dithizonate 35 V. General Experimental Behavior of Photochromic Materials 39 VI. Kinetics of the Relaxation Reaction 44 VII. Dependence of the

  18. Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Senior, C. L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses results of our work on development of the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System for Lunar Materials Processing. In the OW system as shown, solar radiation is collected by the concentrator which transfers the concentrated solar radiation to the OW transmission line consisting of low-loss optical fibers. The OW line transmits the solar radiation to the thermal reactor of the lunar materials processing plant. The feature of the OW system are: (1) Highly concentrated solar radiation (up to 104 suns) can be transmitted via flexible OW lines directly into the thermal reactor for materials processing: (2) Solar radiation intensity or spectra can be tailored to specific materials processing steps; (3) Provide solar energy to locations or inside of enclosures that would not otherwise have an access to solar energy; and (4) The system can be modularized and can be easily transported to and deployed at the lunar base.

  19. Use of energetic ion beams in materials synthesis and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Appleton, B R

    1991-01-01

    A brief review of the use energetic ion beams and related techniques for the synthesis, processing, and characterization of materials is presented. Selected opportunity areas are emphasized with examples, and references are provided for more extensive coverage.

  20. 30 CFR 1206.181 - How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? 1206.181 Section 1206.181 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... VALUATION Indian Gas Processing Allowances § 1206.181 How do I establish processing costs for...

  1. Missouri Introduction to Materials and Processing Technology. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide is intended to support a high school specialization course in materials and processing technology. The document contains three sections: (1) information on using the material; (2) a set of instructor guides for eight instructional units; (3) 15 technological activity modules and teacher and student instructions for their use; and (4)…

  2. US/Russian laboratory-to-laboratory program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Roumiansev, A.; Shmelev, V.

    1996-06-01

    Six US DOE Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (RRC KI) to improve the capabilities and facilities in nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). In 1995, the primary emphasis of this program was the implementation of improved physical protection at a demonstration building at RRC KI, and the upgrading of the computerized MC&A system, diagnostic instrumentation, and physical inventory procedures at a critical assembly within this building. Work continues in 1996 at the demonstration building but now also has begun at the two Kurchatov buildings which constitute the Central Storage Facility (CSF). At this facility, there will be upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, a test and evaluation of gamma-ray isotopic measurements, evaluations of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment as well as development of an improved computerized materials accounting system, implementation of bar code printing and reading equipment, development of tamper indicating device program, and substantial improvements in physical protection. Also, vulnerability assessments begun in 1995 are being extended to additional high priority facilities at Kurchatov.

  3. Near net shape processing: A necessity for advanced materials applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Howard A.

    1993-01-01

    High quality discrete parts are the backbones for successful operation of equipment used in transportation, communication, construction, manufacturing, and appliances. Traditional shapemaking for discrete parts is carried out predominantly by machining, or removing unwanted material to produce the desired shape. As the cost and complexity of modern materials escalates, coupled with the expense and environmental hazards associated with handling of scrap, it is increasingly important to develop near net shape processes for these materials. Such processes involve casting of liquid materials, consolidation of powder materials, or deformation processing of simple solid shapes into the desired shape. Frequently, several of these operations may be used in sequence to produce a finished part. The processes for near net shape forming may be applied to any type of material, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and their composites. The ability to produce shapes is the key to implementation of laboratory developments in materials science into real world applications. This seminar presents an overview of near net shapemaking processes, some application examples, current developments, and future research opportunities.

  4. Electromagnetic Processing of Materials:. from the Concepts to Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delannoy, Y.

    2005-07-01

    Electromagnetic fields are used for material processing in various industrial devices, such as induction furnaces, electromagnetic brakes and stirrers in metallurgy, inductive plasma torches to elaborate silica for optical fibres or electromagnetic flow control systems in crystal growth. New developments are needed whenever the coupling of physical phenomena is the key point of the process. Three examples are presented among the research activities of the EPM laboratory in Electromagnetic Processing of Materials: Electromagnetic continuous casting of steel slabs, plasma purification of silicon, electromagnetic stirring of solidifying alloys. Some scientific open questions important for such processes are presented.

  5. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  6. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  7. The Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Sustainability Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Vakhonin, Alexander; Yuldashev, Rashid; Dabbs, Richard D.; Carroll, Michael F.; Garrett, Albert G.; Patrick, Scott W.; Ku, Eshter M.

    2009-09-30

    UEIP has been working on a comprehensive sustainability program that includes establishing a site sustainability working group, information gathering, planning, organizing, developing schedule and estimated costs, trhough joint UEIP-US DOE/NNSA National Laboratory sustainability contracts. Considerable efforts have been necessary in the sustainability planning, monitoring, and control of the scope of work using tools such as Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Project and SAP R/3. While information interchanges within the sustainability program provides adequate US assurances that US funds are well spent through its quarterly reporting methodology, proper information security and protection measures are taken throughout the process. Decommissioning of outdated equipment has also become part of determining sustainability requirements and processes. The site’s sustainability program has facilitated the development of a transition plan toward eventual full Russian funding of sustaining nuclear security upgrades.

  8. Mass tracking and material accounting in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR)

    SciTech Connect

    Orechwa, Y.; Adams, C.H.; White, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a generic advanced liquid metal cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). There are a number of technical features of the IFR which contribute to its potential as a next-generation reactor. These are associated with large safety margins with regard to off-normal events involving the heat transport system, and the use of metallic fuel which makes possible the utilization of innovative fuel cycle processes. The latter feature permits fuel cycle closure the compact, low-cost reprocessing facilities, collocated with the reactor plant. These primary features are being demonstrated in the facilities at ANL-West, utilizing Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the associated Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) as an IFR prototype. The demonstration of this IFR prototype includes the design and implementation of the Mass-Tracking System (MTG). In this system, data from the operations of the FCF, including weights and batch-process parameters, are collected and maintained by the MTG running on distributed workstations. The components of the MTG System include: (1) an Oracle database manager with a Fortran interface, (2) a set of MTG Tasks'' which collect, manipulate and report data, (3) a set of MTG Terminal Sessions'' which provide some interactive control of the Tasks, and (4) a set of servers which manage the Tasks and which provide the communications link between the MTG System and Operator Control Stations, which control process equipment and monitoring devices within the FCF.

  9. A comparison of two diffusion process models in accounting for payoff and stimulus frequency manipulations.

    PubMed

    Leite, Fábio P

    2012-08-01

    I analyzed response time and accuracy data from a numerosity discrimination experiment in which both stimulus frequency and payoff structure were manipulated. The numerosity discrimination encompassed responding either "low" or "high" to the number of asterisks in a 10 × 10 grid, on the basis of an experimenter-determined decision cutoff (fixed at 50). In the stimulus frequency condition, there were more low than high stimuli in some blocks and more high than low stimuli in other blocks. In the payoff condition, responses were rewarded such that the relative value of a stimulus mimicked the relative frequency of that stimulus in the previous manipulation. I modeled the data using two sequential-sampling models in which evidence was accumulated until either a "low" or a "high" decision criterion was reached and a response was initiated: a single-stage diffusion model framework and a two-stage diffusion model framework. In using these two frameworks, the goal was to examine their relative merits across stimulus frequency and payoff structure manipulations. I found that shifts in starting point in a single-stage diffusion framework and shifts in the initial drift rate in the two-stage model were able to account for the data. I also found, however, that these two shifts across the two models produced similar changes in the random walk that described the decision process. In conclusion, I found that the similarities in the descriptions of the decision processes make it difficult to choose between the two models and suggested that such a choice should consider model assumptions and parameter estimate interpretations.

  10. Benefit evaluation of space processing of biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A rational analytical basis for the evaluation of potential benefits of space processing of biological materials is described. A preliminary evaluation of three candidate space processed biological materials was accomplished. Materials investigated were human lymphocytes, urokinase, and Beta cells. Separation of lymphocyte groups was considered in order to improve the matching of donors and recipients for kidney transplantation, while urokinase was examined in regard to treatment of thromboembolic diseases. Separation of Beta cells was studied since it could provide a highly effective means for the treatment of juvenile-onset diabetes.

  11. The Impact of Additional Quality Standards upon Future Accounting Faculty and the Accreditation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinstein, Alan; Schroeder, Richard G.

    1986-01-01

    Reports on the results of a four-stage research project that was designed to (1) analyze the academic and professional qualifications of accounting faculties; (2) assess the impact of the new interpretation of the research capability standard on accounting programs; and (3) determine the degree of compliance with the professional certification…

  12. A Primer for Accounting Certification: Complete Analysis of the Process with Listing of Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, David T.; Boyd, Sanithia C.; Berry, Priscilla

    2009-01-01

    As a result of globalization and the growth and complexity of both domestic and international bodies requiring accountants, the need for highly sophisticated training and specific certification is mandatory. Students seeking career positions in the field of accounting are amazingly left without the easy access to certification that one might think…

  13. Friction stir welding tool and process for welding dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J; Jana, Saumyadeep; Mattlin, Karl F

    2013-05-07

    A friction stir welding tool and process for lap welding dissimilar materials are detailed. The invention includes a cutter scribe that penetrates and extrudes a first material of a lap weld stack to a preselected depth and further cuts a second material to provide a beneficial geometry defined by a plurality of mechanically interlocking features. The tool backfills the interlocking features generating a lap weld across the length of the interface between the dissimilar materials that enhances the shear strength of the lap weld.

  14. Material model validation for laser shock peening process simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarchinta, H. K.; Grandhi, R. V.; Langer, K.; Stargel, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced mechanical surface enhancement techniques have been used successfully to increase the fatigue life of metallic components. These techniques impart deep compressive residual stresses into the component to counter potentially damage-inducing tensile stresses generated under service loading. Laser shock peening (LSP) is an advanced mechanical surface enhancement technique used predominantly in the aircraft industry. To reduce costs and make the technique available on a large-scale basis for industrial applications, simulation of the LSP process is required. Accurate simulation of the LSP process is a challenging task, because the process has many parameters such as laser spot size, pressure profile and material model that must be precisely determined. This work focuses on investigating the appropriate material model that could be used in simulation and design. In the LSP process material is subjected to strain rates of 106 s-1, which is very high compared with conventional strain rates. The importance of an accurate material model increases because the material behaves significantly different at such high strain rates. This work investigates the effect of multiple nonlinear material models for representing the elastic-plastic behavior of materials. Elastic perfectly plastic, Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong models are used, and the performance of each model is compared with available experimental results.

  15. Processing and disposal of scales containing naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D.G.; Woods, S.E.; Abernathy, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    Since the discovery that many drill cuttings, scales, sludges, and platings contain elevated amounts of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), many companies and regulating authorities have wondered what is the best method for disposing of this material. This paper covers a process which grinds and slurries this material to a form acceptable for injection to a well. The process consists of (1) classification of material, (2) bulk breakdown, and (3) grinding and slurrying to a consistency which keeps the particles suspended in solution until time for well injection. Well injection takes the form of encapsulation by cementing the well casing below and above the injected NORM during a plug and abandonment operation. In conclusion, the philosophy of the process is to take the NORM generated through the exploration and production of oil and gas and place it back into the reservoir from which it came. This technique is one which protects the environment from the possible hazards associated with mismanaged NORM.

  16. Materials And Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) LDEF materials data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Data Base was developed by the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG). The LDEF Materials Data Base is envisioned to eventually contain the wide variety and vast quantity of materials data generated from LDEF. The data is searchable by optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, exposure parameters (such as atomic oxygen flux) and author(s) or principal investigator(s). Tne LDEF Materials Data Base was incorporated into the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS). MAPTIS is a collection of materials data which has been computerized and is available to engineers, designers, and researchers in the aerospace community involved in the design and development of spacecraft and related hardware. The LDEF Materials Data Base is described and step-by-step example searches using the data base are included. Information on how to become an authorized user of the system is included.

  17. Novel materials and beam delivery technique for ultrafast laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ju

    2002-01-01

    Ultrafast lasers offer significant advantages for novel laser materials processing, especially at small length scales. Their extremely high optical intensity results in nonlinear laser-material interaction and energy deposition, which provide unique, non-traditional material processing capabilities. In this work, a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser system is applied for both practical and fundamental investigations of ultrafast laser materials processing. For practical applications, experimental techniques are developed to characterize and process two novel materials: (1) silica aerogels, and (2) thermal-sprayed materials, both of which are difficult to micromachine using any conventional technique. The breakdown threshold as well as the low-level absorption coefficient of the aerogel material are measured, while the material removal rate is characterized as a function of the laser fluence and the number of laser shots. Thermal-sprayed line patterns are trimmed by synchronizing the femtosecond laser pulses with a three-dimensional motorized micro-positioning system. A trimmed line width ˜50 mum is obtained, from an original line width ˜500 mum. In addition to developing experimental techniques for practical ultrafast laser processing of novel materials, investigations on improving the machining quality and efficiency by characterizing the nonlinear interactions between the femtosecond laser pulses and the beam delivery gas medium are also conducted in this work. A theoretical model based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation is applied to simulate the pulse propagation under the coupled effects of two nonlinear mechanisms. The model predictions show that the beam profile can be dramatically distorted due to the nonlinear changes in the refractive index in air, which can be minimized by delivering the beam using an inert gas, particularly helium, due to its unique physical properties. Machining of copper sample by delivering the femtosecond laser pulse in four

  18. Corrosion-Resistant Container for Molten-Material Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Theodore G.; McNaul, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In a carbothermal process, gaseous methane is passed over molten regolith, which is heated past its melting point to a temperature in excess of 1,625 C. At this temperature, materials in contact with the molten regolith (or regolith simulant) corrode and lose their structural properties. As a result, fabricating a crucible to hold the molten material and providing a method of contact heating have been problematic. Alternative containment approaches use a large crucible and limit the heat zone of the material being processed, which is inefficient because of volume and mass constraints. Alternative heating approaches use non-contact heating, such as by laser or concentrated solar energy, which can be inefficient in transferring heat and thus require higher power heat sources to accomplish processing. The innovation is a combination of materials, with a substrate material having high structural strength and stiffness and high-temperature capability, and a coating material with a high corrosion resistance and high-temperature capability. The material developed is a molybdenum substrate with an iridium coating. Creating the containment crucible or heater jacket using this material combination requires only that the molybdenum, which is easily processed by conventional methods such as milling, electric discharge machining, or forming and brazing, be fabricated into an appropriate shape, and that the iridium coating be applied to any surfaces that may come in contact with the corrosive molten material. In one engineering application, the molybdenum was fashioned into a container for a heat pipe. Since only the end of the heat pipe is used to heat the regolith, the container has a narrowing end with a nipple in which the heat pipe is snugly fit, and the external area of this nipple, which contacts the regolith to transfer heat into it, is coated with iridium. At the time of this reporting, no single material has been found that can perform the functions of this combination

  19. Processing and characterization of novel biobased and biodegradable materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilla, Srikanth

    Human society has benefited tremendously from the use of petroleum-based plastics. However, there are growing concerns with their adverse environmental impacts and volatile costs attributed to the skyrocketing oil prices. Additionally most of the petroleum-based polymers are non-biodegradable causing problems about their disposal. Thus, during the last couple of decades, scientists ail over the world have been focusing on developing new polymeric materials that are biobased and biodegradable, also termed as green plastics . This study aims to develop green materials based on polylactide (PLA) biopolymer that can be made from plants. Although PLA can provide important advantages in terms of sustainability and biodegradability, it has its own challenges such as high cost, brittleness, and narrow processing window. These challenges are addressed in this study by investigating both new material formulations and processes. To improve the material properties and control the material costs, PLA was blended with various fillers and modifiers. The types of fillers investigated include carbon nanotube (CNT) nanoparticles and various natural fibers such as pine-wood four, recycled-wood fibers and flax fiber. Using natural fibers as fillers for PLA can result in fully biodegradable and eco-friendly biocomposites. Also due to PLA's sensitivity to moisture and temperature, molecular degradation can occur during processing leading to inferior material properties. To address this issue, one of the approaches adopted by this study was to incorporate a multifunctional chain-extender into PLA, which increased the molecular weight of PLA thereby improving the material properties. To improve the processability and reduce the material cost, both microcellular injection molding and extrusion processes have been studied. The microcellular technology allows the materials to be processed at a lower temperature, which is attractive for thermo- and moisture-sensitive materials like PLA. They

  20. Designing Educative Curriculum Materials: A Theoretically and Empirically Driven Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Arias, Anna Maria; Bismack, Amber Schultz; Marulis, Loren M.; Iwashyna, Stefanie K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a design process in the development of educative curriculum materials that is theoretically and empirically driven. Using a design-based research approach, they describe their design process for incorporating educative features intended to promote teacher learning into existing, high-quality curriculum…

  1. New Materials Design Through Friction Stir Processing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Buffa, G.; Fratini, L.; Shivpuri, R.

    2007-04-07

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has reached a large interest in the scientific community and in the last years also in the industrial environment, due to the advantages of such solid state welding process with respect to the classic ones. The complex material flow occurring during the process plays a fundamental role in such solid state welding process, since it determines dramatic changes in the material microstructure of the so called weld nugget, which affects the effectiveness of the joints. What is more, Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is mainly being considered for producing high-strain-rate-superplastic (HSRS) microstructure in commercial aluminum alloys. The aim of the present research is the development of a locally composite material through the Friction Stir Processing (FSP) of two AA7075-T6 blanks and a different material insert. The results of a preliminary experimental campaign, carried out at the varying of the additional material placed at the sheets interface under different conditions, are presented. Micro and macro observation of the such obtained joints permitted to investigate the effects of such process on the overall joint performance.

  2. Process material management in the Space Station environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Humphries, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station will provide a unique facility for conducting material-processing and life-science experiments under microgravity conditions. These conditions place special requirements on the U.S. Laboratory for storing and transporting chemicals and process fluids, reclaiming water from selected experiments, treating and storing experiment wastes, and providing vacuum utilities. To meet these needs and provide a safe laboratory environment, the Process Material Management System (PMMS) is being developed. Preliminary design requirements and concepts related to the PMMS are addressed, and the MSFC PMMS breadboard test facility and a preliminary plan for validating the overall system design are discussed.

  3. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held October 17 through November 4, 1983, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a State system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1983 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Westinghouse Fast Flux Test Facility Visitor Center, and Washington Public Power System nuclear reactor facilities in Richland, Washington. Individual presentations were indexed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  4. International training course on implementation of state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Implementation of State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials held June 3 through June 21, 1985, at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and San Clemente, California. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards requirements. Major emphasis for the 1985 course was placed on safeguards methods used at item-control facilities, particularly nuclear power generating stations and test reactors. An introduction to safeguards methods used at bulk handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants, was also included. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Southern California Edison Company. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, San Clemente, California.

  5. Picosecond and femtosecond lasers for industrial material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayerhofer, R.; Serbin, J.; Deeg, F. W.

    2016-03-01

    Cold laser materials processing using ultra short pulsed lasers has become one of the most promising new technologies for high-precision cutting, ablation, drilling and marking of almost all types of material, without causing unwanted thermal damage to the part. These characteristics have opened up new application areas and materials for laser processing, allowing previously impossible features to be created and also reducing the amount of post-processing required to an absolute minimum, saving time and cost. However, short pulse widths are only one part of thee story for industrial manufacturing processes which focus on total costs and maximum productivity and production yield. Like every other production tool, ultra-short pulse lasers have too provide high quality results with maximum reliability. Robustness and global on-site support are vital factors, as well ass easy system integration.

  6. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, C. S.; Hansen, K. C.; Miller, J. W., Jr.; Yaws, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    Initial results for gas thermal conductivity of silicon tetrafluoride and trichlorosilane are reported in respective temperature ranges of 25 to 400 C and 50 to 400 C. For chemical engineering analyses, the preliminary process design for the original silane process of Union Carbide was completed for Cases A and B, Regular and Minimum Process Storage. Included are raw material usage, utility requirements, major process equipment lists, and production labor requirements. Because of the large differences in surge tankage between major unit operations the fixed capital investment varied from $19,094,000 to $11,138,000 for Cases A and B, respectively. For the silane process the original flowsheet was revised for a more optimum arrangement of major equipment, raw materials and operating conditions. The initial issue of the revised flowsheet (Case C) for the silane process indicated favorable cost benefits over the original scheme.

  7. An investigation of the self-heating phenomenon in viscoelastic materials subjected to cyclic loadings accounting for prestress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, A. M. G.; Rade, D. A.; Lacerda, H. B.; Araújo, C. A.

    2015-06-01

    It has been demonstrated by many authors that the internal damping mechanism of the viscoelastic materials offers many possibilities for practical engineering applications. However, in traditional procedures of analysis and design of viscoelastic dampers subjected to cyclic loadings, uniform, constant temperature is generally assumed and do not take into account the self-heating phenomenon. Moreover, for viscoelastic materials subjected to dynamic loadings superimposed on static preloads, such as engine mounts, these procedures can lead to poor designs or even severe failures since the energy dissipated within the volume of the material leads to temperature rises. In this paper, a hybrid numerical-experimental investigation of effects of the static preloads on the self-heating phenomenon in viscoelastic dampers subjected to harmonic loadings is reported. After presenting the theoretical foundations, the numerical and experimental results obtained in terms of the temperature evolutions at different points within the volume of the viscoelastic material for various static preloads are compared, and the main features of the methodology are discussed.

  8. Marshall Space Flight Center Materials and Processes Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    Marshall?s Materials and Processes Laboratory has been a core capability for NASA for over fifty years. MSFC has a proven heritage and recognized expertise in materials and manufacturing that are essential to enable and sustain space exploration. Marshall provides a "systems-wise" capability for applied research, flight hardware development, and sustaining engineering. Our history of leadership and achievements in materials, manufacturing, and flight experiments includes Apollo, Skylab, Mir, Spacelab, Shuttle (Space Shuttle Main Engine, External Tank, Reusable Solid Rocket Motor, and Solid Rocket Booster), Hubble, Chandra, and the International Space Station. MSFC?s National Center for Advanced Manufacturing, NCAM, facilitates major M&P advanced manufacturing partnership activities with academia, industry and other local, state and federal government agencies. The Materials and Processes Laborato ry has principal competencies in metals, composites, ceramics, additive manufacturing, materials and process modeling and simulation, space environmental effects, non-destructive evaluation, and fracture and failure analysis provide products ranging from materials research in space to fully integrated solutions for large complex systems challenges. Marshall?s materials research, development and manufacturing capabilities assure that NASA and National missions have access to cutting-edge, cost-effective engineering design and production options that are frugal in using design margins and are verified as safe and reliable. These are all critical factors in both future mission success and affordability.

  9. Emissivities of ceramic materials for high temperature processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Wolfgang; Moldenhauer, Alexander; Platzer, Alexander

    2005-08-01

    In technical heat treatment processes - e.g. the sintering process - the kiln as well as the heat treated material need to have a fairly homogeneous temperature distribution. In the kiln the heat is transferred from the furnace walls to the kiln aids and from the aids to the heat treated material. An example for such processes is the sintering of ceramics, where the heat is transferred from sintering aids to the sintering ceramic material. To guarantee an optimized heat treatment the details of the heat transfer need to be known. Many heat treatment procedures operate at such high temperatures that heat transfer is mainly dominated by radiation, but the emissivities of typical refractory materials of kiln and sintering aids in general are hardly known. Therefore, the spectral emissivities of some typical kiln materials and sintering aids were measured in the temperature range from 200 to 1200°C and in the spectral range from 0.8 to 25 μm at the radiation measurement device of the University Duisburg-Essen. These data were used to compute the temperature-dependent total emissivities. The paper describes the equipment for radiation measurement, the measured temperature-dependent spectral emissivities as well as the computed temperature-dependent total emissivities. It was found out, that different materials have different temperature-dependent spectral and total emissivities which may significantly influence the heat transfer in high temperature processes.

  10. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  11. Method for materials deposition by ablation transfer processing

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, K.H.

    1996-04-16

    A method in which a thin layer of semiconducting, insulating, or metallic material is transferred by ablation from a source substrate, coated uniformly with a thin layer of said material, to a target substrate, where said material is desired, with a pulsed, high intensity, patternable beam of energy. The use of a patternable beam allows area-selective ablation from the source substrate resulting in additive deposition of the material onto the target substrate which may require a very low percentage of the area to be covered. Since material is placed only where it is required, material waste can be minimized by reusing the source substrate for depositions on multiple target substrates. Due to the use of a pulsed, high intensity energy source the target substrate remains at low temperature during the process, and thus low-temperature, low cost transparent glass or plastic can be used as the target substrate. The method can be carried out atmospheric pressures and at room temperatures, thus eliminating vacuum systems normally required in materials deposition processes. This invention has particular application in the flat panel display industry, as well as minimizing materials waste and associated costs. 1 fig.

  12. Method for materials deposition by ablation transfer processing

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    1996-01-01

    A method in which a thin layer of semiconducting, insulating, or metallic material is transferred by ablation from a source substrate, coated uniformly with a thin layer of said material, to a target substrate, where said material is desired, with a pulsed, high intensity, patternable beam of energy. The use of a patternable beam allows area-selective ablation from the source substrate resulting in additive deposition of the material onto the target substrate which may require a very low percentage of the area to be covered. Since material is placed only where it is required, material waste can be minimized by reusing the source substrate for depositions on multiple target substrates. Due to the use of a pulsed, high intensity energy source the target substrate remains at low temperature during the process, and thus low-temperature, low cost transparent glass or plastic can be used as the target substrate. The method can be carried out atmospheric pressures and at room temperatures, thus eliminating vacuum systems normally required in materials deposition processes. This invention has particular application in the flat panel display industry, as well as minimizing materials waste and associated costs.

  13. Situated sentence processing: the coordinated interplay account and a neurobehavioral model.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Matthew W; Knoeferle, Pia; Mayberry, Marshall R

    2010-03-01

    Empirical evidence demonstrating that sentence meaning is rapidly reconciled with the visual environment has been broadly construed as supporting the seamless interaction of visual and linguistic representations during situated comprehension. Based on recent behavioral and neuroscientific findings, however, we argue for the more deeply rooted coordination of the mechanisms underlying visual and linguistic processing, and for jointly considering the behavioral and neural correlates of scene-sentence reconciliation during situated comprehension. The Coordinated Interplay Account (CIA; Knoeferle, P., & Crocker, M. W. (2007). The influence of recent scene events on spoken comprehension: Evidence from eye movements. Journal of Memory and Language, 57(4), 519-543) asserts that incremental linguistic interpretation actively directs attention in the visual environment, thereby increasing the salience of attended scene information for comprehension. We review behavioral and neuroscientific findings in support of the CIA's three processing stages: (i) incremental sentence interpretation, (ii) language-mediated visual attention, and (iii) the on-line influence of non-linguistic visual context. We then describe a recently developed connectionist model which both embodies the central CIA proposals and has been successfully applied in modeling a range of behavioral findings from the visual world paradigm (Mayberry, M. R., Crocker, M. W., & Knoeferle, P. (2009). Learning to attend: A connectionist model of situated language comprehension. Cognitive Science). Results from a new simulation suggest the model also correlates with event-related brain potentials elicited by the immediate use of visual context for linguistic disambiguation (Knoeferle, P., Habets, B., Crocker, M. W., & Münte, T. F. (2008). Visual scenes trigger immediate syntactic reanalysis: Evidence from ERPs during situated spoken comprehension. Cerebral Cortex, 18(4), 789-795). Finally, we argue that the mechanisms

  14. Spacecraft materials guide. [including: encapsulants and conformal coatings; optical materials; lubrication; and, bonding and joining processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staugaitis, C. L. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Materials which have demonstrated their suitability for space application are summarized. Common, recurring problems in encapsulants and conformal coatings, optical materials, lubrication, and bonding and joining are noted. The subjects discussed include: low density and syntactic foams, electrical encapsulants; optical glasses, interference filter, mirrors; oils, greases, lamillar lubricants; and, soldering and brazing processes.

  15. Mathematical modeling of material behaviors in the fracture process zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mingcheng

    2000-10-01

    This Ph.D. research focuses on employing the cohesive crack models to investigate the fracture process zone behavior. The main contributions are summarized as the following: (1) A generalized mixed mode Dugdale model is developed. Research shows that the crack interaction will result in highly nonsymmetrical fracture process zone behavior. The nonsymmetrical fracture process zone behavior may be important in evaluation of effective properties of cracked materials if the local unsymmetrical loading induced by its neighbor crack interactions cannot be ignored. (2) A closed form solution of the stress history effect on the mixed mode Dugdale crack is obtained. Then a numerical procedure is proposed for studying the residual stress behavior of the loading and unloading path dependent Dugdale crack. (3) A general weight function method is developed for simulating the fracture process zone behavior. With this method the fracture process zone behavior can be easily simulated with singular solutions. (4) A numerical procedure is developed to investigate the strain-hardening or strain-softening effect on the Dugdale crack. Numerical examples show that, for a given Jc, the far-field failure stress of strain-hardening or strain-softening materials are very close to the Dugdale solution and this implies that the fracture failure criteria used in elastic-plastic material can be extended to the strain-hardening or strain-softening materials in the static loading situation. Stress distributions in the process zone have been calculated for several strain-hardening and strain-softening materials. An empirical equation of power-law type is proposed to represent the stress distribution as a function of the position in the process zone. It is shown that the power-law index varies linearly with the size of the fracture process zone. For static loading, Jc is the controlling parameter and the fracture process zone behavior is a secondary issue.

  16. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Hansen, K. C.; Yaws, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    Process system properties are analyzed for materials involved in the alternate processes under consideration for solar cell grade silicon. The following property data are reported for trichlorosilane: critical constants, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, gas heat capacity, liquid heat capacity, density, surface tension, viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat of formation, and Gibb's free energy of formation. Work continued on the measurement of gas viscosity values of silicon source materials. Gas phase viscosity values for silicon tetrafluoride between 40 C and 200 C were experimentally determined. Major efforts were expended on completion of the preliminary economic analysis of the silane process. Cost, sensitivity and profitability analysis results are presented based on a preliminary process design of a plant to produce 1,000 metric tons/year of silicon by the revised process.

  17. Technology Assessment of Laser-Assisted Materials Processing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagarathnam, Karthik; Taminger, Karen M. B.

    2001-01-01

    Lasers are useful for performing operations such as joining, machining, built-up freeform fabrication, shock processing, and surface treatments. These attributes are attractive for the supportability of longer-term missions in space due to the multi-functionality of a single tool and the variety of materials that can be processed. However, current laser technology also has drawbacks for space-based applications, specifically size, power efficiency, lack of robustness, and problems processing highly reflective materials. A review of recent laser developments will be used to show how these issues may be reduced and indicate where further improvement is necessary to realize a laser-based materials processing capability in space. The broad utility of laser beams in synthesizing various classes of engineering materials will be illustrated using state-of-the art processing maps for select lightweight alloys typically found on spacecraft. With the advent of recent breakthroughs in diode-pumped solid-state lasers and fiber optic technologies, the potential to perform multiple processing techniques is increasing significantly. Lasers with suitable wavelengths and beam properties have tremendous potential for supporting future space missions to the moon, Mars and beyond.

  18. Polarization Processes of Nanocomposite Silicate-EVA and PP Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Gian Carlo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Testa, Luigi; Motori, Antonio; Saccani, Andrea; Patuelli, Francesca

    Recent works indicate that polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA) filled by nanosilicates may present low content of space charge and high electric strength. Investigations are being made to explain nanocomposite behaviour and characterize their electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. In this paper, the results of broad-band dielectric spectroscopy performed on EVA and PP filled by layered nanosized silicates are reported. Isochronal and isothermal curves of complex permittivity, as well as activation energies of the relaxation processes, are presented and discussed. Nanostructuration gives rise to substantial changes in the polarisation and dielectric loss behaviour. While the relaxation process of EVA, associated with glass transition of the material amorphous phase, results unchanged from base to nanostructured material, nanocomposites EVA and PP have shown the rise of a new process at higher temperatures respect to the typical host material processes, as well as a different distribution of relaxation processes. Changes in space charge accumulation in relation to the effectiveness of the purification process performed upon nanostructured materials are also reported: while the dispersion of the clean clays leads to a reduction of the space charge, especially at high fields, an unclean filler gives rise to significant homo-charge accumulation and interfacial polarisation phenomena.

  19. Optical studies of dynamical processes in disordered materials

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, W.M.

    1990-12-01

    Our research continues to focus on the study of the structure and the dynamic behavior of insulating solids which can be activated optically. We have been particularly interested in the physical processes which produce relaxation and energy transfer in the optical excited states. Our studies have been based principally on optical laser spectroscopic techniques which reveal a more detailed view of the materials of interest and which will ultimately lead to the development of more efficient optoelectronic materials. 13 refs.

  20. NBS (National Bureau of Standards): Materials measurements. [space processing experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Work directed toward the measurement of materials properties important to the design and interpretation of space processing experiments and determinations of how the space environment may offer a unique opportunity for performing improved measurements and producing materials with improved properties is reported. Surface tensions and their variations with temperature and impurities; convection during undirectional solidification; and measurement of the high temperature thermophysical properties of tungsten group liquids and solids are discussed and results are summarized.

  1. Support Assembly for Composite Laminate Materials During Roll Press Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catella, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    A composite laminate material is supported during the roll press processing thereof by an assembly having: first and second perforated films disposed adjacent to first and second opposing surfaces of a mixture of uncured resin and fibers defining the composite laminate material, a gas permeable encasement surrounding the mixture and the first and second films, a gas impervious envelope sealed about the gas permeable encasement, and first and second rigid plates clamped about the gas impervious envelope.

  2. Containerless Liquid-Phase Processing of Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. K. Richard (Principal Investigator); Nordine, Paul C.

    1996-01-01

    The present project builds on the results of research supported under a previous NASA grant to investigate containerless liquid-phase processing of molten ceramic materials. The research used an aero-acoustic levitator in combination with cw CO2 laser beam heating to achieve containerless melting, superheating, undercooling, and solidification of poorly-conducting solids and liquids. Experiments were performed on aluminum oxide, binary aluminum oxide-silicon dioxide materials, and oxide superconductors.

  3. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.; Smith, C.M.

    1990-10-09

    In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The deploymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on deploymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380--600{degrees}C and 70--280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  4. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.; Smith, C.M.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The depolymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on depolymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380[degrees]-600[degrees] C and 70-280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  5. Nuclear Material Processing at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Severynse, T.F.

    1998-07-01

    Plutonium production for national defense began at Savannah River in the mid-1950s, following construction of production reactors and separations facilities. Following the successful completion of its production mission, the site`s nuclear material processing facilities continue to operate to perform stabilization of excess materials and potentially support the disposition of these materials. A number of restoration and productivity improvement projects implemented in the 1980s, totaling nearly a billion dollars, have resulted in these facilities representing the most modern and only remaining operating large-scale processing facilities in the DOE Complex. Together with the Site`s extensive nuclear infrastructure, and integrated waste management system, SRS is the only DOE site with the capability and mission of ongoing processing operations.

  6. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Smith, Charlene M.

    1991-01-01

    In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The depolymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on depolymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380.degree.-600.degree. C. and 70-280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  7. Modelling of the physico-chemical behaviour of clay minerals with a thermo-kinetic model taking into account particles morphology in compacted material.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sali, D.; Fritz, B.; Clément, C.; Michau, N.

    2003-04-01

    Modelling of fluid-mineral interactions is largely used in Earth Sciences studies to better understand the involved physicochemical processes and their long-term effect on the materials behaviour. Numerical models simplify the processes but try to preserve their main characteristics. Therefore the modelling results strongly depend on the data quality describing initial physicochemical conditions for rock materials, fluids and gases, and on the realistic way of processes representations. The current geo-chemical models do not well take into account rock porosity and permeability and the particle morphology of clay minerals. In compacted materials like those considered as barriers in waste repositories, low permeability rocks like mudstones or compacted powders will be used : they contain mainly fine particles and the geochemical models used for predicting their interactions with fluids tend to misjudge their surface areas, which are fundamental parameters in kinetic modelling. The purpose of this study was to improve how to take into account the particles morphology in the thermo-kinetic code KINDIS and the reactive transport code KIRMAT. A new function was integrated in these codes, considering the reaction surface area as a volume depending parameter and the calculated evolution of the mass balance in the system was coupled with the evolution of reactive surface areas. We made application exercises for numerical validation of these new versions of the codes and the results were compared with those of the pre-existing thermo-kinetic code KINDIS. Several points are highlighted. Taking into account reactive surface area evolution during simulation modifies the predicted mass transfers related to fluid-minerals interactions. Different secondary mineral phases are also observed during modelling. The evolution of the reactive surface parameter helps to solve the competition effects between different phases present in the system which are all able to fix the chemical

  8. Engineering carbon materials from the hydrothermal carbonization process of biomass.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Wang, Kan; Wu, Liheng; Yu, Shu-Hong; Antonietti, Markus; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2010-02-16

    Energy shortage, environmental crisis, and developing customer demands have driven people to find facile, low-cost, environmentally friendly, and nontoxic routes to produce novel functional materials that can be commercialized in the near future. Amongst various techniques, the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process of biomass (either of isolated carbohydrates or crude plants) is a promising candidate for the synthesis of novel carbon-based materials with a wide variety of potential applications. In this Review, we will discuss various synthetic routes towards such novel carbon-based materials or composites via the HTC process of biomass. Furthermore, factors that influence the carbonization process will be analyzed and the special chemical/physical properties of the final products will be discussed. Despite the lack of a clear mechanism, these novel carbonaceous materials have already shown promising applications in many fields such as carbon fixation, water purification, fuel cell catalysis, energy storage, CO(2) sequestration, bioimaging, drug delivery, and gas sensors. Some of the most promising examples will also be discussed here, demonstrating that the HTC process can rationally design a rich family of carbonaceous and hybrid functional carbon materials with important applications in a sustainable fashion.

  9. Advanced materials and biochemical processes for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.; van Rooyen, D.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two Geothermal Technology Division (GTD)-sponsored programs: (1) Geothermal Materials Development, and (2) Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines, are described. In the former, work in the following tasks is in progress: (1) high temperature elastomeric materials for dynamic sealing applications, (2) advanced high temperature (300/sup 0/C) lightweight (1.1 g/cc) well cementing materials, (3) thermally conductive composites for heat exchanger tubing, (4) corrosion rates for metals in brine-contaminated binary plant working fluids, and (5) elastomeric liners for well casing. Methods for the utilization and/or the low cost environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues are being developed in the second program. This work is performed in two tasks. In one, microorganisms that can interact with toxic metals found in geothermal residues to convert them into soluble species for subsequent reinjection back into the reservoir or to concentrate them for removal by conventional processes are being identified. In the second task, process conditions are being defined for the encapsulation of untreated or partially biochemically treated residues in Portland cement-based formulations and the subsequent utilization of the waste fractions in building materials. Both processing methods yield materials which appear to meet disposal criteria for non-toxic solid waste, and their technical and economic feasibilities have been established.

  10. A teleoperated robotic manipulator system for materials processing experiment servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchting, Steven; Purves, R. Byron; Grover, Jeffrey L.; Scruggs, Roy

    1988-01-01

    In 1984 Congress authorized NASA to begin the Space Station Program, and requested that 10 percent of program funds be spent in implementing automation and robotics (A and R) on the Space Station. In response to that request, Boeing established several Independent Research and Development (IR and D) projects to explore possible uses for A and R on the Space Station. One of those projects, and automated materials processing experiment, is discussed. The project uses a teleoperated robot to demonstrate telescience applied to a Chemical Vapor Transport materials processing experiment.

  11. Method of processing materials using an inductively coupled plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hull, D.E.; Bieniewski, T.M.

    1987-04-13

    A method of processing materials. The invention enables ultrafine, ultrapure powders to be formed from solid ingots in a gas free environment. A plasma is formed directly from an ingot which insures purity. The vaporized material is expanded through a nozzle and the resultant powder settles on a cold surface. An inductively coupled plasma may also be used to process waste chemicals. Noxious chemicals are directed through a series of plasma tubes, breaking molecular bonds and resulting in relatively harmless atomic constituents. 3 figs.

  12. Examination of the photoinitiation processes in photopolymer materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gleeson, Michael R.; Liu Shui; Sheridan, John T.; O'Duill, Sean

    2008-09-15

    Holographic data storage requires multiple sequential short exposures. However, the complete exposure schedule may not necessarily occur over a short time interval. Therefore, knowledge of the temporally varying absorptive effects of photopolymer materials becomes an important factor. In this paper, the time varying absorptive effects of an acrylamide/polyvinylalcohol photopolymer material are examined. These effects are divided into three main photochemical processes, which following identification, are theoretically and experimentally examined. These processes are (i) photon absorption, (ii) photosensitizer recovery, and (iii) photosensitizer bleaching.

  13. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Alan; Swansiger, Thomas G.

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4-2.6 g/cm.sup.3 with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness, good abrasion resistance and crush strength.

  14. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, A.; Swansiger, T.G.

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process are disclosed for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4--2.6 g/cm{sup 3} with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness.

  15. A factory concept for processing and manufacturing with lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for an orbital factory sized to process 1.5 million metric tons per year of raw lunar fines into 0.3 million metric tons of manufacturing materials is presented. A conservative approach involving application of present earth-based technology leads to a design devoid of new inventions. Earth based counterparts to the factory machinery were used to generate subsystem masses and lumped parameters for volume and mass estimates. The results are considered to be conservative since technologies more advanced than those assumed are presently available in many areas. Some attributes of potential space processing technologies applied to material refinement and component manufacture are discussed.

  16. Containerless liquid-phase processing of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. K. R.; Nordine, P. C.

    1994-01-01

    Containerless melting and solidification provides a powerful tool for investigation and synthesis of ceramic and glass materials. The work described in this article explored and extended the limits of ground-based experimentation by using aero-acoustic and aerodynamic levitation in combination with laser beam heating and melting to investigate ceramic and glass processing. Results of liquid-phase processing experiments on calcia-gallia and calcia-gallia-silica glass-forming mixtures, aluminum oxide, and ceramic superconductors are summarized. The work is discussed in the context of low gravity experimental and materials synthesis requirements and opportunities.

  17. Repair materials and processes for the MD-11 Composite Tailcone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Bonnar, Gerard R.

    This paper describes field and depot level repair methods for the MD-11 Composite Tailcone. The repair materials, processing methods, and mechanical properties of the test specimens and subcomponents are discussed. According to recent tests, the dry carbon cloth and the liquid resin matrix that can be cured under 93 C have better processing and mechanical properties than the 121 C curing prepregs and film adhesives. The moisture in the parent CFRP is the main cause of creating voids in the adhesive layer during the 121 C/vacuum pressure cure cycle. The lower processing temperature (wet layup) showed better results than higher processing temperature (prepreg/adhesive layup) for composite repair.

  18. Overview of 3D laser materials processing concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoukantas, George; Salonitis, Konstantinos; Stavropoulos, Panagiotis; Chryssolouris, George

    2003-04-01

    The term of 3D laser processing has been used so far to describe a group of different three-dimensional laser processing concepts. At each of these concepts the 3D aspect refers to a different manipulation of one or more laser beams, as to process and/or produce three-dimensional geometries by performing material removal, welding or heat treating. The most important concepts are focused mainly in laser machining and laser welding processes by incorporating one or two laser beams simultaneously. This paper overviews a number of these concepts that have been developed in research or industrial level, along with their advantages, drawbacks and fields of application.

  19. Rapid decompression of seeded melts for materials processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ning; Apfel, Robert E.

    1995-05-01

    A novel processing approach and experimental design to achieve as-cast bulk amorphous materials are investigated. By sudden decompression of a melt that is seeded with a volatile liquid, the dispersed ``foaming'' liquid vaporizes, taking its latent heat of vaporization from the melt, thereby homogeneously cooling the melt. Due to a high decompression rate, a sufficient cooling rate may be produced to yield an amorphous solid foam. The resulting ``foam glass'' is expected to be an open solid bulk structure that may possess glass properties and low density. These foam glass materials should be free of structural defects, and may have many potential applications. The ultimate goal for this form glass processing is to produce bulk amorphous metallic solids. This approach differs from other processes used in the production of metals with a porous structure. A description of the approach, the processing design and techniques, as well as some evaluation of foam processing with the organic p-terphenyl as a sample material are presented. Foam (p-terphenyl) is an open, porous, and yet interconnected structure, and can be made with a density as low as 12% of the original density of p-terphenyl. Extension of this principle to foam metallic glass processing is anticipated. Design of a more sophisticated apparatus for metal processing, currently in progress, is discussed.

  20. KrasMAS: Implementation of a nuclear material computerized accounting system at the Mining and Chemical Combine through the Russian/US cooperative MPC and A program

    SciTech Connect

    Dorofeev, K.V.; Zhidkov, V.V.; Martinez, B.J.; Perry, R.T.; Scott, S.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Kimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) project was initiated in June 1996. A critical component of the ongoing cooperative MPC and A enhancements at the GKhK is the implementation of a computerized nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system. This system must meet the MC and A requirements of the GKhK by integrating the information generated by numerous existing and new MC and A components in place at the GKhK (e.g., scales, bar-code equipment, NDA measurement systems). During the first phase of this effort, the GKhK adapted CoreMAS (developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) for use in the PuO{sub 2} storage facility. This included formulation of Web-based user interfaces for plant personnel, Russification of the existing user interface, and at the functional level, modification of the CoreMAS stored procedures. The modified system is referred to as KrasMAS and builds upon completed work on CoreMAS. Ongoing efforts include adding GKhK specific report forms and expanding the functionality of the system for implementation at the radiochemical processing and reactor plants of the GKhK. Collaborations with other Russian facilities for appropriate parts of these efforts will be pursued.

  1. Microwave processing and diagnosis of chemically reacting materials in a single-mode cavity applicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jow, Jinder; Hawley, Martin C.; Finzel, Mark; Asmussen, Jes, Jr.; Lin, Haw-Hwa

    1987-12-01

    Online microwave processing and dielectric diagnosis of chemically reacting materials (epoxy/amine) have been successfully performed using a TM012-mode cylindrical cavity at a frequency of 2.45 GHz in conjunction with fluoroptic temperature measurement. Complex permittivity measurements by this single-frequency technique are repeatable and consistent with those obtained by conventional swept-frequency methods. The accuracy of complex permittivity measurements for both methods is within + or - 5 percent for permittivity and + or - 15 percent for loss. Both techniques are based on material-cavity perturbation theory. Perturbation equations for cylindrical shapes of the cavity and loaded material were derived to account for volume variation of the sample due to thermal expansion. Complex permittivity of epoxy/amine as a function of the extent of cure and temperature was determined in order to monitor the chemical reaction progress during microwave processing.

  2. Microassembly of Heterogeneous Materials using Transfer Printing and Thermal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Keum, Hohyun; Yang, Zining; Han, Kewen; Handler, Drew E.; Nguyen, Thong Nhu; Schutt-Aine, Jose; Bahl, Gaurav; Kim, Seok

    2016-01-01

    Enabling unique architectures and functionalities of microsystems for numerous applications in electronics, photonics and other areas often requires microassembly of separately prepared heterogeneous materials instead of monolithic microfabrication. However, microassembly of dissimilar materials while ensuring high structural integrity has been challenging in the context of deterministic transferring and joining of materials at the microscale where surface adhesion is far more dominant than body weight. Here we present an approach to assembling microsystems with microscale building blocks of four disparate classes of device-grade materials including semiconductors, metals, dielectrics, and polymers. This approach uniquely utilizes reversible adhesion-based transfer printing for material transferring and thermal processing for material joining at the microscale. The interfacial joining characteristics between materials assembled by this approach are systematically investigated upon different joining mechanisms using blister tests. The device level capabilities of this approach are further demonstrated through assembling and testing of a microtoroid resonator and a radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch that involve optical and electrical functionalities with mechanical motion. This work opens up a unique route towards 3D heterogeneous material integration to fabricate microsystems. PMID:27427243

  3. Microassembly of Heterogeneous Materials using Transfer Printing and Thermal Processing.

    PubMed

    Keum, Hohyun; Yang, Zining; Han, Kewen; Handler, Drew E; Nguyen, Thong Nhu; Schutt-Aine, Jose; Bahl, Gaurav; Kim, Seok

    2016-07-18

    Enabling unique architectures and functionalities of microsystems for numerous applications in electronics, photonics and other areas often requires microassembly of separately prepared heterogeneous materials instead of monolithic microfabrication. However, microassembly of dissimilar materials while ensuring high structural integrity has been challenging in the context of deterministic transferring and joining of materials at the microscale where surface adhesion is far more dominant than body weight. Here we present an approach to assembling microsystems with microscale building blocks of four disparate classes of device-grade materials including semiconductors, metals, dielectrics, and polymers. This approach uniquely utilizes reversible adhesion-based transfer printing for material transferring and thermal processing for material joining at the microscale. The interfacial joining characteristics between materials assembled by this approach are systematically investigated upon different joining mechanisms using blister tests. The device level capabilities of this approach are further demonstrated through assembling and testing of a microtoroid resonator and a radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch that involve optical and electrical functionalities with mechanical motion. This work opens up a unique route towards 3D heterogeneous material integration to fabricate microsystems.

  4. Microassembly of Heterogeneous Materials using Transfer Printing and Thermal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, Hohyun; Yang, Zining; Han, Kewen; Handler, Drew E.; Nguyen, Thong Nhu; Schutt-Aine, Jose; Bahl, Gaurav; Kim, Seok

    2016-07-01

    Enabling unique architectures and functionalities of microsystems for numerous applications in electronics, photonics and other areas often requires microassembly of separately prepared heterogeneous materials instead of monolithic microfabrication. However, microassembly of dissimilar materials while ensuring high structural integrity has been challenging in the context of deterministic transferring and joining of materials at the microscale where surface adhesion is far more dominant than body weight. Here we present an approach to assembling microsystems with microscale building blocks of four disparate classes of device-grade materials including semiconductors, metals, dielectrics, and polymers. This approach uniquely utilizes reversible adhesion-based transfer printing for material transferring and thermal processing for material joining at the microscale. The interfacial joining characteristics between materials assembled by this approach are systematically investigated upon different joining mechanisms using blister tests. The device level capabilities of this approach are further demonstrated through assembling and testing of a microtoroid resonator and a radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch that involve optical and electrical functionalities with mechanical motion. This work opens up a unique route towards 3D heterogeneous material integration to fabricate microsystems.

  5. Microgravity Processing and Photonic Applications of Organic and Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Smith, David D.; Witherow, William K.

    1997-01-01

    Some of the primary purposes of this work are to study important technologies, particularly involving thin films, relevant to organic and polymeric materials for improving applicability to optical circuitry and devices and to assess the contribution of convection on film quality in unit and microgravity environments. Among the most important materials processing techniques of interest in this work are solution-based and by physical vapor transport, both having proven gravitational and acceleration dependence. In particular, PolyDiAcetylenes (PDA's) and PhthaloCyanines (Pc's) are excellent NonLinear Optical (NLO) materials with the promise of significantly improved NLO properties through order and film quality enhancements possible through microgravity processing. Our approach is to focus research on integrated optical circuits and optoelectronic devices relevant to solution-based and vapor processes of interest in the Space Sciences Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Modification of organic materials is an important aspect of achieving more highly ordered structures in conjunction with microgravity processing. Parallel activities include characterization of materials for particular NLO properties and determination of appropriation device designs consistent with selected applications. One result of this work is the determination, theoretically, that buoyancy-driven convection occurs at low pressures in an ideal gas in a thermalgradient from source to sink. Subsequent experiment supports the theory. We have also determined theoretically that buoyancy-driven convection occurs during photodeposition of PDA, an MSFC-patented process for fabricating complex circuits, which is also supported by experiment. Finally, the discovery of intrinsic optical bistability in metal-free Pc films enables the possibility of the development of logic gate technology on the basis of these materials.

  6. Observation of Materials Processes in Liquids in the Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chong M.; Liao, Honggang; Ross, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Materials synthesis and the functioning of devices often indispensably involve liquid media. But direct visualization of dynamic process in liquids, especially with high spatial and temporal resolution, has been challenging. For solid materials, advances in aberration corrected electron microscopy have made observation of atomic level features a routine practice. Here we discuss the extent to which one can take advantage of the resolution of modern electron microscopes to image phenomenon occuring in liquids. We will describe the fundamentals of two different experimental approaches, closed and open liquid cells. We will illustrate the capabilities of each approach by considering processes in batteries and nucleation and growth of nanoparticles from solution. We conclude that liquid cell electron microscopy appears to be duly fulfilling its role for in situ studies of nanoscale processes in liquids, revealing physical and chemical processes otherwise difficult to observe.

  7. Simulation of the temperature distribution in the selective beam melting process for polymer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedlbauer, D.; Mergheim, J.; Steinmann, P.

    2014-05-01

    In the present contribution the temperature distribution in the selective beam melting process for polymer materials is simulated to better understand the influence of process parameters on the properties of the produced part. The basis for the developed simulation tool is the nonlinear heat equation including temperature dependent functions for the heat capacity and the heat conduction which were obtained by experimental measurements. The effect of latent heat occurring in the process is also taken into account. The heat equation is discretized in time and space where a Runge-Kutta method of Radau IIA type is used for time integration. An adaptive finite element method is applied for the discretization in space and the model is implemented into the finite element library deal.II. The heat and cooling rate as important process parameters are simulated for different beam velocities. The ability for computing these process parameters makes the simulation tool suited for optimizing the process management of selective beam melting plants.

  8. Simulation of the temperature distribution in the selective beam melting process for polymer material

    SciTech Connect

    Riedlbauer, D. E-mail: julia.mergheim@ltm.uni-erlangen.de Mergheim, J. E-mail: julia.mergheim@ltm.uni-erlangen.de Steinmann, P. E-mail: julia.mergheim@ltm.uni-erlangen.de

    2014-05-15

    In the present contribution the temperature distribution in the selective beam melting process for polymer materials is simulated to better understand the influence of process parameters on the properties of the produced part. The basis for the developed simulation tool is the nonlinear heat equation including temperature dependent functions for the heat capacity and the heat conduction which were obtained by experimental measurements. The effect of latent heat occurring in the process is also taken into account. The heat equation is discretized in time and space where a Runge-Kutta method of Radau IIA type is used for time integration. An adaptive finite element method is applied for the discretization in space and the model is implemented into the finite element library deal.II. The heat and cooling rate as important process parameters are simulated for different beam velocities. The ability for computing these process parameters makes the simulation tool suited for optimizing the process management of selective beam melting plants.

  9. Microgravity Processing and Photonic Applications of Organic and Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald 0; Penn, Benjamin G.; Smith, David; Witherow, William K.; Paley, M. S.; Abdeldayem, Hossin A.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, a great deal of interest has been directed toward the use of organic materials in the development of high-efficiency optoelectronic and photonic devices. There is a myriad of possibilities among organic which allow flexibility in the design of unique structures with a variety of functional groups. The use of nonlinear optical (NLO) organic materials such as thin-film waveguides allows full exploitation of their desirable qualities by permitting long interaction lengths and large susceptibilities allowing modest power input. There are several methods in use to prepare thin films, such as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembly techniques, vapor deposition, growth from sheared solution or melt, and melt growth between glass plates. Organics have many features that make Abstract: them desirable for use in optical devices such as high second- and third-order nonlinearities, flexibility of molecular design, and damage resistance to optical radiation. However, their use in devices has been hindered by processing difficulties for crystals and thin films. In this chapter, we discuss photonic and optoelectronic applications of a few organic materials and the potential role of microgravity on processing these materials. It is of interest to note how materials with second- and third-order nonlinear optical behavior may be improved in a diffusion-limited environment and ways in which convection may be detrimental to these materials. We focus our discussion on third-order materials for all-optical switching, and second-order materials for all-optical switching, and second-order materials for frequency conversion and electrooptics.

  10. Evaluation criteria for commercially oriented materials processing in space proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. F.; Mcdowell, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    An approach and criteria for evaluating NASA funded experiments and demonstrations which have commercial potential were developed. Methods for insuring quick initial screening of commercial proposals are presented. Recommendations are given for modifying the current evaluation approach. New criteria for evaluating commercially orientated materials processing in space (MPS) proposals are introduced. The process for selection of qualified individuals to evaluate the phases of this approach and criteria is considered and guidelines are set for its implementation.

  11. Am/Cm Vitrification Process: Vitrification Material Balance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G.

    2000-08-15

    This report documents material balance calculations for the Americium/Curium vitrification process and describes the basis used to make the calculations. The material balance calculations reported here start with the solution produced by the Am/Cm pretreatment process as described in ``Material Balance Calculations for Am/Cm Pretreatment Process (U)'', SRT-AMC-99-0178 [1]. Following pretreatment, small batches of the product will be further treated with an additional oxalic acid precipitation and washing. The precipitate from each batch will then be charged to the Am/Cm melter with glass cullet and vitrified to produce the final product. The material balance calculations in this report are designed to provide projected compositions of the melter glass and off-gas streams. Except for decanted supernate collected from precipitation and precipitate washing, the flowsheet neglects side streams such as acid washes of empty tanks that would go directly to waste. Complete listings of the results of the material balance calculations are provided in the Appendices to this report.

  12. Cogeneration process for production of energy and iron materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lehto, J.M.

    1991-10-08

    This paper reports a process for the production of electricity. It comprises: providing a low grade coal fuel' performing a pyrolysis procedure on the coal fuel at a temperature of about 600{degrees} C. to remove oil and volatiles therefrom, and to generate a resultant coal char product; pelletizing the coal char product to form coal char product pellets, the step of pelletizing comprising pelletizing at least a portion of the coal char product in combination with reducible solid iron material to form coal char pellets containing reducible solid iron material; charging a cupola with the coal char product and the reducible solid iron material, the step of charging a cupola being characterized by charging substantially all the coal char product in the form of coal char product pellets and substantially all the reducible solid iron material in the form of pellets containing the coal char product in combination with the reducible solid iron material; reducing and melting all the reducible solid iron material in the coal char pellets by heating the pellets in the cupola at a suitable temperature under a pressure of at least about 100 psi in the presence of a sufficient upward flow of process gases, with the resultant formation of hot product gases.

  13. Microgravity Processing and Photonic Applications of Organic and Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Smith, David D.; Witherow, William K.; Paley, Mark S.; Abdeldayem, Hossin A.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, a great deal of interest has been directed toward the use of organic materials in the development of high-efficiency optoelectronic and photonic devices. There is a myriad of possibilities among organics which allow flexibility in the design of unique structures with a variety of functional groups. The use of nonlinear optical (NLO) organic materials such as thin-film waveguides allows full exploitation of their desirable qualities by permitting long interaction lengths and large susceptibilities allowing modest power input. There are several methods in use to prepare thin films, such as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembly techniques, vapor deposition, growth from sheared solution or melt, and melt growth between glass plates. Organics have many features that make them desirable for use in optical devices such as high second- and third-order nonlinearities, flexibility of molecular design, and damage resistance to optical radiation. However, their use in devices has been hindered by processing difficulties for crystals and thin films. In this chapter, we discuss photonic and optoelectronic applications of a few organic materials and the potential role of microgravity on processing these materials. It is of interest to note how materials with second- and third-order nonlinear optical behavior may be improved in a diffusion-limited environment and ways in which convection may be detrimental to these materials.

  14. Powder Flux Regulation in the Laser Material Deposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrizubieta, Jon Iñaki; Wegener, Maximiliam; Arntz, Kristian; Lamikiz, Aitzol; Ruiz, Jose Exequiel

    In the present research work a powder flux regulation system has been designed, developed and validated with the aim of improving the Laser Material Deposition (LMD) process. In this process, the amount of deposited material per substrate surface unit area depends on the real feed rate of the nozzle. Therefore, a regulation system based on a solenoid valve has been installed at the nozzle entrance in order to control the powder flux. The powder flux control has been performed based on the machine real feed rate, which is compared with the programmed feed rate. An instantaneous velocity error is calculated and the powder flow is controlled as a function of this variation using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signals. Thereby, in zones where the Laser Material Deposition machine reduces the feed rate due to a trajectory change, powder accumulation can be avoided and the generated clads would present a homogeneous shape.

  15. Processing fissile material mixtures containing zirconium and/or carbon

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Michael Ernest; Maloney, Martin David

    2013-07-02

    A method of processing spent TRIZO-coated nuclear fuel may include adding fluoride to complex zirconium present in a dissolved TRIZO-coated fuel. Complexing the zirconium with fluoride may reduce or eliminate the potential for zirconium to interfere with the extraction of uranium and/or transuranics from fission materials in the spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Antimicrobial thermoplastic materials for biomedical applications prepared by melt processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, L.; Scaffaro, R.; Ceraulo, M.; Gallo, G.

    2014-05-01

    In this work thermoplastic polymers with antimicrobial properties were prepared by incorporating an antibiotic, i.e., ciprofloxacin (CFX), by melt processing. Two different polymers were used as matrices, i.e., polypropylene (PP) and poly(lactid acid) (PLA) and different concentrations of CFX have been incorporated. The antimicrobial properties, the release kinetic and the mechanical performances of the prepared materials were evaluated.

  17. Non-contact temperature measurement requirements for electronic materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1988-01-01

    The requirements for non-contact temperature measurement capabilities for electronic materials processing in space are assessed. Non-contact methods are probably incapable of sufficient accuracy for the actual absolute measurement of temperatures in most such applications but would be useful for imaging in some applications.

  18. CIGS Material and Device Stability: A Processing Perspective (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, K.

    2012-03-01

    This is a general overview of CIGS material and device fundamentals. In the first part, the basic features of high efficiency CIGS absorbers and devices are described. In the second part, some examples of previous collaboration with Shell Solar CIGSS graded absorbers and devices are shown to illustrate how process information was used to correct deviations and improve the performance and stability.

  19. Summaries of early materials processing in space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Mason, D.

    1979-01-01

    Objectives, methods, and results of low-gravity materials processing experiments are summarized, and a bibliography of published results for each experiment is provided. Included are drop tower experiments, the Apollo demonstration experiments, the skylab experiments and demonstration experiments, and the Apollo-Soyuz experiments and demonstrations. The findings of these experiments in the fields of crystal growth, metallurgy, and fluid behavior are summarized.

  20. Knowledge Judgments and Object Memory Processes in Early Childhood: Support for the Dual Criterion Account of Object Nameability Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipowski, Stacy L.; Merriman, William E.

    2011-01-01

    According to the dual criterion account of early linguistic judgment (Merriman & Lipko, 2008), preschool-aged children who possess more efficient object memory processes should also be more accurate judges of whether various objects have known names. In support of this claim, both the accuracy of object recognition and the speed of object…

  1. Accounting for Students' Schemes in the Development of a Graphical Process for Solving Polynomial Inequalities in Instrumented Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Ferdinand D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an instrumental account of precalculus students' graphical process for solving polynomial inequalities. It is carried out in terms of the students' instrumental schemes as mediated by handheld graphing calculators and in cooperation with their classmates in a classroom setting. The ethnographic narrative relays an instrumental…

  2. 27 CFR 19.401 - Inventories of wines and bulk spirits (except in packages) in processing account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of wines and... Inventories § 19.401 Inventories of wines and bulk spirits (except in packages) in processing account. Each proprietor shall take a physical inventory of wines and bulk spirits (except in packages) in the...

  3. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  4. ENHANCEMENT OF MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING PROGRAMS THROUGH THE CONDUCT OF GAP ANALYSIS AND THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPREHENSIVE MCA PROGRAM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Hasty, T

    2008-06-10

    An effective safeguards program for nuclear materials is dependent on the integration of activities in the traditional safeguards elements: physical protection, protective force, and material control and accounting (MC&A). The design and integration of these traditional safeguards elements must be based on a technical analysis performed in characterizing the vulnerabilities and related risks of the facility against a designed-basis threat. Each of these elements requires a near seamless integration with each other, as well as within a site's operations organization. One of the key objectives of an effective nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) program is to address the threat posed by an active or passive 'insider' who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion or theft of special nuclear material (SNM). The function of material accountancy is to detect the loss or unauthorized removal of special nuclear material from the plant or facility in a timely manner. Detection is accomplished by means of measurements and transfer records of material movements and periodic inventories to verify that all material is accounted for. The function of material control is to assure the integrity of the nuclear material and the accountancy data. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of a detailed material control and accounting program plan that considers both regulatory compliance demands and performance standards. Consideration of both of these demands is necessary to reduce exposure to theft and diversion, to reduce regulatory jeopardy, and to minimize to the extent possible adverse impacts with site operations.

  5. Status and potential of atmospheric plasma processing of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Daphne

    2011-03-15

    This paper is a review of the current status and potential of atmospheric plasma technology for materials processing. The main focus is the recent developments in the area of dielectric barrier discharges with emphasis in the functionalization of polymers, deposition of organic and inorganic coatings, and plasma processing of biomaterials. A brief overview of both the equipment being used and the physicochemical reactions occurring in the gas phase is also presented. Atmospheric plasma technology offers major industrial, economic, and environmental advantages over other conventional processing methods. At the same time there is also tremendous potential for future research and applications involving both the industrial and academic world.

  6. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material, task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Hansen, K. C.; Yaws, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of process system properties were continued for materials involved in the alternate processes under consideration for semiconductor silicon. Primary efforts centered on physical and thermodynamic property data for dichlorosilane. The following property data are reported for dichlorosilane which is involved in processing operations for solar cell grade silicon: critical temperature, critical pressure, critical volume, critical density, acentric factor, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, gas heat capacity, liquid heat capacity and density. Work was initiated on the assembly of a system to prepare binary gas mixtures of known proportions and to measure the thermal conductivity of these mixtures between 30 and 350 C. The binary gas mixtures include silicon source material such as silanes and halogenated silanes which are used in the production of semiconductor silicon.

  7. Oxygen production on the Lunar materials processing frontier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altenberg, Barbara H.

    1992-01-01

    During the pre-conceptual design phase of an initial lunar oxygen processing facility, it is essential to identify and compare the available processes and evaluate them in order to ensure the success of such an endeavor. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of materials processing to produce lunar oxygen as one part of a given scenario of a developing lunar occupation. More than twenty-five techniques to produce oxygen from lunar materials have been identified. While it is important to continue research on any feasible method, not all methods can be implemented at the initial lunar facility. Hence, it is necessary during the pre-conceptual design phase to evaluate all methods and determine the leading processes for initial focus. Researchers have developed techniques for evaluating the numerous proposed methods in order to suggest which processes would be best to go to the Moon first. As one section in this paper, the recent evaluation procedures that have been presented in the literature are compared and contrasted. In general, the production methods for lunar oxygen fall into four categories: thermochemical, reactive solvent, pyrolytic, and electrochemical. Examples from two of the four categories are described, operating characteristics are contrasted, and terrestrial analogs are presented when possible. In addition to producing oxygen for use as a propellant and for life support, valuable co-products can be derived from some of the processes. This information is also highlighted in the description of a given process.

  8. Materials, design and processing of air encapsulated MEMS packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Nathan T.

    This work uses a three-dimensional air cavity technology to improve the fabrication, and functionality of microelectronics devices, performance of on-board transmission lines, and packaging of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). The air cavity process makes use of the decomposition of a patterned sacrificial polymer followed by the diffusion of its by-products through a curing polymer overcoat to obtain the embedded air structure. Applications and research of air cavities have focused on simple designs that concentrate on the size and functionality of the particular device. However, a lack of guidelines for fabrication, materials used, and structural design has led to mechanical stability issues and processing refinements. This work investigates improved air gap cavities for use in MEMS packaging processes, resulting in fewer fabrication flaws and lower cost. The identification of new materials, such as novel photo-definable organic/inorganic hybrid polymers, was studied for increased strength and rigidity due to their glass-like structure. A novel epoxy polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) material was investigated and characterized for use as a photodefineable, permanent dielectrics with improved mechanical properties. The POSS material improved the air gap fabrication because it served as a high-selectivity etch mask for patterning sacrificial materials as well as a cavity overcoat material with improved rigidity. An investigation of overcoat thickness and decomposition kinetics provided a fundamental understanding of the properties that impart mechanical stability to cavities of different shape and volume. Metallization of the cavities was investigated so as to provide hermetic sealing and improved cavity strength. The improved air cavity, wafer-level packages were tested using resonator-type devices and chip-level lead frame packaging. The air cavity package was molded under traditional lead frame molding pressures and tested for mechanical

  9. Advances in Subcritical Hydro-/Solvothermal Processing of Graphene Materials.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2017-02-28

    Many promising graphene-based materials are kept away from mainstream applications due to problems of scalability and environmental concerns in their processing. Hydro-/solvothermal techniques overwhelmingly satisfy both the aforementioned criteria, and have matured as alternatives to wet-chemical methods with advances made over the past few decades. The insolubility of graphene in many solvents poses considerable difficulties in their processing. In this context hydro-/solvothermal techniques present an ideal opportunity for processing of graphenic materials with their versatility in manipulating the physical and thermodynamic properties of the solvent. The flexibility in hydro-/solvothermal techniques for manipulation of solvent composition, temperature and pressure provides numerous handles to manipulate graphene-based materials during synthesis. This review provides a comprehensive look at the subcritical hydro-/solvothermal synthesis of graphene-based functional materials and their applications. Several key synthetic strategies governing the morphology and properties of the products such as temperature, pressure, and solvent effects are elaborated. Advances in the synthesis, doping, and functionalization of graphene in hydro-/solvothermal media are highlighted together with our perspectives in the field.

  10. Food material properties and early hominin processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Zink, Katherine D; Lieberman, Daniel E; Lucas, Peter W

    2014-12-01

    Although early Homo is hypothesized to have used tools more than australopiths to process foods prior to consumption, it is unknown how much the food processing techniques they used altered the material properties of foods, and therefore the masticatory forces they generated, and how well they were able to comminute foods. This study presents experimental data on changes to food material properties caused by mechanical tenderization (pounding with a stone tool) and cooking (dry roasting) of two foods likely to have been important components of the hominin diet: meat and tubers. Mechanical tenderization significantly decreased tuber toughness by 42%, but had no effect on meat toughness. Roasting significantly decreased several material properties of tubers correlated with masticatory effort including toughness (49%), fracture stress (28%) and elastic modulus (45%), but increased the toughness (77%), fracture stress (50%-222%), and elastic modulus of muscle fibers in meat (308%). Despite increasing many material properties of meat associated with higher masticatory forces, roasting also decreased measured energy loss by 28%, which likely makes it easier to chew. These results suggest that the use of food processing techniques by early Homo probably differed for meat and tubers, but together would have reduced masticatory effort, helping to relax selection to maintain large, robust faces and large, thickly enameled teeth.

  11. Process Feasibility Study in Support of Silicon Material Task 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, K. Y.; Hansen, K. C.; Yaws, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of process system properties was continued for silicon source materials under consideration for producing silicon. The following property data are reported for dichlorosilane which is involved in processing operations for silicon: critical constants, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, heat capacity, density, surface tension, thermal conductivity, heat of formation and Gibb's free energy of formation. The properties are reported as a function of temperature to permit rapid engineering usage. The preliminary economic analysis of the process is described. Cost analysis results for the process (case A-two deposition reactors and six electrolysis cells) are presented based on a preliminary process design of a plant to produce 1,000 metric tons/year of silicon. Fixed capital investment estimate for the plant is $12.47 million (1975 dollars) ($17.47 million, 1980 dollars). Product cost without profit is 8.63 $/kg of silicon (1975 dollars)(12.1 $/kg, 1980 dollars).

  12. Systems, Devices, and Materials for Digital Optical Processing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, Mark Alan

    The massive parallelism and flexibility of three -dimensional optical communication may allow the development of new parallel computers free from the constraints of planar electronic technology. To bring the optical computer from possibility to reality, however, requires technological and scientific development in new optical systems, devices, and materials. We present here research results in each of these areas. First described is a prototype optical information processing system using CdS/liquid crystal spatial light modulators for optical logic and memory. This system has been developed as the first step in the implementation of a fine-grained, globally-interconnected optical processing element array. Notable system features include the implementation of programmable electronic control and the analysis of the optical power distribution within the processor, both directly applicable to the design of new and more advanced optical information processing systems. Next presented is the design and initial performance data for a new spatial light modulator combining an array of silicon phototransistors with the electro-optic material (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O _3, opening new possibilities for "intelligent" optical logic, memory, and switching devices. Important to the optimal performance of this Si/PLZT device is the fabrication of embedded electrodes in the electro-optic material, reducing the device operating voltage and switching energy while improving the uniformity of the optical modulation. An extensive computer model of embedded electrode performance and details of the electrode fabrication by reactive ion beam etching and electroless Ni deposition are presented. Finally, in the area of optical materials development we present initial results in the RF magnetron deposition of electro -optic PLZT on r-plane sapphire. This work is important to the fabrication of a monolithic, Si/PLZT-on-sapphire spatial light modulator, promising superior performance to devices using

  13. Unified System Of Data On Materials And Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Carlo F.

    1989-01-01

    Wide-ranging sets of data for aerospace industry described. Document describes Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS), computerized set of integrated data bases for use by NASA and aerospace industry. Stores information in standard format for fast retrieval in searches and surveys of data. Helps engineers select materials and verify their properties. Promotes standardized nomenclature as well as standarized tests and presentation of data. Format of document of photographic projection slides used in lectures. Presents examples of reports from various data bases.

  14. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly T.; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Filippov, Eugene A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter.

  15. Processing of solid mixed waste containing radioactive and hazardous materials

    DOEpatents

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Ivanov, A.V.; Filippov, E.A.

    1998-05-12

    Apparatus for the continuous heating and melting of a solid mixed waste bearing radioactive and hazardous materials to form separate metallic, slag and gaseous phases for producing compact forms of the waste material to facilitate disposal includes a copper split water-cooled (cold) crucible as a reaction vessel for receiving the waste material. The waste material is heated by means of the combination of a plasma torch directed into the open upper portion of the cold crucible and an electromagnetic flux produced by induction coils disposed about the crucible which is transparent to electromagnetic fields. A metallic phase of the waste material is formed in a lower portion of the crucible and is removed in the form of a compact ingot suitable for recycling and further processing. A glass-like, non-metallic slag phase containing radioactive elements is also formed in the crucible and flows out of the open upper portion of the crucible into a slag ingot mold for disposal. The decomposition products of the organic and toxic materials are incinerated and converted to environmentally safe gases in the melter. 6 figs.

  16. Hybrid Statistical Testing for Nuclear Material Accounting Data and/or Process Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Hamada, Michael Scott; Sprinkle, James K.; Burr, Thomas Lee

    2015-04-14

    The two tests employed in the hybrid testing scheme are Page’s cumulative sums for all streams within a Balance Period (maximum of the maximums and average of the maximums) and Crosier’s multivariate cumulative sum applied to incremental cumulative sums across Balance Periods. The role of residuals for both kinds of data is discussed.

  17. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    PubMed

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources.

  18. Signal processing applied to photothermal techniques for materials characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, James A.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need to make noncontact measurements of material characteristics in the microgravity environment. Photothermal and photoacoustics techniques offer one approach for attaining this capability since lasers can be used to generate the required thermal or acoustic signals. The perturbations in the materials that can be used for characterization can be detected by optical reflectance, infrared detection or laser detection of photoacoustics. However, some of these laser techniques have disadvantages of either high energy pulsed excitation or low signal-to-noise ratio. Alternative signal processing techniques that have been developed can be applied to photothermal or photoacoustic instrumentation. One fully coherent spread spectrum signal processing technique is called time delay spectrometry (TDS). With TDS the system is excited using a combined frequency-time domain by employing a linear frequency sweep excitation function. The processed received signal can provide either frequency, phase or improved time resolution. This signal processing technique was shown to outperform other time selective techniques with respect to noise rejection and was recently applied to photothermal instrumentation. The technique yields the mathematical equivalent of pulses yet the input irradiances are orders of magnitude less than pulses with the concomitant reduction in perturbation of the sample and can increase the capability of photothermal methods for materials characterization.

  19. Multiscale characterization and representation of composite materials during processing.

    PubMed

    Zobeiry, Navid; Forghani, Alireza; Li, Chao; Gordnian, Kamyar; Thorpe, Ryan; Vaziri, Reza; Fernlund, Goran; Poursartip, Anoush

    2016-07-13

    Given the importance of residual stresses and dimensional changes in composites manufacturing, process simulation has been the focus of many studies in recent years. Consequently, various constitutive models and simulation approaches have been developed and implemented for composites process simulation. In this paper, various constitutive models, ranging from elastic to nonlinear viscoelastic; and simulation approaches ranging from separated flow/solid phases to multiscale integrated phases are presented and their applicability for process simulation is discussed. Attention has been paid to practical aspects of the problem where the complexity of the model coupled with the complexity and size scaling of the structure increases the characterization and simulation costs. Two specific approaches and their application are presented in detail: the pseudo-viscoelastic cure hardening instantaneously linear elastic (CHILE) and linear viscoelastic (VE). It is shown that CHILE can predict the residual stress formation in simple cure cycles such as the one-hold cycle for HEXCEL AS4/8552 where the material does not devitrify during processing. It is also shown that using this simple approach, the cure cycle can be modified to lower the residual stress level and therefore increase the mechanical performance of the composite laminate. For a more complex cure cycle where the material is devitrified during a post-cure, it is shown that a more complex model such as VE is required. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'.

  20. Enabling materials and processes for large aerospace mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Lawrence E.; Chen, Ming Y.

    2008-07-01

    The use of monolithic glass to produce large, rigid segmented members for lightweight space-based mirror systems appears to have reached its limits due to the long production lead times, high processing costs, and launch load/weight requirements. New material solutions and processes are required to meet the US Air Force's optical needs for directed energy, reconnaissance/surveillance, and communications. Mirror structural substrates made out of advanced materials (metal, ceramic, and polymer), composites, foams, and microsphere arrays should allow for CTE and modulus tailorability, low-density, and high values in strength, stiffness, thermal conductivity and toughness. Conventional mechanical polishing to visual specifications for figure and surface finish roughness requirements will be difficult, due to the multi-phase complexities of these new systems. Advances in surface removal technologies as well as replication processes will be required to produce the required optical finishes with reduced schedule and cost. In this paper selected material and process solutions being considered will be discussed.