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Sample records for processing plant final

  1. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  2. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  3. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 2. Commercial plant study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit (PDU). This process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of the salt. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  4. Process energy inventory at Iowa Army Ammunition Plant Lines 1, 2, and 3A. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.W.; Hadenfeldt, G.L.; McKay, R.E.; Krajkowski, E.A.

    1983-04-01

    A process energy audit was conducted at Iowa Army Ammunition Plant. Lines 1, 2, and 3A were surveyed. Energy consumption baselines were established for eight production items: the Hawk, Stinger, Chaparral, Dragon, Copperhead and Improved TOW Warheads, the M549A1 RA Projectile, and the M718/M741 AT Projectile. A number of potential energy conservation projects were defined to reduce present energy use.

  5. Application of Entry-Time Processes in Asset Management for Nuclear Power Plants (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Nelson

    2008-01-23

    A mathematical model of entry-time processes was developed, and a computational method for solving that model was verified. This methodology was demonstrated via application to a succession of increasingly more complex subsystems of nuclear power plants. The effort culminated in the application to main generators that constituted the PhD dissertation of Shuwen (“Eric”) Wang. Dr. Wang is now employed by ABS Consulting, in Anaheim, CA. ABS is a principal provider to the nuclear industry of technical services related to reliability and safety.

  6. Pilot plant evaluation of Exxon Donor Solvent residue for the Texaco Coal Gasification Process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, A.M.; Child, C.A.

    1984-05-01

    The objectives of this project were to (1) gain experience with Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) Illinois No. 6 coal liquefaction residue in the 15-t/d Montebello gasifier and (2) identify satisfactory operating conditions for the 200-t/d TVA gasifier. Conclusions are as follows: (1) EDS residue in water slurry form is an excellent feedstock for the Texaco Coal Gasification Process. The optimum operation in the MRL pilot plant was achieved at an oxygen-to-residue feed ratio of about 0.87 lb/lb. Operating at this ratio resulted in a high carbon conversion and the production of 28 SCF of CO+H/sub 2/ per pound of residue feed. (2) EDS residue will make an excellent feed stock for the coal gasification demonstration plant at TVA. Based upon the work described in this report, recommendations for the TVA TCGP demonstration plant test run on this feedstock have been developed and provided to the appropriate parties. 6 figures, 8 tables.

  7. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T.; Korkmaz, M.

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m{mu} for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  8. Pinch technology/process optimization. Volume 1, Case studies---multiple plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Improved process efficiency is of great importance to electric utilities and their industrial customers. It enhances company profitability, thereby fostering load retention and strategic load growth. Moreover, the technical means of achieving improved efficiency can significantly impact utility load shapes. By understanding the energy use patterns and options in an industrial facility, the utility and industrial user can work together to define mutually beneficial investment and operating decisions and to clarify how the decisions might be impacted by existing or alternative energy prices. Efforts to achieve such understanding are facilitated by using pinch technology, an innovative and highly effective methodology for systematically analyzing total industrial sites. This report documents a series of twelve industrial process optimization case studies. The studies were carried out using ``pinch technology. `` Each study was cosponsored by the industrial site`s local electric utility. The twelve studies are follows: (1) pulp and paper, (2) refinery, (3) refinery, (4) yeast, (5) soups/sauces, (6) cellulose- acetate, (7) refinery, (8) chemicals, (9) gelatin-capsules, (10) refinery, (11) brewery, (12) cereal grains.

  9. Thermoeconomic analysis of a gasification-combined-cycle power plant. Final report. [Includes 2nd law evaluation of processes

    SciTech Connect

    Tsatsaronis, G. Winhold, M.; Stojanoff, C.G.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to further develop a thermoeconomic (combined thermodynamic and economic) methodology for the analysis and evaluation of power plants, and to apply the procedures of the methodology to an integrated coal gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant. The design and cost estimates used in the thermoeconomic analysis are based on the results of a recent comprehensive EPRI study conducted by Fluor Engineers, Inc., with participation of Texaco, Inc., and of the General Electric Company. One basic plant configuration was thermoeconomically analyzed. Results of this study indicate that the cost of net electricity could decrease by increasing capital cost to decrease exergy losses in the gas turbine system, and by improving (reducing the capital cost of) the heat-exchanger network of the total process. Addition of a reheat stage in the gas turbine system can improve overall IGCC plant efficiency by more than 2.5 percentage points. The analyses allow identification and evaluation of the real cost sources, and the opportunities for improvement of any energy-conversion process. The detailed thermoeconomic analysis of the base plant is based on the exergy (useful energy) concept, and enables the costing of the exergy streams flowing between plant components, and the exergy losses (real ''energy'' losses) in these components. The higher the exergy losses, the lower the efficiency of the plant component being investigated. The recommendations from the thermoeconomic analysis are based on comparison between (a) costs of fuel and product of each plant component, and (b) capital costs and costs of exergy losses associated with each plant component. The objective is to find an optimum combination of capital expenditures and efficiency for the major components of the power plant. 21 refs., 19 figs., 33 tabs.

  10. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line.

  11. Feasibility study: utilization of power plant waste heat and other resources in a proposed oil sunflower seed processing plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The feasibility study was conducted in two phases. Phase I was preliminary survey of power plant resources and an assessment of the potential to burn oil sunflower seed hulls in the boilers of a full scale generating station. Phase II, the core of study, determined the specific quantities and qualities of the available generating station resources, and address the economics of providing these resources, to the proposed oil sunflower seed processing plant. If results of research in Phase I reveal the technical feasibility was not there, then the project was to be terminated.

  12. Clean salt process final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, D.L.

    1996-09-30

    A process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for separating clean, virtually non-radioactive sodium nitrate from Hanford tank waste using fractional crystallization. The name of the process is the Clean Salt Process. Flowsheet modeling has shown that the process is capable of reducing the volume of vitrified low activity waste (LAW) by 80 to 90 %. Construction of the Clean Salt processing plant would cost less than $1 10 million, and would eliminate the need for building a $2.2 billion large scale vitrification plant planned for Privatization Phase 11. Disposal costs for the vitrified LAW would also be reduced by an estimated $240 million. This report provides a summary of five years of laboratory and engineering development activities, beginning in fiscal year 1992. Topics covered include laboratory testing of a variety of processing options; proof-of-principle demonstrations with actual waste samples from Hanford tanks 241-U-110 (U-110), 241-SY-101 (101-SY), and 241-AN-102 (102-AN); descriptions of the primary solubility phase diagrams that govem the process; a review of environmental regulations governing disposition of the reclaimed salt and an assessment of the potential beneficial uses of the reclaimed salt; preliminary plant design and construction cost estimates. A detailed description is given for the large scale laboratory demonstration of the process using waste from tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW), a candidate waste for 0044vitrification during Phase I Privatization.

  13. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  14. Demonstration of the potential for energy conservation in two Midwestern pork processing plants. Final report, December 15, 1977-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.; Okos, M.

    1981-01-19

    Two Midwestern pork processing plants were studied to quantify present energy consumption and to determine potential energy savings with modification of existing processing equipment or adoption of alternative equipment. Process energy consumption was measured in each plant at each processing step or at each unit operation and pertinent costs obtained. Energy utilized was categorized by type such as gas, electricity, steam, etc. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, flow rates, etc., were also measured so that they could be related to energy consumption. Through measurement of operating parameters and the calculation of material and energy balances, patterns of energy loss in the major unit operations were determined. The total yearly steam and gas energy consumed by the processes studied in Plant A amounted to 133.6 billion Btu's and 207.8 billion Btu's in Plant B. Of that total, Plant A uses approximately 15.5% and Plant B uses 7.5% for sanitation and cleaning. The remaining energy is used to operate the various unit operations. The energy used in the major unit operations can be broken down into lost energy and recoverable energy. Lost energy is that energy that will not effect production if eliminated. For the processes studied in Plant A, non-productive energy amounts to 48% of the energy supplied. The nonproductive energy in Plant B amounted to 60.6% of the total process energy. On the other hand, recoverable energy is that energy that was used for some productive purpose but still has value upon completion of the process. For the processes studied in Plant A, a recoverable energy amounts to 40% of the energy supplied. The potentially recoverable energy for Plant B is 35.8% of the process energy supplied.

  15. Gravimelt Process development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    This final report contains the results of a bench-scale program to continue the development of the TRW proprietary Gravimelt Process for chemically cleaning coal. This project consisted of two major efforts, a laboratory study aimed at identifying parameters which would influence the operation of a bench unit for desulfurization and demineralization of coal and the design, construction and operation of two types of continuous plug-flow type bench-scale fused caustic leachers. This present bench scale project has demonstrated modes for the continuous operation of fused caustic leaching of coal at coal throughputs of 1 to 5 pounds per hour. The remaining process unit operations of leach solutions regeneration and coal washing and filtration should be tested at bench scale together with fused caustic leaching of coal to demonstrate the complete Gravimelt Process. 22 figures, 11 tables.

  16. Start-up of an anaerobic/oxic process for phosphorus removal at the Northwest Quadrant Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This study investigated the suitability and effectiveness of a proprietary anaerobic/oxic (A/0) process to facilitate the biological removal of phosphorus from domestic wastewater. The study took place at the Northwest Quadrant Wastewater Treatment Plant in Hilton, New York, and was conducted in conjunction with the New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (the Energy Authority) and the Monroe County Department of Pure Waters. The NWQWWTP concentration limit for total effluent phosphorus is 1.0 mg/l. Influent phosphorus concentrations usually vary from 4 to 5 mg/l at the plant.

  17. Thermoeconomic analysis of power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsatsaronis, G.; Winhold, M.

    1984-08-01

    In this report, the concept of exergy and the general methodology of the exergetic analysis and the thermoeconomic (combined exergetic and economic) analysis of energy conversion systems are presented. The THESIS (THermodynamic and Economc SImulation System) computer program used for these analyses is briefly described. Detailed mass, energy, exergy and money balances for a reference steam power plant (Harry Allen Station) are shown. The effect of the most important process parameters on the overall efficiency is investigated. A year-by-year and a levelized revenue requirement analysis are presented. The costs of exergy losses are compared with the capital costs and other expenses due to owning and operating each particular plant component. The question whether it is profitable to reduce the exergy losses by increasing these costs and vice versa is investigated. A cost sensitivity analysis including the effect of coal price and average annual capacity factor is performed. The methodology applied in this report appears to be useful in analyzing and evaluating energy conversion systems. The analyses presented here allow identification and evaluation of the inefficiencies and the opportunities for improvement of an energy conversion process. Results indicate that modifications in certain process parameters can lead to a decrease in the cost of electricity produced by the reference plant.

  18. Multispectral Image Processing for Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Gaines E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a machine vision system to monitor plant growth and health is one of three essential steps towards establishing an intelligent system capable of accurately assessing the state of a controlled ecological life support system for long-term space travel. Besides a network of sensors, simulators are needed to predict plant features, and artificial intelligence algorithms are needed to determine the state of a plant based life support system. Multispectral machine vision and image processing can be used to sense plant features, including health and nutritional status.

  19. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  20. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  1. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  2. Final Report for Regulation of Embryonic Development in Higher Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, John J.

    2013-10-22

    The overall goal of the project was to define the cellular processes that underlie embryo development in plants at a mechanistic level. Our studies focused on a critical transcriptional regulator, Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1), that is necessary and sufficient to induce processes required for embryo development. Because LEC1 regulates lipid accumulation during the maturation phase of embryo development, information about LEC1 may be useful in designing approaches to enhance biofuel production in plants. During the tenure of this project, we determined the molecular mechanisms by which LEC1 acts as a transcription factor in embryos. We also identified genes directly regulated by LEC1 and showed that many of these genes are involved in maturation processes. This information has been useful in dissecting the gene regulatory networks controlling embryo development. Finally, LEC1 is a novel isoform of a transcription factor that is conserved among eukaryotes, and LEC1 is active primarily in seeds. Therefore, we determined that the LEC1-type transcription factors first appeared in lycophytes during land plant evolution. Together, this study provides basic information that has implications for biofuel production.

  3. Pinellas Plant feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Pinellas Plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. In September 1990, the Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (HRS) entered into an agreement with DOE to independently examine environmental monitoring data from the plant and health data from Pinellas County to determine if an epidemiological study is technically feasible to measure possible off-site health effects from ionizing radiation. Through normal plant operations, some radioactive materials have been released to the environment. Eighty percent of the total plant releases of 107,707 curies occurred in the early years of plant operation (1957--1960). The primary materials released were tritium gas, tritium oxide and krypton-85. Environmental monitoring for radioactive releases from the plant has been done regularly since 1975. The US Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in assisting HRS, has determined that sufficient radiological data exist by which a dose reconstruction can be done. A dose reconstruction can provide an estimate of how much radiological exposure someone living in the vicinity of the Pinellas Plant may have suffered from environmental releases.

  4. Tubeless evaporation process development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    A tubeless evaporation process which has the potential to combine the advantage of both evaporation and freezing processes, without their disadvantages is being developed. The TEP is capable of concentrating process solutions of such things as sugar, caustic soda, salt, sodium sulfate, black liquor from the pulp and paper industry, cooling tower blowdown, ''spent'' pickling liquor (sulfuric acid) from the steel industry, and nitric acid with potential energy savings of half to three-quarters of the energy required by conventional evaporators, with about half of the capital and maintenance cost. It has similar potential for the production of fresh water from seawater. The process uses working fluids (WF's) at their freezing point to effect direct contact heat exchange. The purpose of this project was to find additional and lower cost WF's in the laboratory, to obtain sizing information for the major equipment for an economic evaluation and a pilot plant design in a bench scale plant, and to perform the economic evaluation, and the pilot plant design and cost estimate. 6 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. ATAC Process Proof of Concept Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01

    Researchers at INL with funding from the Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) evaluated a novel approach for near real-time consumption of threat intelligence. Demonstration testing in an industry environment supported the development of this new process to assist the electric sector in securing their critical networks. This report provides the reader with an understanding of the methods used during this proof of concept project. The processes and templates were further advanced with an industry partner during an onsite assessment. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these materials for use by industry.

  6. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  7. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  8. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  9. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  10. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  11. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard: Naphthalene processing, final... Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers. (a) No (“zero”) emissions are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  12. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  13. The IUE Final Archive Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, C. L.; Dunn, N.; Fireman, G. F.; Levay, K. L.; Meylan, T.; Nichols, J.; Michalitsianos, A.

    1993-12-01

    The IUE Project has begun the task of reprocessing all IUE data using significantly enhanced reduction algorithms and calibrations. In order to perform this task in a timely, reliable manner, we have developed the IUE Final Archive Processing System. The system runs on a DECstation 5000, using Fortran software embedded in portable MIDAS. The processing queue is driven by a commercial relational database. The database interface allows the system to access the enhanced IUE database, which is resident on a second DECstation 5000 (see poster by Levay et al.). The system runs automatically, with little operator intervention. Built-in quality assurance software detects virtually all input or processing problems. In addition, a fraction of the images, including all those with quality assurance warnings, are screened by the staff. The screening system, known as the Post-Production Verification (PPV) system, uses a widget-based graphics user interface written in IDL. It allows one to display and inspect the MIDAS and FITS files, review the FITS headers and other text files, and record the results in the IUE database. Images which have passed quality assurance are then delivered to NASA's National Space Science Data Center, which makes the data available to the astronomical community. This work has been supported under NASA contract NAS5-31230 to Computer Sciences Corp.

  14. Fundamental Processes in Plasmas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, Thomas M.; Driscoll, C. Fred

    2009-11-30

    This research focuses on fundamental processes in plasmas, and emphasizes problems for which precise experimental tests of theory can be obtained. Experiments are performed on non-neutral plasmas, utilizing three electron traps and one ion trap with a broad range of operating regimes and diagnostics. Theory is focused on fundamental plasma and fluid processes underlying collisional transport and fluid turbulence, using both analytic techniques and medium-scale numerical simulations. The simplicity of these systems allows a depth of understanding and a precision of comparison between theory and experiment which is rarely possible for neutral plasmas in complex geometry. The recent work has focused on three areas in basic plasma physics. First, experiments and theory have probed fundamental characteristics of plasma waves: from the low-amplitude thermal regime, to inviscid damping and fluid echoes, to cold fluid waves in cryogenic ion plasmas. Second, the wide-ranging effects of dissipative separatrices have been studied experimentally and theoretically, finding novel wave damping and coupling effects and important plasma transport effects. Finally, correlated systems have been investigated experimentally and theoretically: UCSD experients have now measured the Salpeter correlation enhancement, and theory work has characterized the 'guiding center atoms of antihydrogen created at CERN.

  15. Western Maryland power plant siting study: biological characterization of candidate sites. Final assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, F.; Himel, J.; Cummins, R.; Weisberg, S.

    1984-10-01

    Three locations in western Maryland are being considered as potential candidate sites for future construction of a 1200-1800 MWe coal-fired power plant. This report provides a detailed biological characterization of each site and assesses potential terrestrial and aquatic impacts associated with plant construction and operation. This assessment considers possible impacts on geomorphology, vegetation, wildlife, water quality, and nearby aquatic biota. Relevant information contained in a Phase I document produced earlier under this contract, was incorporated into this final report.

  16. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  17. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Adamson, D. J.; Calloway, T. B.; Fowley, M. D.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steimke, J. L.; Williams, M. R.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  18. Process monitoring in international safeguards for reprocessing plants: A demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the period 1985--1987, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory investigated the possible role of process monitoring for international safeguards applications in fuel reprocessing plants. This activity was conducted under Task C.59, ''Review of Process Monitoring Safeguards Technology for Reprocessing Facilities'' of the US program of Technical Assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards program. The final phase was a demonstration of process monitoring applied in a prototypical reprocessing plant test facility at ORNL. This report documents the demonstration and test results. 35 figs.

  19. Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.C.

    1992-04-16

    This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant.

  20. Sources of plant materials for land rehabilitation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.D.; Howard, G.L.; White, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Military land managers and trainers are charged with planning and implementing land rehabilitation and maintenance to minimize environmental degradation and improve the safety and realism of the training mission. One step in the rehabilitation and maintenance process is to purchase appropriate plant materials, particularly locally endemic or adapted species. This report contains a list of plant material vendors in each state. Managers and trainers can contact these vendors for solicitation of bids.

  1. Effect of processing plant on pork quality.

    PubMed

    Hambrecht, E; Eissen, J J; Verstegen, M W A

    2003-06-01

    The impact of processing plant on pork quality was studied by assessing pork quality in three commercial plants (A, B, C). Plants differed in the layout of the races, stunning systems (A and B: electrical, C: CO(2) stunning) and chilling systems (A: rapid chilling, B and C: conventional). Factors not related to the processing plants (e.g. genetic background of animals, transport, lairage) were standardized. In total, nine batches of about 150 pigs each were processed. Each batch was purchased at a commercial farm and randomly divided into three groups for delivery to the three processing plants. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring early post-mortem muscle pH and temperature as well as ultimate pH, meat colour (Minolta Chroma Meter and Japanese colour scale), filter paper score (FPS), electrical conductivity (EC) and drip loss. Plant C produced an inferior quality compared to plants A and B: meat was paler (C: 2.8 vs. A: 2.9 and B: 3.0 on the Japanese colour scale) and had higher drip losses (C: 5.2 vs. A: 4.8 and B: 4.9%). Meat colour hardly differed between plants A and B but waterholding properties were best at plant A as indicated by FPS (A: 2.4 vs. B: 2.8 vs. C: 3.3) and EC (A: 5.4 vs. B: 6.4 vs. C: 7.4 mS). It is concluded that processing plant may influence meat quality. Correlations between early post-mortem measurements and meat quality traits were low. Nevertheless, high carcass temperatures and low pH values early post-mortem were shown to lead to inferior meat quality.

  2. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cells of plants are surrounded by strong walls that prevent rupture from internal pressures that can be two or three times that of an automobile tire. In this way, the walls protect the cytoplasm. However, at the same time, the cells can enlarge as they grow. How this balancing act works and how it enlarges the plant were the subject of a recent conference at the University of Delaware in Lewes. The aim was to identify areas for future research that could explain the enlargement of whole plants. There is a large practical need to predict and modify plant enlargement but the additional processes that overlie the molecular ones need to be integrated with the molecular information before a picture will emerge. How best to accomplish this involved input from cross-disciplinary areas in biomechanics, physics and engineering as well as molecular biology, biochemistry and ultrastructure.

  3. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  4. Machine and process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.W.

    1992-12-01

    A study was conducted to statistically characterize 11 precision machining centers to determine their operating characteristics and process capabilities. Measurement probes and a ball plate were used for measurement analysis. A generic test part designed with geometric features that the department typically manufactures was machined using various machining processes. A better understanding of each machine`s characteristics and process capability was realized through repeating these methods on each machine.

  5. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  6. 76 FR 55723 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2 License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2 License Renewal... (NEPA). TVA prepared the Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units... existing environmental information and analyses for the continued operation of the Sequoyah Nuclear...

  7. Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III

    2002-01-01

    This report presents generic cost curves for several equipment types generated using ICARUS Process Evaluator. The curves give Purchased Equipment Cost as a function of a capacity variable. This work was performed to assist NETL engineers and scientists in performing rapid, order of magnitude level cost estimates or as an aid in evaluating the reasonableness of cost estimates submitted with proposed systems studies or proposals for new processes. The specific equipment types contained in this report were selected to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types.

  8. FY-2010 Process Monitoring Technology Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Casella, Amanda J.; Hines, Wes; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; henkell, J.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Jordan, Elizabeth A.; Lines, Amanda M.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peterson, James M.; Verdugo, Dawn E.; Christensen, Ronald N.; Peper, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    During FY 2010, work under the Spectroscopy-Based Process Monitoring task included ordering and receiving four fluid flow meters and four flow visible-near infrared spectrometer cells to be instrumented within the centrifugal contactor system at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Initial demonstrations of real-time spectroscopic measurements on cold-stream simulants were conducted using plutonium (Pu)/uranium (U) (PUREX) solvent extraction process conditions. The specific test case examined the extraction of neodymium nitrate (Nd(NO3)3) from an aqueous nitric acid (HNO3) feed into a tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/ n-dodecane solvent. Demonstration testing of this system included diverting a sample from the aqueous feed meanwhile monitoring the process in every phase using the on-line spectroscopic process monitoring system. The purpose of this demonstration was to test whether spectroscopic monitoring is capable of determining the mass balance of metal nitrate species involved in a cross-current solvent extraction scheme while also diverting a sample from the system. The diversion scenario involved diverting a portion of the feed from a counter-current extraction system while a continuous extraction experiment was underway. A successful test would demonstrate the ability of the process monitoring system to detect and quantify the diversion of material from the system during a real-time continuous solvent extraction experiment. The system was designed to mimic a PUREX-type extraction process with a bank of four centrifugal contactors. The aqueous feed contained Nd(NO3)3 in HNO3, and the organic phase was composed of TBP/n-dodecane. The amount of sample observed to be diverted by on-line spectroscopic process monitoring was measured to be 3 mmol (3 x 10-3 mol) Nd3+. This value was in excellent agreement with the 2.9 mmol Nd3+ value based on the known mass of sample taken (i.e., diverted) directly from the system feed solution.

  9. Optimisation of the steel plant dust recycling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Darius-Alexandru; Hepuť, Teodor; Puťan, Vasile

    2016-06-01

    The widespread use of oxygen in the EAF steel-making process led to the increase of furnace productivity and reduction of specific energy consumption. Following the increase of the metal bath temperature, the brown smoke exhaust process is intensified, which requires mandatory gas treatment. The steel plant dust resulting from the treatment of waste gases is a manufacturing waste which must be recycled in the steel plant. Due to the fineness of the waste, when conducting the researches we processed it through pelletization. The processing of this waste aims not only its granulometric composition, but also the chemical composition (mainly the zinc content). After processing the data, we choose the optimal waste recycling technology based on the resistance of pellets and final content of zinc.

  10. Etchback smear removal process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.

    1981-03-01

    A study evaluated variable limits for each chemical solution used in etchback smear removal on multilayer printed wiring boards (MLPWBs) to determine variables' influence on etchback behavior. Etchback smear removal is essential to fabricate about 40 different multilayer parts. However, erratic etchback behavior contributes to reduced yields among multilayer parts. The study, conducted on 172 multilayer printed wiring boards in 43 test runs, indicated that chemical interaction may not be a principal influence on etchback behavior. Study results also indicated that slight changes in process variables did not influence the presence of recessed conductors. The results verified the adequacy of existing tolerances on main process variables to produce uniformly etched holes.

  11. Development of superplastic steel processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A.

    1995-04-01

    Objective was to provide basis for producing, processing, and forming UHCS (ultrahigh carbon steel) on a commercial scale. Business plans were developed for potential commercialization. Effort was directed at improving the combination of flow stress and forming rates in UHCS alloys in order to make near net shape superplastic forming competitive; the result was the development of a series of UHCS alloys and processing, the selection of which depends on the specific requirements of the commercial application. Useful ancillary properties of these materials include: improved mechanical properties, wear resistance, and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures.

  12. Antenna dielectric sealing process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, M.L.; Yerganian, S.S.

    1994-04-01

    An antenna assembly experienced leak test failures during TMS testing. The leaks were occurring between the dielectric and housing. The antenna assembly dielectric is sealed into a nickel-plated aluminum housing using a tin catalyzed condensation cure silicone (RTV). In preparation for sealing, the dielectric and housing are chemically cleaned and then plasma cleaned. The surfaces to be sealed are primed, RTV is applied, and the RTV is cured in a humidity chamber. This report is an evaluation of the production process and includes FEM analysis and process characterization and control (PC&C) data.

  13. Urethane foam process improvements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    A study was completed to evaluate the foam molding process for environmental and technical improvements. The investigation led to a replacement for chlorinated solvent usage, a potential permanent mold release coating, improved tooling design, and shrinkage characterization of foams filled with varying levels of aluminum oxide.

  14. Primary photochemical processes of acrolein. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, E.P.; Sperry, P.D.; Calvert, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Pollutants are removed from the atmosphere in a number of ways: they can react with OH and O/sub 3/, they can be dry and wet deposited, photodissociate through solar radiation, or they can be biodegraded. The report presents the photodissociation processes of acrolein. Quantum yields of acrolein loss are given. The dominant reactions in the lower troposphere are the formation of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and CO. Also produced are CH/sub 2/-CHCHO, H, CH/sub 2/CH, and HCO radicals but at lower quantum yields. Since the OH attack on acrolein is quite large (1.9 x 10/sup 11/ cu cm/molec s), ambient levels of OH (about 10/sup 6/ molecules/cu cm) will remove acrolein very rapidly (usually, about 15 hours). Thus, the major loss mechanism of acrolein in the troposphere is through OH attack, and the photodissociation process is of negligible importance.

  15. Microwave processing of materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Garard, R.S.

    1997-11-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Lambda Technologies, Inc. (Lambda) of Raleigh, N.C., was initiated in May 1995. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research, Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion data for the Agreement was December 31, 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF); and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The VFMF, whose initial conception and design was funded by the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  16. Energy conservation in citrus processing. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, M.A.; Lari, R.I.; Moore, N.R.; Broussard, M.R.; Gyamfi, M.

    1981-11-01

    Alternative energy conserving systems for use in citrus processing plants were synthesized and evaluated in terms of energy savings and economic return. The energy intensive operations that are carried out in citrus processing plants include conveying and extraction, concentration, peel drying, refrigeration, and pasteurization. The alternative energy conserving systems are synthesized from components and subsystems that are arranged to make use of energy cascading and thermodynamic regeneration to reduce the overall energy usage. System requirements such as air pollution rules and plant processing load cycles, a characterization of major operations, description of alternative system concepts, and the evaluation of alternative systems in terms of economic parameters and energy usage are identified.

  17. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  18. Socioeconomic Impacts of Agricultural Processing Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leistritz, F. Larry; Sell, Randall S.

    2001-01-01

    Studies in four North Dakota communities that had suffered economic and population decline in the 1980s examined the economic and community impacts of new agricultural processing plants in the late 1990s, including effects on residents' incomes, total and school-age population, needs for day care and community services, housing needs, public…

  19. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The Implementation of the Authorized Limits Process for Waste Acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1414) for the proposed implementation of the authorized limits process for waste acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. Based on the results of the impact analysis reported in the EA, which is incorporated herein by this reference, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA). Therefore preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  20. Solidification of low-volume power plant sludges. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, N.E.; Halverson, M.A.; Mercer, B.M.

    1981-12-01

    A literature review was conducted to obtain information on the status of hazardous waste solidification technology and application of this technology to low-volume power plant waste sludges. Because of scarcity of sludge composition data, anticipated major components were identified primarily by chemical reactions that are known to occur during treatment of specific wastewaters. Chemical and physical properties of these sludges were critically analyzed for compatibility with several types of commercially available solidification processes. The study pointed out the need for additional information on the nature of these sludges, especially leaching characteristics and the presence of substances that will interfere with solidification processes. Laboratory studies were recommended for evaluation of solidification process which have the greatest potential for converting hazardous low-volume sludges to non-hazardous waste forms.

  1. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  2. In-situ Condition Monitoring of Components in Small Modular Reactors Using Process and Electrical Signature Analysis. Final report, volume 1. Development of experimental flow control loop, data analysis and plant monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, Belle; Hines, J. Wesley; Damiano, Brian; Mehta, Chaitanya; Collins, Price; Lish, Matthew; Cady, Brian; Lollar, Victor; de Wet, Dane; Bayram, Duygu

    2015-12-15

    plant parameters and the pump electrical signatures. Additionally, the reactor simulation is being used to generate normal operation data and data with instrumentation faults and process anomalies. A frequency controller was interfaced with the motor power supply in order to vary the electrical supply frequency. The experimental flow control loop was used to generate operational data under varying motor performance characteristics. Coolant leakage events were simulated by varying the bypass loop flow rate. The accuracy of motor power calculation was improved by incorporating the power factor, computed from motor current and voltage in each phase of the induction motor.- A variety of experimental runs were made for steady-state and transient pump operating conditions. Process, vibration, and electrical signatures were measured using a submersible pump with variable supply frequency. High correlation was seen between motor current and pump discharge pressure signal; similar high correlation was exhibited between pump motor power and flow rate. Wide-band analysis indicated high coherence (in the frequency domain) between motor current and vibration signals. - Wide-band operational data from a PWR were acquired from AMS Corporation and used to develop time-series models, and to estimate signal spectrum and sensor time constant. All the data were from different pressure transmitters in the system, including primary and secondary loops. These signals were pre-processed using the wavelet transform for filtering both low-frequency and high-frequency bands. This technique of signal pre-processing provides minimum distortion of the data, and results in a more optimal estimation of time constants of plant sensors using time-series modeling techniques.

  3. Monticello Lead Plant License Renewal Project summary report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T.L.; Pickens, T.A.; Gregor, F.E.; Stancavage, P.P.

    1996-02-01

    The Monticello Lead Plant License Renewal Project is sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute and the Department of Energy to demonstrate the license renewal process for boiling water reactors. The initial technical tasks for the project are the subject of this summary report: Task 2, Identification of Systems, Structures, and Components Important to License Renewal; Task 3, Evaluation of Systems, Structures, and Components; and Task 4, Maintenance and Operational Practices. Task 2 identified systems, structures and components which require evaluation for license renewal. Task 3 provides an evaluation of aging mechanisms affecting structures and components. Task 3 evaluations define structure or component boundaries and identify pertinent physical features, design data, operating/maintenance history, potentially significant age-related degradation mechanisms, and degradation sites. Task 4 provides an evaluation of selected plant programs which apply to these structures and components. The capability of programs to detect and mitigate aging mechanisms and/or to maintain the required function is determined. Enhancements are recommended when required to meet program effectiveness criteria. The results of these evaluations are documented as part of Task 6 in Technical Support Documents. This 4-year effort was the first time that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) license renewal evaluation criteria were applied to specific plant structures and components. Evaluations which identified potentially significant aging mechanisms were performed for most components. Other evaluation methods were developed and applied that relied on published aging investigations or inherent design and operating features of the plant. Evaluation approaches were reviewed with sponsoring organizations and representatives from other organizations and utilities. Examples of the evaluation approach and sample results were presented to the NRC staff on several occasions.

  4. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  5. In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

    1991-07-31

    Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled ``In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.`` The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

  6. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  7. Utica Corporation Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Report Final Summary (Entrance to Utica Corporation's Whitesboro Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    Utica Corporation conducted a plant-wide energy assessment of the manufacturing processes and utilities at its facility in Whiteboro, NY. As a result of the assessment, the company is now implementing six energy conservation projects that will result in significant cost savings and efficiency improvements.

  8. Power plant system assessment. Final report. SP-100 Program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.V.; Atkins, D.F.; Bost, D.S.; Berman, B.; Clinger, D.A.; Determan, W.R.; Drucker, G.S.; Glasgow, L.E.; Hartung, J.A.; Harty, R.B.

    1983-10-31

    The purpose of this assessment was to provide system-level insights into 100-kWe-class space reactor electric systems. Using these insights, Rockwell was to select and perform conceptual design studies on a ''most attractive'' system that met the preliminary design goals and requirements of the SP-100 Program. About 4 of the 6 months were used in the selection process. The remaining 2 months were used for the system conceptual design studies. Rockwell completed these studies at the end of FY 1983. This report summarizes the results of the power plant system assessment and describes our choice for the most attractive system - the Rockwell SR-100G System (Space Reactor, 100 kWe, Growth) - a lithium-cooled UN-fueled fast reactor/Brayton turboelectric converter system.

  9. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  10. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope.

  11. Sulfur recovery plant and process using oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, J.W.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a process for recovery of sulfur from a gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide. The process consists the steps of: introducing a thermal reaction mixture comprising the gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide, and an oxygen-enriched stream of air or pure oxygen into a combustion zone of a Claus furnace; combusting the thermal reaction mixture in the Claus furnace to thereby produce hot combustion gases comprising hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, and elemental sulfur; introducing the hot combustion gases into a Claus catalytic reactor; subjecting the hot combustion gases in the catalytic reactor to Claus reaction conditions in the presence of a Claus catalyst to thereby produce a Claus plant gaseous effluent stream comprising hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, and elemental sulfur; introducing the Claus plant gaseous effluent into a condenser to thereby produce liquid sulfur, which is recovered, and a gaseous condenser effluent, which comprises hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and water and which is divided into a recycle portion and a tailgas portion; converting substantially all sulfur species in the recycle portion of the gaseous condenser effluent to hydrogen sulfide to thereby form condenser effluent comprising hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and water; removing water from the recycle portion of the condenser; and moderating the temperature in the Claus furnace by returning at least a portion of the dried recycle condenser, as a diluent stream, to a combustion zone of the Claus furnace.

  12. Sulfur recovery plant and process using oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, J.W.

    1989-01-17

    This patent describes a process for the recovery of sulfur from a gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide, the process comprising the steps of: (a) introducing a thermal reaction mixture comprising (1) the gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide, and (2) an oxygen-enriched stream of air or pure oxygen into a combustion zone of a Claus furnace; (b) combusting the thermal reaction mixture in the Claus furnace to thereby produce hot combustion gases comprising hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, and elemental sulfur; (c) introducing the hot combustion gases into a Claus catalytic reactor; (d) subjecting the hot combustion gases in the catalytic reactor to Claus reaction conditions in the presence of a Claus catalyst to thereby produce a Claus plant gaseous effluent stream comprising hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, and elemental sulfur; (e) introducing the Claus plant gaseous effluent into a condenser to thereby produce liquid sulfur, which is recovered, and a gaseous condenser effluent, which comprises hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and water; (f) converting substantially all sulfur species in the gaseous condenser effluent to hydrogen sulfide, to thereby form a condenser effluent comprising hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and water; (g) removing water from the condenser effluent from step (f); and (h) moderating the temperature in the Claus furnace by returning at least a portion of the dried condenser effluent from step (g), as a diluent stream, to a combustion zone of the Claus furnace in step (a) above.

  13. A review of plant decontamination methods: 1988 Update: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Remark, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    This document updates the state-of-the-art in decontamination technology since the publication of the previous review (EPRI NP- 1128) in May 1981. A brief description of the corrosion-film characteristics is presented as well as corrosion film differences between a BWR and PWR. The generation transportation, activation, and deposition of the radioisotopes found throughout the reactor coolant system is also discussed. Successful, well executed, decontamination campaigns are always preceded by meticulous planning and careful procedure preparation which include contingency operations. The Decontamination Planning and Preparation Section describes the technical planning steps as well as the methodology that should be followed in order to select the optimum decontamination technique for a specific application. A review of a number of the decontamination methods commercialized since 1980 is presented. The basic mechanism for each process is described as well as specific applications of the technology in the fields. Where possible, results obtained in the field are presented. The information was obtained from industry vendors as well as personnel at the plant locations that have utilized the technology. 72 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Parris Island Wastewater Treatment Plant SCADA Upgrades Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meador, Richard J.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2004-03-18

    Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, SC, home of the Easter Recruiting Region Marine Corp Boot Camp, found itself in a situation common to Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. It had to deal with several different types of installed energy-related control systems that could not talk to each other. This situation was being exacerbated by the installation of a new and/or unique type of control system for every new building being constructed or older facility that was being upgraded. The Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF) and lift station controls were badly in need of a thorough inspection and a new Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system upgrade to meet environmental, safety, manpower, and maintenance concerns. A project was recently completed to implement such a wastewater treatment SCADA upgrade, which is compatible with other upgrades to the energy monitoring and control systems for Parris Island buildings and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance (DSOM) system installed at the Central Energy Plant (CEP). This project included design, specification, procurement, installation, and testing an upgraded SCADA alarm, process monitoring, and display system; and training WWTF operators in its operation. The ultimate goal of this and the other PNNL projects at Parris Island is to allow monitoring and control of energy and environmental components from a central location.

  15. Digital-Computer Processing of Graphical Data. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Herbert

    The final report of a two-year study concerned with the digital-computer processing of graphical data. Five separate investigations carried out under this study are described briefly, and a detailed bibliography, complete with abstracts, is included in which are listed the technical papers and reports published during the period of this program.…

  16. [Controls of the plant endomembrane-secretory pathway]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    These studies are focused on elucidating the molecular structure of plant cell membranes with special reference to cell surface glycoproteins. The studies reported herein include use of monoclonal antibodies to characterize cell surface epitopes, construction of cDNA libraries of cell surface proteins, isolation of plant cell mutants by flow cytometry, detection of beta-glucouronidase marker enzyme systems in plants, expression go VSVG (the major envelope glycoprotein of Vesicular Stomatis Virus) in plant cells, and control of gene expression of cell membrane glycoproteins.(DT)

  17. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  18. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  19. Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal Mined areas in North Dakota. 7. Mineral analysis of plants grown on spoils and topsoils. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82

    SciTech Connect

    Malakondaiah, N.

    1982-06-01

    Plant samples collected from the mined sites of Beulah, Center and Zap and the test sites of North Beulah I, North Beulah II, South Beulah and Center were analyzed for their nutrient concentrations. The vegetation from the mined areas generally showed lower concentrations of Na, P and Cu and failed to meet the nutritional requirements for beef cattle as defined by National Research Council. The concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu and N in grasses were significantly higher on topsoil than at slack amended spoil at Center test site. The data presented in this report act only as an indication of between-treatment and between-species differences in tissue composition of plants harvested in mid-summer season. Since none of the nutrients analyzed were found toxic, the cattle can safely feed on the mined land vegetation.

  20. Process control graphics for petrochemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lieber, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    Describes many specialized features of a computer control system, schematic/graphics in particular, which are vital to effectively run today's complex refineries and chemical plants. Illustrates such control systems as a full-graphic control house panel of the 60s, a European refinery control house of the early 70s, and the Ingolstadt refinery control house. Presents diagram showing a shape library. Implementation of state-of-the-art control theory, distributed control, dual hi-way digital instrument systems, and many other person-machine interface developments have been prime factors in process control. Further developments in person-machine interfaces are in progress including voice input/output, touch screen, and other entry devices. Color usage, angle of projection, control house lighting, and pattern recognition are all being studied by vendors, users, and academics. These studies involve psychologists concerned with ''quality of life'' factors, employee relations personnel concerned with labor contracts or restrictions, as well as operations personnel concerned with just getting the plant to run better.

  1. Productivity improvement handbook for fossil steam power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Armor, A.F.; Wolk, R.H. |

    1998-09-01

    This book is written to help electric generation staff operate their plants more profitably in a competitive environment. Since responsibility for keeping the plant running falls directly on the shoulders of plant personnel, they want to understand what can go wrong, receive information on the current condition of equipment, and fix things when equipment fails or performs poorly. The information in this book is organized so a reader can quickly and easily grasp the current state-of-the-art in maintaining fossil steam units, obtain guidance on specific plant problems, and move ahead with solutions. Many reports and guidelines have been issued on boilers, turbines, generators, heat exchangers, and other plant equipment covering failure modes, causes, fixes, and maintenance practices. Liberal use has been made of these reports to extract the salient recommendations, and the citations and bibliographies acknowledge these sources. The reader is directed to the comprehensive list of reports and papers for further details on specific issues. The scope of this book does not permit a detailed and extensive treatment of each of the hundreds of potential in-plant problems, but does permit the reader to get a first assessment of likely symptoms and modes of failure, and enough information to do something about it. It`s a working handbook for fossil plant staff who are daily faced with protecting the integrity and reliability of the electric generation business.

  2. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  3. Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-30

    The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PGandE grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  5. Enhancing Elementary Pre-service Teachers' Plant Processes Conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Stephen L.; Lotter, Christine; Fann, Xumei; Taylor, Laurie

    2016-06-01

    Researchers examined how an inquiry-based instructional treatment emphasizing interrelated plant processes influenced 210 elementary pre-service teachers' (PTs) conceptions of three plant processes, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and transpiration, and the interrelated nature of these processes. The instructional treatment required PTs to predict the fate of a healthy plant in a sealed terrarium (Plant-in-a-Jar), justify their predictions, observe the plant over a 5-week period, and complete guided inquiry activities centered on one of the targeted plant processes each week. Data sources included PTs' pre- and post-predictions with accompanying justifications, course artifacts such as weekly terrarium observations and science journal entries, and group models of the interrelated plant processes occurring within the sealed terraria. A subset of 33 volunteer PTs also completed interviews the week the Plant-in-a-Jar scenario was introduced and approximately 4 months after the instructional intervention ended. Pre- and post-predictions from all PTs as well as interview responses from the subgroup of PTs, were coded into categories based on key plant processes emphasized in the Next Generation Science Standards. Study findings revealed that PTs developed more accurate conceptions of plant processes and their interrelated nature as a result of the instructional intervention. Primary patterns of change in PTs' plant process conceptions included development of more accurate conceptions of how water is used by plants, more accurate conceptions of photosynthesis features, and more accurate conceptions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration as transformative processes.

  6. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants: Final report, 1984-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, M.; Otvos, J.; Taylor, S.E.; Nemethy, E.K.; Skrukrud, C.L.; Hawkins, D.R.; Lago, R.

    1988-08-01

    Plant hydrocarbon (isoprenoid) production was investigated as an alternative source to fossil fuels. Because of their high triterpenoid (hydrocarbon) content of 4--8%, Euphorbia lathyris plants were used as a model system for this study. The structure of the E. lathyris triterpenoids was determined, and triterpenoid biosynthesis studied to better understand the metabolic regulation of isoprenoid production. Triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs in two distinct tissue types in E. lathyris plants: in the latex of the laticifer cells; and in the mesophyll cells of the leaf and stem. The latex has been fractionated by centrifugation, and it has been determined that the later steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the conversion of mevalonic acid to the triterpenes, are compartmentized within a vacuole. Also identified was the conversion of hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase, as a key rate limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. At least two isozymes of this enzyme, one in the latex and another in the leaf plastids, have been identified. Environmental stress has been applied to plants to study changes in carbon allocation. Salinity stress caused a large decrease in growth, smaller decreases in photosynthesis, resulting in a larger allocation of carbon to both hydrocarbon and sugar production. An increase in Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase activity was also observed when isoprenoid production increased. Other species where also screened for the production of hydrogen rich products such as isoprenoids and glycerides, and their hydrocarbon composition was determined.

  7. Methodology and application of surrogate plant PRA analysis to the Rancho Seco Power Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Huenefeld, J.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the development and the first application of generic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information for identifying systems and components important to public risk at nuclear power plants lacking plant-specific PRAs. A methodology is presented for using the results of PRAs for similar (surrogate) plants, along with plant-specific information about the plant of interest and the surrogate plants, to infer important failure modes for systems of the plant of interest. This methodology, and the rationale on which it is based, is presented in the context of its application to the Rancho Seco plant. The Rancho Seco plant has been analyzed using PRA information from two surrogate plants. This analysis has been used to guide development of considerable plant-specific information about Rancho Seco systems and components important to minimizing public risk, which is also presented herein.

  8. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  9. Defined media for plant tissue culture: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Good, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    This grant was for the purpose of developing improved plant tissue culture media. The rationale was to introduce the use of low pKa hydrogen ion buffers to stabilize pH and to introduce the use of slow release forms of the plant hormones, auxin and cytokinin, to provide the tissues with a constant supply of these essential factors. The zwittionic buffer, MES, proved useful for pH stabilization, while a wide range of indoleacetylamino acids provided a wide range of levels of available amino acids with consequent different levels of development of shoots, roots or callus. In general, some free indoleacetic acid in addition to the conjugate seemed necessary for organogenesis, but this phenomenon depended very much on the level of cytokinin. Time did not permit us to make any significant progress in the development of slow-release forms of cytokinins. 2 figs.

  10. Justification of simulators for fossil fuel power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beare, A.N.; Gaddy, C.D.; Lewis-Clapper, R.C.; Taylor, J.C.

    1993-10-01

    The cost-benefit analysis of simulators (CBAS) project is part of an overall effort by the Electric Power Research Institute and the fossil power industry to expand and enhance the appropriate use of simulators in the fossil industry. The CBAS project consists of three tasks: (1) quantify operator performance associated with operator-controllable plant parameters and situations, (2) compare the training effectiveness of various types of simulators, and (3) develop and demonstrate a methodology and database for quantifying the benefits of fossil training simulators. This report describes the first and third tasks of the project. For the first task in the project, eight utilities provided data for operator-controllable plant performance. This data collection effort was designed to assess the actual and potential effects of simulator training in improving operator performance and reducing error, as well as determining the dollar value of improved performance and reduced number of errors. Developing a methodology and database for assessing simulator training benefits is the second task in the project. The methodology and database will provide a basis for determining the impact of various types of simulator training on operator performance and the potential savings in plant operating costs. A worksheet developed from a portion of this task is provided in this report. The worksheet steps the user through calculations, based on plant data, to determine if purchasing a simulator is cost-beneficial. This project would benefit from additional tasks to further clarify and validate the objectives. The major emphasis would be to collect follow-up data from utilities that recently implemented simulator training and to collect data from additional utilities. Planned follow-on work includes comparing the training effectiveness of various types of simulators and continuing to transfer the technology studied in this report.

  11. Wetland plant communities, Galveston Bay system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.A.; Paine, J.G.

    1992-03-01

    The report is the culmination of a field investigation of wetland plant communities, and is one phase of the project, Trends and Status of Wetland and Aquatic Habitats of the Galveston Bay System, Texas, sponsored by the Galveston Bay National Estuary Program. For purpose of the topical report, wetlands are defined and classified in terms of more classical definitions, for example, salt, brackish, and fresh marshes, in accordance with project requirements. More than 150 sites were examined in the Galveston Bay system.

  12. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Thomas W.

    2000-02-29

    Research in the latter part of the grant period was divided into two parts: (1) expansion of the macromolecular tool kit for studying plant cell division; (2) experiments in which the roles played by plant cell cycle regulators were to be cast in the light of the emerging yeast and animal cell paradigm for molecular control of the mitotic cycle. The first objectives were accomplished to a very satisfactory degree. With regard to the second part of the project, we were driven to change our objectives for two reasons. First, the families of cell cycle control genes that we cloned encoded such closely related members that the prospects for success at raising distinguishing antisera against each were sufficiently dubious as to be impractical. Epitope tagging is not feasible in Pisum sativum, our experimental system, as this species is not realistically transformable. Therefore, differentiating the roles of diverse cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases was problematic. Secondly, our procedure for generating mitotically synchronized pea root meristems for biochemical studies was far too labor intensive for the proposed experiments. We therefore shifted our objectives to identifying connections between the conserved proteins of the cell cycle engine and factors that interface it with plant physiology and development. In this, we have obtained some very exciting results.

  13. Power plant material characterization by lasers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The EPRI Nuclear Division undertook examination of the feasibility of utilizing lasers to perform in situ operations within power plants in 1983. The Nd- Yag laser was of particular interest because flexible fiber optics cabling could be utilized for beam transport; the end effectors could be made small enough to access power plant components remotely. Beam management for welding and metal conditioning in confined spaces; the first issue examined, lead to the application for steam generator repairs that is now in common usage. This report examines the laser beam as a source of information about the material property condition; an application made feasible by advances in fiber and laser technology that were achieved beginning in 1989. This work, examines the prospects for determination of material condition properties within power plants because the laser beam can be utilized for sampling and as a source of optical, thermal, ultrasonic, spectrographic and mensuration data that may be obtained nondestructively. Both application evaluations and feasibility testing is described.

  14. Population Processes and Plant Virus Evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of studies detailing levels of sequence diversity within plant virus populations are growing at a rapid pace. At the same time, recent work has provided empirical estimates of parameters important in the life cycle of plant viruses, which in turn can help in understanding observed pattern...

  15. Enhancing Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' Plant Processes Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephen L.; Lotter, Christine; Fann, Xumei; Taylor, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Researchers examined how an inquiry-based instructional treatment emphasizing interrelated plant processes influenced 210 elementary pre-service teachers' (PTs) conceptions of three plant processes, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and transpiration, and the interrelated nature of these processes. The instructional treatment required PTs to…

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    SciTech Connect

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  17. Laboratory testing of RESOX/sup TM/ Process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, P.; Gutterman, C.

    1980-11-01

    Foster Wheeler Development Corporation addressed the task of further broadening the application of the RESOX process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The major effort, to date, had been concentrated on treating the off-gas from one specific front-end SO'' concentrator process - the Bergbau-Forschung dry adsorption system. By selecting two other concentrator processes, which furnish differing inlet compositions, and coupling these to coals with differing characteristics, the scope and flexibility of the RESOX process was evaluated. The front-end concentrator processes which were chosen are the Wellman-Lord (WL) and Chemico-Basic (CB); both are regenerative and employ wet scrubbing. WL is based on the chemistry of the sodium sulfite/bisulfite system, which can absorb and free SO/sub 2/. CB accomplishes the same function with the magnesium oxide/sulfite system. WL can concentrate the SO/sub 2/ to 85 to vol % while CB currently utilizes a direct fired calciner, which limits the SO/sub 2/ concentration to approximately 13%. Each front-end process was studied and adapted to the RESOX process. Each was then coupled to three different coals, selected as reductants through a preliminary screening procedure, for a series of tests at FWDC's 1200 aft/sup 3//h pilot plant. The coals chosen had ASTM rankings of Anthracite, High-Volatile C Bituminous, and Subbituminous A. The maximum sulfur yield realized within a series varied from 68.1 to 85.2%. The program demonstrated the ability of the RESOX process to handle a broader range of reducing agents and front-end gas compositions than heretofore tested. For each front-end process, a sulfur yield of approximately 80 wt % of the quantity available from its gas composition was realized with at least one of the reductants tested.

  18. LPG-recovery processes for baseload LNG plants examined

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, C.H.

    1997-11-24

    With demand on the rise, LPG produced from a baseload LNG plant becomes more attractive as a revenue-earning product similar to LNG. Efficient use of gas expanders in baseload LNG plants for LPG production therefore becomes more important. Several process variations for LPG recovery in baseload LNG plants are reviewed here. Exergy analysis (based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics) is applied to three cases to compare energy efficiency resulting from integration with the main liquefaction process. The paper discusses extraction in a baseload plant, extraction requirements, process recovery parameters, extraction process variations, and exergy analysis.

  19. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler

  20. [Develop Hydrodyne process for tenderizing meat]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-06-17

    The equipment to tenderize meat by immersing the meat in water in which a small amount of high explosive is detonated has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The plant in which it will be installed will be completed in July, and the installed equipment will be available for further testing in August. Tender Wave Inc. is constructing the plant. The equipment will be loaned to Tender Wave who will be responsible for its installation and operation. Hydrodyne will have use of the plant for the purpose of doing a complete evaluation of the operating equipment, and for further experiments to determine the effects of the Hydrodyne Process on various meats, and to determine the times and materials required to produce an acceptable product with Hydrodyne Process. The design of the equipment was changed from our first concept because of the failure of hydraulic shock resulting from the explosion. The new changed design meets the design criteria, and is superior to the previous design in that it completely contains the water plume resulting from the explosion. The explosive test of the assembled equipment was a complete success. It appears that less explosive will be required for the desired result than previously estimated. The cost of the new design was considerably more than estimated for the original design. Work has commenced on the building in which the equipment is to be installed near Roanoke, Virginia. The end of July is the projected completion date. The equipment will be shipped the end of June from Alameda, CA to Roanoke VA.

  1. Plant species used in traditional smallholder dairy processing in East Shoa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Hailemariam; Lemma, A

    2011-04-01

    Plant species used in traditional dairy processing were studied in three districts (Bosset, Ada, and Gimbichu) in Eastern Shoa, Ethiopia, from October 2007 to March 2008. A total of 300 smallholders were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires, and three focus group discussions were conducted, followed by plants specimen collection and identification. A total of 36 plant species, falling under 24 plant families, were identified. Nearly half of the identified plant species had more than one use types. Eleven plant species were/are used for washing (scrubbing) dairy utensils, ten plant species for smoking dairy utensils, 12 plant species in butter making, 15 plant species in ghee making, and five plant species for packaging (wrapping) butter and cheese. The plant species that had the highest overall citations from each use category were Ocimum hardiense, Olea europaea subspecies africana, Trachyspermum copticum, Curcuma longa, and Croton macrostachyus. The plant species used in the three study districts, representing different agro ecologies, showed some similarities, but levels of uses differed significantly (P < 0.05). Higher informant citations might indicate their better efficacy, however need to be further investigated to determine their effects on milk and milk product quality and to make sure that they are innocuous to human and animal health. Finally, as the present study tried to document natural products used in traditional dairy processing, it could be considered as part of the global efforts aimed at promoting organic food production.

  2. Trimode optimizes hybrid power plants. Final report: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, G.A.; O`Sullivan, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    In the Phase 2 project, Abacus Controls Inc. did research and development of hybrid systems that combine the energy sources from photovoltaics, batteries, and diesel-generators and demonstrated that they are economically feasible for small power plants in many parts of the world. The Trimode Power Processor reduces the fuel consumption of the diesel-generator to its minimum by presenting itself as the perfect electrical load to the generator. A 30-kW three-phase unit was tested at Sandia National Laboratories to prove its worthiness in actual field conditions. The use of photovoltaics at remote locations where reliability of supply requires a diesel-generator will lower costs to operate by reducing the run time of the diesel generator. The numerous benefits include longer times between maintenance for the diesel engine and better power quality from the generator. 32 figs.

  3. Small-scale alcohol fuel plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzcharles, III, H M

    1983-01-01

    The objective to decrease the cost of distillation by the use of solar heat and a vacuum system combined was achieved. My original design of a single pot type still was altered during construction by dividing the distillation tank into three sections with a condenser coil after each section so that 160+ proof alcohol can be acquired without extensive reflux. However, some reflux will still be necessary to extract the most alcohol possible from the mash. This proto-type still could be reproduced for use as an On the Farm Plant if the components are size matched and the modifications are incorporated as I have outlined in Conclusions and Recommendations on page No. 4 of this report.

  4. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  5. Energy conservation study on Simplot potato processing plant, Heyburn, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an energy study done at the Simplot potato processing plant in Heyburn, Idaho. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant but does not address specific modifications to process equipment. The plant receives raw potatoes and produces a mixture of pre-fried and frozen potato products including french fries and pre-formed patties, a dehydrated frozen product, starch, and processes and ships raw potatoes. The plant also contains a box line that makes cardboard cartons for all Simplot plants. The plant contains all necessary equipment and processes to produce a finished product and has long-term cold storage. 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Treatment of plant-process waste at the Dodewaard (Netherlands) nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, J.; Nissen, W. H. M.

    Methods to treat plant-process waste from a boiling-water reactor (liquid and solid materials) are described. Methods to dispose of this waste include solidification of the liquid waste, and packaging and compression of the solid waste to reduce the final waste volume. A procedure to pack the waste in containers by remote control in a so-called concreting train was developed. The effective dose equivalent for the employees involved remains low. High-level activated waste is also dealt with in lead containers (200 liters) placed inside standard concrete containers. Measurements, combined with calculations, resulted in an optimization of the package procedure; the results are demonstrated by comparison of the data from two treatment courses.

  7. Leach testing of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant final waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of pellets and highly durable glasses prepared from nonradioactive-simulated high-level wasste calcines have been leach tested. The leach tests are patterned on the IAEA standard test and the proposed Materials Characterization Center tests. Most tests are made with static distilled water at 25, 70, 95, 250, and 350/sup 0/C and in refluxing distilled water, Soxhlet, at 95/sup 0/C. Leach rates are determined by analyzing the leachate by instrumental activation analysis or spectrochemical analysis and from weight loss. Leaches are run on glass using cast and core drilled cylinders, broken pieces and coarse ground material. Sample form has a considerable effect on leach rates; solid pieces gave higher leach rates than ground glass when expressed in g/cm/sup 2//day. Cesium, molybdenum and weight loss leach rates of cast glass cylinders in distilled water varied from <10/sup -7/ g/cm/sup 7//day at 25/sup 0/C to approx. 10/sup -3/ g/cm/sup 2//day at 250/sup 0/C. The leach rates in static distilled water at 95/sup 0/C were considerably lower than those in refluxing distilled water, Soxhlet, at the same temperature. Even at 25/sup 0/C, sodium, cesium, and molybdenum readily leached from the porous pellets, but the pellets showed no visible attack, even at 250/sup 0/C.

  8. Environmental assessment of advanced thin film manufacturing process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.W.; Mopas, E.; Skinner, D.; McGuire, L.; Strehlow, M.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes work performed by BP Solar, Inc., to provide an extensive preproduction analysis of waste-stream abatement at its plant in Fairfield, California. During the study, numerous technologies were thoroughly evaluated, which allowed BP Solar to select systems that outperformed the stringent federal and state regulations. The main issues were originally perceived to be controlling cadmium compound releases to both air and wastewater to acceptable levels and adopting technologies for air and water waste streams in an efficient, cost-effective manner. BP Solar proposed high-efficiency, reliable control equipment that would reduce air-contaminant emission levels below levels of concern. Cadmium telluride dust is successfully controlled with high-efficiency (>99.9%) bag-in/bag-out filters. For air abatement, carbon canisters provide efficient VOC reduction, and wastewater pretreatment is required per federal pretreatment standards. BP Solar installed a cadmium-scavenging ion exchange system and electrowinning system capable of removing cadmium to <10 ppb (local publicly-owned-treatment-works limits for cadmium is 30 ppb). BP Solar plans to maximize potential reuse of rinse waters by phasing in additional wastewater treatment technologies. Finally, the work to date has identified the areas that need to be revisited as production scales up to ensure that all health, safety, and environmental goals are met.

  9. BACA Project: geothermal demonstration power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The various activities that have been conducted by Union in the Redondo Creek area while attempting to develop the resource for a 50 MW power plant are described. The results of the geologic work, drilling activities and reservoir studies are summarized. In addition, sections discussing the historical costs for Union's involvement with the project, production engineering (for anticipated surface equipment), and environmental work are included. Nineteen geothermal wells have been drilled in the Redondo Creek area of the Valles Caldera: a prominent geologic feature of the Jemez mountains consisting of Pliocene and Pleistocene age volcanics. The Redondo Creek area is within a complex longitudinal graben on the northwest flank of the resurgent structural dome of Redondo Peak and Redondo Border. The major graben faults, with associated fracturing, are geologically plausible candidates for permeable and productive zones in the reservoir. The distribution of such permeable zones is too erratic and the locations too imprecisely known to offer an attractive drilling target. Log analysis indicates there is a preferred mean fracture strike of N31W in the upper portion of Redondo Creek wells. This is approximately perpendicular to the major structure in the area, the northeast-striking Redondo Creek graben. The geothermal fluid found in the Redondo Creek reservoir is relatively benign with low brine concentrations and moderate H/sub 2/S concentrations. Geothermometer calculations indicate that the reservoir temperature generally lies between 500/sup 0/F and 600/sup 0/F, with near wellbore flashing occurring during the majority of the wells' production.

  10. On-farm US irrigation pumping plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilley, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    Over 473,000 on-farm pumping plants are being used to pump and deliver irrigation water in the United States. The distribution of these units by geographic regions and potential wind power zones was determined. Over 60 percent of the pumping units in the US are smaller than 37.3 kW (50 horsepower) in size and only 9.4 percent of the units are larger than 74.6 kW in size (100 horsepower). Over 49 percent of these pumps (231,440) are located in the six Great Plains States of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas. This area also has the largest potential wind power in the US during the primary irrigation season. Over 51 percent of the pumping units are located in wind zones having a potential average wind power greater than 250 W/m/sup 2/ at an elevation of 50 meters. However, only 6.5 percent of the units are located in the largest potential average wind power zone (> 400 W/m/sup 2/ at 50 meters). In general, those areas which have greater potential wind power, have larger sized pumping units.

  11. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arend, C.

    1995-12-31

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  12. 3. VIEW OF THE PROCESSING PLANT TO THE WEST. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF THE PROCESSING PLANT TO THE WEST. THE PROCESSING PLANT IS LEFT CENTER. THE BLACKSMITH/MINE CAR REPAIR SHOP AND PARTS/SUPPLIES BUILDINGS ARE RIGHT CENTER. - Smith Mine, Bear Creek 1.5 miles West of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  13. Management of plant health risks associated with processing of plant-based wastes: a review.

    PubMed

    Noble, R; Elphinstone, J G; Sansford, C E; Budge, G E; Henry, C M

    2009-07-01

    The rise in international trade of plants and plant products has increased the risk of introduction and spread of plant pathogens and pests. In addition, new risks are arising from the implementation of more environmentally friendly methods of biodegradable waste disposal, such as composting and anaerobic digestion. As these disposal methods do not involve sterilisation, there is good evidence that certain plant pathogens and pests can survive these processes. The temperature/time profile of the disposal process is the most significant and easily defined factor in controlling plant pathogens and pests. In this review, the current evidence for temperature/time effects on plant pathogens and pests is summarised. The advantages and disadvantages of direct and indirect process validation for the verification of composting processes, to determine their efficacy in destroying plant pathogens and pests in biowaste, are discussed. The availability of detection technology and its appropriateness for assessing the survival of quarantine organisms is also reviewed. PMID:19329302

  14. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Selection of plants for sampling program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, J.N.

    1988-03-01

    This report is one of a series of reports in the EPRI Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) program. This study was performed to provide the selection basis for plants to be included in the BRC sampling program. This final report describes the evaluations performed using 10CFR61 data and current fuel performance data to identify those plants with larger quantities of tramp or exposed fuel and correspondingly higher transuranic levels in the plant waste streams. Plants were ranked from the highest level to the lowest level of exposed or tramp fuel in the core. 10 tabs.

  15. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  16. Pathogenic amoebae in power-plant cooling lakes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-06-01

    Cooling waters and associated algae and sediments from four northern and four southern/western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. Unheated control waters and algae/sediments from four northern and five southern/western sites were also tested. When comparing results from the test versus control sites, a significantly higher proportion (P less than or equal to 0.05) of the samples from the test sites were positive for thermophilic amoeba, thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic Naegleria. The difference in number of samples positive for thermophilic Naegleria between heated and unheated waters, however, was attributable predominantly to the northern waters and algae/sediments. While two of four northern test sites yielded pathogenic Naegleria, seven of the eight isolates were obtained from one site. Seasonality effects relative to the isolation of the pathogen were also noted at this site. One pathogen was isolated from a southwestern test site. Pathogens were not isolated from any control sites. Some of the pathogenic isolates were analyzed serologically and classified as pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Salinity, pH, conductivity, and bacteriological profiles did not obviously correlate with the presence or absence of pathogenic Naegleria. While thermal addition was significantly associated with the presence of thermophilic Naegleria (P less than or equal to 0.05), the data implicate other as yet undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic thermophile. Until further delineation of these parameters is effected, generalizations cannot be made concerning the effect of thermal impact on the growth of pathogenic amoeba in a particular cooling system.

  17. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  18. The Independent Technical Analysis Process Final Report 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey; Ham, Kenneth; Dauble, Dennis; Johnson, Gary

    2007-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical analytical support for system-wide fish passage information (BPA Project No. 2006-010-00). The goal of this project was to produce rigorous technical analysis products using independent analysts and anonymous peer reviewers. This project provided an independent technical source for non-routine fish passage analyses while allowing routine support functions to be performed by other well-qualified entities. The Independent Technical Analysis Process (ITAP) was created to provide non-routine analysis for fish and wildlife agencies and tribes in particular and the public in general on matters related to juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage through the mainstem hydrosystem. The process was designed to maintain the independence of analysts and reviewers from parties requesting analyses, to avoid potential bias in technical products. The objectives identified for this project were to administer a rigorous, transparent process to deliver unbiased technical assistance necessary to coordinate recommendations for storage reservoir and river operations that avoid potential conflicts between anadromous and resident fish. Seven work elements, designated by numbered categories in the Pisces project tracking system, were created to define and accomplish project goals as follows: (1) 118 Coordination - Coordinate technical analysis and review process: (a) Retain expertise for analyst/reviewer roles. (b) Draft research directives. (c) Send directive to the analyst. (d) Coordinate two independent reviews of the draft report. (e) Ensure reviewer comments are addressed within the final report. (2) 162 Analyze/Interpret Data - Implement the independent aspects of the project. (3) 122 Provide Technical Review - Implement the review process for the analysts. (4) 132 Produce Annual Report - FY06 annual progress report with Pisces Disseminate (5) 161

  19. Reducing the chlorine dioxide demand in final disinfection of drinking water treatment plants using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Crotti, Barbara Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests was performed at the laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests was performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30 min after ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, mesoporous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and UV absorbance at wavelength 254 nm using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral mesoporous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP.

  20. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  1. A method of processing biodegradable organic materials: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-06

    Leprino Food's cheese plant (Waverly, NY) produces wastes, and a pilot plant was constructed for producing fuel gas from this. The pilot plant studies were terminated on December 23, 1987, after 14 months of operation. Numerous problems were identified. Solutions to most of the problems have been found. The effects of carbon dioxide were studied.

  2. Microwave processing of Tantalum capacitors. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Vierow, W.F.

    1998-03-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and AVX Tantalum Corporation (AVX) of Biddeford, Maine, was initiated in October 1991. [Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. (LMER) has replaced LMES]. The completion date for the Agreement was March 1996. The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of an advanced microwave processing concept to develop higher capacitance tantalum anodes. Tantalum capacitors are used where high reliability is needed (e.g., pacemakers, hearing aids, and military devices). Two types of tantalum powder are used: sodium-reduced powder and electron beam-refined powder. Sodium-reduced powder has higher surface area, but lower purity; electron beam-refined powder has higher purity for working voltages, but somewhat lower surface area. The powder is pressed into pellets using traditional methods and then placed in the microwave furnace for processing. It is of interest to determine if variable-frequency microwave sintering can increase quality while decreasing processing time and decreasing or eliminating surface contamination; these issues must be addressed while retaining the maximum surface area of the anode. Meeting each of these needs will result in a higher quality anodic film, which will thereby increase the dielectric strength. Additionally, microwave sintering might enable the authors to develop a strong sintered anode without excessive grain growth. The variable-frequency microwave furnace (VFMF), located at the Y-12 Plant, allows the authors to study the effects of sintering over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT), originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies.

  3. Factors Affecting Location Decisions of Food Processing Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turhan, Sule; Canan Ozbag, Basak; Cetin, Bahattin

    The main aim of this study is to examine the determinants of location choices for food processing plants using the results of 59 personal surveys. The 61.3% of the food processing plants that were interviewed are small scale plants, 9.1% are large scale plants and 29.6% are medium scale plants. Sixteen of the firms process vegetables, 12 process poultry, 12 process dairy and 9 process seafood products. Business climate factors are divided into six categories (market, infrastructure, raw material, labor, personal and environmental) and 17 specific location factors are considered. The survey responses are analyzed by types of raw materials processed and by plant size. 43.7, 55.3 and 42.2% of the respondents cited categories of Market, Raw Material and Infrastructure respectively as important, while 44.3, 50.7 and 74.4% of the respondents cited, labor, personal and environmental regulation categories of as not important. Thus survey findings indicate that plant location choices are mainly driven by market, raw material and infra structural factors. Environmental factors such as environmental regulations and permissions are relatively insignificant.

  4. Process monitoring for reprocessing plant safeguards: a summary review

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.T.; Ehinger, M.H.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.

    1986-10-01

    Process monitoring is a term typically associated with a detailed look at plant operating data to determine plant status. Process monitoring has been generally associated with operational control of plant processes. Recently, process monitoring has been given new attention for a possible role in international safeguards. International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) Task C.59 has the goal to identify specific roles for process monitoring in international safeguards. As the preliminary effort associated with this task, a review of previous efforts in process monitoring for safeguards was conducted. Previous efforts mentioned concepts and a few specific applications. None were comprehensive in addressing all aspects of a process monitoring application for safeguards. This report summarizes the basic elements that must be developed in a comprehensive process monitoring application for safeguards. It then summarizes the significant efforts that have been documented in the literature with respect to the basic elements that were addressed.

  5. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    PubMed

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Hódar, José A; Sardans, Jordi; Kyle, Jennifer E; Kim, Young-Mo; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Guenther, Alex; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-07-01

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but also the entire metabolome. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are constrained by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from three closely related Pinus species with distant coevolutionary histories with the caterpillar of the processionary moth respond similarly to its attack. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of terpenes were in the attacked trees supporting the hypothesis that herbivores avoid plant individuals with higher concentrations. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution. PMID:27386082

  6. Pelletization process of postproduction plant waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obidziński, S.

    2012-07-01

    The results of investigations on the influence of material, process, and construction parameters on the densification process and density of pellets received from different mixtures of tobacco and fine-grained waste of lemon balm are presented. The conducted research makes it possible to conclude that postproduction waste eg tobacco and lemon balm wastes can be successfully pelletized and used as an ecological, solid fuels.

  7. Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers to extract latex from the sap during experiments to find native North American plant which would yield sufficiently high percentage of latex to produce natural rubber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  8. Energy conservation in small meat, poultry and dairy processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hausen, C.L.; Fields, E.L.; Huff, R.C.

    1983-06-01

    Energy audits were performed in twenty-three small (generally under 50 employees) meat, poultry and dairy processing plants. Energy conservation opportunities with the greatest potential for net gain in a plant are listed and discussed. Relationships between product throughput and energy consumption are reported.

  9. The First Step in the Final Shutdown of UP1 Plant: Rinsing with Chemical Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, J.-P.; Hubert, N.; Huot, M.; Chany, P.; Oriol, C.; Vignau, B.

    2002-02-25

    The COGEMA UP1 reprocessing plant commissioned at Marcoule, France in 1958 handled roughly 20,000 metric tons of fuel from gas-cooled and research reactors. The commercial reprocessing activities of the UP1 plant ended in December 1997. CODEM , a joint venture created by the former users of the UP1 plant, including the utility Electricite de France (EDF), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and COGEMA, was established to fund and supervise decommissioning of the plant. COGEMA was selected as the industrial operator of the decommissioning project, which is scheduled to span a period of about 40 years. COGEMA, with its CODEM partners, had made the decision to proceed to a ''Final Shutdown'' of the plant within a few years after the end of commercial operation. Final shutdown is intended to remove remaining fissile matter and highly radioactive materials, as well as some equipment, from the plant to ease the plant monitoring requirements compared with those applied when the plant was in operation. A two-step approach has been devised, including first the rinsing of the equipment with selected reagents in order to decrease the radiation exposure rate and contamination risk enough to allow further mechanical decontamination operations, such as high-pressure water scrubbing and equipment cutting. The reagents to be used and the methods employed to optimize their use in terms of quantities and sequence of use were selected by leveraging available experience, and by setting up a large-scale R&D program to test reagents both for general decontamination and for hot spots. This program also included treatment of the decontamination waste to demonstrate that this waste could be made compatible with solidification facilities of the UP1 plant, i. e., vitrification in the AVM facility and bituminization. The R&D results are described, as well as the initial results of plant decontamination.

  10. 51. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, WITH SHELL OIL COMPANY BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, WITH SHELL OIL COMPANY BUILDINGS IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. PREPARATION OF U-PLANT FOR FINAL DEMOLITION AND DISPOSAL - 12109E

    SciTech Connect

    FARABEE OA; HERZOG B; CAMERON C

    2012-02-16

    The U-Plant is one of the five major nuclear materials processing facilities at Hanford and was chosen as a pilot project to develop the modalities for closure of the other four facilities at Hanford and the rest of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The remedy for this facility was determined by a Record of Decision (ROD) pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). That remedy was to 'Close in Place - Partially Demolished Structure'. The U-Plant facility is identified as the 221-U Building and is a large, concrete structure nominally 247m (810 ft) long, 20 M (66 ft) wide and 24 m (77 ft) high with approximately 9 m (30 ft) being below grade level. It is a robust facility with walls ranging from 0.9 m to 2.7 m (3 ft to 9 ft) thick. One large room extends the entire length of the building that provides access to 40 sub-grade processing cells containing tanks, piping and other components. The work breakdown was divided into three major deliverables: (1) Tank D-10 Removal: removal of Tank D-10, which contained TRU waste; (2) Equipment Disposition: placement of contaminated equipment in the sub-grade cells; and (3) Canyon Grouting: grouting canyon void spaces to the maximum extent practical. A large number of pieces of contaminated equipment (pumps, piping, centrifuges, tanks, etc) from other facilities that had been stored on the canyon operating floor were placed inside of the sub-grade cells as final disposition, grouted and the cell shield plug reinstalled. This action precluded a large volume of waste being transported to another burial site. Finally, {approx}19,000 m3 ({approx}25,000 yd3) of grout was placed inside of the cells (in and around the contaminated equipment), in the major galleries. the ventilation tunnel, the external ventilation duct, and the hot pipe trench to minimize the potential for void spaces and to reduce the mobility, solubility, and/or toxicity of the grouted waste. The

  13. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  14. Modelling production processes in a vehicle recycling plant.

    PubMed

    Simic, Vladimir; Dimitrijevic, Branka

    2012-09-01

    The European Directive on end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) fundamentally changed the business philosophy of the European vehicle recycling system, which was exclusively profit-oriented. As the dominant participants of this system, vehicle recycling plants (VRPs) are especially affected by its implementation. For VRPs to successfully respond to the prescribed eco-efficiency quotas, investment will be needed to procure modern sorting equipment as well as to achieve full transformation of their production process. However, before VRPs decide to make this very important investment decision, it is necessary to determine the adequacy of such a decision in detail. Consequently, the following questions become unavoidable: Can modernly equipped VRPs conduct profitable business? Are eco-efficiency quotas actually attainable? How will the new changes in vehicle design influence VRPs? To provide answers to these essential questions, a production planning model of a modernly equipped VRP was first developed and then tested extensively using real data. Based on the answers provided by the proposed model testing analysis it was concluded that VRP transformation is not only necessary but completely justified and that the final success of the ELV Directive is realistic.

  15. Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, M.C.; Goering, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.

  16. Direct application of West Coast geothermal resources in a wet-corn-milling plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The engineering and economic feasibility of using the geothermal resources in East Mesa, California, in a new corn processing plant is evaluated. Institutional barriers were also identified and evaluated. Several alternative plant designs which used geothermal energy were developed. A capital cost estimate and rate of return type of economic analysis were performed to evaluate each alternative. (MHR)

  17. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritterbusch, Stanley; Golay, Michael; Duran, Felicia; Galyean, William; Gupta, Abhinav; Dimitrijevic, Vesna; Malsch, Marty

    2003-01-29

    OAK B188 Summary of methods proposed for risk informing the design and regulation of future nuclear power plants. All elements of the historical design and regulation process are preserved, but the methods proposed for new plants use probabilistic risk assessment methods as the primary decision making tool.

  18. H-Coal process and plant design

    DOEpatents

    Kydd, Paul H.; Chervenak, Michael C.; DeVaux, George R.

    1983-01-01

    A process for converting coal and other hydrocarbonaceous materials into useful and more valuable liquid products. The process comprises: feeding coal and/or other hydrocarbonaceous materials with a hydrogen-containing gas into an ebullated catalyst bed reactor; passing the reaction products from the reactor to a hot separator where the vaporous and distillate products are separated from the residuals; introducing the vaporous and distillate products from the separator directly into a hydrotreater where they are further hydrogenated; passing the residuals from the separator successively through flash vessels at reduced pressures where distillates are flashed off and combined with the vaporous and distillate products to be hydrogenated; transferring the unseparated residuals to a solids concentrating and removal means to remove a substantial portion of solids therefrom and recycling the remaining residual oil to the reactor; and passing the hydrogenated vaporous and distillate products to an atmospheric fractionator where the combined products are fractionated into separate valuable liquid products. The hydrogen-containing gas is generated from sources within the process.

  19. Development of simplified process for environmentally resistant cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.J.

    1980-12-01

    A program to develop a simple, foolproof, all-vacuum solar cell manufacturing process which can be completely automated and which results in medium efficiency cells which are inherently environmentally resistant is described. All components of the completed cells are integrated into a monolithic structure with no material interfaces. The exposed materials (Si, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Al, Ni) are all resistant to atmospheric attack and the junction, per se, is passivated to prevent long term degradation. Such cells are intended to be incorporated into a simple module consisting basically of a press-formed metallic superstructure with a separated glass cover for missile, etc., protection. A 5 cm x 5 cm test cell configuration was designed in which the various efficiency loss factors were adjusted to yield a 10% AMI cell. Each of the cell elements was individually optimized for combination with the others. The basic cell consists of alloyed front (Al) and back (Ag plus Ni) contacts, a multi-purpose (AR, hermetic seal, implantation oxide) front surface coating of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and an implanted front junction. Implantation damage annealing and contact alloying are carried out in a simple one step thermal treatment at 870/sup 0/C using a resistance heated furnace in vacuum. The use of non-analyzed and semi-analyzed beams for fabricating these cells was developed by KCI. A final lot of 50 cells made using the semi-analyzed beam method had an average efficiency of 10.4% at AMI (28 +- 1/sup 0/C). An economic analysis predicts a manufacturing cost of $.45/peak-watt for these cells using a one machine automatic method.

  20. Process energy efficiency improvement in Wisconsin cheese plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zehr, S.; Mitchell, J.; Reinemann, D.; Klein, S.; Reindl, D.

    1997-07-01

    Costs for the energy involved in cheese making has a major impact on profit. Although industrial cheese plants differ in size, production equipment, and the manner in which whey is processed, there are common elements in most plants. This paper evaluates several process integration opportunities at two representative cheese plants in Wisconsin. Pinch analysis is used to help assess the heat recovery potential for the major thermal processes in the plants. The potential of using packaged cheese as a thermal storage medium to allow electrical demand shifting in the cold storage warehouse is evaluated and shown to be feasible. Three major conservation measures are identified with a total cost savings of $130,000 to $160,000 annually.

  1. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    took the initial steam reforming plate-reactor concept and advanced it towards an integrated fuel processing system. A substantial amount of modeling was performed to guide the catalyst development and prototype hardware design and fabrication efforts. The plate-reactor mechanical design was studied in detail to establish design guidelines which would help the plate reactor survive the stresses of repeated thermal cycles (from start-ups and shut-downs). Integrated system performance modeling was performed to predict system efficiencies and determine the parameters with the most significant impact on efficiency. In conjunction with the modeling effort, a significant effort was directed towards catalyst development. CESI developed a highly active, sulfur tolerant, coke resistant, precious metal based reforming catalyst. CESI also developed its own non-precious metal based water-gas shift catalyst and demonstrated the catalysts durability over several thousands of hours of testing. CESI also developed a unique preferential oxidation catalyst capable of reducing 1% CO to < 10 ppm CO over a 35 C operating window through a single pass plate-based reactor. Finally, CESI combined the modeling results and steam reforming catalyst development efforts into prototype hardware. The first generation 3kW(e) prototype was fabricated from existing heat-exchanger plates to expedite the fabrication process. This prototype demonstrated steady state operation ranging from 5 to 100% load conditions. The prototype also demonstrated a 20:1 turndown ratio, 10:1 load transient operation and rapid start-up capability.

  2. Situation awareness acquired from monitoring process plants - the Process Overview concept and measure.

    PubMed

    Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd

    2016-07-01

    We introduce Process Overview, a situation awareness characterisation of the knowledge derived from monitoring process plants. Process Overview is based on observational studies of process control work in the literature. The characterisation is applied to develop a query-based measure called the Process Overview Measure. The goal of the measure is to improve coupling between situation and awareness according to process plant properties and operator cognitive work. A companion article presents the empirical evaluation of the Process Overview Measure in a realistic process control setting. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated sensitivity and validity by revealing significant effects of experimental manipulations that corroborated with other empirical results. The measure also demonstrated adequate inter-rater reliability and practicality for measuring SA based on data collected by process experts. Practitioner Summary: The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure for assessing operator situation awareness from monitoring process plants in representative settings.

  3. Planting northern red oak acorns: Is size and planting depth important. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.; Walters, R.S.

    1994-10-27

    A study was conducted in northern Pennsylvania to determine whether predation by small mammals and insects is related to the size of red oak acorns. Three sizes of acorns were used along with two planting techniques and three levels of overstory shading. Three-year results indicated that acorn size is not a factor in mammal and insect predation. Acorn size did not affect 3-year survival. Although 3-year total height growth was statistically different after 3 years, the differences were too small for practical use.

  4. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act. Workship on plant growth: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    There are signals that coordinate the development of various plant parts and thus the rates of enlargement of various plant parts and these were explored during the workshop. The participants tried to systematize their knowledge and identify over-arching concepts that need more investigation. It was generally agreed that the cell wall cannot be viewed as a passive plastic material. Synthesis and deposition take place and cause changes in the molecular architecture of the wall. Questions arise from the fact that the wall is not a constant or uniform structure but undergoes highly organized changes during enlargement while bearing a considerable load. Recent advances in signaling, biochemical analysis and ultrastructure visualization are beginning to relate to the molecular load-bearing and enzymatic activities in the wall. The participants agreed that there probably is enough information to begin developing a comprehensive model that would balance wall effects with the limitation of growth by transport, especially for water, and this could help clarify events occurring at different time scales and places. Beyond that, there seems to be a need to resolve problems of solute transport and wall behavior that are poorly understood in growing regions, leaving many promising areas for future experiments. Understanding each balancing act seems to be just the beginning.

  5. Milk Processing Plant Employee. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaschke, Nolan; Page, Foy

    This course of study is designed for the vocational agricultural student enrolled in an agricultural cooperative part-time training program in the area of milk processing occupations. The course consists of 11 units, each with 4 to 13 individual topics that milk processing plant employees should know. Subjects covered by the units are the…

  6. SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Catalytic. System design final report. Volume 2. Preliminary pilot plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The preliminary design of a solar water desalination pilot plant is presented. Pilot plant drawings and process descriptions are provided. Use of solar and wind energy are discussed. Testing, performance and cost of the pilot plant are studied. (BCS)

  7. Workshop on stems and trunks in plant form and function. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gartner, B.L.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the final report on the workshop on stems and trunks in plant form and function relating to DOE grant DE-FG06-93ER20128 which took place at Oregon State University in February 1994. The resulting book is organized into four sections and a synthesis: roles of stem architecture in plant performance, roles of stems in transport and storage of water, roles of live stem cells in plant performance, and the roles of stems in preventing or reacting to response to plant injury. The synthesis stemmed from debated and discussion by the authors and a few dozen other workshop participants. The authors cover many stem functions, although the list is not exhaustive, and the focus is on terrestrial woody tree stems, primarily of temperate and boreal zones. More research on trunks, branches and twigs is important for a baseline understanding of plant biology. In the face of anticipated human-caused changes to most environments, we need not only have a baseline understanding of whole-plant biology, but also predictive capabilities for how plants will react to perturbations.

  8. The shielding design process--new plants to decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Graham; Cooper, Andrew; Hobson, John

    2005-01-01

    BNFL have over 25 years experience of designing nuclear plant for the whole-fuel cycle. In the UK, a Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is to be set up to ensure that Britain's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely and cost effectively. The resulting challenges and opportunities for shielding design will be substantial as the shielding design process was originally devised for the design of new plants. Although its underlying principles are equally applicable to decommissioning and remediation of old plants, there are many aspects of detailed application that need to adapt to this radically different operating environment. The paper describes both the common issues and the different challenges of shielding design at different operational phases. Sample applications will be presented of both new plant and decommissioning projects that illustrate not only the robust nature of the processes being used, but also how they lead to cost-effective solutions making a substantive and appropriate contribution to radiological protection goals. PMID:16604700

  9. Radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables and aromatic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, M. J.; Sousa, M. B.; Sapata, M. M.; Ferreira, A.; Curado, T.; Andrada, L.; Botelho, M. L.; Veloso, M. G.

    2009-07-01

    Vegetables are an essential part of people's diet all around the world. Due to cultivate techniques and handling after harvest, these products, may contain high microbial load that can cause food borne outbreaks. The irradiation of minimally processed vegetables is an efficient way to reduce the level of microorganisms and to inhibit parasites, helping a safe global trade. Evaluation of the irradiation's effects was carried out in minimal processed vegetables, as coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L .), mint ( Mentha spicata L.), parsley ( Petroselinum crispum Mill, (A.W. Hill)), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) and watercress ( Nasturium officinale L.). The inactivation level of natural microbiota and the D 10 values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua in these products were determined. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics before and after irradiation at a range of 0.5 up to 2.0 kGy applied doses were also evaluated. No differences were verified in the overall of sensorial and physical properties after irradiation up to 1 kGy, a decrease of natural microbiota was noticed (⩾2 log). Based on the determined D10, the amount of radiation necessary to kill 10 5E. coli and L. innocua was between 0.70 and 1.55 kGy. Shelf life of irradiated coriander, mint and lettuce at 0.5 kGy increased 2, 3 and 4 days, respectively, when compared with non-irradiated.

  10. B Plant, TK-21-1, analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, L.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-09

    This document is the final laboratory report for B Plant Tk-21-1. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sample was taken from Tk-21 -1 September 26, 1996. This sample was received at 222-S Analytical Laboratory on September 27, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the accompanying Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) and Letter of Instruction B PLANT RCRA SAMPLES TO 222S LABORATORY, LETTER OF INSTRUCTION (LOI) 2B-96-LOI-012-01 (LOI) (Westra, 1996). LOI was issued subsequent to RSA and replaces Letter of Instruction 2C-96-LOI-004-01 referenced in RSA.

  11. Effect of Thermal and Nonthermal Processing on Textural Quality of Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Kumar; Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi; Shanmugam, Nadanasabapathi

    2016-12-01

    In the current fast revolving world, the consumption of processed food is increasing drastically. The population who depend on these processed foods are also cautious about the quality and safety of what they consume. This being the case, in order to satisfy the consumer it is the responsibility of the researcher and the manufacturer to check what happens to food on processing. Plant-derived foods such as fruits and vegetables are sensitive producers which are to be handled cautiously through each steps involved in processing, starting from harvest to storage, processing to package, transportation to distribution, till it reaches the consumer. During processing, the plant materials, which are made up of complex structural components such as lignin, cellulose, pectin, etc. undergo changes which has its effect on the quality attributes of the final product. Texture is an important quality parameter of all the sensory properties. The relation between the structure of the plant tissue and the texture of the final product is reviewed in this paper comprehensively. PMID:26046712

  12. Effect of Thermal and Nonthermal Processing on Textural Quality of Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Kumar; Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi; Shanmugam, Nadanasabapathi

    2016-12-01

    In the current fast revolving world, the consumption of processed food is increasing drastically. The population who depend on these processed foods are also cautious about the quality and safety of what they consume. This being the case, in order to satisfy the consumer it is the responsibility of the researcher and the manufacturer to check what happens to food on processing. Plant-derived foods such as fruits and vegetables are sensitive producers which are to be handled cautiously through each steps involved in processing, starting from harvest to storage, processing to package, transportation to distribution, till it reaches the consumer. During processing, the plant materials, which are made up of complex structural components such as lignin, cellulose, pectin, etc. undergo changes which has its effect on the quality attributes of the final product. Texture is an important quality parameter of all the sensory properties. The relation between the structure of the plant tissue and the texture of the final product is reviewed in this paper comprehensively.

  13. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles.

  14. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.A.

    1990-12-31

    Disclosed is a process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: (1) Measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; (2) measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing said plant substance being passed through said environment with said counter; and (3) generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level. Also disclosed is the apparatus and system used to conduct the process.

  15. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: (1) Measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; (2) measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing said plant substance being passed through said environment with said counter; and (3) generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level. Also disclosed is the apparatus and system used to conduct the process.

  16. High-autonomy control of space resource processing plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, Larry C.; Zeigler, Bernard P.; Cellier, Francois E.; Wang, Fei-Yue

    1993-01-01

    A highly autonomous intelligent command/control architecture has been developed for planetary surface base industrial process plants and Space Station Freedom experimental facilities. The architecture makes use of a high-level task-oriented mode with supervisory control from one or several remote sites, and integrates advanced network communications concepts and state-of-the-art man/machine interfaces with the most advanced autonomous intelligent control. Attention is given to the full-dynamics model of a Martian oxygen-production plant, event-based/fuzzy-logic process control, and fault management practices.

  17. High-pressure processing as emergent technology for the extraction of bioactive ingredients from plant materials.

    PubMed

    Jun, Xi

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure processing is a food processing technique that has shown great potentials in the food industry. Recently, it was developed to extract bioactive ingredients from plant materials, known as ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE), taking advantages of time saving, higher extraction yields, fewer impurities in the extraction solution, minimal heat and can avoid thermal degradation on the activity and structure of bioactive components, and so on. This review provides an overview of the developments in the UPE of bioactive ingredients from plant material. Apart from a brief presentation of the theories of UPE and extraction equipment systems, the principal parameters that influence the extraction efficiency to be optimized in the UPE (e.g., solvent, pressure, temperature, extraction time, and the number of cycle) were discussed in detail, and finally the more recent applications of UPE for the extraction of active compounds from plant materials were summarized.

  18. Genes and processed paralogs co-exist in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Argelia; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Jahren, Anne Hoppe

    2012-04-01

    RNA-mediated gene duplication has been proposed to create processed paralogs in the plant mitochondrial genome. A processed paralog may retain signatures left by the maturation process of its RNA precursor, such as intron removal and no need of RNA editing. Whereas it is well documented that an RNA intermediary is involved in the transfer of mitochondrial genes to the nucleus, no direct evidence exists for insertion of processed paralogs in the mitochondria (i.e., processed and un-processed genes have never been found simultaneously in the mitochondrial genome). In this study, we sequenced a region of the mitochondrial gene nad1, and identified a number of taxa were two different copies of the region co-occur in the mitochondria. The two nad1 paralogs differed in their (a) presence or absence of a group II intron, and (b) number of edited sites. Thus, this work provides the first evidence of co-existence of processed paralogs and their precursors within the plant mitochondrial genome. In addition, mapping the presence/absence of the paralogs provides indirect evidence of RNA-mediated gene duplication as an essential process shaping the mitochondrial genome in plants.

  19. Final Focus Shielding Designs for Modern Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R

    2000-07-05

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet, Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-I1 IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  20. Development of a material processing plant for lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettsch, Ulix; Ousterhout, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in developing in-situ materials processing plants for both the Moon and Mars. Two of the most important aspects of developing such a materials processing plant is the overall system design and the integration of the different technologies into a reliable, lightweight, and cost-effective unit. The concept of an autonomous materials processing plant that is capable of producing useful substances from lunar regolith was developed. In order for such a materials processing plant to be considered as a viable option, it must be totally self-contained, able to operate autonomously, cost effective, light weight, and fault tolerant. In order to assess the impact of different technologies on the overall systems design and integration, a one-half scale model was constructed that is capable of scooping up (or digging) lunar soil, transferring the soil to a solar furnace, heating the soil in the furnace to liberate the gasses, and transferring the spent soil to a 'tile' processing center. All aspects of the control system are handled by a 386 class PC via D/A, A/D, and DSP (Digital Signal Processor) control cards.

  1. Constructing wetlands: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a building material in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here the option of dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct 10.000 ha of wetland will soon go under construction. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a six-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling as well as yellowing of foliage. The N:P ratios of plant tissue were low and were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Plant analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose that when building wetlands from these mud deposits Fe-tolerant species are used rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the building material and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  2. Processing experiments on non-Czochralski silicon sheet. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, R.A.; Grenon, L.A.; Sakiotis, N.G.; Pastirik, E.M.; Sparks, T.O.; Legge, R.N.

    1981-04-01

    A program is described which supports and promotes the development of processing techniques which may be successfully and cost-effectively applied to low-cost sheets for solar cell fabrication. Results are reported in the areas of process technology, cell design, cell metallization, and production cost simulation.

  3. Knowledge and Processes in Design. DPS Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirolli, Peter

    Four papers from a project concerning information-processing characterizations of the knowledge and processes involved in design are presented. The project collected and analyzed verbal protocols from instructional designers, architects, and mechanical engineers. A framework was developed for characterizing the problem spaces of design that…

  4. Integrated manufacturing and processing predoctoral fellowships. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Rozzell, Thomas

    1999-10-01

    The first and fourth cohorts of U.S. Department of Energy Integrated Manufacturing and Processing Predoctoral Fellows were supported under this grant for up to three years of study leading to a PhD degree in a field related to integrated manufacturing and processing.

  5. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tintner, J.; Smidt, E.; Boehm, K.; Binner, E.

    2010-10-15

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment.

  6. Native and exotic plants of fragments of sagebrush steppe produced by geomorphic processes versus land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntly, N.; Bangert, R.; Hanser, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and invasion by exotic species are regarded as major threats to the biodiversity of many ecosystems. We surveyed the plant communities of two types of remnant sagebrush-steppe fragments from nearby areas on the Snake River Plain of southeastern Idaho, USA. One type resulted from land use (conversion to dryland agriculture; hereafter AG Islands) and the other from geomorphic processes (Holocene volcanism; hereafter kipukas). We assessed two predictions for the variation in native plant species richness of these fragments, using structural equation models (SEM). First, we predicted that the species richness of native plants would follow the MacArthur-Wilson (M-W) hypothesis of island biogeography, as often is expected for the communities of habitat fragments. Second, we predicted a negative relationship between native and exotic plants, as would be expected if exotic plants are decreasing the diversity of native plants. Finally, we assessed whether exotic species were more strongly associated with the fragments embedded in the agricultural landscape, as would be expected if agriculture had facilitated the introduction and naturalization of non-native species, and whether the communities of the two types of fragments were distinct. Species richness of native plants was not strongly correlated with M-W characteristics for either the AG Islands or the **kipukas. The AG Islands had more species and higher cover of exotics than the kipukas, and exotic plants were good predictors of native plant species richness. Our results support the hypothesis that proximity to agriculture can increase the diversity and abundance of exotic plants in native habitat. In combination with other information, the results also suggest that agriculture and exotic species have caused loss of native diversity and reorganization of the sagebrush-steppe plant community. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Invasive plant ecology and management: Linking processes to practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book brings together 10 chapters from renowned researchers that study how ecosystems operate and how to adopt the principles of ecology to manage invasive plants. This book taps this expertise by seeking to bridge the inherent disconnect between processes operating within ecosystems and the pr...

  8. A Competency-Based Instructional Program for Plant Process Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Joy; Mills, Steven

    This program guide provides materials to prepare learners for employment as Process Plant Operators through classroom instruction and practical shop experience. Contents include instructional goal and subgoals, an instructional analysis that describes development of the materials and instructional equipment and supplies and facilities…

  9. 26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT NORTH EDGE FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. Indicator system for a process plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  11. Development of metal recycling process from decommissioned nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikura, T.; Abe, S.; Sakai, H.; Takahashi, J.

    1999-07-01

    Dismantling and demolition of a nuclear power plant generates a large amount of metal waste. Recycling of such waste for resource is important because of the limited capacity of the disposal site. Authors have developed metal recycling processes. It is found that pyrometallurgical separation techniques can effectively separate nickel and cobalt, which contain main contributors of radioactivity, from iron and chromium.

  12. Magnetic fluids effect upon growth processes in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, F.

    1999-07-01

    The metabolic processes of plants growth and development take place according to some organic rules which are specific to their genetic potential. These processes may exhibit modifications of intensity, rhythm, sense, under the influence of the environmental conditions of agricultural systems, through certain factors and bioregulators artificially introduced by man. The results of some investigations regarding effects of biocompatible magnetic fluids (LMW 100 G) on the vegetal organism's (growth, development, fructifying, the level and quality of the yield precocity) are presented.

  13. Sonic temperature sensor for food processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor system to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. The development of the prototype sensor is a collaborative project with the National Food Processors Association. The project is based on the property of materials that involves a change in the temperature of a material having a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound through particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process. This work has shown that the speed of sound accurately can be determined using tomographic reconstruction methods to an accuracy of {+-} 0.4%, which corresponds to a temperature uncertainty of {+-}2{degrees}C.

  14. Gas processing industry study. Final report, June 1994-February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel, D.C.

    1995-02-01

    The report arms to provide a business overview of the US natural gas processing industry and to summarize and report on the role of technology in the future of the gas processing business as identified in Sterling Consulting Group`s recent industry survey. Gas Research Institute is desiring a better understanding of this industry so that it might better serve its member companies in providing technology and research services.

  15. Process applications for geothermal energy resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Packer, M.B.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1981-08-01

    The principal goal of the program was to demonstrate economical and technical suitability of geothermal energy as a source of industrial process heat through a cooperative program with industrial firms. To accomplish that: a critical literature survey in the field was performed; a workshop with the paper and pulp industry representatives was organized; and four parallel methods dealing with technical and economical details of geothermal energy use as a source of industrial process heat were developed.

  16. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  17. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  18. Direct application of geothermal energy at the L'eggs Product Plant, Las Cruces, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The study program to determine the feasibility of interfacing a potential geothermal resource of Dona Ana County, New Mexico L'eggs Product industrial process is discussed in this final report. Five separate sites were evaluated initially as to geothermal potential and technical feasibility. Preliminary analysis revealed that three sites were considered normal, but that two sites (about three miles from the L'eggs Plant) had very high shallow subsurface temperature gradients (up to 14.85/sup 0/F/100 ft). An initial engineering analysis showed that to meet the L'eggs plant temperature and energy requirements a geothermal fluid temperature of about 250/sup 0/F and 200 gpm flow rate would be necessary. A brief economic comparison indicated that the L'eggs plant site and a geothermal site approximately four miles from the plant did merit further investigation. Detailed engineering and economic design and analysis of these two sites (including the drilling of an 1873 feet deep temperature gradient test hole at the L'eggs Plant) showed that development of the four mile distant site was technically feasible and was the more economic option. It was determined that a single-stage flash system interface design would be most appropriate for the L'eggs Plant. Approximately 39 billion Btu/yr of fossil fuel could be replaced with geothermal energy at the L'eggs facility for a total installed system cost of slightly over $2 million. The projected economic payback period was calculated to be 9.2 years before taxes. This payback was not considered acceptable by L'eggs Products, Inc., to merit additional design or construction work at this time.

  19. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  20. A novel process for methanol synthesis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1994-01-25

    The use of methanol (MeOH) as a fuel additive and in MTBE production has renewed interest in the search for improved MeOH processes. Commercial processes are characterized by high pressures and temperatures with low per pass conversion (10--12%). Efforts are underway to find improved MeOH synthesis processes. A slurry phase ``concurrent`` synthesis of MeOH/methyl formate (MeF) which operates under relatively mild conditions (100{degrees}C lower than present commercial processes) was the subject of investigation in this work. Evidence for a reaction scheme involving the carbonylation of MeOH to MeF followed by the hydrogenolysis of MeF to two molecules of MeOH -- the net result being the reaction of H{sub 2} with CO to give MeOH via MeF, is presented. Up to 90% per pass conversion and 98% selectivity to methanol at rates comparable to commercial processes have been obtained in spite of the presence of as much as 10,000 ppM CO{sub 2} and 3000 ppM H{sub 2}O in the gas and liquid respectively. The effect of process parameters such as temperature, pressure, H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the reactor, flow rate and catalyst loading were also investigated. The use of temperatures above 170{degrees}C at a pressure of 50 atm results in MeF being the limiting reactant. Small amounts of CH{sub 4} are also formed. Significant MeOH synthesis rates at a pressure in the range of 40--50 atm makes possible the elimination of an upstream shift reactor and the use of an air-blown syngas generator. The nature of the catalysts was studied and correlated with the behavior of the various species in the concurrent synthesis.

  1. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  2. Advanced thermometrics for fossil power plant process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, R.L.; Weiss, J.M.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1996-04-30

    Improved temperature measurements in fossil power plants can reduce heat rate and uncertainties in power production efficiencies, extend the life of plant components, reduce maintenance costs, and lessen emissions. Conventional instruments for measurement of combustion temperatures, steam temperatures, and structural component temperatures can be improved by better specification, in situ calibration, signal processing, and performance monitoring. Innovative instruments can enhance, augment, or replace conventional instruments. Several critical temperatures can be accessed using new methods that were impossible with conventional instruments. Such instruments include high temperature resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermometric phosphors, inductive thermometry, and ultrasonic thermometry.

  3. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    DOEpatents

    Kirby, John A.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

  4. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.A.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes an apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment. It comprises: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

  5. North Sea gas plants get process, scheduling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, A.

    1998-11-16

    Mobil North Sea Ltd. has installed an operator guidance tool at its SAGE gas-processing plant at St. Fergus, Scotland (SAGE: Scottish Area Gas Evacuation). The system, supplied by MDC Technology, Teesside, U.K., will aid process decision making at the plant under MDC Technology`s RTO+ software. In addition, Shell U.K. Exploration and Production (Shell Expro) has installed a pipeline-scheduling system, also supplied by MDC Technology, at its Aberdeen control center. The system aids gas-movement scheduling through Shell Expro`s St. Fergus gas plant. The Northern Systems and Plant Scheduling (NSPS) system integrates MDC Technology`s RTO+ package with Microsoft Visual Basic and Excel. Mobil`s SAGE gas terminal at St. Fergus has two identical process trains (NGL recovery and acid-gas treatment), each with a capacity of 16.25 million std. cu m/day. The paper describes the guidance tool, the scheduling aid, and the installation of the NSPS.

  6. Explosive Potential Analysis of AB Process-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, J.S.; Giles, G.E. jr.; Wendel, M.W.; Sulfredge, C.D.

    2001-10-12

    A need arose to define the hazards associated with the operation of a process. The process involved the evolution of a hydrogen gas stream from thermal decomposition of uranium hydride at approximately 400 C into the interior of a purged argon-filled glove box. Specific hazards of interest included the potential reaction severity of the evolved hydrogen with atmospheric oxygen, either downstream in the vent system or inside the box in the event of serious air inleakage. Another hazard might be the energetic reaction of inleaked air with the hot uranium and uranium hydride powder bed, possibly resulting in the dispersion of powders into an air atmosphere and the rapid combustion of the powders. This was approached as a problem in calculational simulation. Given the parameters associated with the process and the properties of the glove box system, certain scenarios were defined and the potential for flammable or detonation reactions estimated. Calculation tools included a comprehensive fluid dynamics code, a spreadsheet, a curve-fitting program, an equation solver, and a thermochemistry software package. Results are reported which suggest that the process can be operated without significant hazard to operators or significant damage to equipment, assuming that operators take account of potential upset scenarios.

  7. Word Processing for Item Banking and Test Production. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Joseph L.

    This report describes the sequence of activities that took place as the Examination Division of the New Jersey Department of Civil Service introduced a word processing system for a test item bank and for production of camera-ready test copy. The equipment selection, installation and orientation procedures are discussed. Keyboard and CRT terminals,…

  8. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-02-14

    TCF funding of a CRADA between LBNL and RSLE leveraged RSLE's original $1M investment in LBNL research and led to development of a solar cell fabrication process that will bring the high efficiency, high voltage hybrid tandem solar cell closer to commercialization. RSLE has already built a pilot line at its Phoenix, Arizona site.

  9. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-12

    Nitrate and nitrite have been almost completely removed from the synthetic effluent steam with good efficiency by affecting a separation across a pair of ion exchange membranes. In addition to recovering acid and base in this process, the volume of the remaining effluent is reduced considerably by transport of water across the membrane. One of the problems that remains with this process, however, is the stability of the membranes and particularly the stability of the anion exchange membrane. This membrane is exposed to both nitric acid and strongly alkaline solutions in the cell and to date long term stability has been a problem with the membranes tested. It is recommended that further work should evaluate other newly available membranes as well as study the effects of radiation on the performance of the membranes. The direct reduction of nitrate and nitrite has been studied at several different electrode materials and it has been demonstrated that cathode material has a large effect on both the efficiency and the gas product distribution. Highest current efficiencies for the reduction process are seen at those electrode materials that are known to show high hydrogen overpotentials. Flow cell studies have demonstrated that temperature and current density are also important parameters in the system. The reduction process has been run efficiently at high current densities (600 mAcm{sup {minus}2}) at 80{degrees}C at a lead cathode.

  10. Construction of the NASA Thesaurus: Computer Processing Support. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, William

    Details are given on the necessary computer processing services required to produce a NASA thesaurus. These services included (1) keypunching the terminology to specifications from approximately 19,000 Term Review Forms furnished by NASA; (2) modifying a set of programs to satisfy NASA specifications, principally to accommodate 42 character terms…

  11. Development of the selective coagulation process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-07-01

    The selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process is based on the recent finding that hydrophobic particles can be selectively coagulated without using traditional agglomerating agents or flocculants. The driving force for the coagulation is the attractive energy between hydrophobic surfaces, an interaction that has been overlooked in classical colloid chemistry. In most cases, selective separations can be achieved using simple pH control to disperse the mineral matter, followed by recovery of the coal coagula using techniques that take advantage of the size enlargement. In the present work, studies have been carried out to further investigate the fundamental mechanisms of the SHC process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur. Studies have included direct force measurements of the attractive interaction between model hydrophobic surfaces, in-situ measurements of the size distributions of coagula formed under a variety of operating conditions, and development of a population balance model to describe the coagulation process. An extended DLVO colloid stability model which includes a hydrophobic interaction energy term has also been developed to explain the findings obtained from the experimental studies. In addition to the fundamental studies, bench-scale process development test work has been performed to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from dispersed mineral matter. Two types of separators, i.e., a sedimentation tank and a rotating drum screen, were examined in this study. The sedimentation tank proved to be the more efficient unit, achieving ash reductions as high as 60% in a single pass while recovering more than 90% of the combustible material. This device, which minimizes turbulence and coagula breakage, was used in subsequent test work to optimize design and operating parameters.

  12. Chemical-cleaning solvent and process testing. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Jevec, J.M.; Leedy, W.S.

    1983-04-01

    Laboratory and pilot plant investigations were conducted to develop and qualify chemical cleaning solvents, procedures, analysis methods and monitoring techniques to safely remove magnetite, copper and copper oxide sludges from the secondary side of nuclear steam generators. The results of this program found that a two-step procedure involving two different solvents should be used. A solvent composed of 10% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1% hydrazine (N/sub 2/H/sub 4/), 5 to 10 mL/L CI-801 (a nonproprietary corrosion inhibitor), pH adjusted to 7.0 with ammonia used at a temperature of 93/sup 0/C (200/sup 0/C) will dissolve magnetite in a reasonable period of time. Corrosion produced by this solvent in tests on materials of which steam generators are constructed was reasonably low in all cases. A solvent composed of 5% EDTA, 2% hydrogen peroxide, with the pH first adjusted to 7.0 with ammonia and then to 10.0 with ethylenediamine (EDA) was developed to dissolve copper and copper oxides. This solvent is most effective when used at ambient temperature.

  13. Import, targeting, and processing of a plant polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, A; Ne'eman, E; Steffens, J C; Mayer, A M; Harel, E

    1994-01-01

    A tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) gene encoding a precursor of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was transcribed and translated in vitro. The import, targeting, and processing of the [35S]methionine-labeled precursor protein (pPPO) were studied in isolated chloroplasts. The protein was routed to the thylakoid lumen in two steps. The 67-kD precursor was first imported into the stroma in an ATP-dependent step. It was processed to a 62-kD intermediate by a stromal peptidase. Translocation into the lumen was light dependent and involved processing of the 62-kD to the 59-kD mature form. The mature polypeptide was soluble in the lumen and not bound to thylakoids. This two-step targeting pattern was observed in plastids from a variety of plants including pea (Pisum sativum L.), tomato, and maize (Zea mays L.). The ratio between the intermediate and mature forms observed depended on the plant species, leaf age, growth conditions, and illumination regime to which the plants had been subjected. Cu2+ was not required for pPPO import or processing. Furthermore, low concentrations of Cu2+ (1-5 microM) markedly inhibited the first import step. Tentoxin specifically inhibited pPPO import, leaving the precursor bound to the envelope membrane. The two-step routing of pPPO into chloroplasts, typical of thylakoid lumen proteins, is consistent with the two-domain structure of the transit peptide and appears to be a feature of all plant PPO genes isolated so far. No evidence was found for unorthodox routing mechanisms, which have been suggested to be involved in the import of plant PPOs. The two-step routing may account for some of the multiplicity of PPO observed in vivo. PMID:7972497

  14. Import, targeting, and processing of a plant polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Sommer, A; Ne'eman, E; Steffens, J C; Mayer, A M; Harel, E

    1994-08-01

    A tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) gene encoding a precursor of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was transcribed and translated in vitro. The import, targeting, and processing of the [35S]methionine-labeled precursor protein (pPPO) were studied in isolated chloroplasts. The protein was routed to the thylakoid lumen in two steps. The 67-kD precursor was first imported into the stroma in an ATP-dependent step. It was processed to a 62-kD intermediate by a stromal peptidase. Translocation into the lumen was light dependent and involved processing of the 62-kD to the 59-kD mature form. The mature polypeptide was soluble in the lumen and not bound to thylakoids. This two-step targeting pattern was observed in plastids from a variety of plants including pea (Pisum sativum L.), tomato, and maize (Zea mays L.). The ratio between the intermediate and mature forms observed depended on the plant species, leaf age, growth conditions, and illumination regime to which the plants had been subjected. Cu2+ was not required for pPPO import or processing. Furthermore, low concentrations of Cu2+ (1-5 microM) markedly inhibited the first import step. Tentoxin specifically inhibited pPPO import, leaving the precursor bound to the envelope membrane. The two-step routing of pPPO into chloroplasts, typical of thylakoid lumen proteins, is consistent with the two-domain structure of the transit peptide and appears to be a feature of all plant PPO genes isolated so far. No evidence was found for unorthodox routing mechanisms, which have been suggested to be involved in the import of plant PPOs. The two-step routing may account for some of the multiplicity of PPO observed in vivo. PMID:7972497

  15. Plant uprooting by flow as a fatigue mechanical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perona, Paolo; Edmaier, Katharina; Crouzy, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    In river corridors, plant uprooting by flow mostly occurs as a delayed process where flow erosion first causes root exposure until residual anchoring balances hydrodynamic forces on the part of the plant that is exposed to the stream. Because a given plant exposure time to the action of the stream is needed before uprooting occurs (time-to-uprooting), this uprooting mechanism has been denominated Type II, in contrast to Type I, which mostly affect early stage seedlings and is rather instantaneous. In this work, we propose a stochastic framework that describes a (deterministic) mechanical fatigue process perturbed by a (stochastic) process noise, where collapse occurs after a given exposure time. We test the model using the experimental data of Edmaier (2014) and Edmaier et al. (submitted), who investigated vegetation uprooting by flow in the limit of low plant stem-to-sediment size ratio by inducing parallel riverbed erosion within an experimental flume. We first identify the proper timescale and lengthscale for rescaling the model. Then, we show that it describes well all the empirical cumulative distribution functions (cdf) of time-to-uprooting obtained under constant riverbed erosion rate and assuming additive gaussian process noise. By this mean, we explore the level of determinism and stochasticity affecting the time-to-uprooting for Avena sativa in relation to root anchoring and flow drag forces. We eventually ascribe the overall dynamics of the Type II uprooting mechanism to the memory of the plant-soil system that is stored by root anchoring, and discuss related implications thereof. References Edmaier, K., Uprooting mechansims of juvenile vegetation by flow erosion, Ph.D. thesis, EPFL, 2014. Edmaier, K., Crouzy, B. and P. Perona. Experimental characterization of vegetation uprooting by flow. J. of Geophys. Res. - Biogeosci., submitted

  16. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    DOEpatents

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Jung Fu

    1989-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

  18. Empirical evaluation of the Process Overview Measure for assessing situation awareness in process plants.

    PubMed

    Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd

    2016-03-01

    The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure developed to assess operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants. A companion paper describes how the measure has been developed according to process plant properties and operator cognitive work. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability in two full-scope simulator experiments investigating dramatically different operational concepts. Practicality was assessed based on qualitative feedback of participants and researchers. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated sensitivity and validity by revealing significant effects of experimental manipulations that corroborated with other empirical results. The measure also demonstrated adequate inter-rater reliability and practicality for measuring SA in full-scope simulator settings based on data collected on process experts. Thus, full-scope simulator studies can employ the Process Overview Measure to reveal the impact of new control room technology and operational concepts on monitoring process plants. Practitioner Summary: The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure that demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability for assessing operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants in representative settings.

  19. Expedited vocational assessment under the sequential evaluation process. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2012-07-25

    We are revising our rules to give adjudicators the discretion to proceed to the fifth step of the sequential evaluation process for assessing disability when we have insufficient information about a claimant's past relevant work history to make the findings required for step 4. If an adjudicator finds at step 5 that a claimant may be unable to adjust to other work existing in the national economy, the adjudicator will return to the fourth step to develop the claimant's work history and make a finding about whether the claimant can perform his or her past relevant work. We expect that this new expedited process will not disadvantage any claimant or change the ultimate conclusion about whether a claimant is disabled, but it will promote administrative efficiency and help us make more timely disability determinations and decisions. PMID:22834071

  20. Electronic processes in thin-film PV materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.C.; Chen, D.; Chen, S.L.

    1998-07-01

    The electronic and optical processes in an important class of thin-film PV materials, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and related alloys, have been investigated using several experimental techniques designed for thin-film geometries. The experimental techniques include various magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopies and combinations of these two spectroscopies. Two-step optical excitation processes through the manifold of silicon dangling bond states have been identifies as important at low excitation energies. Local hydrogen motion has been studied using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and found to be much more rapid than long range diffusion as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. A new metastable effect has been found in a-Si:H films alloyed with sulfur. Spin-one optically excited states have been unambiguously identified using optically detected electron spin resonance. Local hydrogen bonding in microcrystalline silicon films has been studied using NMR.

  1. Cavitational Hydrothermal Oxidation: A New Remediation Process - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Suslick, K. S.

    2001-07-05

    During the past year, we have continued to make substantial scientific progress on our understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and applications of cavitation to remediation processes. Our efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions.

  2. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D.

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F{sup {minus}} ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions.

  3. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites.

  4. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Syverson, H T; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Fuel Quality/Processing Study project for production of gas turbine fuels. The objective was to provide a data base for establishing intelligent trade-off between advanced turbine technology and liquid fuel quality. Synthetic fuels to be emphasized include those derived from coal and shale. The intent is to use the data base produced to guide the development of specifications for future synthetic liquid fuels anticipated for use in the time period 1985-2000. It is also to be used as a basis for evaluating the value and benefits of federally sponsored R and D efforts in the field of advanced gas turbine technology. The project assessed relative fuel costs, quality and energy efficiency for a number of fuel sources and processing alternatives. An objective was to accelerate implementation of fuel-flexible combustors for industrial and utility stationary gas turbine systems. This is to be accomplished by generating and demonstrating the technology base for development of reliable gas turbine combustors capable of sustained environmentally acceptable operation when using minimally processed synthetic fuels. The key program results are summarized for the following subject areas: literature survey, on-site fuel pretreatment, existing refineries to upgrade fuels, new refineries to upgrade fuels, and environmental considerations. An inhouse linear programming model served as the basis for determining economic processing paths for the existing refineries and new refineries syncrude upgrading. This involved development of extensive input data comprised of fuel properties, yields, component blending characteristics, incremental capital and operating costs, feed and product costs. Economics are based on March 1980 price levels.

  5. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  6. Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing.

    PubMed

    Revedin, Anna; Aranguren, Biancamaria; Becattini, Roberto; Longo, Laura; Marconi, Emanuele; Lippi, Marta Mariotti; Skakun, Natalia; Sinitsyn, Andrey; Spiridonova, Elena; Svoboda, Jirí

    2010-11-01

    European Paleolithic subsistence is assumed to have been largely based on animal protein and fat, whereas evidence for plant consumption is rare. We present evidence of starch grains from various wild plants on the surfaces of grinding tools at the sites of Bilancino II (Italy), Kostenki 16-Uglyanka (Russia), and Pavlov VI (Czech Republic). The samples originate from a variety of geographical and environmental contexts, ranging from northeastern Europe to the central Mediterranean, and dated to the Mid-Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian and Gorodtsovian). The three sites suggest that vegetal food processing, and possibly the production of flour, was a common practice, widespread across Europe from at least ~30,000 y ago. It is likely that high energy content plant foods were available and were used as components of the food economy of these mobile hunter-gatherers. PMID:20956317

  7. Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing

    PubMed Central

    Revedin, Anna; Aranguren, Biancamaria; Becattini, Roberto; Longo, Laura; Marconi, Emanuele; Lippi, Marta Mariotti; Skakun, Natalia; Sinitsyn, Andrey; Spiridonova, Elena; Svoboda, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    European Paleolithic subsistence is assumed to have been largely based on animal protein and fat, whereas evidence for plant consumption is rare. We present evidence of starch grains from various wild plants on the surfaces of grinding tools at the sites of Bilancino II (Italy), Kostenki 16–Uglyanka (Russia), and Pavlov VI (Czech Republic). The samples originate from a variety of geographical and environmental contexts, ranging from northeastern Europe to the central Mediterranean, and dated to the Mid-Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian and Gorodtsovian). The three sites suggest that vegetal food processing, and possibly the production of flour, was a common practice, widespread across Europe from at least ~30,000 y ago. It is likely that high energy content plant foods were available and were used as components of the food economy of these mobile hunter–gatherers. PMID:20956317

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Saurwein, John

    2011-07-15

    This report is the Final Technical Report for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project conducted by a team led by General Atomics under DOE Award DE-NE0000245. The primary overall objective of the project was to develop and document a conceptual design for the Steam Cycle Modular Helium Reactor (SC-MHR), which is the reactor concept proposed by General Atomics for the NGNP Demonstration Plant. The report summarizes the project activities over the entire funding period, compares the accomplishments with the goals and objectives of the project, and discusses the benefits of the work. The report provides complete listings of the products developed under the award and the key documents delivered to the DOE.

  9. Demonstration of membrane aeration panels: City of Geneva Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and testing of membrane aeration panels at the Marsh Creek wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Geneva, NY. The operators at the Geneva plant have undertaken a long-term program to upgrade wastewater treatment processes and lower operating costs. The aging mechanical surface aerators at the Marsh Creek treatment plant were replaced by a state-of-the-art membrane panel system. This fine-bubble diffused air system offers higher oxygen transfer efficiency than surface aerators or other types of fine-bubble diffused-air systems. The project had four objectives: to decrease the amount of electricity used at the plant for aeration; to enable the plant`s existing aeration basins to accommodate higher organic loads and/or nitrify the wastewater should the need arise; to provide an even distribution of dissolved oxygen within the aeration basins to enhance biological wastewater treatment activity; and to provide technical data to assess the performance of the membrane panel system versus other forms of wastewater aeration.

  10. Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes - FY-98 Final Report for LDRD 2349

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, Glen Frank; Nelson, Lee Orville; Grandy, Jon Drue; Zuck, Larry Douglas; Kong, Peter Chuen Sun; Anderson, Gail

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of LDRD #2349, Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes, was to develop a set of tools that would allow the user to, based on the chemical composition of a waste stream to be immobilized, predict the durability (leach behavior) of the final waste form and the phase assemblages present in the final waste form. The objectives of the project were: • investigation, testing and selection of thermochemical code • development of auxiliary thermochemical database • synthesis of materials for leach testing • collection of leach data • using leach data for leach model development • thermochemical modeling The progress toward completion of these objectives and a discussion of work that needs to be completed to arrive at a logical finishing point for this project will be presented.

  11. SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Martin Marietta Corporation. Pilot plant final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the technical effort of Martin Marietta Corporation, in association with Black and Veatch International as a subcontractor for the trade studies performed to design a Solar Desalination Pilot Plant is documented. The final system configuration utilizes existing technology to convert seawater to potable water. This technology includes the collection of solar energy, storage of this energy in a fluid heat transfer medium, generation of steam and electricity from this stored energy, utilization of low pressure turbine exhaust steam as a source of energy to distill salt water, and also generation of potable water through the use of a reverse osmosis unit.

  12. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  13. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  14. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdal, W.; Walis, L.; Chmielewski, A. G.

    1993-07-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established.

  15. Final report on process modeling of cupola furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the first phase of the AFS/DOE program on mathematical modeling of cupola behavior, covering the period May 19, 1989 to July 19, 1990. The objective of the program is to develop a comprehensive mathematical model of the cupola furnace for on-line and off-line process control and optimization. The work is being carried out by five organizations: Massachusetts Institute of Technology with responsibility for heat transfer and fluid flow modeling, and incorporation of the chemical models being developed by the University of Michigan team. Modern Equipment Company has the responsibility of compiling information on needed sensors for monitoring operation and providing materials data to be used for cupola input. General Motors, Central Foundry Division, is investigating the potential to augment the mathematical models with artificial intelligence programs. Lastly, General Motors Research laboratories are charged with providing accurate cupola operational data to test the models being developed. To date, a one-dimensional steady state model has been developed which considers heat transfer, fluid flow and important chemical processes: combustion, iron composition development, limestone calcination and iron oxidation. The model is based on established physico-chemical principles and data available in the literature. Model predictions compare favorably with data obtained in a production sale cupola, operating under carefully controlled, but realistic, conditions. At the present time, the chemical sub-models are being incorporated into the master program, and a complete working cupola model is expected by September 1990. 43 refs.

  16. New microorganisms and processes for MEOR. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1993-12-01

    Oil reservoirs naturally contain inorganic and organic materials which may be exploited through simple mineral supplementation to support the growth of denitrifying microorganisms. The growth and metabolic products from the presence of these microorganisms will aid in the release of oil from the rock matrix and improve crude oil quality and oil field operations. These studies have been successful in defining new microorganisms and processes for MEOR. The data show that development of a mixed denitrifying microbial population in an oil reservoir environment will competitively reduce SRB populations resulting in the removal and prevention of H{sub 2}S. At the same time the products resulting from the growth of this replacement population will cause an increase in oil mobilization and oil release by mechanisms involving gas, surfactant and polymer production, and in the case of Thiobacillus growth, could cause dissolution of carbonates in the rock matrix. The establishment of this denitrifying population requires only the addition of simple inorganic chemicals without the need for organic nutrients. This new MEOR technology offers industry the potential for a simple, low cost, and effective oil recovery process, while at the same time provides a solution to the microbially generated sulfide problem.

  17. Microwave processing of silicon carbide. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimrey, H.D.; Kiggans, J.O.; Ness, E.A.; Rafaniello, W.

    1998-02-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Dow Chemical Company was initiated on May 3, 1993. (Lockheed Martin Energy Research Inc. (LMER) replaced LMES). The completion date for the Agreement was December 1996. The purpose of this project is to develop microwave processing techniques to produce superior silicon carbide. Sintered silicon carbide is an attractive material for use in high-stress, high-temperature, high-wear, or highly corrosive applications. However, use in these applications has been hampered by a lack of consistency in strength, density, and other physical properties. It is proposed that the enhanced sintering that has been achieved using microwaves in oxide and halide systems be applied to the sintering of these materials to produce a more highly controlled density and microstructure. This will, in turn, increase the strength and Weibull modulus of the sintered body. The use of microwave energy to anneal for a moderate temperature (1,400--1,600 C) anneal in a high vacuum (< 10{sup {minus}4} Torr) results in an improvement in the sintered density and density distribution. These changes in turn result in improved properties of the sintered compacts. Further, scale up of the process has resulted in the routine production of 3 kg components in excess of 4 cm in thickness.

  18. Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1980-12-31

    Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

  19. Assessment of instrumentation needs for advanced coal power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Lipka, J.V.; Rutkowski, M.D.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify contaminants, identify instrumentation needs, assess available instrumentation and identify instruments that should be developed for controlling and monitoring gas streams encountered in the following power plants: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, and Gasification Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell. Emphasis was placed on hot gas cleanup system gas stream analysis, and included process control, research and environmental monitoring needs. Commercial process analyzers, typical of those currently used for process control purposes, were reviewed for the purpose of indicating commercial status. No instrument selection guidelines were found which were capable of replacing user interaction with the process analyzer vendors. This study leads to the following conclusions: available process analyzers for coal-derived gas cleanup applications satisfy current power system process control and regulatory requirements, but they are troublesome to maintain; commercial gas conditioning systems and in situ analyzers continue to be unavailable for hot gas cleanup applications; many research-oriented gas stream characterization and toxicity assessment needs can not be met by commercially available process analyzers; and greater emphasis should be placed on instrumentation and control system planning for future power plant applications. Analyzers for specific compounds are not recommended other than those needed for current process control purposes. Instead, some generally useful on-line laser-based and inductively coupled plasma methods are recommended for further development because of their potential for use in present hot gas cleanup research and future optimization, component protection and regulation compliance activities. 48 refs., 21 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Process simulation and economical evaluation of enzymatic biodiesel production plant.

    PubMed

    Sotoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud V; Norddahl, Birgir

    2010-07-01

    Process simulation and economical evaluation of an enzymatic biodiesel production plant has been carried out. Enzymatic biodiesel production from high quality rapeseed oil and methanol has been investigated for solvent free and cosolvent production processes. Several scenarios have been investigated with different production scales (8 and 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year) and enzyme price. The cosolvent production process is found to be most expensive and is not a viable choice, while the solvent free process is viable for the larger scale production of 200 mio. kg biodiesel/year with the current enzyme price. With the suggested enzyme price of the future, both the small and large scale solvent free production proved viable. The product price was estimated to be 0.73-1.49 euro/kg biodiesel with the current enzyme price and 0.05-0.75 euro/kg with the enzyme price of the future for solvent free process.

  1. Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

    1995-04-27

    A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

  2. Process evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP Program). [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The ``Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,`` or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities` low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, and WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents the findings of a process evaluation and WRAP customer survey conducted by the Technical Development Corporation (TDC). TDC`s work is one part of a multi-part evaluation project being conducted under the management of ICF Resources, Inc.

  3. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  4. Recovery of valuable chlorosilane intermediates by a novel waste conversion process. Technical report for phase IIIA (final) and phase IIIB (progress)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.E.

    1998-10-01

    From July 1994 through May 1998, direct process residue (DPR) hydrogenolysis has been studied in the laboratory, at a small Pilot Plant, and finally at a larger Pilot Plant within Dow Corning`s Carrollton, Kentucky plant. The system reacts filtered DPR with monomer at high temperature and pressure. The process demonstrates DPR conversion up to 86%. The reaction product contains high concentrations of valuable monomers such as dimethyldichlorosilane and methyldichlorosilane. A larger DPR hydrogenolysis reactor based on these results is being designed for operation in Europe at Dow Corning`s Barry, Wales site.

  5. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fornetti, Micheal; Freeman, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  6. Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tataronis, J. A.

    2004-06-01

    This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfvkn continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named “accumulation continuum” and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory.

  7. Carpinteria Coastal Processes Study, 2005-2007; Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Revell, David L.; Eshleman, Jodi L.; Mustain, Neomi

    2008-01-01

    PROJECT SUMMARY The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC), conducted a two-year study of the beach and nearshore coastal processes for the City of Carpinteria and adjacent beaches. The work was performed in response to and worked directly with the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Project Management Plan (PMP) for the City of Carpinteria: * Carpinteria Shoreline, Santa Barbara County, California PMP (June 2003) www.spl.usace.army.mil/cms/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=487&Itemid=31 The City of Carpinteria has experienced significant erosion and storm damage over the last decade (Figure 1.1). A USACE reconnaissance survey has shown shoreline retreat rates that approach 2 m/yr in some locations. The goals of this project are to analyze historical trends/changes in the beach and nearshore environment, document local wave and tidal currents, and assess current beach and nearshore conditions in terms of grain size, beach size and shape, seasonal changes, and nearshore bathymetry. In summary, this work serves to quantify sediment sources, transport and sinks throughout the study area to support USACE and the City of Carpinteria coastal management activities.

  8. Thermochemical processes for hydrogen production by water decomposition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, D.D.

    1980-08-01

    The principal contributions of the research are in the area of gas-solid reactions, ranging from models and data interpretation for fundamental kinetics and mixing of solids to simulations of engineering scale reactors. Models were derived for simulating the heat and mass transfer processes inside the reactor and tested by experiments. The effects of surface renewal of solids on the mass transfer phenomena were studied and related to the solid mixing. Catalysis by selected additives were studied experimentally. The separate results were combined in a simulation study of industrial-scale rotary reactor performance. A study was made of the controlled decompositions of a series of inorganic sulfates and their common hydrates, carried out in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), and a Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA). Various sample sizes, heating rates, and ambient atmospheres were used to demonstrate their influence on the results. The purposes of this study were to: (i) reveal intermediate compounds, (ii) determine the stable temperature range of each compound, and (iii) measure reaction kinetics. In addition, several solid additives: carbon, metal oxides, and sodium chloride, were demonstrated to have catalytic effects to varying degrees for the different salts.

  9. Dual cure solventless coating process. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeVoe, R.J.; Palazzotto, M.C.; Chambers, W.L.; Brown-Wensley, K.A.; Holmes, G.L.; Keipert, S.J.; Mathis, M.D.; McCormick, F.B.; Spurgeon, K.M.; Williams, J.W.

    1992-02-01

    The objective is to determine the feasibility of using the Dual Cure Photocatalyst technology for reduction of gaseous waste emissions through the minimization of coating solvent use. This is to be accomplished by developing a photocuring technology that would allow the use of solvent free (100% solids) formulations while preserving or improving upon the performance of conventional solvent based materials. Four Dual Cure Photocatalyst systems and one conventional catalyst system were investigated for use in curing combinations of epoxies with acrylates and acrylates with polyurethane precursors (polyol/polyisocyanate mixtures). Photocatalyst screening results showed that Dual Cure Photocatalyst Systems based upon cationic organometallic compounds alone or in combination with free radical photoinitiators or oxidants provide significantly better processing performance than systems based upon conventional catalysts or neutral organometallic compounds in combination with oxidants. Mechanical testing of materials prepared with the five catalyst systems showed that: (1) Dual Cure compositions can produce materials with better properties than the component parts and (2) Compositions cured with Dual Cure Photocatalysts produce materials superior to those cured with conventional catalyst systems in a number of cases. Cost, economic and energy analyses are presented based upon laboratory scale coating and curing studies.

  10. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  11. 76 FR 17160 - Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs Using a Gas Turbine Driven Standby Emergency Alternating Current Power System AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-021 titled ``Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant...

  12. Automated separation process for radioanalytical purposes at nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Nagy, L G; Vajda, N; Vodicska, M; Zagyvai, P; Solymosi, J

    1987-10-01

    Chemical separation processes have been developed to remove the matrix components and thus to determine fission products, especially radioiodine nuclides, in the primary coolant of WWER-type nuclear reactors. Special procedures have been elaborated to enrich long-lived nuclides in waste waters to be released and to separate and enrich caesium isotopes in the environment. All processes are based mainly on ion-exchange separations using amorphous zirconium phosphate. Automated equipment was constructed to meet the demands of the plant personnel for serial analysis.

  13. Boron uptake and accumulation by higher plants: A literature review: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sposito, G.; Calderone, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    This study provides a review of the literature on boron uptake and accumulation by higher plants, particularly trees. It addresses those aspects of the soil chemistry of boron that are most relevant to uptake by trees, then discusses the plant biochemistry of boron, its uptake and accumulation in plant tissue, and its phytotoxicity symptoms in plant species. The literature reviewed suggests that boron uptake is accomplished by a passive, massflow mechanism, as opposed to a metabolic process, with the most likely chemical form taken up being the neutral complex, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. The biochemical role of boron is not well understood, but evidence exists for its involvement with carbohydrate transformations and the control of growth-regulating compounds. Because of the mass-flow uptake mechanism, the distribution of boron in trees is connected intimately with the patterns of transpiration, which are species-dependent. Precise data on the effect of plant genotype on boron uptake, however, were not found in the published literature. The phytotoxicity symptoms of boron in trees also are species-dependent, although a consensus does exist as to the general nature of external symptoms and the basis of boron tolerance.

  14. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  15. Advanced treatment of landfill leachate by a new combination process in a full-scale plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Huo-Sheng; Zhou, Shao-Qi; Sun, Yan-Bo; Feng, Ping; Li, Jing-da

    2009-12-15

    Advanced treatment of mature landfill leachate from a municipal landfill located in southern China (Jiangmen) was carried out in a full-scale plant using a new process. The combined process has a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) serving as the primary treatment, with polyferric sulfate (PFS) coagulation coupled with a Fenton system as secondary treatment, and a pair of upflow biological aerated filters (UBAFs) in parallel as tertiary treatment. The overall removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in this process was 97.3%, with an effluent COD less than 100 mg/L. Up to 99% ammonia (N-NH3) removal efficiency was achieved in the SBR, with an effluent of less than 3 mg/L, which meets the discharge standard (< or =25 mg/L) with only primary treatment. The total phosphorus (TP) and suspended solids (SS) in the final effluent were reduced to less than 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively. The experience gained in the operation and maintenance will lead to a more stable performance of this combined process. An economic analysis shows that the overall operating cost of the advanced treatment was $2.70/m(3). This new combination process was proved to be highly compatible and efficient in a small-scale landfill leachate treatment plant and is recommended for small-scale landfill leachate treatment plants.

  16. Actinide partitioning processes for fuel reprocessing and refabrication plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical processing methods have been developed on a laboratory scale to partition the actinides from the liquid and solid fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) and refabrication plant (FFP) wastes. It was envisioned that these processes would be incorporated into separate waste treatment facilities (WTFs) that are adjacent to, but not integrated with, the fuel reprocessing and refabrication plants. Engineering equipment and material balance flowsheets have been developed for WTFs in support of a 2000-MTHM/year FRP and a 660-MTHM/year MOX-FFP. The processing subsystems incorporated in the FRP-WTF are: High-Level Solid Waste Treatment, High-Level Liquid Waste Treatment, Solid Alpha Waste Treatment, Cation Exchange Chromatography, Salt Waste Treatment, Actinide Recovery, Solvent Cleanup and recycle, Off-Gas Treatment, Actinide Product Concentration, and Acid and Water Recycle. The WTF supporting a fuel refabrication facility, although similar, does not contain subsystems (1) and (2). Based on the results of the laboratory and hot-cell experimental work, we believe that the processes and flowsheets offer the potential to reduce the total unrecovered actinides in FRP and FFP wastes to less than or equal to 0.25%. The actinide partitioning processes and the WTF concept represent advanced technology that would require substantial work before commercialization. It is estimated that an orderly development program would require 15 to 20 years to complete and would cost about 700 million 1979 dollars. It is estimated that the capital cost and annual operating cost, in mid-1979 dollars, for the FRP-WTF are $1035 million and $71.5 million/year, and for the FFP-WTF are $436 million and $25.6 million/year, respectively.

  17. The economic valuation of improved process plant decision support technology.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas C

    2007-06-01

    How can investments that would potentially improve a manufacturing plant's decision process be economically justified? What is the value of "better information," "more flexibility," or "improved integration" and the technologies that provide these effects? Technology investments such as improved process modelling, new real time historians and other databases, "smart" instrumentation, better data analysis and visualization software, and/or improved user interfaces often include these benefits as part of their valuation. How are these "soft" benefits to be converted to a quantitative economic return? Quantification is important if rational management decisions are to be made about the correct amount of money to invest in the technologies, and which technologies to choose among the many available ones. Modelling the plant operational decision cycle-detect, analyse, forecast, choose and implement--provides a basis for this economic quantification. In this paper a new economic model is proposed for estimation of the value of decision support investments based on their effect upon the uncertainty in forecasting plant financial performance. This model leads to quantitative benefit estimates that have a realistic financial basis. An example is presented demonstrating the application of the method.

  18. Signal processing by protein tyrosine phosphorylation in plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational modification controlling many biological processes. Most phosphorylation occurs on serine and threonine, and to a less extend on tyrosine (Tyr). In animals, Tyr phosphorylation is crucial for the regulation of many responses such as growth or differentiation. Only recently with the development of mass spectrometry, it has been reported that Tyr phosphorylation is as important in plants as in animals. The genes encoding protein Tyr kinases and protein Tyr phosphatases have been identified in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Putative substrates of these enzymes, and thus Tyr-phosphorylated proteins have been reported by proteomic studies based on accurate mass spectrometry analysis of the phosphopeptides and phosphoproteins. Biochemical approaches, pharmacology and genetic manipulations have indicated that responses to stress and developmental processes involve changes in protein Tyr phosphorylation. The aim of this review is to present an update on Tyr phosphorylation in plants in order to better assess the role of this post-translational modification in plant physiology. PMID:21628997

  19. Tung FDG Test Facility. Phase 2, Pilot plant demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Tung FGD Process is a regenerative process which extracts SO{sub 2} from a scrubbing liquor into an organic medium using mixer-settlers followed by steam-stripping the SO{sub 2} off from the organic medium. For the process to operate satisfactorily, (1) the organic must be stable, (2) phase separation must be relatively fast, (3) crud (i.e. solids in-between two phases) must not form and (4) SO{sub 2} must be able to be stripped off from the organic medium readily. The demonstration confirmed that the first three conditions can be met satisfactorily. Much lower stripping efficiency was attained in the pilot plant demonstration than what was previously attained in a bench-scale demonstration. Engineering analysis showed that the pilot plant stripping column was scaled up from the bench-scale column incorrectly. A new scale-up criterion for stripping a relatively viscous liquid medium is proposed based upon pilot plant data.

  20. Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

  1. Laboratory plant study on the melting process of asbestos waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shinichi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takatsuki, Hiroshi; Tsunemi, Takeshi

    1996-12-31

    The melting process was studied as a method of changing asbestos into non-hazardous waste and recovering it as a reusable resource. In an initial effort, the thermal behaviors of asbestos waste in terms of physical and chemical structure have been studied. Then, 10 kg/h-scale laboratory plant experiments were carried out. By X-ray diffraction analysis, the thermal behaviors of sprayed-on asbestos waste revealed that chrysotile asbestos waste change in crystal structure at around 800 C, and becomes melted slag, mainly composed of magnesium silicate, at around 1,500 C. Laboratory plant experiments on the melting process of sprayed-on asbestos have shown that melted slag can be obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis of the melted slag revealed crystal structure change, and SEM analysis showed the slag to have a non-fibrous form. And more, TEM analysis proved the very high treatment efficiency of the process, that is, reduction of the asbestos content to 1/10{sup 6} as a weight basis. These analytical results indicate the effectiveness of the melting process for asbestos waste treatment.

  2. Restriction of virus infection by plants. Final report, July 1, 1987--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bruening, G.

    1992-12-31

    The basis of genotypic resistance of the Arlington line of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) against cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has been attributed, to an inhibitor of the processing of CPMV polyproteins. We sought to purify the protein that is postulated to be the inhibitor of polyprotein processing and to characterize the inhibitor and its gene. Such information can be the basis for engineering resistance to specific viruses in plants. In studies with cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) we sought understanding of the biochemical basis of the resistance.

  3. Plant and soil reactions to nickel ore processed tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Sheets, P.J.; Volk, V.V.; Gardner, E.H.

    1982-07-01

    Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect that tailings, produced during the processing of nickeliferous laterite ores by a proposed U.S. Bureau of Mines Process, would have on plant growth and soil properties. The tailings contained soluble salts (7.6 mmhos/cm), NH/sub 4/-N (877 ..mu..g/g), Ni (0.28%), Mn (82 ..mu..g/g DTPA-extractable), Cr (0.44%), P (2 and 6 ..mu..g/g acid F- and NaHCO/sub 3/-extractable, respectively), and Ca and Mg (1.0 and 20.7 meq/100 g NH/sub 4/Ac-extractable, respectively). Water leaching decreased the NH/sub 4/-N concentration to 53 ..mu..g/g and the EC to 0.4 mmhos/cm by removal of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and MgSO/sub 4/ salts. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was grown on Eightlar clay soil (skeletal, serpentinitic, mesic Typic Xerochrept) amended with 0, 223, 446, and 669 g tailings/kg soil and pure, unleached tailings for 32 weeks in the greenhouse. Seedling establishment of plants grown on soil amended at the highest tailings rate and the pure tailings was initially slow, but plants grown on soil amended at lower rates established readily and grew well. Plant P was <0.24%, while plant Ca concentrations were <0.45% throughout the growth period even though Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 2/)/sub 2/ and gypsum had been added. Ammonium acetate-extractable Ca at the end of the growth period was <5.0 meq/100 g on all amended soils.The Mn, Ni, and Cr concentrations of plants grown on treated soils were within normal ranges, although soil-analysis values were higher than commonly found. It is recommended that the tailings be washed to reduce NH/sub 4/-N and soluble salts prior to revegetation, and that native soil be added to the surface to reduce crusting.

  4. New industrial heat pump applications to a synthetic rubber plant. Final report, Phase IIA

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Phase IIA of the DOE sponsored study titled, Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Application and Evaluation. The scope of this phase of the study was to finalize the process design of the heat pump scheme, develop a process and instrumentation diagram, and a detailed cost estimate for the project. This information is essential for the site management to evaluate the economic viability and operability of the proposed heat pump design, prior to the next phase of installation and testing.

  5. Neural network recognition of nuclear power plant transients. Final report, April 15, 1992--April 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B.

    1995-05-15

    The objective of this report is to describe results obtained during the second year of funding that will lead to the development of an artificial neural network (A.N.N) fault diagnostic system for the real-time classification of operational transients at nuclear power plants. The ultimate goal of this three-year project is to design, build, and test a prototype diagnostic adviser for use in the control room or technical support center at Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC); such a prototype could be integrated into the plant process computer or safety-parameter display system. The adviser could then warn and inform plant operators and engineers of plant component failures in a timely manner. This report describes the work accomplished in the second of three scheduled years for the project. Included herein is a summary of the second year`s results as well as descriptions of each of the major topics undertaken by the researchers. Also included are reprints of the articles written under this funding as well as those that were published during the funded period.

  6. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, Lora; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Raghubir

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO₂ permeance

  7. Plant senescence and proteolysis: two processes with one destiny.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Santamaria, M Estrella; González-Melendi, Pablo; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Senescence-associated proteolysis in plants is a complex and controlled process, essential for mobilization of nutrients from old or stressed tissues, mainly leaves, to growing or sink organs. Protein breakdown in senescing leaves involves many plastidial and nuclear proteases, regulators, different subcellular locations and dynamic protein traffic to ensure the complete transformation of proteins of high molecular weight into transportable and useful hydrolysed products. Protease activities are strictly regulated by specific inhibitors and through the activation of zymogens to develop their proteolytic activity at the right place and at the proper time. All these events associated with senescence have deep effects on the relocation of nutrients and as a consequence, on grain quality and crop yield. Thus, it can be considered that nutrient recycling is the common destiny of two processes, plant senescence and, proteolysis. This review article covers the most recent findings about leaf senescence features mediated by abiotic and biotic stresses as well as the participants and steps required in this physiological process, paying special attention to C1A cysteine proteases, their specific inhibitors, known as cystatins, and their potential targets, particularly the chloroplastic proteins as source for nitrogen recycling. PMID:27505308

  8. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  9. Methodology and Process for Condition Assessment at Existing Hydropower Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qin Fen; Smith, Brennan T; Cones, Marvin; March, Patrick; Dham, Rajesh; Spray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hydropower Advancement Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop and implement a systematic process with a standard methodology to identify the opportunities of performance improvement at existing hydropower facilities and to predict and trend the overall condition and improvement opportunity within the U.S. hydropower fleet. The concept of performance for the HAP focuses on water use efficiency how well a plant or individual unit converts potential energy to electrical energy over a long-term averaging period of a year or more. The performance improvement involves not only optimization of plant dispatch and scheduling but also enhancement of efficiency and availability through advanced technology and asset upgrades, and thus requires inspection and condition assessment for equipment, control system, and other generating assets. This paper discusses the standard methodology and process for condition assessment of approximately 50 nationwide facilities, including sampling techniques to ensure valid expansion of the 50 assessment results to the entire hydropower fleet. The application and refining process and the results from three demonstration assessments are also presented in this paper.

  10. Accident Analysis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Polycube Stabilization Process

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON-MAKI, B.B.

    2001-05-14

    The Polycube Stabilization Project involves low temperature oxidation, without combustion, of polystyrene cubes using the production muffle furnaces in Glovebox HC-21C located in the Remote Mechanical ''C'' (RMC) Line in Room 230A in the 234-52 Facility. Polycubes are polystyrene cubes containing various concentrations of plutonium and uranium oxides. Hundreds of these cubes were manufactured for criticality experiments, and currently exist as unstabilized storage forms at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This project is designed to stabilize and prepare the polycube material for stable storage using a process very similar to the earlier processing of sludges in these furnaces. The significant difference is the quantity of hydrogenous material present, and the need to place additional controls on the heating rate of the material. This calculation note documents the analyses of the Representative Accidents identified in Section 2.4.4 of Hazards Analysis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Polycube Stabilization Process, HNF-7278 (HNF 2000). These two accidents, ''Deflagration in Glovebox HC-21C due to Loss of Power'' and ''Seismic Failure of Glovebox HC-21C'', will be further assessed in this accident analysis.

  11. Plant senescence and proteolysis: two processes with one destiny

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Santamaria, M. Estrella; González-Melendi, Pablo; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Senescence-associated proteolysis in plants is a complex and controlled process, essential for mobilization of nutrients from old or stressed tissues, mainly leaves, to growing or sink organs. Protein breakdown in senescing leaves involves many plastidial and nuclear proteases, regulators, different subcellular locations and dynamic protein traffic to ensure the complete transformation of proteins of high molecular weight into transportable and useful hydrolysed products. Protease activities are strictly regulated by specific inhibitors and through the activation of zymogens to develop their proteolytic activity at the right place and at the proper time. All these events associated with senescence have deep effects on the relocation of nutrients and as a consequence, on grain quality and crop yield. Thus, it can be considered that nutrient recycling is the common destiny of two processes, plant senescence and, proteolysis. This review article covers the most recent findings about leaf senescence features mediated by abiotic and biotic stresses as well as the participants and steps required in this physiological process, paying special attention to C1A cysteine proteases, their specific inhibitors, known as cystatins, and their potential targets, particularly the chloroplastic proteins as source for nitrogen recycling. PMID:27505308

  12. Plant senescence and proteolysis: two processes with one destiny.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Santamaria, M Estrella; González-Melendi, Pablo; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Senescence-associated proteolysis in plants is a complex and controlled process, essential for mobilization of nutrients from old or stressed tissues, mainly leaves, to growing or sink organs. Protein breakdown in senescing leaves involves many plastidial and nuclear proteases, regulators, different subcellular locations and dynamic protein traffic to ensure the complete transformation of proteins of high molecular weight into transportable and useful hydrolysed products. Protease activities are strictly regulated by specific inhibitors and through the activation of zymogens to develop their proteolytic activity at the right place and at the proper time. All these events associated with senescence have deep effects on the relocation of nutrients and as a consequence, on grain quality and crop yield. Thus, it can be considered that nutrient recycling is the common destiny of two processes, plant senescence and, proteolysis. This review article covers the most recent findings about leaf senescence features mediated by abiotic and biotic stresses as well as the participants and steps required in this physiological process, paying special attention to C1A cysteine proteases, their specific inhibitors, known as cystatins, and their potential targets, particularly the chloroplastic proteins as source for nitrogen recycling.

  13. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform.

    PubMed

    Plesinger, F; Jurco, J; Halamek, J; Jurak, P

    2016-07-01

    The growing technical standard of acquisition systems allows the acquisition of large records, often reaching gigabytes or more in size as is the case with whole-day electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, for example. Although current 64-bit software for signal processing is able to process (e.g. filter, analyze, etc) such data, visual inspection and labeling will probably suffer from rather long latency during the rendering of large portions of recorded signals. For this reason, we have developed SignalPlant-a stand-alone application for signal inspection, labeling and processing. The main motivation was to supply investigators with a tool allowing fast and interactive work with large multichannel records produced by EEG, electrocardiograph and similar devices. The rendering latency was compared with EEGLAB and proves significantly faster when displaying an image from a large number of samples (e.g. 163-times faster for 75  ×  10(6) samples). The presented SignalPlant software is available free and does not depend on any other computation software. Furthermore, it can be extended with plugins by third parties ensuring its adaptability to future research tasks and new data formats.

  14. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  15. Evaluation of alternative flow sheets for upgrade of the Process Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.M.

    1991-04-01

    Improved chemical precipitation and/or ion-exchange (IX) methods are being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in an effort to reduce waste generation at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP). A wide variety of screening tests were performed on potential precipitation techniques and IX materials on a laboratory scale. Two of the more promising flow sheets have been tested on pilot and full scales. The data were modeled to determine the operating conditions and waste generation at plant-scale and used to develop potential flow sheets for use at the PWTP. Each flow sheet was evaluated using future-valve economic analysis and performance ratings (where numerical values were assigned to costs, process flexibility and simplicity, stage of development, waste reduction, environmental and occupational safety, post-processing requirements, and final waste form). The results of this study indicated that several potential flow sheets should be considered for further development, and more detailed cost estimates should be made before a final selection is made for upgrade of the PWTP. 19 refs., 52 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  17. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  18. Downstream processing of biopharmaceutical proteins produced in plants

    PubMed Central

    Buyel, Johannes Felix; Fischer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    All biological platforms for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins produce an initially turbid extract that must be clarified to avoid fouling sensitive media such as chromatography resins. Clarification is more challenging if the feed stream contains large amounts of dispersed particles, because these rapidly clog the filter media typically used to remove suspended solids. Charged polymers (flocculants) can increase the apparent size of the dispersed particles by aggregation, facilitating the separation of solids and liquids, and thus reducing process costs. However, many different factors can affect the behavior of flocculants, including the pH and conductivity of the medium, the size and charge distribution of the particulates, and the charge density and molecular mass of the polymer. Importantly, these properties can also affect the recovery of the target protein and the overall safety profile of the process. We therefore used a design of experiments approach to establish reliable predictive models that characterize the impact of flocculants during the downstream processing of biopharmaceutical proteins. We highlight strategies for the selection of flocculants during process optimization. These strategies will contribute to the quality by design aspects of process development and facilitate the development of safe and efficient downstream processes for plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins. PMID:24637706

  19. Leaching characteristics of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, N A

    1990-02-01

    This report documents leaching studies conducted on two non-radioactive, pilot-plant calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two pilot-plant calcines simulate radioactive calcine which may be produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility by blending high-level liquid waste and sodium-bearing liquid waste. The calcines were subjected to the Environmental Protection Agency's Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test and to a test based on the Materials Characterization Center's MCC-1 Static Leach Test. Following the protocol of these tests, leachates were obtained and analyzed for chemical composition to develop information about component mass loss and total mass loss. Surface analysis techniques were employed in an attempt to identify species that were leached from the calcines, but later precipitated during the MCC-1 tests. This report also documents leaching studies conducted on a radioactive fluorinel-sodium blend calcine produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility. This calcine was also subjected to a static leach test based on the MCC-1 test. The leachate was analyzed to develop information about total mass loss and leaching characteristics of radioactive species. 12 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Scaling root processes based on plant functional traits (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissenstat, D. M.; McCormack, M. L.; Gaines, K.; Adams, T.

    2013-12-01

    There are great challenges to scaling root processes as variation across species and variation of a particular species over different spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood. We have examined tree species variation using multispecies plantings, often referred to by ecologists as 'common gardens'. Choosing species with wide variation in growth rate, root morphology (diameter, branching intensity) and root chemistry (root N and Ca concentration), we found that variation in root lifespan was well correlated with plant functional traits across 12 species. There was also evidence that localized liquid N addition could increase root lifespan and localized water addition diminished root lifespan over untreated controls, with effects strongest in the species of finest root diameter. In an adjacent forest, we have also seen tree species variation in apparent depth of rooting using water isotopes. In particular species of wood anatomy that was ring porous (e.g. oaks) typically had the deepest rooting depth, whereas those that had either diffuse-porous sapwood (maples) or tracheid sapwood (pines) were shallower rooted. These differences in rooting depth were related to sap flux of trees during and immediately after periods of drought. The extent that the patterns observed in central Pennsylvania are modulated by environment or indicative of other plant species will be discussed.

  1. Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel fuel. Final report. Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1983-09-13

    This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel fuels. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel fuels from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative fuel performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel fuels. 15 figures, 18 tables.

  2. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailing description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  3. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  4. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 6, Federally endangered species, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The Endangered Species Act requires that Federal agencies use their authorities to conduct programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species and to ensure that agency actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat of protected species. Those Federally endangered or threatened species that occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, the wood stork, and the bald eagle. Of these species, the alligator, sturgeon, wood stork, and the bald eagle are likely to be affected directly and/or indirectly by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. 81 refs., 76 figs., 35 tabs.

  5. The first commercial supercritical water oxidation sludge processing plant.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James W; Raymond, Dennis H

    2002-01-01

    Final disposal of sludge continues to be one of the more pressing problems for the wastewater treatment industry. Present regulations for municipal sludge have favored beneficial use, primarily in land application. However, several agencies and entities have warned of potential health risks associated with these methods. Hydrothermal oxidation provides an alternative method that addresses the health concerns associated with sludge disposal by completely converting all organic matter in the sludge to carbon dioxide, water, and other innocuous materials. A hydrothermal oxidation system using HydroProcessing, L.L.C.'s HydroSolids process has been installed at Harlingen, Texas to process up to 9.8 dry tons per day of sludge. Based on a literature review, this system is the largest hydrothermal oxidation system in the world, and the only one built specifically to process a sludge. Start up of Unit 1 of two units of the HTO system began in April 2001. Early results have indicated COD conversion rates in excess of 99.9%. Harlingen Waterworks System estimates that the HydroSolids system will cost less than other alternatives such as autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion and more traditional forms of digestion that still require dewatering and final disposal. The Waterworks intends to generate income from the sale of energy in the form of hot water and the use of carbon dioxide from the HydroSolids process for neutralization of high pH industrial effluent. The Waterworks also expects to generate income from the treatment of septage and grease trap wastes.

  6. A Plutonium Finishing Plant Model for the Cercla Removal Action and Decommissioning Construction Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.

    2008-07-01

    The joint policy between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for decommissioning buildings at DOE facilities documents an agreement between the agencies to perform decommissioning activities including demolition under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The use of removal actions for decommissioning integrates EPA oversight authority, DOE lead agency responsibility, and state authority for decommissioning activities. Once removal actions have been performed under CERCLA, a construction completion report is required to document the completion of the required action. Additionally, a decommissioning report is required under DOE guidance. No direct guidance was found for documenting completion of decommissioning activities and preparing a final report that satisfies the CERCLA requirements and the DOE requirements for decommissioning. Additional guidance was needed for the documentation of construction completion under CERCLA for D and D projects undertaken under the joint policy that addresses the requirements of both agencies. A model for the construction completion report was developed to document construction completion for CERCLA D and D activities performed under the joint EPA/DOE policy at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The model documentation report developed at PFP integrates the DOE requirements for establishing decommissioning end-points, documenting end-point completion and preparing a final decommissioning report with the CERCLA requirements to document completion of the action identified in the Action Memorandum (AM). The model includes the required information on health and safety, data management, cost and schedule and end-points completion. (authors)

  7. Pilot plant processing of sodium bifluoride to sodium fluoride pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, S.M.

    1985-01-25

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) traps in the PGDP purge cascade presently use NaF pellets to remove residual UF{sub 6} from the gas stream. These pellets are procured from ORGDP which converts sodium bifluoride pellets to NaF by thermal decomposition. Discussions of the possibility of no longer producing pellets at ORGDP, due to oven corrosion problems, led to a pilot plant test at PGDP. This test was designed to examine the feasibility of producing the NaF pellets at PGDP in the event that an alternative source of supply became necessary. Satisfactory pellets were produced without difficulty; however, it was determined that the conversion process could not be readily carried out in the existing NaF traps. Construction of a separate facility with provisions to handle the large quantities of hydrogen fluoride (HF) released during the process would be required to produce pellets at the rate needed. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Two-reactor, high-recovery sulfur plant and process

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.L.; Palm, J.W.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a process for the recovery of sulfur wherein an acid gas feedstream comprising hydrogen sulfide is processed for the recovery of sulfur in a Claus process sulfur recovery plant. The process consists of: (a) passing the acid gas feedstream successively through the thermal reaction zone, the first position Claus catalytic reaction zone, and the second position Claus catalytic reaction zone for the recovery of sulfur; (b) preconditioning the first position Claus catalytic reaction zone by introducing thereinto a cold stream having an inlet temperature effective for condensing sulfur on at least a portion of the catalyst and passing the resulting stream through a remaining substantial portion of the catalyst, the cold stream thus used for preconditioning being produced by cooling acid gas feedstream effluent from the thermal reaction zone to the first position catalytic reaction zone to the temperature; and (c) switching the thus preconditioned Claus catalytic reaction zone in the first position into the second position and continuing cooling the thus preconditioned freshly regenerated reactor in the second position concurrently with forming and depositing sulfur on catalyst therein, and switching the Claus catalytic reaction zone in the second position into the first position and continuing the process according to (a), (b), and (c).

  9. Measuring, managing and maximizing performance of mineral processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bascur, O.A.; Kennedy, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The implementation of continuous quality improvement is the confluence of Total Quality Management, People Empowerment, Performance Indicators and Information Engineering. The supporting information technologies allow a mineral processor to narrow the gap between management business objectives and the process control level. One of the most important contributors is the user friendliness and flexibility of the personal computer in a client/server environment. This synergistic combination when used for real time performance monitoring translates into production cost savings, improved communications and enhanced decision support. Other savings come from reduced time to collect data and perform tedious calculations, act quickly with fresh new data, generate and validate data to be used by others. This paper presents an integrated view of plant management. The selection of the proper tools for continuous quality improvement are described. The process of selecting critical performance monitoring indices for improved plant performance are discussed. The importance of a well balanced technological improvement, personnel empowerment, total quality management and organizational assets are stressed.

  10. Energy conservation study on Agripac Processing Plant, Salem, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-15

    An energy study on electrical energy using systems was performed at Agripac plant No. 1 in Salem, Oregon, in the late summer and fall of 1984. The plant processes mainly green beans, corn and squash. The respective products are inspected, prepared and graded, after which they are either canned or frozen in freeze tunnels or cold storage cells. The canned products are sent through pressure cookers. In the case of green beans and corn, some of the product is frozen in freeze tunnels and dumped into tote bins for the repack operation, while some is packaged in cartons and quick frozen in blast freeze cells. For squash, all the product processed is put into cartons and frozen in the cells. Energy conservation measures were calculated using a simple payback analysis. Conservation measures have been evaluated interactively to avoid overestimating savings, assuming that measures that are cost effective will be implemented as a package. In some cases, mutually exclusive conservation measures have been considered for a single application. These have been presented as an either/or measure. Details of the options are included in the text and the calculation sheets.

  11. Optimization of a biological wastewater treatment process at a petrochemical plant using process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.M.; Dold, P.L.; Baker, A.J.; Briggs, T.

    1996-12-31

    A research study was conducted on the activated sludge process treating the wastewater from a petrochemical manufacturing facility in Ontario, Canada. The objective of the study was to improve the level of understanding of the process and to evaluate the use of model-based simulation tools as an aid in the optimization of the wastewater treatment facility. Models such as the IAWQ Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) have previously been developed and applied to assist in designing new systems and to assist in the optimization of existing systems for the treatment of municipal wastewaters, However, due to significant differences between the characteristics of the petrochemical plant wastewater and municipal wastewaters, this study required the development of a mechanistic model specifically to describe the behavior of the activated sludge treatment of the petrochemical wastewater. This paper outlines the development of the mechanistic model and gives examples of how plant performance issues were investigated through process simulation.

  12. Processing of a plant vacuolar protein precursor in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hattori, T; Ichihara, S; Nakamura, K

    1987-08-01

    A precursor for sporamin A, the storage protein of the tuberous roots of sweet potato deposited in the vacuole, is synthesized on membrane-bound polysomes and has an extra peptide of 37 amino acids at the N-terminus of the mature form, which can be divided into an N-terminal putative signal peptide sequence (residues -37 to -17) and a segment enriched with charged amino acids (residues -16 to -1) [Hattori, T., et al. (1985) Plant Mol. Biol. 5, 313-320]. We examined the in vitro processing of the sporamin A precursor using a messenger RNA derived from a full-length cDNA by the SP6 transcription system. When the in vitro translation in a wheat germ cell-free system was carried out in the presence of dog pancreas microsomal membranes, the precursor polypeptide (Mr = 24,000) was processed into an intermediate form still larger than the mature polypeptide (Mr = 20,000). The processed intermediate form was also produced by addition of microsomal membranes from sweet potato and potato in the translation reaction, although less efficiently compared to dog membranes. Moreover, Escherichia coli cells expressing sporamin precursor accumulated a polypeptide with the same electrophoretic mobility as the intermediate form produced in vitro. The processing by dog membranes is accompanied by translocation of the polypeptide across the membranes as assayed by resistance to externally added proteases. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing analysis of [3H]leucine-labelled intermediate form produced in vitro by dog membranes indicated that co-translational processing of the sporamin precursor by endoplasmic reticulum membranes removes only the signal peptide segment from the extra peptide, and suggested that the charged segment following the signal peptide is removed post-translationally during the transport of sporamin into vacuole. The significance of two-step processing of plant vacuolar protein precursor is discussed in relation to the two-step processing of precursors for yeast

  13. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-08-01

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process used by all lead and event contractors for emergency planning and preparedness. The EAL process ensures a technically defensible approach to emergency categorization/classification in accordance with DOE Order 151.1. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for the development and approval of the EAL process. EALs are developed to cover events inside and outside the Y-12 Plant and to allow the Emergency Response Organization (ERO) to classify or reclassify events promptly based on specific indicators. This report is divided into the following 11 subsections: (1) EAL Process, (2) Categorization/Classification System for Operational Emergencies, (3) Development of EALs, (4) Barrier Analysis for EALs, (5) Symptom-Based and Event-Based EALs, (6) Other Considerations, (7) Integration of EALs with Normal and Off-Normal Operations, (8) EAL Manual, (9) Testing EALs for Completeness, (10) Training and Implementation of EALs, and (11) Configuration Management.

  14. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  15. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  16. Water conservation study. Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this water conservation study is to identify projects which result in energy maintenance and cost savings in the process water distribution system at Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP) in Baraboo, Wisconsin. A leak detection survey was performed on all process water piping with a diameter of 6 inches or greater. The leak detection analysis was performed using a combination of listening devices and preamplified-transducer systems to identify the majority of leak locations. When the location of the leak could not be readily identified using these methods, a leak correlator was used. The leak correlator determines leak location based on the time it takes for sound to travel from the leak to a waterline connection point.

  17. Stepwise drying of medicinal plants as alternative to reduce time and energy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuervo-Andrade, S. P.; Hensel, O.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of drying medicinal plants is to extend the shelf life and conserving the fresh characteristics. This is achieved by reducing the water activity (aw) of the product to a value which will inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, significantly reducing enzyme activity and the rate at which undesirable chemical reactions occur. The technical drying process requires an enormous amount of thermal and electrical energy. An improvement in the quality of the product to be dried and at the same time a decrease in the drying cost and time are achieved through the utilization of a controlled conventional drying method, which is based on a good utilization of the renewable energy or looking for other alternatives which achieve lower processing times without sacrificing the final product quality. In this work the method of stepwise drying of medicinal plants is presented as an alternative to the conventional drying that uses a constant temperature during the whole process. The objective of stepwise drying is the decrease of drying time and reduction in energy consumption. In this process, apart from observing the effects on decreases the effective drying process time and energy, the influence of the different combinations of drying phases on several characteristics of the product are considered. The tests were carried out with Melissa officinalis L. variety citronella, sowed in greenhouse. For the stepwise drying process different combinations of initial and final temperature, 40/50°C, are evaluated, with different transition points associated to different moisture contents (20, 30, 40% and 50%) of the product during the process. Final quality of dried foods is another important issue in food drying. Drying process has effect in quality attributes drying products. This study was determining the color changes and essential oil loses by reference the measurement of the color and essential oil content of the fresh product was

  18. Definitive sox control process evaluations: limestone, lime, and magnesia FGD processes. Final report Jun 78-Sep 79

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.D.; Barrier, J.W.; O'Brien, W.E.; Tomlinson, S.V.

    1980-01-01

    The report gives economic and ground-to-ground energy evaluations of limestone slurry, lime slurry, and magnesia (producing sulfuric acid) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. The lime slurry process, using purchased lime and lime calcined onsite, remains lower in capital investment (90 $/kW for the base-case 500-MW power plant burning 3.5% sulfur coal) than the limestone slurry process (98 $/kW). The limestone slurry process remains lower in annual revenue requirements (4.02 mills/kWh) than the lime slurry process (4.25 mills/kWh). The magnesia process is about one-third higher in capital investment (132 $/kW) and one-fourth high in annual revenue requirements (5.05 mills/kWh including credit for acid sales) than the limestone slurry process, because of absorbent-recovery and acid-producing complexities. The lime slurry process using purchased lime is more economical than the limestone slurry process at low absorbent consumption rates (below about 200 MW or 2% sulfur coal). Onsite lime calcination becomes economical compared to purchased lime for larger power plants and higher coal sulfur levels (about 1000 MW with 3.5% sulfur coal, 750 MW with 5% sulfur coal). The limestone slurry process has the lowest overall (raw material, FGD, and disposal) energy requirements (26% less than lime and 30% less than magnesia).

  19. Low-level arsenic exposure in wood processing plants.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J; Landrigan, P J; Crowley, S

    1980-01-01

    In October 1978, seven construction workers building a pier in Monterey, California, developed symptoms consistent with arsenic intoxication and had elevated urinary levels of arsenic. The wood used for the pier had been pressure-treated with an arsenic preservative. To evaluate the potential acute medical hazards of preserving wood with arsenic, we evaluated employees at three California plants where arsenic preservatives are mixed and applied to wood. Histories, physical examinations, and urine specimens for arsenic analysis were collected from 44 workers exposed to arsenic and from 37 controls in three woodworking plants where arsenic is not used. A comparison of the groups failed to show any significant differences in history or physical examination. Adjustment for age, length of employment, and smoking histories did not alter the pattern. Urinary arsenic concentration was found to increase with increased exposure. These results do not imply absence of chronic or delayed toxicity, nor do they preclude the presence of a more subtle toxicity such as nerve conduction deficits. The data indicate existence of an arsenic exposure hazard in wood processing.U

  20. Effects of plant roots on the hydraulic performance during the clogging process in mesocosm vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hua, G F; Zhao, Z W; Kong, J; Guo, R; Zeng, Y T; Zhao, L F; Zhu, Q D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant roots (Typha angustifolia roots) on the hydraulic performance during the clogging process from the perspective of time and space distributions in mesocosm vertical flow-constructed wetlands with coarse sand matrix. For this purpose, a pair of lab-scale experiments was conducted to compare planted and unplanted systems by measuring the effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the substrate within different operation periods. Furthermore, the flow pattern of the clogging process in the planted and unplanted wetland systems were evaluated by their hydraulic performance (e.g., mean residence time, short circuiting, volumetric efficiency, number of continuously stirred tank reactors, and hydraulic efficiency factor) in salt tracer experiments. The results showed that the flow conditions would change in different clogging stages, which indicated that plants played different roles related to time and space. In the early clogging stages, plant roots restricted the flow of water, while in the middle and later clogging stages, especially the later stage, growing roots opened new pore spaces in the substrate. The roots played an important role in affecting the hydraulic performance in the upper layer (0-30 cm) where the sand matrix had a larger root volume fraction. Finally, the causes of the controversy over plant roots' effects on clogging were discussed. The results helped further understand the effects of plant roots on hydraulic performance during the clogging process.

  1. NOVEL COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION IN GASIFICATION PROCESSES IN VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Schwartz

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the work performed, accomplishments and conclusion obtained from the project entitled ''Novel Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation in Gasification Processes in Vision 21 Energy Plants'' under the United States Department of Energy Contract DE-FC26-01NT40973. ITN Energy Systems was the prime contractor. Team members included: the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; Nexant Consulting; Argonne National Laboratory and Praxair. The objective of the program was to develop a novel composite membrane structure for hydrogen separation as a key technology module within the future ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plants. The separation technology module is targeted for use within the gasification module of the ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant. The high performance and low-cost manufacturing of the proposed technology will benefit the deployment of ''Vision 21'' fossil fuel plant processes by improving the energy efficiency, flexibility and environmental performance of these plants. Of particular importance is that this technology will also produce a stream of pure carbon dioxide. This allows facile sequestration or other use of this greenhouse gas. These features will benefit the U.S. in allowing for the continued use of domestic fossil fuels in a more energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The program developed and evaluated composite membranes and catalysts for hydrogen separation. Components of the monolithic modules were fabricated by plasma spray processing. The engineering and economic characteristics of the proposed Ion Conducting Ceramic Membrane (ICCM) approach, including system integration issues, were also assessed. This resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of integration schemes of ICCM hydrogen separation technology within Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Several results and conclusion were obtained during this program. In the area of materials synthesis, novel

  2. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    SciTech Connect

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  3. A study of poultry processing plant noise control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyvill, J. C.; Morrison, W. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A number of techniques can be used to reduce noise in poultry processing plants. In general, covering the ceiling with a noise-absorbing medium is a practical first step. Once the reflected noise levels are abated, treatment of specific identifiable noise courses can take place. The development, flammability, and mechanical properties of acoustic panels to be vertically suspended from the ceiling are discussed as well as the covers need to comply with USDA cleanability requirements. The isolation of drive motors and pumps from large expansive areas, the muffling of pneumatic devices, and the insulation of ice chutes are methods of source quieting. Proper maintenance of machinery and vibration monitoring are also needed to reduce hearing damage risk and to improve worker productivity and employee/supervisor relations.

  4. Use of Brassica Plants in the Phytoremediation and Biofumigation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Szczygłowska, Marzena; Piekarska, Anna; Konieczka, Piotr; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, serious contamination of soils by heavy metals has been reported. It is therefore a matter of urgency to develop a new and efficient technology for removing contaminants from soil. Another aspect to this problem is that environmental pollution decreases the biological quality of soil, which is why pesticides and fertilizers are being used in ever-larger quantities. The environmentally friendly solutions to these problems are phytoremediation, which is a technology that cleanses the soil of heavy metals, and biofumigation, a process that helps to protect crops using natural plant compounds. So far, these methods have only been used separately; however, research on a technology that combines them both using white cabbage has been carried out. PMID:22174630

  5. Mortality among female workers at a thorium-processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Lee, Tze-San

    1994-05-01

    The mortality patterns among a cohort of 677 female workers at a thorium-processing plant are reported for the period from 1940 to 1982. Of the 677 women, 165 were reported dead; 459 were still alive; and 53 (7.8%) were lost to follow-up. The standardized mortality ratios from all causes (0.74), all cancers (0.53), and circulatory diseases (0.66) were significantly below those for the general US population. In this cohort, 5 deaths due to lung cancer and 1 death from leukemia were observed, with 4.53 and 1.69 deaths expected, respectively. No deaths from cancer of the liver, pancreas, or bone were observed. Poisson regression analysis was used for an internal comparison within the cohort. The results of the Poisson regression analysis showed no significant effect on mortality rates of all causes and cancers from the study factors, including job classification, duration of employment, and time since first employment.

  6. Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-03-10

    Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400°C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFP’s Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3•9H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

  7. A mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, E.; Okun, A.; Ruder, A.; Fingerhut, M.; Steenland, K. )

    1992-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has found that the evidence for the carcinogenicity of beryllium is sufficient based on animal data but limited based on human data. This analysis reports on a retrospective cohort mortality study among 9,225 male workers employed at seven beryllium processing facilities for at least 2 days between January 1, 1940, and December 31, 1969. Vital status was ascertained through December 31, 1988. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for lung cancer in the total cohort was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.42); significant SMRs for lung cancer were observed for two of the oldest plants located in Lorain, Ohio (SMR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.28-2.19) and Reading, Pennsylvania (SMR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.03-1.48). For the overall cohort, significantly elevated SMRs were found for all deaths (SMR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01-1.08), ischemic heart disease (SMR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01-1.14), pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases (SMR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.21-1.80), and chronic and unspecified nephritis, renal failure, and other renal sclerosis (SMR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.00-2.12). Lung cancer SMRs did not increase with longer duration of employment, but did increase with longer latency (time since first exposure). Lung cancer was particularly elevated (SMR = 3.33; 95% CI = 1.66-5.95) among workers at the Lorain plant with a history of (primarily) acute beryllium disease, which is associated with very high beryllium exposure. The lung cancer excess was not restricted to plants operating in the 1940s, when beryllium exposures were known to be extraordinarily high. Elevated lung cancer SMRs were also observed for four of the five plants operating in the 1950s for workers hired during that decade. Neither smoking nor geographic location fully explains the increased lung cancer risk. Occupational exposure to beryllium compounds is the most plausible explanation for the increased risk of lung cancer observed in this study.

  8. Environmental stress-mediated changes in transcriptional and translational regulation of protein synthesis in crop plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The research described in this final report focused on the influence of stress agents on protein synthesis in crop plants (primarily soybean). Investigations into the `heat shock` (HS) stress mediated changes in transcriptional and translocational regulation of protein synthesis coupled with studies on anaerobic water deficit and other stress mediated alterations in protein synthesis in plants provided the basis of the research. Understanding of the HS gene expression and function(s) of the HSPs may clarify regulatory mechanisms operative in development. Since the reproductive systems of plants if often very temperature sensitive, it may be that the system could be manipulated to provide greater thermotolerance.

  9. Combined fenton oxidation and biological activated carbon process for recycling of coking plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-xin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Bing-jing; Duan, Jun; Lv, Yan; Liu, Wan-dong; Ying, Wei-chi

    2011-05-15

    Fenton oxidation and coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation (CFS) were both effective in removing many organic constituents of the biotreated coking plant effluent before the final treatment in an activated carbon adsorber. Fenton oxidation broke down most persistent organic pollutants and complex cyanides present in the feed stream and caused the eventual biodegradation of the organic residues in the adsorber. The results of Fenton oxidation followed by adsorption and biodegradation in two biological activated carbon (BAC) adsorbers show that the combined treatment consistently produced a high quality final effluent of <50mg/L in COD(Cr) and <0.5mg/L in total cyanide during the 70-d study without replacing any activated carbon. The BAC function of the adsorber substantially reduced the need for replacing activated carbon making the combined Fenton oxidation-BAC treatment process a cost effective treatment process to recycle the final effluent for many beneficial reuses while meeting the much more stringent discharge limits of the future.

  10. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-B. Commercial fusion electric plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-B contains the following chapters: (1) blanket and reflector; (2) central cell shield; (3) central cell structure; (4) heat transport and energy conversion; (5) tritium systems; (6) cryogenics; (7) maintenance; (8) safety; (9) radioactivity, activation, and waste disposal; (10) instrumentation and control; (11) balance of plant; (12) plant startup and operation; (13) plant availability; (14) plant construction; and (15) economic analysis.

  11. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  12. Planning for risk-informed/performance-based fire protection at nuclear power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Najafi, B.; Parkinson, W.J.; Lee, J.A.

    1997-12-01

    This document presents a framework for discussing issues and building consensus towards use of fire modeling and risk technology in nuclear power plant fire protection program implementation. The plan describes a three-phase approach: development of core technologies, implementation of methods, and finally, case studies and pilot applications to verify viability of such methods. The core technologies are defined as fire modeling, fire and system tests, use of operational data, and system and risk techniques. The implementation phase addresses the programmatic issues involved in implementing a risk-informed/performance-based approach in an integrated approach with risk/performance measures. The programmatic elements include: (1) a relationship with fire codes and standards development as defined by the ongoing effort of NFPA for development of performance-based standards; (2) the ability for NRC to undertake inspection and enforcement; and (3) the benefit to utilities in terms of cost versus safety. The case studies are intended to demonstrate applicability of single issue resolution while pilot applications are intended to check the applicability of the integrated program as a whole.

  13. Characterization and environmental studies on anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes: Pompano Beach plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Wong, K.F.V.; Nemerow, N.; Strietfeld, M.; Narasimhan, R.; Tilles, A.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to evaluate and verify the technical and economical feasibiilty of the solid waste to methane fermentation process. Since anaerobic fermentation of solid waste materials has not been demonstrated on a large scale, there is a definite risk factor that the system will not perform as current research suggests. The proof of concept plant was built on an existing shredding and landfill site at Pompano Beach, Florida. Two digesters were built with a total capacity of 90 Mg/day of solid waste. Municipal solid wastes contain numerous substances of potential environmental concern. While some understanding of the composition of raw municipal waste and its leachate products is available, no information regarding characteristics of solid, liquid and gaseous outputs from anaerobic digestion exists. The areas of environmental concerns identified were: output gas quality, leachate (filter cake and filtrate) to groundwater system, wash water streams, filter cake, and filtrate. In order to characterize the effluent streams, the following sampling sites were chosen: air classified heavy fraction, air classified light fraction, digested slurry, output gas, filter cake, filtrate, wash water input, and wash water effluent. The technical approach consisted of physical, chemical, and biological characterization of all outputs at the plant. Analyses for major, minor and trace compounds of potential environmental concern were conducted. Relevant regulatory standards were recognized and searches for compounds on EPA priority pollutant list and carciongen list were conducted. The ultimate aim was to quantitatively relate contaminant potential with plant operating parameters. Some mutagenic studies were conducted. A significant part of the technical approach relates to the development of predictive criterion for pollutant migration by leaching and modeling studies.

  14. Generic guidelines for the life extension of fossil fuel power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, W.P.; Richman, R.H.; Pillar, C.S.; Perry, L.W.

    1986-11-01

    These generic guidelines were developed under the EPRI project for fossil-fuel power plant life extension - RP2596. In addition to compiling the findings of four utility life extension projects, the guidelines incorporate worldwide experience in the residual life assessment and life extension of fossil-fuel power plant components. The guidelines are aimed at assisting those utilities without formal life extension programs to formulate initial life extension planning studies and to provide guidance in the subsequent implementation of a life extension strategy. For utilities with existing programs, the guidelines provide technical life assessment guidance and also serve as a checklist for the periodic review and updating of the programs. The guidelines review life extension on three organization levels - (1) corporate and system planning issues, (2) life assesment (plant) planning issues and (3) life extension implementation. They provide a logical, stepwise procedure for establishing or revising a life extension program. The guidelines, particularly the section on life extension implementation, are structured in a three-level approach in which increasingly costly and accurate residual life assessments are performed only as needed. A phased approach to life extension is introduced as a potentially cost- and resource-effective way of implementing life extension activities. Each step of the life extension process is illustrated with examples of the manner in which the implementation may typically occur. However, given the variety of circumstances facing each individual utility, the emphasis is on those steps that are typically performed and not upon recommending the details of a particular life extention program. 51 refs., 68 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Saguaro Power Plant Solar Repowering Project. Volume III. Appendices. Final technical report, September 1979-July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.R.

    1980-07-01

    The conceptual design of a central receiver power plant using a molten salt for repowering the No. One Unit of Arizona Public Service's Saguaro power plant is given. This volume of the report contains the appendices: (A) effect of Arizona Public Service Company's demand profile on the amount of storage; (B) receiver design drawings; (C) plant characteristics and performance data; (E) existing plant description; (F) economic data; (G) simulation models; (H) plant cost data; and (I) project control network. (WHK)

  16. Proof-of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The NOXSO Process uses a regenerable sorbent that removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} simultaneously from flue gas. The sorbent is a stabilized {gamma}-alumina bed impregnated with sodium carbonate. The process was successfully tested at three different scales, equivalent to 0.017, 0.06 and 0.75 MW of flue gas generated from a coal-fired power plant. The Proof-of-Concept (POC) Test is the last test prior to a full-scale demonstration. A slip stream of flue gas equivalent to a 5 MW coal-fired power plant was used for the POC test. This paper summarizes the NOXSO POC plant and its test results.

  17. ENZYMATIC PROCESSES USED BY PLANTS TO DEGRADE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a review of recent plant enzyme systems that have been studied in uptake and transformation of organic contaminants. General procedures of plant preparation and enzyme isolation are covered. Six plant enzyme systems have been investigated for activity with selected pollut...

  18. Calcium Signals: The Lead Currency of Plant Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kudla, Jörg; Batistič, Oliver; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ signals are core transducers and regulators in many adaptation and developmental processes of plants. Ca2+ signals are represented by stimulus-specific signatures that result from the concerted action of channels, pumps, and carriers that shape temporally and spatially defined Ca2+ elevations. Cellular Ca2+ signals are decoded and transmitted by a toolkit of Ca2+ binding proteins that relay this information into downstream responses. Major transduction routes of Ca2+ signaling involve Ca2+-regulated kinases mediating phosphorylation events that orchestrate downstream responses or comprise regulation of gene expression via Ca2+-regulated transcription factors and Ca2+-responsive promoter elements. Here, we review some of the remarkable progress that has been made in recent years, especially in identifying critical components functioning in Ca2+ signal transduction, both at the single-cell and multicellular level. Despite impressive progress in our understanding of the processing of Ca2+ signals during the past years, the elucidation of the exact mechanistic principles that underlie the specific recognition and conversion of the cellular Ca2+ currency into defined changes in protein–protein interaction, protein phosphorylation, and gene expression and thereby establish the specificity in stimulus response coupling remain to be explored. PMID:20354197

  19. Cost and Quality Management: Making fossil power and plants more competitive: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, R.S.

    1992-05-01

    Cost and Quality Management theory is helping to make US corporations profitable again. Summarizing Phase 1 of a three-phase study, this report defines how Cost and Quality Management (also called Total Quality Management) relates to power production plants, the barriers standing in the way, and the concepts needed to overcome them. Major barriers include resistance to change, sparse efforts to grow employee initiative and self-esteem, a lack of understanding the importance of internal customers, and traditional management practices as represented by the top-to-bottom organization chart. Breakthrough concepts include a commitment to making and sustaining quality-based changes, realizing the potential of human assets, focusing on satisfying internal as well as external customers, and treating work as a process that crosses departments. The report ends by describing five other ongoing EPRI projects designed to help utility executives change from a traditional management style to Cost and Quality Management.

  20. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on living plants exposed for extended periods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The effects of intense 60-Hz electric fields were studied by exposing plants of five kinds (crops) for extended periods in a special greenhouse where cultural and environmental factors could be controlled. Plant populations and densities simulated field conditions. While exposed, plants of all crops germinated satisfactorily, and plants of sweet corn and wheat completed their life cycles and produced viable seed. Plants of alfalfa and tall fescue were at the early bloom stage when harvested. Exposure of plants of five kinds to electric fields had no statistically significant effects on seed germination, seedling growth, plant growth, phenology, flowering, seed set, biomass production, plant height, leaf area, plant survival, and nodulation. Exposure to 60-Hz electric fields resulted in very limited damage to terminal leaf tips, awns, and corn tassels, particularly at fields of 30 kV/m or greater. 47 refs., 36 figs., 44 tabs.

  1. Regulation of plant developmental processes by a novel splicing factor.

    PubMed

    Ali, Gul Shad; Palusa, Saiprasad G; Golovkin, Maxim; Prasad, Jayendra; Manley, James L; Reddy, Anireddy S N

    2007-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins play important roles in constitutive and alternative splicing and other aspects of mRNA metabolism. We have previously isolated a unique plant SR protein (SR45) with atypical domain organization. However, the biological and molecular functions of this novel SR protein are not known. Here, we report biological and molecular functions of this protein. Using an in vitro splicing complementation assay, we showed that SR45 functions as an essential splicing factor. Furthermore, the alternative splicing pattern of transcripts of several other SR genes was altered in a mutant, sr45-1, suggesting that the observed phenotypic abnormalities in sr45-1 are likely due to altered levels of SR protein isoforms, which in turn modulate splicing of other pre-mRNAs. sr45-1 exhibited developmental abnormalities, including delayed flowering, narrow leaves and altered number of petals and stamens. The late flowering phenotype was observed under both long days and short days and was rescued by vernalization. FLC, a key flowering repressor, is up-regulated in sr45-1 demonstrating that SR45 influences the autonomous flowering pathway. Changes in the alternative splicing of SR genes and the phenotypic defects in the mutant were rescued by SR45 cDNA, further confirming that the observed defects in the mutant are due to the lack of SR45. These results indicate that SR45 is a novel plant-specific splicing factor that plays a crucial role in regulating developmental processes. PMID:17534421

  2. In-plant demonstration of energy optimization in beck dyeing of carpet. Final report, June 1, 1979-January 1, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tincher, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Several energy-conservative technologies have been successfully combined and transferred to a commercial carpet finishing plant to optimize beck dyeing. The technology of bump-and-run, in which the dyebath temperature was allowed to drift for the last 85% of the hold time instead of being maintained by active steam sparging, reduced the energy consumption by 38% with negligible capital investment required. Merging of dyebath reuse with bump-and-run only marginally increased the energy consumption (to 39%), but substantially lowered the plant's finishing costs further by directly recycling dyes, auxiliary chemicals, and water. Final optimization, which merged a technique whereby the carpet was pulled directly from the hot bath with bump-and-run and dyebath reuse, further improved the economics by drastically reducing water/sewer requirements by 90% and eliminating the holding tank/pumping assembly as a reuse requirement. From a carpet industry viewpoint, the demonstrated modifications have a direct energy conservation potential of 2.4 x 10/sup 5/ barrels of oil equivalent per year assuming the technology is directly transferable to similar atmospheric dyeing processes, e.g., beck dyeing of nylon and polyester fabrics, the potential to the entire textile industry is 2.6 x 10/sup 6/ BOE/year. Economically, total potential savings for the carpet industry on reuse incorporation was $1.2 x 10/sup 7//year, based on a 2.3 cents/lb. savings figure. When the allied fabric industry was included, the national potential was raised to $1.0 x 10/sup 8//year. These figures include cost savings due to materials recycled (water, auxiliary chemicals and dyes) as well as energy conservation.

  3. The characterization of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from the scalder tank water of a commercial poultry processing plant: Recovery of a multi-drug resistant S. Heidelberg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of Salmonella enterica in the water of the final scalder tank throughout a typical processing day in a commercial broiler chicken processing plant. Three liters of scalder water were aseptically sampled three times daily for three consecutive days...

  4. Interactions of Science and Technology in the Innovative Process: Some Case Studies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH. Columbus Labs.

    This is the final report of the latest effort in a series sponsored by the National Science Foundation on the innovation process. It adds to the store of retrospective case studies by documenting historically the significant events in several technological innovations of high social impact. These cases, drawn together by the Battelle Columbus…

  5. Medicaid Program; Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems (90/10). Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    This final rule will extend enhanced funding for Medicaid eligibility systems as part of a state's mechanized claims processing system, and will update conditions and standards for such systems, including adding to and updating current Medicaid Management Information Systems (MMIS) conditions and standards. These changes will allow states to improve customer service and support the dynamic nature of Medicaid eligibility, enrollment, and delivery systems.

  6. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process. Final report, October 1, 1987--April 2, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  7. Effect of temper rolling on final shape defects in a V-section roll forming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abvabi, Akbar; Rolfe, Bernard; Hodgson, Peter D.; Weiss, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Roll forming is a continuous process in which a flat strip is shaped to the desired profile by sequential bending in a series of roll stands. Because of the large variety of applications of roll forming in the industry, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is increasingly utilized for roll forming process design. Bending is the dominant deformation mode in roll forming. Sheet materials used in this process are generally temper rolled, roller- or tension- leveled. These processes introduce residual stresses into the material, and recent studies have shown that those affect the material behavior in bending. In this study a numerical model of the temper rolling (skin passing) process was used to determine a residual stress distribution in a dual phase, DP780, steel strip. A 5-stand roll forming process for the forming of a V-section was modeled, and the effect of various thickness reduction levels in the temper rolling process on the final shape defects was analyzed. The results show that a small thickness reduction in the temper rolling process decreases the maximum bow height but the final springback angle increases. It is also shown that reasonable model accuracy can be achieved by including the residual stress information due to temper rolling as initial condition in the numerical modeling of a roll forming process.

  8. Assessment of citrus-processing energy-efficiency improvement. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The cirtus industry was surveyed in order to assess the impact of two programs toward the goal of implementing energy conserving options and the development of new technologies. Six technologies were identified that have recently been implemented in the citrus industry, and a case history is summarized for each. Advanced technologies have been identified that could be applied in citrus processing plants and that would result in significant energy and operating cost savings. The industry sources indicated a need to prove these concepts in a research and development project such as a pilot plant before they will be implemented. (LEW)

  9. Seasonal uncoupling of demographic processes in a marine clonal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaró, O.; Romero, J.; Pérez, M.

    2014-04-01

    In temperate regions, climatic factors impose a general seasonal pattern on seagrass growth that can be observed in leaf growth rates and, in small species, also in shoot density. Large variations in shoot density suggest a strong temporal uncoupling between shoot recruitment and shoot mortality, and the dependence of each of these processes on different drivers. Here we examine seasonal patterns of recruitment and mortality in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, one of the species most sensitive to seasonal forcing in the Mediterranean. We sampled two local populations submitted to different nutrient availability in Alfacs Bay (NW Mediterranean) and determined recruitment and mortality rates, as well as other plant traits, on a monthly basis. Our results confirm the hypothesized uncoupling, with maximum mortality 2 months after maximum recruitment. Whereas timing of recruitment was associated with light availability, and was supported by carbohydrate remobilisation, mortality was related to high water temperatures and probably also to light limitation in late summer due to self-shading. In the high-nutrient population, algal overgrowth caused further light deprivation, with mortality rates higher than in the low-nutrient population. It is emphasised that the demographic balance of the studied populations was negative for most of the year, with the exception of August and September. Therefore, caution is necessary when overall population trends are inferred from single annual sampling events.

  10. Quaternary diversification in European alpine plants: pattern and process.

    PubMed Central

    Kadereit, Joachim W; Griebeler, Eva Maria; Comes, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Molecular clock approaches applied previously to European alpine plants suggest that Primula sect. Auricula, Gentiana sect. Ciminalis and Soldanella diversified at the beginning of the Quaternary or well within this period, whereas Globularia had already started diversifying in the (Late-)Tertiary. In the first part of this paper we present evidence that, in contrast to Globularia and Soldanella, the branching patterns of the molecular internal transcribed spacer phylogenies of both Primula and Gentiana are incompatible with a constant-rates birth-death model. In both of these last two taxa, speciation probably decreased through Quaternary times, perhaps because of some niche-filling process and/or a decrease in specific range size. In the second part, we apply nonlinear regression analyses to the lineage-through-time plots of P. sect. Auricula to test a range of capacity-dependent models of diversification, and the effect of Quaternary climatic oscillations on diversification and extinction. At least for one major clade of sect. Auricula there is firm evidence that both diversification and extinction are a function of temperature. Intriguingly, temperature appears to be correlated positively with extinction, but negatively with diversification. This suggests that diversification did not take place, as previously assumed, in geographical isolation in high-altitude interglacial refugia, but rather at low altitudes in geographically isolated glacial refugia. PMID:15101582

  11. Molecular methods to assess Listeria monocytogenes route of contamination in a dairy processing plant.

    PubMed

    Alessandria, Valentina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2010-07-31

    In this study we investigated the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in a dairy processing plant during two sampling campaigns in 2007 and 2008. Samples represented by semifinished and finished cheeses, swabs from the equipment and brines from the salting step, were subjected to analysis by using traditional and molecular methods, represented mainly by quantitative PCR. Comparing the results obtained by the application of the two approaches used, it became evident how traditional microbiological analysis underestimated the presence of L. monocytogenes in the dairy plant. Especially samples of the brines and the equipment swabs were positive only with qPCR. For some equipment swabs it was possible to detect a load of 10(4)-10(5) cfu/cm(2), while the modified ISO method employed gave negative results both before and after the enrichment step. The evidences collected during the first sampling year, highlighting a heavy contamination of the brines and of the equipment, lead to the implementation of specific actions that decreased the contamination in these samples during the 2008 campaign. However, no reduction in the number of L. monocytogenes positive final products was observed, suggesting that a more strict control is necessary to avoid the presence of the pathogen. All the isolates of L. monocytogenes were able to attach to abiotic surfaces, and, interestingly, considering the results obtained from their molecular characterization it became evident how strains present in the brines, were genetically connected with isolates from the equipment and from the final product, suggesting a clear route of contamination of the pathogen in the dairy plant. This study underlines the necessity to use appropriate analytical tools, such as molecular methods, to fully understand the spread and persistence of L. monocytogenes in food producing companies. PMID:20193970

  12. Molecular methods to assess Listeria monocytogenes route of contamination in a dairy processing plant.

    PubMed

    Alessandria, Valentina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2010-07-31

    In this study we investigated the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in a dairy processing plant during two sampling campaigns in 2007 and 2008. Samples represented by semifinished and finished cheeses, swabs from the equipment and brines from the salting step, were subjected to analysis by using traditional and molecular methods, represented mainly by quantitative PCR. Comparing the results obtained by the application of the two approaches used, it became evident how traditional microbiological analysis underestimated the presence of L. monocytogenes in the dairy plant. Especially samples of the brines and the equipment swabs were positive only with qPCR. For some equipment swabs it was possible to detect a load of 10(4)-10(5) cfu/cm(2), while the modified ISO method employed gave negative results both before and after the enrichment step. The evidences collected during the first sampling year, highlighting a heavy contamination of the brines and of the equipment, lead to the implementation of specific actions that decreased the contamination in these samples during the 2008 campaign. However, no reduction in the number of L. monocytogenes positive final products was observed, suggesting that a more strict control is necessary to avoid the presence of the pathogen. All the isolates of L. monocytogenes were able to attach to abiotic surfaces, and, interestingly, considering the results obtained from their molecular characterization it became evident how strains present in the brines, were genetically connected with isolates from the equipment and from the final product, suggesting a clear route of contamination of the pathogen in the dairy plant. This study underlines the necessity to use appropriate analytical tools, such as molecular methods, to fully understand the spread and persistence of L. monocytogenes in food producing companies.

  13. 75 FR 77528 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Establish Take Prohibitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... of the Federal Register: http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background A final rule to... Federal Register on June 2, 2010 (75 FR 30714) (the final ESA 4(d) Rule). The final ESA 4(d) Rule, other... Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon; Permit and Reporting Requirements AGENCY:...

  14. Plant resource history effects on contemporary microbial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Background/Questions/Methods Soil microbial communities play a pivotal role in providing ecosystem services, given that they are key drivers of biogeochemical processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling. As species-rich communities, made-up of populations with short generation times, it is commonly assumed that there is a high degree of functional redundancy within soil communities with respect to broad-physiological processes, such as organic carbon decomposition. This assumption underlies the majority of terrestrial ecosystem models, where relationships between processes and controlling factors are parameterized using statistical relationships generated from measurements across space. However, microbial communities display biogeographic patterns, even at fine scales and it is possible that these patterns extend to influence their function. I first present experiments that combine common garden and reciprocal transplant approaches to test whether microbial communities sourced from distinct habitats across the contiguous United States exhibit functional similarity (i.e. redundancy) or dissimilarity in common environments. The environments are experimental microcosms composed of leaf litters differing markedly in recalcitrance. Following inoculation with the microbial communities, decomposition rates are followed across 300 days. Next, using a similar experimental microcosm design, I present experiments that test whether a common resource history might cause communities, which are initially dissimilar, to converge functionally. Distinct microbial communities are introduced into a fresh litter environment every 100 days for 300 days total. Finally, I present an experiment to test whether functional convergence (either partial or complete) is associated with a reduction in function in alternate environments (essentially a functional ‘trade-off'). In this last experiment decomposition rates are measured for 100 days in alternate environments following 300 days of

  15. TRW/ORE-IDA potato-processing project: construction phase. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cherne, J; Logan, J

    1981-07-23

    A solar process heat system has been installed at an existing potato processing plant in Oregon. After a brief description of the location, commercial hardware, predicted performance and contracting procedures, the system is described subsystem-by-subsystem, including the parabolic trough collector field, steam generator, freeze prevention, computerized control system, data acquisition system, and various ancillary equipment. The operating modes are discussed, including normal operation, freeze prevention, control, and data acquisition operation. The construction process and problems encountered during construction and start-up are discussed. A paper on the control scheme and the data acquisition system functional specification are appended. A set of 23 record drawings illustrates the system. (LEW)

  16. Estimating the transmission potential of supercritical processes based on the final size distribution of minor outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Yan, Ping; Sleeman, Candace K.; Mode, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of the final size distribution of minor outbreaks for the estimation of the reproduction numbers of supercritical epidemic processes has yet to be considered. We used a branching process model to derive the final size distribution of minor outbreaks, assuming a reproduction number above unity, and applying the method to final size data for pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is a rare disease with only one documented major epidemic in a spatially limited setting. Because the final size distribution of a minor outbreak needs to be normalized by the probability of extinction, we assume that the dispersion parameter (k) of the negative-binomial offspring distribution is known, and examine the sensitivity of the reproduction number to variation in dispersion. Assuming a geometric offspring distribution with k = 1, the reproduction number was estimated at 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.38). When less dispersed with k = 2, the maximum likelihood estimate of the reproduction number was 1.14. These estimates agreed with those published from transmission network analysis, indicating that the human-to-human transmission potential of the pneumonic plague is not very high. Given only minor outbreaks, transmission potential is not sufficiently assessed by directly counting the number of offspring. Since the absence of a major epidemic does not guarantee a subcritical process, the proposed method allows us to conservatively regard epidemic data from minor outbreaks as supercritical, and yield estimates of threshold values above unity. PMID:22079419

  17. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2005-06-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. Filter media candidates were evaluated for dewatering the ultrafine ash (UFA) product. Media candidates were selected based on manufacturer recommendations and evaluated using standard batch filtration techniques. A final media was selected; 901F, a multifilament polypropylene. While this media would provide adequate solids capture and cake moisture, the use of flocculants would be necessary to enable adequate filter throughput. Several flocculant chemistries were also evaluated and it was determined that polyethylene oxide (PEO) at a dosage of 5 ppm (slurry basis) would be the most suitable in terms of both settling rate and clarity. PEO was evaluated on a continuous vacuum filter using 901F media. The optimum cycle time was found to be 1.25 minutes which provided a 305% moisture cake, 85% solids capture with a throughput of 115 lbs dry solids per hour and a dry cake rate of 25 lb/ft2/hr. Increasing cycle time not did not reduce cake moisture or increase throughput. A mobile demonstration unit has been designed and constructed for field demonstration. The continuous test unit will be operated at the Ghent site and will evaluate three processing configurations while producing sufficient products to facilitate thorough product testing. The test unit incorporates all of the unit processes that will be used in the commercial design and is self sufficient with respect to water, electricity and processing capabilities.

  18. California Food Processing Industry Wastewater Demonstration Project: Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Glen; Atkinson, Barbara; Rhyne, Ivin

    2009-09-09

    Wastewater treatment is an energy-intensive process and electricity demand is especially high during the utilities summer peak electricity demand periods. This makes wastewater treatment facilities prime candidates for demand response programs. However, wastewater treatment is often peripheral to food processing operations and its demand response opportunities have often been overlooked. Phase I of this wastewater demonstration project monitored wastewater energy and environmental data at Bell-Carter Foods, Inc., California's largest olive processing plant. For this monitoring activity the project team used Green Energy Management System (GEMS) automated enterprise energy management (EEM) technologies. This report presents results from data collected by GEMS from September 15, 2008 through November 30, 2008, during the olive harvest season. This project established and tested a methodology for (1) gathering baseline energy and environmental data at an industrial food-processing plant and (2) using the data to analyze energy efficiency, demand response, daily peak load management, and environmental management opportunities at the plant. The Phase I goals were to demonstrate the measurement and interrelationship of electricity demand, electricity usage, and water quality metrics and to estimate the associated CO{sub 2} emissions.

  19. Differences in how rice plants processes arsenic in their cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic (As), a carcinogenic heavy metal, is a problem in some drinking water and staple food supplies around the world. Rice plants readily uptake arsenic and transport a portion of it into the grain. Arsenic is also toxic to plants; therefore mechanisms that reduce toxicity or accumulation have ev...

  20. A summary of the sources of input parameter values for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant final porosity surface calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    A summary of the input parameter values used in final predictions of closure and waste densification in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room is presented, along with supporting references. These predictions are referred to as the final porosity surface data and will be used for WIPP performance calculations supporting the Compliance Certification Application to be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes tables and list all of the input parameter values, references citing their source, and in some cases references to more complete descriptions of considerations leading to the selection of values.

  1. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY... Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``IEEE Standard for Developing a Software Project Life Cycle Process,'' issued 2006, with...

  2. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  3. Direct-flash-steam geothermal-power-plant assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Alt, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the capacity and availability factors of an operating direct flash geothermal power plant. The analysis was to include consideration of system and component specifications, operating procedures, maintenance history, malfunctions, and outage rate. The plant studied was the 75 MW(e) geothermal power plant at Cerro Prieto, Mexico, for the years 1973 to 1979. To describe and assess the plant, the project staff reviewed documents, visited the plant, and met with staff of the operating utility. The high reliability and availability of the plant was documented and actions responsible for the good performance were identified and reported. The results are useful as guidance to US utilities considering use of hot water geothermal resources for power generation through a direct flash conversion cycle.

  4. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, Sean C.; Davis, Timothy D.; Peles, A.; She, Ying; Sheffel, Joshua; Willigan, Rhonda R.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Zhu, Tianli

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to

  5. Development of a CFD Model for Secondary Final Settling Tanks in Water Pollution Control Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Minwei; Xanthos, Savvas; Ramalingam, Krish; Fillos, John

    2007-11-01

    To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve efficiency of the New York City the Wards Island Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) FSTs at peak loads, a 3D CFD model has been developed. Fluent was utilized as the base platform, where sub-models of the Suspended Solids (SS), settling characteristics, density currents and SS flocculation were incorporated. This was supplemented by field and bench scale experiments to quantify the coefficients integral to the sub-models. Model calibration and validation have been carried out by using the extensive set of data collected. The model can be used to evaluate different modes of operation, alternate hydraulic and solids loading rates, as well as addition of auxiliary components such as baffles to improve process performance. The model is being used to compare potential benefits for different alternatives of design and operation of the existing FSTs. After comparing series of inlet baffles, a baffle with 4 horizontal and 7 vertical slots has been recommended for installation in the FSTs. Additional baffle type, configurations and locations within the tank are also being evaluated to improve the performance of the FSTs especially during periods of poor settling and peak flow conditions.

  6. Raft River binary-cycle geothermal pilot power plant final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J.; Walrath, L.F.

    1983-04-01

    The design and performance of a 5-MW(e) binary-cycle pilot power plant that used a moderate-temperature hydrothermal resource, with isobutane as a working fluid, are examined. Operating problems experienced and solutions found are discussed and recommendations are made for improvements to future power plant designs. The plant and individual systems are analyzed for design specification versus actual performance figures.

  7. Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater treatment processes from coke production plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; Yan, Bo; Feng, Chunhua; Zhao, Guobao; Lin, Chong; Yuan, Mengyang; Wu, Chaofei; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at two coke plants located in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province of China. Samples of raw coking wastewaters and wastewaters from subunits of a coke production plant were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to provide a detailed chemical characterization of PAHs. The identification and characterization of PAH isomers was based on a positive match of mass spectral data of sample peaks with those for PAH isomers in mass spectra databases with electron impact ionization mass spectra and retention times of internal reference compounds. In total, 270 PAH compounds including numerous nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur heteroatomic derivatives were positively identified for the first time. Quantitative analysis of target PAHs revealed that total PAH concentrations in coking wastewaters were in the range of 98.5 ± 8.9 to 216 ± 20.2 μg/L, with 3-4-ring PAHs as dominant compounds. Calculation of daily PAH output from four plant subunits indicated that PAHs in the coking wastewater came mainly from ammonia stripping wastewater. Coking wastewater treatment processes played an important role in removing PAHs in coking wastewater, successfully removing 92 % of the target compounds. However, 69 weakly polar compounds, including PAH isomers, were still discharged in the final effluent, producing 8.8 ± 2.7 to 31.9 ± 6.8 g/day of PAHs with potential toxicity to environmental waters. The study of coking wastewater herein proposed can be used to better predict improvement of coke production facilities and treatment conditions according to the identification and removal of PAHs in the coke plant as well as to assess risks associated with continuous discharge of these contaminants to receiving waters.

  8. Automated extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from radiology reports with natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Sippo, Dorothy A; Warden, Graham I; Andriole, Katherine P; Lacson, Ronilda; Ikuta, Ichiro; Birdwell, Robyn L; Khorasani, Ramin

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm that determines American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) final assessment categories from radiology reports. This HIPAA-compliant study was granted institutional review board approval with waiver of informed consent. This cross-sectional study involved 1,165 breast imaging reports in the electronic medical record (EMR) from a tertiary care academic breast imaging center from 2009. Reports included screening mammography, diagnostic mammography, breast ultrasound, combined diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasound, and breast magnetic resonance imaging studies. Over 220 reports were included from each study type. The recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) of a NLP algorithm to collect BI-RADS final assessment categories stated in the report final text was evaluated against a manual human review standard reference. For all breast imaging reports, the NLP algorithm demonstrated a recall of 100.0 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 99.7, 100.0 %) and a precision of 96.6 % (95 % CI, 95.4, 97.5 %) for correct identification of BI-RADS final assessment categories. The NLP algorithm demonstrated high recall and precision for extraction of BI-RADS final assessment categories from the free text of breast imaging reports. NLP may provide an accurate, scalable data extraction mechanism from reports within EMRs to create databases to track breast imaging performance measures and facilitate optimal breast cancer population management strategies. PMID:23868515

  9. B Plant canyon sample TK-21-1 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H.

    1998-04-10

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for the TK-21-1 sample collected from the B Plant Canyon on February 18, 1998. The sample was analyzed in accordance with the Sampling and Analysis Plan for B Plant Solutions (SAP) (Simmons, 1997) in support of the B Plant decommissioning project. Samples were analyzed to provide data both to describe the material which would remain in the tanks after the B Plant transition is complete and to determine Tank Farm compatibility. The analytical results are included in the data summary table (Table 1).

  10. Malignant tumors in an area with an asbestos processing plant.

    PubMed

    Sarić, M; Vujović, M

    1994-01-01

    Incidence rate of malignant tumors of the lung/bronchus, pleura, larynx, pharynx, and peritoneum during the period 1974 to 1987 was studied in a Croatian coastal area with an asbestos processing plant which started to operate in 1954. The study area covers 169 km2 with 11,270 inhabitants: 5590 men and 5710 women (average number during the study period). The calculated number of inhabitants aged 35 and older was 4639 (41.1%), 11.5% were aged 60 or older, and the average age was 32 years. Over the observed 14-year period there were 51 cases of malignant tumors, 40 in men and 11 in women: lung/bronchus cancer, 36-29 men and 7 women; mesothelioma, 5-2 men and 3 women; laryngeal cancer, 5 men; pharyngeal cancer, 4-3 men and 1 women; and peritoneal cancer, 1 man. The results of the study showed that the incidence of lung/bronchus cancer in the studied population was half that in Croatia. There were also fewer malignant tumors of the pharynx and peritoneum in this area than in Croatia. On the other hand, the incidence of primary tumors of the pleura was more than 5 times as high and of laryngeal tumors more than 2 times as high as in Croatia. Evaluation of the data showed that distance from the source of emissions was not crucial for the development of tumors. The incidence of the tumors in the town with the asbestos factory was the lowest. Among and within different towns/villages the tumor incidence varied; in some the observed rate was higher than the expected rate. A more detailed analysis indicated a possible influence of the relief and prevailing wind direction on the environmental contamination with asbestos from the emissions source and consequently on an uneven distribution of the tumor incidence among separate settlements in the area under study.

  11. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  12. Towards uncovering the roles of switchgrass peroxidases in plant processes

    PubMed Central

    Saathoff, Aaron J.; Donze, Teresa; Palmer, Nathan A.; Bradshaw, Jeff; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Twigg, Paul; Tobias, Christian M.; Lagrimini, Mark; Sarath, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Herbaceous perennial plants selected as potential biofuel feedstocks had been understudied at the genomic and functional genomic levels. Recent investments, primarily by the U.S. Department of Energy, have led to the development of a number of molecular resources for bioenergy grasses, such as the partially annotated genome for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and some related diploid species. In its current version, the switchgrass genome contains 65,878 gene models arising from the A and B genomes of this tetraploid grass. The availability of these gene sequences provides a framework to exploit transcriptomic data obtained from next-generation sequencing platforms to address questions of biological importance. One such question pertains to discovery of genes and proteins important for biotic and abiotic stress responses, and how these components might affect biomass quality and stress response in plants engineered for a specific end purpose. It can be expected that production of switchgrass on marginal lands will expose plants to diverse stresses, including herbivory by insects. Class III plant peroxidases have been implicated in many developmental responses such as lignification and in the adaptive responses of plants to insect feeding. Here, we have analyzed the class III peroxidases encoded by the switchgrass genome, and have mined available transcriptomic datasets to develop a first understanding of the expression profiles of the class III peroxidases in different plant tissues. Lastly, we have identified switchgrass peroxidases that appear to be orthologs of enzymes shown to play key roles in lignification and plant defense responses to hemipterans. PMID:23802005

  13. Wetland eco-engineering: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-09-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a foundation in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here, dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct wetland will soon begin. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a 6-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling and yellowing of foliage. The N : P ratios of the plant tissue were low, and these were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Subsequent analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose the use of Fe-tolerant species rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the situated sediment and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  14. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report. Volume 2. Appendices G, H, and I

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final report, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluation, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as Appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  15. Detection and Genotyping of Leuconostoc spp. in a Sausage Processing Plant.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Frausto, J J; Cepeda-Marquez, L G; Salgado, L M; Iturriaga, M H; Arvizu-Medrano, S M

    2015-12-01

    Some Leuconostoc spp. have the ability to produce slime and undesirable compounds in cooked sausage. The objectives of this research were to identify Leuconostoc sources in a Vienna-type sausage processing plant and to evaluate the genetic diversity of the isolated strains. Three hundred and two samples of sausage batter, sausages during processing, spoiled sausage, equipment surfaces, chilling brine, workers' gloves and aprons, and used casings were collected (March to November 2008 and February to April 2010) from a sausage processing plant. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were quantified, and Leuconostoc were detected using PCR. Strains were isolated and identified in Leuconostoc-positive samples. Leuconostoc strains were genotyped using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. LAB content of nonspoiled and spoiled sausage ranged from <0.8 to 4.4 log CFU/g and from 4.9 to 8.3 log CFU/g, respectively. LAB levels on equipment surfaces ranged from <1.3 to 4.8 log CFU/100 cm(2). Leuconostoc was detected in 35% of the samples, and 88 Leuconostoc spp. strains were isolated and genotyped. The main Leuconostoc spp. isolated were L. mesenteroides (37 genotypes), L. fallax (29 genotypes), and L. lactis (6 genotypes). Some strains of Leuconostoc isolated from equipment surfaces and sausages showed the same genotype. One L. lactis genotype included strains isolated from spoiled sausages analyzed in April 2008 and March to April 2010. Equipment and conveyor belts constitute Leuconostoc contamination sources. Leuconostoc persistence in the sausage processing environment and in the final product suggests the existence of microbial reservoirs, possibly on equipment surfaces. PMID:26613911

  16. Detection and Genotyping of Leuconostoc spp. in a Sausage Processing Plant.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Frausto, J J; Cepeda-Marquez, L G; Salgado, L M; Iturriaga, M H; Arvizu-Medrano, S M

    2015-12-01

    Some Leuconostoc spp. have the ability to produce slime and undesirable compounds in cooked sausage. The objectives of this research were to identify Leuconostoc sources in a Vienna-type sausage processing plant and to evaluate the genetic diversity of the isolated strains. Three hundred and two samples of sausage batter, sausages during processing, spoiled sausage, equipment surfaces, chilling brine, workers' gloves and aprons, and used casings were collected (March to November 2008 and February to April 2010) from a sausage processing plant. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were quantified, and Leuconostoc were detected using PCR. Strains were isolated and identified in Leuconostoc-positive samples. Leuconostoc strains were genotyped using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. LAB content of nonspoiled and spoiled sausage ranged from <0.8 to 4.4 log CFU/g and from 4.9 to 8.3 log CFU/g, respectively. LAB levels on equipment surfaces ranged from <1.3 to 4.8 log CFU/100 cm(2). Leuconostoc was detected in 35% of the samples, and 88 Leuconostoc spp. strains were isolated and genotyped. The main Leuconostoc spp. isolated were L. mesenteroides (37 genotypes), L. fallax (29 genotypes), and L. lactis (6 genotypes). Some strains of Leuconostoc isolated from equipment surfaces and sausages showed the same genotype. One L. lactis genotype included strains isolated from spoiled sausages analyzed in April 2008 and March to April 2010. Equipment and conveyor belts constitute Leuconostoc contamination sources. Leuconostoc persistence in the sausage processing environment and in the final product suggests the existence of microbial reservoirs, possibly on equipment surfaces.

  17. A Post Licensing Study of Community Effects at Two Operating Nuclear Power Plants. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Bruce J.; And Others

    In an effort to identify and assess the social, economic, and political effects of nuclear power plant construction and operation upon two host communities (Plymouth, Massachusetts and Waterford, Connecticut), a post-licensing review revealed that the primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was an increase in the property…

  18. Cotyledon damage affects seed number through final plant size in the annual grassland species Medicago lupulina

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiting; Zhao, Chuan; Lamb, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The effects of cotyledon damage on seedling growth and survival are relatively well established, but little is known about the effects on aspects of plant fitness such as seed number and size. Here the direct and indirect mechanisms linking cotyledon damage and plant fitness in the annual species Medicago lupulina are examined. Methods Growth and reproductive traits, including mature plant size, time to first flowering, flower number, seed number and individual seed mass were monitored in M. lupulina plants when zero, one or two cotyledons were removed at 7 d old. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine the mechanisms linking cotyledon damage to seed number and seed mass. Key Results Cotyledon damage reduced seed number but not individual seed mass. The primary mechanism was a reduction in plant biomass with cotyledon damage that in turn reduced seed number primarily through a reduction in flower numbers. Although cotyledon damage delayed flower initiation, it had little effect on seed number. Individual seed mass was not affected by cotyledon removal, but there was a trade-off between seed number and seed mass. Conclusions It is shown how a network of indirect mechanisms link damage to cotyledons and fitness in M. lupulina. Cotyledon damage had strong direct effects on both plant size and flowering phenology, but an analysis of the causal relationships among plant traits and fitness components showed that a reduction in plant size associated with cotyledon damage was an important mechanism influencing fitness. PMID:21196450

  19. Regulation of polyamine synthesis in plants. Final progress report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Malmberg, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    This research focused on unusual post-translational modifications occuring in a arginine decarboxylase cDNA clone in oats. A novel regulatory mechanism for polyamines was explored and an attempt was made to characterize it. A plant ornithine decarboxylase cDNA was identified in Arabidopsis. Further work remains on the mechanisms of polyamine regulation and function in plants.

  20. 76 FR 53994 - Final Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site, Jackson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... this decision was published on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54961). Bellefonte Unit 1 is a 1,260-megawatt... other descriptions as set forth in the NRC Policy Statement on Deferred Plants (52 FR 38077... tsunami-induced events at the Fukushima (Japan) Daiichi Nuclear Plant on March 11, 2011, TVA performed...

  1. Combustion testing and heat recovery study: Frank E. Van Lare Wastewater Treatment Plant, Monroe County. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, A.

    1995-01-01

    The report describes the results of combustion testing work, and analysis of heat recovery and use at the Monroe County Frank E. Van Lare wastwater treatment plant (WWTP). The three multiple-hearth furnaces at the plant process an average of 65 dry tons of dewatered sludge per day. The furnaces use about 12.5 million Btus of natural gas per dry ton of sludge incinerated, or about 300 billion Btus per year. Center shaft and rabble arm cooling air is recirculated to the furnaces as pre-heated combustion air. No other heat from the combustion process is recovered for use in the plant. The project had four objectives: to record and analyze sludge management operations data and sludge incinerator combustion data; to ascertain instrumentation and control needs; to calculate heat balances for the incineration system; and to determine the feasibility of full waste-heat recovery and utilization, at the Frank E. Van Lare wastewater treatment plant.

  2. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

  3. Thermoeconomic optimizarion of OC-OTEC electricity and water production plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Block, D.L.; Girgis, M.A.; Huggins, J.C.; McCluney, R.; Rotundo, L.; Valenzuela, J.A.; Hutchings, B.J.; Stacy, W.D.; Sam, R.G.; Patel, B.R.

    1984-09-01

    The objectives of this yearlong project were to: (1) assess the economic and technical viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion of (OC-OTEC) for the production of electricity and/or fresh water based on the current state of the art; (2) develop conceptual designs of optimized OC-OTEC plants that produce electricity and/or fresh water for plant sizes that are economically attractive; and (3) identify the research issues that must be resolved before a commercial plant can be built. Oceanographic data for six potential sites were evaluated and generic site characteristics were developed. The generic site has a 20/sup 0/C temperature differential between the ocean surface and a depth of 1000 m. This temperature differential occurs at a distance of 5 km from shore. Current and projected prices and requirements for electricity and water at potential sites were obtained. The state of the art of components comprising the OC-OTEC plant was reviewed. Design options for each component were identified. The highest performing, least costly, and least technically uncertain design for each component was selected. Component cost and performance models were then developed and integrated into thermoeconomic system models for single- and double-stage OC-OTEC plants that produced electricity and/or fresh water. A computerized optimization procedure was developed to obtain optimal (minimum cost) plant configurations for the production of electricity and/or fresh water. All plant types - floating, moored, shelf-mounted, shallow-water and land-based plants - were evaluated. Based on the state-of-the-art and typical characteristics of potential sites, the primary thrust of the program was directed towards shallow-water and land-based plants. The shallow-water/land-based plant configurations selected had a 5-km long cold-water supply pipe and a 1-km long discharge pipe for the evaporator and condenser.

  4. Evaluation of the biotic potential of microorganisms and higher plants to enhance the quality of constructed wetlands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, D.A.; Floyd, M.; Taylor, R.W.; Sistani, K.

    1998-09-30

    A project was carried out from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1998 to evaluate the growth of several species of wetland plants in constructed cells using mine spoil as a growth medium, to evaluate microbial diversity and finally, to demonstrate the concept on an actual strip-mined site. In order to gain background information for evaluation of constructed wetlands, several wetlands on both undisturbed and strip-mined areas were evaluated to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the substrates as well as the vegetation characteristics. The research phase of this projects consisted of 10 wetland cells each 7x16 m in size with the water depth varying from 0 to 40 cm. The substrates were allowed to stabilize over winter and each cell was planted in the spring of 1993 with 18 plants each of cattail, maidencance, soft stem bulrush and pickerel weed. All cells were thickly vegetated by the end of the first growing season.

  5. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    SciTech Connect

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  6. Solar industrial process heat: a study of applications and attitudes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, V.

    1981-04-01

    Actual field data are provided on potential near-term (within 5 to 7 years) industrial markets for solar thermal technologies. Data were gathered through site visits to 100 industrial plants, representing fourteen industrial groups, as identified by 2-digit Standard Industrial Classification codes (SICs), and geographically distributed over 31 states. The site specific data suggests several possible near-term market opportunities for solar thermal energy systems. Plants using electricity as their primary fuel for industrial process heat were identified, on the basis of their high fuel prices, as attractive early-entry markets for solar energy. Additional opportunities were reflected in plants that had accomplished much of their conservation plans, or had sizeable percentages of their operating budgets committed to energy expenses. A suitability analysis identified eleven industrial plants as highly suitable for solar thermal applications, they included producers of fluid milk, pottery, canned and bottled soft drinks, fabricated structural metal, refined petroleum, aluminum cans, chrome and nickel plating and stamped frame metal and metal finishings.

  7. Heat transfer enhanced microwave process for stabilization of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.

    1995-03-31

    The objectve of this CRADA is to combine a polymer process for encapsulation of liquid radioactive waste slurry developed by Monolith Technology, Inc. (MTI), with an in-drum microwave process for drying radioactive wastes developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), for the purpose of achieving a fast, cost-effectve commercial process for solidification of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Tests performed so far show a four-fold increase in process throughput due to the direct microwave heating of the polymer/slurry mixture, compared to conventional edge-heating of the mixer. We measured a steady-state throughput of 33 ml/min for 1.4 kW of absorbed microwave power. The final waste form is a solid monolith with no free liquids and no free particulates.

  8. Synthesis of power plant outage schedules. Final technical report, April 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R.

    1997-07-01

    This document provides a report on the creation of domain theories in the power plant outage domain. These were developed in conjunction with the creation of a demonstration system of advanced scheduling technology for the outage problem. In 1994 personnel from Rome Laboratory (RL), Kaman Science (KS), Kestrel Institute, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) began a joint project to develop scheduling tools for power plant outage activities. This report describes our support for this joint effort. The project uses KIDS (Kestrel Interactive Development System) to generate schedulers from formal specifications of the power plant domain outage activities.

  9. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO/sub 2/ on plant communities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzaz, F.A.

    1984-10-01

    We have studied the effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on communities of colonizing annual plants, crop plants, and deciduous forest trees. We observe differential effects on different species with regard to growth, biomass, phenology, resource allocation, photosynthesis, water-use efficiency, flowering, and fruiting. We conclude that competitive relations among plants are likely to change as global atmospheric CO/sub 2/ increases, and that therefore there will be longterm changes in the composition of natural communities. More research will be necessary before any but the very broadest conclusions can be made about what direction these community changes are likely to take. 10 references, 9 figures.

  10. Automated small-scale fuel alcohol plant: A means to add value to food processing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Keller, J.; Wernimont, L.P.

    1993-12-31

    A small scale fuel grade alcohol plant was designed, constructed and operated a decade ago. This plant design incorporated several innovative processes and features that are still on the cutting edge for small scale alcohol production. The plant design could be scaled down or up to match the needs of food processing waste streams that contain sugars or starches as BOD. The novel features include automation requiring four hours of labor per 24 hour day and a plug flow low temperature cooking system which solubilizes and liquifies the starch in one step. This plant consistently produced high yield of alcohol. Yields of 2.6 gallons of absolute alcohol were produced from a bushel of corn. Potato waste grain dust and cheese whey were also processed in this plant as well as barley. Production energy for a 190 proof gallon was approximately 32,000 BTU. This paper discusses the design, results, and applicability of this plant to food processing industries.

  11. Integration of distributed plant process computer systems to nuclear power generation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, T.; Finlay, K.

    1996-11-01

    Many operating nuclear power generation facilities are replacing their plant process computer. Such replacement projects are driven by equipment obsolescence issues and associated objectives to improve plant operability, increase plant information access, improve man machine interface characteristics, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. This paper describes a few recently completed and on-going replacement projects with emphasis upon the application integrated distributed plant process computer systems. By presenting a few recent projects, the variations of distributed systems design show how various configurations can address needs for flexibility, open architecture, and integration of technological advancements in instrumentation and control technology. Architectural considerations for optimal integration of the plant process computer and plant process instrumentation & control are evident from variations of design features.

  12. Human-system interface design review guideline -- Process and guidelines: Final report. Revision 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    NUREG-0700, Revision 1, provides human factors engineering (HFE) guidance to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for its: (1) review of the human system interface (HSI) design submittals prepared by licensees or applications for a license or design certification of commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) performance of HSI reviews that could be undertaken as part of an inspection or other type of regulatory review involving HSI design or incidents involving human performance. The guidance consists of a review process and HFE guidelines. The document describes those aspects of the HSI design review process that are important to the identification and resolution of human engineering discrepancies that could adversely affect plant safety. Guidance is provided that could be used by the staff to review an applicant`s HSI design review process or to guide the development of an HSI design review plan, e.g., as part of an inspection activity. The document also provides detailed HFE guidelines for the assessment of HSI design implementations. NUREG-0700, Revision 1, consists of three stand-alone volumes. Volume 1 consists of two major parts. Part 1 describes those aspects of the review process of the HSI design that are important to identifying and resolving human engineering discrepancies. Part 2 contains detailed guidelines for a human factors engineering review which identify criteria for assessing the implementation of an applicant`s or licensee`s HSI design.

  13. Development study: Boiler plant and cogeneration. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-29

    This study, conducted by Sebesta Blomberg and Associates, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of PICOP Resources, Inc. The report assesses the feasibility of modernizing the power plant serving the Plywood, Paper, and Wood Products plant located in Bislig, Philippines. The main objectives of the study were to document the general condition of the power plant and the steam and electric infrastructure at the facility, identify cost reduction measures, identify methods to eliminate use of pulp and board quality wood as fuel resources, and to identify a structure of owning and operating the power plant which would reduce the capital required by PICOP. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Letter of Introduction; (2) Table of Contents; (3) Introduction; (4) Scope of Study; (5) Executive Summary; (6) Description of Existing Conditions; (7) Base Economic Model; (8) Description of Alternatives; (9) Conclusion and Recommendations; (10) Appendix.

  14. McHuchuma/Katewaka coal fired power plant feasibility study. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-22

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility for the development of a new coal fueled power plant in Tanzania at the Mchuchuma/Katewaka coal concession area. Volume 3, the Main Report, is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Power System Development Studies; (3.0) Conceptual Design Summary of the Mchuchuma Coal Fired Power Plant; (4.0) Fuel Supply Evaluation; (5.0) Transmission System Evaluation; (6.0) Power Plant Site and Infrastructure Evaluation; (7.0) Environmental Impact Assessment; (8.0) Institutional Aspects; (9.0) Financial Evaluation and Benefit Analysis; (10.0) Sources of Finance; Appendix (A) Preliminary Design of Mchuchuma Coal Plant.

  15. Saguaro Power Plant Solar Repowering Project. Executive summary. Final technical report, September 1979-July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.R.

    1980-07-01

    An executive summary describing the conceptual design, system performance, economics, development plan, and site owner's assessment of a solar thermal central receiver system for repowering the No. One unit of PPS's Saguaro power plant near Tuscon, Arizona, is presented. (WHK)

  16. Evaluation of a 2-MW carbonate fuel cell power plant fueled by landfill gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, D.B.; Selander, S.; Rastler, D.M.

    1991-11-01

    This project assessed the technical and economic feasibility of operating an atmospheric pressure 2 MW carbonate fuel cell power plant on landfill gas. A commercially available low pressure gas pre-treatment system was identified for this application. System simulation studies were performed to identify component bottle-necks which would limit power production, or preclude system operation. An economic assessment was conducted to assess the competitiveness of the fuel cell system. The analysis confirmed the technical feasibility of operating Energy Research Corporation`s 2MW fuel cell system on landfill gas. Resulting net electrical efficiency was 50% based on the fuel`s lower heating value. Plant capital cost increased by {approximately}$180/kw; this was primarily for gas cleanup. Bus bar power costs for market entry and commercial fuel cell plants were found to be competitive with power produced from baseload coal plants in Minnesota.

  17. Energy efficiency and pollution prevention assessment protocol in the polymer processing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nardone, John; Sansone, Leonard; Kenney, William; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

    1998-03-31

    This report was developed from experiences with three New Jersey firms and is intended to be a guide for conducting analyses on resource (energy and raw materials) utilization and pollution (solid waste, air and water emissions) prevention in plastics processing plants. The protocol is written on the assumption that the analysis is to be done by an outside agency such as a consulting firm, but it also can be used for internal audits by plant teams. Key concepts in this analysis were adapted from life cycle analysis. Because of the small sample of companies studied, the results have to be considered high preliminary, but some of the conclusions will probably be confirmed by further work.

  18. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes. Final report, 19 October 1994-31 March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Elzey, D.M.; Wadley, H.N.G.

    1996-05-01

    The quality cost modeling (QCM) tool is intended to be a relatively simple-to-use device for obtaining a first-order assessment of the quality-cost relationship for a given process-material combination. The QCM curve is a plot of cost versus quality (an index indicating microstructural quality), which is unique for a given process-material combination. The QCM curve indicates the tradeoff between cost and performance, thus enabling one to evaluate affordability. Additionally, the effect of changes in process design, raw materials, and process conditions on the cost-quality relationship can be evaluated. Such results might indicate the most efficient means to obtain improved quality at reduced cost by process design refinements, the implementation of sensors and models for closed loop process control, or improvement in the properties of raw materials being fed into the process. QCM also allows alternative processes for producing the same or similar material to be compared in terms of their potential for producing competitively priced, high quality material. Aside from demonstrating the usefulness of the QCM concept, this is one of the main foci of the present research program, namely to compare processes for making continuous fiber reinforced, metal matrix composites (MMC`s). Two processes, low pressure plasma spray deposition and tape casting are considered for QCM development. This document consists of a detailed look at the design of the QCM approach, followed by discussion of the application of QCM to each of the selected MMC manufacturing processes along with results, comparison of processes, and finally, a summary of findings and recommendations.

  19. Design and cost study of critical OC-OTEC plant components: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, J.A.; Jasinski, T.; Stacey, W.D.; Patel, B.R.; Dolan, F.Y.

    1988-06-01

    During the FY 1983-84, system analysis studies were performed by the Florida Solar Energy Center and Creare Inc. to assess the economic and technological viability of the OC-OTEC concept for producing both electricity and fresh water on a small scale. A major conclusion of the study was that land-based OC-OTEC plants as small as 10 MWe may be economically feasible in island communities if cost credits are taken for the fresh water produced. The present study builds upon and extends the results of that work. Assess the effect of the seasonal variation in the ocean surface water temperature on the performance of OC-OTEC plants; evaluate the technical feasibility of building small scale OC-OTEC plants using existing low pressure steam turbine rotor designs; refine the plant structure model developed during the Phase I study; and develop background information and analyses to evaluate the various alternative strategies for handling noncondensible gases in OC-OTEC plants. Refinements in OC-OTEC plant performance and cost models performed during the present study have reduced the estimated cost of a 10 MW baseline plant from 99 to 72M$. Further cost reduction of 5 to 10M$ is anticipated from the revised structure cost model and the implementation of barometric leg deaeration and hydraulic compression. Therefore, the results from this study reinforce the earlier conclusion that small-scale OC-OTEC plants are competitive at present for the production of electricity and fresh water in the Caribbean and Pacific Islands. OC-OTEC represents a technology with significant potential. We recommend that it be aggressively pursued. 33 refs., 67 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. [Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

  1. Final report for the field-reversed configuration power plant critical-issue scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, John F.; Mogahed, Elsayed A.; Emmert, Gilbert A.; Khater, Hesham Y.; Nguyen, Canh N.; Ryzhkov, Sergei V.; Stubna, Michael D.; Steinhauer, Loren C.; Miley, George H.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes research in which a team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed a scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis of deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core.

  2. The impact of the final rinse on the cytoxicity of critical products submitted for processing.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rafael Queiroz de; Gonçalves, Cláudia Regina; Ikeda, Tamiko Ichikawa; Cruz, Áurea Silveira; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2015-02-01

    Objective To assess the cytotoxicity of products subsequent to a cleaning process based on a validated standard operating procedure (SOP), and a final rinse with different types of water: tap, deionized, distilled, treated by reverse osmosis and ultra-purified. Method This was an experimental and laboratory study. The sample consisted of 130 hydrodissection cannulas, 26 per experimental group, characterized according to type of water used in the final rinse. The samples were submitted to internal and external contamination challenge with a solution containing 20% defibrinated sheep blood and 80% of sodium chloride 0.9%. Next, the lumens were filled with a ophthalmic viscosurgical device, remaining exposed for 50 minutes, and then were processed according to the validated SOP. Cytotoxicity was assessed using neutral red uptake assay. Results No cytoxicity was detected in the sample extracts. Conclusion The samples did not display signs of cytotoxicity, regardless of final rinse quality. The results obtained were reached by using only a validated cleaning operating procedure, based on the scientific literature, and on official recommendations and related regulation. PMID:26761697

  3. Experience survey of chloride resistant alloys in process plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, J.; Matsumoto, Keiichi

    1999-11-01

    The Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan (SCEJ), and The Japan Petroleum Institute (JPI) have jointly surveyed the experience of so called Chloride-SCC resistant stainless steels in petrochemical plants and refinery plants. The survey covered more than one hundred cases of applications of duplex stainless steels, 400 series stainless steels, high nickel alloys and austenitic stainless steels. The survey included the following: (1) countermeasures taken in advance of or after the occurrence of the damage; (2) environmental conditions of the equipment considered; and (3) performance of the adopted countermeasure materials. As a conclusion, detailed analysis has clarified safe limits of SCC resistant alloys, some unexpected weak points, and remarkable performances.

  4. Dynamic interaction between an OTEC power plant and a power grid. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-31

    The objectives of the research reported are: to identify and resolve potential technical problems that may arise from the incorporation of an OTEC power plant in the existing generation mix of Puerto Rico and to develop the tools and to identify the technical resources needed for dynamic analysis of island power systems to which OTEC power plants provide a substantial portion of the load demand. The issues addressed are system modelling and data gathering, network simplification, selection of OTEC plant site and power system, stability analysis, and economic dispatch when OTEC power plants contribute substantially to the island's load. The slow dynamics of the OTEC plant make it a reference for the rest of the power system during a transient, but this slowness is a drawback in terms of system recovery from fault-induced transients. It is found that simple dynamic models can, in most instances, describe the transient behavior of both the OTEC plant and the island's power system, but it was not possible to reduce the non-OTEC portion of the power system to a single generation point and a single load. (LEW)

  5. Evaluation of a superheater enhanced geothermal steam power plant in the Geysers area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, J.

    1984-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attainable generation increase and to evaluate the economic merits of superheating the steam that could be used in future geothermal steam power plants in the Geyser-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). It was determined that using a direct gas-fired superheater offers no economic advantages over the existing geothermal power plants. If the geothermal steam is heated to 900/sup 0/F by using the exhaust energy from a gas turbine of currently available performance, the net reference plant output would increase from 65 MW to 159 MW (net). Such hybrid plants are cost effective under certain conditions identified in this document. The power output from the residual Geyser area steam resource, now equivalent to 1437 MW, would be more than doubled by employing in the future gas turbine enhancement. The fossil fuel consumed in these plants would be used more efficiently than in any other fossil-fueled power plant in California. Due to an increase in evaporative losses in the cooling towers, the viability of the superheating concept is contingent on development of some of the water resources in the Geysers-Calistoga area to provide the necessary makeup water.

  6. Economic and engineering evaluation of plant oils as a diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; LePori, W.A.; Johnson, L.A.; Griffin, R.C.; Diehl, K.C.; Moore, D.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Coble, C.G.; Lusas, E.W.; Hiler, E.A.

    1982-04-15

    The annual total yield of plant oils in the US is about 3.7 billion gallons. Diesel use by agriculture is about 2.0 billion gallons annually and is growing rapidly relative to gasoline use. Based on these amounts, plant oils could satisfy agriculture's diesel fuel requirements during the near future. However, diversion of large quantities of plant oils for such purposes would have dramatic impacts on plant oil prices and be reflected in numerous adjustments throughout agriculture and other sectors of the economy. The competitive position of sunflowers for plant oil production in Texas was analyzed. In those regions with a cotton alternative, sunflowers were not, for the most part, economically competitive. However, sunflower production is competitive with grain sorghum in certain cases. To develop a meaningful production base for oilseed crops in Texas, yields need to be improved or increases in oilseed prices relative to cotton must take place. This implies some limitations for the potential of Texas to produce large quantities of plant oils.

  7. Summary of recent information on biofouling control at power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkney, A.E.

    1992-06-01

    Control of fouling organisms at power plants requires large investments by utilities. This report provides an overview of power plant biofouling and control techniques, a discussion of research and technologies investigated nationally, and a description of studies conducted at Maryland power plants. The major biofouling control techniques currently under investigation are: (1) using sodium bromide and bromine chloride in place of and in addition to chlorine; (2) conducting chlorine minimization studies and targeted chlorination trials to use chlorine more effectively; (3) using mechanical cleaning as an alternative method of controlling fouling; and (4) applying non-toxic coatings to intake structures. An important issue is the increased use of bromine and molluscicides at power plants and the establishment of discharge limits. Chlorine minimization studies are in progress or have been completed recently at several Maryland power plants but results are not yet available. Targeted chlorination is a promising technique for reducing chlorine usage. At some plants, mechanical cleaning has controlled condenser tube fouling and is used in place of biocides. Several trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of non-toxic coatings for reducing fouling on intake structures; however, cost savings are not yet apparent.

  8. Fluoride levels in vegetation in the vicinity of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    Battelle initiated a survey of vegetation samples at new and established sites in the vicinity of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffision Plant. Forty-nine vegetation samples were collected and analyzed for fluoride. Three samples from inside the plant boundaries contained fluoride in concentrations great enough to be of concern to grazing livestock (>40 ppm). All other samples were below the action level. Fluoride concentrations in vegetation reported by Battelle were somewhat greater than identical samples analyzed by GAT. This differences may be accounted for by the fact that GAT rinsed their samples prior to the analysis for fluoride while Battelle did not. Battelles' samples were not washed because fluoride containing particulates on the surface of vegetation can be readily ingested by livestock and may contribute to the total amount of fluoride absorbed by the livestock. Results of the vegetational survey were not correlated with the deposition pattern modeled by Battelle. Apparently, levels of fluoride in vegetation near the plant are not greatly influenced by plant emissions. Extraneous sources such as dust and other forms of atmospheric fluoride appear to be the predominant influence governing fluoride in vegetation. Results from the fluoride deposition model indicate that a deficiency of sampling points may exist in the northwest sector immediately adjacent to the plant perimeter. The addition of new sampling stations in this area would create closer surveillance of potential fluoride emissions from the plant.

  9. Classroom Terraria: Enhancing Student Understanding of Plant-Related Gas Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that address common plant-related gas-process misconceptions held by middle school students. The…

  10. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  11. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel; Mines, Greg; Turchi, Craig; Zhu, Guangdong

    2015-11-01

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods of high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal resources

  12. Biological activated carbon process for treatment of potato processing wastewater for in-plant reuse. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Y.T.; Priebe, B.D.

    1981-10-01

    Like many other food processing industries, potato processing could create a serious pollution problem. An average-sized processing plant, producing french fries and dehydrated potatoes, can generate a waste load equivalent to a city of 200,000 people. Any discharge of wastes into these waters would immediately result in detrimental effects to the environment. In a plant processing 15,000 tons of potatoes per year, 60 million gallons of water are required. With proper treatment, a large percentage of the wastewater could be reclaimed and reused in the potato processing plant. The scope of the study includes the operation of completely mixed activated sludge (CMAS) reactors as secondary treatment, and anaerobic upflow continuous biological activated carbon (BAC) and biological sand columns as tertiary treatment for potato processing wastewaters.

  13. Final Technical Report - Autothermal Styrene Manufacturing Process with Net Export of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Trubac, Robert , E.; Lin, Feng; Ghosh, Ruma: Greene, Marvin

    2011-11-29

    The overall objectives of the project were to: (a) develop an economically competitive processing technology for styrene monomer (SM) that would reduce process energy requirements by a minimum 25% relative to those of conventional technology while achieving a minimum 10% ROI; and (b) advance the technology towards commercial readiness. This technology is referred to as OMT (Oxymethylation of Toluene). The unique energy savings feature of the OMT technology would be replacement of the conventional benzene and ethylene feedstocks with toluene, methane in natural gas and air or oxygen, the latter of which have much lower specific energy of production values. As an oxidative technology, OMT is a net energy exporter rather than a net energy consumer like the conventional ethylbenzene/styrene (EB/SM) process. OMT plants would ultimately reduce the cost of styrene monomer which in turn will decrease the costs of polystyrene making it perhaps more cost competitive with competing polymers such as polypropylene.

  14. Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.P.; Kim, B.C.; Menton, R.; Senapati, N.; Criner, C.L.; Jirjis, B.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Chou, Y.L.; Wu, H.; Hsieh, P.; Johnson, H.R.; Eason, R.; Chiang, S.M.; Cheng, Y.S.; Kehoe, D.

    1991-10-31

    Battelle (Columbus, Ohio) undertook development of its electro-acoustic (EAD) process to demonstrate its commercial potential for continuous dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The pilot plant and laboratory results, provided in this report, show that a commercial-size EAD machine is expected to economically achieve the dewatering targets for {minus}100 mesh and {minus}325 mesh coals. The EAD process utilizes a synergistic combination of electric and acoustic (e.g., ultrasonic) fields in conjunction with conventional mechanical processes, such as belt presses, screw presses, plate and frame filter presses, and vacuum filters. The application of EAD is typically most beneficial after a filter cake is formed utilizing conventional mechanical filtration. (VC)

  15. [Protein carbonylation and its role in physiological processes in plants].

    PubMed

    Debska, Karolina; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) continuously as a byproducts of oxygen metabolism and reaction to various environmental stresses. ROS are considered as chemicals inducing damage of cellular components (DNA, lipids and proteins), but also might act as signaling agents. Protein oxidation is one of covalent modification of protein induced by ROS or other products of oxidative stress. Carbonylation of particular amino acid residues (arginine, lysine, treonine or proline) is one of the most commonly occurring oxidative modification of proteins. This modification might lead to alteration in protein activity, its proteolytic breakdown or, in the opposite, aggregate formation. Carbonylated proteins have been identified in many plant species at different stage of growth and development. The analysis of subcellular localization of carbonylated proteins arised the hypothesis on their signaling function. We summarize the current knowledge on the detection of carbonylation protein in plants taking to the account the conditions which may influence their production or removal. We present also their putative role in plant physiology and discuss interaction between ROS and RNS in regulation of protein carbonylation. PMID:23214127

  16. Towards uncovering the roles of switchgrass peroxidases in plant processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbaceous perennial plants selected as potential biofuel feedstocks had been understudied at the genomic and functional genomic levels. Recent investments, primarily by the U.S. Department of Energy, have led to the development of a number of molecular resources for bioenergy grasses and related di...

  17. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  18. Computer simulation of coal preparation plants. Part 2. User's manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gottfried, B.S.; Tierney, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report describes a comprehensive computer program that allows the user to simulate the performance of realistic coal preparation plants. The program is very flexible in the sense that it can accommodate any particular plant configuration that may be of interest. This allows the user to compare the performance of different plant configurations and to determine the impact of various modes of operation with the same configuration. In addition, the program can be used to assess the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and a given mode of operation. Use of the simulator requires that the user specify the appearance of the plant configuration, the plant operating conditions, and a description of the coal feed. The simulator will then determine the flowrates within the plant, and a description of each flowrate (i.e., the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, and Btu content). The simulation program has been written in modular form using the Fortran language. It can be implemented on a great many different types of computers, ranging from large scientific mainframes to IBM-type personal computers with a fixed disk. Some customization may be required, however, to ensure compatibility with the features of Fortran available on a particular computer. Part I of this report contains a general description of the methods used to carry out the simulation. Each of the major types of units is described separately, in addition to a description of the overall system analysis. Part II is intended as a user's manual. It contains a listing of the mainframe version of the program, instructions for its use (on both a mainframe and a microcomputer), and output for a representative sample problem.

  19. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubiolo, Pablo R.; Conway, Lawarence E.; Oriani, Luca; Lahoda, Edward J.; DeSilva, Greg; Hu, Min H.; Hartz, Josh; Bachrach, Uriel; Smith, Larry; Dudek, Daniel F.; Gary J. Toman; Feng, Dandong; Hejzlar, Pavel; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2006-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a standard 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (~600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output.

  20. The role of alternative cyanide-insensitive respiration in plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Ilya

    1997-09-29

    This DOE funded research concentrated on the investigation of the role of respiration and oxidative stress in plant biology. Initially the authors concentrated on the possible role of cyanide-insensitive respiration in counteracting the deleterious effects of chilling stress. Although plants are considered to be poikilotherms, there are a few examples of thermogenesis, in which the tissue temperature increases well above ambient. They suggested that differences between thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants may be quantitative rather than qualitative, and that heat from increased respiration may have a local protective effect on the mitochondria, slowing or reducing the effects of chilling. They proposed that this is accomplished by a large increase in respiration, predominantly via the alternative pathway. They measured the increases in respiration, particularly via the alternative pathway, in response to chilling. They have also quantified the associated increases in heat evolution in response to chilling in a number of plant species using a microcalorimeter. For example, after 8 h exposure to 8 C, heat evolution in chilling-sensitive species increased 47--98%, compared to 7--22% for the chilling-resistant species. No increase in heat evolution was observed in the extremely chilling-sensitive ornamental Episcka cupreata (Hook). Increases in heat evolution were observed when plants were chilled in constant light or in the dark, but not when plants were chilled at high humidity. Heat evolution by mitochondria isolated from potato tuber slices were also measured. These values, together with measurements of the heat capacity of isolated mitochondria and counting of the mitochondria by flow cytometry, allow calculation of theoretical maximal rates of heating and the heat produced per mitochondrion. The obtained data was consistent with the protective role of respiratory heat production in cold-stressed plants.

  1. The Theory of High Energy Collision Processes - Final Report DOE/ER/40158-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tai, T.

    2011-09-15

    In 1984, DOE awarded Harvard University a new Grant DE-FG02-84ER40158 to continue their support of Tai Tsun Wu as Principal Investigator of research on the theory of high energy collision processes. This Grant was renewed and remained active continuously from June 1, 1984 through November 30, 2007. Topics of interest during the 23-year duration of this Grant include: the theory and phenomenology of collision and production processes at ever higher energies; helicity methods of QED and QCD; neutrino oscillations and masses; Yang-Mills gauge theory; Beamstrahlung; Fermi pseudopotentials; magnetic monopoles and dyons; cosmology; classical confinement; mass relations; Bose-Einstein condensation; and large-momentum-transfer scattering processes. This Final Report describes the research carried out on Grant DE-FG02-84ER40158 for the period June 1, 1984 through November 30, 2007. Two books resulted from this project and a total of 125 publications.

  2. Legionnaires' Disease Bacterium in power-plant cooling systems: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.; Gough, S.B.; Tyndall, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1983-06-01

    A survey was undertaken of the distribution, density, viability, and infectivity of Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) in power plant cooling systems. Water samples were collected during each of the four seasons at various locations within each of nine power plants and from ambient waters at each site. Measurements of a number of physical and chemical characteristics were made, and Legionella profiles (density, viability, and infectivity for guinea pigs) were obtained. Legionella were detected in nearly all samples. Water from closed-cycle cooling systems frequently had lower densities of Legionella than the ambient water. Nonetheless, infectious Legionella, as defined by their isolation from inoculated guinea pigs, were significantly more likely to be found in samples from the plant-exposed water of closed-cycle plants than in samples from once-through plants or in ambient samples. A new species (L. oakridgensis) was initially isolated from two of the sites, and it has since been found to have a widespread distribution. Two other organisms found to cause illness in guinea pigs may also be new species. Phase II of the project involves investigating possible cause/effect relationships between physicochemical variables and Legionella. This work may contribute toward eventual control techniques for this pathogen.

  3. Energy conservation study on Lamb-Weston potato processing plant, Hermiston, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-21

    This report presents the findings of an energy study done at the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant in Hermiston, Oregon. The study includes all electrical energy using systems at the plant but does not address specifc modificiations to process equipment. The Hermiston plant receives raw potatoes and produces a mixture of pre-fried and frozen potato products, including french fries, breakfast products, and a dinner product. The plant contains all necessary equipment and processes to produce a finished product but does not have on-site, long-term cold storage. The Hermiston plant purchases electricity from the Umatilla Rural Electrical Association (REA) on two main services: a 12.7 KV, three phase service for the electric boiler, and a three phase, 480 volt service that provides electricity for all other functions in the main plant (the wheelturning load).

  4. Controls over nutrient flow through plants and microbes in Arctic tundra. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schimel, J.

    1994-02-01

    Ecosystem productivity in the Arctic is strongly controlled by N availability to plants. Thus, disturbances to the Arctic system are likely to have their greatest impacts by altering the supply of nutrients to plants. Thus, to understand the dynamics of Arctic tundra, a complete understanding of the controls on N cycling in tundra soils is necessary. This project focused on understanding nutrient dynamics in arctic tussock tundra, specifically evaluating the role of microbial uptake and competition for nutrients as a control on plant N-uptake. The project consisted of several major components: Short- and long-term partitioning of NH{sub 4}{sup +} in tussock tundra (1990--1991); Measurement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} uptake rates by Eriophorum vaginatum and by soil microbes; Determination of microbial NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{minus} uptake kinetics; and Determination of the partitioning of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and amino acids between E. vaginatum and soil microbes.

  5. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  6. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K.

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  7. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; O`Hearn, E.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  8. Waste immobilization process development at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Charlesworth, D L

    1986-01-01

    Processes to immobilize various wasteforms, including waste salt solution, transuranic waste, and low-level incinerator ash, are being developed. Wasteform characteristics, process and equipment details, and results from field/pilot tests and mathematical modeling studies are discussed.

  9. Recovery of coal fines from preparation plant effluents. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.

    1991-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to test and demonstrate the feasibility of recovering coal fines that are currently disposed of with coal preparation plant effluent streams and producing a fine clean coal product that can be blended with the plant coarse clean coal. This recovery was effected by means of Michigan Technological University`s static tube flotation process, which was successfully demonstrated on a number of raw coals to reject 85% of the pyritic sulfur and recover 90% of the combustible matter. Under this project, the process parameters for the technology were modified for this application in order to recover a low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal that is, at a minimum, compatible with the quality of the clean coal currently produced by the preparation plant.

  10. [The airborne 1,3-butadiene concentrations in rubber and plastic processing plants].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiaki; Tainaka, Hidetsugu; Matsunaga, Ichiro; Goto, Sumio

    2002-03-01

    Environment pollution by 1,3-butadiene had considerably increased in Japan. The main cause of the pollution is the automotive exhaust gas, and leaks from factories, smoking, and burning of rubber and plastic products are considered to be minor sources. The object of this study was to determine the contamination levels of airborne 1,3-butadiene in factories processing rubber and plastics containing 1,3-butadiene. The concentrations of airborne 1,3-butadiene were measured in 21 plants (10 rubber processing plants and 11 plastics processing plants) in Osaka. 1,3-Butadiene in air was collected for 10 minutes with a charcoal tube and a portable small pump adjusted to a 250 ml/min flow rate. In each plant, indoor air samples at five points and an outdoor air sample at one point outside the plant were collected. The samples were subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after thermal desorption from the charcoal. The concentrations of airborne 1,3-butadiene in the rubber processing plants and the plastics processing plants were 0.14-2.20 micrograms/m3 (geometric mean: 0.48 microgram/m3) and 0.23-4.51 micrograms/m3 (geometric mean: 0.80 microgram/m3), respectively. In all plants examined, indoor 1,3-butadiene concentrations were higher than the outdoor concentrations around the plants. Therefore, 1,3-butadiene was considered to arise from the processing of rubber or plastics, but the indoor 1,3-butadiene concentrations were much lower than the PEL-TWA (1 ppm = 2.21 mg/m3) of OSHA and the TLV-TWA (2 ppm) of ACGIH. The concentrations in the plants with closed room conditions without ventilation were higher than the concentrations in the other plants. It was suggested that ventilation affected the 1,3-butadiene concentration in the plants.

  11. Feasibility study for Mindanao coal-fired power plant. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The report covers the results of a feasibility study conducted for the installation of a 2 x 100 MW coal-fired power plant at the Naga site on Sibuguey Bay. An overview of the powersector in the Philippines and a review of the environmental standards for the plan design are included in the report. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Overview of Electric Power Sector; (3) Environmental Standards Review; (4) Project Description; (5) Plant Design; (6) Project Schedule; (7) Project Cost Estimates; (8) Operations and Maintenance Plan; (9) Economic Analysis. Appendices A-H follows.

  12. Plant training grant: DE-FG02-94ER20162. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cashmore, Anthony R.

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this training grant was to educate students of Plant Science in the disciplines of Biochemistry and Chemistry, in addition to the more traditional courses in Plant Biology. Annual retreats were held which involved a day-long meeting and included lectures from Penn faculty as well as famous national and international scientists. Programs for two of these retreats are included. In addition to lecture courses, students performed research within the Departments of Biology, Chemistry, and Biochemistry and Biophysics; a publications list is given.

  13. Neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear plants. Final report of Subtask B: dosimeter response

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, F.M.; Endres, G.W.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1983-03-01

    As part of a larger program to evaluate personnel neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear power plants, this study was designed to characterize neutron dosimeter responses inside the containment structure of commercial nuclear plants. In order to characterize those responses, dosimeters were irradiated inside containment at 2 pressurized water reactors and at pipe penetrations outside the biological shield at two boiling water reactors. The reactors were operating at full power during the irradiations. Measurements were also performed with electronic instruments, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and portable remmeters, SNOOPY, RASCAL and PNR-4.

  14. The advanced PFB process: Pilot plant results and design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D.; Rehmat, A.

    1993-11-01

    The plant being developed is a hybrid of two technologies; it incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a vessel called the carbonizer and the combustion of the resultant char residue in a circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustor (CPFBC). In this plant, coal is fed to a pressurized carbonizer that produces a low-Btu fuel gas and char. After passing through a cyclone and a ceramic barrier filter to remove gas-entrained particulates, the fuel gas is burned in a topping combustor to produce the energy required to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator and a compressor that feeds air to the carbonizer, a CPFBC, and a fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE). The carbonizer char is burned in the CPFBC with high excess air. The vitiated air from the CPFBC supports combustion of the fuel gas in the gas turbine topping combustor. Steam generated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) downstream of the gas turbine and in the FBHE associated with the CPFBC drives the steam turbine generator that furnishes the balance of electric power delivered by the plant. The low-Btu gas is produced in the carbonizer by pyrolysis/mild devolatilization of coal in a fluidized bed reactor. Because this unit operates at temperatures much lower than gasifiers currently under development, it also produces a char residue. Left untreated, the fuel gas will contain hydrogen sulfide and sulfur-containing tar/light oil vapors; therefore, lime-based sorbents are injected into the carbonizer to catalytically enhance tar cracking and to capture sulfur as calcium sulfide. Sulfur is captured in situ, and the raw fuel gas is fired hot. Thus the expensive, complex, fuel gas heat exchangers and the chemical or sulfur-capturing bed cleanup systems that are part of the coal gasification combined-cycle plants now being developed are eliminated.

  15. Final Technical Report - Advanced Optical Sensors to Minimize Energy Consumption in Polymer Extrusion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Susan J. Foulk

    2012-07-24

    Project Objective: The objectives of this study are to develop an accurate and stable on-line sensor system to monitor color and composition on-line in polymer melts, to develop a scheme for using the output to control extruders to eliminate the energy, material and operational costs of off-specification product, and to combine or eliminate some extrusion processes. Background: Polymer extrusion processes are difficult to control because the quality achieved in the final product is complexly affected by the properties of the extruder screw, speed of extrusion, temperature, polymer composition, strength and dispersion properties of additives, and feeder system properties. Extruder systems are engineered to be highly reproducible so that when the correct settings to produce a particular product are found, that product can be reliably produced time after time. However market conditions often require changes in the final product, different products or grades may be processed in the same equipment, and feed materials vary from lot to lot. All of these changes require empirical adjustment of extruder settings to produce a product meeting specifications. Optical sensor systems that can continuously monitor the composition and color of the extruded polymer could detect process upsets, drift, blending oscillations, and changes in dispersion of additives. Development of an effective control algorithm using the output of the monitor would enable rapid corrections for changes in materials and operating conditions, thereby eliminating most of the scrap and recycle of current processing. This information could be used to identify extruder systems issues, diagnose problem sources, and suggest corrective actions in real-time to help keep extruder system settings within the optimum control region. Using these advanced optical sensor systems would give extruder operators real-time feedback from their process. They could reduce the amount of off-spec product produced and

  16. Assessment of four biodiesel production processes using HYSYS.Plant.

    PubMed

    West, Alex H; Posarac, Dusko; Ellis, Naoko

    2008-09-01

    Four continuous biodiesel processes were designed and simulated in HYSYS. The first two employed traditional homogeneous alkali and acid catalysts. The third and fourth processes used a heterogeneous acid catalyst and a supercritical method to convert a waste vegetable oil feedstock into biodiesel. While all four processes were capable of producing biodiesel at high purity, the heterogeneous and supercritical processes were the least complex and had the smallest number of unit operations. Material and energy flows, as well as sized unit operation blocks, were used to conduct an economic assessment of each process. Total capital investment, total manufacturing cost and after tax rate-of-return were calculated for each process. The heterogeneous acid catalyst process had the lowest total capital investment and manufacturing costs, and had the only positive after tax rate-of-return.

  17. Demonstration of EIC's copper sulfate process for removal of hydrogen sulfide and other trace contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine inlet temperatures and pressures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results obtained during the operation of an integrated, one-tenth commercial scale pilot plant using EIC's copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine upstream conditions are discussed. The tests took place over a six month period at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Unit No. 7 at The Geysers Power Plant. These tests were the final phase of a development effort which included the laboratory research and engineering design work which led to the design of the pilot plant. Broadly, the objectives of operating the pilot plant were to confirm the preliminary design criteria which had been developed, and provide data for their revisions, if appropriate, in a plant which contained all the elements of a commercial process using equipment of a size sufficient to provide valid scale-up data. The test campaign was carried out in four phases: water testing; open circuit, i.e., non integrated scrubbing, liquid-solid separation and regeneration testing; closed circuit short term; and closed circuit long term testing.

  18. COMPARISON OF FINAL TREATMENT & PROCESS METHODS FOR THE PREPARATION & INTERIM STORAGE OF K BASIN KNOCKOUT POT SLUDGE ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ERPENBECK, E.G.

    2004-06-22

    Fluor Hanford (FH) directed British Nuclear Fuels, Inc. (BNFL) to prepare a Knock Out Pot (KOP) study ''using cold vacuum drying (CVD) to dry the KOP sludge with a final disposition to Canister Storage Building (CSB) or evaluate a process to corrode the sludge in water and grout it to meet the end state criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).'' BNFL initially identified four process options: (1) Incorporate sludges into grout with no pre-conditioning; (2) Corrode the Uranium metal in the sludges then incorporate the resulting sludge into grout; (3) Separate sludge into two streams by washing/size separation with: Larger particle/Uranium metal rich stream being vacuum dried at CVD; and Smaller particle/lower Uranium metal stream being incorporated into grout; and (4) Cold vacuum dry all sludge at CVD. A coarse down selection meeting discounted option 1 as the number of drums required was prohibitive in terms of cost and schedule; and option 4 due to the technical inability of CVD to dry this waste.

  19. Pollination and seed dispersal are the most threatened processes of plant regeneration.

    PubMed

    Neuschulz, Eike Lena; Mueller, Thomas; Schleuning, Matthias; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Plant regeneration is essential for maintaining forest biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, which are globally threatened by human disturbance. Here we present the first integrative meta-analysis on how forest disturbance affects multiple ecological processes of plant regeneration including pollination, seed dispersal, seed predation, recruitment and herbivory. We analysed 408 pairwise comparisons of these processes between near-natural and disturbed forests. Human impacts overall reduced plant regeneration. Importantly, only processes early in the regeneration cycle that often depend on plant-animal interactions, i.e. pollination and seed dispersal, were negatively affected. Later processes, i.e. seed predation, recruitment and herbivory, showed overall no significant response to human disturbance. Conserving pollination and seed dispersal, including the animals that provide these services to plants, should become a priority in forest conservation efforts globally. PMID:27435026

  20. Pollination and seed dispersal are the most threatened processes of plant regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Neuschulz, Eike Lena; Mueller, Thomas; Schleuning, Matthias; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Plant regeneration is essential for maintaining forest biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, which are globally threatened by human disturbance. Here we present the first integrative meta-analysis on how forest disturbance affects multiple ecological processes of plant regeneration including pollination, seed dispersal, seed predation, recruitment and herbivory. We analysed 408 pairwise comparisons of these processes between near-natural and disturbed forests. Human impacts overall reduced plant regeneration. Importantly, only processes early in the regeneration cycle that often depend on plant-animal interactions, i.e. pollination and seed dispersal, were negatively affected. Later processes, i.e. seed predation, recruitment and herbivory, showed overall no significant response to human disturbance. Conserving pollination and seed dispersal, including the animals that provide these services to plants, should become a priority in forest conservation efforts globally. PMID:27435026

  1. Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects.

    PubMed

    Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Graf, Martha D

    2012-08-01

    Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments.

  2. When do plants modify fluvial processes? Plant-hydraulic interactions under variable flow and sediment supply rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manners, Rebecca B.; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Kui, Li; Lightbody, Anne F.; Stella, John C.; Sklar, Leonard S.

    2015-02-01

    Flow and sediment regimes shape alluvial river channels; yet the influence of these abiotic drivers can be strongly mediated by biotic factors such as the size and density of riparian vegetation. We present results from an experiment designed to identify when plants control fluvial processes and to investigate the sensitivity of fluvial processes to changes in plant characteristics versus changes in flow rate or sediment supply. Live seedlings of two species with distinct morphologies, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii), were placed in different configurations in a mobile sand-bed flume. We measured the hydraulic and sediment flux responses of the channel at different flow rates and sediment supply conditions representing equilibrium (sediment supply = transport rate) and deficit (sediment supply < transport rate). We found that the hydraulic and sediment flux responses during sediment equilibrium represented a balance between abiotic and biotic factors and was sensitive to increasing flow rates and plant species and configuration. Species-specific traits controlled the hydraulic response: compared to cottonwood, which has a more tree-like morphology, the shrubby morphology of tamarisk resulted in less pronation and greater reductions in near-bed velocities, Reynolds stress, and sediment flux rates. Under sediment-deficit conditions, on the other hand, abiotic factors dampened the effect of variations in plant characteristics on the hydraulic response. We identified scenarios for which the highest stem-density patch, independent of abiotic factors, dominated the fluvial response. These results provide insight into how and when plants influence fluvial processes in natural systems.

  3. Final environmental impact assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This document considers: the need for uranium enrichment facilities; site location; plant description; and describes the power generating facilities in light of its existing environment. The impacts from continuing operations are compared with alternatives of shutdown, relocation, and alternative power systems. (PSB)

  4. Economic implications of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, R.C.; Collins, G.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Chang, H.C.

    1983-08-01

    This study of expected economic impacts of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel consisted of two components: (1) analysis of oilseed production and oilseed crushing capacity in the US and Texas and (2) simulation of impacts on US cropping patterns, crop prices, producer rent, and consumer surplus. The primary oilseed crops considered were soybeans, cottonseed, sunflowers, and peanuts. 19 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  5. Plant recognition of Bradyrhizobium japonicum nod factors. Final report, September 15, 1992--March 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, G.

    1998-01-01

    This grant had three objectives: (1) isolate and identify the unique nod factor metabolites made by different wild-type B. japonicum strains; (2) investigate the biological activity of these unique nod factors, especially as it relates to host range; and (3) initiate studies to define the mechanism of plant recognition of the nod factors. This report summarizes the results of this research.

  6. Metabolic mechanisms of plant growth at low water potentials: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    As proposed, we investigated the effects of low water potentials on cell enlargement and photosynthesis. We described a new instrument (a guillotine psychometer) and method for investigating the control of cell enlargement in plants. The method allows all the factors affecting cell enlargement to be evaluated in a single plant sample growing at a steady rate. All the measurements were conducted while the plants were completely intact with the exception of the yield threshold turgor. This parameter was measured within 5-10 min after excision of the enlarging tissue. Because the time is short, the data probably represented the condition in the intact plant just prior to excision. We investigated the effect of leaf magnesium on the photosynthetic response to low water potential because biochemical work from our laboratory indicated that magnesium concentrations slightly above those normally occurring in the chloroplast stroma resulted in an inhibition of photophosphorylation. The inhibition of photophosphorylation by Mg/sup 2 +/ was similar to that caused by low water potential is that the ATPase activity of coupling factor (the terminal enzyme for phosphorylation in chloroplasts) was inhibited, the conformation of the purified coupling factor protein was altered, and the changes persisted in vitro. 21 refs.

  7. Final Report on the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Program for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen Gilbert E.; Kearney, David W.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a six-year, $6.3 million project to reduce operation and maintenance (O&M) costs at power plants employing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. Sandia National Laboratories teamed with KJC Operating Company to implement the O&M Improvement Program. O&M technologies developed during the course of the program were demonstrated at the 150-MW Kramer Junction solar power park located in Boron, California. Improvements were made in the following areas: (a) efficiency of solar energy collection, (b) O&M information management, (c) reliability of solar field flow loop hardware, (d) plant operating strategy, and (e) cost reduction associated with environmental issues. A 37% reduction in annual O&M costs was achieved. Based on the lessons learned, an optimum solar- field O&M plan for future CSP plants is presented. Parabolic trough solar technology is employed at Kramer Junction. However, many of the O&M improvements described in the report are also applicable to CSP plants based on solar power tower or dish/engine concepts.

  8. An assessment of radiolytic gas generation: Impacts from Rocky Flats Plant residue elimination alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    This report evaluates the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque analytical model that is used to support present wattage limit decisions for various matrix forms from the Residue Elimination Project for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste acceptability. This study includes (1) a comparison of the SNL-A model to Rocky Flats Plant models for consistency of assumptions and the phenomena considered in the models, and (2) an evaluation of the appropriateness of the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque model to Rocky Flats Plant residues, considering that the original intent was to model wastes rather than residues. The study draws the following conclusions: (1) only real-time gas generation testing of specific waste streams may provide a sound basis for an increase in the transportation wattage limit of specific waste streams, and (2) the radiolytic gas generation rate from Residue Elimination Project waste emplaced at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, under worst-case conditions, is not a significant factor in comparison to the total gas generation rate due to radiolysis, microbial degradation, and corrosion.

  9. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loewus, F.A.; Seib, P.A.

    1991-12-31

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  10. Role of HSP100 proteins in plant stress tolerance. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Vierling, E.

    1998-08-01

    This research focused on the following areas: characterization of HSP100 genes and their expression during stress and development; requirement of HSP101 for thermotolerance; thermotolerance of plants over-expressing HSP100; and identifying interacting proteins that functionally interact with HSP104.

  11. Waterfowl of the Savannah River Plant: Comprehensive cooling water study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.J.; Kennamer, R.A.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1986-06-01

    Thirty-one species of waterfowl have been documented on the Savannah River Plant (SPR). The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has been conducting waterfowl research on the site for the past 15 years. This research has included work on waterfowl utilization of the SRP, wood duck reproductive biology, and waterfowl wintering ecology. Results are described.

  12. Final Report: Plant Physiological Aspects of Silicon, July 20, 1994 - July 19, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Emanuel

    2000-01-21

    The object of the research of the project was to demonstrate that Si-replete plants prefer Si-deprived ones that the latter are defined to an extent ''experimental artifacts.'' The research was to ''concentrate on describing mechanical and biochemical features.

  13. 75 FR 54961 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    .... These groups preferred the No Action Alternative due to their perception of the high cost and safety... and operation of a nuclear plant. The in-depth analysis of the impacts on low-income or minority... related to the construction workforce and the need for mitigation. TVA has undertaken an in-depth...

  14. Molecular analyses of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions affecting plant growth and yield. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, K.J.

    1998-11-01

    Mitochondria have a central role in the production of cellular energy. The biogenesis and functioning of mitochondria depends on the expression of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. One approach to investigating the role of nuclear-mitochondrial cooperation in plant growth and development is to identify combinations of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that result in altered but sublethal phenotypes. Plants that have certain maize nuclear genotypes in combination with cytoplasmic genomes from more distantly-related teosintes can exhibit incompatible phenotypes, such as reduced plant growth and yield and cytoplasmic male sterility, as well as altered mitochondrial gene expression. The characterization of these nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions was the focus of this grant. The authors were investigating the effects of two maize nuclear genes, RcmI and Mct, on mitochondrial function and gene expression. Plants with the teosinte cytoplasms and homozygous for the recessive rcm allele are small (miniature) and-slow-growing and the kernels are reduced in size. The authors mapped this locus to molecular markers on chromosome 7 and attempted to clone this locus by transposon tagging. The effects of the nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction on mitochondrial function and mitochondrial protein profiles were also studied.

  15. Solar production of industrial process steam at the Home Cleaning and Laundry Co. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report presents the results of the operation and performance evaluation period at the Home Laundry Solar Industrial Process Heat Project at Pasadena, California. The installation comprises 6496 ft/sup 2/ (603.5 m/sup 2/) of linear parabolic trough concentrating collectors supplying solar thermal energy for use in laundry and dry cleaning processes. The design phase began in September 1977, and an acceptance test was conducted during the week of April 12, 1982. The plant has been in operation since May 1982, with the 12-month Phase III (operational) period starting in October 1982. The objective of the operational evaluation experiment was to maximize energy delivery to the industrial participant while characterizing system performance. Data were acquired for monthly documentation of system performance, maintenance requirements, and operating costs.

  16. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  17. Effects of plant root on hydraulic performance of clogging process in subsurface flow constructed wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Guofen; Zhao, Zhongwei; Zeng, Yitao

    2013-04-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) have proven to be an efficient ecological technology for the treatment of various kinds of wastewaters. The clogging issue is the main operational problem, which limits its wide application. Clogging is a complicated process with physical (such as physical filtration), biogeochemical and plant-related processes. It was generally stated that suspended solids accumulation and biofilm play dominant roles response for clogging. However, the role of plants in SFCWs clogging remains unclear and debatable. In this paper, the performance of plants in the whole clogging process was addressed based on the lab-experiments between planted and unplanted system by measuring effective porosity, coefficient of permeability of the substrate within different operation periods. Furthermore, flow pattern and transport properties of the clogging process in the planted and unplanted wetland systems were evaluated by hydraulic performance (e.g. mean residence time, short-circuiting, volumetric efficiency, number of continuously stirred tank reactors, hydraulic efficiency factor, etc.) with salt tracer experiments. Plants played different roles in different clogging stage. In the earlier clogging stage, there were no obvious different effects on clogging process between planted and unplanted system. The effective porosity and coefficient of permeability slightly decreased within the planted system, which indicated that plant root restricted the flow of water when the pore spaces were lager. In the middle and later clogging stage, especially, in the later stage, the effective porosity and the coefficient of permeability increased considerably in the plant root zone. Furthermore, the longer retention times and higher hydraulic efficiency factors were gained in the planted system compared to that of unplanted, which implied that growing roots might open the new pore spaces in the substrate. The results are expected to be useful in the design of

  18. End-use matching for solar industrial process heat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.C.; Hooker, D.W.; Rabl, A.; Stadjuhar, S.A.; West, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the large energy demand of industry (37% of US demand) and the wide spectrum of temperatures at which heat is required, the industrial sector appears to be very suitable for the matching of solar thermal technology with industrial process heat (IPH) requirements. A methodology for end-use matching has been devised, complete with required data bases and an evaluation program PROSYS/ECONMAT. Six cities in the United States were selected for an analysis of solar applications to IPH. Typical process heat requirements for 70% of the industrial plants in each city were identified and evaluated in conjunction with meteorological and economic data for each site to determine lowest-cost solar systems for each application. The flexibility and scope of PROSYS/ECONMAT is shown in a variety of sensitivity studies that expand the results of the six-city analysis. Case studies of two industrial plants were performed to evaluate the end-use matching procedure; these results are reported.

  19. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  20. 75 FR 74545 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule Designating Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ..., refer to the final listing rule published in the Federal Register on July 2, 2002 (67 FR 44372), the proposed critical habitat designation published in the Federal Register on August 27, 2009 (74 FR 44238... Register on May 18, 2010 (75 FR 27690). New Information on Species' Description, Life History,...

  1. 75 FR 30714 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Establish Take Prohibitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... portion of its range and listed the species as threatened under the ESA on April 7, 2006 (71 FR 17757). At... be found in the final rule (71 FR 17757; April 7, 2006). No substantive additional comments, beyond... activity on the Southern DPS fish is provided in previous Federal Register notices (70 FR 17386, April...

  2. 75 FR 21394 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Revised Critical Habitat for Hine's Emerald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Register on July 26, 2006 (71 FR 42442); the final listing determination, published on January 26, 1995 (60 FR 5267); or the Hine's Emerald Dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana, Williamson) Recovery Plan (Service... dragonfly, see our proposed critical habitat rule for the species (71 FR 42442). On March 20, 2007,...

  3. Automated processing of whole blood units: operational value and in vitro quality of final blood components

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Marisa; Algora, Manuel; Garcia-Sanchez, Félix; Vico, Santiago; Rodriguez, Eva; Perez, Sonia; Barbolla, Luz

    2012-01-01

    Background The Community Transfusion Centre in Madrid currently processes whole blood using a conventional procedure (Compomat, Fresenius) followed by automated processing of buffy coats with the OrbiSac system (CaridianBCT). The Atreus 3C system (CaridianBCT) automates the production of red blood cells, plasma and an interim platelet unit from a whole blood unit. Interim platelet unit are pooled to produce a transfusable platelet unit. In this study the Atreus 3C system was evaluated and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational value. Materials and methods Over a 5-week period 810 whole blood units were processed using the Atreus 3C system. The attributes of the automated process were compared to those of the routine method by assessing productivity, space, equipment and staffing requirements. The data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate the impact of implementing the Atreus 3C system in the routine setting of the blood centre. Yield and in vitro quality of the final blood components processed with the two systems were evaluated and compared. Results The Atreus 3C system enabled higher throughput while requiring less space and employee time by decreasing the amount of equipment and processing time per unit of whole blood processed. Whole blood units processed on the Atreus 3C system gave a higher platelet yield, a similar amount of red blood cells and a smaller volume of plasma. Discussion These results support the conclusion that the Atreus 3C system produces blood components meeting quality requirements while providing a high operational efficiency. Implementation of the Atreus 3C system could result in a large organisational improvement. PMID:22044958

  4. U.S. Department of Energy integrated manufacturing & processing predoctoral fellowships. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrochenkov, Margaret

    2003-03-31

    The objective of this program was threefold: to create a pool of PhDs trained in the integrated approach to manufacturing and processing, to promote academic interest in the field, and to attract talented professionals to this challenging area of engineering. It was anticipated that the program would result in the creation of new manufacturing methods that would contribute to improved energy efficiency, to better utilization of scarce resources, and to less degradation of the environment. Emphasis in the competition was on integrated systems of manufacturing and the integration of product design with manufacturing processes. Research addressed such related areas as aspects of unit operations, tooling and equipment, intelligent sensors, and manufacturing systems as they related to product design. This is the final report to close out the contract.

  5. Implementation of abnormal operation scenarios into the DWPF process plant simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkardesh, K.

    1994-04-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will be used by the Department of Energy to process high level liquid radioactive waste into a stable and manageable solid form. The facility requires a performance-based operator training program to satisfy DOE orders and guidelines. The control room operator training portion of this program is conducted on the DWPF Process Plant Simulator and is divided into normal and abnormal operations training. Normal operations training reflects the normal manual and automatic operations of the process. Abnormal operations training initiates equipment failures and process upsets in order to train the operators on transient operation and safe shutdown of a specific DWPF process. Abnormal operations g requires the capability of the DWPF Process Plant Simulator to initiate and manage predefined malfunction scenarios as needed by the training instructors. This paper will discuss the implementation of abnormal operation scenarios capability into the DWPF Process Plant Simulator.

  6. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  10. A Largely Unsatisfied Need: Continuing Professional Development for Process and Process Plant Industries. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhart, D.; Brown, A. S.

    This summary report outlines the aims of a project that focused on provision of short courses for technical professionals in the chemical and allied process industry and the process plant industry. Continuing education needs of both companies and individuals, as well as corporate policies and attitudes toward continuing education and constraints…

  11. 9 CFR 590.680 - Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of labeling for egg products processed in exempted egg products processing plants. 590.680 Section 590.680 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION...

  12. Advanced oxidation processes with coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, A; Kwarciak-Kozłowska, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most efficient method of coke wastewater treatment. This research examined two processes - advanced oxidation with Fenton and photo-Fenton reaction. It was observed that the use of ultraviolet radiation with Fenton process had a better result in removal of impurities.

  13. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  14. Improving planting stock quality: The humboldt experience. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkinson, J.L.; Nelson, J.A.; Huddleston, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A seedling testing program was developed to improve the survival and growth potential of planting stock produced in the USDA Forest Service Humboldt Nursery, situated on the Pacific Coast in northern California. Coastal and inland seed sources of Douglas-fir and eight other conifers in the Pacific Slope forests of western Oregon and northern California were assessed in both nursery and field studies. Seedling top and root growth capacities were evaluated just after lifting and after cold storage, and stored seedlings were tested for suvival and growth on cleared planting sites in the seed zones of origin. Safe lifting and cold storage schedules were defined, and seedling cultural regimes were formulated to produce successful 1-0, 1-1, and 2-0 stock types. Testing deomonstrated the critical elements of reforestation and proved that rapid establishment is attainable on diverse sites. Accomplishments of the Humboldt program recommended similar programs for other forest nurseries and their service regions.

  15. Controls over nutrient flow through plants and microbes in Arctic tundra. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, F.S. III

    1995-01-01

    We successfully developed a series of models to explore the importance of species differences in phenologies of growth and nitrogen uptake to competitive interactions in upland tussock tundra. We developed growth models for 4 major tussock tundra species, based on observed growth rates and phenologies. We found that differences in phenology and nutrient use strategy could permit coexistence of some, but not all of the tundra plants modeled. The plant that was the best competitor, because of its rapid growth rate and superior ability to retranslocate nitrogen, may be naturally limited in its competitive ability by its tussock growth form. The mechanisms behind this limitation, and the contributions of patterns of mortality to observed production, will be explored in future modeling and experimental studies. In addition, our models point out that our understanding of the dynamics of nitrogen supply is still inadequate.

  16. Handbook of human-reliability analysis with emphasis on nuclear power plant applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, A D; Guttmann, H E

    1983-08-01

    The primary purpose of the Handbook is to present methods, models, and estimated human error probabilities (HEPs) to enable qualified analysts to make quantitative or qualitative assessments of occurrences of human errors in nuclear power plants (NPPs) that affect the availability or operational reliability of engineered safety features and components. The Handbook is intended to provide much of the modeling and information necessary for the performance of human reliability analysis (HRA) as a part of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of NPPs. Although not a design guide, a second purpose of the Handbook is to enable the user to recognize error-likely equipment design, plant policies and practices, written procedures, and other human factors problems so that improvements can be considered. The Handbook provides the methodology to identify and quantify the potential for human error in NPP tasks.

  17. Z-inertial fusion energy: power plant final report FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Kulcinski, Gerald; Zhao, Haihua; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Sierra, Dannelle P.; Meier, Wayne; McConnell, Paul E.; Ghiaasiaan, M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kern, Brian (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Tajima, Yu (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Campen, Chistopher (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Sketchley, Tomas (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Moir, R (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories); Bardet, Philippe M. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Durbin, Samuel; Morrow, Charles W.; Vigil, Virginia L (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Modesto-Beato, Marcos A.; Franklin, James Kenneth; Smith, James Dean; Ying, Alice; Cook, Jason T.; Schmitz, Lothar (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Abdel-Khalik, S. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Sridharan, Kumar (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Gudmundson, Jesse; Peterson, Per F.; Marriott, Ed; Oakley, Jason

    2006-10-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Z-inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) late start Laboratory Directed Research Project. A major area of focus was on creating a roadmap to a z-pinch driven fusion power plant. The roadmap ties ZIFE into the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative through the use of high energy fusion neutrons to burn the actinides of spent fuel waste. Transmutation presents a near term use for Z-IFE technology and will aid in paving the path to fusion energy. The work this year continued to develop the science and engineering needed to support the Z-IFE roadmap. This included plant system and driver cost estimates, recyclable transmission line studies, flibe characterization, reaction chamber design, and shock mitigation techniques.

  18. Gamete attachment process revealed in flowering plant fertilization.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Igawa, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sex-possessing organisms perform sexual reproduction, in which gametes from different sexes fuse to produce offspring. In most eukaryotes, one or both sex gametes are motile, and gametes actively approach each other to fuse. However, in flowering plants, the gametes of both sexes lack motility. Two sperm cells (male gametes) that are contained in a pollen grain are recessively delivered via pollen tube elongation. After the pollen tube bursts, sperm cells are released toward the egg and central cells (female gametes) within an ovule ( Fig. 1 ). The precise mechanism of sperm cell movement after the pollen tube bursts remains unknown. Ultimately, one sperm cell fuses with the egg cell and the other one fuses with the central cell, producing an embryo and an endosperm, respectively. Fertilization in which 2 sets of gamete fusion events occur, called double fertilization, has been known for over 100 y. The fact that each morphologically identical sperm cell precisely recognizes its fusion partner strongly suggests that an accurate gamete interaction system(s) exists in flowering plants. PMID:25517689

  19. Introduction. Speciation in plants and animals: pattern and process.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Richard J; Ritchie, Michael G; Hollingsworth, Peter M

    2008-09-27

    Although approximately 150 years have passed since the publication of On the origin of species by means of natural selection, the definition of what species are and the ways in which species originate remain contentious issues in evolutionary biology. The biological species concept, which defines species as groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups, continues to draw support. However, there is a growing realization that many animal and plant species can hybridize with their close relatives and exchange genes without losing their identity. On occasion, such hybridization can lead to the origin of new species. A key to understanding what species are and the ways in which they originate rests to a large extent on a detailed knowledge of the nature and genetics of factors that limit gene flow between species and the conditions under which such isolation originates. The collection of papers in this issue addresses these topics and deals as well with some specific issues of hybrid speciation and the causes of species radiations. The papers included arise from a 1-day symposium on speciation held during the Sixth Biennial Meeting of the Systematics Association at Edinburgh in August 2007. In this introduction, we provide some background to these papers and highlight some key points made. The papers make clear that highly significant advances to our understanding of animal and plant speciation are currently being made across the range of this topic. PMID:18583278

  20. Sacramento Municipal Utility District Geothermal Power Plant, SMUDGEO No. 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The proposed construction of 72-MW geothermal power plant is discussed. The following aspects are covered: the project as proposed by the utility; the environmental setting; the adverse consequences of the project, any significant environmental effects which cannot be avoided, and any mitigation measures to minimize significant effects; the potential feasible alternatives to the proposed project; the significant unavoidable, irreversible, and long-term environmental impacts; and the Growth Inducing Impacts. (MHR)

  1. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, C.R.; Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid. 37 figs.

  2. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Christopher R.; Nawrath, Christiane; Poirier, Yves

    1997-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid.

  3. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  4. Response of plants and ecosystems to CO{sub 2} and climate change. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1993-12-31

    In recognition of the important role of vegetation in the bio-geosphere carbon cycle, the Carbon Dioxide Research Program of the US Department of Energy established the research program: Direct Effects of increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation. The ultimate goal is to develop a general ecosystem model to investigate, via hypothesis testing, the potential responses of different terrestrial ecosystems to changes in the global environment over the next century. The approach involves the parallel development of models at several hierarchical levels, from the leaf to the ecosystem. At the plant level, mechanism and the direct effects of CO{sub 2} in the development of a general plant growth model, GEPSI - GEneral Plant SImulator has been stressed. At the ecosystem level, we have stressed the translation Of CO{sub 2} effects and other aspects of climate change throughout the ecosystem, including feedbacks and constraints to system response, in the development of a mechanistic, general ecosystem model SERECO - Simulation of Ecosystem Response to Elevated CO{sub 2} and Climate Change has been stressed.

  5. Specifications for a plant electrical systems and equipment workstation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCauley, T.M.; Bramwell, M.L.; Merkel, A.C.; Tracy, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) authorized Project RP 2960-1 for the development of functional specifications for a Plant Electrical Systems and equipment (PESE) Workstation. The objectives for the PESE Workstation is to enhance a utility's in-house capabilities to attain higher overall equipment and system reliability. The workstation will be a software and data management environment whose purpose is to integrate current and anticipated software and associated databases. Utility needs in the electrical engineering area and the related functions required to support these needs were derived from a survey of EPRI utilities and the experiences of the project team. The workstations scope and information structure are described in terms of the activities and data elements of the EPRI Plant Information Network (PIN). Ten major application software modules are included in the workstation. Appropriate hardware configurations have been determined based on the software, user interface, and database requirements. Important features of the workstations include: (1) a common, consistent interface between the user and the workstation's application software modules, query facility, and telecommunications facility, and (2) a common, shared database as the coordination point for work activities supported by the workstation. Full implementation of the workstation will occur in phases. Utility interest in the workstation concept is expected to increase due to greater NRC and INPO requirements for enhanced data management and maintenance of plant design bases. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Plant process computer replacements - techniques to limit installation schedules and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.D.; Olson, J.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Plant process computer systems, a standard fixture in all nuclear power plants, are used to monitor and display important plant process parameters. Scanning thousands of field sensors and alarming out-of-limit values, these computer systems are heavily relied on by control room operators. The original nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) vendor for the power plant often supplied the plant process computer. Designed using sixties and seventies technology, a plant's original process computer has been obsolete for some time. Driven by increased maintenance costs and new US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations such as NUREG-0737, Suppl. 1, many utilities have replaced their process computers with more modern computer systems. Given that computer systems are by their nature prone to rapid obsolescence, this replacement cycle will likely repeat. A process computer replacement project can be a significant capital expenditure and must be performed during a scheduled refueling outage. The object of the installation process is to install a working system on schedule. Experience gained by supervising several computer replacement installations has taught lessons that, if applied, will shorten the schedule and limit the risk of costly delays. Examples illustrating this technique are given. This paper and these examples deal only with the installation process and assume that the replacement computer system has been adequately designed, and development and factory tested.

  7. Nitrogen cycling and water pulses in semiarid grasslands: are microbial and plant processes temporally asynchronous?

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Feike A; Augustine, David J; Brewer, Paul; von Fischer, Joseph C

    2012-11-01

    Precipitation pulses in arid ecosystems can lead to temporal asynchrony in microbial and plant processing of nitrogen (N) during drying/wetting cycles causing increased N loss. In contrast, more consistent availability of soil moisture in mesic ecosystems can synchronize microbial and plant processes during the growing season, thus minimizing N loss. We tested whether microbial N cycling is asynchronous with plant N uptake in a semiarid grassland. Using (15)N tracers, we compared rates of N cycling by microbes and N uptake by plants after water pulses of 1 and 2 cm to rates in control plots without a water pulse. Microbial N immobilization, gross N mineralization, and nitrification dramatically increased 1-3 days after the water pulses, with greatest responses after the 2-cm pulse. In contrast, plant N uptake increased more after the 1-cm than after the 2-cm pulse. Both microbial and plant responses reverted to control levels within 10 days, indicating that both microbial and plant responses were short lived. Thus, microbial and plant processes were temporally synchronous following a water pulse in this semiarid grassland, but the magnitude of the pulse substantially influenced whether plants or microbes were more effective in acquiring N. Furthermore, N loss increased after both small and large water pulses (as shown by a decrease in total (15)N recovery), indicating that changes in precipitation event sizes with future climate change could exacerbate N losses from semiarid ecosystems. PMID:22555358

  8. Process performance of Ahlstrom Pyroflow PCFB pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sellakumar, K.M.; Isaksson, J.; Tiensuu, J.

    1993-05-01

    Ahlstrom Pyropower has designed and built a 10 MW{sub th} (34 MMBtu) pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) pilot plant in Karhula, Finland. The unit is now operating. Data from this unit supports the design of a nominal 80 MW, Des Moines Energy Center 1 (DMEC-1) PCFB Repowering Project. The pilot plant PCFB combustor is of square cross-section. It is housed in a 3.6 m (11.8 ft) diameter pressure vessel. A high pressure high temperature gas cleaning unit downstream of the PCFB exhaust is installed in a separate 2.6 m (8.5 ft) diameter pressure vessel. The maximum plant operating pressure is 16 bar (232 psia). The fuel is fed in slurry form; sorbent is also fed along with the fuel. The net heat input per unit cross section of the combustor is the highest of any known combustion mode. The heat release can go up to 40 MW/m{sup 2} (12.6 MMBtu/ft{sup 2} hr). Many types of coals including high sulfur, bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and Western sub bituminous, low sulfur Powder River Basin coal were tested. Combustion efficiencies in the range of 99.5 to 99.9% have been consistently observed. Emissions of various gases such as NO{sub x} SO{sub 2} and CO at different operating pressures and loads were monitored. The gas emissions have been lower than expected based on atmospheric circulating fluidized bed boiler experience. The sulfur retention is over 95 % with a Ca/S molar ratio of 1 to 2 for high sulfur Illinois No.6 coal. A GAVS molar ratio of 2.5 to 3.5 was observed to retain 95 % of sulfur with low sulfur Powder River Basin coal. All gaseous emissions during testing with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are well within the projected limits for the DMEC1 project. Emission data from tests with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are presented in the paper.

  9. Process performance of Ahlstrom Pyroflow PCFB pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sellakumar, K.M. ); Isaksson, J.; Tiensuu, J. . Hans Ahlstroem Lab.)

    1993-05-01

    Ahlstrom Pyropower has designed and built a 10 MW[sub th] (34 MMBtu) pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) pilot plant in Karhula, Finland. The unit is now operating. Data from this unit supports the design of a nominal 80 MW, Des Moines Energy Center 1 (DMEC-1) PCFB Repowering Project. The pilot plant PCFB combustor is of square cross-section. It is housed in a 3.6 m (11.8 ft) diameter pressure vessel. A high pressure high temperature gas cleaning unit downstream of the PCFB exhaust is installed in a separate 2.6 m (8.5 ft) diameter pressure vessel. The maximum plant operating pressure is 16 bar (232 psia). The fuel is fed in slurry form; sorbent is also fed along with the fuel. The net heat input per unit cross section of the combustor is the highest of any known combustion mode. The heat release can go up to 40 MW/m[sup 2] (12.6 MMBtu/ft[sup 2] hr). Many types of coals including high sulfur, bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal and Western sub bituminous, low sulfur Powder River Basin coal were tested. Combustion efficiencies in the range of 99.5 to 99.9% have been consistently observed. Emissions of various gases such as NO[sub x] SO[sub 2] and CO at different operating pressures and loads were monitored. The gas emissions have been lower than expected based on atmospheric circulating fluidized bed boiler experience. The sulfur retention is over 95 % with a Ca/S molar ratio of 1 to 2 for high sulfur Illinois No.6 coal. A GAVS molar ratio of 2.5 to 3.5 was observed to retain 95 % of sulfur with low sulfur Powder River Basin coal. All gaseous emissions during testing with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are well within the projected limits for the DMEC1 project. Emission data from tests with Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin coal are presented in the paper.

  10. SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Exxon Research and Engineering. System design final report, Volume 2. Appendices baseline plant design details seawater feed (System A)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The details of the design of a conceptual baseline solar desalination plant are provided. Yanbu, Saudi Arabia is the site for the plant. Details are defined for several of the plant subsystems including: energy storage, energy delivery, reverse osmosis/multiple effect distillation, water storage, waste disposal, backup power generation, controls and instrumentation, data acquisition, and facilities and enclosures subsystems. The plant equipment is listed and process flow diagrams are included. Cost estimates and economic analyses of the plant are documented. (BCS)

  11. Elucidation of Listeria monocytogenes Contamination Routes in Cold-Smoked Salmon Processing Plants Detected by DNA-Based Typing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Fonnesbech Vogel, Birte; Huss, Hans Henrik; Ojeniyi, Bente; Ahrens, Peter; Gram, Lone

    2001-01-01

    The contamination routes of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon processing plants were investigated by analyzing 3,585 samples from products (produced in 1995, 1996, 1998, and 1999) and processing environments (samples obtained in 1998 and 1999) of two Danish smokehouses. The level of product contamination in plant I varied from 31 to 85%, and no L. monocytogenes was found on raw fish (30 fish were sampled). In plant II, the levels of both raw fish and product contamination varied from 0 to 25% (16 of 185 raw fish samples and 59 of 1,000 product samples were positive for L. monocytogenes). A total of 429 strains of L. monocytogenes were subsequently compared by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling, and 55 different RAPD types were found. The RAPD types detected on the products were identical to types found on the processing equipment and in the processing environment, suggesting that contamination of the final product (cold-smoked salmon) in both plants (but primarily in plant I) was due to contamination during processing rather than to contamination from raw fish. However, the possibility that raw fish was an important source of contamination of the processing equipment and environment could not be excluded. Contamination of the product occurred in specific areas (the brining and slicing areas). In plant I, the same RAPD type (RAPD type 12) was found over a 4-year period, indicating that an established in-house flora persisted and was not eliminated by routine hygienic procedures. In plant II, where the prevalence of L. monocytogenes was much lower, no RAPD type persisted over long periods of time, and several different L. monocytogenes RAPD types were isolated. This indicates that persistent strains may be avoided by rigorous cleaning and sanitation; however, due to the ubiquitous nature of the organism, sporadic contamination occurred. A subset of strains was also typed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length

  12. Managing your gas processing plant: Fundamentalist, fashionable, farsighted or fantastic!

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    The challenges facing the gas processing industry have motivated managers to consider a variety of interesting new initiatives in managing a gas processing business. Using direct industry experience and a brief survey of participating companies, the author reviews the state of five popular programs that have become common cornerstones of many optimization and reengineering efforts in the gas processing business. Several lesser initiatives are also briefly discussed. The five major programs are: Maintenance Management, Field Information Handling, Work Process Optimization, Compensation Design, and Procurement Optimization. The success of these programs and initiatives depends greatly on the company culture in which they are implemented. Critical success factors and pitfalls are discussed for each program. Particular attention is paid to practical considerations that undermine idealistic theory. The conclusion is that the future belongs to the Farsighted, who will be able to mix equal parts of vision, intelligence, common sense, understanding of both human nature and the processing business, execution and determination into a formidable formula for success in the new world of gathering and processing.

  13. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Lance G.

    2000-09-01

    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  14. On-line mechanical tube cleaning for steam electric power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    In July 1991, Superior I.D. Tube Cleaners, Inc. (SIDTEC{trademark}) received a grant through the Department of Energy and the Energy Related Invention Program to conduct a long term demonstration of a proprietary technology for on-line mechanical condenser tube cleaning in thermal Power plants on open or once-through cooling water systems where the warmed condenser cooling water is discharged through a canal. The purpose of the demonstration was to confirm and establish the use of this mechanical method as an alternative to the application of chemical biocides in condenser cooling water for the control of biofouling, the growth of micro-organisms which can reduce a unit`s operating efficiency. The SIDTEC on-line mechanical tube cleaner, the Rocket{trademark}, is used to physically remove accumulated deposits on the water side of the main steam condenser, and the non-intrusive tube cleaner recovery system, the Skimmer{trademark}, is used to recover and recirculate tube cleaners. The periodic circulation of tube cleaners can maintain optimum condenser cleanliness and improve unit heat rate. Thermal power plants which discharge condenser cooling water through a canal now have a viable alternative to the chemical treatment of condenser cooling water, whether the principal foulant is biofouling, chemical scaling, silting, or a combination of the three. At prices competitive with scale inhibitors, and a fraction of competing mechanical systems, this technology is provided as a service requiring no capital investment; minimal retrofit modifications to plant structures or equipment; can be installed and maintained without a unit shutdown; does not add any restrictions in the cooling water system; and is environmentally benign.

  15. Performance assessment of OTEC power systems and thermal power plants. Final report. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Leidenfrost, W.; Liley, P.E.; McDonald, A.T.; Mudawwar, I.; Pearson, J.T.

    1985-05-01

    The focus of this report is on closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power systems under research at Purdue University. The working operations of an OTEC power plant are briefly discussed. Methods of improving the performance of OTEC power systems are presented. Brief discussions on the methods of heat exchanger analysis and design are provided, as are the thermophysical properties of the working fluids and seawater. An interactive code capable of analyzing OTEC power system performance is included for use with an IBM personal computer.

  16. Correlation and reassessment of the OTEC plant power cycle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heydt, G.T.; Leidenfrost, W.; McDonald, A.T.; Ogborn, L.L.

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this effort is to investigate alternative system concepts and component configurations to improve performance of the OTEC power system. Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) characteristics were examined along with various methods of converting energy into utility-grade energy. A research program consisting of five tasks was developed: development of engineering guidelines for OTEC systems; thermal and mechanical evaluation of components; evaluation of electrical system requirements; evaluation of operating strategies for OTEC plants; and application of modern technology to OTEC design choices. These studies are discussed in detail along with recommendations and conclusions.

  17. Procedure for conducting a human-reliability analysis for nuclear power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, B.J.; Swain, A.D.

    1983-05-01

    This document describes in detail a procedure to be followed in conducting a human reliability analysis as part of a probabilistic risk assessment when such an analysis is performed according to the methods described in NUREG/CR-1278, Handbook for Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications. An overview of the procedure describing the major elements of a human reliability analysis is presented along with a detailed description of each element and an example of an actual analysis. An appendix consists of some sample human reliability analysis problems for further study.

  18. SRC-I demonstration plant analytical laboratory methods manual. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Klusaritz, M.L.; Tewari, K.C.; Tiedge, W.F.; Skinner, R.W.; Znaimer, S.

    1983-03-01

    This manual is a compilation of analytical procedures required for operation of a Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) demonstration or commercial plant. Each method reproduced in full includes a detailed procedure, a list of equipment and reagents, safety precautions, and, where possible, a precision statement. Procedures for the laboratory's environmental and industrial hygiene modules are not included. Required American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods are cited, and ICRC's suggested modifications to these methods for handling coal-derived products are provided.

  19. Evaluation of cobalt sources in Westinghouse-designed three- and four-loop plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, C.A.

    1982-10-01

    Sources of cobalt input in two typical Westinghouse-designed three- and four-loop plants are identified. Quantification of the sources was based on a detailed analysis of the construction materials. The best available information was used to establish the corrosion and wear release rates. This analysis concludes that approximately 70% of the cobalt input arises from corrosion release of Inconel steam generator tubing. Corrosion and wear of high-cobalt alloys account for about 25%. Recommendations are made concerning cobalt reduction options based on a cost-benefit analysis.

  20. Unconventional plants for biomass feedstocks in semi-arid West Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodin, J.R.; Newton, R.J.

    1981-08-01

    The objectives of the reported project are: to evaluate the establishment and productivity potential of four plant species in West Texas as influenced by rainfall, temperature, and minimum cultural practices; to accurately assess the present distribution and acreages inhabited by the four candidates in West Texas as well as the soil, geographical, and climatic factors which govern their adaptation; and to provide productivity data in order to make adequate economic and sociological assessments of biomass production in West Texas. The four species selected are HONEY MESQUITE (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.), JOHNSONGRASS (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers), KOCHIA (Kochia scoparia (L.) Roth), and SALTBUSH (Atriplex canescens (Pursh.) (Nutt.). (LEW)

  1. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the soviet satellite COSMOS 1129. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich, M.R.; Souza, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies Kosmos Satellites experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  2. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process: health programs. Research and development report No. 53, Interim report No. 39. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 4: Industrial hygiene, clinical and toxicological programs. Final report of subcontract No. 10, June 1, 1976-June 9, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This report summarizes the toxicological studies on SRC-I materials completed under Subcontract No. 10 as part of the Health Programs under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract during the total period of the subcontract, June 1, 1976 through June 9, 1978. The studies were conducted by Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories (IBT) as the subcontractor. A number of acute studies were completed on the products and intermediate streams as well as several subchronic studies. In addition, preliminary dose-ranging, or pilot, studies were completed. None of the materials exhibited high toxicities when administered orally, dermally, or by the inhalation route. Three of the materials proved to be severely or extremely irritating to the eyes. The pilot dermal and teratogenesis studies revealed some evidence of decreased viability in offspring and reduced fetal body weights. The subcontract was terminated for convenience on June 9, 1978 when it became apparent that IBT could not satisfactorily continue the studies.

  3. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  4. Removal and recovery of carbon disulfide emitted by the viscose process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1992-02-01

    Teepak, Inc., which manufactures cellulose food casings by means of the viscose process, has a plant in Danville, Illinois, that emits approximately 400,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) of water-saturated air containing approximately 100 parts per million (ppm) of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}). Both Teepak and the state of Illinois desire to reduce these emissions as soon as possible; however, the large air flow and very small CS{sub 2} concentration result in a difficult and costly separations problem without an obvious economically viable solution. One possibility is to incinerate the CS{sub 2}, but a more environmentally and economically acceptable alternative is to recover the CS{sub 2} for recycle to the process. The recovered CS{sub 2} would be worth about $700,000 annually to Teepak. Teepak has sponsored, with the Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center (HWRIC) of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, a research project at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to evaluate current gas- purification and recovery technology and to suggest a route of development that will lead to a CS{sub 2} recovery process. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs later provided on Illinois Challenge Grant to allow laboratory studies to supplement this effort. This report is a result of all those studies.

  5. Data processing for fabrication of GMT primary segments: raw data to final surface maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuell, Michael T.; Hubler, William; Martin, Hubert M.; West, Steven C.; Zhou, Ping

    2014-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) primary mirror is a 25 meter f/0.7 surface composed of seven 8.4 meter circular segments, six of which are identical off-axis segments. The fabrication and testing challenges with these severely aspheric segments (about 14 mm of aspheric departure, mostly astigmatism) are well documented. Converting the raw phase data to useful surface maps involves many steps and compensations. They include large corrections for: image distortion from the off-axis null test; misalignment of the null test; departure from the ideal support forces; and temperature gradients in the mirror. The final correction simulates the active-optics correction that will be made at the telescope. Data are collected and phase maps are computed in 4D Technology's 4SightTM software. The data are saved to a .h5 (HDF5) file and imported into MATLAB® for further analysis. A semi-automated data pipeline has been developed to reduce the analysis time as well as reducing the potential for error. As each operation is performed, results and analysis parameters are appended to a data file, so in the end, the history of data processing is embedded in the file. A report and a spreadsheet are automatically generated to display the final statistics as well as how each compensation term varied during the data acquisition. This gives us valuable statistics and provides a quick starting point for investigating atypical results.

  6. Decoding Plant and Animal Genome Plasticity from Differential Paleo-Evolutionary Patterns and Processes

    PubMed Central

    Murat, Florent; de Peer, Yves Van; Salse, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Continuing advances in genome sequencing technologies and computational methods for comparative genomics currently allow inferring the evolutionary history of entire plant and animal genomes. Based on the comparison of the plant and animal genome paleohistory, major differences are unveiled in 1) evolutionary mechanisms (i.e., polyploidization versus diploidization processes), 2) genome conservation (i.e., coding versus noncoding sequence maintenance), and 3) modern genome architecture (i.e., genome organization including repeats expansion versus contraction phenomena). This article discusses how extant animal and plant genomes are the result of inherently different rates and modes of genome evolution resulting in relatively stable animal and much more dynamic and plastic plant genomes. PMID:22833223

  7. Multi-Megawatt Organic Rankine Engine power plant (MORE). Phase IA final report: system design of MORE power plant for industrial energy conservation emphasizing the cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, E.K.; Breindel, B.; Collamore, F.N.; Hodgson, J.N.; Olson, G.K.

    1980-01-31

    The Multi-Megawatt Organic Rankine Engine (MORE) program is directed towards the development of a large, organic Rankine power plant for energy conservation from moderate temperature industrial heat streams. Organic Rankine power plants are ideally suited for use with heat sources in the temperature range below 1100/sup 0/F. Cement manufacture was selected as the prototype industry for the MORE system because of the range of parameters which can be tested in a cement application. This includes process exit temperatures of 650/sup 0/F to 1110/sup 0/F for suspension preheater and long dry kilns, severe dust loading, multi-megawatt power generation potential, and boiler exhaust gas acid dew point variations. The work performed during the Phase IA System Design contract period is described. The System Design task defines the complete MORE system and its installation to the level necessary to obtain detailed performance maps, equipment specifications, planning of supporting experiments, and credible construction and hardware cost estimates. The MORE power plant design is based upon installation in the Black Mountain Quarry Cement Plant near Victorville, California.

  8. Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: downtime report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Solomon, J.A.; Christensen, S.W.

    1985-11-01

    Legionnaires' disease bacteria (Legionella) are a normal part of the aquatic community that, when aerosolized, can be pathogenic to man. The downtime study was designed to determine the degree to which Legionella populations are aerosolized during cleaning and maintenance operations in a closed-cycle steam-electric power plant. Both high-volume and impinger air samples were collected prior to and during downtime operations. Emphasis was placed on sampling inside or adjacent to water boxes, condensers, and cooling towers. Control air samples were taken upwind from the plant site. Water and sludge samples were also collected at various locations. In the laboratory, the concentrations of Legionella were determined using the direct fluorescent antibody method. All positive air samples, and other selected air samples, were injected into guinea pigs to detect infectious Legionella. Legionella could be detected in only 12 of the 127 air samples collected. These were predominantly L. pneumophila, serogroups 1-6. In contrast to the air samples, most of the water and sludge samples were positive for Legionella, again predominantly L. pneumophila, serogroups 1-6. The highest Legionella concentrations were found in sludge samples associated with condenser tube cleaning. Among the water samples, the highest Legionella concentrations were found in cooling towers, immediately after the tower basins were cleaned and refilled, and in condenser tubes. Two of the three cooling tower water samples collected prior to downtime operations were infectious for guinea pigs. 16 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria in power plant cooling systems: downtime report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Solomon, J.A.; Christensen, S.W.

    1985-04-01

    Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal part of the aquatic community that, when aerosolized, can be pathogenic to man. The downtime study was designed to determine the degree to which Legionella populations are aerosolized during cleaning and maintenance operations in a closed-cycle steam-electric power plant. Both high-volume and impinger air samples were collected prior to and during downtime operations. Emphasis was placed on sampling inside or adjacent to water boxes, condensers, and cooling towers. Control air samples were taken upwind from the plant site. Water and sludge samples were also collected at various locations. In the laboratory, the concentrations of Groups A, B, and C Legionella were determined using the direct fluorescent antibody method. All positive air samples, and other selected air samples, were injected into guinea pigs to detect infectious Legionella. Legionella could be detected in only 12 of the 126 air samples collected. These were predominantly Group A Legionella (L. pneumophila, serogroups 1 to 6). All 12 positive samples had been collected in the vicinity of water boxes, condensers, detention ponds, and cooling towers during downtime operations where aerosolization of Legionella populations would be expected. None of the air samples yielded infectious Legionella when injected into guinea pigs. Detection of Legionella in air samples taken during downtime was significantly more likely than detection during normal operating conditions (p <0.01). 13 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Central heating plant modernization study for defense distribution Region East. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Savoie, M.J.; Durbin, T.E.; McCammon, T.; Carroll, R.

    1996-08-01

    Due to the age of its central heating plant (CHP) equipment and changes in energy industry environmental regulations, the Defense Distribution Region East (DDRE), New Cumberland, PA, began investigating modernization opportunities for its CHP. The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) was tasked with performing a central heating plant modernization study to determine viable options to provide energy for the coming years. Energy use patterns and the condition of existing equipment were determined, and five major potential energy supply alternatives were identified and evaluated on the basis of energy consumption and economics, including initial capital costs, annual fuel consumption, and annual Operations and Maintenance (OM) costs. For economy, it was recommended that boiler replacement be delayed until the year 2009, and that natural gas be used as fuel both before and after replacement, provided that funding for a natural gas pipeline can be obtained. If funding to replace the boilers does become available, the small difference in Life Cycle Cost should not delay DDRE from an immediate equipment upgrade.

  11. Thermoeconomic design optimization of a KRW-based IGCC power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsatsaronis, G.; Lin, L.; Pisa, J.; Tawfik, T.

    1991-11-01

    This report discussed the cost and efficiency optimization of an integrated gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant design and the effects of important design options and parameters. Advanced thermoeconomic techniques were used to evaluate and optimize a given IGCC concept which uses Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, air-blown KRW coal gasifiers, a hot gas cleanup system, and GE MS7001F gas turbines. Three optimal design concepts are presented and discussed in the report. Two of the concepts are characterized by minimum cost of electricity at two different values of the steam high pressure. The third concept represents the thermodynamic optimum. This study identified several differences between the original design and the design of the optimized cases. Compared with the original concept, significant annual savings are achieved in the cost optimal cases. Comparisons were made between results obtained using both the old and the new performance data for the MS7001F gas turbine. This report discusses the effects of gasification temperature, steam high pressure, coal moisture, and various design options on the overall plant efficiency and cost of electricity. Cost sensitivity studies were conducted and recommendations for future studies were made.

  12. Plant cell wall architecture. Final report, 1 June 1994--30 October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The authors have successfully finished the DOE-supported project entitled ``Plant cell wall architecture.`` During the funding period (June 1, 1994--October 30, 1996), they have published 6 research papers and 2 review articles. A brief description of these accomplishments is outlined as follows: (1) Improved and extended tissue printing techniques to reveal different surface and wall architectures, and to localized proteins and RNA. (2) Identification of an auxin- and cytokinin-regulated gene from Zinnia which is mainly expressed in cambium. (3) It was found that caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase is involved in an alternative methylation pathway of lignin biosynthesis. (4) It was found that two different O-methyltransferases involved in lignification are differentially regulated in different lignifying tissues during development. They propose a scheme of monolignol biosynthesis combining both methylation pathways. (5) Identification of cysteine and serine proteases which are preferentially expressed during xylogenesis. This is the first report to identify an autolysis-associated cDNA in plants. (6) Characterization of two ribonuclease genes which are induced during xylogenesis and by wounding. (7) Isolation of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase gene and analysis of its expression patterns during lignification.

  13. Sedimentation and erosion trends of the Savannah River Plant reactor-discharge creeks. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, C.H.; Reinhart, P.J.; Reel, C.L.

    1981-07-01

    The principal objective of this project was to quantify the sedimentological changes that have taken place as a result of the Savannah River Plant's thermal discharges into Steel Creek, Pen Branch, and Four Mile Creek. These thermal discharges have resulted in modifications to creek drainage patterns, channel depths, and surrounding vegetation densities and species. Additionally, they have deposited small deltas at their creek mouths where the creeks enter the broader Savannah River floodplain. The first section of the report, Historical Analysis, delineates sequential changes for each of the creeks from predischarge to 1979. Discharge data for each of the creeks are tabulated. The second section, Profile Analysis, discusses changes in cross-sectional areas of each of the creeks resulting from the various reactor discharges. All profiles are displayed in the appendix. The third section, Stratigraphic Cross-Section Analysis, identifies the depositional sedimentary wedge deposited on each of the creek deltas. Within each cross-section, the predischarge surface has been identified. Depositional facies are described, and the genesis of each is discussed. The appendix contains the profiles and a table that shows the results of the grain-size analysis. Each of the grain-size samples corresponds to a Savannah River Plant sample split.

  14. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  15. Occurrence and removal of estrogens and beta blockers by various processes in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gabet-Giraud, V; Miège, C; Choubert, J M; Ruel, S Martin; Coquery, M

    2010-09-01

    This study aims at evaluating occurrence and treatment efficiency of five estrogenic hormones and ten beta blockers in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The use of consistent sampling procedures, analytical techniques and data processing enabled to achieve an accurate comparison of the performances of the different treatment processes. First, the occurrence of molecules was evaluated in fourteen rural and urban WWTP located in France. Free and total estrogens were analyzed showing that more than 84% of estrogens in the dissolved phase of influent samples are in the free form. In effluent samples, comparable mean values but higher variation are underlined (RSD from 13 to 54% depending on the estrogen, compared to 11-21% for influents). Most of the target molecules are quantified in 30 influent and 31 effluent samples. Similar occurrence frequencies are obtained for influents from rural (6 WWTP) and urban areas (8 WWTP), except for betaxolol which is only quantified in urban wastewaters. Removal efficiencies of 8 biological treatments were studied: suspended growth biomass (activated sludge) and attached growth systems (biofilter, rotating biological contactor, reed-bed filter, trickling filter). Biological treatments are efficient to remove estrogens from the dissolved phase, with removal rate around 90%. For beta blockers, acebutolol and nadolol are efficiently removed (mean removal rate of 80%), whereas sotalol and propranolol are hardly impacted by biological treatments (removal rate below 20%). Finally, 9 tertiary treatment processes were evaluated. Ozonation, reverse osmosis and activated carbon filtration prove a high removal efficiency for beta blockers (above 80%). On the contrary, high speed chemical settler, sand filtration, silex filtration, microfiltration and UV present generally removal rates below 30% for all beta blockers. The polishing pond studied presents variable removal performances depending on the molecules (up to 75% for propranolol). The

  16. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  17. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  18. Building more powerful less expensive supercomputers using Processing-In-Memory (PIM) LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard C.

    2009-09-01

    This report details the accomplishments of the 'Building More Powerful Less Expensive Supercomputers Using Processing-In-Memory (PIM)' LDRD ('PIM LDRD', number 105809) for FY07-FY09. Latency dominates all levels of supercomputer design. Within a node, increasing memory latency, relative to processor cycle time, limits CPU performance. Between nodes, the same increase in relative latency impacts scalability. Processing-In-Memory (PIM) is an architecture that directly addresses this problem using enhanced chip fabrication technology and machine organization. PIMs combine high-speed logic and dense, low-latency, high-bandwidth DRAM, and lightweight threads that tolerate latency by performing useful work during memory transactions. This work examines the potential of PIM-based architectures to support mission critical Sandia applications and an emerging class of more data intensive informatics applications. This work has resulted in a stronger architecture/implementation collaboration between 1400 and 1700. Additionally, key technology components have impacted vendor roadmaps, and we are in the process of pursuing these new collaborations. This work has the potential to impact future supercomputer design and construction, reducing power and increasing performance. This final report is organized as follow: this summary chapter discusses the impact of the project (Section 1), provides an enumeration of publications and other public discussion of the work (Section 1), and concludes with a discussion of future work and impact from the project (Section 1). The appendix contains reprints of the refereed publications resulting from this work.

  19. Computer and control applications in a vegetable processing plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are many advantages to the use of computers and control in food industry. Software in the food industry takes 2 forms - general purpose commercial computer software and software for specialized applications, such as drying and thermal processing of foods. Many applied simulation models for d...

  20. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N.

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  1. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  2. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction state. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process. Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination Process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure.

  3. Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H B; Angelidaki, I

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on process imbalances in Danish centralized biogas plants treating manure in combination with industrial waste. Collection of process data from various full-scale plants along with a number of interviews showed that imbalances occur frequently. High concentrations of ammonia or long chain fatty acids is in most cases expected to be the cause of microbial inhibitions/imbalances while foaming in the prestorage tanks and digesters is the most important practical process problem at the plants. A correlation between increased residual biogas production (suboptimal process conditions) and high fractions of industrial waste in the feedstock was also observed. The process imbalances and suboptimal conditions are mainly allowed to occur due to 1) inadequate knowledge about the waste composition, 2) inadequate knowledge about the waste degradation characteristics, 3) inadequate process surveillance, especially with regard to volatile fatty acids, and 4) insufficient pre-storage capacity causing inexpedient mixing and hindering exact dosing of the different waste products.

  4. Barriers, pathways and processes for uptake, translocation and accumulation of nanomaterials in plants--Critical review.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Fabienne; Zhai, Guangshu; Kern, Meaghan; Turner, Amalia; Schnoor, Jerald L; Wiesner, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Uptake, transport and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into plant cells are complex processes that are currently still not well understood. Parts of this problem are the multifaceted plant anatomy, and analytical challenges to visualize and quantify ENMs in plants. We critically reviewed the currently known ENM uptake, translocation, and accumulation processes in plants. A vast number of studies showed uptake, clogging, or translocation in the apoplast of plants, most notably of nanoparticles with diameters much larger than the commonly assumed size exclusion limit of the cell walls of ∼5-20 nm. Plants that tended to translocate less ENMs were those with low transpiration, drought-tolerance, tough cell wall architecture, and tall growth. In the absence of toxicity, accumulation was often linearly proportional to exposure concentration. Further important factors strongly affecting ENM internalization are the cell wall composition, mucilage, symbiotic microorganisms (mycorrhiza), the absence of a cuticle (submerged plants) and stomata aperture. Mostly unexplored are the roles of root hairs, leaf repellency, pit membrane porosity, xylem segmentation, wounding, lateral roots, nodes, the Casparian band, hydathodes, lenticels and trichomes. The next steps towards a realistic risk assessment of nanoparticles in plants are to measure ENM uptake rates, the size exclusion limit of the apoplast and to unravel plant physiological features favoring uptake.

  5. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of effluent toxicity of a wastewater reclamation plant based on process modeling.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Siyu; Huang, Yunqing; Sun, Fu; Li, Dan; He, Miao

    2016-09-01

    The growing use of reclaimed wastewater for environmental purposes such as stream flow augmentation requires comprehensive ecological risk assessment and management. This study applied a system analysis approach, regarding a wastewater reclamation plant (WRP) and its recipient water body as a whole system, and assessed the ecological risk of the recipient water body caused by the WRP effluent. Instead of specific contaminants, two toxicity indicators, i.e. genotoxicity and estrogenicity, were selected to directly measure the biological effects of all bio-available contaminants in the reclaimed wastewater, as well as characterize the ecological risk of the recipient water. A series of physically based models were developed to simulate the toxicity indicators in a WRP through a typical reclamation process, including ultrafiltration, ozonation, and chlorination. After being validated against the field monitoring data from a full-scale WRP in Beijing, the models were applied to simulate the probability distribution of effluent toxicity of the WRP through Latin Hypercube Sampling to account for the variability of influent toxicity and operation conditions. The simulated effluent toxicity was then used to derive the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) in the recipient stream, considering the variations of the toxicity and flow of the upstream inflow as well. The ratio of the PEC of each toxicity indicator to its corresponding predicted no-effect concentration was finally used for the probabilistic ecological risk assessment. Regional sensitivity analysis was also performed with the developed models to identify the critical control variables and strategies for ecological risk management. PMID:27219046

  6. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of effluent toxicity of a wastewater reclamation plant based on process modeling.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Siyu; Huang, Yunqing; Sun, Fu; Li, Dan; He, Miao

    2016-09-01

    The growing use of reclaimed wastewater for environmental purposes such as stream flow augmentation requires comprehensive ecological risk assessment and management. This study applied a system analysis approach, regarding a wastewater reclamation plant (WRP) and its recipient water body as a whole system, and assessed the ecological risk of the recipient water body caused by the WRP effluent. Instead of specific contaminants, two toxicity indicators, i.e. genotoxicity and estrogenicity, were selected to directly measure the biological effects of all bio-available contaminants in the reclaimed wastewater, as well as characterize the ecological risk of the recipient water. A series of physically based models were developed to simulate the toxicity indicators in a WRP through a typical reclamation process, including ultrafiltration, ozonation, and chlorination. After being validated against the field monitoring data from a full-scale WRP in Beijing, the models were applied to simulate the probability distribution of effluent toxicity of the WRP through Latin Hypercube Sampling to account for the variability of influent toxicity and operation conditions. The simulated effluent toxicity was then used to derive the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) in the recipient stream, considering the variations of the toxicity and flow of the upstream inflow as well. The ratio of the PEC of each toxicity indicator to its corresponding predicted no-effect concentration was finally used for the probabilistic ecological risk assessment. Regional sensitivity analysis was also performed with the developed models to identify the critical control variables and strategies for ecological risk management.

  7. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be

  8. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 2. Commercial fusion synfuels plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen. (MOW)

  9. Demonstration off-post groundwater treatment plant (Rowe Spring): Concept design report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, P.J.; Wujcik, W.J.; Hemmel, J.O.; Young, C.T.; Eddinger, F.G.

    1996-07-01

    The primary objective of this task was to develop an alternative treatment technique or an innovative use of a conventional technology to remove VOC contamination from Rowe Spring. A conceptual design for a treatment plant was to he prepared using the selected technology. Ten remedial technologies were evaluated using several criteria, including: ability to meet effluent requirements (non-detect for 9 VOCs), resident criteria (impact to surrounding human and animal populations, cost effectiveness, and other criteria). The selected groundwater remediation systems consist of a low-profile air stripping system and associated groundwater collection, conveyance, and post-treatment distribution systems. This report presents the concept design, conceptual level cost estimate, and geotechnical investigation report for the selected technology and treatment Site.

  10. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  11. Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beauheim, Richard L.; Domski, Paul S.; Roberts, Randall M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents interpretations of hydraulic tests conducted in bedded evaporates of the Salado Formation from May 1992 through May 1995 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy research and development facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic wastes from the nation's defense programs. The WIPP disposal horizon is located in the lower portion of the Permian Salado Formation. The hydraulic tests discussed in this report were performed in the WIPP underground facility by INTERA inc. (now Duke Engineering and Services, Inc.), Austin, Texas, following the Field Operations Plan and Addendum prepared by Saulnier (1988, 1991 ) under the technical direction of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  12. SO{sub 2} compliance Cumberland Fossil Plant. Final environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 require a national reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions to control acid rain. This environmental assessment (EA) describes alternative considered (and the associated environmental consequences) for complying with SO{sub 2} reduction requirements of the amendments at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF). TVA proposes to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions at CUF to 1.2 lb/10{sub 6} Btu or less as part of its compliance with the CAAA requirements. The two most viable options to achieve this reduction are a switch to western low- sulfur coal and the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD), also called scrubbers.

  13. Environmental Safety and Health Analytical Laboratory, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the construction and operation of an Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) Analytical Laboratory and subsequent demolition of the existing Analytical Chemistry Laboratory building at Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality requirements contained in 40 CFR 1500--1508.9, the Environmental Assessment examined the environmental impacts of the Proposed Action and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analysis of impacts in the EA, conducting the proposed action, construction of an analytical laboratory and demolition of the existing facility, would not significantly effect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Council on Environmental Quality regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27.

  14. Final technical report: Atmospheric emission analysis for the Hanford Waste Vitrification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.L.; Rhoads, K.C.

    1996-03-01

    This report is an assessment of chemical and radiological effluents that are expected to be released to the atmosphere from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The report is divided into two sections. In the first section, the impacts of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides as NO{sub 2} have been estimated for areas within the Hanford Site boundary. A description of the dispersion model used to-estimate CO and NO{sub 2} average concentrations and Hanford Site meteorological data has been included in this section. In the second section, calculations were performed to estimate the potential radiation doses to a maximally exposed off-site individual. The model used to estimate the horizontal and vertical dispersion of radionuclides is also discussed.

  15. Geophysical investigation at Hazardous Waste Management Site 16, Radford Army Ammunition Plant Radford, Virginia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, J.L.; Sjostrom, K.J.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes procedural details and test results of a geophysical investigation conducted at Hazardous Waste Management Site-16 (HWMS-16), Radford Army Ammunition Plant, Va. The geophysical investigation, part of a comprehensive ground-water assessment program, was conducted to obtain subsurface information regarding HWMS-16, thus aiding in determining the most optimal locations for future monitoring wells. The two geophysical methods used in this investigation were electromagnetic (EM) induction and seismic refraction. A number of anomalous areas including a suspected sinkhole were discerned at HWMS-16. Also, the EM method proved to be effective in delineating the boundaries of covered and leveled-off landfill cells and distinguishing landfill cells used for the disposal of household waste from those used for the disposal of hazardous waste.

  16. Colorado river/Yuma desalting plant forecasting model. Global climate change response program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, L.S.

    1993-05-01

    There is a financial and economic incentive to examine and study advance climatological weather forecasting relating to the operation of the Colorado River, particularly relating to the Yuma Desalting Plant (YDP). Operation and maintenance costs of YDP are highly variable depending on the accuracy and reliability of the long-term forecast. The report details progress of the Bureau of Reclamation's study, begun in 1988, to determine the possibility of improving accuracy and reliability of short- and long-range weather and climate forecasts. Modifications to the initial study have been made following consultation with 12 weather and climate experts. The study has been broken into three phases: (1) establishing a network of experts to facilitate data exchange; (2) deriving and/or integrating data and existing models for future operation of the Colorado River and YDP; and (3) testing, adjusting, and implementing a forecasting model.

  17. 1997 Gordon Research Conference on Plant Cell Walls. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Staehelin, A.

    1999-08-25

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Plant Cell Walls was held at Tilton School, Tilton, New Hampshire, July 18-22, 1997. The conference was well attended with 106 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. In addition to these formal interactions, free time was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Title I operator dose calculations. Final report, LATA report No. 90

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.S.; Rigdon, L.D.

    1980-02-01

    The radiation exposure dose was estimated for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) operating personnel who do the unloading and transporting of the transuranic contact-handled waste. Estimates of the radiation source terms for typical TRU contact-handled waste were based on known composition and properties of the waste. The operations sequence for waste movement and storage in the repository was based upon the WIPP Title I data package. Previous calculations had been based on Conceptual Design Report data. A time and motion sequence was developed for personnel performing the waste handling operations both above and below ground. Radiation exposure calculations were then performed in several fixed geometries and folded with the time and motion studies for individual workers in order to determine worker exposure on an annual basis.

  19. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, Mark T.

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  20. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, Mark T

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, an d analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: (1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, (2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and (3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.