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Sample records for processing transportation storage

  1. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-19 - Requirements for cancellation, processing, storage, transportation, and destruction or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., processing, storage, transportation, and destruction or other disposition of securities certificates. 240... for cancellation, processing, storage, transportation, and destruction or other disposition of.... (3) The term certificate number means a unique identification or serial number that is assigned and...

  2. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting.

  3. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuqin; Wang, Diansheng; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen

    2013-03-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  4. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Susan A; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D C

    2017-08-15

    broader context of this paper is to use our experimentally calibrated chemical, mechanical, and transport model to illustrate when, where, and in what conditions fracture pathways seal in CO2 storage wells, to reduce their risk to groundwater resources. We do this by defining the amount of cement and the time required to effectively seal the leakage pathways associated with peak and postinjection overpressures, within the context of oil and gas industry standards for leak detection, mitigation, and repairs. Our simulations suggest that for many damage scenarios chemical and mechanical processes lower leakage risk by reducing or sealing fracture pathways. Leakage risk would remain high in wells with a large amount of damage, modeled here as wide fracture apertures, where fast flowing fluids are too dilute for carbonate precipitation and subsurface stress does not compress the altered cement. Fracture sealing is more likely as reservoir pressures decrease during the postinjection phase where lower fluxes aid chemical alteration and mechanical deformation of cement. Our results hold promise for the development of mitigation framework to avoid impacting groundwater resources above any geologic CO2 storage reservoir by correlating operational pressures and barrier lengths.

  5. Thermochemical energy storage and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, R. G.

    1982-08-01

    Thermochemical energy storage and transport (TEST) were studied. Cases studied include a large central receiver heat utility and a small industrial process heat application with distributed parabolic dish solar collectors. The TEST does not appear to be generally cost effective; however, there are special cases of cost effectiveness. It is recommended that research on thermochemical processes emphasize the manufacture of renewable fuels using solar energy and the search for more cost effective TEST systems.

  6. StorAge Selection Functions: a tool for characterizing dispersion processes and catchment-scale solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, Gianluca; Benettin, Paolo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Advection-dispersion equations have been extensively used to model flow and transport processes through heterogeneous media like hillslopes and groundwater systems. Therein, the spreading of solute plumes and the shape of the breakthrough curve is known to be controlled by the macrodispersion coefficient, which embeds the underlying heterogeneity of velocities and flowpaths. On a nearly parallel track, the use of travel time distributions (TTDs) has become increasingly widespread in catchment hydrology, to establish a formal linkage between input and output chemographs through suitable transfer functions. Recent theoretical advances and real-world applications have shown that the structure of travel time distributions in time variable flow systems like watersheds is strongly related to the time variability of the water storage and input/output fluxes. The dynamical structure of TTDs has been proved to be effectively parametrized through suitable StorAge Selection (SAS) functions, that express in a spatially integrated fashion how the set of ages available within a control volume are selected and removed by the output fluxes. In this contribution, we analyze the relationship between Advection-Dispersion Models and StorAge Selection Functions, with examples for one-dimensional transport in a finite domain with constant convection and dispersion coefficient. Our results show that when the dispersion is high (say, Pe < 10), the distribution of ages leaving the system through the control plane is similar to the distribution of ages available within the storage, thereby leading to uniform SAS functions (random sampling). Implications for the interpretation and the prediction of the chemical response of rivers are discussed through the application of the SAS functions to model solute circulation in highly monitored watersheds belonging to diverse regions of the world. We suggest that the use of Storage Selection functions in different fields of hydrology may bring

  7. UFD Storage and Transportation - Transportation Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-08-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Transportation Task commenced in October 2010. As its first task, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compiled a list of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of transportation systems and their possible degradation mechanisms during extended storage. The list of SSCs and the associated degradation mechanisms [known as features, events, and processes (FEPs)] were based on the list of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage system SSCs and degradation mechanisms developed by the UFD Storage Task (Hanson et al. 2011). Other sources of information surveyed to develop the list of SSCs and their degradation mechanisms included references such as Evaluation of the Technical Basis for Extended Dry Storage and Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel (NWTRB 2010), Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification, Revision 1 (OCRWM 2008), Data Needs for Long-Term Storage of LWR Fuel (EPRI 1998), Technical Bases for Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (EPRI 2002), Used Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Extended Storage Collaboration Program (EPRI 2010a), Industry Spent Fuel Storage Handbook (EPRI 2010b), and Transportation of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, Issues Resolution (EPRI 2010c). SSCs include items such as the fuel, cladding, fuel baskets, neutron poisons, metal canisters, etc. Potential degradation mechanisms (FEPs) included mechanical, thermal, radiation and chemical stressors, such as fuel fragmentation, embrittlement of cladding by hydrogen, oxidation of cladding, metal fatigue, corrosion, etc. These degradation mechanisms are discussed in Section 2 of this report. The degradation mechanisms have been evaluated to determine if they would be influenced by extended storage or high burnup, the need for additional data, and their importance to transportation. These categories were used to identify the most significant transportation degradation mechanisms. As expected, for the most part, the

  8. Interim UFD Storage and Transportation - Transportation Working Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Ross, Steven B.

    2011-03-30

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Transportation Task commenced in October 2010. As its first task, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compiled a draft list of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of transportation systems and their possible degradation mechanisms during very long term storage (VLTS). The list of SSCs and the associated degradation mechanisms [known as features, events, and processes (FEPs)] were based on the list of SSCs and degradation mechanisms developed by the UFD Storage Task (Stockman et al. 2010)

  9. Multi-scale interactions affecting transport, storage, and processing of solutes and sediments in stream corridors (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J. W.; Packman, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Surface water and groundwater flow interact with the channel geomorphology and sediments in ways that determine how material is transported, stored, and transformed in stream corridors. Solute and sediment transport affect important ecological processes such as carbon and nutrient dynamics and stream metabolism, processes that are fundamental to stream health and function. Many individual mechanisms of transport and storage of solute and sediment have been studied, including surface water exchange between the main channel and side pools, hyporheic flow through shallow and deep subsurface flow paths, and sediment transport during both baseflow and floods. A significant challenge arises from non-linear and scale-dependent transport resulting from natural, fractal fluvial topography and associated broad, multi-scale hydrologic interactions. Connections between processes and linkages across scales are not well understood, imposing significant limitations on system predictability. The whole-stream tracer experimental approach is popular because of the spatial averaging of heterogeneous processes; however the tracer results, implemented alone and analyzed using typical models, cannot usually predict transport beyond the very specific conditions of the experiment. Furthermore, the results of whole stream tracer experiments tend to be biased due to unavoidable limitations associated with sampling frequency, measurement sensitivity, and experiment duration. We recommend that whole-stream tracer additions be augmented with hydraulic and topographic measurements and also with additional tracer measurements made directly in storage zones. We present examples of measurements that encompass interactions across spatial and temporal scales and models that are transferable to a wide range of flow and geomorphic conditions. These results show how the competitive effects between the different forces driving hyporheic flow, operating at different spatial scales, creates a situation

  10. Numerical simulation of seasonal heat storage in a contaminated shallow aquifer - Temperature influence on flow, transport and reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The energy market in Germany currently faces a rapid transition from nuclear power and fossil fuels towards an increased production of energy from renewable resources like wind or solar power. In this context, seasonal heat storage in the shallow subsurface is becoming more and more important, particularly in urban regions with high population densities and thus high energy and heat demand. Besides the effects of increased or decreased groundwater and sediment temperatures on local and large-scale groundwater flow, transport, geochemistry and microbiology, an influence on subsurface contaminations, which may be present in the urban surbsurface, can be expected. Currently, concerns about negative impacts of temperature changes on groundwater quality are the main barrier for the approval of heat storage at or close to contaminated sites. The possible impacts of heat storage on subsurface contamination, however, have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, this work investigates the effects of a shallow seasonal heat storage on subsurface groundwater flow, transport and reaction processes in the presence of an organic contamination using numerical scenario simulations. A shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed, which consists of Pleistoscene sandy sediments typical for Northern Germany. The seasonal heat storage in these scenarios is performed through arrays of borehole heat exchangers (BHE), where different setups with 6 and 72 BHE, and temperatures during storage between 2°C and 70°C are analyzed. The developing heat plume in the aquifer interacts with a residual phase of a trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. The plume of dissolved TCE emitted from this source zone is degraded by reductive dechlorination through microbes present in the aquifer, which degrade TCE under anaerobic redox conditions to the degradation products dichloroethene, vinyl chloride and ethene. The temperature dependence of the microbial degradation activity of each degradation step is

  11. Effect of collection, transport, processing and storage of blood specimens on the activity of lysosomal enzymes in plasma and leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Burin, M; Dutra-Filho, C; Brum, J; Mauricio, T; Amorim, M; Giugliani, R

    2000-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different conditions of collection, transport and storage on the quality of blood samples from normal individuals in terms of the activity of the enzymes ss-glucuronidase, total hexosaminidase, hexosaminidase A, arylsulfatase A and ss-galactosidase. The enzyme activities were not affected by the different materials used for collection (plastic syringes or vacuum glass tubes). In the evaluation of different heparin concentrations (10% heparin, 5% heparin, and heparinized syringe) in the syringes, it was observed that higher doses resulted in an increase of at least 1-fold in the activities of ss-galactosidase, total hexosaminidase and hexosaminidase A in leukocytes, and ss-glucuronidase in plasma. When the effects of time and means of transportation were studied, samples that had been kept at room temperature showed higher deterioration with time (72 and 96 h) before processing, and in this case it was impossible to isolate leukocytes from most samples. Comparison of heparin and acid citrate-dextrose (ACD) as anticoagulants revealed that ss-glucuronidase and hexosaminidase activities in plasma reached levels near the lower normal limits when ACD was used. In conclusion, we observed that heparin should be used as the preferable anticoagulant when measuring these lysosomal enzyme activities, and we recommend that, when transport time is more than 24 h, samples should be shipped by air in a styrofoam box containing wet ice.

  12. Process-based reactive transport model to quantify arsenic mobility during aquifer storage and recovery of potable water.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Ilka; Prommer, Henning; Pichler, Thomas; Post, Vincent; Norton, Stuart B; Annable, Michael D; Simmons, Craig T

    2011-08-15

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an aquifer recharge technique in which water is injected in an aquifer during periods of surplus and withdrawn from the same well during periods of deficit. It is a critical component of the long-term water supply plan in various regions, including Florida, USA. Here, the viability of ASR as a safe and cost-effective water resource is currently being tested at a number of sites due to elevated arsenic concentrations detected during groundwater recovery. In this study, we developed a process-based reactive transport model of the coupled physical and geochemical mechanisms controlling the fate of arsenic during ASR. We analyzed multicycle hydrochemical data from a well-documented affected southwest Floridan site and evaluated a conceptual/numerical model in which (i) arsenic is initially released during pyrite oxidation triggered by the injection of oxygenated water (ii) then largely complexes to neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides before (iii) being remobilized during recovery as a result of both dissolution of hydrous ferric oxides and displacement from sorption sites by competing anions.

  13. 75 FR 73069 - Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, LLC, Enstor Katy Storage and Transportation, LP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...; Docket No. PR10-83-001] Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, LLC, Enstor Katy Storage and Transportation, LP, et al.; Notice of Baseline Filings November 18, 2010. Enstor Grama Ridge Storage Docket...

  14. Thermal energy storage and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausz, W.

    1980-01-01

    The extraction of thermal energy from large LWR and coal fired plants for long distance transport to industrial and residential/commercial users is analyzed. Transport of thermal energy as high temperature water is shown to be considerably cheaper than transport as steam, hot oil, or molten salt over a wide temperature range. The delivered heat is competitive with user-generated heat from oil, coal, or electrode boilers at distances well over 50 km when the pipeline operates at high capacity factor. Results indicate that thermal energy storage makes meeting of even very low capacity factor heat demands economic and feasible and gives the utility flexibility to meet coincident electricity and heat demands effectively.

  15. Reactive Transport Modelling of CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers to Elucidate Fundamental Processes, Trapping Mechanisms, and Sequestration Partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J W; Nitao, J J; Knauss, K G

    2004-07-26

    The ultimate fate of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers for environmental isolation is governed by three interdependent yet conceptually distinct processes: CO{sub 2} migration as a buoyant immiscible fluid phase, direct chemical interaction of this rising plume with ambient saline waters, and its indirect chemical interaction with aquifer and cap-rock minerals through the aqueous wetting phase. Each process is directly linked to a corresponding trapping mechanism: immiscible plume migration to hydrodynamic trapping, plume-water interaction to solubility trapping, and plume-mineral interaction to mineral trapping. In this study, reactive transport modeling of CO{sub 2} storage in a shale-capped sandstone aquifer at Sleipner has elucidated and established key parametric dependencies of these fundamental processes, the associated trapping mechanisms, and sequestration partitioning among them during consecutive 10-year prograde (active-injection) and retrograde (post-injection) regimes. Intra-aquifer permeability structure controls the path of immiscible CO{sub 2} migration, thereby establishing the spatial framework of plume-aquifer interaction and the potential effectiveness of solubility and mineral trapping. Inter-bedded thin shales--which occur at Sleipner--retard vertical and promote lateral plume migration, thereby significantly expanding this framework and enhancing this potential. Actual efficacy of these trapping mechanisms is determined by compositional characteristics of the aquifer and cap rock: the degree of solubility trapping decreases with increasing formation-water salinity, while that of mineral trapping is proportional to the bulk concentration of carbonate-forming elements--principally Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, and Al. In the near-field environment of Sleipner-like settings, 80-85% by mass of injected CO{sub 2} remains and migrates as an immiscible fluid phase, 15-20% dissolves into formation waters, and less than 1% precipitates as carbonate minerals

  16. Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Chen, Zizhong; Kazemi, Hossein; Yin, Xiaolong; Pruess, Karsten; Oldenburg, Curt; Winterfeld, Philip; Zhang, Ronglei

    2014-09-30

    This report is the final scientific one for the award DE- FE0000988 entitled “Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers.” The work has been divided into six tasks. In task, “Development of a Three-Phase Non-Isothermal CO2 Flow Module,” we developed a fluid property module for brine-CO2 mixtures designed to handle all possible phase combinations of aqueous phase, sub-critical liquid and gaseous CO2, supercritical CO2, and solid salt. The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of brine-CO2 mixtures (density, viscosity, and specific enthalpy of fluid phases; partitioning of mass components among the different phases) use the same correlations as an earlier fluid property module that does not distinguish between gaseous and liquid CO2-rich phases. We verified the fluid property module using two leakage scenarios, one that involves CO2 migration up a blind fault and subsequent accumulation in a secondary “parasitic” reservoir at shallower depth, and another investigating leakage of CO2 from a deep storage reservoir along a vertical fault zone. In task, “Development of a Rock Mechanical Module,” we developed a massively parallel reservoir simulator for modeling THM processes in porous media brine aquifers. We derived, from the fundamental equations describing deformation of porous elastic media, a momentum conservation equation relating mean stress, pressure, and temperature, and incorporated it alongside the mass and energy conservation equations from the TOUGH2 formulation, the starting point for the simulator. In addition, rock properties, namely permeability and porosity, are functions of effective stress and other variables that are obtained from the literature. We verified the simulator formulation and numerical implementation using analytical solutions and example problems from the literature. For

  17. Fuel removal, transport, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The March 1979 accident at Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) which damaged the core of the reactor resulted in numerous scientific and technical challenges. Some of those challenges involve removing the core debris from the reactor, packaging it into canisters, loading canisters into a rail cask, and transporting the debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for storage, examination, and preparation for final disposal. This paper highlights how some challenges were resolved, including lessons learned and benefits derived therefrom. Key to some success at TMI was designing, testing, fabricating, and licensing two rail casks, which each provide double containment of the damaged fuel. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Development of Tritium Storage and Transport Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Paek, S.; Lee, M.; Kim, K.R.; Ahn, D.H.; Song, K.M.; Shon, S.H.

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop tritium storage and transport vessels for industrial applications. Prototype tritium storage and transport vessels were designed and manufactured. Uranium and zirconium/cobalt (ZrCo) metals were selected for the storage materials. The prototype transport container for the vessel was designed on the basis of Type B transportation package standards. The transport container was composed of a steel drum, inner packing materials, and a storage vessel. A second refinement cap was installed on the prototype vessel to protect the valves on the 100 kCi vessel. The vessel is stored in a steel drum packed with a thermal barrier and a shock absorber. Structural, thermal, shielding, and confinement analyses have to be performed for this container based on Type B requirements. (authors)

  19. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rambach, G.; Hendricks, C.

    1996-10-01

    This project is a collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and W.J. Schafer Associates (WJSA). The authors plan to experimentally verify the performance characteristics of engineered glass microspheres that are relevant to the storage and transport of hydrogen for energy applications. They will identify the specific advantages of hydrogen transport by microspheres, analyze the infrastructure implications and requirements, and experimentally measure their performance characteristics in realistic, bulk storage situations.

  20. Thermal storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of thermal storage subsystems for the intermediate and high temperature (100 C to 600 C) solar industrial process heat generation is presented. Primary emphasis is focused on buffering and diurnal storage as well as total energy transport. In addition, advanced thermal storage concepts which appear promising for future solar industrial process heat applications are discussed.

  1. PETRO-SAFE '92 conference papers: Volume 7 (Processing and Refining 2), Volume 8 (Transportation and storage), Volume 9 (Spill control, disposal and remedial treatment 1) and Volume 10 (Spill control, disposal and remedial treatment 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This conference presents papers on a wide range of petroleum and petrochemical industry issues which pertain to waste disposal, waste processing, and safety issues. It presents specific papers on waste reduction and processing;fire prevention and suppression of oil and gas fires in storage and processing facilities; safety engineering and monitoring and plants and facilities;transportation and storage issues as they relate to safety and leak detection; and oil spill remediation and disposal. Spill topics include sorption techniques, bioremediation, dispersions, and air stripping. The remediation papers include both on and offshore sites and approach the topic from both safety and environmental aspects.

  2. Storage and transportation of merchant hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, G.; von Krusenstierna, O.

    Merchant hydrogen, that produced at one site and transported to another for a variety of end uses, will be produced from sources that depend on the demand area. Applications are mainly in the chemical and metallurgical industries, and total consumption is currently 0.5 Mtons/yr. Delivery is normally done with H2 in compressed form in steel cylinders with a 50 l capacity at 200 bar. Tube trailers as the delivery method have the disadvantage of taking the trailer tube from use during discharge, but some costs could be reduced by having aluminum cylinders. A problem would still persist in the necessity for providing insulation against evaporation, which could cause a loss of 30-70 percent of stored H2. The H2 could be stored in glass microspheres at high temperatures, then released for use by heating the spheres to 200 C. Storage is also possible with encapsulation in zeolites, cryoadsorption in carbon, chemical binding, and in hydrides. It is concluded that although transport in lightweight cylinders is feasible, no preferred storage method has yet been identified.

  3. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.35 Labeling, storage, and transportation....

  4. Sediment transport-storage relations for degrading, gravel bed channels

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle; Michael Church

    2002-01-01

    In a drainage network,sediment is transferred through a series of channel/valley segments (natural sediment storage reservoirs) that are distinguished from their neighbors by their particular capacity to store and transport sediment. We propose that the sediment transport capacity of each reservoir is a unique positive function of storage volume, which influences...

  5. 76 FR 47577 - Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, L.L.C.; Enstor Katy Storage and Transportation, L...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, L.L.C.; Enstor Katy Storage and Transportation, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 29, 2011, the applicants...

  6. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments... maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source... meters, radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment and...

  7. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments... maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source... meters, radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment and...

  8. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments... maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source... meters, radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment and...

  9. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments... maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source... meters, radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment and...

  10. Riparian seed dispersal: transport and depositional processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunnings, A.; Johnson, E. A.; Martin, Y. E.

    2012-04-01

    Riparian tree population dynamics are linked to the physical processes controlled by the hydrogeomorphic setting. In particular, fluvial seed dispersal is influenced by a combination of factors including the hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and seed dispersal traits. This study examines the influence of stream flow patterns on the transportation and deposition of buoyant seeds by applying a one dimensional transport model. Conceptually, the model separates the stream into two components: the main channel and transient storage /deposition zones. The hydrologic processes are governed by an advection-dispersion equation and numerically solved using the Crank-Nicolson method. Additional terms in the equation allow for model variation in the flow regime (lateral inflow and outflow) and the incorporation of a transient storage/deposition component where seeds may be detained. The model parameters are based on a bedrock-gravel bed river with pool-riffle morphology where we conducted field experimentation in Coastal Northern California. The riparian zone of the study reach is inhabited by White Alder (Alnus rhombifolia) which disperses buoyant seeds in late winter/early spring coinciding with the latter part of the wet, Mediterranean climate. Artificial seeds with similar characteristic traits of buoyancy, density and Bond Number to White Alder seeds were used to quantify transport times and identify storage areas. The model output captures a greater number of seeds during a receding hydrograph due to the increase in transient storage. Typically, this is found in shallow stream margins where the flow is divergent such as areas with back-eddies. In the field, this is associated with the ends of gravel bars or riffles where flow expansion causes secondary flows. The results demonstrate the importance of transient storage for seed transport and depositional processes and emphasize the need for improved measurement techniques, in lieu of empirical coefficients, to advance the

  11. Characterizing multiple timescales of stream and storage zone interaction that affect solute fate and transport in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, J.; Harvey, J.W.; Conklin, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of contaminants in streams and rivers is affected by exchange and biogeochemical transformation in slowly moving or stagnant flow zones that interact with rapid flow in the main channel. In a typical stream, there are multiple types of slowly moving flow zones in which exchange and transformation occur, such as stagnant or recirculating surface water as well as subsurface hyporheic zones. However, most investigators use transport models with just a single storage zone in their modeling studies, which assumes that the effects of multiple storage zones can be lumped together. Our study addressed the following question: Can a single-storage zone model reliably characterize the effects of physical retention and biogeochemical reactions in multiple storage zones? We extended an existing stream transport model with a single storage zone to include a second storage zone. With the extended model we generated 500 data sets representing transport of nonreactive and reactive solutes in stream systems that have two different types of storage zones with variable hydrologic conditions. The one storage zone model was tested by optimizing the lumped storage parameters to achieve a best fit for each of the generated data sets. Multiple storage processes were categorized as possessing I, additive; II, competitive; or III, dominant storage zone characteristics. The classification was based on the goodness of fit of generated data sets, the degree of similarity in mean retention time of the two storage zones, and the relative distributions of exchange flux and storage capacity between the two storage zones. For most cases (> 90%) the one storage zone model described either the effect of the sum of multiple storage processes (category I) or the dominant storage process (category III). Failure of the one storage zone model occurred mainly for category II, that is, when one of the storage zones had a much longer mean retention time (t(s) ratio > 5.0) and when the dominance of

  12. Antimatter transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Werf, D. P.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    A comparison of the 1S-2S transitions of hydrogen and antihydrogen will yield a stringent test of CPT conservation. Necessarily, the antihydrogen atoms need to be trapped to perform high precision spectroscopy measurements. Therefore, an approximately 0.75 T deep neutral atom trap, equivalent to about 0.5 K for ground state (anti)hydrogen atoms, has been superimposed on a Penning-Malmberg trap in which the anti-atoms are formed. The antihydrogen atoms are produced following a number of steps. A bunch of antiprotons from the CERN Antiproton Decelerator is caught in a Penning-Malmberg trap and subsequently sympathetically cooled and then compressed using rotating wall electric fields. A positron plasma, formed in a separate accumulator, is transported to the main system and also compressed. Antihydrogen atoms are then formed by mixing the antiprotons and positrons. The velocity of the anti-atoms, and their binding energies, will strongly depend on the initial conditions of the constituent particles, for example their temperatures and densities, and on the details of the mixing process. In this paper the complete lifecycle of antihydrogen atoms will be presented, starting with the production of the constituent antiparticles and the description of the manipulations necessary to prepare them appropriately for antihydrogen formation. The latter will also be described, as will the possible fates of the anti-atoms.

  13. Antimatter Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, D. P.; Andresen G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Wilding, D.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2010-07-01

    The comparison of the 1S-2S energy levels of hydrogen and antihydrogen will yield a stringent test of CPT conservation. Necessarily, the antihydrogen atoms need to be trapped to perform high precision spectroscopy measurements. Therefore, an approximately 1 T deep neutral trap, about 0.7 K for ground state (anti)hydrogen atoms, has been superimposed on a Penning-Malmberg trap in which the antiatoms are formed. The antihydrogen atoms, which are required to have a low enough kinetic energy to be trapped, are produced following a number of steps. A bunch of antiprotons from the CERN Antiproton Decelerator are caught in a Penning-Malmberg trap and subsequently sympathetically cooled down and then compressed using rotating wall electric fields. A positron plasma, formed in a separate accumulator, is transported to the main system and also compressed. Antihydrogen atoms are then formed by mixing the antiprotons and positrons. The velocity of the antiatoms, and their binding energies, will strongly depend on the initial conditions of the constituent particles, for example their temperatures and densities, and on the details of the mixing process. In this talk the complete lifecycle of antihydrogen atoms will be presented, starting with the production of the constituent particles and the description of the manipulations necessary to prepare positrons and antiprotons appropriately for antihydrogen formation. The latter will also be described, as will the possible fates of the antiatoms.

  14. STP-ECRTS - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSES FOR SLUDGE TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CONTAINER (STSC) STORAGE AT T PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; LEE SJ; PLYS MG

    2010-04-29

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of sludge contained in the six engineered containers and Settler tank within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. The STP is retrieving and transferring sludge from the Settler tank into engineered container SCS-CON-230. Then, the STP will retrieve and transfer sludge from the six engineered containers in the KW Basin directly into a Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) contained in a Sludge Transport System (STS) cask. The STSC/STS cask will be transported to T Plant for interim storage of the STSC. The STS cask will be loaded with an empty STSC and returned to the KW Basin for loading of additional sludge for transportation and interim storage at T Plant. CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) to perform thermal and gas generation analyses for interim storage of STP sludge in the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSCs) at T Plant. The sludge types considered are settler sludge and sludge originating from the floor of the KW Basin and stored in containers 210 and 220, which are bounding compositions. The conditions specified by CHPRC for analysis are provided in Section 5. The FAI report (FAI/10-83, Thermal and Gas Analyses for a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) at T Plant) (refer to Attachment 1) documents the analyses. The process considered was passive, interim storage of sludge in various cells at T Plant. The FATE{trademark} code is used for the calculation. The results are shown in terms of the peak sludge temperature and hydrogen concentrations in the STSC and the T Plant cell. In particular, the concerns addressed were the thermal stability of the sludge and the potential for flammable gas mixtures. This work was performed with preliminary design information and a preliminary software configuration.

  15. Transport and Storage. Industry Training Monograph No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's transport and storage industry is a large, diverse sector covering all forms of transport operation, including road, rail, air, and sea, and related services: stevedoring, port operations, customs agencies, and travel agencies. Employment in this industry has not grown as quickly over the last decade as employment in general. Under…

  16. Transport and Storage. Industry Training Monograph No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's transport and storage industry is a large, diverse sector covering all forms of transport operation, including road, rail, air, and sea, and related services: stevedoring, port operations, customs agencies, and travel agencies. Employment in this industry has not grown as quickly over the last decade as employment in general. Under…

  17. Energy conversion and storage process

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, O.N.

    1982-01-26

    An energy conversion process is described for converting thermal energy into stored electrochemical energy and then into electrical energy comprising heating a first FeCl2-containing electrolyte melt to produce gaseous FeCl3 and a reductant product in a first chemical reaction, these reaction products being separated, cooled, optionally stored, and combined in a second FeCl2-containing electrolyte melt to cause a reaction to take place which is the reverse of said first reaction, thereby regenerating said first melt and producing heat and electrical energy.

  18. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-07-11

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  19. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-01-10

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  20. Ultrastructural aspects of iron storage, transport and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Theodore C

    2011-03-01

    The iron storage proteins, ferritin and hemosiderin, enable electron microscopic visualization thanks to their electron-dense iron content, which is not present in other compounds involved in transport or metabolism of iron such as transferrin, lactoferrin, or hemoglobin. It is this electron density which contributed to the unraveling of stages in absorption, transport, deposition, storage, and release of iron. In recent years, additional methods of investigation have further supported the information achieved by the ultrastructural studies. Even while using new analytical methods, the seminal morphological observations remain valid for understanding the role of iron in health and disease. In this review, we will illustrate a few basic findings of electron microscopy in humans, experimental animals, and cell cultures. The importance of H chain ferritin as a transporter across the blood-brain barrier is just an example of a new role revealed for an "old" storage protein, explaining some controversial observations on the presence of iron in the brain.

  1. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples.

  2. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  3. Automation in a material processing/storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.; Gordon, J.

    1997-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently developing a new facility, the Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility (APSF), to process and store legacy materials from the United States nuclear stockpile. A variety of materials, with a variety of properties, packaging and handling/storage requirements, will be processed and stored at the facility. Since these materials are hazardous and radioactive, automation will be used to minimize worker exposure. Other benefits derived from automation of the facility include increased throughput capacity and enhanced security. The diversity of materials and packaging geometries to be handled poses challenges to the automation of facility processes. In addition, the nature of the materials to be processed underscores the need for safety, reliability and serviceability. The application of automation in this facility must, therefore, be accomplished in a rational and disciplined manner to satisfy the strict operational requirements of the facility. Among the functions to be automated are the transport of containers between process and storage areas via an Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV), and various processes in the Shipping Package Unpackaging (SPU) area, the Accountability Measurements (AM) area, the Special Isotope Storage (SIS) vault and the Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) vault. Other areas of the facility are also being automated, but are outside the scope of this paper.

  4. Biomimetic materials for protein storage and transport

    DOEpatents

    Firestone, Millicent A [Elmhurst, IL; Laible, Philip D [Villa Park, IL

    2012-05-01

    The invention provides a method for the insertion of protein in storage vehicles and the recovery of the proteins from the vehicles, the method comprising supplying isolated protein; mixing the isolated protein with a fluid so as to form a mixture, the fluid comprising saturated phospholipids, lipopolymers, and a surfactant; cycling the mixture between a first temperature and a second temperature; maintaining the mixture as a solid for an indefinite period of time; diluting the mixture in detergent buffer so as to disrupt the composition of the mixture, and diluting to disrupt the fluid in its low viscosity state for removal of the guest molecules by, for example, dialysis, filtering or chromatography dialyzing/filtering the emulsified solid.

  5. LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.

    1981-09-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 to 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

  6. LPG land transportation and storage safety. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martinsen, W.E.; Cavin, W.D.

    1981-09-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of fatal accidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) releases during transportation and/or transportation related storage. Principal emphasis was on accidents during the nine-year period 1971 through 1979. Fatalities to members of the general public (i.e., those at the scene of the accident through coincidence or curiosity) were of special interest. Transportation accidents involving railroad tank cars, trucks, and pipelines were examined as were accidents at storage facilities, including loading and unloading at such facilities. The main sources of the necessary historical accident data were the accident reports submitted to the Department of Transportation by LPG carriers, National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, articles in the National Fire Protection Association journals, other literature, and personal interviews with firemen, company personnel, and others with knowledge of certain accidents. The data indicate that, on the average, releases of LPG during transportation and intermediate storage cause approximately six fatalities per year to members of the general public. The individual risk is about 1 death per 37,000,000 persons; about the same as the risk of a person on the ground being killed by an airplane crash, and much less than the risk of death by lightning, tornadoes, or dam failures.

  7. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  8. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  9. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864...

  10. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specimen transport and storage container. 864.3250 Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories § 864...

  11. Structure-function relationships in sapwood water transport and storage.

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Gartner; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2005-01-01

    Primary production by plants requires the loss of substantial quantities of water when the stomata are open for carbon assimilation. The delivery of that water to the leaves occurs through the xylem. The structure, condition, and quantity of the xylem control not only the transport efficiency but also the release of water from storage. For example, if there is high...

  12. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.35 Labeling, storage, and transportation. (a... MATERIAL NOTIFY CIVIL AUTHORITIES (or “NAME OF COMPANY”) *____ or “DANGER” (b) The licensee may not...

  13. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... bearing the standard trefoil radiation caution symbol conventional colors, i.e., magenta, purple or black...

  14. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... bearing the standard trefoil radiation caution symbol conventional colors, i.e., magenta, purple or black...

  15. 10 CFR 34.35 - Labeling, storage, and transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling, storage, and transportation. 34.35 Section 34.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... bearing the standard trefoil radiation caution symbol conventional colors, i.e., magenta, purple or black...

  16. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... container, which may be empty or prefilled, is a device intended to contain biological specimens, body waste, or body exudate during storage and transport in order that the matter contained therein can...

  17. 21 CFR 864.3250 - Specimen transport and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 864.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... container, which may be empty or prefilled, is a device intended to contain biological specimens, body waste, or body exudate during storage and transport in order that the matter contained therein can...

  18. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Sindo

    1996-10-01

    An extremely useful guide to the theory and applications of transport phenomena in materials processing This book defines the unique role that transport phenomena play in materials processing and offers a graphic, comprehensive treatment unlike any other book on the subject. The two parts of the text are, in fact, two useful books. Part I is a very readable introduction to fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer for materials engineers and anyone not yet thoroughly familiar with the subject. It includes governing equations and boundary conditions particularly useful for studying materials processing. For mechanical and chemical engineers, and anyone already familiar with transport phenomena, Part II covers the many specific applications to materials processing, including a brief description of various materials processing technologies. Readable and unencumbered by mathematical manipulations (most of which are allocated to the appendixes), this book is also a useful text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in materials, mechanical, and chemical engineering. It includes hundreds of photographs of materials processing in action, single and composite figures of computer simulation, handy charts for problem solving, and more. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing: * Describes eight key materials processing technologies, including crystal growth, casting, welding, powder and fiber processing, bulk and surface heat treating, and semiconductor device fabrication * Covers the latest advances in the field, including recent results of computer simulation and flow visualization * Presents special boundary conditions for transport phenomena in materials processing * Includes charts that summarize commonly encountered boundary conditions and step-by-step procedures for problem solving * Offers a unique derivation of governing equations that leads to both overall and differential balance equations * Provides a list of publicly available computer

  19. Ligands and receptors: common theme in insect storage protein transport.

    PubMed

    Burmester, T; Scheller, K

    1999-10-01

    The passage of macromolecules through biological membranes is an essential process for all multicellular organisms. Insects have developed a mechanism different from that known for all other eukaryotes investigated so far. This review discusses the function and evolution of this mechanism. Insect pupae do not feed during metamorphosis. Therefore they depend on material that has been accumulated during the larval life. At the end of this period, shortly before pupariation, a rise in titer of ecdysteroid hormones induces the incorporation of a large fraction of storage proteins (hexamerins) from the body fluid into the fat body cells. The transport of hexamerins across the cell-membrane is mediated by a specific ecdysteroid-controlled receptor. It is synthesized as a precursor protein that is subsequently processed into the active receptor. This receptor protein is very unusual because it is closely related to its own hexamerin ligand. Sequence comparison shows that the hexamerins and hexamerin receptors diverged early in insect evolution and derive from a common hemocyanin ancestor.

  20. Ligands and Receptors: Common Theme in Insect Storage Protein Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmester, T.; Scheller, K.

    The passage of macromolecules through biological membranes is an essential process for all multicellular organisms. Insects have developed a mechanism different from that known for all other eukaryotes investigated so far. This review discusses the function and evolution of this mechanism. Insect pupae do not feed during metamorphosis. Therefore they depend on material that has been accumulated during the larval life. At the end of this period, shortly before pupariation, a rise in titer of ecdysteroid hormones induces the incorporation of a large fraction of storage proteins (hexamerins) from the body fluid into the fat body cells. The transport of hexamerins across the cell-membrane is mediated by a specific ecdysteroid-controlled receptor. It is synthesized as a precursor protein that is subsequently processed into the active receptor. This receptor protein is very unusual because it is closely related to its own hexamerin ligand. Sequence comparison shows that the hexamerins and hexamerin receptors diverged early in insect evolution and derive from a common hemocyanin ancestor.

  1. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  2. SQA of finite element method (FEM) codes used for analyses of pit storage/transport packages

    SciTech Connect

    Russel, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the software quality assurance of finite element method codes used for analyses of pit storage and transport projects. This methodology utilizes the ISO 9000-3: Guideline for application of 9001 to the development, supply, and maintenance of software, for establishing well-defined software engineering processes to consistently maintain high quality management approaches.

  3. Holography for information storage and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burr, Geoffrey W.

    2003-11-01

    We review recent progress made towards two types of holographic data storage systems. The first offers the potential for simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. This content-addressable retrieval produces one analog correlation score for each stored volume hologram. We review work we have performed on fuzzy encoding techniques, experimental demonstrations of hardware-level database searching, on the measurement of true inner-products, on architectures in which massively-parallel searches could be implemented, and on quantifying the inherent speed-fidelity tradeoffs. The second system offers read-write, fast-access data storage. We review systems architectures for extending this high density to high capacity using phase-conjugate readout and signal processing to relieve alignment and distortion constraints.

  4. Relaxation processes in Aeolian transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmani, Houssem; Valance, Alexandre; Ould El Moctar, Ahmed; Dupont, Pascal; Zegadi, Rabah

    2017-06-01

    We investigate experimentally the relaxation process toward the equilibrium regime of saltation transport in the context of spatial inhomogeneous conditions. The relaxation length associated to this process is an important length in aeolian transport. This length stands for the distance needed for the particle flux to adapt to a change in flow conditions or in the boundary conditions at the bed. Predicting the value of this length under given conditions of transport remains an open and important issue. We conducted wind tunnel experiments to document the influence of the upstream particle flux and wind speed on the relaxation process toward the saturated transport state. In the absence of upstream particle flux, data show that the relaxation length is independent of the wind strength (except close to the threshold of transport). In contrast, in the case of a finite upstream flux, the relaxation length exhibits a clear increase with increasing air flow velocity. Moreover, in the latter the relaxation is clearly non-monotonic and presents an overshoot.

  5. Characterization of new materials for Ultracold Neutron transport and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Edgard; Christopher, Nicholas; Kawasaki, Shinsuke; Mammei, Russell; Marcellin, James; Matsumiya, Ryohei; Picker, Ruediger

    2016-09-01

    At TRIUMF, we are currently developing a super-thermal UltraCold Neutron (UCN) source using phonon exchange in super-fluid helium. To take full advantage of the high density of UCN from the TRIUMF source we are developing high UCN transmission guides and long storage time volumes for polarized UCN. These guides and storage volumes are important for experiments requiring a high density of polarized UCN, such as the neutron Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) measurement. The transportation efficiency depends on the capacity of the guide's walls to contain the UCN. The mean potential experienced by a UCN on wall collisions is called the Fermi potential and depends on the material. We have determined a set of potential candidates for our next generation UCN guides and EDM storage chamber. Their Fermi potential was measured using the SOFIA apparatus at MLF, J-PARC, Japan. Results of this measurement are presented in this talk.

  6. Extending Spent Fuel Storage until Transport for Reprocessing or Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, Brett; Chiguer, Mustapha; Grahn, Per; Sampson, Michele; Wolff, Dietmar; Bevilaqua, Arturo; Wasinger, Karl; Saegusa, Toshiari; Seelev, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Spent fuel (SF) must be stored until an end point such as reprocessing or geologic disposal is imple-mented. Selection and implementation of an end point for SF depends upon future funding, legisla-tion, licensing and other factors that cannot be predicted with certainty. Past presumptions related to the availability of an end point have often been wrong and resulted in missed opportunities for properly informing spent fuel management policies and strategies. For example, dry cask storage systems were originally conceived to free up needed space in reactor spent fuel pools and also to provide SFS of up to 20 years until reprocessing and/or deep geological disposal became available. Hundreds of dry cask storage systems are now employed throughout the world and will be relied upon well beyond the originally envisioned design life. Given present and projected rates for the use of nuclear power coupled with projections for SF repro-cessing and disposal capacities, one concludes that SF storage will be prolonged, potentially for several decades. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently considered 300 years of storage to be appropriate for the characterization and prediction of ageing effects and ageing management issues associated with extending SF storage and subsequent transport. This paper encourages addressing the uncertainty associated with the duration of SF storage by de-sign – rather than by default. It suggests ways that this uncertainty may be considered in design, li-censing, policy, and strategy decisions and proposes a framework for safely extending spent fuel storage until SF can be transported for reprocessing or disposal – regardless of how long that may be. The paper however is not intended to either encourage or facilitate needlessly extending spent fuel storage durations. Its intent is to ensure a design and safety basis with sufficient margin to accommodate the full range of potential future scenarios. Although the focus is primarily on

  7. Use of burnup credit for transportation and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, T.L.; Ewing, R.I. ); Lake, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Burnup credit is the application of the effects of fuel burnup to nuclear criticality design. When burnup credit is considered in the design of storage facilities and transportation casks for spent fuel, the objectives are to reduce the requirements for storage space and to increase the payload of casks with acceptable nuclear criticality safety margins. The spent-fuel carrying capacities of previous-generation transport casks have been limited primarily by requirements to remove heat and/or to provide shielding. Shielding and heat transfer requirements for casks designed to transport older spent fuel with longer decay times are reduced significantly. Thus a considerable weight margin is available to the designer for increasing the payload capacity. One method to achieve an increase in capacity is to reduce fuel assembly spacing. The amount of reduction in assembly spacing is limited by criticality and fuel support structural concerns. The optimum fuel assembly spacing provides the maximum cask loading within a basket that has adequate criticality control and sufficient structural integrity for regulatory accident scenarios. The incorporation of burnup credit in cask designs could result in considerable benefits in the transport of spent fuel. The acceptance of burnup credit for the design of transport casks depends on the resolution of system safety issues and the uncertainties that affect the determination of criticality safety margins. The remainder of this report will examine these issues and the integrated approach under way to resolve them. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  8. 10 CFR 34.73 - Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey... Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and...

  9. 10 CFR 34.73 - Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey... Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and...

  10. 10 CFR 34.73 - Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey... Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and...

  11. 10 CFR 34.73 - Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey... Records of inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers... exposure devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and...

  12. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Transport. Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan

    2008-01-01

    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Hydrogen storage and in-space hydrogen transport research focused on developing and verifying design concepts for efficient, safe, lightweight liquid hydrogen cryogenic storage systems. Research into hydrogen production had a specific goal of further advancing proton conducting membrane technology in the laboratory at a larger scale. System and process trade studies evaluated the proton conducting membrane technology, specifically, scale-up issues.

  13. Edible mushroom-related poisoning: A study on circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage.

    PubMed

    Gawlikowski, T; Romek, M; Satora, L

    2015-07-01

    The American Association of Poison Control Center (AAPCC) shows that in 2012 there were 0.3% of human exposures involving mushrooms. Only 17% of 6600 cases were then identified by the species. The present retrospective study was designed to identify the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in adults admitted to Krakow's Department of Clinical Toxicology (DCT) from 2002 to 2009. This study was conducted retrospectively after examining the files of 457 adult patients with wild mushroom poisoning. Mycological analysis was made and the species of the poisoning-inducing mushroom was determined. Furthermore, the circumstances related to the mushroom gathering, transport, storage, preparation, and consumption have been analyzed. The analysis revealed that in 400 (87.53%) out of 457 cases, the clinical symptoms were caused by ingestion of identified edible mushroom species. The main reason for edible mushroom poisoning is associated with their incorrect processing after harvest. The analysis of the circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage shows that the largest percentage of poisoning was connected with long-term storage of mushroom dishes, collecting, and storing them in plastic bags, and long storage of mushrooms. Based on spore analysis of the gastric content, edible mushrooms were responsible for the great majority of mushroom poisoning cases admitted to the DCT. The toxicity of edible mushroom is associated with proceeding with them during collection, transport, and storage. The medical history should be supplemented by questions concerning these circumstances. The identification of the mushroom by a mycologist is highly desirable. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Study on Tetradecane Nanoemulsion for Thermal Energy Transportation and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumoto, Koji; Kawaji, Masahiro; Kawanami, Tsuyoshi

    Phase change emulsion (PCE) is a novel fluid used for heat storage and transfer. It has the following characteristics: higher apparent specific heat and higher heat transfer ability in the phase-change temperature range as compared to the conventional single-phase heat transfer fluids. In particular, oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are latent heat storage materials that have low melting points, thus offering attractive opportunities for heat transfer enhancement and thermal energy transportation and storage. In this paper, milky white oil-in-water emulsions have been formed using water, Tween 80, Span 80, and tetradecane by low-energy emulsification methods (e.g., the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method). The relations between the component ratios of the emulsions and both the particle diameters and the stability of the resulting emulsions have been determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibration viscometry. The results show that the apparent viscosity of the nanoemulsion is lower than that of an emulsion, which was prepared with the same mixing ratio of surfactant and concentration of phase change material. Moreover, the surfactant concentration is found to contribute to the stability of the phase change nanoemulsion. Results indicate that the phase change nanoemulsion is a promising material for thermal storage applications.

  15. Safety-Basis Thermal Analysis for KE Basin Sludge Transport and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    HEARD, F.J.; SATHYANARAYANA, J.J.

    2002-09-30

    A series of safety-basis thermal and gas generation analyses were completed and independently reviewed to assess the thermal performance of a large diameter container (LDC) containing KE Basin sludge. The results demonstrate: (1) the sludge transport system (STS) containing a LDC can safely transport a KE basin sludge payload up to 2.0 m{sup 3} and, (2) large diameter containers with sludge payloads up to 2.0 m{sup 3} can be safely stored in a process cell at T Plant. The transport and storage analyses are based on a conservative set of assumptions, including limiting environmental conditions. Conclusions drawn from the transport and storage results were not impacted by changes in the radial gap between the cask and LDC, purge gas (i.e., either helium or nitrogen), sludge porosity, or thermal conductivity. The design of the transport cask and large diameter container can accommodate reasonable changes in these values. Both transport from KE Basin and long-term storage at T Plant are addressed for sludge payloads up to 2.0 m{sup 3}. Additional analyses determined the expected range of T Plant environmental temperatures, the hydrogen and oxygen generation rate due to the radiolysis of water, and the maximum hydrogen concentration within a process cell due to chemical reactions and the radiolysis of water. All sludge temperature and hydrogen concentration criteria for transport and storage are met. The analyses assumed a safety-basis sludge mixture defined as 60% by volume floor and 40% by volume canister sludge with 35% retained gas, and a conservative segregated (axial) distribution of metallic uranium (resulting from particulate settling) with associated safety-basis properties. The analyses recognized that the retrieval process would produce non-uniform sludge distributions. Four batch process loadings of 0.5m{sup 3} each are assumed. Each process batch loading will settle and segregate (separate) into two layers: an active layer containing all the metallic

  16. Guidelines for carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, S.

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this effort was to develop a set of preliminary guidelines and recommendations for the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies in the United States. The CCS Guidelines are written for those who may be involved in decisions on a proposed project: the developers, regulators, financiers, insurers, project operators, and policymakers. Contents are: Part 1: introduction; Part 2: capture; Part 3: transport; Part 4; storage; Part. 5 supplementary information. Within these parts, eight recommended guidelines are given for: CO{sub 2} capture; ancillary environmental impacts from CO{sub 2}; pipeline design and operation; pipeline safety and integrity; siting CO{sub 2} pipelines; pipeline access and tariff regulation; guidelines for (MMV); risk assessment; financial responsibility; property rights and ownership; site selection and characterisation; injection operations; site closure; and post-closure. 18 figs., 9 tabs., 4 apps.

  17. 76 FR 32867 - Hazardous Materials: Requirements for Storage of Explosives During Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Materials: Requirements for Storage of Explosives During Transportation AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...-8553, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200... Requirements Applicable to Explosives Stored During Transportation A. Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR; 49...

  18. NUHOWS - Storage and Transportation of Irradiated Reactor Components in Large Packages - 13439

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, Glen A.

    2013-07-01

    Most irradiated reactor components (hardware such as Control Rod Blades, Fuel Channels, Poison Curtains, etc.) generated at reactors previously required significant processing for size reduction due to the available transportation casks not being physically capable of containing unprocessed material. As of July 1, 2008, disposal for this typical waste class (B and C) became inaccessible (for the major part of the nation) due to the Barnwell, SC disposal facility being closed to all but its three compact states (CT, NJ and SC). Currently in the United States, most facilities are storing their irradiated hardware on-site in the spent fuel pools. Until recently with the opening of the Waste Control Specialists' Texas disposal facility, utilities faced the challenges of spent fuel pool space and capacity management. However, even with WCS's disposal availability, the site currently has annual Curie limitations for disposal, which will continue to promote interim on-site storage until such time as disposal is available. In response, Transnuclear Inc., (TN) an AREVA company, proceeded with designing a new large Radioactive Waste Container (RWC) that can be used to package irradiated hardware without the need for significant processing. The design features of the RWC allows for intermittent loadings of the hardware for better packaging efficiency, higher packaging density, space savings and reduced cost. This RWC is also compatible with TN's on-site modular vault storage system. Once completely loaded, the RWC can be transported to an on-site storage facility, an off-site storage facility and/or an available disposal facility. To accommodate the transportation, TN has designed a large transportation cask, the MP197HB. As the original design was for transporting fuel, it contains the necessary shielding to allow for the transport of unprocessed irradiated reactor components, while significantly reducing the amount of irradiated hardware shipments required with the use of

  19. R D for the storage, transport, and handling of coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The product of several advanced physical coal cleaning processes is a dry, ultrafine coal (DUC), in the order of 10 microns mean mass diameter. To utilize this fuel commercially, cost-effective, environmentally safe systems must be provided for the storage, transport, and handling of this finely divided form of fuel. The objective of the project described herein is the development of total logistics systems for DUC, including experimental verification of key features. The systems to be developed will provide for safe, economic, and environmentally protective storage and delivery of DUC for residential, commercial, and industrial uses. 20 figs.

  20. Time-variable transit time distributions and transport: Theory and application to storage-dependent transport of chloride in a watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Ciaran J.

    2015-01-01

    Transport processes and pathways through many hydrodynamic systems vary over time, often driven by variations in total water storage. This paper develops a very general approach to modeling unsteady transport through an arbitrary control volume (such as a watershed) that accounts for temporal variability in the underlying transport dynamics. Controls on the selection of discharge from stored water are encapsulated in probability distributions ΩQ>(ST,t>) of age-ranked storage ST (the volume of water in storage ranked from youngest to oldest). This framework is applied to a long-term record of rainfall and streamflow chloride in a small, humid watershed at Plynlimon, UK. While a time-invariant gamma distribution for ΩQ produced a good fit to data, the fit was significantly improved when the distribution was allowed to vary with catchment storage. However, the variation was inverse to that of a "well-mixed" system where storage has a pure dilution effect. Discharge at high storage was predicted to contain a larger fraction of recent event water than at low storage. The effective volume of storage involved in transport was 3411 mm at mean catchment wetness, but declined by 71 mm per 1 mm of additional catchment storage, while the fraction of event water in discharge increased by 1.4%. This "inverse storage effect" is sufficient to reproduce the observed long-memory 1/f fractal spectral structure of stream chloride. Metrics quantifying the strength and direction of storage effects are proposed as useful signatures, and point toward a unified framework for observing and modeling coupled watershed flow and transport.

  1. Improvement of operational safety of dual-purpose transport packaging set for naval SNF in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Guskov, Vladimir; Korotkov, Gennady; Barnes, Ella; Snipes, Randy

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In recent ten years a new technology of management of irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) at the final stage of fuel cycle has been intensely developing on a basis of a new type of casks used for interim storage of SNF and subsequent transportation therein to the place of processing, further storage or final disposal. This technology stems from the concept of a protective cask which provides preservation of its content (SNF) and fulfillment of all other safety requirements for storage and transportation of SNF. Radiation protection against emissions and non-distribution of activity outside the cask is ensured by physical barriers, i.e. all-metal or composite body, shells, inner cavities for irradiated fuel assemblies (SFA), lids with sealing systems. Residual heat release of SFA is discharged to the environment by natural way: through emission and convection of surrounding air. By now more than 100 dual purpose packaging sets TUK-108/1 are in operation in the mode of interim storage and transportation of SNF from decommissioned nuclear powered submarines (NPS). In accordance with certificate, spent fuel is stored in TUK-108/1 on the premises of plants involved in NPS dismantlement for 2 years, whereupon it is transported for processing to PO Mayak. At one Far Eastern plant Zvezda involved in NPS dismantlement there arose a complicated situation due to necessity to extend period of storage of SNF in TUK- 108/1. To ensure safety over a longer period of storage of SNF in TUK-108/1 it is essential to modify conditions of storage by removing of residual water and filling the inner cavity of the cask with an inert gas. Within implementation of the international 1.1- 2 project Development of drying technology for the cask TUK-108/1 intended for naval SNF under the Program, there has been developed the technology of preparation of the cask for long-term storage of SNF in TUK-108/1, the design of a mobile TUK-108

  2. 78 FR 40199 - Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim Staff Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim Staff Guidance AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Regulatory Commission (NRC) requests public comment on Draft Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Interim... Integrity for Continued Storage of High Burnup Fuel Beyond 20 Years.'' The draft SFST-ISG provides...

  3. Evaluation of storage/transportation options to support criteria development for the Phase I MRS (Monitored Retrievable Storage)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, K.B.; Brown, N.N.; Bennett, P.C. ); Lake, W. )

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) plans to develop an interim storage facility to enable acceptance of spent fuel in 1998. It is estimated that this interim storage facility would be needed for about two years. A Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility is anticipated in 2000 and a repository in 2010. Acceptance and transport of spent fuel by DOE/OCRWM in 1998 will require an operating transportation system. Because this interim storage facility is not yet defined, development of an optimally compatible transportation system is not a certainty. In order to assure a transport capability for 1998 acceptance of spent fuel, it was decided that the OCRWM transportation program had to identify likely options for an interim storage facility, including identification of the components needed for compatibility between likely interim storage facility options and transportation. Primary attention was given to existing hardware, although conceptual designs were also considered. A systems-based probabilistic decision model was suggested by Sandia National Laboratories and accepted by DOE/OCRWM's transportation program. Performance of the evaluation task involved several elements of the transportation program. This paper describes the decision model developed to accomplish this task, along with some of the results and conclusions. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  4. R D for the storage, transport, and handling of coal-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The product of several advanced physical coal cleaning processes is a dry, ultrafine coal (DUC), in the order of 10 microns mean mass diameter. Environmentally safe systems must be provided for the storage, transport, and handling of this fuel. The objective of the project is the development of total logistics systems for DUC, including experimental verification of key features. The systems to be developed will provide for safe, economic, and environmentally protective storage and delivery of DUC for residential, commercial, and industrial uses. Work this quarter entailed: obtaining all of the test coals including 10 lbs of Illinois No. 6 cleaned by the LICADO process. Installation of the test system for the Residential Storage Tank including piping and the components required to recycle the ultrafine coal. Completion of the design of the scale model test of the Industrial/Commercial Storage System. Piping and supports for the porous fluidization plates in the floor of the tanks have been completed. Preliminary results with the Illinois No. 6 coal cleaned by the Bechtel heptane/asphalt process indicate that this material is cohesive and difficult to fluidize. Studies of dune formation have been made with the Illinois No. 6 coal. These data provide information on the minimum velocity which will transport the particles. 11 refs., 18 figs.

  5. 41 CFR 302-7.105 - May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS... transporting HHG and temporary storage? An advance of funds may be authorized when the transportation of HHG... be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage? 302-7.105 Section 302-7.105...

  6. 41 CFR 302-7.105 - May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS... transporting HHG and temporary storage? An advance of funds may be authorized when the transportation of HHG... be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage? 302-7.105 Section 302-7.105...

  7. 41 CFR 302-7.105 - May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS... transporting HHG and temporary storage? An advance of funds may be authorized when the transportation of HHG... be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage? 302-7.105 Section 302-7.105...

  8. European experience in transport/storage cask for vitrified residues

    SciTech Connect

    Otton, Camille; Sicard, Damien

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Because of the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transported in the existing cask designs. Therefore, TN International has decided in the late nineties to develop a brand new design of casks with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters: the TN{sup TM}81 casks currently in use in Switzerland and the TN{sup TM}85 cask which shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the most active vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW (kilowatts). The challenges for the TN{sup TM}81 and TN{sup TM}85 cask designs were that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were combined with a fairly wide range set by the AREVA NC Specification relative to vitrified residue canister. The TN{sup TM}81 and the TN{sup TM}85 casks have been designed to fully anticipate shipment constraints of the present vitrified residue production. It also used the feedback of current shipments and the operational constraints and experience of receiving and shipping facilities. The casks had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the already existing flasks such as the TN{sup TM}28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. (authors)

  9. Identification of plant vacuolar transporters mediating phosphate storage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tzu-Yin; Huang, Teng-Kuei; Yang, Shu-Yi; Hong, Yu-Ting; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wang, Fu-Nien; Chiang, Su-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Lu, Wen-Chien; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Plant vacuoles serve as the primary intracellular compartments for inorganic phosphate (Pi) storage. Passage of Pi across vacuolar membranes plays a critical role in buffering the cytoplasmic Pi level against fluctuations of external Pi and metabolic activities. Here we demonstrate that the SPX-MFS proteins, designated as PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER 5 family (PHT5), also named Vacuolar Phosphate Transporter (VPT), function as vacuolar Pi transporters. Based on 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis, Arabidopsis pht5;1 loss-of-function mutants accumulate less Pi and exhibit a lower vacuolar-to-cytoplasmic Pi ratio than controls. Conversely, overexpression of PHT5 leads to massive Pi sequestration into vacuoles and altered regulation of Pi starvation-responsive genes. Furthermore, we show that heterologous expression of the rice homologue OsSPX-MFS1 mediates Pi influx to yeast vacuoles. Our findings show that a group of Pi transporters in vacuolar membranes regulate cytoplasmic Pi homeostasis and are required for fitness and plant growth. PMID:27029856

  10. Information-processing, storage characteristics and worry.

    PubMed

    Pratt, P; Tallis, F; Eysenck, M

    1997-11-01

    Eysenck (1984, Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22, 545-548) suggested that storage characteristics may be an important determinant of worry, and postulated that prolonged worry occurs in individuals who have tightly organised clusters of worry-related information stored in long-term memory. These clusters reflect areas or domains of worry. Because the information is stored in tight clusters, it becomes more accessible, more rapidly activated and therefore retrieved more quickly. The Worry Domains Questionnaire (WDQ) (Tallis, 1991c) is used to determine which domain worried subjects most (Primary) and least (Secondary). Two experiments are reported using a word allocation task, which requires subjects to make categorical decisions, based on these worry domains. It is reported that priming facilitates the emergence of domain effects, thus providing support for a structural hypothesis. High worries take longer to reject negative words if they are from the Primary domain and have difficulty rejecting Primary domain words when they are under a congruent heading. In addition, high worriers are reported to show retarded latencies when attempting to process ambiguous information, consistent with Metzger et al.'s studies (1990, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 76-88). It is suggested that the initiation and maintenance of worry is largely attributable to an elevated evidence requirement and this may link to the personality trait of perfectionism.

  11. Transport processes in space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Elphic, R.C.; Feldman, W.C.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project represents a comprehensive research effort to study plasma and field transport processes relevant for solar-terrestrial interaction, involving the solar wind and imbedded magnetic field and plasma structures, the bow shock of the Earth`s magnetosphere and associated waves, the Earth`s magnetopause with imbedded flux rope structures and their connection with the Earth, plasma flow in the Earth`s magnetotail, and ionospheric beam/wave interactions. The focus of the work was on the interaction between plasma and magnetic and electric fields in the regions where different plasma populations exist adjacent to or superposed on each other. These are the regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, important for plasma and energy transport and rapid energy releases. The research addressed questions about how this interaction takes place, what waves, instabilities, and particle/field interactions are involved, how the penetration of plasma and energy through characteristic boundaries takes place, and how the characteristic properties of the plasmas and fields of the different populations influence each other on different spatial and temporal scales. These topics were investigated through combining efforts in the analysis of plasma and field data obtained through space missions with theory and computer simulations of the plasma behavior.

  12. Transport and Storage Properties of CST Slurries for the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.; Hewitt, J.D.; Hylton, T.D.; Kent, T.E.

    1999-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing tests to address issues related to the handling and storage of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) recycle treatment program. The DWPF recycle treatment program and the SRS Salt Disposition Alternatives program share many common concerns related to CST slurry transport. Therefore, the DWPF recycle treatment program scope was modified to better address the salt disposition concerns. These tests evaluated the physical and chemical compatibility of CST with the operating environments that could be experienced during treatment of the SRS high-level tank waste or DWPF recycle stream, and subsequent handling, storage, and transport of the CST.

  13. Rotary kilns - transport phenomena and transport processes

    SciTech Connect

    Boateng, A.

    2008-01-15

    Rotary kilns and rotating industrial drying ovens are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This book treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution and Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing and Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame - includes section on types of fuels used in rotary kilns, coal types, ranking and analysis, petroleum coke combustion, scrap tire combustion, pulverized fuel (coal/coke) firing in kilns, pulverized fuel delivery and firing systems. Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass and Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications.

  14. Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Eichman, J.

    2015-02-01

    Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of Energy and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of hydrogen energy storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of energy sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.

  15. BEAM TRANSPORT AND STORAGE WITH COLD NEUTRAL ATOMS AND MOLECULES

    SciTech Connect

    Walstrom, Peter L.

    2012-05-15

    A large class of cold neutral atoms and molecules is subject to magnetic field-gradient forces. In the presence of a field, hyperfine atomic states are split into several Zeeman levels. The slopes of these curves vs. field are the effective magnetic moments. By means of optical pumping in a field, Zeeman states of neutral lithium atoms and CaH molecules with effective magnetic moments of nearly {+-} one Bohr magneton can be selected. Particles in Zeeman states for which the energy increases with field are repelled by increasing fields; particles in states for which the energy decreases with field are attracted to increasing fields. For stable magnetic confinement, field-repelled states are required. Neutral-particle velocities in the present study are on the order of tens to hundreds of m/s and the magnetic fields needed for transport and injection are on the order of in the range of 0.01-1T. Many of the general concepts of charged-particle beam transport carry over into neutral particle spin-force optics, but with important differences. In general, the role of bending dipoles in charged particle optics is played by quadrupoles in neutral particle optics; the role of quadrupoles is played by sextupoles. The neutralparticle analog of charge-exchange injection into storage rings is the use of lasers to flip the state of particles from field-seeking to field-repelled. Preliminary tracking results for two neutral atom/molecule storage ring configurations are presented. It was found that orbit instabilities limit the confinment time in a racetrack-shaped ring with discrete magnetic elements with drift spaces between them; stable behavior was observed in a toroidal ring with a continuous sextupole field. An alternative concept using a linear sextupole or octupole channel with solenoids on the ends is presently being considered.

  16. Augmenting transport versus increasing cold storage to improve vaccine supply chains.

    PubMed

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4%) more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase), central (no change), and clinic (no change) levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity) yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling). In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary storage and can reduce stationary storage needs.

  17. Augmenting Transport versus Increasing Cold Storage to Improve Vaccine Supply Chains

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Leila A.; Connor, Diana L.; Wateska, Angela R.; Brown, Shawn T.; Mueller, Leslie E.; Norman, Bryan A.; Schmitz, Michelle M.; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S.; Leonard, Jim; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. Methods This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. Results Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4%) more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase), central (no change), and clinic (no change) levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity) yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling). In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. Conclusions When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary storage and can reduce

  18. Atypical iron storage in marine brown algae: a multidisciplinary study of iron transport and storage in Ectocarpus siliculosus

    PubMed Central

    Matzanke, Berthold F.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Carrano, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for all living organisms due to its ubiquitous role in redox and other enzymes, especially in the context of respiration and photosynthesis. The iron uptake and storage systems of terrestrial/higher plants are now reasonably well understood, with two basic strategies for iron uptake being distinguished: strategy I plants use a mechanism involving induction of Fe(III)-chelate reductase (ferrireductase) and Fe(II) transporter proteins, while strategy II plants utilize high-affinity, iron-specific, binding compounds called phytosiderophores. In contrast, little is known about the corresponding systems in marine, plant-like lineages, particularly those of multicellular algae (seaweeds). Herein the first study of the iron uptake and storage mechanisms in the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus is reported. Genomic data suggest that Ectocarpus may use a strategy I approach. Short-term radio-iron uptake studies verified that iron is taken up by Ectocarpus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner consistent with an active transport process. Upon long-term exposure to 57Fe, two metabolites have been identified using a combination of Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These include an iron–sulphur cluster accounting for ~26% of the total intracellular iron pool and a second component with spectra typical of a polymeric (Fe3+O6) system with parameters similar to the amorphous phosphorus-rich mineral core of bacterial and plant ferritins. This iron metabolite accounts for ~74% of the cellular iron pool and suggests that Ectocarpus contains a non-ferritin but mineral-based iron storage pool. PMID:22945940

  19. Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena, and Materials (CETM) for Innovative Energy Storage - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soloveichik, Grigorii

    2015-11-30

    EFRC vision. The direct use of organic hydrides in fuel cells as virtual hydrogen carriers that generate stable organic molecules, protons, and electrons upon electro-oxidation and can be electrochemically charged by re-hydrogenating the oxidized carrier was the major focus of the Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena and Materials for Innovative Energy Storage (EFRC-ETM). Compared to a hydrogen-on-demand design that includes thermal decomposition of organic hydrides in a catalytic reactor, the proposed approach is much simpler and does not require additional dehydrogenation catalysts or heat exchangers. Further, this approach utilizes the advantages of a flow battery (i.e., separation of power and energy, ease of transport and storage of liquid fuels) with fuels that have system energy densities similar to current hydrogen PEM fuel cells. EFRC challenges. Two major EFRC challenges were electrocatalysis and transport phenomena. The electrocatalysis challenge addresses fundamental processes which occur at a single molecular catalyst (microscopic level) and involve electron and proton transfer between the hydrogen rich and hydrogen depleted forms of organic liquid fuel and the catalyst. To form stable, non-radical dehydrogenation products from the organic liquid fuel, it is necessary to ensure fast transport of at least two electrons and two protons (per double bond formation). The same is true for the reverse hydrogenation reaction. The transport phenomena challenge addresses transport of electrons to/from the electrocatalyst and the current collector as well as protons across the polymer membrane. Additionally it addresses prevention of organic liquid fuel, water and oxygen transport through the PEM. In this challenge, the transport of protons or molecules involves multiple sites or a continuum (macroscopic level) and water serves as a proton conducting medium for the majority of known sulfonic acid based PEMs. Proton transfer in the presence of

  20. Integrated System for Retrieval, Transportation and Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in the US - 13312

    SciTech Connect

    Bracey, William; Bondre, Jayant; Shelton, Catherine; Edmonds, Robert

    2013-07-01

    The current inventory of used nuclear fuel assemblies (UNFAs) from commercial reactor operations in the United States totals approximately 65,000 metric tons or approximately 232,000 UNFAs primarily stored at the 104 operational reactors in the US and a small number of decommissioned reactors. This inventory is growing at a rate of roughly 2,000 to 2,400 metric tons each year, (Approx. 7,000 UNFAs) as a result of ongoing commercial reactor operations. Assuming an average of 10 metric tons per storage/transportation casks, this inventory of commercial UNFAs represents about 6,500 casks with an additional of about 220 casks every year. In January 2010, the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) [1] was directed to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new plan. The BRC issued their final recommendations in January 2012. One of the main recommendations is for the United States to proceed promptly to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSF) as part of an integrated, comprehensive plan for safely managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Based on its extensive experience in storage and transportation cask design, analysis, licensing, fabrication, and operations including transportation logistics, Transnuclear, Inc. (TN), an AREVA Subsidiary within the Logistics Business Unit, is engineering an integrated system that will address the complete process of commercial UNFA management. The system will deal with UNFAs in their current storage mode in various configurations, the preparation including handling and additional packaging where required and transportation of UNFAs to a CSF site, and subsequent storage, operation and maintenance at the CSF with eventual transportation to a future repository or recycling site. It is essential to proceed by steps to ensure that the system will be the most efficient and serve at best its purpose by defining: the problem to be resolved, the criteria to

  1. An Analysis of Book Storage and Transportation Requirements of the Five Associated University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinka, Tesfaye; Okutcu, Davut

    The major objectives of the study were to produce a storage/transportation model which minimized (1) the cost of storage space for book materials, and (2) cost of transportation for book materials. In minimizing these costs, they are considered in relation to the time required to provide service. The data used in the study include land and…

  2. 75 FR 63170 - Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, LLC; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Docket No. PR05-16-002] Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, LLC... Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, LLC filed pursuant to section 385.212 of the...

  3. 77 FR 36527 - Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 11, 2012, Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Transportation, L.L.C. filed to revise...

  4. Utilization of the organ care system as ex-vivo lung perfusion after cold storage transportation.

    PubMed

    Mohite, P N; Maunz, O; Popov, A-F; Zych, B; Patil, N P; Simon, A R

    2015-11-01

    The Organ Care System (OCS) allows perfusion and ventilation of the donor lungs under physiological conditions. Ongoing trials to compare preservation with OCS Lung with standard cold storage do not include donor lungs with suboptimal gas exchange and donor lungs treated with OCS following cold storage transportation. We present a case of a 48-yr-old man who received such lungs after cold storage transportation treated with ex-vivo lung perfusion utilizing OCS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation: Assessment of hydrogen storage technologies. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents a portion of the work performed Multi-fuel Reformers for Fuel Cells Used in Transportation. One objective for development is to develop advanced fuel processing systems to reform methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and other hydrocarbons into hydrogen for use in transportation fuel cell systems, while a second objective is to develop better systems for on-board hydrogen storage. This report examines techniques and technology available for storage of pure hydrogen on board a vehicle as pure hydrogen of hydrides. The report focuses separately on near- and far-term technologies, with particular emphasis on the former. Development of lighter, more compact near-term storage systems is recommended to enhance competitiveness and simplify fuel cell design. The far-term storage technologies require substantial applied research in order to become serious contenders.

  6. Advanced potato breeding clones: storage and processing evaluation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  7. Experimental insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport without floodplain storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheingross, J. S.; Hovius, N.; Sachse, D.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Turowski, J. M.; Hilton, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, rock, and biosphere is thought to be a major control on global climate. CO2 flux estimates from oxidation of rock-derived OC and sequestration of biospheric OC during fluvial transit from source to sink are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering. Despite field data showing loss of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport within the river, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated environment, or during longer periods when OC is temporarily stored in river floodplains which may be anoxic. This represents a major knowledge gap, as the unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to develop process-based models that can be employed to predict OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this gap, we investigated the potential for OC oxidation in laboratory experiments simulating fluvial transport without floodplain storage. Mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment were transported for distances of 2000 km in annular flumes while making time-series measurements of sediment TOC and water DOC concentrations. Initial results for transport of OC-rich soil show increasing DOC with transport distance to levels that represent a transfer of 2% of the total OC from the solid to the dissolved phase; however, we observed no detectable change in the solid-phase TOC. Similar results were obtained in a control experiment with identical sediment in still water. These preliminary results suggest minimal OC oxidation within our experiment, and, to the extent that such experiments represent natural transport through river systems, are consistent with the hypothesis that OC losses may occur primarily during floodplain storage rather than fluvial transport.

  8. One-Dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage (OTIS): A Solute Transport Model for Streams and Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    OTIS is a mathematical simulation model used to characterize the fate and transport of water-borne solutes in streams and rivers. The governing equation underlying the model is the advection-dispersion equation with additional terms to account for transient storage, lateral inflow, first-order decay, and sorption. This equation and the associated equations describing transient storage and sorption are solved using a Crank-Nicolson finite-difference solution. OTIS may be used in conjunction with data from field-scale tracer experiments to quantify the hydrologic parameters affecting solute transport. This application typically involves a trial-and-error approach wherein parameter estimates are adjusted to obtain an acceptable match between simulated and observed tracer concentrations. Additional applications include analyses of nonconservative solutes that are subject to sorption processes or first-order decay. OTIS-P, a modified version of OTIS, couples the solution of the governing equation with a nonlinear regression package. OTIS-P determines an optimal set of parameter estimates that minimize the squared differences between the simulated and observed concentrations, thereby automating the parameter estimation process. This report details the development and application of OTIS and OTIS-P. Sections of the report describe model theory, input/output specifications, sample applications, and installation instructions.

  9. Effects of storage and transport on the cultivability of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav; Sundaresan, T. K.; Langerová, M.

    1960-01-01

    In the course of WHO/UNICEF-assisted tuberculosis surveys carried out in a number of African territories, sputa were microscopically examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli. Since adequate facilities for performing cultures to confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections were not available in these territories, it was necessary to despatch sputum specimens to certain European laboratories for culturing and typing of mycobacteria. However, it was noticed that the number of positive cultures from such sputa was very low, being limited largely to specimens in which acid-fast bacilli were easily demonstrable by microscopy. Specimens containing scanty acid-fast bacilli, or microscopically negative specimens, usually failed to exhibit growth on culture, contrary to the usual observations made with European sputum specimens cultured in European laboratories. As the sputa were mostly taken from new cases with lung pathology, previous treatment could not have been responsible for these poor culture results, and it was thought that the conditions in which the specimens were transported, and possibly also the chemical composition of the containers in which they were stored, might be the cause. In an experiment carried out by the WHO Tuberculosis Research Office, in collaboration with a WHO field team in Africa and the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague, pure cultures of the H37 Rv strain and sputa were sent from Prague to East Africa and book in conditions simulating those in which specimens collected by African field teams are routinely sent to European laboratories. The results show that the cultivability of tubercle bacilli is adversely affected by storage and transport. PMID:20604080

  10. Acquisition, transport, and storage of iron by pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Howard, D H

    1999-07-01

    Iron is required by most living systems. A great variety of means of acquisition, avenues of uptake, and methods of storage are used by pathogenic fungi to ensure a supply of the essential metal. Solubilization of insoluble iron polymers is the first step in iron assimilation. The two methods most commonly used by microorganisms for solubilization of iron are reduction and chelation. Reduction of ferric iron to ferrous iron by enzymatic or nonenzymatic means is a common mechanism among pathogenic yeasts. Under conditions of iron starvation, many fungi synthesize iron chelators known as siderophores. Two classes of compounds that function in iron gathering are commonly observed: hydroxamates and polycarboxylates. Two major responses to iron stress in fungi are a high-affinity ferric iron reductase and siderophore synthesis. Regulation of these two mechanisms at the molecular level has received attention. Uptake of siderophores is a diverse process, which varies among the different classes of compounds. Since free iron is toxic, it must be stored for further metabolic use. Polyphosphates, ferritins, and siderophores themselves have been described as storage molecules. The iron-gathering mechanisms used by a pathogen in an infected host are largely unknown and can only be posited on the basis of in vitro studies at present.

  11. Physical Controls of Solute Transport and Storage in Indian Creek, an Urban Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, R. J.; Boufadel, M. C.

    2005-12-01

    Conservative solute tracer experiments are commonly used to estimate transient storage characteristics of relatively pristine streams. However, when combined with field-based data on stream morphology and sediment characteristics, one can reasonably determine not just the transport and storage characteristics, but also which processes control transport and storage in a given stream. This additional information is useful in urban streams undergoing relatively fast geomorphic and hydrologic changes. We conducted a conservative solute tracer experiment in Indian Creek, a small urban stream located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As part of the experiment, we first surveyed the stream topography at a 1m resolution. During the tracer experiment, in addition to monitoring the surface water, we sampled bankside wells and small diameter wells installed in the wetted channel and in a large gravel bar. Post-experiment, we measured in situ streambed hydraulic conductivity using a portable permeameter. From our results we were able to determine that the hyporheic zone extends vertically more than 7.5 cm below the streambed and laterally as much as 8 m from the wetted channel. In addition, we found that our data from the in-channel wells yielded a strong linear relationship between the surface-subsurface tracer flux (mgL-1min-1) and hydraulic conductivity (cms-1). Finally, the observed tracer concentration in the bankside wells appeared to be related to stream curvature with higher concentrations found along the outside and lower concentrations found along the inside of stream bends. Based on our data, we conclude that 1) hyporheic exchange was a significant component of solute transport and storage in the urbanized Indian Creek and 2) hyporheic exchange was controlled by a combination of hydraulic conductivity and stream morphology.

  12. Only adding stationary storage to vaccine supply chains may create and worsen transport bottlenecks.

    PubMed

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Claypool, Erin G; Weng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    Although vaccine supply chains in many countries require additional stationary storage and transport capacity to meet current and future needs, international donors tend to donate stationary storage devices far more often than transport equipment. To investigate the impact of only adding stationary storage equipment on the capacity requirements of transport devices and vehicles, we used HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains) to construct a discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain. We measured the transport capacity requirement for each mode of transport used in the Niger vaccine cold chain, both before and after adding cold rooms and refrigerators to relieve all stationary storage constraints in the system. With the addition of necessary stationary storage, the average transport capacity requirement increased from 88% to 144% for cold trucks, from 101% to 197% for pickup trucks, and from 366% to 420% for vaccine carriers. Therefore, adding stationary storage alone may worsen or create new transport bottlenecks as more vaccines flow through the system, preventing many vaccines from reaching their target populations. Dynamic modeling can reveal such relationships between stationary storage capacity and transport constraints.

  13. Solute transport and storage mechanisms in wetlands of the Everglades, south Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Saiers, James E.; Newlin, Jessica T.

    2005-05-01

    Solute transport and storage processes in wetlands play an important role in biogeochemical cycling and in wetland water quality functions. In the wetlands of the Everglades, there are few data or guidelines to characterize transport through the heterogeneous flow environment. Our goal was to conduct a tracer study to help quantify solute exchange between the relatively fast flowing water in the open part of the water column and much more slowly moving water in thick floating vegetation and in the pore water of the underlying peat. We performed a tracer experiment that consisted of a constant-rate injection of a sodium bromide (NaBr) solution for 22 hours into a 3 m wide, open-ended flume channel in Everglades National Park. Arrival of the bromide tracer was monitored at an array of surface water and subsurface samplers for 48 hours at a distance of 6.8 m downstream of the injection. A one-dimensional transport model was used in combination with an optimization code to identify the values of transport parameters that best explained the tracer observations. Parameters included dimensions and mass transfer coefficients describing exchange with both short (hours) and longer (tens of hours) storage zones as well as the average rates of advection and longitudinal dispersion in the open part of the water column (referred to as the ``main flow zone''). Comparison with a more detailed set of tracer measurements tested how well the model's storage zones approximated the average characteristics of tracer movement into and out of the layer of thick floating vegetation and the pore water in the underlying peat. The rate at which the relatively fast moving water in the open water column was exchanged with slowly moving water in the layer of floating vegetation and in sediment pore water amounted to 50 and 3% h-1, respectively. Storage processes decreased the depth-averaged velocity of surface water by 50% relative to the water velocity in the open part of the water column. As a

  14. Solute transport and storage mechanisms in wetlands of the Everglades, south Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Saiers, James E.; Newlin, Jessica T.

    2005-05-01

    Solute transport and storage processes in wetlands play an important role in biogeochemical cycling and in wetland water quality functions. In the wetlands of the Everglades, there are few data or guidelines to characterize transport through the heterogeneous flow environment. Our goal was to conduct a tracer study to help quantify solute exchange between the relatively fast flowing water in the open part of the water column and much more slowly moving water in thick floating vegetation and in the pore water of the underlying peat. We performed a tracer experiment that consisted of a constant-rate injection of a sodium bromide (NaBr) solution for 22 hours into a 3 m wide, open-ended flume channel in Everglades National Park. Arrival of the bromide tracer was monitored at an array of surface water and subsurface samplers for 48 hours at a distance of 6.8 m downstream of the injection. A one-dimensional transport model was used in combination with an optimization code to identify the values of transport parameters that best explained the tracer observations. Parameters included dimensions and mass transfer coefficients describing exchange with both short (hours) and longer (tens of hours) storage zones as well as the average rates of advection and longitudinal dispersion in the open part of the water column (referred to as the "main flow zone"). Comparison with a more detailed set of tracer measurements tested how well the model's storage zones approximated the average characteristics of tracer movement into and out of the layer of thick floating vegetation and the pore water in the underlying peat. The rate at which the relatively fast moving water in the open water column was exchanged with slowly moving water in the layer of floating vegetation and in sediment pore water amounted to 50 and 3% h-1, respectively. Storage processes decreased the depth-averaged velocity of surface water by 50% relative to the water velocity in the open part of the water column. As a

  15. Solute transport and storage mechanisms in wetlands of the Everglades, south Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; Saiers, J.E.; Newlin, J.T.

    2005-01-01

    Solute transport and storage processes in wetlands play an important role in biogeochemical cycling and in wetland water quality functions. In the wetlands of the Everglades, there are few data or guidelines to characterize transport through the heterogeneous flow environment. Our goal was to conduct a tracer study to help quantify solute exchange between the relatively fast flowing water in the open part of the water column and much more slowly moving water in thick floating vegetation and in the pore water of the underlying peat. We performed a tracer experiment that consisted of a constant-rate injection of a sodium bromide (NaBr) solution for 22 hours into a 3 m wide, open-ended flume channel in Everglades National Park. Arrival of the bromide tracer was monitored at an array of surface water and subsurface samplers for 48 hours at a distance of 6.8 m downstream of the injection. A one-dimensional transport model was used in combination with an optimization code to identify the values of transport parameters that best explained the tracer observations. Parameters included dimensions and mass transfer coefficients describing exchange with both short (hours) and longer (tens of hours) storage zones as well as the average rates of advection and longitudinal dispersion in the open part of the water column (referred to as the "main flow zone"). Comparison with a more detailed set of tracer measurements tested how well the model's storage zones approximated the average characteristics of tracer movement into and out of the layer of thick floating vegetation and the pore water in the underlying peat. The rate at which the relatively fast moving water in the open water column was exchanged with slowly moving water in the layer of floating vegetation and in sediment pore water amounted to 50 and 3% h-1, respectively. Storage processes decreased the depth-averaged velocity of surface water by 50% relative to the water velocity in the open part of the water column. As a

  16. Transport Processes in Dendritic Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Free dentritic growth refers to the unconstrained development of crystals within a supercooled melt, which is the classical dendrite problem. The development of theoretical understanding of dendritic growth and its experimental status is sketched showing that transport theory and interfacial thermodynamics (capillarity theory) are insufficient ingredients to develop a truly predictive model of dendrite formation. The convenient, but incorrect, notion of maximum velocity was used for many years to estimate the behavior of dendritic transformations until supplanted by modern dynamic stability theory. The proper combinations of transport theory and morphological stability seem to be able to predict the salient aspects of dendritic growth, especially in the neighborhood of the tip.

  17. 64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. SUBTASK 2.19 – OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF CO2 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Melanie; Schlasner, Steven; Sorensen, James; Hamling, John

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in large quantities during electricity generation and by industrial processes. These CO2 streams vary in terms of both composition and mass flow rate, sometimes substantially. The impact of a varying CO2 stream on pipeline and storage operation is not fully understood in terms of either operability or infrastructure robustness. This study was performed to summarize basic background from the literature on the topic of operational flexibility of CO2 transport and storage, but the primary focus was on compiling real-world lessons learned about flexible operation of CO2 pipelines and storage from both large-scale field demonstrations and commercial operating experience. Modeling and pilot-scale results of research in this area were included to illustrate some of the questions that exist relative to operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects with variable CO2 streams. It is hoped that this report’s real-world findings provide readers with useful information on the topic of transport and storage of variable CO2 streams. The real-world results were obtained from two sources. The first source consisted of five full-scale, commercial transport–storage projects: Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah, Weyburn, and Illinois Basin–Decatur. These scenarios were reviewed to determine the information that is available about CO2 stream variability/intermittency on these demonstration-scale projects. The five projects all experienced mass flow variability or an interruption in flow. In each case, pipeline and/or injection engineers were able to accommodate any issues that arose. Significant variability in composition has not been an issue at these five sites. The second source of real- world results was telephone interviews conducted with experts in CO2 pipeline transport, injection, and storage during which commercial anecdotal information was acquired to augment that found during the literature search of the five full-scale projects. The

  19. Recovery of Campylobacter from broiler feces during extended storage of transport cages.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Northcutt, J K; Cason, J A

    2004-07-01

    Feces deposited in transport cages by a Campylobacter-positive flock can cause the spread of Campylobacter to subsequent flocks placed in the same cages. This experiment was designed to determine the effect of extended cage storage on the viability of Campylobacter in feces deposited on the cage floor during commercial transport and holding. After 4 h of feed (but not water) withdrawal, Campylobacter-positive broilers were caught by commercial catching crews, placed into 3 new commercial cages and transported with the rest of the flock to the holding area at a commercial processing facility. Broilers were allowed to remain in the cages for 8 h before being unloaded by facility personnel. After removal of the broilers, empty cages were held under a shed and sampled at 7 intervals for the presence of viable Campylobacter. Cages were sampled by removing all the feces out of a different randomly assigned compartment in each cage at 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 h after unloading. No decrease in Campylobacter numbers was noted through 8 h of storage. After 24 h in both replications, Campylobacter was detected in 2 of 3 compartments by direct plating and detected in the third by enrichment only. After 48 h, Campylobacter was detected in one replication by enrichment only, and was not detected in the second replication at all. Storing soiled transport cages for 48 h between uses results in lower numbers of Campylobacter in feces, but may not eliminate Campylobacter entirely. Due to cage cost and space requirements, routine cage storage between uses would not be practical.

  20. Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, William G (Inventor); Owen, James W. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention is directed to the long term storage of frozen and refrigerated food and biological samples by the space shuttle to the space station. A storage container is utilized which has a passive system so that fluid/thermal and electrical interfaces with the logistics module is not required. The container for storage comprises two units, each having an inner storage shell and an outer shell receiving the inner shell and spaced about it. The novelty appears to lie in the integration of thermally efficient cryogenic storage techniques with phase change materials, including the multilayer metalized surface thin plastic film insulation and the vacuum between the shells. Additionally the fiberglass constructed shells having fiberglass honeycomb portions, and the lining of the space between the shells with foil combine to form a storage container which may keep food and biological samples at very low temperatures for very long periods of time utilizing a passive system.

  1. 75 FR 43906 - Hazardous Materials: Requirements for the Storage of Explosives During Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Materials: Requirements for the Storage of Explosives During Transportation AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous... Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE... Explosives Stored During Transportation A. Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR), 49 CFR Parts 171-180...

  2. 41 CFR 302-7.100 - How are the charges of transporting HHG, and temporary storage calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transporting HHG, and temporary storage calculated? 302-7.100 Section 302-7.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT...

  3. 41 CFR 302-7.100 - How are the charges of transporting HHG, and temporary storage calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transporting HHG, and temporary storage calculated? 302-7.100 Section 302-7.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS, PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT, (PBP&E)...

  4. 41 CFR 302-7.100 - How are the charges of transporting HHG, and temporary storage calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transporting HHG, and temporary storage calculated? 302-7.100 Section 302-7.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT...

  5. 41 CFR 302-7.105 - May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage? 302-7.105 Section 302-7.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS, PROFESSIONAL BOOKS,...

  6. 41 CFR 302-7.100 - How are the charges of transporting HHG, and temporary storage calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transporting HHG, and temporary storage calculated? 302-7.100 Section 302-7.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT...

  7. Surface transport processes in charged porous media

    DOE PAGES

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-03-03

    Surface transport processes are important in chemistry, colloidal sciences, engineering, biology, and geophysics. Natural or externally produced charges on surfaces create electrical double layers (EDLs) at the solid-liquid interface. The existence of the EDLs produces several complex processes including bulk and surface transport of ions. In this work, a model is presented to simulate bulk and transport processes in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations inmore » the limit of thin electrical double layers. Description of the EDL between the electrolyte solution and the charged wall is accomplished using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model. The surface transport terms enter into the average equations due to the use of boundary conditions for diffuse interfaces. Two extra surface transports terms appear in the closed average equations. One is a surface diffusion term equivalent to the transport process in non-charged porous media. The second surface transport term is a migration term unique to charged porous media. The effective bulk and transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems.« less

  8. Energetics of active transport processes.

    PubMed

    Essig, A; Caplan, S R

    1968-12-01

    Discussions of active transport usually assume stoichiometry between the rate of transport J(+) and the metabolic rate J(r). However, the observation of a linear relationship between J(+) and J(r) does not imply a stoichiometric relationship, i.e., complete coupling. Since coupling may possibly be incomplete, we examine systems of an arbitrary degree of coupling q, regarding stoichiometry as a limiting case. We consider a sodium pump, with J(+) and J(r) linear functions of the electrochemical potential difference, -X(+), and the chemical affinity of the metabolic driving reaction, A. The affinity is well defined even for various complex reaction pathways. Incorporation of a series barrier and a parallel leak does not affect the linearity of the composite observable system. The affinity of some region of the metabolic chain may be maintained constant, either by large pools of reactants or by regulation. If so, this affinity can be evaluated by two independent methods. Sodium transport is conveniently characterized by the open-circuit potential (Deltapsi)(I=0) and the natural limits, level flow (J(+))(X+=0), and static head X(0) (+) = (X(+))(J+=0). With high degrees of coupling -X(0) (+)/F approaches the electromotive force E(Na) (Ussing); -X(0) (+)/F cannot be identified with ((RT/F) ln f)(X+=0), where f is the flux ratio. The efficiency eta = -J(+)X(+)/J(r)A is of significance only when appreciable energy is being converted from one form to another. When either J(+) or -X(+) is small eta is low; the significant parameters are then the efficacies epsilon(J+) = J(+)/J(r)A and epsilon(X+) = -X(+)/J(r)A, respectively maximal at level flow and static head. Leak increases both J(+) and epsilon(J+) for isotonic saline reabsorption, but diminishes -X(0) (+) and epsilon(Xfemale symbol). Electrical resistance reflects both passive parameters and metabolism. Various fundamental relations are preserved despite coupling of passive ion and water flows.

  9. Reserpine-induced reduction in norepinephrine transporter function requires catecholamine storage vesicles.

    PubMed

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5min decreased [(3)H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the V(max) of the transport of [(3)H]NE. As expected, reserpine did not displace the binding of [(3)H]nisoxetine from the NET in membrane homogenates. The potency of reserpine for reducing [(3)H]NE uptake was dramatically lower in SK-N-SH cells that have reduced storage capacity for catecholamines. Reserpine had no effect on [(3)H]NE uptake in HEK-293 cells transfected with the rat NET (293-hNET), cells that lack catecholamine storage vesicles. NET regulation by reserpine was independent of trafficking of the NET from the cell surface. Pre-exposure of cells to inhibitors of several intracellular signaling cascades known to regulate the NET, including Ca(2+)/Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent kinase and protein kinases A, C and G, did not affect the ability of reserpine to reduce [(3)H]NE uptake. Treatment of PC12 cells with the catecholamine depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, increased [(3)H]NE uptake and eliminated the inhibitory effects of reserpine on [(3)H]NE uptake. Reserpine non-competitively inhibits NET activity through a Ca(2+)-independent process that requires catecholamine storage vesicles, revealing a novel pharmacological method to modify NET function. Further characterization of the molecular nature of reserpine's action could lead to the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for treating disorders known to be benefitted by treatment with traditional competitive NET inhibitors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reserpine-induced Reduction in Norepinephrine Transporter Function Requires Catecholamine Storage Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5 min decreased [3H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the Vmax of the transport of [3H]NE. As expected, reserpine did not displace the binding of [3H]nisoxetine from the NET in membrane homogenates. The potency of reserpine for reducing [3H]NE uptake was dramatically lower in SK-N-SH cells that have reduced storage capacity for catecholamines. Reserpine had no effect on [3H]NE uptake in HEK-293 cells transfected with the rat NET (293-hNET), cells that lack catecholamine storage vesicles. NET regulation by reserpine was independent of trafficking of the NET from the cell surface. Pre-exposure of cells to inhibitors of several intracellular signaling cascades known to regulate the NET, including Ca2+/Ca2+-calmodulin dependent kinase and protein kinases A, C and G, did not affect the ability of reserpine to reduce [3H]NE uptake. Treatment of PC12 cells with the catecholamine depleting agent, α-methyl-p-tyrosine, increased [3H]NE uptake and eliminated the inhibitory effects of reserpine on [3H]NE uptake. Reserpine non-competitively inhibits NET activity through a Ca2+-independent process that requires catecholamine storage vesicles, revealing a novel pharmacological method to modify NET function. Further characterization of the molecular nature of reserpine's action could lead to the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for treating disorders known to be benefitted by treatment with traditional competitive NET inhibitors. PMID:20176067

  11. Transport processes in the thermosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. S.

    1972-01-01

    Description of two different approaches which have been undertaken to consider horizontal transport in the upper atmosphere by large-scale circulation. First and most direct, the horizontal wind field in the middle and upper thermosphere was calculated based on the pressure distributions derived from satellite orbital decay observations. The continuity conditions were used to calculate the vertical motions. The second approach was to evaluate the energy deficits or surpluses as a function of altitude and latitude and to assume the presence of vertical motions sufficient to balance these deficits or surpluses by compressional heating or cooling. Then continuity conditions were used to derive horizontal winds. The results of the two approaches are compatible, and are largely complementary. Downward velocities are near 1 m/sec at 300 km over the diurnal minimum and the winter polar region, and 1 cm/sec at 100 km over the winter polar region.

  12. Numerical modeling of coupled thermal chemical reactive transport: simulation of a heat storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Watanabe, N.; Singh, A. K.; Nagel, T.; Linder, M.; Woerner, A.; Kolditz, O.

    2012-12-01

    As a carbon-free energy supply technology, the operation time and final energy output of thermal solar power plants can be greatly extended if efficient thermal storage systems are applied. One of the proposed design of such system is to utilize reversible thermochemical reactions and its embedded reaction enthalpy, e.g. the Ca(OH)2/CaO hydration circle, in a fixed-bed gas-solid reactor (Schaube et al. 2011) The modeling of such a storage system involves multiple strongly-coupled physical and chemical processes. Seepage velocity is calculated by the nonlinear Forchheimer law. Gas phase density and viscosity are temperature, pressure and composition dependent. Also, heat transfer between gas and solid phases is largely influenced by the exothermal heat produced by the hydration of calcium oxide. Numerical solution of four governing PDEs include the mass balance, reactive transport, heat balance equations for gas and solid phases, which are implemented into the open source scientific software OpenGeoSys in a monolithic way. Based on it, a 2D numerical model, considering the boundary heat loss of the system, was set up to simulate the energy-storage and release circle. The high performance computing techniques were employed in two stages. First, the dynamic behavior of the heat storage system is simulated on a parallel platform. Second, a large number of processors are employed to perform sensitivity analysis, whereas the reaction rates and efficiency factor of heat transfer are parameterized so that the measured and simulated temperature profile fit with each other. The model showed that heat transfer coefficient between solid and gas phase, grain size of the filling material will influence the final performance greatly. By varying these factors, the calibrated model will be further applied to optimize the design of such energy storage system.

  13. The Effect of Porous Medium Storage on Unstable Density-Driven Solute Transport.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yueqing; Graf, Thomas; Simmons, Craig T; Diersch, Hans-Jörg G

    2015-01-01

    Unstable density-driven groundwater flow and solute transport (i.e., free convection) leads to spatiotemporal variations in pressure. Specific storage (So ) indicates the capability of a confined aquifer to release or store groundwater associated with a pressure change. Although So is known to dampen pressure propagation, So has been implicitly assumed to have a negligible impact on the unstable free convective process in prior studies. This work explores the effect of So on both the classic onset criterion and the fingering process using numerical models. Results show that the classic onset criterion is applicable when So is smaller than 10(-1) m(-1) . Results also demonstrate that So does not play a significant role in the free convective fingering process unless it is greater than 10(-3) m(-1) . For most practical purposes in hydrogeology (large Rayleigh number and small So ), the implicit assumption of small or zero So is appropriate.

  14. On the Long-Term Average Cost of CO2 Transport and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2008-03-03

    Paper describes general trends in the cost of CO2 transport and storage (including measurement, monitoring, and verification) and how these can be used to justify a proxy cost to cover a large number of potential CCS commercial deployment scenarios.

  15. 2. Missile transfer building, interior, transporter/erector on left, storage and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Missile transfer building, interior, transporter/erector on left, storage and shipping container, ballistic missile (SSCBM) containing minuteman II missile on right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Missile Roll Transfer Building, 920 Kennedy Road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. Moisture storage and transport properties of preservative treated and untreated southern pine wood

    Treesearch

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Samuel V. Glass; Charles R. Boardman; Dominique. Derome

    2016-01-01

    Moisture storage and transport properties of southern pine (Pinus spp.) wood were measured for implementation into hygrothermal models. Specimens were untreated or pressure-treated with alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) preservative. Moisture storage was characterized with sorption isotherms in the hygroscopic region (high capillary pressures) and...

  17. Transport processes in magnetically confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-12-01

    Intensified studies of plasma transport in toroidal plasmas over the past three to five years have progressed through increased understanding in some areas and changed perceptions about the most important issues in other areas. Recent developments are reviewed for six selected topics: edge fluctuations and transport; L-H mode transition; core fluctuations; modern plasma turbulence theory; transient transport; and global scaling. Some of the developments that are highlighted include: the role of a strongly sheared poloidal flow in edge plasma turbulence, transport and the L-H transition; change of focus from {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}s {approximately} 1 to {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}s {much lt} 1 fluctuations in tokamak plasmas; modern Direct-Interaction-Approximation plasma turbulence and hybrid fluid/kinetic theoretical models; and transient transport experiments that are raising fundamental questions about our conceptions of local transport processes in tokamaks. 104 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Transport processes in magnetically confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-12-01

    Intensified studies of plasma transport in toroidal plasmas over the past three to five years have progressed through increased understanding in some areas and changed perceptions about the most important issues in other areas. Recent developments are reviewed for six selected topics: edge fluctuations and transport; L-H mode transition; core fluctuations; modern plasma turbulence theory; transient transport; and global scaling. Some of the developments that are highlighted include: the role of a strongly sheared poloidal flow in edge plasma turbulence, transport and the L-H transition; change of focus from {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}s {approximately} 1 to {kappa}{perpendicular}{rho}s {much_lt} 1 fluctuations in tokamak plasmas; modern Direct-Interaction-Approximation plasma turbulence and hybrid fluid/kinetic theoretical models; and transient transport experiments that are raising fundamental questions about our conceptions of local transport processes in tokamaks. 104 refs., 6 figs.

  19. On the Law Relating Processing to Storage in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Portrat, Sophie; Camos, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    "Working memory" is usually defined in cognitive psychology as a system devoted to the simultaneous processing and maintenance of information. However, although many models of working memory have been put forward during the last decades, they often leave underspecified the dynamic interplay between processing and storage. Moreover, the account of…

  20. Classification of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage system components according to importance to safety

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W., Jr; Ayers, A.L. Jr; Tyacke, M.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides a graded approach for classification of components used in transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage systems. This approach provides a method for identifying, the classification of components according to importance to safety within transportation packagings and dry spent fuel storage systems. Record retention requirements are discussed to identify the documentation necessary to validate that the individual components were fabricated in accordance with their assigned classification. A review of the existing regulations pertaining to transportation packagings and dry storage systems was performed to identify current requirements The general types of transportation packagings and dry storage systems were identified. Discussions were held with suppliers and fabricators of packagings and storage systems to determine current practices. The methodology used in this report is based on Regulatory Guide 7.10, Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in the Transport of Radioactive Material. This report also includes a list of generic components for each of the general types of transportation packagings and spent fuel storage systems. The safety importance of each component is discussed, and a classification category is assigned.

  1. Performance and cost of energy transport and storage systems for dish applications using reversible chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schredder, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1984-10-01

    The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.

  2. Performance and cost of energy transport and storage systems for dish applications using reversible chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schredder, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.

  3. Methane emissions from sugarcane vinasse storage and transportation systems: Comparison between open channels and tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Bruna Gonçalves; Carvalho, João Luís Nunes; Chagas, Mateus Ferreira; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine

    2017-06-01

    Over the last few years the brazilian sugarcane sector has produced an average of 23.5 million liters of ethanol annually. This scale of production generates large amounts of vinasse, which depending on the manner that is disposed, can result significant greenhouse gas emissions. This study aimed to quantify the methane (CH4) emissions associated with the two most widespread systems of vinasse storage and transportation used in Brazil; open channel and those comprising of tanks and pipes. Additionally, a laboratory incubation study was performed with the aim of isolating the effects of vinasse, sediment and the interaction between these factors on CH4 emissions. We observed significant differences in CH4 emissions between the sampling points along the channels during both years of evaluation (2012-2013). In the channel system, around 80% of CH4 emissions were recorded from uncoated sections. Overall, the average CH4 emission intensity was 1.36 kg CO2eq m-3 of vinasse transported in open channels, which was 620 times higher than vinasse transported through a system of tanks and closed pipes. The laboratory incubation corroborated field results, suggesting that vinasse alone does not contribute significant emissions of CH4. Higher CH4 emissions were observed when vinasse and sediment were incubated together. In summary, our findings demonstrate that CH4 emissions originate through the anaerobic decomposition of organic material deposited on the bottom of channels and tanks. The adoption of coated channels as a substitute to uncoated channels offers the potential for an effective and affordable means of reducing CH4 emissions. Ultimately, the modernization of vinasse storage and transportation systems through the adoption of tank and closed pipe systems will provide an effective strategy for mitigating CH4 emissions generated during the disposal phase of the sugarcane ethanol production process.

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OF NEXT-GENERATION SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CASKS

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W.; Matveev, V.Z.; Shapovalov, V.I.

    2004-10-03

    The design of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks used in the present SNF disposition systems has evolved from early concepts about the nuclear fuel cycle. The reality today is much different from that envisioned by early nuclear scientists. Most SNF is placed in pool storage, awaiting reprocessing (as in Russia) or disposal at a geologic SNF repository (as in the United States). Very little transport of SNF occurs. This paper examines the requirements for SNF casks from today's perspective and attempts to answer this question: What type of SNF cask would be produced if we were to start over and design SNF casks based on today's requirements? The characteristics for a next-generation SNF cask system are examined and are found to be essentially the same in Russia and the United States. It appears that the new depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet material will enable these requirements to be met. Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium in which a portion of the 235U isotope has been removed during a uranium enrichment process. The DUO2-steel cermet material is described. The United States and Russia are cooperating toward the development of a next-generation, dual-purpose, storage and transport SNF system.

  5. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, Michel Y.; Streicher, Wolfgang; Bales, Chris

    2010-06-15

    A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification efficiency is calculated based on entropy balances or based on exergy balances. In practice, however, exergy balances are less affected by measurement uncertainties, whereas entropy balances can not be recommended if measurement uncertainties are not corrected in a way that the energy balance of the storage process is in agreement with the first law of thermodynamics. A comparison of the stratification efficiencies obtained from experimental results of charging, standby, and discharging processes gives meaningful insights into the different mixing behaviors of a storage tank that is charged and discharged directly, and a tank-in-tank system whose outer tank is charged and the inner tank is discharged thereafter. The new method has a great potential for the comparison of the stratification efficiencies of thermal energy storages and storage components such as stratifying devices. (author)

  6. Soil processes and chemical transport

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, P.M.; Dudas, M.J.; Arocena, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is an acidic by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, and is produced in large quantities by the wet phosphoric acid process. Most PG is sluiced out to repositories, forming large stockpiles. Phosphogypsum is composed mainly of gypsum (Ca-SO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O), but contains impurities of environmental concern such as F{sup -}, acids, trace elements, and naturally occurring radionuclides, which originate from the phosphate rock used in processing. Possible movement of these impurities into groundwater is an issue. {sup 226}Radium is the major source of radioactivity in PG produced from sedimentary phosphate rock. Few studies have addressed the leachability of {sup 226}Ra because solid solutions of Ra, Ba, and Sr are very insoluble. The objective of this study was to investigate the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, Ba and Sr in leachate generated from PG produced from Togo phosphate rock. Phosphogypsum was extracted 30 times with deionized distilled (d.d.) H{sub 2}O over 30 d. Extractable {sup 226}Ra was maximal (0.55 Bq L{sup -1}) and Day 30 Minimum extractable {sup 226}RA (0.23 Bq L{sup -1}) occurred on the Day 30 extraction but still exceeded the current U.S. drinking water standard. Solid phase {sup 226}Ra increased between Day 0 (850 Bq kg{sup -1}) and DAy 30 (1120 Bq kg{sup -1}). The {sup 226}Ra/Ba ratios in the solid phase and in the extractable liquid phase very nearly equal over the last half of the extraction period. If this relationship holds for other PGs, then solution {sup 226}Ra activities can be estimated if solid-phase {sup 226}Ra/Ba ratios are known and Ba solution concentrations are known or estimated. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Storage, transportation, and atomization of CWF for residential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.; Sayre, A.

    1990-07-01

    The proposed test program will examine the stability and rheology of the coal water fuels (CWFs) prepared from various beneficiated coal products made from the following coals: Illinois No. 6, Wyodak, and Upper Elkhorn No. 3. Fuel characterization will include: particle size distribution, ultimate and proximate analyses of coal, ash composition, ash fusion temperature, and solids concentration. For rheological characteristics, data will be obtained at varying shear rates, temperature, and agitation or recirculation in the bulk storage tanks. The effect of freeze-thaw on the stability and rheology of the CWF will be evaluated. Control of the environmental conditions will be examined by means of formulation additives, including the addition of freezing point depressants and biocides. Bulk storage studies will involve testing CWF stability characteristics with and without agitation and recirculation. The design of the storage tank will be reviewed, and the effectiveness of cone bottom and dish bottom tanks will be tested. The CWF storage and handling tests will be carried out at Tecogen's CWF-fired advanced combustor facility. This quarter, under Task 2, two coal water slurry fuels were produced from the baseline coal. Chemical stability tests and mechanical resuspension tests were begun under the Task 3 effort. Residential storage work was also initiated and a bladder tank developed. Residential handling tests were initiated under the Task 5 effort to develop pressure drop characteristics for the slurries at residential flows in residential type components. 5 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Phenolic content of strawberry spreads during processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Kadivec, Mirta; Bornšek, Špela Može; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2013-09-25

    This study provides a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of phenolics in strawberry spreads processed according to different industrial procedures and stored under several storage conditions for up to 19 weeks. Total phenolics were determined spectrophotometrically, and individual phenolics were determined by combined liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry: six anthocyanins, four phenolic acids, two flavonols, one flavanol, and one flavone. During storage, the phenolics were modified. The total anthocyanins, vanillic acid, kaempferol, and luteolin decreased, while salicylic and gallic acids increased. Total phenolics, cyanidin 3-(6″-succinyl-glucoside) (here observed for the first time), protocatechuic acid, quercetin, and catechin remained stable. The best phenolic retention was observed in spreads stored at 4 °C. Therefore, the proposed storage process (use of a cold chain) indicates good retention of phenolics in strawberry spreads, which maintain high nutritional and sensorial quality.

  9. Transportation impacts on the Tennessee highway system proposed monitored retrievable storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cobble, C.

    1985-12-12

    The issue of the transport of spent fuels to the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility in Tennessee is discussed. Relevant issues include the ability of the roads and bridges on the transport routes to handle the weight of the trucks. (CBS)

  10. Transportation impacts on the Tennessee highway system proposed monitored retrievable storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cobble, C.

    1985-12-12

    The issue of the transport of spent fuels to the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility in Tennessee is discussed. Relevant issues include the ability of the roads and bridges on the transport routes to handle the weight of the trucks. (CBS)

  11. DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

  12. DYNAMICS OF WATER TRANSPORT AND STORAGE IN CONIFERS STUDIED WITH DEUTERIUM AND HEAT TRACING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D2O) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the co...

  13. 49 CFR 173.447 - Storage incident to transportation-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS... storage during the course of transportation but not to Nuclear Regulatory Commission or Agreement State..., storeroom, waterfront pier, or assembly yard, must be limited so that the total sum of the...

  14. 49 CFR 173.447 - Storage incident to transportation-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS... storage during the course of transportation but not to Nuclear Regulatory Commission or Agreement State..., storeroom, waterfront pier, or assembly yard, must be limited so that the total sum of the...

  15. 49 CFR 173.447 - Storage incident to transportation-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS... storage during the course of transportation but not to Nuclear Regulatory Commission or Agreement State..., storeroom, waterfront pier, or assembly yard, must be limited so that the total sum of the...

  16. 49 CFR 173.447 - Storage incident to transportation-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS... storage during the course of transportation but not to Nuclear Regulatory Commission or Agreement State..., storeroom, waterfront pier, or assembly yard, must be limited so that the total sum of the...

  17. 49 CFR 173.447 - Storage incident to transportation-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS... storage during the course of transportation but not to Nuclear Regulatory Commission or Agreement State..., storeroom, waterfront pier, or assembly yard, must be limited so that the total sum of the...

  18. Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques.

    Treesearch

    F.C. Meinzer; J.R. Brooks; J.-C. Domec; B.L. Gartner; J.M. Warren; D.R. Woodruff; K. Bible; D.C. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of tong-distance water transport in large trees difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D20) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the coniferous species Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  19. Storage, transportation, and atomization of CWF for residential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grimanis, M.P.; Breault, R.W. ); Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C. )

    1991-11-01

    This project investigated the properties and behavior with regard to handling, storage, and atomization in small-scale applications of different CWFs (coal water fuels) prepared from different parent coals and various beneficiation techniques as well as consideration for bulk storage and distribution. The CWFs that were prepared included Upper Elkhorn No. 3, Illinois No. 6, and Upper Wyodak coal cleaned by heavy media separation. Also, several CWFs were prepared with Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal cleaned by heavy media separation with filtration, chemical cleaning, oil agglomeration, and froth flotation.

  20. Coupled transport processes in semipermeable media

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Carnahan, C.L.

    1990-03-01

    The thermodynamics of irreversible processes leads to nonlinear governing equations for direct and coupled mass transport processes. Analytical solutions of linearized versions of these equations can be used to verify numerical solutions of the nonlinear equations under conditions such that nonlinear terms are relatively small. This report presents derivations of the analytical solutions for one-dimensional and axisymmetric geometries. 7 refs.

  1. Survival of salmonella in processed chicken products during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Silvia A; Schaffner, Donald W

    2009-10-01

    Frozen chicken products have been identified recently as a cause of salmonellosis. At least eight salmonellosis outbreaks from 1998 to 2008 have implicated undercooked frozen chicken nuggets, strips, and entrees as infection vehicles. Thus, the presence of Salmonella in frozen products may pose an infection risk if the product is improperly cooked. The objective of this study was to assess the survivability of Salmonella during frozen storage (-20 degrees ) when inoculated in processed chicken products. Four Salmonella strains originally isolated from poultry were inoculated into frozen chicken nuggets (fully cooked) and frozen chicken strips (containing raw poultry) at initial populations of 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/g. Survival was assessed during storage at -20 degrees for 16 weeks by measuring bacterial growth on minimal, selective, and nonselective agars. Results indicate that cell populations measured in nonselective agars (plate count agar and plate count agar supplemented with tetracycline) and minimal (M9) agar remained relatively constant during the entire -20 degrees storage period studied (16 weeks) for both chicken nuggets and strips. However, cell populations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower when measured in selective agar (XLT4) during the 16 weeks of frozen storage for both chicken nuggets and strips, suggesting that these cells were structurally injured. The data presented in this study indicate that Salmonella can survive frozen storage when inoculated in frozen, processed chicken products and confirm that microbial counts on selective agar are not representative of the total population of samples subject to freezing.

  2. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 2. Treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation technologies and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Dole, L.R.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.; Oyen, L.C.; Robinson, S.M.; Rodgers, B.R.; Tucker, R.F. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 2 discusses the definition, forms, and sources of LLRW; regulatory constraints affecting treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal; current technologies used for treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal; and the development of a matrix relating treatment technology to the LLRW stream as an aid for choosing methods for treating the waste. Detailed discussions are presented for most LLRW treatment methods, such as aqueous processes (e.g., filtration, ion exchange); dewatering (e.g., evaporation, centrifugation); sorting/segregation; mechanical treatment (e.g., shredding, baling, compaction); thermal processes (e.g., incineration, vitrification); solidification (e.g., cement, asphalt); and biological treatment.

  3. Essential role of vesicular nucleotide transporter in vesicular storage and release of nucleotides in platelets

    PubMed Central

    Hiasa, Miki; Togawa, Natsuko; Miyaji, Takaaki; Omote, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nucleotides are stored in the dense granules of platelets. The release of nucleotides triggers one of the first steps in a series of cascades responsible for blood coagulation. However, the mechanism of how the nucleotides are accumulated in the granules is still far less understood. The transporter protein responsible for storage of nucleotides in the neuroendocrine cells has been identified and characterized. We hypothesized that the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is also involved in the vesicular storage of nucleotides in platelets. In this article, we present three lines of evidence that VNUT is responsible for the vesicular storage of nucleotides in platelets and that vesicular ATP transport is crucial for platelet function, detection and characterization of VNUT activity in platelets isolated from healthy humans and MEG‐01 cells, RNA interference experiments on MEG‐01 cells, and studies on nucleotide transport and release with a selective inhibitor. PMID:24907298

  4. 26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT NORTH EDGE FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. Tech Transfer Webinar: Amoeba Cysts as Natural Containers for the Transport and Storage of Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    El-Etr, Sahar

    2014-10-08

    Sahar El-Etr, Biomedical Scientist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, shares a unique method for transporting clinical samples from the field to a laboratory. The use of amoeba as “natural” containers for pathogens was utilized to develop the first living system for the transport and storage of pathogens. The amoeba system works at ambient temperature for extended periods of time—capabilities currently not available for biological sample transport.

  6. Tech Transfer Webinar: Amoeba Cysts as Natural Containers for the Transport and Storage of Pathogens

    ScienceCinema

    El-Etr, Sahar

    2016-07-12

    Sahar El-Etr, Biomedical Scientist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, shares a unique method for transporting clinical samples from the field to a laboratory. The use of amoeba as “natural” containers for pathogens was utilized to develop the first living system for the transport and storage of pathogens. The amoeba system works at ambient temperature for extended periods of time—capabilities currently not available for biological sample transport.

  7. Survival of Microencapsulated Probiotic Bacteria after Processing and during Storage: A Review.

    PubMed

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-07-26

    The use of live probiotic bacteria as food supplement has become popular. Capability of probiotic bacteria to be kept at room temperature becomes necessary for customer's convenience and manufacturer's cost reduction. Hence, production of dried form of probiotic bacteria is important. Two common drying methods commonly used for microencapsulation are freeze drying and spray drying. In spite of their benefits, both methods have adverse effects on cell membrane integrity and protein structures resulting in decrease in bacterial viability. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria has been a promising technology to ensure bacterial stability during the drying process and to preserve their viability during storage without significantly losing their functional properties such acid tolerance, bile tolerance, surface hydrophobicity, and enzyme activities. Storage at room temperatures instead of freezing or low temperature storage is preferable for minimizing costs of handling, transportation, and storage. Concepts of water activity and glass transition become important in terms of determination of bacterial survival during the storage. The effectiveness of microencapsulation is also affected by microcapsule materials. Carbohydrate- and protein-based microencapsulants and their combination are discussed in terms of their protecting effect on probiotic bacteria during dehydration, during exposure to harsh gastrointestinal transit and small intestine transit and during storage.

  8. Simulation of Mechanical Processes in Gas Storage Caverns for Short-Term Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Nagel, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, Germany's energy management has started to be transferred from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power are subjected by fluctuations, thus the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. This work is a part of the ANGUS+ Project, funded by the federal ministry of education and research, which investigates the influence of subsurface energy storage on the underground. The utilization of subsurface salt caverns as a long-term storage reservoir for fossil fuels is a common method, since the construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to solution mining. Another advantage of evaporate as host material is the self-healing behaviour of salt rock, thus the cavity can be assumed to be impermeable. In the framework of short-term energy storage (hours to days), caverns can be used as gas storage reservoirs for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or compressed air, where the operation pressures inside the caverns will fluctuate more frequently. This work investigates the influence of changing operation pressures at high frequencies on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. The salt behaviour is described by well-known constitutive material models which are capable of predicting creep, self-healing, and dilatancy processes. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of gas storage process, temperature development and distribution on the cavern boundary, the deformation of the cavern geometry, and the prediction of the dilatancy zone. Based on the numerical results, optimal operation modes can be found for individual caverns, so the risk of host rock damage

  9. Stability of lycopene during food processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Xianquan, S; Shi, J; Kakuda, Y; Yueming, J

    2005-01-01

    With an increasing understanding of the health benefit of lycopene, how to preserve lycopene during food processing and storage has caused much attention. Lycopene belongs to the carotenoid family and mostly exists in nature as the all-trans form. Heat, light, oxygen, and different food matrices are factors that have an effect on lycopene isomerization and autooxidation. Lycopene may isomerize to mono- or poly-cis forms with the presence of heat or oil or during dehydration. Reisomerization takes place during storage. After oxidation, the lycopene molecule split, which causes loss of color and off-flavor. The effects of heat, oxygen, light, and the presence of oil on the stability of lycopene are uniform in much of the literature; however, controversy still exists on some details, such as the conditions causing the occurrence of isomerization, the optimal moisture, and temperature for storage.

  10. Effect of Processing and Subsequent Storage on Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Lai, Oiki Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the effects of thermal processing, freeze drying, irradiation, and storage time on the nutritional content of food, to evaluate the nutritional content of the food items currently used on the International Space Station and Shuttle, and to establish the need to institute countermeasures. (This study does not seek to address the effect of processing on nutrients in detail, but rather aims to place in context the overall nutritional status at the time of consumption).

  11. Sediment transport-storage functions for alluvial reservoirs

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle; Michael Church

    2000-01-01

    In a drainage network, sediment is routed through a linked series of channel/valley segments (alluvial reservoirs) that are distinguished from their neighbors by their capacity to store and transport sediment.

  12. 41 CFR 302-7.105 - May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage? 302-7.105 Section 302-7.105 Public... transporting HHG and temporary storage? An advance of funds may be authorized when the transportation of...

  13. X-ray computed tomography studies of gas storage and transport in Devonian shales

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.; Miao, P.; Watson, A.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Pepin, G.P.; Moss, R.M. ); Semmelbeck, M. )

    1994-07-01

    Devonian shales and other unconventional resources can be highly fractured and may have significant amounts of gas stored by adsorption. Conventional experiments are not well suited for characterizing the properties important for describing gas storage and transport in these media. Here, X-ray computed tomography scanning is used to determine gas storage in dynamic gas flow experiments on Devonian shale samples. Several important properties are obtained from these experiments, including fracture widths, adsorption isotherms, and matrix porosities and permeabilities.

  14. Gravity-dependent transport in industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1994-01-01

    Gravity-dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to address a broader range of microgravity phenomena and to develop new applications of microgravity. A number of important topics are identified and analyzed in detail. The present article describes results on coating flow, zeolite growth, and rotating electrochemical system.

  15. Coupled transport processes in semipermeable media

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Carnahan, C.L.

    1990-04-01

    A numerical simulator has been developed to investigate the effects of coupled processes on heat and mass transport in semipermeable media. The governing equations on which the simulator is based were derived using the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The equations are nonlinear and have been solved numerically using the n-dimensional Newton's method. As an example of an application, the numerical simulator has been used to investigate heat and solute transport in the vicinity of a heat source buried in a saturated clay-like medium, in part to study solute transport in bentonite packing material surrounding a nuclear waste canister. The coupled processes considered were thermal filtration, thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis and ultrafiltration. In the simulations, heat transport by coupled processes was negligible compared to heat conduction, but pressure and solute migration were affected. Solute migration was retarded relative to the uncoupled case when only chemical osmosis was considered. When both chemical osmosis and thermal osmosis were included, solute migration was enhanced. 18 refs., 20 figs.

  16. Endolysosomal transport of newly-synthesized cathepsin D in a sucrose model of lysosomal storage.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Isabelle; Jadot, Michel

    2005-10-01

    Newly-synthesized soluble lysosomal enzymes are transported from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes by a mannose 6-phosphate receptor-mediated pathway. Lysosomal storage of indigestible material has been reported to perturb the biosynthesis and the fate of lysosomal hydrolases. In this study, we have focused our attention on the last steps in the transport of newly-synthesized cathepsin D to lysosomes in sucrose-treated WI-38 fibroblasts. Pulse-chase experiments indicate that, in sucrose-treated cells, cathepsin D maturation is delayed by 2 to 4 h. By subcellular fractionation, we show that newly-synthesized cathepsin D precursors transit through organelles endowed with a high sedimentation coefficient. These organelles are recovered in the dense region of a self-forming Percoll density gradient while the bulk of hydrolytic activities is redistributed to the low density region. Only later, are the precursors delivered to organelles containing the bulk of active hydrolases. There, procathepsin D is proteolytically processed into its 31 kDa-mature form. Our results suggest that when sucrose is present, the delayed maturation of procathepsin D is related to the delivery of the polypeptides into an organelle behaving in centrifugation like lysosomes but which is poorly efficient in proteolytic processing of procathepsin D. This low proteolytic activity of this organelle could be due to its poor ability to interact with hydrolase-containing structures.

  17. Regulation & Development of Membrane Transport Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-15

    conducted studies on the regulation of a variety of trans- port processes as a function of cell cycle, growth phase, malignant transfor- mation, hormone ...fertilization of ideas. The contributions dealt with regulatory processes evoked by two kinds of stim- uli: (1) external stimuli, such as hormones or...Mineralocorticoid Regulation of Sodium and Potassium Transport by the Cortical Collecting Duct 89 Bruce M. Koeppen and Gerhard H. Giebisch 6. Hormonal Regulation of

  18. TQM brings collaboration to patient transport process.

    PubMed

    Houston, K L; Clute, C; Ryan-Crepin, K; Kimball, M; Matthews, R

    1994-10-01

    Total quality management (TQM) principles can be utilized to achieve successful outcomes of an interdepartmental problem-solving process prior to implementation of a TQM formal structure within an organization. Prior to implementation of the new process, patient transport time from nursing units to lab destination was calculated at 17.6 minutes; postimplementation, an institutional benchmark of 15.4 minutes has been set. The mechanisms utilized for development, implementation, and evaluation of a process improvement team is the focus of the article. The reader will be taken on a journey through an interdepartmental problem-solving process utilizing the TQM principles.

  19. Transport processes near coastal ocean outfalls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Sherwood, C.R.; Lee, Hooi-Ling; Xu, Jie; Dartnell, P.; Robertson, G.; Martini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The central Southern California Bight is an urbanized coastal ocean where complex topography and largescale atmospheric and oceanographic forcing has led to numerous sediment-distribution patterns. Two large embayments, Santa Monica and San Pedro Bays, are connected by the short, very narrow shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula. Ocean-sewage outfalls are located in the middle of Santa Monica Bay, on the Palos Verdes shelf and at the southeastern edge of San Pedro Bay. In 1992, the US Geological Survey, together with allied agencies, began a series of programs to determine the dominant processes that transport sediment and associated pollutants near the three ocean outfalls. As part of these programs, arrays of instrumented moorings that monitor currents, waves, water clarity, water density and collect resuspended materials were deployed on the continental shelf and slope information was also collected on the sediment and contaminant distributions in the region. The data and models developed for the Palos Verdes shelf suggest that the large reservoir of DDT/DDE in the coastal ocean sediments will continue to be exhumed and transported along the shelf for a long time. On the Santa Monica shelf, very large internal waves, or bores, are generated at the shelf break. The near-bottom currents associated with these waves sweep sediments and the associated contaminants from the shelf onto the continental slope. A new program underway on the San Pedro shelf will determine if water and contaminants from a nearby ocean outfall are transported to the local beaches by coastal ocean processes. The large variety of processes found that transport sediments and contaminants in this small region of the continental margin suggest that in regions with complex topography, local processes change markedly over small spatial scales. One cannot necessarily infer that the dominant transport processes will be similar even in adjacent regions.

  20. Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.; Imhoff, Carl H.; Graff, Gordon L.; Li, Liyu; Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Xia, Guanguang; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Baskaran, Suresh; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin; Shao, Yuyan; Schwenzer, Birgit

    2013-02-15

    Large-scale electrical energy storage has become more important than ever for reducing fossil energy consumption in transportation and for the widespread deployment of intermittent renewable energy in electric grid. However, significant challenges exist for its applications. Here, the status and challenges are reviewed from the perspective of materials science and materials chemistry in electrochemical energy storage technologies, such as Li-ion batteries, sodium (sulfur and metal halide) batteries, Pb-acid battery, redox flow batteries, and supercapacitors. Perspectives and approaches are introduced for emerging battery designs and new chemistry combinations to reduce the cost of energy storage devices.

  1. Changes in carotenoids during processing and storage of foods.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Being highly unsaturated, carotenoids are susceptible to isomerization and oxidation during processing and storage of foods. Isomerization of trans-carotenoids to cis-carotenoids, promoted by contact with acids, heat treatment and exposure to light, diminishes the color and the vitamin A activity of carotenoids. The major cause of carotenoid loss, however, is enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation, which depends on the availability of oxygen and the carotenoid structure. It is stimulated by light, heat, some metals, enzymes and peroxides and is inhibited by antioxidants. Data on percentage losses of carotenoids during food processing and storage are somewhat conflicting, but carotenoid degradation is known to increase with the destruction of the food cellular structure, increase of surface area or porosity, length and severity of the processing conditions, storage time and temperature, transmission of light and permeability to O2 of the packaging. Contrary to lipid oxidation, for which the mechanism is well established, the oxidation of carotenoids is not well understood. It involves initially epoxidation, formation of apocarotenoids and hydroxylation. Subsequent fragmentations presumably result in a series of compounds of low molecular masses. Completely losing its color and biological activities, the carotenoids give rise to volatile compounds which contribute to the aroma/flavor, desirable in tea and wine and undesirable in dehydrated carrot. Processing can also influence the bioavailability of carotenoids, a topic that is currently of great interest.

  2. An efficient numerical solution of the transient storage equations for solute transport in small streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkel, Robert L.; Chapra, Steven C.

    1993-01-01

    Several investigators have proposed solute transport models that incorporate the effects of transient storage. Transient storage occurs in small streams when portions of the transported solute become isolated in zones of water that are immobile relative to water in the main channel (e.g., pools, gravel beds). Transient storage is modeled by adding a storage term to the advection-dispersion equation describing conservation of mass for the main channel. In addition, a separate mass balance equation is written for the storage zone. Although numerous applications of the transient storage equations may be found in the literature, little attention has been paid to the numerical aspects of the approach. Of particular interest is the coupled nature of the equations describing mass conservation for the main channel and the storage zone. In the work described herein, an implicit finite difference technique is developed that allows for a decoupling of the governing differential equations. This decoupling method may be applied to other sets of coupled equations such as those describing sediment-water interactions for toxic contaminants. For the case at hand, decoupling leads to a 50% reduction in simulation run time. Computational costs may be further reduced through efficient application of the Thomas algorithm. These techniques may be easily incorporated into existing codes and new applications in which simulation run time is of concern.

  3. Biosafety in embryos and semen cryopreservation, storage, management and transport.

    PubMed

    Bielanski, A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter summarizes pertinent procedures, data and opinions on the potential hazards of disease transmission through liquid nitrogen (LN)-cryopreserved and banked germplasm and tissues for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) The importance of applying internationally adopted sanitary washing procedures to germplasm as a crucial step towards their successful microbial-free cryopreservation and storage is emphasised. Special attention is given to the survival of pathogens in LN, variety of vitrification methods, sterility of LN, risks associated with the use of straws and cryovials, and LN Dewars including dry shippers. It was experimentally demonstrated that cross-contamination between LN and embryos may occur, when infectious agents are present in LN and if embryos are not protected by use of a sealed container. It is important, therefore, to prevent direct contact of germplasm and reproductive tissues with LN during cryopreservation and their storage as a mandatory measure for reducing the risk of contamination. This includes the usage of hermetically sealed high quality shatter proof freezing containers and/or the application of a secondary enclosure such as "double bagging or straw in straw". A periodic disinfection of cryo-Dewars should be considered as an additional precaution to diminish the potential for inadvertent cross-contamination. It would be advisable to use separate LN Dewars to quarantine embryos derived from infected donors of valuable genotypes or from unknown health status, extinction-threatened species.

  4. Gravity-Dependent Transport in Industrial Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    Gravity dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to indicate new directions for micro-gravity research that enhance the commercial success of the space program. The present article describes the commercialization possibilities of such topics associated with physicochemical transport phenomena. The topics are: coating flow, rotating electrochemical system, and convection in low Plandtl number fluids. The present study is directed to understand these phenomena, and to develop a knowledge base for their applications with emphasis to a micro-gravity environment.

  5. (Fission product transport processes in reactor accidents)

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.; Malinauskas, A.P.

    1989-06-14

    The purpose of this trip was to participate in and to hold informal discussions with other participants in the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer (ICHMT) International Seminar on Fission Product Transport Processes held at Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, during the week of May 22--26, 1989. There were 129 participants from 20 countries at the Seminar. The travelers delivered two invited lectures and presented four invited papers based upon NRC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. One of the travelers also served as Chairman of the Session entitled Transport Phenomena in the Reactor Coolant System'' and appeared as a Panelist in the Closing Session of the Seminar.

  6. Evaluation of septum-capped vials for storage of gas samples during air transport.

    PubMed

    Glatzel, Stephan; Well, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide information on the suitability of commonly used gas storage vials for air transport, we tested two vial types on their ability to preserve defined nitrous oxide concentrations and excess pressure when exposed to low pressure, low temperature and puncture by needles. Unlike in Crimp Cap vials, in Exetainers no nitrous oxide loss following low pressure storage was detectable. Tightness of Exetainers following multiple puncture was best using a small needle diameter. Pressure loss following 5, 10, or 25 punctures was lowest in the Exetainers. We conclude that Exetainers are suitable for storing gas samples for an extended period of time during aircraft transport.

  7. Collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, L.K.; Eakin, D.E.

    1981-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify potential methods for the collection, transportation and storage of agricultural and forest residues in the Pacific Northwest. Information was gathered from available literature and through contacts with researchers, equipment manufacturers, and other individuals involved in forest and agricultural activities. This information was evaluated, combined, and adapted for situations existing in the Pacific Northwest. A number of methods for collection, transportation, and storage of biomass residues using currently available technology are described. Many of these methods can be applied to residue fuel materials along with their current uses in the forest and agricultural industries.

  8. Bacteriorhodopsin films for optical signal processing and data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkup, John F. (Principal Investigator); Mehrl, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results obtained on NASA Ames Grant NAG 2-878 entitled 'Investigations of Bacteriorhodopsin Films for Optical Signal Processing and Data Storage.' Specifically we performed research, at Texas Tech University, on applications of Bacteriorhodopisin film to both (1) dynamic spatial filtering and (2) holographic data storage. In addition, measurements of the noise properties of an acousto-optical matrix-vestor multiplier built for NASA Ames by Photonic Systems Inc. were performed at NASA Ames' Photonics Laboratory. This research resulted in two papers presented at major optical data processing conferences and a journal paper which is to appear in APPLIED OPTICS. A new proposal for additional BR research has recently been submitted to NASA Ames Research Center.

  9. Sialic acid storage diseases. A multiple lysosomal transport defect for acidic monosaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, G M; Beerens, C E; Aula, P P; Verheijen, F W

    1991-01-01

    A defective efflux of free sialic acid from the lysosomal compartment has been found in the clinically heterogeneous group of sialic acid storage disorders. Using radiolabeled sialic acid (NeuAc) as a substrate, we have recently detected and characterized a proton-driven carrier for sialic acid in the lysosomal membrane from rat liver. This carrier also recognizes and transports other acidic monosaccharides, among which are uronic acids. If no alternative routes of glucuronic acid transport exist, the disposal of uronic acids can be affected in the sialic acid storage disorders. In this study we excluded the existence of more than one acidic monosaccharide carrier by measuring uptake kinetics of labeled glucuronic acid [( 3H]GlcAc) in rat lysosomal membrane vesicles. [3H]GlcAc uptake was carrier-mediated with an affinity constant of transport (Kt) of 0.3 mM and the transport could be cis-inhibited or trans-stimulated to the same extent by sialic acid or glucuronic acid. Human lysosomal membrane vesicles isolated from cultured fibroblasts showed the existence of a similar proton-driven transporter with the same properties as the rat liver system (Kt of [3H]GlcAc uptake 0.28 mM). Uptake studies with [3H]NeuAc and [3H]GlcAc in resealed lysosome membrane vesicles from cultured fibroblasts of patients with different clinical presentation of sialic acid storage showed defective carrier-mediated transport for both sugars. Further evidence that the defective transport of acidic sugars represents the primary genetic defect in sialic acid storage diseases was provided by the observation of reduced, half-normal transport rates in lymphoblast-derived lysosomal membrane vesicles from five unrelated obligate heterozygotes. This study reports the first observation of a human lysosomal transport defect for multiple physiological compounds. PMID:2010546

  10. Transport processes of radiopharmaceuticals and -modulators

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy and radiology have been indispensable components in cancer care for many years. The detection limit of small tumor foci as well as the development of radio-resistance and severe side effects towards normal tissues led to the development of strategies to improve radio-diagnostic and -therapeutic approaches by pharmaceuticals. The term "radiopharmaceutical" has been used for drugs labeled with radioactive tracers for therapy or diagnosis. In addition, drugs have been described to sensitize tumor cells to radiotherapy (radiosensitizers) or to protect normal tissues from detrimental effects of radiation (radioprotectors). The present review summarizes recent concepts on the transport of radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers, and radioprotectors in cells and tissues, e.g. by ATP-binding cassette transporters such as P-glycoprotein. Strengths and weaknesses of current strategies to improve transport-based processes are discussed. PMID:21645349

  11. A cold box for the transport and storage of vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lundbeck, H.; Håkansson, B.; Lloyd, J. S.; Litvinov, S. K.; Assaad, F.

    1978-01-01

    A cold box capable of maintaining a temperature below +4°C for 1 week was constructed and tested in the laboratory and under field conditions. Cooling is produced by commercial cold packs precooled in a deep-freeze or the freezing compartment of a refrigerator. The box can take approximately 3000 doses of vaccine and is simple, cheap and strong. It is primarily intended for storage of vaccines during field trips by vaccination teams, as an alternative to the refrigerator in regional and peripheral stores in the case of an electrical power failure, and for the delivery of vaccines from regional store to the district. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:308407

  12. Transport and storage of infusion supplies and blood products.

    PubMed

    2001-09-01

    Home care nurses face many challenges in transporting and storing medications and blood products in their vehicles and in patients' homes. Unlike climate-controlled institutions, products subject to the cold of winter and the heat of summer can easily be damaged, which can be harmful to the patient. Additionally, several regulations and protocols demand that products be cared for in a certain manner, stored in the proper container, and labeled appropriately. The following information presents the current practices in storing and transporting these products safely. It can be used as a guide for policy and procedure development and a review for clinicians in assuring safe handling of these products from office to home to lab.

  13. Non-steady State Soil Organic Carbon Storage in Undisturbed Watersheds Due to Diffusive Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, K.; Amundson, R.; Heimsath, A. M.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    Most soil C models assume that plant C inputs are matched by C loss through heterotrophic respiration. While these models are applicable for level terrain, on soil mantled uplands in hilly to mountainous regions, persistent soil mass transport represents a potentially large, but unstudied, flux of soil C. In this research we quantify the soil C erosional fluxes and non-steady state soil C storage within two undisturbed grass-covered hillslopes in Coastal California: Tennessee Valley (TV) (coastal Marin County) and Black Diamond (BD) (interior Contra Costa County). At both sites, previous geomorphic studies have quantified both the sediment transport processes (TV= gopher driven sediment transport; BD= abiotic soil shrink/swell) and their rates. Hillslope patterns of soil C storage were examined in relation to slope position with a hillslope sediment transport model. The average C erosion rates from convex slopes are between 1.4 and 2.7 g C m -2 yr-1 at TV and approximately 8 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD. The C erosional flux is locally as high as 14% of above ground net primary productivity (NPP) at TV and 8% at BD. The convex slopes are net C sinks because NPP likely exceeds respiration by a value equaling the size of C erosion. Eroded soils ultimately accumulate in depositional settings which have residence times on the order of 13kyrs at TV and 5.3kyrs at BD. At TV hollow, 15-24 kg C m-2 of soil C has accumulated at a long-term rate of 1.6-1.9 g C m-2 yr-1 . The present rates of C accumulation were calculated to be 0.3 g C m-2 yr-1 at TV and 0.6 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD. During the hollow infilling, the depositional C inputs have been greater than C accumulation rates, meaning that much of the incoming eroded C is ultimately oxidized to CO2. At both sites, a fraction of the eroded C is exported from the watershed (C of 0.1-0.5 g C m-2 yr-1 at TV and 2 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD). When all hillslope components are integrated, these watersheds are continuous atmospheric C sinks at rates

  14. The economics of carbon dioxide transport by pipeline and storage in saline aquifers and oil reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Sean T.

    Large reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are needed to mitigate the impacts of climate change. One method of achieving such reductions is CO2 capture and storage (CCS). CCS requires the capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) at a large industrial facility, such as a power plant, and its transport to a geological storage site where CO2 is sequestered, if implemented, CCS could allow fossil fuels to be used with little or no CO2 emissions until alternative energy sources are more widely deployed. Large volumes of CO2 are most efficiently transported by pipeline and stored either in deep saline aquifers or in oil reservoirs, where CO2 is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This thesis describes a suite of models developed to estimate the project-specific cost of CO2 transport and storage. Engineering-economic models of pipeline CO2 transport, CO2flood EOR, and aquifer storage were developed for this purpose. The models incorporate a probabilistic analysis capability that is used to quantify the sensitivity of transport and storage cost to variability and uncertainty in the model input parameters. The cost of CO2 pipeline transport is shown to be sensitive to the region of construction, in addition to factors such as the length and design capacity of the pipeline. The cost of CO2 storage in saline aquifers is shown to be most sensitive to factors affecting site characterization cost. For EOR projects, CO2 storage has traditionally been a secondary effect of oil recovery; thus, a levelized cost of CO2 storage cannot be defined. Instead EOR projects were evaluated based on the breakeven price of CO2 (i.e., the price of CO2 at which the project net present value is zero). The breakeven CO2 price is shown to be most sensitive to oil prices, losses of CO2 outside the productive zone of the reservoir, and reservoir pressure. Future research should include collection and aggregation of more specific data characterizing possible sites for aquifer storage and applications

  15. Transport process and block diagram of Cd in Jiaozhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongfang; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming; Chen, Mei; Miao, Zhenqing

    2017-08-01

    Many marine bays have been polluted by various pollutants due to the rapid development of economic and population. Understanding the transport processes of pollutants in marine bays is essential to pollution control. This paper analyzed the transport processes of Cd in Jiaozhou Bay based on investigation data during 1979-1983. Results showed that the major transport processes of Cd included terrestrial transport process, atmospheric transport process and oceanic transport process, respectively. Furthermore, this paper provided the block diagrams for these transport processes, which were determining the migrating paths and traces of Cd.

  16. Mesoscopic Modeling of Reactive Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Q.; Chen, L.; Deng, H.

    2012-12-01

    Reactive transport processes involving precipitation and/or dissolution are pervasive in geochemical, biological and engineered systems. Typical examples include self-assembled patterns such as Liesegang rings or bands, cones of stalactites in limestones caves, biofilm growth in aqueous environment, formation of mineral deposits in boilers and heat exchangers, uptake of toxic metal ions from polluted water by calcium carbonate, and mineral trapping of CO2. Compared to experimental studies, a numerical approach enables a systematic study of the reaction kinetics, mass transport, and mechanisms of nucleation and crystal growth, and hence provides a detailed description of reactive transport processes. In this study, we enhance a previously developed lattice Boltzmann pore-scale model by taking into account the nucleation process, and develop a mesoscopic approach to simulate reactive transport processes involving precipitation and/or dissolution of solid phases. The model is then used to simulate the formation of Liesegang precipitation patterns and investigate the effects of gel on the morphology of the precipitates. It is shown that this model can capture the porous structures of the precipitates and can account for the effects of the gel concentration and material. A wide range of precipitation patterns is predicted under different gel concentrations, including regular bands, treelike patterns, and for the first time with numerical models, transition patterns from regular bands to treelike patterns. The model is also applied to study the effect of secondary precipitate on the dissolution of primary mineral. Several types of dissolution and precipitation processes are identified based on the morphology and structures of the precipitates and on the extent to which the precipitates affect the dissolution of the primary mineral. Finally the model is applied to study the formation of pseudomorph. It is demonstrated for the first time by numerical simulation that a

  17. 41 CFR 302-9.11 - May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my POV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my POV? 302-9.11 Section 302-9.11 Public... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 9-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION AND EMERGENCY STORAGE OF A PRIVATELY OWNED VEHICLE General Rules § 302-9.11 May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency storage of...

  18. Research on Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation in CRIEPI (Part 2 Concrete Cask Storage)

    SciTech Connect

    Koji Shirai; Jyunichi Tani; Taku Arai; Masumi Watatu; Hirofumi Takeda; Toshiari Saegusa; Philip L. Winston

    2008-10-01

    Concrete cask storage has been implemented in the world. At a later stage of storage period, the containment of the canister may deteriorate due to stress corrosion cracking phenomena in a salty air environment. High resistant stainless steels against SCC have been tested as compared with normal stainless steel. Taking account of the limited time-length of environment with certain level of humidity and temperature range, the high resistant stainless steels will survive from SCC damage. In addition, the adhesion of salt from salty environment on the canister surface will be further limited with respect to the canister temperature and angle of the canister surface against the salty air flow in the concrete cask. Optional countermeasure against SCC with respect to salty air environment has been studied. Devices consisting of various water trays to trap salty particles from the salty air were designed to be attached at the air inlet for natural cooling of the cask storage building. Efficiency for trapping salty particles was evaluated. Inspection of canister surface was carried out using an optical camera inserted from the air outlet through the annulus of a concrete cask that has stored real spent fuel for more than 15 years. The camera image revealed no gross degradation on the surface of the canister. Seismic response of a full-scale concrete cask with simulated spent fuel assemblies has been demonstrated. The cask did not tip over, but laterally moved by the earthquake motion. Stress generated on the surface of the spent fuel assemblies during the earthquake motion were within the elastic region.

  19. Summary status of advanced water electrolysis and hydrogen storage/transport R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Mezzina, A.

    1984-04-01

    Major projects within the framework of the U.S. DOE Chemical/Hydrogen Energy Systems Program are described. Goals, accomplishments and status of investigations into advanced water electrolysis and hydrogen storage/transport are summarized. Electrolytic hydrogen production systems include: SPE electrolyzers; static feed water electrolysis; high temperature electrolysis; and other advanced concepts. Hydrogen transport studies have emphasized the characterization of hydrogen embrittlement effects on conventional natural gas pipeline steels.

  20. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.C. Jr.; Jamison, P.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Mulled Coal process is a technology which has evolved from a line of investigations which began in the 1970`s. There was a major breakthrough in 1990, and since then, with significant support from DOE-PETC, the technology has progressed from the conceptual stage to a proven laboratory process. It is a simple process which involves the addition of a low cost specifically formulated reagent to wet fine coal by mixing the two in a pug mill. Although the converted material (Mulled Coal) retains some of its original surface moisture, it handles, transports, and stores like dry coal. But, unlike thermally dried fine coal Mulled Coal is not dusty, it will not rewet, and it causes no fugitive dust problems. This project was designed to advance the technology from the status of a process which works well in the laboratory to the status of a technology which is fully ready for commercialization. Project objectives were to: 1. Prove the concept that the technology can be used to produce Mulled Coal of a consistent quality, on a continuous basis, at a convincing rate of production, and at a major preparation plant which produces fine clean coal on a commercial basis. 2. Prove the concept that Mulled Coal, either as a blend with coarser clean coal or as a stand-alone fuel will successfully pass through a representative cross section of conventional coal storage, handling and transportation environments without causing any of the problems normally associated with wet fine coal. 3 Test the design and reliability of Mulled Coal circuit equipment and controls. 4. Test the circuit over a wide range of operating conditions. 5. Project scale-up designs for major equipment components and control circuits. 6. Forecast capital and operating costs for commercial circuits ranging from 25 TPH to 75 TPH. This report describes the work, the test results, and conclusions at each step along the way.

  1. Development of climate data storage and processing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okladnikov, I. G.; Gordov, E. P.; Titov, A. G.

    2016-11-01

    We present a storage and processing model for climate datasets elaborated in the framework of a virtual research environment (VRE) for climate and environmental monitoring and analysis of the impact of climate change on the socio-economic processes on local and regional scales. The model is based on a «shared nothings» distributed computing architecture and assumes using a computing network where each computing node is independent and selfsufficient. Each node holds a dedicated software for the processing and visualization of geospatial data providing programming interfaces to communicate with the other nodes. The nodes are interconnected by a local network or the Internet and exchange data and control instructions via SSH connections and web services. Geospatial data is represented by collections of netCDF files stored in a hierarchy of directories in the framework of a file system. To speed up data reading and processing, three approaches are proposed: a precalculation of intermediate products, a distribution of data across multiple storage systems (with or without redundancy), and caching and reuse of the previously obtained products. For a fast search and retrieval of the required data, according to the data storage and processing model, a metadata database is developed. It contains descriptions of the space-time features of the datasets available for processing, their locations, as well as descriptions and run options of the software components for data analysis and visualization. The model and the metadata database together will provide a reliable technological basis for development of a high- performance virtual research environment for climatic and environmental monitoring.

  2. Energy storage and transport by reversible chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghi, G.

    Reversible thermochemical reactions are one of the possibilities to store and transport high temperature heat (800 K up to 1300 K). There are open cycles and closed cycles. Some reversible systems are described, as the SO2-SO3 system. A typical example of open cycle is the reaction for water decomposition. Results of a pilot plant to verify the decomposition of sulfuric acid are described; the technological feasibility of this method for hydrogen production is shown. The possibility to use other high temperature sources, as solar energy is discussed.

  3. Effect of Processing and Subsequent Storage on Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes the following objectives: 1) To determine the effects of thermal processing, freeze drying, irradiation, and storage time on the nutritional content of food; 2) To evaluate the nutritional content of the food items currently used on the International Space Station and Shuttle; and 3) To determine if there is a need to institute countermeasures. (This study does not seek to address the effect of processing on nutrients in detail, but rather aims to place in context the overall nutritional status at the time of consumption).

  4. Influence of methane in CO2 transport and storage for CCS technology.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Sofía T; Rivas, Clara; Fernández, Javier; Artal, Manuela; Velasco, Inmaculada

    2012-12-04

    CO(2) Capture and Storage (CCS) is a good strategy to mitigate levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases. The type and quantity of impurities influence the properties and behavior of the anthropogenic CO(2), and so must be considered in the design and operation of CCS technology facilities. Their study is necessary for CO(2) transport and storage, and to develop theoretical models for specific engineering applications to CCS technology. In this work we determined the influence of CH(4), an important impurity of anthropogenic CO(2), within different steps of CCS technology: transport, injection, and geological storage. For this, we obtained new pressure-density-temperature (PρT) and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) experimental data for six CO(2) + CH(4) mixtures at compositions which represent emissions from the main sources in the European Union and United States. The P and T ranges studied are within those estimated for CO(2) pipelines and geological storage sites. From these data we evaluated the minimal pressures for transport, regarding the density and pipeline's capacity requirements, and values for the solubility parameter of the mixtures, a factor which governs the solubility of substances present in the reservoir before injection. We concluded that the presence of CH(4) reduces the storage capacity and increases the buoyancy of the CO(2) plume, which diminishes the efficiency of solubility and residual trapping of CO(2), and reduces the injectivity into geological formations.

  5. Mass storage systems for data transport in the early space station era 1992-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carper, Richard (Editor); Dalton, John (Editor); Healey, Mike (Editor); Kempster, Linda (Editor); Martin, John (Editor); Mccaleb, Fred (Editor); Sobieski, Stanley (Editor); Sos, John (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Program will provide a vehicle to deploy an unprecedented number of data producing experiments and operational devices. Peak down link data rates are expected to be in the 500 megabit per second range and the daily data volume could reach 2.4 terabytes. Such startling requirements inspired an internal NASA study to determine if economically viable data storage solutions are likely to be available to support the Ground Data Transport segment of the NASA data system. To derive the requirements for data storage subsystems, several alternative data transport architectures were identified with different degrees of decentralization. Data storage operations at each subsystem were categorized based on access time and retrieval functions, and reduced to the following types of subsystems: First in First out (FIFO) storage, fast random access storage, and slow access with staging. The study showed that industry funded magnetic and optical storage technology has a reasonable probability of meeting these requirements. There are, however, system level issues that need to be addressed in the near term.

  6. PIMS Data Storage, Access, and Neural Network Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin M.; Moskowitz, Milton E.

    1998-01-01

    The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) project at NASA's Lewis Research Center has supported microgravity science Principal Investigator's (PIs) by processing, analyzing, and storing the acceleration environment data recorded on the NASA Space Shuttles and the Russian Mir space station. The acceleration data recorded in support of the microgravity science investigated on these platforms has been generated in discrete blocks totaling approximately 48 gigabytes for the Orbiter missions and 50 gigabytes for the Mir increments. Based on the anticipated volume of acceleration data resulting from continuous or nearly continuous operations, the International Space Station (ISS) presents a unique set of challenges regarding the storage of and access to microgravity acceleration environment data. This paper presents potential microgravity environment data storage, access, and analysis concepts for the ISS era.

  7. Low temperature storage container for transporting perishables to space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W. (Inventor); Dean, William G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Two storage containers are disclosed within which food or biological samples may be stored for transfer in a module by the space shuttle to a space station while maintaining the food or samples at very low temperatures. The container is formed in two parts, each part having an inner shell and an outer shell disposed about the inner shell. The space between the shells is filled with a continuous wrap multi-layer insulation and a getter material. The two parts of the container have interlocking members and when connected together are sealed for preventing leakage from the space between the shells. After the two parts are filled with frozen food or samples they are connected together and a vacuum is drawn in the space between the shells and the container is stored in the module. For the extremely low temperature requirements of biological samples, an internal liner having a phase change material charged by a refrigerant coil is disposed in the space between the shells, and the container is formed from glass fiber material including honeycomb structural elements. All surfaces of the glass fiber which face the vacuum space are lined with a metal foil.

  8. Initial dynamic simulation of an HTGR sensible energy transport and storage plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Clapp, N.E. Jr.

    1982-06-01

    Dynamic models were developed for a General Atomic Company reference design of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor sensible energy transport and storage (SETS) plant. The resulting computer code uses the IBM simulation language CSMP. The purpose of the program was to investigate the basic dynamic response behavior and controllability. The plant was found to have excellent inherent stability and control features.

  9. 75 FR 9452 - Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing Conference AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a... Commission (NRC) is soliciting input on topics for discussion at a proposed June 23-24, 2010, public...

  10. Axial and radial water transport and internal water storage in tropical forest canopy trees.

    Treesearch

    Shelley A. James; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guillermo Goldstein; David Woodruff; Timothy Jones; Teresa Restom; Monica Mejia; Michael Clearwater; Paula. Campanello

    2003-01-01

    Heat and stable isotope tracers were used to study axial and radial water transport in relation to sapwood anatomical characteristics and internal water storage in four canopy tree species of a seasonally dry tropical forest in Panama. Anatomical characteristics of the wood and radial profiles of sap flow were measured at the base, upper trunk, and crown of a single...

  11. 10 CFR 34.31 - Inspection and maintenance of radiographic exposure devices, transport and storage containers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... devices, transport and storage containers, associated equipment, source changers, and survey instruments. 34.31 Section 34.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND... changers, and survey instruments. (a) The licensee shall perform visual and operability checks on...

  12. 75 FR 53686 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... question: ``[s]hould the US change the way in which it is storing used nuclear fuel and high level waste... Doc No: 2010-21867] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice...

  13. 75 FR 64720 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The Co-chairs of the Commission requested the formation of the T&S... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, Transportation and Storage Subcommittee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces...

  14. The Storage, Transportation, and Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younker, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Congress established a comprehensive federal policy to dispose of wastes from nuclear reactors and defense facilities, centered on deep geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Site screening led to selection of three potential sites and in 1987, Congress directed the Secretary of Energy to characterize only one site: Yucca Mountain in Nevada. For more than 20 years, teams of scientists and engineers have been evaluating the potential suitability of the site. On the basis of their work, the U.S. Secretary of Energy, Spencer Abraham, concluded in February 2002 that a safe repository can be sited at Yucca Mountain. On July 23, 2002, President Bush signed Joint Resolution 87 approving the site at Yucca Mountain for development of a repository, which allows the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare and submit a license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Concerns have been raised relative to the safe transportation of nuclear materials. The U.S. history of transportation of nuclear materials demonstrates that high-level nuclear materials can be safely transported. Since the 1960s, over 1.6 million miles have been traveled by more than 2,700 spent nuclear fuel shipments, and there has never been an accident severe enough to cause a release of radioactive materials. The DOE will use NRC-certified casks that must be able to withstand very stringent tests. The same design features that allow the casks to survive severe accidents also limit their vulnerability to sabotage. In addition, the NRC will approve all shipping routes and security plans. With regard to long-term safety, the Yucca Mountain disposal system has five key attributes. First, the arid climate and geology of Yucca Mountain combine to ensure that limited water will enter the emplacement tunnels. Second, the DOE has designed a waste package and drip shield that are expected to have very long lifetimes in the repository environment. Third, waste form

  15. Simplified models of transport and reactions in conditions of CO2 storage in saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchodolska, Katarzyna; Labus, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Simple hydrogeochemical models may serve as tools of preliminary assessment of CO2 injection and sequestraton impact on the aquifer and cap-rocks. In order to create models of reaction and transport in conditions of CO2 injection and storage, the TOUGHREACT simulator, and the Geochemist's Workbench software were applied. The chemical composition of waters for kinetic transport models based on the water - rock equilibrium calculations. Analyses of reaction and transport of substances during CO2 injection and storage period were carried out in three scenarios: one-dimensional radial model, and two-dimensional model of CO2 injection and sequestration, and one-dimensional model of aquifer - cap-rock interface. Modeling was performed in two stages. The first one simulated the immediate changes in the aquifer and insulating rocks impacted by CO2 injection (100 days in case of reaction model and 30 years in transport and reaction model), the second - enabled assessment of long-term effects of sequestration (20000 years). Reactions' quality and progress were monitored and their effects on formation porosity and sequestration capacity in form of mineral, residual and free phase of CO2 were calculated. Calibration of numerical models (including precipitation of secondary minerals, and correction of kinetics parameters) describing the initial stage of injection, was based on the experimental results. Modeling allowed to evaluate the pore space saturation with gas, changes in the composition and pH of pore waters, relationships between porosity and permeability changes and crystallization or dissolution minerals. We assessed the temporal and spatial extent of crystallization processes, and the amount of carbonates trapping. CO2 in mineral form. The calculated sequestration capacity of analyzed formations reached n·100 kg/m3 for the: dissolved phase - CO(aq), gas phase - CO2(g) and mineral phase, but as much as 101 kg/m3 for the supercritical phase - SCCO2. Processes of gas

  16. [Oxidative and hydrolytic deterioration of palm oil and fat products based on it under various conditions of storage and transportation].

    PubMed

    Bessonov, V V; Zaĭtseva, L V; Stepanova, L I; Baĭkov, V G

    2012-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the effect of storage conditions for refined deodorized palm oil on the quality and safety: in containers made of ferrous metals (mild steel) at unregulated temperature, in sealed plastic bags at the temperature -20 degrees C in stainless steel under stratification of nitrogen at the temperature of 40+/-1 degrees C. The choice of the objects of study determined by the normative documents of the Russian Federation governing the transportation and storage of vegetable oils and fat products based on them. All samples of palm oil with peroxide value of 1,0 to 1,5 meq O2/kg indicated the presence of a weak foreign taste, is not peculiar impersonalfat, the samples with peroxide value above 1,5 meq O2/kg were observed pronounced off-flavors and odors characteristic of stale oil. Rancidity was observed in samples having peroxide value of 2,0 meq O2/kg or more. Free acid value and anizidin value for the studied period changed to a lesser extent, from 0,06 to 0,1 mg KOH/g and from 1,2 to 1,4 respectively. It is proved that, transportation/storage of palm oil at the temperature above 50 degrees C without stratification of nitrogen greatly accelerates the process of oxidative damage. Based on these data we can recommend transportation/storage and management process with the least possible time of contact of melted palm oil with oxygen to produce high-quality final product (within 2-3 hours from the time of melting).

  17. Coupled transport processes in semipermeable media

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, C.L.; Jacobsen, J.S.

    1990-04-01

    The thermodynamics of irreversible processes (TTIP) is used to derive governing equations and phenomenological equations for transport processes and chemical reactions in water-saturated semipermeable media. TTIP is based on three fundamental postulates. The first postulate, the assumption of local equilibrium, allows the formulation of balance equations for entropy. These equations are the bases for the derivation of governing equations for the thermodynamic variables, temperature, pressure, and composition. The governing equations involve vector fluxes of heat and mass and scalar rates of chemical reactions; in accordance with the second postulate of TTIP, these fluxes and rates are related, respectively, to all scalar driving forces (gradients of thermodynamic variables) acting within the system. The third postulate of TTIP states equality (the Onsager reciprocal relations) between certain of the phenomenological coefficients relating forces and fluxes. The description by TTIP of a system undergoing irreversible processes allows consideration of coupled transport processes such as thermal osmosis, chemical osmosis, and ultrafiltration. The coupled processes can make significant contributions to flows of mass and energy in slightly permeable, permselective geological materials such as clays and shales.

  18. 41 CFR 302-7.100 - How are the charges of transporting HHG, and temporary storage calculated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How are the charges of transporting HHG, and temporary storage calculated? 302-7.100 Section 302-7.100 Public Contracts and Property...) Commuted Rate § 302-7.100 How are the charges of transporting HHG, and temporary storage calculated?...

  19. 41 CFR 302-9.7 - Must my agency authorize transportation or emergency storage of my POV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must my agency authorize transportation or emergency storage of my POV? 302-9.7 Section 302-9.7 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 9-ALLOWANCES...

  20. Review: Role of chemistry, mechanics, and transport on well integrity in CO2 storage environments

    DOE PAGES

    Carroll, Susan A.; Carey, William J.; Dzombak, David; ...

    2016-03-22

    Among the various risks associated with CO2 storage in deep geologic formations, wells are important potential pathways for fluid leaks and groundwater contamination. Injection of CO2 will perturb the storage reservoir and any wells that penetrate the CO2 or pressure footprints are potential pathways for leakage of CO2 and/or reservoir brine. Well leakage is of particular concern for regions with a long history of oil and gas exploration because they are top candidates for geologic CO2storage sites. This review explores in detail the ability of wells to retain their integrity against leakage with careful examination of the coupled physical andmore » chemical processes involved. Understanding time-dependent leakage is complicated by the changes in fluid flow, solute transport, chemical reactions, and mechanical stresses over decade or longer time frames for site operations and monitoring. Almost all studies of the potential for well leakage have been laboratory based, as there are limited data on field-scale leakage. When leakage occurs by diffusion only, laboratory experiments show that while CO2 and CO2-saturated brine react with cement and casing, the rate of degradation is transport-limited and alteration of cement and casing properties is low. When a leakage path is already present due to cement shrinkage or fracturing, gaps along interfaces (e.g. casing/cement or cement/rock), or casing failures, chemical and mechanical alteration have the potential to decrease or increase leakage risks. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations have shown that mineral precipitation or closure of strain-induced fractures can seal a leak pathway over time or conversely open pathways depending on flow-rate, chemistry, and the stress state. Experiments with steel/cement and cement/rock interfaces have indicated that protective mechanisms such as metal passivation, chemical alteration, mechanical deformation, and pore clogging can also help mitigate leakage. The specific

  1. New Natural Gas Storage and Transportation Capabilities Utilizing Rapid Methane Hydrate Formation Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Bernardo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas (methane as the major component) is a vital fossil fuel for the United States and around the world. One of the problems with some of this natural gas is that it is in remote areas where there is little or no local use for the gas. Nearly 50 percent worldwide natural gas reserves of ~6,254.4 trillion ft3 (tcf) is considered as stranded gas, with 36 percent or ~86 tcf of the U.S natural gas reserves totaling ~239 tcf, as stranded gas [1] [2]. The worldwide total does not include the new estimates by U.S. Geological Survey of 1,669 tcf of natural gas north of the Arctic Circle, [3] and the U.S. ~200,000 tcf of natural gas or methane hydrates, most of which are stranded gas reserves. Domestically and globally there is a need for newer and more economic storage, transportation and processing capabilities to deliver the natural gas to markets. In order to bring this resource to market, one of several expensive methods must be used: 1. Construction and operation of a natural gas pipeline 2. Construction of a storage and compression facility to compress the natural gas (CNG) at 3,000 to 3,600 psi, increasing its energy density to a point where it is more economical to ship, or 3. Construction of a cryogenic liquefaction facility to produce LNG, (requiring cryogenic temperatures at <-161 °C) and construction of a cryogenic receiving port. Each of these options for the transport requires large capital investment along with elaborate safety systems. The Department of Energy's Office of Research and Development Laboratories at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is investigating new and novel approaches for rapid and continuous formation and production of synthetic NGHs. These synthetic hydrates can store up to 164 times their volume in gas while being maintained at 1 atmosphere and between -10 to -20°C for several weeks. Owing to these properties, new process for the economic storage and transportation of these synthetic hydrates could be envisioned

  2. Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A.D.; Berry, G.D.

    2001-01-17

    By 2050 world population is projected to stabilize near 10 billion. Global economic development will outpace this growth, achieving present European per capita living standards by quintupling the size of the global economy--and increasing energy use, especially electricity, substantially. Even with aggressive efficiency improvements, global electricity use will at least triple to 30 trillion kWh/yr in 2050. Direct use of fuels, with greater potential for efficiency improvement, may be held to 80 trillion kWh (289 EJ) annually, 50% above present levels (IPCC, 1996). Sustaining energy use at these or higher rates, while simultaneously stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels, will require massive deployment of carbon-conscious energy systems for electricity generation and transportation by the mid 21st Century. These systems will either involve a shift to non-fossil primary energy sources (such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric) or continue to rely on fossil primary energy sources and sequester carbon emissions (Halmann, 1999). Both approaches share the need to convert, transmit, store and deliver energy to end-users through carbonless energy carriers.

  3. Storage and Transport of Hydrocarbons in Organic-Rich Mudstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinberg, R. L.; Falk, K. I.; Coasne, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-rich mudstones - also called source rocks - are capable of economically producing significant quantities of oil and natural gas. Although the static physical and chemical properties of these rocks are generally well understood, the dynamics of hydrocarbon fluids in them is still a matter of conjecture and debate. In conventional porous petroleum reservoirs, the solid matrix is composed of inorganic minerals such as quartz or calcite, pore sizes are in the range of micrometers, and the following assumptions generally hold to a high degree of approximation: (1) thermodynamic and transport properties of the pore fluids are identical to their bulk values; (2) matrix solids are inert; (3) fluid-solid interactions are fully described by simple notions of wettability. In contrast, in source rock, oil and gas are in intimate contact with an organic solid called kerogen, the pore spaces of which are comparable to molecular dimensions. Therefore the dynamics of hydrocarbons in organic-rich mudstones must take into account significant departures from bulk thermodynamics and hydrodynamics, and fluid-solid interactions are molecular-species specific. We present a multi-scale model of organic-rich mudstone that is consistent with a variety of molecular-level computations and physical property measurements, and that may serve as a basis for understanding the oil and gas production mechanisms of these rocks.

  4. 21 CFR 864.9900 - Cord blood processing system and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cord blood processing system and storage container... Manufacture Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) § 864.9900 Cord blood processing system and storage container. (a) Identification. A cord blood processing system and storage...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9900 - Cord blood processing system and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cord blood processing system and storage container... Manufacture Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) § 864.9900 Cord blood processing system and storage container. (a) Identification. A cord blood processing system and storage...

  6. Electric power processing, distribution, management and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Power distribution subsystems are required for three elements of the SPS program: (1) orbiting satellite, (2) ground rectenna, and (3) Electric Orbiting Transfer Vehicle (EOTV). Power distribution subsystems receive electrical power from the energy conversion subsystem and provide the power busses rotary power transfer devices, switchgear, power processing, energy storage, and power management required to deliver control, high voltage plasma interactions, electric thruster interactions, and spacecraft charging of the SPS and the EOTV are also included as part of the power distribution subsystem design.

  7. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement are discussed. Potential annual fuel savings, with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries, is nearly 9,000,000 bbl of oil.

  8. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40% of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Results of study contracts awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center have identified three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement. Potential annual fuel savings with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries is nearly 9 million bbl of oil.

  9. Thermal storage for industrial process and reject heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Industrial production uses about 40% of the total energy consumed in the United States. The major share of this is derived from fossil fuel. Potential savings of scarce fuel is possible through the use of thermal energy storage (TES) of reject or process heat for subsequent use. Results of study contracts awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center have identified three especially significant industries where high temperature TES appears attractive - paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement. Potential annual fuel savings with large scale implementation of near-term TES systems for these three industries is nearly 9 million bbl of oil.

  10. Processing and storage effects on orange juice aroma: a review.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell

    2008-11-12

    Freshly squeezed orange juice aroma is due to a complex mixture of volatile compounds as it lacks a specific character impact compound. Fresh hand-extracted juice is unstable, and thermal processing is required to reduce enzyme and microbial activity. Heating protocols range from the lightly heated not from concentrate, NFC, to the twice heated, reconstituted from concentrate, RFC, juices. Thermal processing profoundly effects aroma composition. Aroma volatiles are further altered by subsequent time-temperature storage conditions. Heating reduces levels of reactive aroma impact compounds such as neral and geranial, and creates off-flavors or their precursors from Maillard, Strecker, and acid catalyzed hydration reactions. Off-flavors such as 4-vinylguaiacol, p-cymene, and carvone are the products of chemical reactions. Other off-flavors such as butane-2,3-dione, guaiacol, and 2,6-dichlorophenol are indicators of microbial contaminations. Since most orange juice consumed worldwide is processed, the goal of this review is to summarize the widely scattered reports on orange juice aroma differences in the three major juice products and subsequent aroma changes due to packaging, storage, and microbial contamination with special emphasis on results from GC-O studies.

  11. SERI solar energy storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylin, F.; Copeland, R. J.; Kotch, A.; Kriz, T.; Luft, W.; Nix, R. G.; Wright, J. O.

    1982-05-01

    Thermal energy storage technologies are identified for specific solar thermal applications. The capabilities and limitations of direct-contact thermal storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport are examined. Storage of energy from active solar thermal systems for industrial process heat and the heating of buildings is analyzed and seasonal energy storage is covered. The coordination of numerous thermal energy storage research and development activities is described.

  12. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    PubMed

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from <2% (e.g., caseinates, milk protein isolates) to 100% in lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose

  13. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  14. Development of a container for the transportation and storage of plutonium bearing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, D.; Geinitz, R.; Thorp, D.; Rivera, M.

    1998-03-01

    There is a large backlog of plutonium contaminated materials at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Denver, Colorado, USA. The clean-up of this site requires this material to be packaged in such a way as to allow for efficient transportation to other sites or to a permanent geologic repository. Prior to off-site shipment of the material, it may be stored on-site for a period of time. For this reason, it is desirable to have a container capable of meeting the requirements for storage as well as the requirements for transportation. Most of the off-site transportation is envisioned to take place using the TRUPACT-II Type B package, with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as the destination. Prior to the development of this new container, the TRUPACT-II had a limit of 325 FGE (fissile gram equivalents) of plutonium due to criticality control concerns. Because of the relatively high plutonium content in the material to be transported, transporting 325 FGE per TRUPACT-II is uneconomical. Thus, the purpose of the new containers is to provide criticality control to increase the allowed TRUPACT-II payload and to provide a safe method for on-site storage prior to transport. This paper will describe the analysis and testing used to demonstrate that the Pipe Overpack Container provides safe on-site storage of plutonium bearing materials in unhardened buildings and provides criticality control during transportation within the TRUPACT-II. Analyses included worst-case criticality analyses, analyses of fork-lift time impacts, and analyses of roof structure collapse onto the container. Testing included dynamic crush tests, bare pipe impact tests, a 30-minute totally engulfing pool-fire test, and multiple package impact tests in end-on and side-on orientations.

  15. Preparation and storage stability of retort processed Chettinad chicken.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S; Kulkarni, V V; Chandirasekaran, V

    2014-01-01

    Chettinad chicken was prepared using boneless meat derived from spent hen and boiler breeder packed in retort pouches (250 g) and processed in retort at the product temperature of 121.1 °C and the corresponding F0 value of 5.2. The product was stored at ambient temperature (35 ± 2 °C) up to 180 days. The sensory scores for texture of the Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat decreased significantly however the scores were rated very acceptable even on 180th day. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA), tyrosine values and acid value increased gradually during storage but E. coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp, Streptococci spp, yeast and mould could not be detected during the entire storage period. The cost of production of Chettinad chicken (250 g) prepared from spent hen meat and broiler breeder meat was Rs.37 and Rs.50, respectively. It was concluded that the retort processed Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat can be safely stored up to 180 days at ambient temperature.

  16. Reactive Transport Modeling of Cap Rock Integrity During Natural and Engineered CO2 Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J W; Nitao, J J; Morris, J P

    2004-05-26

    Long-term cap rock integrity represents the single most important constraint on the long-term isolation performance of natural and engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites. CO{sub 2} influx that forms natural accumulations and CO{sub 2} injection for EOR/sequestration or saline-aquifer disposal both lead to concomitant geochemical alteration and geomechanical deformation of the cap rock, enhancing or degrading its seal integrity depending on the relative effectiveness of these interdependent processes. Using our reactive transport simulator (NUFT), supporting geochemical databases and software (GEMBOCHS, SUPCRT92), and distinct-element geomechanical model (LDEC), we have shown that influx-triggered mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions within typical shale cap rocks continuously reduce microfracture apertures, while pressure and effective-stress evolution first rapidly increase then slowly constrict them. For a given shale composition, the extent of geochemical enhancement is nearly independent of key reservoir properties (permeability and lateral continuity) that distinguish EOR/sequestration and saline-aquifer settings and CO{sub 2} influx parameters (rate, focality, and duration) that distinguish engineered disposal sites and natural accumulations, because these characteristics and parameters have negligible (indirect) impact on mineral dissolution/precipitation rates. In contrast, the extent of geomechanical degradation is highly dependent on these reservoir properties and influx parameters because they effectively dictate magnitude of the pressure perturbation; specifically, initial geomechanical degradation has been shown inversely proportional to reservoir permeability and lateral continuity and proportional to influx rate. Hence, while the extent of geochemical alteration is nearly independent of filling mode, that of geomechanical deformation is significantly more pronounced during engineered injection. This distinction limits the extent to which naturally

  17. Chill Down Process of Hydrogen Transport Pipelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Renwei; Klausner, James

    2006-01-01

    A pseudo-steady model has been developed to predict the chilldown history of pipe wall temperature in the horizontal transport pipeline for cryogenic fluids. A new film boiling heat transfer model is developed by incorporating the stratified flow structure for cryogenic chilldown. A modified nucleate boiling heat transfer correlation for cryogenic chilldown process inside a horizontal pipe is proposed. The efficacy of the correlations is assessed by comparing the model predictions with measured values of wall temperature in several azimuthal positions in a well controlled experiment by Chung et al. (2004). The computed pipe wall temperature histories match well with the measured results. The present model captures important features of thermal interaction between the pipe wall and the cryogenic fluid, provides a simple and robust platform for predicting pipe wall chilldown history in long horizontal pipe at relatively low computational cost, and builds a foundation to incorporate the two-phase hydrodynamic interaction in the chilldown process.

  18. Space transportation main engine cycle assessment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, H. V.; Lyles, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) program selection process for a space transportation main engine (STME) power cycle is described in terms of the methodology employed. Low cost, robustness, and high reliability are the primary parameters for engine choice, suggesting simplicity of design and efficient fabrication methods as the crucial characteristics. An evaluation methodology is developed based on the Pugh (1981) process and the King (1989) matrices. The cycle configurations considered are the gas generator (GG), the closed expander, and the open expander. The cycle assessment team determined that the GG cycle is favored by most cycle discriminators, based on an assessment of the characteristics in terms of ALS goals. The lower development risk of the GG-cycle STME is consistent with the goals of the ALS program in terms of reliability and cost efficiency.

  19. Space transportation main engine cycle assessment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, H. V.; Lyles, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) program selection process for a space transportation main engine (STME) power cycle is described in terms of the methodology employed. Low cost, robustness, and high reliability are the primary parameters for engine choice, suggesting simplicity of design and efficient fabrication methods as the crucial characteristics. An evaluation methodology is developed based on the Pugh (1981) process and the King (1989) matrices. The cycle configurations considered are the gas generator (GG), the closed expander, and the open expander. The cycle assessment team determined that the GG cycle is favored by most cycle discriminators, based on an assessment of the characteristics in terms of ALS goals. The lower development risk of the GG-cycle STME is consistent with the goals of the ALS program in terms of reliability and cost efficiency.

  20. Saturn Plasma Sources and Associated Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, M.; Andrews, D. J.; Coates, A. J.; Hamilton, D. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kotova, A.; Morooka, M.; Smith, H. T.; Westlake, J. H.

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews the different sources of plasma for Saturn's magnetosphere, as they are known essentially from the scientific results of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. At low and medium energies, the main plasma source is the H2O cloud produced by the "geyser" activity of the small satellite Enceladus. Impact ionization of this cloud occurs to produce on the order of 100 kg/s of fresh plasma, a source which dominates all the other ones: Titan (which produces much less plasma than anticipated before the Cassini mission), the rings, the solar wind (a poorly known source due to the lack of quantitative knowledge of the degree of coupling between the solar wind and Saturn's magnetosphere), and the ionosphere. At higher energies, energetic particles are produced by energy diffusion and acceleration of lower energy plasma produced by the interchange instabilities induced by the rapid rotation of Saturn, and possibly, for the highest energy range, by contributions from the CRAND process acting inside Saturn's magnetosphere. Discussion of the transport and acceleration processes acting on these plasma sources shows the importance of rotation-induced radial transport and energization of the plasma, and also shows how much the unexpected planetary modulation of essentially all plasma parameters of Saturn's magnetosphere remains an unexplained mystery.

  1. The effects of gas-fluid-rock interactions on CO2 injection and storage: Insights from reactive transport modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Y.; Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2008-10-15

    Possible means of reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions include injecting CO{sub 2} in petroleum reservoirs for Enhanced Oil Recovery or storing CO{sub 2} in deep saline aquifers. Large-scale injection of CO{sub 2} into subsurface reservoirs would induce a complex interplay of multiphase flow, capillary trapping, dissolution, diffusion, convection, and chemical reactions that may have significant impacts on both short-term injection performance and long-term fate of CO{sub 2} storage. Reactive Transport Modeling is a promising approach that can be used to predict the spatial and temporal evolution of injected CO{sub 2} and associated gas-fluid-rock interactions. This presentation will summarize recent advances in reactive transport modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and review key technical issues on (1) the short- and long-term behavior of injected CO{sub 2} in geological formations; (2) the role of reservoir mineral heterogeneity on injection performance and storage security; (3) the effect of gas mixtures (e.g., H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) on CO{sub 2} storage; and (4) the physical and chemical processes during potential leakage of CO{sub 2} from the primary storage reservoir. Simulation results suggest that CO{sub 2} trapping capacity, rate, and impact on reservoir rocks depend on primary mineral composition and injecting gas mixtures. For example, models predict that the injection of CO{sub 2} alone or co-injection with H{sub 2}S in both sandstone and carbonate reservoirs lead to acidified zones and mineral dissolution adjacent to the injection well, and carbonate precipitation and mineral trapping away from the well. Co-injection of CO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S and in particular with SO{sub 2} causes greater formation alteration and complex sulfur mineral (alunite, anhydrite, and pyrite) trapping, sometimes at a much faster rate than previously thought. The results from Reactive Transport Modeling provide valuable insights for analyzing and assessing the dynamic

  2. Malaria rapid diagnostic test transport and storage conditions in Burkina Faso, Senegal, Ethiopia and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Audrey; Lee, Evan; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Sleshi, Markos; Faye, Babacar; Mationg, Mary Lorraine; Ouedraogo, Kadi; Tsadik, Abeba G; Feleke, Sendeaw Maksha; Diallo, Ibrahima; Gaye, Oumar; Luchavez, Jennifer; Bennett, Jessica; Bell, David

    2012-12-06

    As more point of care diagnostics become available, the need to transport and store perishable medical commodities to remote locations increases. As with other diagnostics, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) must be highly reliable at point of use, but exposure to adverse environmental conditions during distribution has the potential to degrade tests and accuracy. In remote locations, poor quality diagnostics and drugs may have significant negative health impact that is not readily detectable by routine monitoring. This study assessed temperature and humidity throughout supply chains used to transport and store health commodities, such as RDTs. Monitoring devices capable of recording temperature and humidity were deployed to Burkina Faso (8), Senegal (10), Ethiopia (13) and the Philippines (6) over a 13-month period. The devices travelled through government supply chains, usually alongside RDTs, to health facilities where RDTs are stored, distributed and used. The recording period spanned just over a year, in order to avoid any biases related to seasonal temperature variations. In the four countries, storage and transport temperatures regularly exceeded 30.0°C; maximum humidity level recorded was above 94% for the four countries. In three of the four countries, temperatures recorded at central storage facilities exceeded pharmaceutical storage standards for over 20% of the time, in another case for a majority of the time; and sometimes exceeded storage temperatures at peripheral sites. Malaria RDTs were regularly exposed to temperatures above recommended limits for many commercially-available RDTs and other medical commodities such as drugs, but rarely exceeded the recommended storage limits for particular products in use in these countries. The results underline the need to select RDTs, and other commodities, according to expected field conditions, actively manage the environmental conditions in supply chains in tropical and sub-tropical climates. This would

  3. Malaria rapid diagnostic test transport and storage conditions in Burkina Faso, Senegal, Ethiopia and the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As more point of care diagnostics become available, the need to transport and store perishable medical commodities to remote locations increases. As with other diagnostics, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) must be highly reliable at point of use, but exposure to adverse environmental conditions during distribution has the potential to degrade tests and accuracy. In remote locations, poor quality diagnostics and drugs may have significant negative health impact that is not readily detectable by routine monitoring. This study assessed temperature and humidity throughout supply chains used to transport and store health commodities, such as RDTs. Methods Monitoring devices capable of recording temperature and humidity were deployed to Burkina Faso (8), Senegal (10), Ethiopia (13) and the Philippines (6) over a 13-month period. The devices travelled through government supply chains, usually alongside RDTs, to health facilities where RDTs are stored, distributed and used. The recording period spanned just over a year, in order to avoid any biases related to seasonal temperature variations. Results In the four countries, storage and transport temperatures regularly exceeded 30.0°C; maximum humidity level recorded was above 94% for the four countries. In three of the four countries, temperatures recorded at central storage facilities exceeded pharmaceutical storage standards for over 20% of the time, in another case for a majority of the time; and sometimes exceeded storage temperatures at peripheral sites. Conclusions Malaria RDTs were regularly exposed to temperatures above recommended limits for many commercially-available RDTs and other medical commodities such as drugs, but rarely exceeded the recommended storage limits for particular products in use in these countries. The results underline the need to select RDTs, and other commodities, according to expected field conditions, actively manage the environmental conditions in supply chains in tropical

  4. Candidate thermal energy storage technologies for solar industrial process heat applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of candidate thermal energy storage system elements were identified as having the potential for the successful application of solar industrial process heat. These elements which include storage media, containment and heat exchange are shown.

  5. [The design of heat dissipation of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation].

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiancang; Suin, Jianjun; Wu, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Because of the compact structure of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, which is due to the same small space where the compressor, the condenser, the control circuit, the battery and the power supply device are all placed in, the design for heat dissipation and ventilation is of critical importance for the stability and reliability of the box. Several design schemes of the heat dissipation design of the box were simulated using the FLOEFD hot fluid analysis software in this study. Different distributions of the temperature field in every design scheme were constructed intimately in the present study. It is well concluded that according to the result of the simulation analysis, the optimal heat dissipation design is decent for the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, and the box can operate smoothly for a long time using the results of the design.

  6. Use of transportable storage casks in the nuclear waste management system: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the viability of the use of transportable storage casks (TSCs), and other metal casks that are designed primarily for storage but which might be used to ship their stored contents to DOE on a one-time use basis (referred to in this study as storage only casks, or SOCs), in the combined utility/DOE spent fuel management system. The viability of the use of TSCs and SOCs was assessed in terms of the costs and savings involved in their use, the sensitivity of these costs and savings to changes in the capacity and cost of fabrication of the casks, the impacts of variation in cask design features on cost and radiation exposure of personnel, and their prospective use in connection with the transport of defense high level wastes. Estimates were developed of the costs of acquiring and handling of TSCs and SOCs at reactor sites. For comparison purposes, similar costs were developed for the use of concrete storage casks at reactor sites. Estimates of the savings involved to the DOE system as a result of receiving spent fuel in TSCs or SOCs were separately developed. These costs are developed and presented in Volume 2, Appendices A through J.

  7. Use of transportable storage casks in the nuclear waste management system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the viability of the use of transportable storage casks (TSCs), and other metal casks that are designed primarily for storage but which might be used to ship their stored contents to DOE on a one-time use basis (referred to in this study as storage only casks, or SOCs), in the combined utility/DOE spent fuel management system. The viability of the use of TSCs and SOCs was assessed in terms of the costs and savings involved in their use, the sensitivity of these costs and savings to changes in the capacity and cost of fabrication of the casks, the impacts of variation in cask design features on cost and radiation exposure of personnel, and their prospective use in connection with the transport of defense high level wastes. Estimates were developed of the costs of acquiring and handling of TSCs and SOCs at reactor sites. For comparison purposes, similar costs were developed for the use of concrete storage casks at reactor sites. Estimates of the savings involved to the DOE system as a result of receiving spent fuel in TSCs or SOCs were separately developed. A summary of the results of cost estimates developed in Section 4.0 and the Appendices to this report is shown in Tables 2-1 and 2-2 for instances in which the TSC or SOC were delivered to DOE containing intact fuel assemblies and cans of consolidated fuel, respectively. 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Silica Desiccant Packets for Storage and Transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Other Clinically Relevant Species

    PubMed Central

    Pell, Casey L.; Williams, Melanie J.; Dunne, Eileen M.; Porter, Barbara D.; Satzke, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial isolates are often transported between laboratories for research and diagnostic purposes. Silica desiccant packets (SDPs), which are inexpensive and do not require freezing, were evaluated for storage and recovery of bacterial isolates. Conditions such as inoculum size, swab type and temperature of storage were investigated using ten Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. The optimized protocol was then tested using 49 additional S. pneumoniae isolates representing 40 serogroups. Overall, S. pneumoniae growth was considered satisfactory (>100 colony forming units) for 98/109 (89.9%) and 20/20 (100%) swabs after 14 days at room temperature or 28 days at 4° C, respectively. Storage in SDPs did not impact on the ability of S. pneumoniae isolates to be subsequently serotyped. When the survival of nine other clinically relevant bacterial species was tested, seven were viable after 28 days at room temperature, the exceptions being Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae. SDPs are suitable for transport and short-term storage of bacterial species including S. pneumoniae. PMID:23940811

  9. Silica desiccant packets for storage and transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other clinically relevant species.

    PubMed

    Pell, Casey L; Williams, Melanie J; Dunne, Eileen M; Porter, Barbara D; Satzke, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial isolates are often transported between laboratories for research and diagnostic purposes. Silica desiccant packets (SDPs), which are inexpensive and do not require freezing, were evaluated for storage and recovery of bacterial isolates. Conditions such as inoculum size, swab type and temperature of storage were investigated using ten Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. The optimized protocol was then tested using 49 additional S. pneumoniae isolates representing 40 serogroups. Overall, S. pneumoniae growth was considered satisfactory (>100 colony forming units) for 98/109 (89.9%) and 20/20 (100%) swabs after 14 days at room temperature or 28 days at 4° C, respectively. Storage in SDPs did not impact on the ability of S. pneumoniae isolates to be subsequently serotyped. When the survival of nine other clinically relevant bacterial species was tested, seven were viable after 28 days at room temperature, the exceptions being Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae. SDPs are suitable for transport and short-term storage of bacterial species including S. pneumoniae.

  10. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  11. Managing aging effects on dry cask storage systems for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel - rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Diercks, D.; Fabian, R.; Ma, D.; Shah, V.; Tam, S.W.; Liu, Y.

    2012-07-06

    could affect the safe storage of the used fuel. The information contained in the license and CoC renewal applications will require NRC review to verify that the aging effects on the SSCs in DCSSs/ ISFSIs are adequately managed for the period of extended operation. To date, all of the ISFSIs located across the United States with more than 1,500 dry casks loaded with used fuel have initial license terms of 20 years; three ISFSIs (Surry, H.B. Robinson and Oconee) have received their renewed licenses for 20 years, and two other ISFSIs (Calvert Cliffs and Prairie Island) have applied for license renewal for 40 years. This report examines issues related to managing aging effects on the SSCs in DCSSs/ISFSIs for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuels, following an approach similar to that of the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report, NUREG-1801, for the aging management and license renewal of nuclear power plants. The report contains five chapters and an appendix on quality assurance for aging management programs for used-fuel dry storage systems. Chapter I of the report provides an overview of the ISFSI license renewal process based on 10 CFR 72 and the guidance provided in NUREG-1927. Chapter II contains definitions and terms for structures and components in DCSSs, materials, environments, aging effects, and aging mechanisms. Chapter III and Chapter IV contain generic TLAAs and AMPs, respectively, that have been developed for managing aging effects on the SSCs important to safety in the dry cask storage system designs described in Chapter V. The summary descriptions and tabulations of evaluations of AMPs and TLAAs for the SSCs that are important to safety in Chapter V include DCSS designs (i.e., NUHOMS{reg_sign}, HI-STORM 100, Transnuclear (TN) metal cask, NAC International S/T storage cask, ventilated storage cask (VSC-24), and the Westinghouse MC-10 metal dry storage cask) that have been and continue to be used by utilities across the country for

  12. Nickel-hydrogen battery design for the Transporter Energy Storage Subsystem (TESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapinski, John R.; Bourland, Deborah S.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on nickel hydrogen battery design for the transporter energy storage subsystem (TESS). Information is given on use in the Space Station Freedom, the launch configuration, use in the Mobile Servicing Center, battery design requirements, TESS subassembley design, proof of principle testing of a 6-cell battery, possible downsizing of TESS to support the Mobile Rocket Servicer Base System (MBS) redesign, TESS output capacity, and cell testing.

  13. 41 CFR 302-7.15 - Must I use the method selected by my agency for transporting my HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... selected by my agency for transporting my HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage? 302-7.15 Section 302-7.15... TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) General Rules § 302-7.15 Must I use the method selected by...

  14. 41 CFR 302-7.13 - What methods of transporting and paying for the movement of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transporting and paying for the movement of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage are authorized? 302-7.13 Section... ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) General Rules § 302-7.13 What methods...

  15. 41 CFR 302-7.13 - What methods of transporting and paying for the movement of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transporting and paying for the movement of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage are authorized? 302-7.13 Section... ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) General Rules § 302-7.13 What methods...

  16. 41 CFR 302-7.15 - Must I use the method selected by my agency for transporting my HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... selected by my agency for transporting my HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage? 302-7.15 Section 302-7.15... TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) General Rules § 302-7.15 Must I use the method selected by...

  17. 41 CFR 302-7.14 - What methods of transporting and paying for the movement of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transporting and paying for the movement of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage are authorized? 302-7.14 Section... ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) General Rules § 302-7.14 What methods...

  18. 41 CFR 302-7.14 - What methods of transporting and paying for the movement of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transporting and paying for the movement of HHG, PBP&E and temporary storage are authorized? 302-7.14 Section... ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS, PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT, (PBP&E) AND BAGGAGE ALLOWANCE General Rules § 302-7.14 What...

  19. Effect of ovary storage and oocyte transport method on maturation rate of horse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Love, Linda B; Choi, Young Ho; Love, Charles C; Varner, Dickson D; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2003-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of storage on equine ovaries or isolated oocytes. Ovaries were collected at an abattoir and were maintained at room temperature during collection and transport (3-9h total). After arrival at the laboratory, ovaries were divided into three groups: immediate oocyte collection (control), storage at room temperature overnight (15-18 h) before oocyte collection, or storage at 4 degrees C overnight before oocyte collection. Collected oocytes were cultured in maturation medium for 24h. There was a significant increase in the proportion of oocytes classified as having compact cumuli in the two storage groups when compared with the controls. For oocytes originally having expanded cumuli, the rate of maturation to MII was significantly higher in the control group (72%) than in either storage group, and the maturation rate for oocytes from ovaries stored at room temperature (27%) was significantly higher than that for ovaries stored at 4 degrees C (10%). A similar trend was seen for oocytes originally having compact cumuli (24, 11, and 3% in MI-II for control, room temperature, and cold groups, respectively). In Experiment 2, we evaluated the effect of different packaging systems on the maturation of horse oocytes within a portable incubator. Use of 1 ml of equilibrated maturation medium in a 1 ml glass vial was associated with maturation equivalent to that for standard incubation.

  20. Advanced Photonic Processes for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems.

    PubMed

    Sygletou, Maria; Petridis, Constantinos; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-08-24

    Solar-energy harvesting through photovoltaic (PV) conversion is the most promising technology for long-term renewable energy production. At the same time, significant progress has been made in the development of energy-storage (ES) systems, which are essential components within the cycle of energy generation, transmission, and usage. Toward commercial applications, the enhancement of the performance and competitiveness of PV and ES systems requires the adoption of precise, but simple and low-cost manufacturing solutions, compatible with large-scale and high-throughput production lines. Photonic processes enable cost-efficient, noncontact, highly precise, and selective engineering of materials via photothermal, photochemical, or photophysical routes. Laser-based processes, in particular, provide access to a plethora of processing parameters that can be tuned with a remarkably high degree of precision to enable innovative processing routes that cannot be attained by conventional approaches. The focus here is on the application of advanced light-driven approaches for the fabrication, as well as the synthesis, of materials and components relevant to PV and ES systems. Besides presenting recent advances on recent achievements, the existing limitations are outlined and future possibilities and emerging prospects discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems: Guidelines for Hydrogen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage and Transportation. Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Safety Standard, which establishes a uniform process for hydrogen system design, materials selection, operation, storage, and transportation, is presented. The guidelines include suggestions for safely storing, handling, and using hydrogen in gaseous (GH2), liquid (LH2), or slush (SLH2) form whether used as a propellant or non-propellant. The handbook contains 9 chapters detailing properties and hazards, facility design, design of components, materials compatibility, detection, and transportation. Chapter 10 serves as a reference and the appendices contained therein include: assessment examples; scaling laws, explosions, blast effects, and fragmentation; codes, standards, and NASA directives; and relief devices along with a list of tables and figures, abbreviations, a glossary and an index for ease of use. The intent of the handbook is to provide enough information that it can be used alone, but at the same time, reference data sources that can provide much more detail if required.

  2. Comparison of FecalSwab and ESwab Devices for Storage and Transportation of Diarrheagenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    Using a collection (n = 12) of ATCC and known stock isolates, as well as 328 clinical stool specimens, we evaluated the ESwab and the new FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) devices for storing and transporting diarrheagenic bacteria. The stock isolates were stored in these swab devices up to 48 h at refrigeration (4°C) or room (∼25°C) temperature and up to 3 months at −20°C or −70°C. With the clinical stool specimens, the performances of the ESwab and FecalSwab were compared to those of routinely used transport systems (Amies gel swabs and dry containers). At a refrigeration temperature, all isolates survived in FecalSwab up to 48 h, while in ESwab, only 10 isolates (83.3%) out of 12 survived. At −70°C, all isolates in FecalSwab were recovered after 3 months of storage, whereas in ESwab, none of the isolates were recovered. At −20°C, neither of the swab devices preserved the viability of stock isolates after 2 weeks of storage, and at room temperature, 7 (58.3%) of the stock isolates were recovered in both transport devices after 48 h. Of the 328 fecal specimens, 44 (13.4%) were positive for one of the common diarrheagenic bacterial species with all transport systems used. Thus, the suitability of the ESwab and FecalSwab devices for culturing fresh stools was at least equal to those of the Amies gel swabs and dry containers. Although the ESwab was shown to be an option for collecting and transporting fecal specimens, the FecalSwab device had clearly better preserving properties under different storage conditions. PMID:24740083

  3. Comparison of FecalSwab and ESwab devices for storage and transportation of Diarrheagenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Jari J; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2014-07-01

    Using a collection (n = 12) of ATCC and known stock isolates, as well as 328 clinical stool specimens, we evaluated the ESwab and the new FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) devices for storing and transporting diarrheagenic bacteria. The stock isolates were stored in these swab devices up to 48 h at refrigeration (4°C) or room (∼25°C) temperature and up to 3 months at -20°C or -70°C. With the clinical stool specimens, the performances of the ESwab and FecalSwab were compared to those of routinely used transport systems (Amies gel swabs and dry containers). At a refrigeration temperature, all isolates survived in FecalSwab up to 48 h, while in ESwab, only 10 isolates (83.3%) out of 12 survived. At -70°C, all isolates in FecalSwab were recovered after 3 months of storage, whereas in ESwab, none of the isolates were recovered. At -20°C, neither of the swab devices preserved the viability of stock isolates after 2 weeks of storage, and at room temperature, 7 (58.3%) of the stock isolates were recovered in both transport devices after 48 h. Of the 328 fecal specimens, 44 (13.4%) were positive for one of the common diarrheagenic bacterial species with all transport systems used. Thus, the suitability of the ESwab and FecalSwab devices for culturing fresh stools was at least equal to those of the Amies gel swabs and dry containers. Although the ESwab was shown to be an option for collecting and transporting fecal specimens, the FecalSwab device had clearly better preserving properties under different storage conditions.

  4. Spatial and intertemporal arbitrage in the California natural gas transportation and storage network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uria Martinez, Rocio

    Intertemporal and spatial price differentials should provide the necessary signals to allocate a commodity efficiently inside a network. This dissertation investigates the extent to which decisions in the California natural gas transportation and storage system are taken with an eye on arbitrage opportunities. Daily data about flows into and out of storage facilities in California over 2002-2006 and daily spreads on the NYMEX futures market are used to investigate whether the injection profile is consistent with the "supply-of-storage" curve first observed by Working for wheat. Spatial price differentials between California and producing regions fluctuate throughout the year, even though spot prices at trading hubs across North America are highly correlated. In an analysis of "residual supply", gas volumes directed to California are examined for the influence of those fluctuations in locational differentials. Daily storage decisions in California do seem to be influenced by a daily price signal that combines the intertemporal spread and the locational basis between California and the Henry Hub, in addition to strong seasonal and weekly cycles. The timing and magnitude of the response differs across storage facilities depending on the regulatory requirements they face and the type of customers they serve. In contrast, deviations in spatial price differentials from the levels dictated by relative seasonality in California versus competing regions do not trigger significant reallocations of flows into California. Available data for estimation of both the supply-of-storage and residual-supply curves aggregate the behavior of many individuals whose motivations and attentiveness to prices vary. The resulting inventory and flow profiles differ from those that a social planner would choose to minimize operating costs throughout the network. Such optimal allocation is deduced from a quadratic programming model, calibrated to 2004-2005, that acknowledges relative seasonality

  5. MRS systems study, Task F: Transportation impacts of a monitored retrievable storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brentlinger, L.A.; Gupta, S.; Plummer, A.M.; Smith, L.A.; Tzemos, S.

    1989-05-01

    The passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (NWPAA) modified the basis from which the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) had derived and developed the configuration of major elements of the waste system (repository, monitored retrievable storage, and transportation). While the key aspects of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 remain unaltered, NWPAA provisions focusing site characterization solely at Yucca Mountain, authorizing a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility with specific linkages to the repository, and establishing an MRS Review Commission make it prudent for OCRWM to update its analysis of the role of the MRS in the overall waste system configuration. This report documents the differences in transportation costs and radiological dose under alternative scenarios pertaining to a nuclear waste management system with and without an MRS, to include the effect of various MRS packaging functions and locations. The analysis is limited to the impacts of activities related directly to the hauling of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), including the capital purchase and maintenance costs of the transportation cask system. Loading and unloading impacts are not included in this study because they are treated as facility costs in the other task reports. Transportation costs are based on shipments of 63,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) of spent nuclear fuel and 7,000 MTU equivalent of HLW. 10 refs., 41 tabs.

  6. Predicting possible effects of H2S impurity on CO2 transportation and geological storage.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chen

    2013-01-02

    For CO(2) geological storage, permitting impurities, such as H(2)S, in CO(2) streams can lead to a great potential for capital and energy savings for CO(2) capture and separation, but it also increases costs and risk management for transportation and storage. To evaluate the cost-benefits, using a recently developed model (Ji, X.; Zhu, C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2012, 91, 40-59), this study predicts phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the system H(2)S-CO(2)-H(2)O-NaCl under transportation and storage conditions and discusses potential effects of H(2)S on transportation and storage. The prediction shows that inclusion of H(2)S in CO(2) streams may lead to two-phase flow. For H(2)S-CO(2) mixtures, at a given temperature, the bubble and dew pressures decrease with increasing H(2)S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. For the CO(2)-H(2)S-H(2)O system, the total gas solubility increases while the mass density of the aqueous solution with dissolved gas decreases. For the CO(2)-H(2)S-H(2)O-NaCl system, at a given temperature, pressure and NaCl concentration, the solubility of the gas mixture in aqueous phase increases with increasing H(2)S content and then decreases, while the mass density of aqueous solution decreases and may be lower than the mass density of the solution without gas dissolution.

  7. Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat storage and recovery in the paper and pulp industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, J. H.; Hurley, P. J.; Martin, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a paper and pulp mill power house were studied as one approach to the transfer of steam production from fossil fuel boilers to waste fuel of (hog fuel) boilers. Data from specific mills were analyzed, and various TES concepts evaluated for application in the process steam supply system. Constant pressure and variable pressure steam accumulators were found to be the most attractive storage concepts for this application.

  8. GNEP Material Transportation, Storage and Disposal Analysis FY-08 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, W

    2009-01-15

    for waste management calculations for the GNEP Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The IWMS represents a collaborative effort between the Systems Analysis, Waste Forms, and Separations Campaigns with contributing authors from multiple laboratories. The IWMS reference is: 'Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Integrated Waste Management Strategy, D. Gombert, INL, et al, GNEP-WAST-WAST-AI-RT-2008-000214, March 2008'. (2) As input to the IWMS and support for program decisions, an evaluation of the current regulatory framework in the U.S. pertaining to the disposal of radioactive wastes under an advanced nuclear fuel cycle was completed by ANL. This evaluation also investigated potential disposal pathways for these wastes. The entire evaluation is provided in Appendix A of this report. (3) Support was provided to the development of the GNEP Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement from INL, SNL and ANL M-TSD staff. (4) M-TSD staff prepared input for DSARR (Dynamic Systems Analysis Report for Nuclear Fuel Recycle) report. The DSARR is an INL led report to examine the time-dependent dynamics for a transition from the current open fuel cycle to either a 1-tier or 2-tier closed fuel cycle. Section 5.3 Waste Management Impacts was provided to INL for incorporation into the DSARR. (5) SNL M-TSD staff prepared a M2 milestone report 'Material Transportation, Storage and Disposal Contribution for Secretarial Decision Package'. The report purpose was to comprehensively evaluate and discuss packaging, storage, and transportation for all potential nuclear and radioactive materials in the process and waste streams being considered by the GNEP program. In particular, a systems view was used to capture all packaging, storage, and transport operations needed to link the various functional aspects of the fuel cycle. (6) SRNL M-TSD staff developed a deliverable report 'Management of Decay Heat from Spent Nuclear Fuel'. This report evaluated a range of options for managing

  9. Which factors, processes and storages influence low flow (Q347)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margreth, Michael; Scherrer, Simon; Smoorenburg, Maarten; Naef, Felix

    2013-04-01

    In Switzerland, estimation of residual water is based on Q347 (flow exceeded during 347 days per year). In ungauged catchments Q347 has to be determined with some simplified approaches. However, these statistical models often provide inaccurate results. The runoff reaction of a river depends on the spatial distribution of the Dominant Runoff Processes (DRP) like Hortonian Overland Flow (HOF), Saturated Overland Flow (SOF), Sub-Surface Flow (SSF) or Deep Percolation (DP) within its catchment area. Low flow is fed by slowly reacting groundwater or deep hillslope storages. These storages are supposed to be located mainly beneath permeable soils in highly permeable bedrock like talus, deposits of debris flows or rock fall, gravel of river deposits, lateral moraines or karst systems, represented in DRP-maps by slowly reacting SOF3-, SSF3- or DP- areas. To better understand these mechanisms, the relation between areas of slowly reacting SOF3, SSF3, DP and the form of the recession curves was analysed in 27 catchments of Swiss Plateau and Jura. Results show, that drainage characteristics and percentage of SOF3-, SSF3- and DP- areas in catchments relate well. The more extended the recharge areas, the smoother and longer the recession curves. For example the recession to Q347 in the Eulach River (Area of SOF3, SSF3, DP = 54%) takes 95 days, in the Töss River only 10 days (Area of SOF3, SSF3, DP = 9%). However, the differences in Q347 cannot be explained with these percentages. The runoff volume from Q347 to Q365 in 14 investigated catchments is only between 0.2 and 14 mm, about 1.5% of the annual precipitation volume. It seems that the storages mentioned above do not contribute significantly any more, when the discharge falls below Q347. It was found that catchments with high Q347 consist mainly of sandstone, conglomerate or large scaled wetlands. It seems that mainly porous and fissured solid rocks contribute to Q347. Very small Q347 are usually caused by seepage loss of

  10. Systems and methods for solar energy storage, transportation, and conversion utilizing photochemically active organometallic isomeric compounds and solid-state catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arunava; Meier, Steven

    2015-02-10

    A system for converting solar energy to chemical energy, and, subsequently, to thermal energy includes a light-harvesting station, a storage station, and a thermal energy release station. The system may include additional stations for converting the released thermal energy to other energy forms, e.g., to electrical energy and mechanical work. At the light-harvesting station, a photochemically active first organometallic compound, e.g., a fulvalenyl diruthenium complex, is exposed to light and is photochemically converted to a second, higher-energy organometallic compound, which is then transported to a storage station. At the storage station, the high-energy organometallic compound is stored for a desired time and/or is transported to a desired location for thermal energy release. At the thermal energy release station, the high-energy organometallic compound is catalytically converted back to the photochemically active organometallic compound by an exothermic process, while the released thermal energy is captured for subsequent use.

  11. Simulation of mass storage systems operating in a large data processing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R.

    1972-01-01

    A mass storage simulation program was written to aid system designers in the design of a data processing facility. It acts as a tool for measuring the overall effect on the facility of on-line mass storage systems, and it provides the means of measuring and comparing the performance of competing mass storage systems. The performance of the simulation program is demonstrated.

  12. An overview of selected information storage and retrieval issues in computerized document processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Ihebuzor, Valentine U.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid development of computerized information storage and retrieval techniques has introduced the possibility of extending the word processing concept to document processing. A major advantage of computerized document processing is the relief of the tedious task of manual editing and composition usually encountered by traditional publishers through the immense speed and storage capacity of computers. Furthermore, computerized document processing provides an author with centralized control, the lack of which is a handicap of the traditional publishing operation. A survey of some computerized document processing techniques is presented with emphasis on related information storage and retrieval issues. String matching algorithms are considered central to document information storage and retrieval and are also discussed.

  13. Assessment of changes in plasma hemoglobin and potassium levels in red cell units during processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Saini, Nishant; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Ravneet; Kaur, Jasbinder

    2015-06-01

    Red cell units undergo changes during storage and processing. The study was planned to assess plasma potassium, plasma hemoglobin, percentage hemolysis during storage and to determine the effects of outdoor blood collection and processing on those parameters. Blood collection in three types of blood storage bags was done - single CPDA bag (40 outdoor and 40 in-house collection), triple CPD + SAGM bag (40 in-house collection) and quadruple CPD + SAGM bag with integral leukoreduction filter (40 in-house collection). All bags were sampled on day 0 (day of collection), day 1 (after processing), day 7, day 14 and day 28 for measurement of percentage hemolysis and potassium levels in the plasma of bag contents. There was significant increase in percentage hemolysis, plasma hemoglobin and plasma potassium level in all the groups during storage (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between any parameter analyzed for outdoor and in-house collected single CPDA red cell units. There was significant lower percentage hemolysis (p < 0.001) and potassium (day 7 to day 14 - p < 0.05 and day 14 to day 28 - p < 0.001) in red cell units from day 7 onward until day 28 of storage in the leukoreduced quadruple bag as compared to the triple bag. The in-house single CPDA red cell units showed significantly more hemolysis (p < 0.001) as compared to the triple bags with SAGM additive solution after 28 days of storage. There is gradual increase in plasma hemoglobin and plasma potassium levels during the storage of red blood cells. Blood collection can be safely undertaken in outdoor blood donation camps even in hot summer months in monitored blood transport boxes. SAGM additive solution decreases the red cell hemolysis and allows extended storage of red cells. Prestorage leukoreduction decreases the red cell hemolysis and improves the quality of blood.

  14. Alternative poultry litter storage for improved transportation and use as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad J; Vitale, Jeffery; Fine, Scott; Payne, Joshua; Warren, Jason G; Zhang, Hailin; Eastman, Margaret; Herron, Sheri L

    2011-01-01

    Transportation of poultry litter out of nutrient limited watersheds such as the Illinois River basin (eastern Oklahoma) is a logical solution for minimizing phosphorus (P) losses from soils to surface waters. Transportation costs are basedon mass of load and distance transported. This study investigated an alternative litter storage technique designed to promote carbon (C) degradation, thereby concentrating nutrients for the purpose of decreasing transportation costs through decreased mass. Poultry litter was stored in 0.90-Mg conical piles under semipermeable tarps and adjusted to 40% moisture content, tested with and without addition of alum (aluminum sulfate). additional study was conducted using 3.6-Mg piles under the same conditions, except tested with and without use of aeration pipes. Samples were analyzed before and after (8 wk) storage. Litter mass degradation (i.e., loss in mass due to organic matter decomposition) was estimated on the basis of changes in litter total P contents. Additional characterization included pH, total nutrients, moisture content, total C, and degree of humification. Litter storage significantly decreased litter mass (16 to 27%), concentrated nutrients such as P and potassium (K) and increased proportion of fulvic and humic acids. The addition of aeration pipes increased mass degradationrelative to piles without aeration pipes. Nitrogen volatilization losses were minimized with alum additions. Increases in P and K concentrations resulted in greater monetary value per unit mass compared with fresh litter. Such increases translate to increased litter shipping distance and cost savings of $17.2 million over 25 yr for litter movement out of eastern Oklahoma.

  15. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  16. Primary Culture of Mycobacterium ulcerans from Human Tissue Specimens after Storage in Semisolid Transport Medium▿

    PubMed Central

    Eddyani, Miriam; Debacker, Martine; Martin, Anandi; Aguiar, Julia; Johnson, Christian R.; Uwizeye, Cécile; Fissette, Krista; Portaels, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Tissue specimens collected from patients with clinically suspected Buruli ulcer treated in two Buruli ulcer treatment centers in Benin between 1998 and 2004 were placed in semisolid transport medium and transported at ambient temperature for microbiological analysis at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp, Belgium. The impact of the delay before microbiological analysis on primary culture of Mycobacterium ulcerans was investigated. The length of storage in semisolid transport medium varied from 6 days to 26 weeks. Of the 1,273 tissue fragments positive for M. ulcerans DNA by an IS2404-specific PCR, 576 (45.2%) yielded positive culture results. The sensitivity of direct smear examination was 64.6% (822/1,273 tissue fragments). The median time required to obtain a positive culture result was 11 weeks. Positive cultures were obtained even from samples kept for more than 2 months at ambient temperatures. Moreover, there was no reduction in the viability of M. ulcerans, as detected by culture, when specimens remained in semisolid transport medium for long periods of time (up to 26 weeks). We can conclude that the method with semisolid transport medium is very robust for clinical specimens from patients with Buruli ulcer that, due to circumstances, cannot be analyzed in a timely manner. This transport medium is thus very useful for the confirmation of a diagnosis of Buruli ulcer with specimens collected in the field. PMID:17989199

  17. Ectopic expression of amaranth seed storage albumin modulates photoassimilate transport and nutrient acquisition in sweetpotato

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Mishra, Divya; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Unnikrishnan, Mullath; Mohan, Chokkappan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Storage proteins in plants, because of high nutrient value, have been a subject of intensive investigation. These proteins are synthesized de novo in the cytoplasm and transported to the storage organelles where they serve as reservoir of energy and supplement of nitrogen during rapid growth and development. Sweetpotato is the seventh most important food crop worldwide, and has a significant contribution to the source of nutrition, albeit with low protein content. To determine the behaviour of seed storage proteins in non-native system, a seed albumin, AmA1, was overexpressed in sweetpotato with an additional aim of improving nutritional quality of tuber proteins. Introduction of AmA1 imparted an increase in protein and amino acid contents as well as the phytophenols. The proteometabolomics analysis revealed a rebalancing of the proteome, with no significant effects on the global metabolome profile of the transgenic tubers. Additionally, the slower degradation of starch and cellulose in transgenic tubers, led to increased post-harvest durability. Present study provides a new insight into the role of a seed storage protein in the modulation of photoassimilate movement and nutrient acquisition. PMID:27147459

  18. Vadose Transport Processes in an Irrigated Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, J. C.; Vulava, V.; Aburime, S. A.

    2001-12-01

    A series of solute transport experiments using tritium as a conservative tracer were conducted in an irrigated upland forest watershed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, SC. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the processes controlling water movement within the vadose zone as influenced by irrigation and seasonal changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration. The moisture retention properties (matric potential) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities were determined for the horizons comprising the dominant soil series within the study site using an Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA; UFA Ventures Inc., Kennewick, WA). The field study site consisted of a series of monitoring clusters, each containing of a tube-type TDR system installed to a depth of 6 ft, suction lysimeters installed to depths of 2, 4 and 6ft, and tensiometers at 1, 2, 4, and 6ft. The first tracer experiment consisted of an application of 2.5" of labeled irrigation water in July followed by periodic monitoring over the next few months under normal rainfall conditions. The depth of tracer migration roughly corresponded to soil field capacity (FC). The soil volumetric water content had to exceed FC as determined by UFA, before significant downward movement occurred. The rate of migration was quite variable within the small study plot, approximately 0.25 acres. Despite the relative large tracer pulse, significant dispersion and dilution were observed over relatively shallow travel depths, i.e., 2 ft.

  19. Exact analytical solutions for contaminant transport in rivers 2. Transient storage and decay chain solutions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contaminant transport processes in streams, rivers, and other surface water bodies can be analyzed or predicted using the advection-dispersion equation and related transport models. In part 1 of this two-part series we presented a large number of one- and multi-dimensional analytical solutions of t...

  20. Effects of transport container and ambient storage temperature on motion characteristics of equine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Brinsko, S P; Rowan, K R; Varner, D D; Blanchard, T L

    2000-05-01

    This study was conducted to compare the cooling rates and storage temperatures within equine semen transport containers exposed to different ambient temperatures, and to evaluate the ability of these containers to preserve spermatozoal motility following 24 h of storage under these conditions. In Experiment 1, nonfat dried milk solids, glucose, sucrose, equine semen extender was divided into seven 40-mL aliquots and loaded into seven different semen transport containers: Equitainer I, Equitainer II, Equitainer III, ExpectaFoal, Bio-Flite, Lane STS, and Equine Express. After containers were loaded, they were subjected to one of three ambient storage temperatures: 1) 22 degrees C for 72 h, 2) -20 degrees C for 6 h followed by 22 degrees C for 66 h, or 3) 37 degrees C for 72 h. Cooling rates and storage temperatures of semen extender in each container were monitored with thermocouples and a chart recorder. In Experiment 2, semen from each of three stallions (3 ejaculates per stallion) was diluted to 25 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL with semen extender, divided into 40 mL aliquots and loaded into transport containers as in Experiment I. Containers were subjected to one of three ambient storage conditions: 1) 22 degrees C for 24 h, 2) -20 degrees C for 6 h, followed by 22 degrees C for 18 h, or 3) 37 degrees C for 24 h. After 24 h of storage, spermatozoal motion characteristics (percentage of motile spermatozoa; MOT, percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa; PMOT, and mean curvilinear velocity; VCL) were evaluated using a computerized spermatozoal motion analyzer. Significant interactions were detected among storage conditions and semen transport containers for the majority of the temperature endpoints measured. When exposed to temporary ambient freezing conditions, the lowest temperatures attained by samples in containers ranged from -2.8 to 0.8 degrees C. Lowest temperature samples attained was not correlated (P > 0.05) with spermatozoal motility under any ambient

  1. Comparative economics for DUCRETE spent fuel storage cask handling, transportation, and capital requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, F.P.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes economic differences between a DUCRETE spent nuclear fuel storage cask and a conventional concrete storage cask in the areas of handling, transportation, and capital requirements. The DUCRETE cask is under evaluation as a new technology that could substantially reduce the overall costs of spent fuel and depleted U disposal. DUCRETE incorporates depleted U in a Portland cement mixture and functions as the cask`s primary radiation barrier. The cask system design includes insertion of the US DOE Multi-Purpose Canister inside the DUCRETE cask. The economic comparison is from the time a cask is loaded in a spent fuel pool until it is placed in the repository and includes the utility and overall US system perspectives.

  2. IR detector for hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions during petroleum and oil products storage and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Andrey O.; Shemanin, Valeriy G.; Chartiy, Pavel V.

    2011-10-01

    A double beam IR detector is developed for light hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions from storage vessels during oil and oil products storage and transportation. It was concluded on the basis of chromatogram that main crude losses from evaporation are the share of hydrocarbons light ends from methane to decane. Detector operation is based on spectral transparency measurement in the infrared spectra absorption range. Operational wavelength of infrared radiation makes 3.4 μm. measurement principle is based on concentration calculation proceed from molecule absorption cross-section, optical path length between light emitted diode and reference and signal photodiodes as well as from value of measured signal transmitted through gaging volume. The novel of offering device is an actual paraffin hydrocarbons concentration measurement in emissions and continuous and automatic environment quality control.

  3. 21 CFR 864.9900 - Cord blood processing system and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cord blood processing system and storage container... Manufacture Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) § 864.9900 Cord blood processing system and storage container. (a) Identification. A cord blood processing system and...

  4. 21 CFR 864.9900 - Cord blood processing system and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cord blood processing system and storage container... Manufacture Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) § 864.9900 Cord blood processing system and storage container. (a) Identification. A cord blood processing system and...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9900 - Cord blood processing system and storage container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cord blood processing system and storage container... Manufacture Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) § 864.9900 Cord blood processing system and storage container. (a) Identification. A cord blood processing system and...

  6. Charge Transport Processes in Molecular Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher Eugene

    Molecular electronics (ME) has evolved into a rich area of exploration that combines the fields of chemistry, materials, electronic engineering and computational modeling to explore the physics behind electronic conduction at the molecular level. Through studying charge transport properties of single molecules and nanoscale molecular materials the field has gained the potential to bring about new avenues for the miniaturization of electrical components where quantum phenomena are utilized to achieve solid state molecular device functionality. Molecular junctions are platforms that enable these studies and consist of a single molecule or a small group of molecules directly connected to electrodes. The work presented in this thesis has built upon the current understanding of the mechanisms of charge transport in ordered junctions using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecular thin films. Donor and acceptor compounds were synthesized and incorporated into SAMs grown on metal substrates then the transport properties were measured with conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). In addition to experimentally measured current-voltage (I-V) curves, the transport properties were addressed computationally and modeled theoretically. The key objectives of this project were to 1) investigate the impact of molecular structure on hole and electron charge transport, 2) understand the nature of the charge carriers and their structure-transport properties through long (<4 nm) conjugated molecular wires, and 3) quantitatively extract interfacial properties characteristic to macroscopic junctions, such as energy level alignment and molecule-contact electronic coupling from experimental I-V curves. Here, we lay ground work for creating a more complete picture of charge transport in macroscopically ordered molecular junctions of controlled architecture, length and charge carrier. The polaronic nature of hopping transport has been predicted in long, conjugated molecular wires

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic negative regulators of nuclear protein transport processes

    PubMed Central

    Sekimoto, Toshihiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear–cytoplasmic protein transport is a critical process in cellular events. The identification of transport signals (nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal) and their receptors has facilitated our understanding of this expanding field. Nuclear transport must be appropriately regulated to deliver proteins through the nuclear pore when their functions are required in the nucleus, and to export them into the cytoplasm when they are not needed in the nucleus. Altered nuclear transport processes have been observed in stressed cells, which would change gene expressions. Some viruses interfere with nuclear transport in host cells to evade immune defense. Moreover, certain transport factors negatively regulate nuclear protein transport in cells. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of nuclear–cytoplasmic trafficking not only provides important information about cellular processes, but also is of use for developing specific inhibitors for transport pathways. PMID:22672474

  8. Respiratory fluid mechanics and transport processes.

    PubMed

    Grotberg, J B

    2001-01-01

    The field of respiratory flow and transport has experienced significant research activity over the past several years. Important contributions to the knowledge base come from pulmonary and critical care medicine, surgery, physiology, environmental health sciences, biophysics, and engineering. Several disciplines within engineering have strong and historical ties to respiration including mechanical, chemical, civil/environmental, aerospace and, of course, biomedical engineering. This review draws from a wide variety of scientific literature that reflects the diverse constituency and audience that respiratory science has developed. The subject areas covered include nasal flow and transport, airway gas flow, alternative modes of ventilation, nonrespiratory gas transport, aerosol transport, airway stability, mucus transport, pulmonary acoustics, surfactant dynamics and delivery, and pleural liquid flow. Within each area are a number of subtopics whose exploration can provide the opportunity of both depth and breadth for the interested reader.

  9. Slope, grain size, and roughness controls on dry sediment transport and storage on steep hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBiase, Roman A.; Lamb, Michael P.; Ganti, Vamsi; Booth, Adam M.

    2017-04-01

    Existing hillslope sediment transport models developed for low-relief, soil-mantled landscapes are poorly suited to explain the coupling between steep rocky hillslopes and headwater channels. Here we address this knowledge gap using a series of field and numerical experiments to inform a particle-based model of sediment transport by dry ravel—a mechanism of granular transport characteristic of steep hillslopes. We find that particle travel distance increases as a function of the ratio of particle diameter to fine-scale (<1 m) topographic roughness, in agreement with prior laboratory and field experiments. Contrary to models that assume a fixed critical slope, the particle-based model predicts a broad transition as hillslopes steepen from grain-scale to hillslope-scale mean particle travel distances due to the trapping of sediment on slopes more than threefold steeper than the average friction slope. This transition is further broadened by higher macroscale (>1 m) topographic variability associated with rocky landscapes. Applying a 2-D dry-ravel-routing model to lidar-derived surface topography, we show how spatial patterns of local and nonlocal transport control connectivity between hillslopes and steep headwater channels that generate debris flows through failure of ravel-filled channels following wildfire. Our results corroborate field observations of a patchy transition from soil-mantled to bedrock landscapes and suggest that there is a dynamic interplay between sediment storage, roughness, grain sorting, and transport even on hillslopes that well exceed the angle of repose.

  10. Ageing of a neutron shielding used in transport/storage casks

    SciTech Connect

    Nizeyiman, Fidele; Alami, Aatif; Issard, Herve; Bellenger, Veronique

    2012-07-11

    In radioactive materials transport/storage casks, a mineral-filled vinylester composite is used for neutron shielding which relies on its hydrogen and boron atoms content. During cask service life, this composite is mainly subjected to three types of ageing: hydrothermal ageing, thermal oxidation and neutron irradiation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrothermal ageing on the properties and chemical composition of this polymer composite. At high temperature (120 Degree-Sign C and 140 Degree-Sign C), the main consequence is the strong decrease of mechanical properties induced by the filler/matrix debonding.

  11. Simulation of solute transport in a mountain pool-and-riffle stream: a transient storage model.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bencala, K.E.; Walters, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A transient storage model, which couples dead zones with the one-dimensional convection-dispersion equation, simulates the general characteristics of the solute transport behavior and a set of simulation parameters were determined that yield an adequate fit to the data. However, considerable uncertainty remains in determining physically realistic values of these parameters. The values of the simulation parameters used are compared to values used by other authors for other streams. The comparison supports, at least qualitatively, the determined parameter values. -from Authors

  12. Prevention of Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs during production, storage, and transportation. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-07-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule that requires shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) from contaminating eggs on the farm and from further growth during storage and transportation, and requires these producers to maintain records concerning their compliance with the rule and to register with FDA. FDA is taking this action because SE is among the leading bacterial causes of foodborne illness in the United States, and shell eggs are a primary source of human SE infections. The final rule will reduce SE-associated illnesses and deaths by reducing the risk that shell eggs are contaminated with SE.

  13. An effective and practical fire-protection system. [for aircraft fuel storage and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R.; Fewell, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    A high-performance sandwich-type fire protection system comprising a steel outer sheath and insulation combined in various configurations is described. An inherent advantage of the sheath system over coatings is that it eliminates problems of weatherability, materials strength, adhesion, and chemical attack. An experimental comparison between the protection performance of state-of-the-art coatings and the sheath system is presented, with emphasis on the protection of certain types of steel tanks for fuel storage and transport. Sheath systems are thought to be more expensive than coatings in initial implementation, although they are less expensive per year for sufficiently long applications.

  14. 41 CFR 302-9.501 - How should we administer the allowances for transportation and emergency storage of a POV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How should we administer the allowances for transportation and emergency storage of a POV? 302-9.501 Section 302-9.501 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND...

  15. 41 CFR 302-9.6 - What POV transportation and emergency storage may my agency authorize at Government expense?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What POV transportation and emergency storage may my agency authorize at Government expense? 302-9.6 Section 302-9.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND...

  16. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: water transportation and storage of logs.

    Treesearch

    J.R. Sedell; W.S. Duval

    1985-01-01

    Environmental effects of water transportation of logs in western North America include the historical driving of logs in rivers and streams, and the current dumping, sorting, transportation, and storage of logs in rivers and estuaries in British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. The historical discussion focuses on habitat losses and volumes of...

  17. Precautions for harvest, sampling, storage, and transport of crop plant metabolomics samples.

    PubMed

    Biais, Benoît; Bernillon, Stéphane; Deborde, Catherine; Cabasson, Cécile; Rolin, Dominique; Tadmor, Yaakov; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A; Moing, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Plant metabolomics is increasingly a routine option for plant biologists and food scientists. Here, we suggest some precautions for preparation and handling of samples issued from crop plants, in order to ensure sample representativeness and quality before their biochemical analysis. These precautions concern organ harvest either in the greenhouse or in the field, transport to the laboratory, and sampling, as well as sample pooling, storage, and transport to the analytical laboratory. They are in agreement with the recommendations of the "Plant Biology Context" group of the Metabolomics Standards Initiative concerning reporting practices for sample preparation. Some quality checking methods for long-term stability of metabolomics samples are also covered. The corresponding experimental procedures are illustrated using a representative study on melon fruit.

  18. Dual Transport Process for Targeted Delivery in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, W.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The targeted delivery in porous media is a promising technology to encapsulate the solute (i.e., the cargo) in colloid-like microcapsules (i.e., the carriers), transport the microcapsules in the targeted location in porous media, and then release the solute. While extensive literatures and applications about the drug delivery in human and animal bodies exist, the targeted delivery using similar delivery carriers in subsurface porous media is not well understood. The dual transport process study is an explorative study for the targeted delivery in porous media. While the colloid transport is dominated by the advection process and the solute transport is dominated by the advection-dispersion, the dual transport process is the process with the first step of carrier transport, which is dominated by advection, and then after the release of cargo, the transport of cargo is dominated by advection-dispersion. By applying the random walk particle tracking (RWPT) approach, we investigate how the carriers transport in porous media and how the cargo release mechanisms affect the cargo distribution for the targeted delivery in various patterns of porous media. The RWPT numerical model will be verified against the experimental results of dual transport process in packed-disk 2D micromodels. The understanding of the mechanism of dual transport process is crucial to achieve the potential applications of targeted delivery in improved oil and gas recovery, CO2 sequestration, environmental remediation, and soil biomediation.

  19. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  20. The Complexities of Complex Memory Span: Storage and Processing Deficits in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the verbal and visuospatial processing and storage skills of children with SLI and typically developing children. Fourteen school-age children with SLI, and two groups of typically developing children matched either for age or language abilities, completed measures of processing speed and storage capacity, and a set of…

  1. DUSCOBS - a depleted-uranium silicate backfill for transport, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Pope, R.B.; Ashline, R.C.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

    1995-11-30

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate COntainer Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside storage, transport, and repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill all void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (1) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (2) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. In addition, the DUSCOBS improves the integrity of the package by acting as a packing material and ensures criticality control for the package during SNF storage and transport. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  2. HP-Xe to go: Storage and transportation of hyperpolarized 129Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repetto, M.; Zimmer, S.; Allmendinger, F.; Blümler, P.; Doll, M.; Grasdijk, J. O.; Heil, W.; Jungmann, K.; Karpuk, S.; Krause, H.-J.; Offenhäusser, A.; Schmidt, U.; Sobolev, Y.; Willmann, L.

    2016-04-01

    Recently the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized (HP)-129Xe was significantly improved by using uncoated and Rb-free storage vessels of GE180 glass. For these cells, a simple procedure was established to obtain reproducible wall relaxation times of about 18 h. Then the limiting relaxation mechanism in pure Xe is due to the coupling between the nuclear spins and the angular momentum of the Xe-Xe van-der-Waals-molecules. This mechanism can be significantly reduced by using different buffer gases of which CO2 was discovered to be the most efficient so far. From these values, it was estimated that for a 1:1 mixture of HP-Xe with CO2 a longitudinal relaxation time of about 7 h can be expected, sufficient to transport HP-Xe from a production to a remote application site. This prediction was verified for such a mixture at a total pressure of about 1 bar in a 10 cm glass cell showing a storage time of T1 ≈ 9 h (for T1wall = (34 ± 9) h) which was transported inside a magnetic box over a distance of about 200 km by car.

  3. Development of polymer based cryogel matrix for transportation and storage of mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Jyoti; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    We studied the potential of polymeric cryogel matrices such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-agarose (HA) and gelatin matrix as a transporting and storage material for mammalian cells. Both the HA and gelatin matrices were found to possess a homogenous distribution of pores as shown by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images and flow rate of 8 and 5 mL/min, respectively. In the case of HA cryogel, after 5 days of simulated transportation, C2C12 cells kept in cryogel matrix showed higher percentage viability (89%) as compared to 64.5% viability of cells kept in suspension culture. The cells recovered from the HA cryogel were able to proliferate as revealed by the microscopic analysis. In the case of gelatin cryogel, it was shown that C2C12 cells seeded on the cryogel under simulated transportation condition were found to proliferate over the period of 5 days. It was also observed that the cells after simulation can be cryopreserved and the duration of cryopreservation does not affect their viability. Furthermore, gelatin cryogel was used for cryopreservation of HepG2 and HUVEC cells to extend the system for other cell types. These results show the potential of cryogels as efficient, low-cost transporting matrix at room temperature and in cryo-conditions. PMID:28139669

  4. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report number 8, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-15

    The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost, harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. Based on laboratory- and bench-scale testing, Mulled coal can be stored, shipped, and burned without causing any of the plugging, pasting, carryback and freezing problems normally associated with wet coal. On the other hand, Mulled Coal does not cause the fugitive and airborne dust problems normally associated with thermally dried coal. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: the Mulled Coal process, which has been proved to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well on a continuous basis, producing consistent quality, and at a convincing rate of production in a commercial coal preparation plant; the wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation; and a wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form, can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems.

  5. Turbulent coherent-structure dynamics in a natural surface storage zone: Mechanisms of mass and momentum transport in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escauriaza, Cristian; Sandoval, Jorge; Mignot, Emmanuel; Mao, Luca

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent flows developed in surface storage zones (SSZ) in rivers control many physical and biogeochemical processes of contaminants in the water. These regions are characterized by low velocities and long residence times, which favor particle deposition, nutrient uptake, and flow interactions with reactive sediments. The dynamics of the flow in SSZ is driven by a shear layer that induces multiple vortical structures with a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. In this work we study the flow in a lateral SSZ of the Lluta River, a high-altitude Andean stream (4,000 masl), with a Re=45,800. We describe the large-scale turbulent coherent structures using field measurements and 3D numerical simulations. We measure the bed topography, instantaneous 3D velocities at selected points, the mean 2D free-surface velocity field, and arsenic concentration in the sediment. Numerical simulations of the flow are also performed using a DES turbulence model. We focus on the mass and momentum transport processes, analyzing the statistics of mass exchange and residence times in the SSZ. With this information we provide new insights on the flow and transport processes between the main channel and the recirculating region in natural conditions. Supported by Fondecyt 1130940.

  6. Skyline Query Processing in Sensor Network Based on Data Centric Storage

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seokil; Kwak, Yunsik; Lee, Seokhee

    2011-01-01

    Data centric storages for sensor networks have been proposed to efficiently process multi-dimensional range queries as well as exact matches. Usually, a sensor network does not process only one type of the query, but processes various types of queries such as range queries, exact matches and skyline queries. Therefore, a sensor network based on a data centric storage for range queries and exact matches should process skyline queries efficiently. However, existing algorithms for skyline queries have not considered the features of data centric storages. Some of the data centric storages store similar data in sensor nodes that are placed on geographically similar locations. Consequently, all data are ordered in a sensor network. In this paper, we propose a new skyline query processing algorithm that exploits the above features of data centric storages. PMID:22346642

  7. The transmembrane transporter domain of glutamate transporters is a process tip localizer

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Mariko Kato; Yasui, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate transporters in the central nervous system remove glutamate released from neurons to terminate the signal. These transporters localize to astrocyte process tips approaching neuronal synapses. The mechanisms underlying the localization of glutamate transporters to these processes, however, are not known. In this study, we demonstrate that the trimeric transmembrane transporter domain fragment of glutamate transporters, lacking both N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic regions, localized to filopodia tips. This is a common property of trimeric transporters including a neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1. Astrocyte specific proteins are not required for the filopodia tip localization. An extracellular loop at the centre of the 4th transmembrane helices, unique for metazoans, is required for the localization. Moreover, a C186S mutation at the 4th transmembrane region of EAAT1, found in episodic ataxia patients, significantly decreased its process tip localization. The transmembrane transporter domain fragments of glutamate transporters also localized to astrocyte process tips in cultured hippocampal slice. These results indicate that the transmembrane transporter domain of glutamate transporters have an additional function as a sorting signal to process tips. PMID:25761899

  8. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed blackberry products.

    PubMed

    Hager, Tiffany J; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2008-02-13

    Blackberries are a rich source of polyphenolics, particularly anthocyanins, that may contribute to the reduced risk of chronic disease; however, as with most berries, the fresh fruit are only seasonally available. With most of the blackberries consumed as frozen or in thermally processed forms after long-term storage, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing and 6 months of storage on the anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of blackberries that were individually quick-frozen (IQF), canned-in-syrup, canned-in-water, pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC FL) and photochemiluminescence (PCL) were determined postprocessing (1 day) and after 1, 3, and 6 months of storage. Processing resulted in increases in polymeric color values (up to 7%) and losses in monomeric anthocyanins (up to 65%). For most products, processing also resulted in losses in antioxidant capacity (by ORAC FL and PCL). Storage at 25 degrees C of all processed products resulted in dramatic losses in monomeric anthocyanins with as much as 75% losses of anthocyanins throughout storage, which coincided with marked increases of percent polymeric color values of these products over 6 months of storage. There were no changes in ORAC FL or PCL for processed products throughout long-term storage. No significant changes in antioxidant capacity or anthocyanin content were observed in IQF fruit during long-term storage at -20 degrees C.

  9. Storage effects on anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant activity of thermally processed conventional and organic blueberries.

    PubMed

    Syamaladevi, Roopesh M; Andrews, Preston K; Davies, Neal M; Walters, Thomas; Sablani, Shyam S

    2012-03-15

    Consumer demand for products rich in phytochemicals is increasing as a result of greater awareness of their potential health benefits. However, processed products are stored for long-term and the phytochemicals are susceptible to degradation during storage. The objective of this study was to assess the storage effects on phytochemicals in thermally processed blueberries. Thermally processed canned berries and juice/puree were analysed for phytochemicals during their long-term storage. The phytochemical retention of thermally processed blueberries during storage was not influenced by production system (conventional versus organic). During 13 months of storage, total anthocyanins, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity in canned blueberry solids decreased by up to 86, 69 and 52% respectively. In canned blueberry syrup, total anthocyanins and total antioxidant activity decreased by up to 68 and 15% respectively, while total phenolic content increased by up to 117%. Similar trends in phytochemical content were observed in juice/puree stored for 4 months. The extent of changes in phytochemicals of thermally processed blueberries during storage was significantly influenced by blanching. Long-term storage of thermally processed blueberries had varying degrees of influence on degradation of total anthocyanins, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity. Blanching before thermal processing helped to preserve the phytochemicals during storage of blueberries. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  11. Proceedings of the 6th Annual Meeting for Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and WasteTreatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    2005-06-30

    The sixth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held November 15-17, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, and Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 55 Russian attendees from 16 different Russian organizations and four non-Russian attendees from the US. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C. The 16 different Russian design, industrial sites, and scientific organizations in attendance included staff from Rosatom/Minatom, Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Authority of Russia (GOSATOMNADZOR, NIERA/GAN), All Russian Designing & Scientific Research Institute of Complex Power Technology (VNIPIET), Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), A. A. Bochvar All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM), All Russian & Design Institute of Production Engineering (VNIPIPT), Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation Specialized State Designing Institute (GSPI), State Scientific Center Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR), Siberian Chemical Combine Tomsk (SCC), Mayak PO, Mining Chemical Combine (MCC K-26), Institute of Biophysics (IBPh), Sverdlosk Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Machine Building (SNIIChM), Kurchatov Institute (KI), Institute of Physical Chemistry Russian Academy of Science (IPCh RAS) and Radon PO-Moscow. The four non-Russian attendees included

  12. Quantification of chemical transport processes from soil to surface runoff

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although there is a conceptual understanding on processes governing chemical transport from soil to surface runoff, there are little literature and research results actually quantifying these individual processes. We developed a laboratory flow cell and experimental procedures to quantify chemical ...

  13. Large-Scale Stratospheric Transport Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. Alan

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: 1. The Brewer-Dobson circulation: tropical upwelling. 2. Mixing into polar vortices. 3. The latitudinal structure of "age" in the stratosphere. 4. The subtropical "tracer edges". 5. Transport in the lower troposphere. 6. Tracer modeling during SOLVE. 7. 3D modeling of "mean age". 8. Models and measurements II.

  14. Diffusive transport and reaction in clay rocks: A storage (nuclear waste, CO2, H2), energy (shale gas) and water quality issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlet, Laurent; Alt-Epping, Peter; Wersin, Paul; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Clay rocks are low permeability sedimentary formations that provide records of Earth history, influence the quality of water resources, and that are increasingly used for the extraction or storage of energy resources and the sequestration of waste materials. Informed use of clay rock formations to achieve low-carbon or carbon-free energy goals requires the ability to predict the rates of diffusive transport processes for chemically diverse dissolved and gaseous species over periods up to thousands of years. We survey the composition, properties and uses of clay rock and summarize fundamental science challenges in developing confident conceptual and quantitative gas and solute transport models.

  15. Charging and Discharging Processes of Thermal Energy Storage System Using Phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanimozhi, B., Dr.; Harish, Kasilanka; Sai Tarun, Bellamkonda; Saty Sainath Reddy, Pogaku; Sai Sujeeth, Padakandla

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the thermal characteristics of charging and discharge processes of fabricated thermal energy storage system using Phase change materials. Experiments were performed with phase change materials in which a storage tank have designed and developed to enhance the heat transfer rate from the solar tank to the PCM storage tank. The enhancement of heat transfer can be done by using a number of copper tubes in the fabricated storage tank. This storage tank can hold or conserve heat energy for a much longer time than the conventional water storage system. Performance evaluations of experimental results during charging and discharging processes of paraffin wax have discussed. In which heat absorption and heat rejection have been calculated with various flow rate.

  16. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... and Processing Plants § 60.254 Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. (a) On and after the date on which...

  17. Reactive Transport Modeling of the CO2 Core Flooding Experiments for the Weyburn CO2 Storage Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y.; Sholokhova, Y.; Smith, M. M.; Carroll, S.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration and storage in hydrocarbon reservoirs such as Weyburn oil field has a large potential to reduce net CO2 released into atmosphere and, therefore, mitigate man-made global warming. One key research area for CO2 sequestration/EOR (enhanced oil recovery) operations, requiring both numerical and experimental investigations, is to develop a good understanding of the chemical rock-fluid interactions induced by CO2 injection that influence rock porosity and permeability evolution, and may potentially alter reservoir performance. In this study we apply a Darcy scale continuum model to simulate reactive transport and mineral-dissolution processes for the core flooding experiments in which the CO2-equilibrated brine is injected into carbonate rock samples of both the Midale Vuggy and Marly units from the Weyburn oil field. The three-dimensional reactive-transport model is developed and constrained based on physical characterization of the Vuggy and Marly flow units (e.g. mineral distribution and pore-space identification) and solution chemistry data, which are obtained from X-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) analysis, and experimental measurements. It is observed experimentally that the mineral dissolution fronts become more unstable in highly heterogeneous Vuggy limestone, ultimately leading to the formation of highly porous flow channels, often referred to as "wormholes". In order to effectively account for strong coupling between flow, reactive transport and mineral dissolution processes, in particular within the wormholes, we employ empirical correlations to quantify the relationships between mineral dissolution and the resulting increases in porosity and permeability. The reactive transport simulations are performed by the Nonisothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) code, and their results are compared with experimental data. Our simulation results indicate that Darcy-scale based flow and reactive transport models are able to

  18. Advanced potato breeding clones: Storage and processing evaluation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to Acold sweetening and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease p...

  19. Storage and processing evaluation of advanced potato breeding clones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to Acold sweetening and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease p...

  20. Is energy storage and release part of the substorm process?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauer, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    Models for magnetospheric substorms were considered. A modified model which includes the growth phase, a time interval prior to the onset of the expansion phase, during which energy was transferred from a solar wind to the magnetosphere and stored for subsequent release, is discussed. Evidence for energy storage in the tail prior to substorm expansion for both isolated and moderate substorm activity is reviewed.

  1. Calcium Transport in Sealed Vesicles from Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Storage Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, John L.; Gildensoph, Lynne H.; Reynolds-Niesman, Ingrid; Briskin, Donald P.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium transport was examined in microsomal membrane vesicles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue using chlorotetracycline as a fluorescent probe. This probe demonstrates an increase in fluorescence corresponding to calcium accumulation within the vesicles which can be collapsed by the addition of the calcium ionophore A23187. Calcium uptake in the microsomal vesicles was ATP dependent and completely inhibited by orthovanadate. Centrifugation of the microsomal membrane fraction on a linear 15 to 45% (w/w) sucrose density gradient revealed the presence of a single peak of calcium uptake which comigrated with the marker for endoplasmic reticulum. The calcium transport system associated with endoplasmic reticulum vesicles was then further characterized in fractions produced by centrifugation on discontinous sucrose density gradients. Calcium transport was insensitive to carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone indicating the presence of a primary transport system directly linked to ATP utilization. The endoplasmic reticulum vesicles contained an ATPase activity that was calcium dependent and further stimulated by A23187 (Ca2+, A23187 stimulated-ATPase). Both calcium uptake and Ca2+, A23187 stimulated ATPase demonstrated similar properties with respect to pH optimum, inhibitor sensitivity, substrate specificity, and substrate kinetics. Treatment of the red beet endoplasmic reticulum vesicles with [γ-32P]-ATP over short time intervals revealed the presence of a rapidly turning over 96 kilodalton radioactive peptide possibly representing a phosphorylated intermediate of this endoplasmic reticulum associated ATPase. It is proposed that this ATPase activity may represent the enzymic machinery responsible for mediating primary calcium transport in the endoplasmic reticulum linked to ATP utilization. Images Fig. 7 PMID:16665816

  2. Axial and radial water transport and internal water storage in tropical forest canopy trees.

    PubMed

    James, Shelley A; Meinzer, Frederick C; Goldstein, Guillermo; Woodruff, David; Jones, Timothy; Restom, Teresa; Mejia, Monica; Clearwater, Michael; Campanello, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Heat and stable isotope tracers were used to study axial and radial water transport in relation to sapwood anatomical characteristics and internal water storage in four canopy tree species of a seasonally dry tropical forest in Panama. Anatomical characteristics of the wood and radial profiles of sap flow were measured at the base, upper trunk, and crown of a single individual of Anacardium excelsum, Ficus insipida, Schefflera morototoni, and Cordia alliodora during two consecutive dry seasons. Vessel lumen diameter and vessel density did not exhibit a consistent trend axially from the base of the stem to the base of the crown. However, lumen diameter decreased sharply from the base of the crown to the terminal branches. The ratio of vessel lumen area to sapwood cross-sectional area was consistently higher at the base of the crown than at the base of the trunk in A. excelsum, F. insipida and C. alliodora, but no axial trend was apparent in S. morototoni. Radial profiles of the preceding wood anatomical characteristics varied according to species and the height at which the wood samples were obtained. Radial profiles of sap flux density measured with thermal dissipation sensors of variable length near the base of the crown were highly correlated with radial profiles of specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) calculated from xylem anatomical characteristics. The relationship between sap flux density and k(s) was species-independent. Deuterium oxide (D(2)O) injected into the base of the trunk of the four study trees was detected in the water transpired from the upper crown after only 1 day in the 26-m-tall C. alliodora tree, 2 days in the 28-m-tall F. insipida tree, 3 days in the 38-m-tall A. excelsum tree, and 5 days in the 22-m-tall S. morototoni tree. Radial transport of injected D(2)O was detected in A. excelsum, F. insipida and S. morototoni, but not C. alliodora. The rate of axial D(2)O transport, a surrogate for maximum sap velocity, was positively correlated

  3. Fuel Aging in Storage and Transportation (FAST): Accelerated Characterization and Performance Assessment of the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    McDeavitt, Sean

    2016-08-02

    This Integrated Research Project (IRP) was established to characterize key limiting phenomena related to the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage systems. This was an applied engineering project with a specific application in view (i.e., UNF dry storage). The completed tasks made use of a mixture of basic science and engineering methods. The overall objective was to create, or enable the creation of, predictive tools in the form of observation methods, phenomenological models, and databases that will enable the design, installation, and licensing of dry UNF storage systems that will be capable of containing UNF for extended period of time.

  4. Hierarchical transport networks optimizing dynamic response of permeable energy-storage materials.

    PubMed

    Nilson, Robert H; Griffiths, Stewart K

    2009-07-01

    Channel widths and spacing in latticelike hierarchical transport networks are optimized to achieve maximum extraction of gas or electrical charge from nanoporous energy-storage materials during charge and discharge cycles of specified duration. To address a range of physics, the effective transport diffusivity is taken to vary as a power, m , of channel width. Optimal channel widths and spacing in all levels of the hierarchy are found to increase in a power-law manner with normalized system size, facilitating the derivation of closed-form approximations for the optimal dimensions. Characteristic response times and ratios of channel width to spacing are both shown to vary by the factor 2/m between successive levels of any optimal hierarchy. This leads to fractal-like self-similar geometry, but only for m=2 . For this case of quadratic dependence of diffusivity on channel width, the introduction of transport channels permits increases in system size on the order of 10;{4} , 10;{8} , and 10;{10} , without any reduction in extraction efficiency, for hierarchies having 1, 2 and, 8 levels, respectively. However, we also find that for a given system size there is an optimum number of hierarchical levels that maximizes extraction efficiency.

  5. Apoplasmic and Protoplasmic Water Transport through the Parenchyma of the Potato Storage Organ.

    PubMed Central

    Michael, W.; Schultz, A.; Meshcheryakov, A. B.; Ehwald, R.

    1997-01-01

    Stationary volume fluxes through living and denatured parenchyma slices of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage organ were studied to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall and to evaluate the significance of water transport through protoplasts, cell walls, and intercellular spaces. Slices were placed between liquid compartments, steady-state fluxes induced by pressure or concentration gradients of low- and high-molecular-mass osmotica were measured, and water transport pathways were distinguished on the basis of their difference in limiting pore size. The protoplasts were the dominating route for osmotically driven water transport through living slices, even in the case of a polymer osmoticum that is excluded from cell walls. The specific hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall matrix is too small to allow a significant contribution of the narrow cell wall bypass to water flow through the living tissue. This conclusion is based on (a) ultrafilter coefficients of denatured parenchyma slices, (b) the absence of a significant difference between ultrafilter coefficients of the living tissue slices for osmotica with low and high cell wall reflection coefficients, and (c) the absence of a significant interaction (solvent drag) between apoplasmic permeation of mannitol and the water flux caused by a concentration difference of excluded polyethylene glycol. Liquid-filled intercellular spaces were the dominating pathways for pressure-driven volume fluxes through the parenchyma tissue. PMID:12223860

  6. Strategies for Processing Semen from Subfertile Stallions for Cooled Transport.

    PubMed

    Varner, Dickson D

    2016-12-01

    Subfertility can be a confusing term because some semen of good quality can have reduced fertility following cooled transport if the semen is processed in an improper manner. General procedures aimed at processing stallion semen for cooled transport are well described. An array of factors could exist in reduced fertility of cool-transported semen. This article focuses on centrifugation techniques that can be used to maximize sperm quality of stallions whose semen is intended for cooled transport. Clinical cases are also provided for practical application of techniques.

  7. Extended Burnup Credit for BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel in Storage and Transportation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian J; Bowman, Stephen M; Gauld, Ian C; Ilas, Germina; Martinez, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    [Full Text] Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission have initiated a multiyear project to investigate the application of burnup credit (BUC) for boiling-water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation casks. This project includes two phases. The first phase investigates the applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used for spent fuel pools to spent fuel storage and transportation casks and the validation of reactivity (keff) calculations and depleted fuel compositions. The second phase focuses on extending BUC beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents work performed to date, investigating some aspects of extended BUC, and it also describes the plan to complete the evaluations. The technical basis for application of peak reactivity methods to BWR fuel in storage and transportation systems is presented in a companion paper. Two reactor operating parameters are being evaluated to establish an adequate basis for extended BWR BUC, including investigation of the axial void profile effect and the effect of control blade utilization during operation. A detailed analysis of core simulator data for one cycle of an operating BWR plant was performed to determine the range of void profiles and the variability of the profile experienced during irradiation. While a single cycle does not provide complete data, the data obtained are sufficient to use to determine the primary effects and identify conservative modeling approaches. Using data resulting from a single cycle, the axial void profile is studied by first determining the temporal fidelity necessary in depletion modeling, and then using multiple void profiles to examine the effect of the void profile on cask reactivity. The results of these studies are being used to develop recommendations for conservatively modeling the void profile effects for BWR depletion calculations. The second operational parameter studied is control blade exposure. Control blades

  8. Knowledge Management Initiatives Used to Maintain Regulatory Expertise in Transportation and Storage of Radioactive Materials - 12177

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, Haile; Garcia-Santos, Norma; Saverot, Pierre; Day, Neil; Gambone Rodriguez, Kimberly; Cruz, Luis; Sotomayor-Rivera, Alexis; Vechioli, Lucieann; Vera, John; Pstrak, David

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was established in 1974 with the mission to license and regulate the civilian use of nuclear materials for commercial, industrial, academic, and medical uses in order to protect public health and safety, and the environment, and promote the common defense and security. Currently, approximately half (∼49%) of the workforce at the NRC has been with the Agency for less than six years. As part of the Agency's mission, the NRC has partial responsibility for the oversight of the transportation and storage of radioactive materials. The NRC has experienced a significant level of expertise leaving the Agency due to staff attrition. Factors that contribute to this attrition include retirement of the experienced nuclear workforce and mobility of staff within or outside the Agency. Several knowledge management (KM) initiatives have been implemented within the Agency, with one of them including the formation of a Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation (SFST) KM team. The team, which was formed in the fall of 2008, facilitates capturing, transferring, and documenting regulatory knowledge for staff to effectively perform their safety oversight of transportation and storage of radioactive materials, regulated under Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 71 and Part 72. In terms of KM, the SFST goal is to share critical information among the staff to reduce the impact from staff's mobility and attrition. KM strategies in place to achieve this goal are: (1) development of communities of practice (CoP) (SFST Qualification Journal and the Packaging and Storing Radioactive Material) in the on-line NRC Knowledge Center (NKC); (2) implementation of a SFST seminar program where the seminars are recorded and placed in the Agency's repository, Agency-wide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS); (3) meeting of technical discipline group programs to share knowledge within specialty areas; (4) development of

  9. Regulatory Perspective on Potential Fuel Reconfiguration and Its Implication to High Burnup Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation - 13042

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhian; Rahimi, Meraj; Tang, David; Aissa, Mourad; Flaganan, Michelle; Wagner, John C.

    2013-07-01

    The recent experiments conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on high burnup fuel cladding material property show that the ductile to brittle transition temperature of high burnup fuel cladding is dependent on: (1) cladding material, (2) irradiation conditions, and (3) drying-storage histories (stress at maximum temperature) [1]. The experiment results also show that the ductile to brittle temperature increases as the fuel burnup increases. These results indicate that the current knowledge in cladding material property is insufficient to determine the structural performance of the cladding of high burnup fuel after it has been stored in a dry cask storage system for some time. The uncertainties in material property and the elevated ductile to brittle transition temperature impose a challenge to the storage cask and transportation packaging designs because the cask designs may not be able to rely on the structural integrity of the fuel assembly for control of fissile material, radiation source, and decay heat source distributions. The fuel may reconfigure during further storage and/or the subsequent transportation conditions. In addition, the fraction of radioactive materials available for release from spent fuel under normal condition of storage and transport may also change. The spent fuel storage and/or transportation packaging vendors, spent fuel shippers, and the regulator may need to consider this possible fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the packages' ability to meet the safety requirements of Part 72 and Part 71 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is working with the scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the impact of fuel reconfiguration on the safety of the dry storage systems and transportation packages. The NRC Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation has formed a task force to work on the safety and regulatory concerns in relevance to high burnup

  10. FATE Unified Modeling Method for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Sludge Processing, Shipping and Storage - 13405

    SciTech Connect

    Plys, Martin; Burelbach, James; Lee, Sung Jin; Apthorpe, Robert

    2013-07-01

    A unified modeling method applicable to the processing, shipping, and storage of spent nuclear fuel and sludge has been incrementally developed, validated, and applied over a period of about 15 years at the US DOE Hanford site. The software, FATE{sup TM}, provides a consistent framework for a wide dynamic range of common DOE and commercial fuel and waste applications. It has been used during the design phase, for safety and licensing calculations, and offers a graded approach to complex modeling problems encountered at DOE facilities and abroad (e.g., Sellafield). FATE has also been used for commercial power plant evaluations including reactor building fire modeling for fire PRA, evaluation of hydrogen release, transport, and flammability for post-Fukushima vulnerability assessment, and drying of commercial oxide fuel. FATE comprises an integrated set of models for fluid flow, aerosol and contamination release, transport, and deposition, thermal response including chemical reactions, and evaluation of fire and explosion hazards. It is one of few software tools that combine both source term and thermal-hydraulic capability. Practical examples are described below, with consideration of appropriate model complexity and validation. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of Advanced Potato Breeding Clones for Storage and Processing Performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  12. Radiative processes in atomic collisions at storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, L.R.; Burgdoerfer, J. |

    1993-10-01

    We discuss radiative electron capture into excited states of fast, highly charged ions from neutral targets. Capture to high n shells and to low-lying projectile continuum states is studied. We show that capture into excited states can account for up to 50% of the radiative capture cross section at the ``Bremsstrahlung`` threshold. The feasibility of state-resolved measurements at storage rings is discussed.

  13. In-Storage Embedded Accelerator for Sparse Pattern Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-13

    pattern from the small list of local patterns. In the FPGA -accelerated design , the FPGA platform is inserted between the flash storage and the host...that a much smaller CPU, such as those embedded in the FPGA could be used, hence, an interesting concept of shrinking and folding the host into the...i.e., the host-side 2-thread software now run on the embedded CPU within the FPGA . This presents a solution for extreme Size, Weight, and Power

  14. Process for synthesis of ammonia borane for bulk hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Autrey, S Thomas [West Richland, WA; Heldebrant, David J [Richland, WA; Linehan, John C [Richland, WA; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J [Richland, WA; Zheng, Feng [Richland, WA

    2011-03-01

    The present invention discloses new methods for synthesizing ammonia borane (NH.sub.3BH.sub.3, or AB). Ammonium borohydride (NH.sub.4BH.sub.4) is formed from the reaction of borohydride salts and ammonium salts in liquid ammonia. Ammonium borohydride is decomposed in an ether-based solvent that yields AB at a near quantitative yield. The AB product shows promise as a chemical hydrogen storage material for fuel cell powered applications.

  15. SERI Solar-Energy-Storage Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, C. E.

    1981-08-01

    The program provides research, system analysis, and assessments of thermal energy storage and transport in support of the Thermal Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Technology; emphasis is on thermal energy storage for solar thermal power and process heat applications and on thermal energy transport. Currently, research is in progress on direct-contact thermal energy storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. In addition, SERI is directing the definition of new concepts for thermal energy storage and supporting research on thermal energy transport by sensible and latent heat media. SERI is performing systems analyses of thermal energy storage for solar thermal application and coordinating thermal energy storage activities for solar applications.

  16. Cellular resistance to Evans blue toxicity involves an up-regulation of a phosphate transporter implicated in vesicular glutamate storage.

    PubMed

    Israël, M; Tomasi, M; Bostel, S; Meunier, F M

    2001-08-01

    It has recently been suggested that the brain-specific Na+-dependent phosphate inorganic co-transporter (BNPI) is able to support glutamate transport and storage in synaptic vesicles. A procedure for measuring the vesicular pool of glutamate is described and was used to select cell lines according to their glutamate storage capacity. Two cell lines were selected: C6BU-1, with a large intracellular glutamate storage capacity, and NG108-15, devoid of it. Their contents in BNPI mRNA were compared by RT-PCR. We found that both cell lines had BNPI, but in addition C6BU-1 alone expresses the other isoform, DNPI. We also carried out a clonal selection of NG108-15 cells in the presence of the dye Evans blue, a competitive inhibitor of vesicular glutamate transport, very toxic for cells in culture. It was assumed that only those that sequester and eliminate the drug by overexpressing a vesicular glutamate transporter would survive. We found that the NG108-15 clones resistant to Evans blue had an increased storage capacity for glutamate. These cells also up-regulated the BNPI isoform of the phosphate transporter as shown by RT-PCR and northern blot.

  17. Extraterrestrial materials processing and related transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K. N. R.; Sridhar, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    Several concepts for significant cost reductions in extraterrestrial resource utilization are described. After an introduction of the desirability of in situ resource utilization, several candidate chemical processes are mentioned. It is brought out that many of the key processes require fluid dynamics and heat transfer processes under reduced- and microgravity. These aspects are discussed within the broad framework of a two-phase thermal control systems. Another important aspect of space processing is that reliability and self-repairability are mandatory; automation aspects are discussed. In addition to these general considerations, the paper includes several specific processes that vary from solid electrolytic production of oxygen from carbon dioxide, to plasma-augmented reactions for reducing ilmenite on the moon.

  18. Extraterrestrial materials processing and related transport phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K. N. R.; Sridhar, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    Several concepts for significant cost reductions in extraterrestrial resource utilization are described. After an introduction of the desirability of in situ resource utilization, several candidate chemical processes are mentioned. It is brought out that many of the key processes require fluid dynamics and heat transfer processes under reduced- and microgravity. These aspects are discussed within the broad framework of a two-phase thermal control systems. Another important aspect of space processing is that reliability and self-repairability are mandatory; automation aspects are discussed. In addition to these general considerations, the paper includes several specific processes that vary from solid electrolytic production of oxygen from carbon dioxide, to plasma-augmented reactions for reducing ilmenite on the moon.

  19. Nanoscale Chemical Processes Affecting Storage Capacities and Seals during Geologic CO2 Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young-Shin; Zhang, Lijie; Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun

    2017-07-18

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) is a promising strategy to mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emission to the atmosphere. Suitable geologic storage sites should have a porous reservoir rock zone where injected CO2 can displace brine and be stored in pores, and an impermeable zone on top of reservoir rocks to hinder upward movement of buoyant CO2. The injection wells (steel casings encased in concrete) pass through these geologic zones and lead CO2 to the desired zones. In subsurface environments, CO2 is reactive as both a supercritical (sc) phase and aqueous (aq) species. Its nanoscale chemical reactions with geomedia and wellbores are closely related to the safety and efficiency of CO2 storage. For example, the injection pressure is determined by the wettability and permeability of geomedia, which can be sensitive to nanoscale mineral-fluid interactions; the sealing safety of the injection sites is affected by the opening and closing of fractures in caprocks and the alteration of wellbore integrity caused by nanoscale chemical reactions; and the time scale for CO2 mineralization is also largely dependent on the chemical reactivities of the reservoir rocks. Therefore, nanoscale chemical processes can influence the hydrogeological and mechanical properties of geomedia, such as their wettability, permeability, mechanical strength, and fracturing. This Account reviews our group's work on nanoscale chemical reactions and their qualitative impacts on seal integrity and storage capacity at GCS sites from four points of view. First, studies on dissolution of feldspar, an important reservoir rock constituent, and subsequent secondary mineral precipitation are discussed, focusing on the effects of feldspar crystallography, cations, and sulfate anions. Second, interfacial reactions between caprock and brine are introduced using model clay minerals, with focuses on the effects of water chemistries (salinity and organic ligands) and water content on mineral dissolution and surface

  20. Study of VOCs transport and storage in porous media and assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing

    Indoor VOCs concentrations are influenced greatly by the transport and storage of VOCs in building and furnishing materials, majority of which belong to porous media. The transport and storage ability of a porous media for a given VOC can be characterized by its diffusion coefficient and partition coefficient, respectively, and such data are currently lacking. Besides, environmental conditions are another important factor that affects the VOCs emission. The main purposes of this dissertation are: (1) validate the similarity hypothesis between the transport of water vapor and VOCs in porous materials, and help build a database of VOC transport and storage properties with the assistance of the similarity hypothesis; (2) investigate the effect of relative humidity on the diffusion and partition coefficients; (3) develop a numerical multilayer model to simulate the VOCs' emission characteristics in both short and long term. To better understand the similarity and difference between moisture and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) diffusion through porous media, a dynamic dual-chamber experimental system was developed. The diffusion coefficients and partition coefficients of moisture and selected VOCs in materials were compared. Based on the developed similarity theory, the diffusion behavior of each particular VOC in porous media is predictable as long as the similarity coefficient of the VOC is known. Experimental results showed that relative humidity in the 80%RH led to a higher partition coefficient for formaldehyde compared to 50%RH. However, between 25% and 50% RH, there was no significant difference in partition coefficient. The partition coefficient of toluene decreased with the increase of humidity due to competition with water molecules for pore surface area and the non-soluble nature of toluene. The solubility of VOCs was found to correlate well with the partition coefficient of VOCs. The partition coefficient of VOCs was not simply inversely proportional to

  1. Large-scale Atmospheric Transport Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. Alan

    2004-01-01

    Continuing earlier work, we continued an investigation of the seasonal behavior of the edges of the stratospheric surf zone. These edges form a barrier between the rapidly mixed surf zone and the relatively isolated tropics. In collaboration with Dr Lynn Sparling at GSFC, we used a statistical analysis of HALOE and CLAES trace gas data from UARS to identify and locate these edges during each UARS observing period. We found that the edges on both sides of the equator are present all year (a fact that is important for conceptual models of stratospheric transport), though that on the summer side of the equator is much less sharp than the winter edge. The edges migrate seasonally into the summer hemisphere. Their location also shows influence of the QBO, together with the SAO at higher altitudes. Comparisons with effective diffusivities, and the edge locations, suggest that the edge is sustained by surf zone entrainment during winter, but by the residual circulation during summer.

  2. Large-scale Stratospheric Transport Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, R. Alan

    2003-01-01

    The PI has undertaken a theoretical analysis of the existence and nature of compact tracer-tracer relationships of the kind observed in the stratosphere, augmented with three-dimensional model simulations of stratospheric tracers (the latter being an extension of modeling work the group did during the SOLVE experiment). This work achieves a rigorous theoretical basis for the existence and shape of these relationships, as well as a quantitative theory of their width and evolution, in terms of the joint tracer-tracer PDF distribution. A paper on this work is almost complete and will soon be submitted to Rev. Geophys. We have analyzed lower stratospheric water in simulations with an isentropic-coordinate version of the MATCH transport model which we recently helped to develop. The three-dimensional structure of lower stratospheric water, in particular, attracted our attention: dry air is, below about 400K potential temperature, localized in the regions of the west Pacific and equatorial South America. We have been analyzing air trajectories to determine how air passes through the tropopause cold trap. This work is now being completed, and a paper will be submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett. before the end of summer. We are continuing to perform experiments with the 'MATCH' CTM, in both sigma- and entropy-coordinate forms. We earlier found (in collaboration with Dr Natalie Mahowald, and as part of an NSF-funded project) that switching to isentropic coordinates made a substantial improvement to the simulation of the age of stratospheric air. We are now running experiments with near-tropopause sources in both versions of the model, to see if and to what extent the simulation of stratosphere-troposphere transport is dependent on the model coordinate. Personnel Research is supervised by the PI, Prof. Alan Plumb. Mr William Heres conducts the tracer modeling work and performs other modeling tasks. Two graduate students, Ms Irene Lee and Mr Michael Ring, have been participating

  3. Experimental determination of soil heat storage for the simulation of heat transport in a coastal wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Michael; Swain, Matthew; Lohmann, Melinda; Swain, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Two physical experiments were developed to better define the thermal interaction of wetland water and the underlying soil layer. This information is important to numerical models of flow and heat transport that have been developed to support biological studies in the South Florida coastal wetland areas. The experimental apparatus consists of two 1.32. m diameter by 0.99. m tall, trailer-mounted, well-insulated tanks filled with soil and water. A peat-sand-soil mixture was used to represent the wetland soil, and artificial plants were used as a surrogate for emergent wetland vegetation based on size and density observed in the field. The tanks are instrumented with thermocouples to measure vertical and horizontal temperature variations and were placed in an outdoor environment subject to solar radiation, wind, and other factors affecting the heat transfer. Instruments also measure solar radiation, relative humidity, and wind speed.Tests indicate that heat transfer through the sides and bottoms of the tanks is negligible, so the experiments represent vertical heat transfer effects only. The temperature fluctuations measured in the vertical profile through the soil and water are used to calibrate a one-dimensional heat-transport model. The model was used to calculate the thermal conductivity of the soil. Additionally, the model was used to calculate the total heat stored in the soil. This information was then used in a lumped parameter model to calculate an effective depth of soil which provides the appropriate heat storage to be combined with the heat storage in the water column. An effective depth, in the model, of 5.1. cm of wetland soil represents the heat storage needed to match the data taken in the tank containing 55.9. cm of peat/sand/soil mix. The artificial low-density laboratory sawgrass reduced the solar energy absorbed by the 35.6. cm of water and 55.9. cm of soil at midday by less than 5%. The maximum heat transfer into the underlying peat-sand-soil mix

  4. Experimental determination of soil heat storage for the simulation of heat transport in a coastal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Michael; Swain, Matthew; Lohmann, Melinda; Swain, Eric

    2012-02-01

    SummaryTwo physical experiments were developed to better define the thermal interaction of wetland water and the underlying soil layer. This information is important to numerical models of flow and heat transport that have been developed to support biological studies in the South Florida coastal wetland areas. The experimental apparatus consists of two 1.32 m diameter by 0.99 m tall, trailer-mounted, well-insulated tanks filled with soil and water. A peat-sand-soil mixture was used to represent the wetland soil, and artificial plants were used as a surrogate for emergent wetland vegetation based on size and density observed in the field. The tanks are instrumented with thermocouples to measure vertical and horizontal temperature variations and were placed in an outdoor environment subject to solar radiation, wind, and other factors affecting the heat transfer. Instruments also measure solar radiation, relative humidity, and wind speed. Tests indicate that heat transfer through the sides and bottoms of the tanks is negligible, so the experiments represent vertical heat transfer effects only. The temperature fluctuations measured in the vertical profile through the soil and water are used to calibrate a one-dimensional heat-transport model. The model was used to calculate the thermal conductivity of the soil. Additionally, the model was used to calculate the total heat stored in the soil. This information was then used in a lumped parameter model to calculate an effective depth of soil which provides the appropriate heat storage to be combined with the heat storage in the water column. An effective depth, in the model, of 5.1 cm of wetland soil represents the heat storage needed to match the data taken in the tank containing 55.9 cm of peat/sand/soil mix. The artificial low-density laboratory sawgrass reduced the solar energy absorbed by the 35.6 cm of water and 55.9 cm of soil at midday by less than 5%. The maximum heat transfer into the underlying peat

  5. Divide and conquer: processive transport enables multidrug transporters to tackle challenging drugs

    PubMed Central

    Fluman, Nir; Bibi, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug transporters are membrane proteins that catalyze efflux of antibiotics and other toxic compounds from cells, thereby conferring drug resistance on various organisms. Unlike most solute transporters that transport a single type of compound or similar analogues, multidrug transporters are extremely promiscuous. They transport a broad spectrum of dissimilar drugs and represent a serious obstacle to antimicrobial or anticancer chemotherapy. Many challenging aspects of multidrug transporters, which are unique, have been studied in detail, including their ability to interact with chemically unrelated drugs, and how they utilize energy to drive efflux of compounds that are not only structurally but electrically different. A new and surprising dimension of the promiscuous nature of multidrug transporters has been described recently: they can move long molecules through the membrane in a processive manner. PMID:28357213

  6. Divide and conquer: processive transport enables multidrug transporters to tackle challenging drugs.

    PubMed

    Fluman, Nir; Bibi, Eitan

    2014-09-23

    Multidrug transporters are membrane proteins that catalyze efflux of antibiotics and other toxic compounds from cells, thereby conferring drug resistance on various organisms. Unlike most solute transporters that transport a single type of compound or similar analogues, multidrug transporters are extremely promiscuous. They transport a broad spectrum of dissimilar drugs and represent a serious obstacle to antimicrobial or anticancer chemotherapy. Many challenging aspects of multidrug transporters, which are unique, have been studied in detail, including their ability to interact with chemically unrelated drugs, and how they utilize energy to drive efflux of compounds that are not only structurally but electrically different. A new and surprising dimension of the promiscuous nature of multidrug transporters has been described recently: they can move long molecules through the membrane in a processive manner.

  7. Working memory in children with cochlear implants: problems are in storage, not processing.

    PubMed

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2013-11-01

    There is growing consensus that hearing loss and consequent amplification likely interact with cognitive systems. A phenomenon often examined in regards to these potential interactions is working memory, modeled as consisting of one component responsible for storage of information and another component responsible for processing of that information. Signal degradation associated with cochlear implants should selectively inhibit storage without affecting processing. This study examined two hypotheses: (1) A single task can be used to measure storage and processing in working memory, with recall accuracy indexing storage and rate of recall indexing processing; (2) Storage is negatively impacted for children with CIs, but not processing. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 included adults and children, 8 and 6 years of age, with NH. Procedures tested the prediction that accuracy of recall could index storage and rate of recall could index processing. Both measures were obtained during a serial-recall task using word lists designed to manipulate storage and processing demands independently: non-rhyming nouns were the standard condition; rhyming nouns were predicted to diminish storage capacity; and non-rhyming adjectives were predicted to increase processing load. Experiment 2 included 98 8-year-olds, 48 with NH and 50 with CIs, in the same serial-recall task using the non-rhyming and rhyming nouns. Experiment 1 showed that recall accuracy was poorest for the rhyming nouns and rate of recall was slowest for the non-rhyming adjectives, demonstrating that storage and processing can be indexed separately within a single task. In Experiment 2, children with CIs showed less accurate recall of serial order than children with NH, but rate of recall did not differ. Recall accuracy and rate of recall were not correlated in either experiment, reflecting independence of these mechanisms. It is possible to measure the operations of storage and processing mechanisms in

  8. Advanced research in solar-energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Luft, W.

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute is reviewed. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800/sup 0/C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

  9. Advanced research in solar energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luft, W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Solar Energy Storage Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute. The program provides research, systems analyses, and economic assessments of thermal and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Current activities include experimental research into very high temperature (above 800 C) thermal energy storage and assessment of novel thermochemical energy storage and transport systems. The applications for such high-temperature storage are thermochemical processes, solar thermal-electric power generation, cogeneration of heat and electricity, industrial process heat, and thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. The research results for five high-temperature thermal energy storage technologies and two thermochemical systems are described.

  10. The Transport and Processing of Dust by Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heever, Susan; Herbener, Stephen; Sauter, Kathryn; Twohy, Cynthia; Saleeby, Stephen; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Ekman, Annica

    2017-04-01

    Convective storms play a fundamental role in transporting dust from the boundary layer to the mid- and upper troposphere. This vertical redistribution of dust has important implications for upper tropospheric heating, cirrus cloud formation, long-range transport, CCN and IN sources, and ocean fertilization. However, the efficiency of this transport process, defined as the ratio of aerosols returned to the mid- and/or upper troposphere to those ingested by the storm, is still not well understood. Dust transport processes may be particularly important in those regions where tropical storms interact with the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). Cloud resolving model simulations using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) have been conducted of Tropical Storm (TS) Debby (2006) in order to evaluate how efficiently these storms transport dust from the SAL to the mid- and upper troposphere. RAMS has a prognostic aerosol scheme in which dust is activated based on the environmental conditions, tracked within different hydrometeor species, and returned to the atmosphere following sublimation and evaporation. The microphysical processes impacting the dust transport have been tracked to determine which processes have the greatest impact on dust transport efficiency, and a dust budget of those processes impacting dust redistribution at the middle and upper levels has been constructed. This budget has also been compared with CloudSat and Calipso data obtained along A-Train transects of TS Debby, as well as those before and after the passage of this tropical storm. The results demonstrate that the mass of dust transported by TS Debby to the upper troposphere is about two orders of magnitude smaller than that deposited on the surface in association with wet and dry deposition processes, whereas the dust mass transported to mid-levels is similar to that deposited on the surface. The microphysical and dynamical processes determining this vertical redistribution of dust will be

  11. Processes of Salt Transport in Disturbed Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitrakar, S.; Miller, S. N.; Caffrey, P. A.; Stern, J.

    2013-12-01

    The extraction of coal bed methane natural gas involves removal of large amount of ground/Coal Bed Methane (CBM) water which is commonly discharged to surface-water drainages or constructed reservoirs. The extraction of large volume of water and its disposal on soil surface not only lowers the water table but also potentially accelerate soil erosions, contaminate surface water resources, and alter the natural flows. Due to the difference in quality and quantity between the surface discharge and disposed CBM water, this management strategy potentially poses threats to quality of surface water and soil. CBM discharge water typically contains high concentrations of sodium and low concentrations of calcium and magnesium, resulting in high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Similarly, it also contains high concentration of other ions which could results in increasing salt concentrations. Our study area is in the Atlantic Rim development area of the Muddy Creek, SE of Wyoming, a tributary to Colorado River, where significant development of CBM wells is ongoing. Since Muddy Creek is part of the Upper Colorado River, the greatest concern is its potential to contribute to surface water quality (primarily salinity) impairment downstream. However, very few studies have made efforts to assess the water quality in this particular region. The alteration of stream water quality in this region is still not fully understood if it due to CBM water discharge or via soil/water interactions, erosion, and sediment transport. Efforts are being made to identify crucial water quality parameters such as SAR and EC along with the quantification of solute/salt loadings at both CBM discharge fed streams and natural streams at different seasons to distinguish effect of CBM discharge on water quality. We have been continuously monitoring water quality on monthly basis and discharge measurement on daily basis at sampling sites that are placed to discriminate CBM fed streams and natural streams. The

  12. Internal Domains of Natural Porous Media Revealed: Critical Locations for Transport, Storage, and Chemical Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John; Brantley, Sue; Chorover, Jon; Ewing, Robert; Kerisit, Sebastien; Liu, Chongxuan; Perfect, Edmund; Rother, Gernot; Stack, Andrew G.

    2016-02-05

    Internal pore domains exist within rocks, lithic fragments, subsurface sediments, and soil aggregates. These domains, termed internal domains in porous media (IDPM), represent a subset of a material’s porosity, contain a significant fraction of their porosity as nanopores, dominate the reactive surface area of diverse media types, and are important locations for chemical reactivity and fluid storage. IDPM are key features controlling hydrocarbon release from shales in hydraulic fracture systems, organic matter decomposition in soil, weathering and soil formation, and contaminant behavior in the vadose zone and groundwater. It is traditionally difficult to interrogate, advances in instrumentation and imaging methods are providing new insights on the physical structures and chemical attributes of IDPM, and their contributions to system behaviors. We discuss analytical methods to characterize IDPM, evaluate information on their size distributions, connectivity, and extended structures; determine whether they exhibit unique chemical reactivity; and assess the potential for their inclusion in reactive transport models. Moreover, ongoing developments in measurement technologies and sensitivity, and computer-assisted interpretation will improve understanding of these critical features in the future. Finally, impactful research opportunities exist to advance understanding of IDPM, and to incorporate their effects in reactive transport models for improved environmental simulation and prediction.

  13. Internal Domains of Natural Porous Media Revealed: Critical Locations for Transport, Storage, and Chemical Reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Zachara, John; Brantley, Sue; Chorover, Jon; ...

    2016-02-05

    Internal pore domains exist within rocks, lithic fragments, subsurface sediments, and soil aggregates. These domains, termed internal domains in porous media (IDPM), represent a subset of a material’s porosity, contain a significant fraction of their porosity as nanopores, dominate the reactive surface area of diverse media types, and are important locations for chemical reactivity and fluid storage. IDPM are key features controlling hydrocarbon release from shales in hydraulic fracture systems, organic matter decomposition in soil, weathering and soil formation, and contaminant behavior in the vadose zone and groundwater. It is traditionally difficult to interrogate, advances in instrumentation and imaging methodsmore » are providing new insights on the physical structures and chemical attributes of IDPM, and their contributions to system behaviors. We discuss analytical methods to characterize IDPM, evaluate information on their size distributions, connectivity, and extended structures; determine whether they exhibit unique chemical reactivity; and assess the potential for their inclusion in reactive transport models. Moreover, ongoing developments in measurement technologies and sensitivity, and computer-assisted interpretation will improve understanding of these critical features in the future. Finally, impactful research opportunities exist to advance understanding of IDPM, and to incorporate their effects in reactive transport models for improved environmental simulation and prediction.« less

  14. Internal Domains of Natural Porous Media Revealed: Critical Locations for Transport, Storage, and Chemical Reaction.

    PubMed

    Zachara, John; Brantley, Sue; Chorover, Jon; Ewing, Robert; Kerisit, Sebastien; Liu, Chongxuan; Perfect, Edmund; Rother, Gernot; Stack, Andrew G

    2016-03-15

    Internal pore domains exist within rocks, lithic fragments, subsurface sediments, and soil aggregates. These domains, termed internal domains in porous media (IDPM), represent a subset of a material's porosity, contain a significant fraction of their porosity as nanopores, dominate the reactive surface area of diverse media types, and are important locations for chemical reactivity and fluid storage. IDPM are key features controlling hydrocarbon release from shales in hydraulic fracture systems, organic matter decomposition in soil, weathering and soil formation, and contaminant behavior in the vadose zone and groundwater. Traditionally difficult to interrogate, advances in instrumentation and imaging methods are providing new insights on the physical structures and chemical attributes of IDPM, and their contributions to system behaviors. Here we discuss analytical methods to characterize IDPM, evaluate information on their size distributions, connectivity, and extended structures; determine whether they exhibit unique chemical reactivity; and assess the potential for their inclusion in reactive transport models. Ongoing developments in measurement technologies and sensitivity, and computer-assisted interpretation will improve understanding of these critical features in the future. Impactful research opportunities exist to advance understanding of IDPM, and to incorporate their effects in reactive transport models for improved environmental simulation and prediction.

  15. Subsurface energy storage and transport for solar-powered geysers on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Randolph L.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Brown, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    The location of active geyser-like eruptions and related features close to the current subsolar latitude on Triton suggests a solar energy source for these phenomena. Solid-state greenhouse calculations have shown that sunlight can generate substantially elevated subsurface temperatures. A variety of models for the storage of solar energy in a subgreenhouse layer and for the supply of gas and energy to a geyser are examined. 'Leaky greenhouse' models with only vertical gas transport are inconsistent with the observed upper limit on geyser radius of about 1.5 km. However, lateral transport of energy by gas flow in a porous N2 layer with a block size on the order of a meter can supply the required amount of gas to a source region about 1 km in radius. The decline of gas output to steady state may occur over a period comparable with the inferred active geyser lifetime of 5 earth years. The required subsurface permeability may be maintained by thermal fracturing of the residual N2 polar cap. A lower limit on geyser source radius of about 50 to 100 m predicted by a theory of negatively buoyant jets is not readily attained.

  16. Subsurface energy storage and transport for solar-powered geysers on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Randolph L.; Soderblom, Laurence A.; Brown, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    The location of active geyser-like eruptions and related features close to the current subsolar latitude on Triton suggests a solar energy source for these phenomena. Solid-state greenhouse calculations have shown that sunlight can generate substantially elevated subsurface temperatures. A variety of models for the storage of solar energy in a subgreenhouse layer and for the supply of gas and energy to a geyser are examined. 'Leaky greenhouse' models with only vertical gas transport are inconsistent with the observed upper limit on geyser radius of about 1.5 km. However, lateral transport of energy by gas flow in a porous N2 layer with a block size on the order of a meter can supply the required amount of gas to a source region about 1 km in radius. The decline of gas output to steady state may occur over a period comparable with the inferred active geyser lifetime of 5 earth years. The required subsurface permeability may be maintained by thermal fracturing of the residual N2 polar cap. A lower limit on geyser source radius of about 50 to 100 m predicted by a theory of negatively buoyant jets is not readily attained.

  17. Subsurface energy storage and transport for solar-powered geysers on triton.

    PubMed

    Kirk, R L; Brown, R H; Soderblom, L A

    1990-10-19

    The location of active geyser-like eruptions and related features close to the current subsolar latitude on Triton suggests a solar energy source for these phenomena. Solidstate greenhouse calculations have shown that sunlight can generate substantially elevated subsurface temperatures. A variety of models for the storage of solar energy in a sub-greenhouse layer and for the supply of gas and energy to a geyser are examined. "Leaky greenhouse" models with only vertical gas transport are inconsistent with the observed upper limit on geyser radius of approximately 1.5 kilometers. However, lateral transport of energy by gas flow in a porous N(2) layer with a block size on the order of a meter can supply the required amount of gas to a source region approximately 1 kilometer in radius. The decline of gas output to steady state may occur over a period comparable with the inferred active geyser lifetime of five Earth years. The required subsurface permeability may be maintained by thermal fracturing of the residual N2 polar cap. A lower limit on geyser source radius of approximately 50 to 100 meters predicted by a theory of negatively buoyant jets is not readily attained.

  18. Synthesis and intracellular transport of lectin and storage protein precursors in endosperm from castor bean.

    PubMed

    Lord, J M

    1985-01-15

    The biosynthesis of the lectins and the other major storage proteins, the 11S globulins and the 2S albumins, which are found in protein bodies has been studied in developing castor bean endosperm cells. Newly synthesized proteins were radiolabelled by incubating intact endosperm tissue with [35S]methionine. The intracellular distribution of radiolabelled proteins was determined after fractionating endosperm homogenates by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that all the major protein body components are initially segregated in precursor form into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. The lectin precursors appeared as a group of 64 000-68 000-Mr glycosylated polypeptides, the 11S globulins as a group of 46 000-55 000-Mr polypeptides and the 2S albumins as a single 32 500-Mr polypeptide. These precursors were transferred from the endoplasmic reticulum to a population of transporting vesicles. The subsequent disappearance of the precursors from this vesicle fraction was accompanied by the accumulation of mature polypeptides in the protein body matrix (lectins and 2S albumins) or in the insoluble protein body crystalloid complexes (11S globulins). The castor bean proteins studied all exist as heterodimers in the protein bodies. After intracellular transport an endoproteolytic step is required to release each subunit of the heterodimer from the appropriate single polypeptide precursor.

  19. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of ribosomes in a eukaryotic system: Is there a facilitated transport process

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna-Gupta, A.; Ware, V.C. )

    1989-03-01

    The authors have examined the kinetics of the process by which ribosomes are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm using Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected into the germinal vesicle with radiolabeled ribosomes or ribosomal subunits from X. laevis, Tetrahymena thermophila, or Escherichia coli. Microinjected eukaryotic mature ribosomes are redistributed into the oocyte cytoplasm by an apparent carrier-mediated transport process that exhibits saturation kinetics as increasing amounts of ribosomes are injected. T. thermophila ribosomes are competent to traverse the Xenopus nuclear envelope, suggesting that the basic mechanism underlying ribosome transport is evolutionarily conserved. Microinjected E. coli ribosomes are not transported in this system, indicating that prokaryotic ribosomes lack the signals required for transport. Surprisingly, coinjected small (40S) and large (60S) subunits from T. thermophila are transported significantly faster than individual subunits. These observations support a facilitated transport model for the translocation of ribosomal subunits as separate units across the nuclear envelope whereby the transport rate of 60S or 40S subunits is enhanced by the presence of the partner subunit. Although the basic features of the transport mechanism have been preserved through evolution, other aspects of the process may be mediated through species-specific interactions. They hypothesize that a species-specific nuclear 40S-60S subunit association may expedite the transport of individual subunits across the nuclear envelope.

  20. Transport processes in biological systems: Tumoral cells and human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    The entropy generation approach has been developed for the analysis of complex systems, with particular regards to biological systems, in order to evaluate their stationary states. The entropy generation is related to the transport processes related to exergy flows. Moreover, cancer can be described as an open complex dynamic and self-organizing system. Consequently, it is used as an example useful to evaluate the different thermo-chemical quantities of the transport processes in normal and in tumoral cells systems.

  1. A novel approach to hydrogen recovery, storage and transport: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, M.C.; Sangiovanni, J.J.

    1988-12-01

    The obtaining of high purity hydrogen from the coal gasification process is a series of chemical reactions, several of which require preparation/purification. At any point in the process, it would be useful to have a chemical separation system which can purify the product hydrogen and store it in convenient form. The purpose of this research program is to evaluate one such candidate system, the catalytically reversible hydrogenation of an aromatic hydrocarbon, toluene, to its corresponding cyclical paraffin, methylcyclohexane. In this reaction scheme, the hydrogen present in the product flow from, in principle, any reaction in the coal gasification process is extracted from the flow by reaction with toluene, a readily transportable liquid at ambient temperatures, to form methylcyclohexane, MCH, which is also a liquid at ambient conditions. The hydrogen stored in the organic hydride could therefore be transported and released when desired in the reverse reaction to give recoverable toluene and the desired hydrogen. 13 refs., 30 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. Transport induced by mean-eddy interaction: II. Analysis of transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, Kayo; Wiggins, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    We present a framework for the analysis of transport processes resulting from the mean-eddy interaction in a flow. The framework is based on the Transport Induced by the Mean-Eddy Interaction (TIME) method presented in a companion paper (Ide and Wiggins, 2014) [1]. The TIME method estimates the (Lagrangian) transport across stationary (Eulerian) boundaries defined by chosen streamlines of the mean flow. Our framework proceeds after first carrying out a sequence of preparatory steps that link the flow dynamics to the transport processes. This includes the construction of the so-called "instantaneous flux" as the Hovmöller diagram. Transport processes are studied by linking the signals of the instantaneous flux field to the dynamical variability of the flow. This linkage also reveals how the variability of the flow contributes to the transport. The spatio-temporal analysis of the flux diagram can be used to assess the efficiency of the variability in transport processes. We apply the method to the double-gyre ocean circulation model in the situation where the Rossby-wave mode dominates the dynamic variability. The spatio-temporal analysis shows that the inter-gyre transport is controlled by the circulating eddy vortices in the fast eastward jet region, whereas the basin-scale Rossby waves have very little impact.

  3. Internal Domains of Natural Porous Media Revealed: Critical Locations for Transport, Storage, and Chemical Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Brantley, Susan L.; Chorover, Jon D.; Ewing, Robert P.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Chongxuan; Perfect, E.; Rother, Gernot; Stack, Andrew G.

    2016-03-16

    Internal pore domains exist within rocks, lithic fragments, subsurface sediments and soil aggregates. These domains, which we term internal domains in porous media (IDPM), contain a significant fraction of their porosity as nanopores, dominate the reactive surface area of diverse porous media types, and are important locations for chemical reactivity and hydrocarbon storage. Traditionally difficult to interrogate, advances in instrumentation and imaging methods are providing new insights on the physical structures and chemical attributes of IDPM. In this review we: discuss analytical methods to characterize IDPM, evaluate what has been learned about their size distributions, connectivity, and extended structures; determine whether they exhibit unique chemical reactivity; and assess potential for their inclusion in reactive transport models. Three key findings are noteworthy. 1) A combination of methods now allows complete characterization of the porosity spectrum of natural materials and its connectivity; while imaging microscopies are providing three dimensional representations of the interconnected pore network. 2) Chemical reactivity in pores <10 nm is expected to be different from micro and macropores, yet research performed to date is inconclusive on the nature, direction, and magnitude of effect. 3) Existing continuum reactive transport models treat IDPM as a sub-grid feature with average, empirical, scale-dependent parameters; and are not formulated to include detailed information on pore networks. Overall we find that IDPM are key features controlling hydrocarbon release from shales in hydrofracking systems, organic matter stabilization and recalcitrance in soil, weathering and soil formation, and long term inorganic and organic contaminant behavior in the vadose zone and groundwater. We conclude with an assessment of impactful research opportunities to advance understanding of IDPM, and to incorporate their important effects in reactive transport models

  4. COBRA-SFS thermal-hydraulic analysis code for spent fuel storage and transportation casks: Models and methods

    DOE PAGES

    Michener, Thomas E.; Rector, David R.; Cuta, Judith M.

    2017-09-01

    COBRA-SFS, a thermal-hydraulics code developed for steady-state and transient analysis of multi-assembly spent-fuel storage and transportation systems, has been incorporated into the Used Nuclear Fuel-Storage, Transportation and Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System tool as a module devoted to spent fuel package thermal analysis. This paper summarizes the basic formulation of the equations and models used in the COBRA-SFS code, showing that COBRA-SFS fully captures the important physical behavior governing the thermal performance of spent fuel storage systems, with internal and external natural convection flow patterns, and heat transfer by convection, conduction, and thermal radiation. Of particular significance is themore » capability for detailed thermal radiation modeling within the fuel rod array.« less

  5. Influence of basin connectivity on sediment source, transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. R.; Mackin, G.; Lechler, P.; Lord, M.; Lorentz, S.

    2012-09-01

    The management of sediment and other non-point source (NPS) pollution has proven difficult, and requires a sound understanding of particle movement through the drainage system. The primary objective of this investigation was to obtain an understanding of NPS sediment source(s), transport, and storage within the Mkabela basin, a representative agricultural catchment within the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands of southeastern South Africa, by combining geomorphic, hydrologic and geochemical fingerprinting analyses. The Mkabela Basin can be subdivided into three distinct subcatchments that differ in their ability to transport and store sediment along the axial valley. Headwater (upper catchment) areas are characterized by extensive wetlands that act as significant sediment sinks. Mid-catchment areas, characterized by higher relief and valley gradients, exhibit few wetlands, but rather are dominated by a combination of alluvial and bedrock channels that are conducive to sediment transport. The lower catchment exhibits a low-gradient alluvial channel that is boarded by extensive riparian wetlands that accumulate large quantities of sediment (and NPS pollutants). Fingerprinting studies suggest that silt- and clay-rich layers found within wetland and reservoir deposits are derived from the erosion of fine-grained, valley bottom soils frequently utilized as vegetable fields. Coarser-grained deposits within both wetlands and reservoirs result from the erosion of sandier hillslope soils extensively utilized for sugar cane, during relatively high magnitude runoff events that are capable of transporting sand-sized sediment off the slopes. Thus, the source of sediment to the axial valley varies as a function of sediment size and runoff magnitude. Sediment export from the basin was limited until the early 1990s, in part because the upper catchment wetlands were hydrologically disconnected from lower parts of the watershed during low- to moderate flood events. The construction of a

  6. Influence of basin connectivity on sediment source, transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. R.; Mackin, G.; Lechler, P.; Lord, M.; Lorentz, S.

    2013-02-01

    The management of sediment and other non-point source (NPS) pollution has proven difficult, and requires a sound understanding of particle movement through the drainage system. The primary objective of this investigation was to obtain an understanding of NPS sediment source(s), transport, and storage within the Mkabela Basin, a representative agricultural catchment within the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands of eastern South Africa, by combining geomorphic, hydrologic and geochemical fingerprinting analyses. The Mkabela Basin can be subdivided into three distinct subcatchments that differ in their ability to transport and store sediment along the axial valley. Headwater (upper catchment) areas are characterized by extensive wetlands that act as significant sediment sinks. Mid-catchment areas, characterized by higher relief and valley gradients, exhibit few wetlands, but rather are dominated by a combination of alluvial and bedrock channels that are conducive to sediment transport. The lower catchment exhibits a low-gradient alluvial channel that is boarded by extensive riparian wetlands that accumulate large quantities of sediment (and NPS pollutants). Fingerprinting studies suggest that silt- and clay-rich layers found within wetland and reservoir deposits of the upper and upper-mid subcatchments are derived from the erosion of fine-grained, valley bottom soils frequently utilized as vegetable fields. Coarser-grained deposits within these wetlands and reservoirs result from the erosion of sandier hillslope soils extensively utilized for sugar cane, during relatively high magnitude runoff events that are capable of transporting sand-sized sediment off the slopes. Thus, the source of sediment to the axial valley varies as a function of sediment size and runoff magnitude. Sediment export from upper to lower catchment areas was limited until the early 1990s, in part because the upper catchment wetlands were hydrologically disconnected from lower parts of the watershed during

  7. Optimizing blood collection, transport and storage conditions for cell free DNA increases access to prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Wong, David; Moturi, Sharmili; Angkachatchai, Vach; Mueller, Reinhold; DeSantis, Grace; van den Boom, Dirk; Ehrich, Mathias

    2013-08-01

    Fetal mutations and fetal chromosomal abnormalities can be detected by molecular analysis of circulating cell free fetal DNA (ccffDNA) from maternal plasma. This comprehensive study was aimed to investigate and verify blood collection and blood shipping conditions that enable Noninvasive Prenatal Testing. Specifically, the impact of shipping and storage on the stability and concentration of circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in Streck® Cell-Free DNA™ Blood Collection Tubes (Streck BCTs, Streck, Omaha NE). These BCTs were designed to minimize cellular degradation, and thus effectively prevent dilution of fetal ccf DNA by maternal genomic DNA, was evaluated. Peripheral venous maternal blood was collected into Streck BCTs to investigate four aspects of handling and processing conditions: (1) time from blood draw to plasma processing; (2) storage temperature; (3) mechanical stress; and (4) lot-to-lot tube variations. Maternal blood stored in Streck BCTs for up to 7 days at ambient temperature provides stable concentrations of ccffDNA. The amount of fetal DNA did not change over a broad range of storage temperatures (4°C, 23°C, 37°C, 40°C), but the amount of total (largely maternal) DNA increased in samples stored at 23°C and above, indicating maternal cell degradation and genomic DNA release at elevated temperatures. Shipping maternal blood in Streck BCTs, did not affect sample quality. Maternal plasma DNA stabilized for 0 to 7 days in Streck BCTs can be used for non-invasive prenatal molecular applications, when temperatures are maintained within the broad parameters assessed in this study. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental simulation of latent heat thermal energy storage and heat pipe thermal transport for dish concentrator solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, R.; Zimmerman, W. F.; Poon, P. T. Y.

    1981-01-01

    Test results on a modular simulation of the thermal transport and heat storage characteristics of a heat pipe solar receiver (HPSR) with thermal energy storage (TES) are presented. The HPSR features a 15-25 kWe Stirling engine power conversion system at the focal point of a parabolic dish concentrator operating at 827 C. The system collects and retrieves solar heat with sodium pipes and stores the heat in NaF-MgF2 latent heat storage material. The trials were run with a single full scale heat pipe, three full scale TES containers, and an air-cooled heat extraction coil to replace the Stirling engine heat exchanger. Charging and discharging, constant temperature operation, mixed mode operation, thermal inertial, etc. were studied. The heat pipe performance was verified, as were the thermal energy storage and discharge rates and isothermal discharges.

  9. Experimental simulation of latent heat thermal energy storage and heat pipe thermal transport for dish concentrator solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, R.; Zimmerman, W. F.; Poon, P. T. Y.

    1981-01-01

    Test results on a modular simulation of the thermal transport and heat storage characteristics of a heat pipe solar receiver (HPSR) with thermal energy storage (TES) are presented. The HPSR features a 15-25 kWe Stirling engine power conversion system at the focal point of a parabolic dish concentrator operating at 827 C. The system collects and retrieves solar heat with sodium pipes and stores the heat in NaF-MgF2 latent heat storage material. The trials were run with a single full scale heat pipe, three full scale TES containers, and an air-cooled heat extraction coil to replace the Stirling engine heat exchanger. Charging and discharging, constant temperature operation, mixed mode operation, thermal inertial, etc. were studied. The heat pipe performance was verified, as were the thermal energy storage and discharge rates and isothermal discharges.

  10. 41 CFR 302-7.16 - Must I use the methods selected by my agency for transportation and temporary storage of my HHG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT, (PBP&E) AND BAGGAGE ALLOWANCE General Rules § 302-7.16 Must I use the methods selected by my agency for transportation and temporary storage of my HHG and PBP&E? No, you do not... selected by my agency for transportation and temporary storage of my HHG and PBP&E? 302-7.16 Section...

  11. 41 CFR 302-7.16 - Must I use the methods selected by my agency for transportation and temporary storage of my HHG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) General Rules § 302-7.16 Must I use the methods selected by my agency for transportation and temporary storage of my HHG and PBP&E? No, you do not have to use the... selected by my agency for transportation and temporary storage of my HHG and PBP&E? 302-7.16 Section...

  12. 41 CFR 302-7.16 - Must I use the methods selected by my agency for transportation and temporary storage of my HHG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) General Rules § 302-7.16 Must I use the methods selected by my agency for transportation and temporary storage of my HHG and PBP&E? No, you do not have to use the... selected by my agency for transportation and temporary storage of my HHG and PBP&E? 302-7.16 Section...

  13. Thermodynamically coupled mass transport processes in a saturated clay

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1984-11-01

    Gradients of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition in saturated clays give rise to coupled transport processes (thermal and chemical osmosis, thermal diffusion, ultrafiltration) in addition to the direct processes (advection and diffusion). One-dimensional transport of water and a solute in a saturated clay subjected to mild gradients of temperature and pressure was simulated numerically. When full coupling was accounted for, volume flux (specific discharge) was controlled by thermal osmosis and chemical osmosis. The two coupled fluxes were oppositely directed, producing a point of stagnation within the clay column. Solute flows were dominated by diffusion, chemical osmosis, and thermal osmosis. Chemical osmosis produced a significant flux of solute directed against the gradient of solute concentration; this effect reduced solute concentrations relative to the case without coupling. Predictions of mass transport in clays at nuclear waste repositories could be significantly in error if coupled transport processes are not accounted for. 14 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  14. Transport processes in the middle atmosphere: Reflections after MAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, W. L.

    1989-01-01

    The Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) has provided a focus for considerable research on atmospherical radiative, chemical, and dynamical processes and the mutual coupling among these processes. In particular, major advances have occurred in the understanding of constituent transport as a result of near-global measurements obtained during MAP from several satellite based instruments (e.g., LIMS, SAMS, SAGE, and SSU among others). Using selected portions of these data, the development is reviewed of progress in understanding transport processes with special emphasis on dynamically active periods. Examples are presented which demonstrate coupling between chemistry and dynamics. In addition to the constituent data, the use is reviewed of Ertel's potential vorticity, inferred from satellite temperature data, as a diagnostic for interpreting transport phenomena. Finally, the use is briefly illustrated of 3-D model simulations, in conjunction with the satellite data, for providing additional insight into fundamental transport mechanisms.

  15. Strawberry puree processed by thermal, high pressure, or power ultrasound: Process energy requirements and quality modeling during storage.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Alifdalino; Farid, Mohammed; Silva, Filipa Vm

    2017-06-01

    Strawberry puree was processed for 15 min using thermal (65 ℃), high-pressure processing (600 MPa, 48 ℃), and ultrasound (24 kHz, 1.3 W/g, 33 ℃). These conditions were selected based on similar polyphenoloxidase inactivation (11%-18%). The specific energies required for the above-mentioned thermal, high-pressure processing, and power ultrasound processes were 240, 291, and 1233 kJ/kg, respectively. Then, the processed strawberry was stored at 3 ℃ and room temperature for 30 days. The constant pH (3.38±0.03) and soluble solids content (9.03 ± 0.25°Brix) during storage indicated a microbiological stability. Polyphenoloxidase did not reactivate during storage. The high-pressure processing and ultrasound treatments retained the antioxidant activity (70%-74%) better than the thermal process (60%), and high-pressure processing was the best treatment after 30 days of ambient storage to preserve antioxidant activity. Puree treated with ultrasound presented more color retention after processing and after ambient storage than the other preservation methods. For the three treatments, the changes of antioxidant activity and total color difference during storage were described by the fractional conversion model with rate constants k ranging between 0.03-0.09 and 0.06-0.22 day (- 1), respectively. In resume, high-pressure processing and thermal processes required much less energy than ultrasound for the same polyphenoloxidase inactivation in strawberry. While high-pressure processing retained better the antioxidant activity of the strawberry puree during storage, the ultrasound treatment was better in terms of color retention.

  16. Geochemical processes during five years of aquifer storage recovery.

    PubMed

    Herczeg, Andrew L; Rattray, Karen J; Dillon, Peter J; Pavelic, Paul; Barry, Karen E

    2004-01-01

    A key factor in the long-term viability of aquifer storage recovery (ASR) is the extent of mineral solution interaction between two dissimilar water types and consequent impact on water quality and aquifer stability. We collected geochemical and isotopic data from three observation wells located 25, 65, and 325 m from an injection well at an experimental ASR site located in a karstic, confined carbonate aquifer in South Australia. The experiment involved five major injection cycles of a total of 2.5 x 10(5) m3 of storm water (total dissolved solids [TDS] approximately 150 mg/L) into the brackish (TDS approximately 2400 mg/L) aquifer. Approximately 60% of the mixture was pumped out during the fifth year of the experiment. The major effect on water quality within a 25 m radius of the injection well following injection of storm water was carbonate dissolution (35 +/- 6 g of CaCO3 dissolved/m3 of aquifer) and sulfide mineral oxidation (50 +/- 10 g as FeS2/m3 after one injection). < 0.005% of the total aquifer carbonate matrix was dissolved during each injection event, and approximately 0.2% of the total reduced sulfur. Increasing amounts of ambient ground water was entrained into the injected mixture during each of the storage periods. High 14C(DIC) activities and slightly more negative delta13C(DIC) values measured immediately after injection events show that substantial CO2(aq) is produced by oxidation of organic matter associated with injectant. There were no detectable geochemical reactions while pumping during the recovery phase in the fifth year of the experiment.

  17. Atomic physics processes in radial transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.

    1983-02-01

    These lectures were intended as preparation for detailed discussions of the role of atomic and molecular physics in confinement research at the 1982 NATO Advanced Study Institute. They begin with a description of the major approaches to magnetic confinement: tandem (ambipolar) mirrors with their associated auxiliary barriers, tokamaks, and stellarators. The leading alternatives, the ELMO Bumpy Torus and the reversed field pinch, are also treated. The evolution equations for particle, energy, and (where relevant) field diffusion are presented and discussed. This is the context for atomic and molecular processes relevant to confinement.

  18. Processing and transport of environmental virus samples.

    PubMed Central

    Dahling, D R; Wright, B A

    1984-01-01

    Poliovirus-seeded tap water, conditioned with MgCl2 and passed through virus-adsorbing filters, gave better poliovirus recovery than water identically treated but conditioned with AlCl3. Elution of several filter types with beef extract yielded higher recoveries than did elution with glycine. Seeded samples filtered through various filters and stored showed considerable virus loss in 2 days when stored at 4 degrees C, whereas those stored at -70 degrees C gave stable virus recovery up to 4 days. Additionally, the use of antifoam during the elution process reduced foaming and increased virus recovery by 28%. PMID:6331312

  19. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  20. 41 CFR 302-9.11 - May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my POV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my POV? 302-9.11 Section 302-9.11 Public... General Rules § 302-9.11 May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my... storage of your POV. Effective Date Note: By FTR Amdt. 2011-01, 76 FR 18342, Apr. 1, 2011, § 302-9.11...

  1. Modular tube/plate-based sample management: a business model optimized for scalable storage and processing.

    PubMed

    Fillers, W Steven

    2004-12-01

    Modular approaches to sample management allow staged implementation and progressive expansion of libraries within existing laboratory space. A completely integrated, inert atmosphere system for the storage and processing of a variety of microplate and microtube formats is currently available as an integrated series of individual modules. Liquid handling for reformatting and replication into microplates, plus high-capacity cherry picking, can be performed within the inert environmental envelope to maximize compound integrity. Complete process automation provides ondemand access to samples and improved process control. Expansion of such a system provides a low-risk tactic for implementing a large-scale storage and processing system.

  2. Optimizing Cloud Based Image Storage, Dissemination and Processing Through Use of Mrf and Lerc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter; Plesea, Lucian; Maurer, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The volume and numbers of geospatial images being collected continue to increase exponentially with the ever increasing number of airborne and satellite imaging platforms, and the increasing rate of data collection. As a result, the cost of fast storage required to provide access to the imagery is a major cost factor in enterprise image management solutions to handle, process and disseminate the imagery and information extracted from the imagery. Cloud based object storage offers to provide significantly lower cost and elastic storage for this imagery, but also adds some disadvantages in terms of greater latency for data access and lack of traditional file access. Although traditional file formats geoTIF, JPEG2000 and NITF can be downloaded from such object storage, their structure and available compression are not optimum and access performance is curtailed. This paper provides details on a solution by utilizing a new open image formats for storage and access to geospatial imagery optimized for cloud storage and processing. MRF (Meta Raster Format) is optimized for large collections of scenes such as those acquired from optical sensors. The format enables optimized data access from cloud storage, along with the use of new compression options which cannot easily be added to existing formats. The paper also provides an overview of LERC a new image compression that can be used with MRF that provides very good lossless and controlled lossy compression.

  3. Development, testing and practical use of two special containment vessels for storage and transportation of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Dikken, H. den

    1995-12-31

    The storage and transportation of high explosives gives many logistic managers a headache, especially when it comes to forwarding of small quantities. Air transport is limited to 1.4 explosives on cargo aircraft and 1.4S classified explosives on passenger aircraft, so most samples cannot be transported by air. Ocean transport is a possibility, but due to stowage and segregation regulations of the IMDG code, a very expensive one. Road transport is often the only solution, but high explosives require special trucks with licensed drivers. The solution to these logistic problems is solved by creating a 1.4S (Class C) classification for all high explosives, when packed in special containment vessels.

  4. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed black raspberry products.

    PubMed

    Hager, A; Howard, L R; Prior, R L; Brownmiller, C

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of black raspberries that were individually quick-frozen (IQF), canned-in-syrup, canned-in-water, pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and ORAC(FL) were determined 1 d postprocessing and after 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 37% in puree to 69% to 73% in nonclarified and clarified juices, respectively, but only the juices showed substantial losses (38% to 41%) in ORAC(FL). Storage at 25 degrees C of all thermally processed products resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 49% in canned-in-syrup to 75% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Total anthocyanins and ORACFL of IQF berries were well retained during long-term storage at -20 degrees C.

  5. Electrochemical and mechanical processes at surfaces and interfaces of advanced materials for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feifei

    Energy storage is a rapidly emerging field. In almost all energy storage applications, surfaces and interfaces are playing dominant roles. Examples are fuel cell electrodes, where electro-catalytic reactions occur, Li-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, where electrolyte decomposition and passivation commence simultaneously, and failure (fracture) of battery electrodes, where surface crack initiation greatly affects battery endurance. The most fundamental chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical problems in energy storage applications originate from surfaces and interfaces. This thesis investigates the electrochemical and mechanical processes at surfaces and interfaces of advanced materials for energy applications. The thesis includes the following five main research topics. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  6. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Midwestern high-level radioactive waste transportation project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  7. Some estimates of transport processes in Long Island Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmazin, D.

    1983-03-20

    A parametric description of lateral and vertical oscillatory transport in two segments of Long Island Sound is presented. The vertical eddy viscosity and diffusivity coefficients are estimated on the basis of a model for turbulent kinetic energy transfer. Characteristics of horizontal mixing are examined by means of dimensional analysis. The relative importance of the mechanisms controlling mass distribution in the estuary is evaluated by calculating longitudinal dispersion coefficients in a form introduced by Fisher (1972). It is shown that the mass transport in Long Island Sound is governed mainly by two processes: lateral turbulent dispersion and net longitudinal transport caused by the density gradients.

  8. Role of glutathione transport processes in kidney function

    SciTech Connect

    Lash, Lawrence H. . E-mail: l.h.lash@wayne.edu

    2005-05-01

    The kidneys are highly dependent on an adequate supply of glutathione (GSH) to maintain normal function. This is due, in part, to high rates of aerobic metabolism, particularly in the proximal tubules. Additionally, the kidneys are potentially exposed to high concentrations of oxidants and reactive electrophiles. Renal cellular concentrations of GSH are maintained by both intracellular synthesis and transport from outside the cell. Although function of specific carriers has not been definitively demonstrated, it is likely that multiple carriers are responsible for plasma membrane transport of GSH. Data suggest that the organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 and the sodium-dicarboxylate 2 exchanger (SDCT2 or NaDC3) mediate uptake across the basolateral plasma membrane (BLM) and that the organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP1 and at least one of the multidrug resistance proteins mediate efflux across the brush-border plasma membrane (BBM). BLM transport may be used pharmacologically to provide renal proximal tubular cells with exogenous GSH to protect against oxidative stress whereas BBM transport functions physiologically in turnover of cellular GSH. The mitochondrial GSH pool is derived from cytoplasmic GSH by transport into the mitochondrial matrix and is mediated by the dicarboxylate and 2-oxoglutarate exchangers. Maintenance of the mitochondrial GSH pool is critical for cellular and mitochondrial redox homeostasis and is important in determining susceptibility to chemically induced apoptosis. Hence, membrane transport processes are critical to regulation of renal cellular and subcellular GSH pools and are determinants of susceptibility to cytotoxicity induced by oxidants and electrophiles.

  9. Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes

    SciTech Connect

    B. Robinson

    2000-04-07

    The purpose of the transport methodology and component analysis is to provide the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport and model setup for transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated into the FEHM computer code and the resulting changes in the FEHM code are to be submitted to the software configuration management system. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining colloid-facilitated transport parameters are outlined for use in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses. Concurrently, process-level flow model calculations are being carrier out in a PMR for the unsaturated zone. The computer code TOUGH2 is being used to generate three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields, that are supplied to the Performance Assessment group for subsequent transport simulations. These flow fields are converted to input files compatible with the FEHM code, which for this application simulates radionuclide transport using the particle-tracking algorithm outlined in this AMR. Therefore, this AMR establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model, but the specific breakthrough curves presented do not necessarily represent the behavior of the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone.

  10. Quantum Transport in Solids: Two-Electron Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-01

    The central objective of this research program has been to study theoretically the underlying principles of quantum transport in solids. The area of...research investigated has emphasized the understanding of two electron processes in quantum transport . The problems have been treated analytically to...the extent possible through the use of dynamical localized Wannier functions. These results have been and are being incorporated in a full quantum

  11. Quantum Transport in Solids: Two-Electron Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    The central objective of this research program has been to study theoretically the underlying principles of quantum transport in solids. The area of...research investigated has emphasized the understanding of two electron processes in quantum transport . The problems have been treated analytically to...the extent possible through the use of dynamical localized Wannier functions. These results have been and are being incorporated in a full quantum

  12. Effect of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of exhaled breath samples on diagnostic accuracy of electronic nose analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Brinkman, P; Bos, L D J; Angelo, M D; Nijsen, T M E; Raabe, R; Knobel, H H; Vink, T J; Sterk, P J

    2013-03-01

    Many (multi-centre) breath-analysis studies require transport and storage of samples. We aimed to test the effect of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of exhaled breath samples for diagnostic accuracy of eNose and GC-MS analysis. As a reference standard for diagnostic accuracy, breath samples of asthmatic patients and healthy controls were analysed by three eNose devices. Samples were analysed by GC-MS and eNose after 1, 7 and 14 days of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes. The diagnostic accuracy for eNose and GC-MS after storage was compared to the reference standard. As a validation, the stability was assessed of 15 compounds known to be related to asthma, abundant in breath or related to sampling and analysis. The reference test discriminated asthma and healthy controls with a median AUC (range) of 0.77 (0.72-0.76). Similar accuracies were achieved at t1 (AUC eNose 0.78; GC-MS 0.84), t7 (AUC eNose 0.76; GC-MS 0.79) and t14 (AUC eNose 0.83; GC-MS 0.84). The GC-MS analysis of compounds showed an adequate stability for all 15 compounds during the 14 day period. Short-term transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of breath samples does not influence the diagnostic accuracy for discrimination between asthma and health by eNose and GC-MS.

  13. Cold and ambient deck storage prior to processing as a critical control point for patulin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Morales, Héctor; Marín, Sonia; Centelles, Xavier; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente

    2007-05-10

    Patulin, a mycotoxin produced primarily by Penicillium expansum, is currently of great concern because of its undesirable effects in human health. It has been proven that patulin can damage organs and tissues in animals and some studies revealed carcinogenic and teratogenic effects. Patulin is found mainly in low quality apples diverted to production of apple by-products. Apples from cold storage or recently harvested (usually ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient conditions (deck storage) until they are processed. The present assay studies the consequences of this type of storage in development of lesions and patulin accumulation. The assayed factors were the size of lesions when apples were taken out from cold storage, time the apples stayed at room temperature after cold storage (as a simulation of deck storage) and intraspecific differences between 2 isolates of P. expansum. A sublot of P. expansum inoculated apples was cold stored until lesions achieved concrete sizes. Then, apples were either transferred to a 20 degrees C storage room for 0 to 5 days or were analysed for patulin immediately. The rest of the apples were directly stored at 20 degrees C. Each treatment had three replicates. Increase of lesion size with time at 20 degrees C depended on initial lesion size after cold storage. Bigger lesions were always achieved in apples with bigger initial lesion size. Initial lesion size and time at 20 degrees C significantly influenced patulin accumulation. No significant amounts of patulin were found in apples with lesions up to 2 cm after cold storage. Patulin amounts significantly increased on the 2nd day at 20 degrees C day and remained constant until the 5th day. Patulin accumulation tended to be higher when initial lesions were bigger. The assay showed the influence of apple quality (measured as overall lesion size) after cold storage on patulin accumulation during deck storage, as well as the importance of duration of deck

  14. Insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose transport in horses with equine polysaccharide storage myopathy.

    PubMed

    Annandale, Erin J; Valberg, Stephanie J; Mickelson, James R; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2004-10-01

    Equine polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) is an inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of glycogen and abnormal polysaccharide in muscle with normal glyco(geno)lytic enzyme activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo insulin sensitivity and glucose excursion in PSSM using a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. In addition, the content of muscle glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4) and the insulin receptor was determined in muscle biopsies using Western blot analysis. The glycogen content was 1.8-fold higher, and isolated polysaccharide analyzed by iodine absorption spectra, was less branched in equine PSSM. Throughout the clamp, the affected horses required a higher rate of glucose infusion to maintain euglycemia. Although GLUT1 content was lower, the total content of GLUT4 and insulin receptor was not different in myopathic vs. control horses. PSSM therefore represents a novel disorder where enhanced insulin sensitivity and elevated glucose excursion leads to increased synthesis of muscle glycogen, which in our horses appears to be independent of augmented GLUT4 or IR quantity.

  15. Systems thinking applied to safety during manual handling tasks in the transport and storage industry.

    PubMed

    Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Hillard, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Injuries resulting from manual handling tasks represent an on-going problem for the transport and storage industry. This article describes an application of a systems theory-based approach, Rasmussen's (1997. Safety Science 27, 183), risk management framework, to the analysis of the factors influencing safety during manual handling activities in a freight handling organisation. Observations of manual handling activities, cognitive decision method interviews with workers (n=27) and interviews with managers (n=35) were used to gather information about three manual handling activities. Hierarchical task analysis and thematic analysis were used to identify potential risk factors and performance shaping factors across the levels of Rasmussen's framework. These different data sources were then integrated using Rasmussen's Accimap technique to provide an overall analysis of the factors influencing safety during manual handling activities in this context. The findings demonstrate how a systems theory-based approach can be applied to this domain, and suggest that policy-orientated, rather than worker-orientated, changes are required to prevent future manual handling injuries.

  16. Effects of aspirin on expression of iron transport and storage proteins in BV-2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan Xin; Du, Fang; Jiang, Li Rong; Gong, Jing; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Luo, Qian Qian; Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2015-12-01

    In the light of recent studies, we hypothesized that aspirin might have the functions to regulate the expression of iron transport proteins and then affect cellular iron levels. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of aspirin on expression of iron uptake protein transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), iron release protein ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) and iron storage protein ferritin using Western blot analysis and on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αlpha, interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-10 and hepcidin using quantitative real-time PCR in BV-2 microglial cells treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We found that aspirin significantly down-regulated TfR1, while also up-regulated Fpn1 and ferritin expressions in BV-2 microglial cells in vitro. We also showed that TfR1 and Fpn1 expressions were significantly higher, while ferritin contents, IL-6, TNF-alpha and hepcidin mRNA levels were lower in cells treated with aspirin plus LPS than those in cells treated with LPS only. We concluded that aspirin has a negative effect on cell iron contents under 'normal' conditions and could partly reverse LPS-induced-disruption in cell iron balance under in vitro inflammatory conditions. Our findings also suggested that hepcidin might play a dominant role in the control of TfR1 expression by aspirin in the cells treated with LPS.

  17. Proceedings of a workshop on uses of depleted uranium in storage, transportation and repository facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    A workshop on the potential uses of depleted uranium (DU) in the repository was organized to coordinate the planning of future activities. The attendees, the original workshop objective and the agenda are provided in Appendices A, B and C. After some opening remarks and discussions, the objectives of the workshop were revised to: (1) exchange information and views on the status of the Department of Energy (DOE) activities related to repository design and planning; (2) exchange information on DU management and planning; (3) identify potential uses of DU in the storage, transportation, and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel; and (4) define the future activities that would be needed if potential uses were to be further evaluated and developed. This summary of the workshop is intended to be an integrated resource for planning of any future work related to DU use in the repository. The synopsis of the first day`s presentations is provided in Appendix D. Copies of slides from each presenter are presented in Appendix E.

  18. Characterization of Regolith Volatile Transport and Storage Properties by The MECA MSP 2001 Lander Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M.; Marshall, J.

    1999-01-01

    The diffusive and adsorptive properties of the Martian regolith influence the exchange of volatiles between the atmosphere and subsurface. Our quantitative knowledge of these properties is extremely poor -introducing substantial uncertainties in efforts to model long-term evolution of ground ice and diurnal, seasonal, and climatic cycles of CO2 and H20. This situation should significantly improve upon arrival of the 2001 Mars Surveyor Lander in 2002. In support of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise, the 2001 mission will include a suite of instruments to characterize the nature of the Martian environment and assess whether it contains hazards that may threaten future human exploration. A major element of this effort is the Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) payload, which consists an optical microscopy system incorporating electrostatic, magnetic, and scratch-hardness materials testing palets, an atomic force microscope with imaging capabilities comparable to an SEM, a wet chemistry laboratory with four independent test cells, an electrometer on the robotic arm, material test patches, a camera also mounted on the arm, and a soil scoop for excavating down to about 50 cm into the soil. Although conceived to address the needs of HEDS, MECA payload is a sophisticated soil science laboratory that should provide a wealth of new data relevant to the volatile transport and storage properties of the regolith. Additional information os contained in the original.

  19. Characterization of Regolith Volatile Transport and Storage Properties by The MECA MSP 2001 Lander Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M.; Marshall, J.

    1999-01-01

    The diffusive and adsorptive properties of the Martian regolith influence the exchange of volatiles between the atmosphere and subsurface. Our quantitative knowledge of these properties is extremely poor -introducing substantial uncertainties in efforts to model long-term evolution of ground ice and diurnal, seasonal, and climatic cycles of CO2 and H20. This situation should significantly improve upon arrival of the 2001 Mars Surveyor Lander in 2002. In support of the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise, the 2001 mission will include a suite of instruments to characterize the nature of the Martian environment and assess whether it contains hazards that may threaten future human exploration. A major element of this effort is the Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) payload, which consists an optical microscopy system incorporating electrostatic, magnetic, and scratch-hardness materials testing palets, an atomic force microscope with imaging capabilities comparable to an SEM, a wet chemistry laboratory with four independent test cells, an electrometer on the robotic arm, material test patches, a camera also mounted on the arm, and a soil scoop for excavating down to about 50 cm into the soil. Although conceived to address the needs of HEDS, MECA payload is a sophisticated soil science laboratory that should provide a wealth of new data relevant to the volatile transport and storage properties of the regolith. Additional information os contained in the original.

  20. Role of invertase activity in processing quality of potatoes: Effect of storage temperature and duration.

    PubMed

    Bandana; Sharma, Vineet; Singh, Brajesh; Raigond, Pinky; Kaushik, S K

    2016-03-01

    Invertase activity and processing attributes of three potato cultivars were studied to find the reason for deterioration of processing quality during their prolonged storage in commercial cold stores (4°C) as compared to elevated temperature storage (12 ± 0.5°C), with CIPC {Isopropyl-N-(3-Cholorophenyl) carbamate}. Lower storage temperature (4°C) tended to be more effective in increasing invertase activity of potato tubers than elevated temperature. Non-processing cultivar viz., Kufri Pukhraj resulted in accumulation of more invertase activity than relatively two processing cultivars. Kufri Chipsona-1 and Kufri Chipsona-3 at 12 ± 0.5°C possessed basal invertase activity ranging from 39.3 to 79.8 and 54.1 to 93.8 (pmoles hexose h⁻¹ g⁻¹ f.wt.) respectively, during two years. Total invertase activity at 4°C increased abruptly and remained high from 30 to 60 days of storage. The activity progressively reached 90.6 to 106.6 and 81.4 to 101.3 during both the years respectively, after 60 days of storage to that observed initially. Reducing sugar content increased from 23.3 to 105.7 and 389.0 to 1138.2 (mg 100g⁻¹ f.wt.) after 90 days of storage at 12 ± 0.5°C and 4°C, respectively. Studies concluded that basal and total invertase, were responsible for cold-induced sweetening and resulted in deterioration of processing quality of potatoes during storage at 4°C. Since this activity is low at 12 ± 0.5°C, the processing traits remained acceptable to industry and consumers.

  1. Solar collector panels (process-method). Rainwater collection and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mowery, J.W.

    1981-10-15

    A process for producing panels for solar heating of potable water is described. The panels have PVC tubing flat-coiled into square or rectangular shapes. Also described is a cistern for collecting and storing rainwater. (LEW)

  2. Processing of aluminum 7075-T73 components after prolonged storage

    SciTech Connect

    Guilinger, T.R.; Stevenson, J.O.; Yang, R.G.; Buchheit, R.G.; Schmale, D.T.; Shin, K.; Martinez, F.E.; Webb, L.; Stimetz, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    Three years ago, production requirements for a T73-tempered aluminium 7075 (Al 7075-T73) component were curtailed and the ``in-process`` parts were stored. During recent attempts to complete processing, visible defects were discovered in this component. Defects at such an early stage in the 20+ year lifetime of the component pose reliability concerns. Chemical and microstructural analysis, mechanical testing, and corrosion evaluation were performed to determine the impact of the defects on material properties.

  3. Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes

    SciTech Connect

    B. Robinson

    2004-10-21

    The purpose of this report is to document the abstraction model being used in total system performance assessment (TSPA) model calculations for radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ). The UZ transport abstraction model uses the particle-tracking method that is incorporated into the finite element heat and mass model (FEHM) computer code (Zyvoloski et al. 1997 [DIRS 100615]) to simulate radionuclide transport in the UZ. This report outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining and inputting transport parameters are outlined for use in the TSPA for license application (LA) analyses. Process-level transport model calculations are documented in another report for the UZ (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). Three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields generated to characterize UZ flow (documented by BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]; DTN: LB03023DSSCP9I.001 [DIRS 163044]) are converted to make them compatible with the FEHM code for use in this abstraction model. This report establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model that is intended to represent UZ transport in the TSPA-LA. Capability of the UZ barrier for retarding the transport is demonstrated in this report, and by the underlying process model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). The technical scope, content, and management of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Transport Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171282]). Deviations from the technical work plan (TWP) are noted within the text of this report, as appropriate. The latest version of this document is being prepared principally to correct parameter values found to be in error due to transcription errors, changes in source data that were not captured in the report, calculation errors, and errors in interpretation of source data.

  4. Development of a re-brazeable containment system for special nuclear material storage and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, J.D.; Stephens, J.J.; Walker, C.A.; Hosking, F.M.; Curlee, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes a novel means of closing and sealing small type B radioactive material transport packages for surface or air transport as governed by 10CFR71 or NUREG-0360 has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This method is a controlled brazing process that may be used to attach and seal a closure lid to a containment vessel and then remove it at a later time. The process may be performed multiple times without the need for special preparations of the braze joint. A number of advantages for utilization of this technique have been determined. A brazed seal has integrity at high temperatures for better protection in accident or abnormal environments. A properly designed joint has essentially the same strength as the parent metal. A closure that is brazed, therefore, will no longer be the anticipated point of failure for a broad range of accident environments. This technique will allow the containment vessel design to be optimized with a lighter, more uniform wall thickness throughout. Finally, with a well defined process for sealing, mechanical inspection, leak testing, and then reopening at a later time, automation of the process is relatively straightforward and the overall system should be as easy to use as one that utilizes elastomeric seals for containment.

  5. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biochemical changes during the storage of high hydrostatic pressure processed avocado paste.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Velázquez, D A; Hernández-Brenes, C

    2010-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing improves the shelf life of avocado paste without a significant impact on flavor; however, scarce information is available on biochemical modifications during its extended storage period. The present study focused on the changes in oxidative enzyme activities of pressurized avocado paste (600 MPa for 3 min) during refrigerated storage (45 d at 4 degrees C). Aerobic plate counts (APC), lactic acid bacteria counts (LAB), pH, and instrumental color were also evaluated during storage. Processing with HHP caused a decrease in polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, resulting in residual enzyme levels of 50.72% and 55.16%, respectively. Although instrumental color values didn't change significantly during the evaluated storage period, both enzymes (PPO and LOX) recuperated their activities at 10 to 15 d of storage, reached the original values observed in the fresh paste, and then started a declining phase until the end of the storage period. Pulp pH presented a consistent decline during the first 20 d of storage. LAB counts were very low during storage, discarding lactic acid production as responsible for the observed pH decline. Enzyme reactivation, cell disruption, and a gradual migration of intracellular components such as organic acids are herein proposed as the main mechanisms for the deterioration of HHP treated avocado paste during its refrigerated storage. Practical Application: At the present, HHP is the most effective commercial nonthermal technology to process avocado paste when compared to thermal and chemical alternatives. Although it has proven to be an excellent product-technology match, little information is known on the biochemical changes that take place in the product during its refrigerated shelf life. Biochemical reactions during storage are important, since they can influence avocado paste nutritional and flavor qualities at the time of product consumption. The present study reports for

  7. Recovery Act: 'Carbonsheds' as a Framework for Optimizing United States Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Pipeline Transport on a Regional to National Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Pratson, Lincoln

    2012-11-30

    Carbonsheds are regions in which the estimated cost of transporting CO{sub 2} from any (plant) location in the region to the storage site it encompasses is cheaper than piping the CO{sub 2} to a storage site outside the region. We use carbonsheds to analyze the cost of transport and storage of CO{sub 2} in deploying CCS on land and offshore of the continental U.S. We find that onshore the average cost of transport and storage within carbonsheds is roughly $10/t when sources cooperate to reduce transport costs, with the costs increasing as storage options are depleted over time. Offshore transport and storage costs by comparison are found to be roughly twice as expensive but t may still be attractive because of easier access to property rights for sub-seafloor storage as well as a simpler regulatory system, and possibly lower MMV requirements, at least in the deep-ocean where pressures and temperatures would keep the CO{sub 2} negatively buoyant. Agent-based modeling of CCS deployment within carbonsheds under various policy scenarios suggests that the most cost-effective strategy at this point in time is to focus detailed geology characterization of storage potential on only the largest onshore reservoirs where the potential for mitigating emissions is greatest and the cost of storage appears that it will be among the cheapest.

  8. Bedrock Control on Slope Gradients in the Luckiamute Watershed, Central Coast Range, Oregon: Implications for Sediment Transport and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. B.

    2002-12-01

    -flow hazard models released by the Oregon Department of Forestry, suggesting that hillslopes in the Tyee Domain are most prone to slope failure (percent of domain area in hazard zone: Tyee = 38.1, Siletz = 30.2, Yamhill = 24.6, and Valley Fill = 0.7). Morphometric analysis of valley widths at 500 m increments shows that drainage across the Tyee Domain covers a much wider swath of valley floor (average valley width = 274 m) compared to a similar-sized drainage area in the Yamhill Domain (average valley width = 109 m). These data suggest that bedrock lithology exerts a strong control on hillslope morphology, style of hillslope process, and valley erosion dynamics in headwater portions of the Luckiamute. The interplay between hillslope transport mechanisms, delivery rates, and channel hydraulics control the volume of sediment exported or stored within a mountainous watershed. The comparatively steep, debris-flow-prone slopes and wide valley bottoms in the Tyee Domain indicate a potential for hillslope transport rates to be greater than the ability of the channel system to export sediment. Analytical results presented herein provide a preliminary dataset upon which to build a field-based sediment-storage budget for the Luckiamute watershed. The working hypothesis is that the Tyee Domain has a significantly greater volume of valley-bottom sediment in storage compared to the other upland domains (Siletz, Yamhill). The model implies that spatial variation of bedrock lithology is a primary factor controlling slope gradients, hillslope delivery rates, and the resulting sediment-transport efficiency of the channel system.

  9. Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.F.

    1998-09-22

    Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1--5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric. 5 figs.

  10. Gathering Information from Transport Systems for Processing in Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodym, Oldřich; Unucka, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Paper deals with complex system for processing information from means of transport acting as parts of train (rail or road). It focuses on automated information gathering using AutoID technology, information transmission via Internet of Things networks and information usage in information systems of logistic firms for support of selected processes on MES and ERP levels. Different kinds of gathered information from whole transport chain are discussed. Compliance with existing standards is mentioned. Security of information in full life cycle is integral part of presented system. Design of fully equipped system based on synthesized functional nodes is presented.

  11. Electro-osmotic transport in wet processing of textiles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    1998-01-01

    Electro-osmotic (or electrokinetic) transport is used to efficiently force a solution (or water) through the interior of the fibers or yarns of textile materials for wet processing of textiles. The textile material is passed between electrodes that apply an electric field across the fabric. Used alone or in parallel with conventional hydraulic washing (forced convection), electro-osmotic transport greatly reduces the amount of water used in wet processing. The amount of water required to achieve a fixed level of rinsing of tint can be reduced, for example, to 1-5 lbs water per pound of fabric from an industry benchmark of 20 lbs water/lb fabric.

  12. Using hydraulic equivalences to discriminate transport processes of volcanic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgisser, Alain; Gardner, James E.

    2006-03-01

    We characterized stratified deposits from the Upper Toluca Pumice at Toluca volcano, Mexico, to distinguish the various modes of transport at play in their genesis. Using the concept of hydraulic equivalence, we determined that deposits resulted from a combination of suspended-load fallout, saltation, and rolling. In particular, some well-sorted coarse stratified beds have a single pumice mode most likely indicative of clasts having traveled through both the transport system and the traction bed. Such beds are likely remnants of the sorting operated within the large-scale transport system. Other coarse beds have pumice and lithic modes suggesting rolling in the traction bed. We propose that boundary layer processes control the sorting of those beds and all finer beds. By helping to discriminate between transport mechanisms, hydraulic equivalences have a general applicability in geophysical flows involving clasts of contrasted densities.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Minus Eighty Lab Freezer for ISS (MELFI), provided as Laboratory Support Equipment by the European Space Agency for the International Space Station, is seen in the Space Station Processing Facility. The lab will provide cooling and storage for reagents, samples and perishable materials in four insulated containers called dewars with independently selectable temperatures of -80°C, -26°C, and +4°C. It also will be used to transport samples to and from the station. The MELFI is planned for launch on the ULF-1 mission.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The Minus Eighty Lab Freezer for ISS (MELFI), provided as Laboratory Support Equipment by the European Space Agency for the International Space Station, is seen in the Space Station Processing Facility. The lab will provide cooling and storage for reagents, samples and perishable materials in four insulated containers called dewars with independently selectable temperatures of -80°C, -26°C, and +4°C. It also will be used to transport samples to and from the station. The MELFI is planned for launch on the ULF-1 mission.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, technicians remove the cover from the Minus Eighty Lab Freezer for ISS(MELFI) provided as Laboratory Support Equipment by the European Space Agency for the International Space Station. The lab will provide cooling and storage for reagents, samples and perishable materials in four insulated containers called dewars with independently selectable temperatures of -80°C, -26°C, and +4°C. It also will be used to transport samples to and from the station. The MELFI is planned for launch on the ULF-1 mission.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-08

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, technicians remove the cover from the Minus Eighty Lab Freezer for ISS(MELFI) provided as Laboratory Support Equipment by the European Space Agency for the International Space Station. The lab will provide cooling and storage for reagents, samples and perishable materials in four insulated containers called dewars with independently selectable temperatures of -80°C, -26°C, and +4°C. It also will be used to transport samples to and from the station. The MELFI is planned for launch on the ULF-1 mission.

  15. Structures, properties, and energy-storage mechanisms of the semi-lunar process cuticles in locusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chao; Hao, Zhixiu; Feng, Xiqiao

    2016-10-01

    Locusts have excellent jumping and kicking abilities to survive in nature, which are achieved through the energy storage and release processes occurring in cuticles, especially in the semi-lunar processes (SLP) at the femorotibial joints. As yet, however, the strain energy-storage mechanisms of the SLP cuticles remain unclear. To decode this mystery, we investigated the microstructure, material composition, and mechanical properties of the SLP cuticle and its remarkable strain energy-storage mechanisms for jumping and kicking. It is found that the SLP cuticle of adult Locusta migratoria manilensis consists of five main parts that exhibit different microstructural features, material compositions, mechanical properties, and biological functions in storing strain energy. The mechanical properties of these five components are all transversely isotropic and strongly depend on their water contents. Finite element simulations indicate that the two parts of the core region of the SLP cuticle likely make significant contributions to its outstanding strain energy-storage ability. This work deepens our understanding of the locomotion behaviors and superior energy-storage mechanisms of insects such as locusts and is helpful for the design and fabrication of strain energy-storage devices.

  16. Structures, properties, and energy-storage mechanisms of the semi-lunar process cuticles in locusts.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chao; Hao, Zhixiu; Feng, Xiqiao

    2016-10-17

    Locusts have excellent jumping and kicking abilities to survive in nature, which are achieved through the energy storage and release processes occurring in cuticles, especially in the semi-lunar processes (SLP) at the femorotibial joints. As yet, however, the strain energy-storage mechanisms of the SLP cuticles remain unclear. To decode this mystery, we investigated the microstructure, material composition, and mechanical properties of the SLP cuticle and its remarkable strain energy-storage mechanisms for jumping and kicking. It is found that the SLP cuticle of adult Locusta migratoria manilensis consists of five main parts that exhibit different microstructural features, material compositions, mechanical properties, and biological functions in storing strain energy. The mechanical properties of these five components are all transversely isotropic and strongly depend on their water contents. Finite element simulations indicate that the two parts of the core region of the SLP cuticle likely make significant contributions to its outstanding strain energy-storage ability. This work deepens our understanding of the locomotion behaviors and superior energy-storage mechanisms of insects such as locusts and is helpful for the design and fabrication of strain energy-storage devices.

  17. Structures, properties, and energy-storage mechanisms of the semi-lunar process cuticles in locusts

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Chao; Hao, Zhixiu; Feng, Xiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Locusts have excellent jumping and kicking abilities to survive in nature, which are achieved through the energy storage and release processes occurring in cuticles, especially in the semi-lunar processes (SLP) at the femorotibial joints. As yet, however, the strain energy-storage mechanisms of the SLP cuticles remain unclear. To decode this mystery, we investigated the microstructure, material composition, and mechanical properties of the SLP cuticle and its remarkable strain energy-storage mechanisms for jumping and kicking. It is found that the SLP cuticle of adult Locusta migratoria manilensis consists of five main parts that exhibit different microstructural features, material compositions, mechanical properties, and biological functions in storing strain energy. The mechanical properties of these five components are all transversely isotropic and strongly depend on their water contents. Finite element simulations indicate that the two parts of the core region of the SLP cuticle likely make significant contributions to its outstanding strain energy-storage ability. This work deepens our understanding of the locomotion behaviors and superior energy-storage mechanisms of insects such as locusts and is helpful for the design and fabrication of strain energy-storage devices. PMID:27748460

  18. Solution-Processed Two-Dimensional Metal Dichalcogenide-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Storage and Conversion.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiehong; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The development of renewable energy storage and conversion devices is one of the most promising ways to address the current energy crisis, along with the global environmental concern. The exploration of suitable active materials is the key factor for the construction of highly efficient, highly stable, low-cost and environmentally friendly energy storage and conversion devices. The ability to prepare two-dimensional (2D) metal dichalcogenide (MDC) nanosheets and their functional composites in high yield and large scale via various solution-based methods in recent years has inspired great research interests in their utilization for renewable energy storage and conversion applications. Here, we will summarize the recent advances of solution-processed 2D MDCs and their hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion applications, including rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, electrocatalytic hydrogen generation and solar cells. Moreover, based on the current progress, we will also give some personal insights on the existing challenges and future research directions in this promising field.

  19. Effect of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed lignan added to bakery products.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Helena K; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Hiidenhovi, Jaakko A; Hietaniemi, Veli; Korhonen, Hannu J T; Ryhänen, Eeva-Liisa

    2006-01-11

    The study focused on the effects of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed-derived secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) added to various bakery products. The SDG concentration of doughs, baked rye breads, graham buns, and muffins was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection; the baked products were analyzed immediately after baking and upon storage at room temperature for 1 week and at -25 degrees C for 1 and 2 months, respectively. Added SDG was found to withstand normal baking temperatures in all bakery products. SDG also was a relatively stable compound during storage. Similarly, the content of SDG in flax buns containing fat-free flaxseed meal was unaffected by storage. We conclude that cereal-based bakery products can be supplemented with flaxseed-derived SDG.

  20. Cooking, storage, and reheating effect on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad I; Min, Joong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Ok; Yim, Dong Gyun; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-11

    Cholesterol is an important biological compound; however, its oxidation products have been proven to be harmful to human health. Cooking, storage, and reheating methods significantly affect the safety of meat products, as they contribute to the production of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Three cooking methods were used to cook sausages, loin ham, bacon, luncheon meat, and pressed ham, in order to investigate the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating on total cholesterol and on the formation of COPs. Cooked samples were stored at 4 °C and reheated after 3 and 6 storage days by the same cooking method or by microwaving. The samples were assessed for total lipids, cholesterol, and cholesterol oxides. The average cholesterol content in the processed meat varied from 76.0 mg/100 g to 201.70 mg/100 g. Microwaved ham showed the lowest cholesterol content compared to that of other processed meat products. Significant differences were found in cholesterol content and cholesterol oxidation products depending on cooking, storage, and reheating methods. Six cholesterol oxides were found in processed meat, of which 7β-hydroxycholesterol and α-epoxides were detected as the major oxidation products. Microwaving and oven grilling resulted in higher production of COPs in processed meat as compared with other cooking methods. Refrigerated storage tended to significantly increase the COPs content.

  1. Quantum Image Processing and Storage with Four Wave Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-10

    use of four-wave mixing (4WM) in atomic vapors. image processing, nonlinear optics, optical memory, quantum optics U U U UU INSTRUCTIONS FOR...the use of four-wave mixing (4WM) in atomic vapors. We have worked to study the propagation of quantum correlations, improve low- frequency squeezing...light near a Rb atomic resonance that has proven to be fairly easy to implement and robust to operate, and has been adopted by a number of groups

  2. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  3. Apparatus, Method and Program Storage Device for Determining High-Energy Neutron/Ion Transport to a Target of Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W. (Inventor); Tripathi, Ram K. (Inventor); Badavi, Francis F. (Inventor); Cucinotta, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus, method and program storage device for determining high-energy neutron/ion transport to a target of interest. Boundaries are defined for calculation of a high-energy neutron/ion transport to a target of interest; the high-energy neutron/ion transport to the target of interest is calculated using numerical procedures selected to reduce local truncation error by including higher order terms and to allow absolute control of propagated error by ensuring truncation error is third order in step size, and using scaling procedures for flux coupling terms modified to improve computed results by adding a scaling factor to terms describing production of j-particles from collisions of k-particles; and the calculated high-energy neutron/ion transport is provided to modeling modules to control an effective radiation dose at the target of interest.

  4. NG6: Integrated next generation sequencing storage and processing environment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Next generation sequencing platforms are now well implanted in sequencing centres and some laboratories. Upcoming smaller scale machines such as the 454 junior from Roche or the MiSeq from Illumina will increase the number of laboratories hosting a sequencer. In such a context, it is important to provide these teams with an easily manageable environment to store and process the produced reads. Results We describe a user-friendly information system able to manage large sets of sequencing data. It includes, on one hand, a workflow environment already containing pipelines adapted to different input formats (sff, fasta, fastq and qseq), different sequencers (Roche 454, Illumina HiSeq) and various analyses (quality control, assembly, alignment, diversity studies,…) and, on the other hand, a secured web site giving access to the results. The connected user will be able to download raw and processed data and browse through the analysis result statistics. The provided workflows can easily be modified or extended and new ones can be added. Ergatis is used as a workflow building, running and monitoring system. The analyses can be run locally or in a cluster environment using Sun Grid Engine. Conclusions NG6 is a complete information system designed to answer the needs of a sequencing platform. It provides a user-friendly interface to process, store and download high-throughput sequencing data. PMID:22958229

  5. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  6. Interplay between spatially explicit sediment sourcing, hierarchical river-network structure, and in-channel bed material sediment transport and storage dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Gran, Karen B.; Belmont, Patrick; Wilcock, Peter R.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how sediment moves along source to sink pathways through watersheds—from hillslopes to channels and in and out of floodplains—is a fundamental problem in geomorphology. We contribute to advancing this understanding by modeling the transport and in-channel storage dynamics of bed material sediment on a river network over a 600 year time period. Specifically, we present spatiotemporal changes in bed sediment thickness along an entire river network to elucidate how river networks organize and process sediment supply. We apply our model to sand transport in the agricultural Greater Blue Earth River Basin in Minnesota. By casting the arrival of sediment to links of the network as a Poisson process, we derive analytically (under supply-limited conditions) the time-averaged probability distribution function of bed sediment thickness for each link of the river network for any spatial distribution of inputs. Under transport-limited conditions, the analytical assumptions of the Poisson arrival process are violated (due to in-channel storage dynamics) where we find large fluctuations and periodicity in the time series of bed sediment thickness. The time series of bed sediment thickness is the result of dynamics on a network in propagating, altering, and amalgamating sediment inputs in sometimes unexpected ways. One key insight gleaned from the model is that there can be a small fraction of reaches with relatively low-transport capacity within a nonequilibrium river network acting as "bottlenecks" that control sediment to downstream reaches, whereby fluctuations in bed elevation can dissociate from signals in sediment supply.

  7. Use of depleted uranium metal as cask shielding in high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; McAllaster, M.E.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE has amassed over 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium from its uranium enrichment operations. Rather than dispose of this depleted uranium as waste, this study explores a beneficial use of depleted uranium as metal shielding in casks designed to contain canisters of vitrified high-level waste. Two high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal shielded cask systems are analyzed. The first system employs a shielded storage and disposal cask having a separate reusable transportation overpack. The second system employs a shielded combined storage, transport, and disposal cask. Conceptual cask designs that hold 1, 3, 4 and 7 high-level waste canisters are described for both systems. In all cases, cask design feasibility was established and analyses indicate that these casks meet applicable thermal, structural, shielding, and contact-handled requirements. Depleted uranium metal casting, fabrication, environmental, and radiation compatibility considerations are discussed and found to pose no serious implementation problems. About one-fourth of the depleted uranium inventory would be used to produce the casks required to store and dispose of the nearly 15,400 high-level waste canisters that would be produced. This study estimates the total-system cost for the preferred 7-canister storage and disposal configuration having a separate transportation overpack would be $6.3 billion. When credits are taken for depleted uranium disposal cost, a cost that would be avoided if depleted uranium were used as cask shielding material rather than disposed of as waste, total system net costs are between $3.8 billion and $5.5 billion.

  8. The Relationship between Processing and Storage in Working Memory Span: Not Two Sides of the Same Coin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehara, Yukio; Saito, Satoru

    2007-01-01

    In working memory (WM) span tests, participants maintain memory items while performing processing tasks. In this study, we examined the impact of task processing requirements on memory-storage activities, looking at the stimulus order effect and the impact of storage requirements on processing activities, testing the processing time effect in WM…

  9. Use of Computed Microtomography to Visualize and Quantify Pore-Scale Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, S. J.; Rivers, M.; Peplinski, W. J.; Lucero, D. A.

    2001-05-01

    Pore-scale transport processes are critical to the understanding of oil and gas reservoirs, groundwater transport and toxic and radioactive waste migration. For example, at certain sites where deep geological repositories are being studied for nuclear waste storage, diffusion in fractured crystalline rocks is thought to be an important factor in retarding radionuclide transport. Presently, there is little direct observation of heterogeneous diffusion processes in crystalline rocks as it is mostly studied by field tracer tests or bulk laboratory measurements. Computed microtomography (CMT) is being applied at GSECARS (GeoSoilEnviro Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources) at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source to better understand pore-space transport processes. The technique is being applied to 1-cm diameter, crystalline rock cores from underground experimental rock laboratories in Sweden, Switzerland and Japan. Approximately 20 micron resolution in three-dimensions is achieved on these cores. The CMT images of the natural samples show pore space, but the contrast in some samples is relatively poor because the required X-ray energy was high in order to penetrate the samples. The pore space is enhanced by digital subtraction tomography. In this method, the rock is saturated with high atomic number fluid (CsCl or KI solution) and images are taken with the X-ray energy below and above the cesium or iodine K absorption edge. The difference image shows only the solution, which is present in the accessible pore space and thus reveals potential fluid transport pathways. In addition to imaging the pore space, this method can detect minerals to which the cesium sorbs and differentiate between felsic and mafic minerals in the samples. New work will concentrate on real time experiments to measure transport properties. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy

  10. Systems and methods for rapid processing and storage of data

    DOEpatents

    Stalzer, Mark A.

    2017-01-24

    Systems and methods of building massively parallel computing systems using low power computing complexes in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. A massively parallel computing system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention includes at least one Solid State Blade configured to communicate via a high performance network fabric. In addition, each Solid State Blade includes a processor configured to communicate with a plurality of low power computing complexes interconnected by a router, and each low power computing complex includes at least one general processing core, an accelerator, an I/O interface, and cache memory and is configured to communicate with non-volatile solid state memory.

  11. Sources, Transport, and Storage of Sediment at Selected Sites in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellis, Allen C.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Pavich, Milan J.; Landwehr, Jurate M.; Banks, William S.L.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Langland, Michael J.; Ritchie, Jerry C.; Reuter, Joanna M.

    2009-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Watershed covers 165,800 square kilometers and is supplied with water and sediment from five major physiographic provinces: Appalachian Plateau, Blue Ridge, Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Valley and Ridge. Suspended-sediment loads measured in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed showed that the Piedmont Physiographic Province has the highest rates of modern (20th Century) sediment yields, measured at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations, and the lowest rates of background or geologic rates of erosion (~10,000 years) measured with in situ beryllium-10. In the agricultural and urbanizing Little Conestoga Creek Watershed, a Piedmont watershed, sources of sediment using the 'sediment-fingerprinting' approach showed that streambanks were the most important source (63 percent), followed by cropland (37 percent). Cesium-137 inventories, which quantify erosion rates over a 40-year period, showed average cropland erosion of 19.39 megagrams per hectare per year in the Little Conestoga Creek Watershed. If this erosion rate is extrapolated to the 13 percent of the watershed that is in cropland, then cropland could contribute almost four times the measured suspended-sediment load transported out of the watershed (27,600 megagrams per hectare per year), indicating that much of the eroded sediment is being deposited in channel and upland storage. The Piedmont has had centuries of land-use change, from forest to agriculture, to suburban and urban areas, and in some areas, back to forest. These land-use changes mobilized a large percentage of sediment that was deposited in upland and channel storage, and behind thousands of mill dams. The effects of these land-use changes on erosion and sediment transport are still being observed today as stored sediment in streambanks is a source of sediment. Cropland is also an important source of sediment. The Coastal Plain Physiographic Province has had the lowest sediment yields in the 20th Century and with sandy

  12. Neural information processing and self-organizing maps as a tool in safeguarding storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Fuyat, C.

    1993-08-01

    Storage facilities for nuclear materials and weapons dismantlement facilities could have a large number of sensors with the potential for generating large amounts of data. Because of the anticipated complexity and diversity of the data, efficient automatic algorithms are necessary to make interpretations and ensure secure and safe operation. New, advanced safeguards systems are needed to process the information gathered from monitors and make interpretations that are in the best interests of the facility or agency. In this paper we present a conceptual design for software to assist with processing these large quantities of data from storage facilities.

  13. Transformation and Transport Processes of Nitrogen in Agricultural Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The transformation and transport processes of nitrogen (N) in agricultural systems are discussed and information is provided on overall reservoir sizes for N. Nitrogen is ubiquitous in the environment and is required for the survival of all living things. It is also one of the most important essen...

  14. Discussion of the influence of CO and CH4 in CO2 transport, injection, and storage for CCS technology.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Sofía T; Rivas, Clara; Bravo, Ramón; Fernández, Javier; Artal, Manuela; Velasco, Inmaculada

    2014-09-16

    This paper discusses the influence of the noncondensable impurities CO and CH4 on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology. We calculated and drew conclusions about the impact of both impurities in the CO2 on selected transport, injection, and storage parameters (pipeline pressure drop, storage capacity, etc.), whose analysis is necessary for the safe construction and operation of CO2 pipelines and for the secure long-term geological storage of anthropogenic CO2. To calculate these parameters, it is necessary to acquire data on the volumetric properties and the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the fluid being subjected to CCS. In addition to literature data, we used new experimental data, which are presented here and were obtained for five mixtures of CO2+CO with compositions characteristic of the typical emissions of the E.U. and the U.S.A. Temperatures and pressures are based on relevant CO2 pipeline and geological storage site values. From our experimental results, Peng-Robinson, PC-SAFT, and GERG Equations of State for were validated CO2+CO under the conditions of CCS. We conclude that the concentration of both impurities strongly affects the studied parameters, with CO being the most influential and problematic. The overall result of these negative effects is an increase in the difficulties, risks, and overall costs of CCS.

  15. Local active information storage as a tool to understand distributed neural information processing.

    PubMed

    Wibral, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T; Vögler, Sebastian; Priesemann, Viola; Galuske, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Every act of information processing can in principle be decomposed into the component operations of information storage, transfer, and modification. Yet, while this is easily done for today's digital computers, the application of these concepts to neural information processing was hampered by the lack of proper mathematical definitions of these operations on information. Recently, definitions were given for the dynamics of these information processing operations on a local scale in space and time in a distributed system, and the specific concept of local active information storage was successfully applied to the analysis and optimization of artificial neural systems. However, no attempt to measure the space-time dynamics of local active information storage in neural data has been made to date. Here we measure local active information storage on a local scale in time and space in voltage sensitive dye imaging data from area 18 of the cat. We show that storage reflects neural properties such as stimulus preferences and surprise upon unexpected stimulus change, and in area 18 reflects the abstract concept of an ongoing stimulus despite the locally random nature of this stimulus. We suggest that LAIS will be a useful quantity to test theories of cortical function, such as predictive coding.

  16. Tracking spoilage bacteria in commercial poultry processing and refrigerated storage of poultry carcasses.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Arthur; Cason, J A; Ingram, Kimberly D

    2004-03-01

    Four trials were conducted to examine the effect of commercial processing and refrigerated storage on spoilage bacteria in the native microflora of broiler carcasses. Prescalded, picked, eviscerated, and chilled carcasses were obtained from a commercial processing facility, and psychrotrophs in the bacterial flora were enumerated on Iron Agar, Pseudomonas Agar, and STAA Agar. The size of the population of spoilage bacteria on processed carcasses stored at 4 degrees C for 7, 10, or 14 days was also determined. Bacterial isolates were identified and dendrograms of the fatty acid profiles of the isolates were prepared to determine the degree of relatedness of the isolates. Findings indicated that although some processing steps increased the level of carcass contamination by selected bacteria, the number of spoilage bacteria recovered from processed carcasses was significantly (P< or = 0.05) less than the number of bacteria recovered from carcasses entering the processing line. Acinetobacter and Aeromonas spp. were the primary isolates recovered from carcasses taken from the processing line. During refrigerated storage, there was a significant (P < or =0.05) increase in the population of bacteria on the carcasses, and Pseudomonas spp. were the predominant bacteria recovered from these carcasses. Dendrograms of the fatty acid profiles of the isolates indicated that bacterial cross-contamination of carcasses occurs during all stages of processing and that some bacteria can survive processing and proliferate on carcasses during refrigerated storage. Furthermore, cross-contamination was detected between carcasses processed on different days at the same facility. Findings indicate that although poultry processing decreases carcass contamination by psychrotrophic spoilage bacteria, significant levels of bacterial cross-contamination occur during processing, and bacteria that survive processing may multiply on the carcasses during refrigerated storage.

  17. Forest Canopy Processes in a Regional Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makar, Paul; Staebler, Ralf; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Zhang, Junhua; McLinden, Chris; Kharol, Shailesh; Moran, Michael; Robichaud, Alain; Zhang, Leiming; Stroud, Craig; Pabla, Balbir; Cheung, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Forest canopies have typically been absent or highly parameterized in regional chemical transport models. Some forest-related processes are often considered - for example, biogenic emissions from the forests are included as a flux lower boundary condition on vertical diffusion, as is deposition to vegetation. However, real forest canopies comprise a much more complicated set of processes, at scales below the "transport model-resolved scale" of vertical levels usually employed in regional transport models. Advective and diffusive transport within the forest canopy typically scale with the height of the canopy, and the former process tends to dominate over the latter. Emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons arise from the foliage, which may be located tens of metres above the surface, while emissions of biogenic nitric oxide from decaying plant matter are located at the surface - in contrast to the surface flux boundary condition usually employed in chemical transport models. Deposition, similarly, is usually parameterized as a flux boundary condition, but may be differentiated between fluxes to vegetation and fluxes to the surface when the canopy scale is considered. The chemical environment also changes within forest canopies: shading, temperature, and relativity humidity changes with height within the canopy may influence chemical reaction rates. These processes have been observed in a host of measurement studies, and have been simulated using site-specific one-dimensional forest canopy models. Their influence on regional scale chemistry has been unknown, until now. In this work, we describe the results of the first attempt to include complex canopy processes within a regional chemical transport model (GEM-MACH). The original model core was subdivided into "canopy" and "non-canopy" subdomains. In the former, three additional near-surface layers based on spatially and seasonally varying satellite-derived canopy height and leaf area index were added to the original model

  18. Optical data storage for high-speed data processing and archiving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldis, M.; Uherek, F.; Chovan, J.

    2010-12-01

    With the invention of first laser before 50 years has been proved generation of intense, focused and narrow light beam of one wavelength, also at the same time were fulfilled assumptions for creation memories on light base - Optical Data Storages. Contemporary dynamic memories operate on base electrical impulses, manufactured as matrix arranged MOSFET transistors with capacitors, and reach time delay (latency time) in ones nanoseconds. Transfer data rates are above ones of Gbps. Current storages are approaching technologically threshold parameters, what may be barrier to further development, whereas Optical Data storages multiple exceed transfer data rates of contemporary memories, not require reverse O/E/O signal transformation, operate in pico-seconds (ps) and work at low energetic levels of femto- Joules. New end-user services lay still bigger emphasis for transferred and stored data volumes, transfer rates, quality of transmission and data processing, whereby they partly pushing out contemporary storages and create place for optical memory elements used in telecommunication networks and in devices. Optical storages with their several-fold higherdensity, high transmission rates, better quality and small dimensions are becoming a new trend for dynamic buffer or balancing memories, used for long-term data archiving in plasmonic nano-structures within Holographic Data storages.

  19. Stemflow-induced processes of soil water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Compared to stemflow production studies only few studies deal with the fate of stemflow at the near-stem soil. To investigate stemflow contribution to the root zone soil moisture by young and adult babassu palms (Attalea speciosa Mart.), I studied stemflow generation, subsequent soil water percolation and root distributions. Rainfall, stemflow and perched water tables were monitored on an event basis. Perched water tables were monitored next to adult palms at two depths and three stem distances. Dye tracer experiments monitored stemflow-induced preferential flow paths. Root distributions of fine and coarse roots were related to soil water redistribution. Average rainfall-collecting area per adult palm was 6.4 m², but variability between them was high. Funneling ratios ranged between 16-71 and 4-55 for adult and young palms, respectively. Nonetheless, even very small rainfall events of 1 mm can generate stemflow. On average, 9 liters of adult palm stemflow were intercepted and stemflow tended to decrease for-high intensity rainfall events. Young babassu palms funneled rainfall via their fronds, directly to their subterranean stems. The funneling of rainfall towards adult palm stems, in contrast, led to great stemflow fluxes down to the soil and induced initial horizontal water flows through the soil, leading to perched water tables next to palms, even after small rainfall events. The perched water tables extended, however, only a few decimeters from palm stems. After perched water tables became established, vertical percolation through the soil dominated. To my knowledge, this process has not been described before, and it can be seen as an addition to the two previously described stemflow-induced processes of Horton overland flow and fast, deep percolation along roots. This study has demonstrated that Babassu palms funnel water to their stems and subsequently store it in the soil next to their stems in areas where coarse root length density is very high. This might

  20. Cyclic voltammetry modeling of proton transport effects on redox charge storage in conductive materials: application to a TiO2 mesoporous film.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Balland, V; Limoges, B; Costentin, C

    2017-07-21

    Cyclic voltammetry is a particularly useful tool for characterizing charge accumulation in conductive materials. A simple model is presented to evaluate proton transport effects on charge storage in conductive materials associated with a redox process coupled with proton insertion in the bulk material from an aqueous buffered solution, a situation frequently encountered in metal oxide materials. The interplay between proton transport inside and outside the materials is described using a formulation of the problem through introduction of dimensionless variables that allows defining the minimum number of parameters governing the cyclic voltammetry response with consideration of a simple description of the system geometry. This approach is illustrated by analysis of proton insertion in a mesoporous TiO2 film.

  1. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Houseworth

    2001-04-10

    Unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and radionuclide transport is a component of the natural barriers that affects potential repository performance. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) model, and underlying process models, of this natural barrier component capture some, but not all, of the associated features, events, and processes (FEPs) as identified in the FEPs Database (Freeze, et al. 2001 [154365]). This analysis and model report (AMR) discusses all FEPs identified as associated with UZ flow and radionuclide transport. The purpose of this analysis is to give a comprehensive summary of all UZ flow and radionuclide transport FEPs and their treatment in, or exclusion from, TSPA models. The scope of this analysis is to provide a summary of the FEPs associated with the UZ flow and radionuclide transport and to provide a reference roadmap to other documentation where detailed discussions of these FEPs, treated explicitly in TSPA models, are offered. Other FEPs may be screened out from treatment in TSPA by direct regulatory exclusion or through arguments concerning low probability and/or low consequence of the FEPs on potential repository performance. Arguments for exclusion of FEPs are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from the UZ flow and transport models does not necessarily imply that the FEP is excluded from the TSPA. Similarly, in the treatment of included FEPs, only the way in which the FEPs are included in the UZ flow and transport models is discussed in this document. This report has been prepared in accordance with the technical work plan for the unsaturated zone subproduct element (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). The purpose of this report is to document that all FEPs are either included in UZ flow and transport models for TSPA, or can be excluded from UZ flow and transport models for TSPA on the basis of low probability or low consequence. Arguments for exclusion are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from UZ flow and

  2. Low temperature processing of dielectric perovskites for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N. B.; Schreib, Ben; Devilbiss, Michael; Loiacono, Julian; Arnold, Bradley; Choa, Fow-Sen; Mandal, K. D.

    2016-05-01

    Since the report of high dielectric value was published for the calcium copper titanate of the stoichiometry CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO), several of its analogs such as Yittrium copper titanate Y2/3Cu3Ti4O12 (YCTO), Pr2/3Cu3Ti4O12 (PCTO) and several other compounds have been studied extensively. Most of these materials have demonstrated very high dielectric constants. However, the roadblock is their low resistivity. To overcome this problem, several approaches have been considered, including doping and substitution. In order to solve this problem, we have synthesized the stoichiometric composition and used low temperature processing to grow grains of La2/3Cu3Ti4O12 (LCTO) stoichiometric compound. LCTO with excess copper oxide was also prepared to determine its effect on the morphology and dielectric constant of the stoichiometric LCTO compound. In spite of the low melting point of copper oxide, we observed that excess copper oxide did not show any faster grain growth. Also, the dielectric constant of LCTO was lower than CCTO and unlike CCTO, LCTO showed significant changes as the function of frequency. The measured resistivity was slightly higher than CCTO.

  3. How working memory relates to children's reading comprehension: the importance of domain-specificity in storage and processing.

    PubMed

    Nouwens, Suzan; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Working memory is considered a well-established predictor of individual variation in reading comprehension in children and adults. However, how storage and processing capacities of working memory in both the phonological and semantic domain relate to reading comprehension is still unclear. In the current study, we investigated the contribution of phonological and semantic storage, and phonological and semantic processing to reading comprehension in 123 Dutch children in fifth grade. We conducted regression and mediation analyses to find out to what extent variation in reading comprehension could be explained by storage and processing capacities in both the phonological and the semantic domain, while controlling for children's decoding and vocabulary. The analyses included tasks that reflect storage only, and working memory tasks that assess processing in addition to storage. Regression analysis including only storage tasks as predictor measures, revealed semantic storage to be a better predictor of reading comprehension than phonological storage. Adding phonological and semantic working memory tasks as additional predictors to the model showed that semantic working memory explained individual variation in reading comprehension over and above all other memory measures. Additional mediation analysis made it clear that semantic storage contributed indirectly to reading comprehension via semantic working memory, indicating that semantic storage tapped by working memory, in addition to processing capacities, explains individual variation in reading comprehension. It can thus be concluded that semantic storage plays a more important role in children's reading comprehension than previously thought.

  4. Two-Dimensional Signal Processing and Storage, and Theory and Applications of Electromagnetic Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Time Digital Signal Processing Systems Represented by Shift Invariant Flow Graphs" Ph.D. Thesis , Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia...Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing . 9 Minimum Redundancy Array Design This thesis project is directed at a study of the theory of non-uniform array...1 4 ,990i 0D TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND STORAGE AND THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC 0 MEASUREMENTS January 1, 1990 GEORGIA

  5. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav'yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem'ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  6. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem’ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-12-15

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  7. Changes in chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) polyphenols during juice processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Kail; Howard, Luke R; Brownmiller, Cindi; Prior, Ronald L

    2014-05-07

    Chokeberries are an excellent source of polyphenols, but their fate during juice processing and storage is unknown. The stability of anthocyanins, total proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols at various stages of juice processing and over 6 months of storage at 25 °C was determined. Flavonols, total proanthocyanidins, and hydroxycinnamic acids were retained in the juice to a greater extent than anthocyanins, with losses mostly due to removal of seeds and skins following pressing. Anthocyanins were extensively degraded by thermal treatments during which time levels of protocatechuic acid and phloroglucinaldehyde increased, and additional losses occurred following pressing. Flavonols, total proanthocyanidins, and hydroxycinnamic acids were well retained in juices stored for 6 months at 25 °C, whereas anthocyanins declined linearly. Anthocyanin losses during storage were paralleled by increased polymeric color values, indicating that the small amounts of anthocyanins remaining were present in large part in polymeric forms.

  8. The UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol for the collection, processing and archiving of human blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Paul; Peakman, Tim C

    2008-04-01

    UK Biobank is a large prospective study in the UK to investigate the role of genetic factors, environmental exposures and lifestyle in the causes of major diseases of late and middle age. Extensive data and biological samples are being collected from 500,000 participants aged between 40 and 69 years. The biological samples that are collected and how they are processed and stored will have a major impact on the future scientific usefulness of the UK Biobank resource. The aim of the UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol is to specify methods for the collection and storage of participant samples that give maximum scientific return within the available budget. Processing or storage methods that, as far as can be predicted, will preclude current or future assays have been avoided. The protocol was developed through a review of the literature on sample handling and processing, wide consultation within the academic community and peer review. Protocol development addressed which samples should be collected, how and when they should be processed and how the processed samples should be stored to ensure their long-term integrity. The recommended protocol was extensively tested in a series of validation studies. UK Biobank collects about 45 ml blood and 9 ml of urine with minimal local processing from each participant using the vacutainer system. A variety of preservatives, anti-coagulants and clot accelerators is used appropriate to the expected end use of the samples. Collection of other material (hair, nails, saliva and faeces) was also considered but rejected for the full cohort. Blood and urine samples from participants are transported overnight by commercial courier to a central laboratory where they are processed and aliquots of urine, plasma, serum, white cells and red cells stored in ultra-low temperature archives. Aliquots of whole blood are also stored for potential future production of immortalized cell lines. A standard panel of haematology assays is

  9. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color and antioxidant capacity of processed black raspberry products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of black raspberries that were individually quick-frozen (IQF), canned-in-syrup, canned-in-water, pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Tot...

  10. 1995 national heat transfer conference: Proceedings. Volume 4: Transport phenomena in manufacturing and materials processing; Transport phenomena in materials joining processes; Transport phenomena in net shape manufacturing; HTD-Volume 306

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    This book is divided into three sections: (1) transport phenomena in manufacturing and materials processing; (2) transport phenomena in net shape manufacturing: and (3) transport phenomena in materials joining processes. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

  11. Energy conversion and storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemical and chemical engineering principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels; (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy storage; (4) characterization of complex chemical processes; and (5) the application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, and advanced methods of analysis. The following five areas are discussed: electrochemical energy storage and conversion; microstructured materials; biotechnology; fossil fuels; and high temperature superconducting processing. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Kinetic theory of transport processes in partially ionized reactive plasma, II: Electron transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The previously obtained in (Zhdanov and Stepanenko, 2016) general transport equations for partially ionized reactive plasma are employed for analysis of electron transport properties in molecular and atomic plasmas. We account for both elastic and inelastic interaction channels of electrons with atoms and molecules of plasma and also the processes of electron impact ionization of neutral particles and three-body ion-electron recombination. The system of scalar transport equations for electrons is discussed and the expressions for non-equilibrium corrections to electron ionization and recombination rates and the diagonal part of the electron pressure tensor are derived. Special attention is paid to analysis of electron energy relaxation during collisions with plasma particles having internal degrees of freedom and the expression for the electron coefficient of inelastic energy losses is deduced. We also derive the expressions for electron vector and tensorial transport fluxes and the corresponding transport coefficients for partially ionized reactive plasma, which represent a generalization of the well-known results obtained by Devoto (1967). The results of numerical evaluation of contribution from electron inelastic collisions with neutral particles to electron transport properties are presented for a series of molecular and atomic gases.

  13. The role of age and inhibitory efficiency in working memory processing and storage components.

    PubMed

    Blair, Mervin; Vadaga, Kiran K; Shuchat, Joni; Li, Karen Z H

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we examined the extent to which inhibitory efficiency accounted for age-related decline in the processing and storage components of working memory. Older and younger adults performed a sequential task, which served as an index of deletion-type inhibition (the ability to suppress no-longer-relevant information). The reading span task was used to measure working memory components by examining processing accuracy, processing time, and end-word recall of sentences presented. Reduced inhibitory efficiency, which was poorer in older adults, predicted age-related decline in recall, over and above the effects of processing speed. Similar results were observed for processing accuracy, although the age effect in this component was marginal. These results highlight the important role of deletion-type inhibition in explaining age-related decline in working memory performance, particularly in the storage component, and extend previous research by examining this relationship at a componential level.

  14. Process based modeling of total longshore sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, K.A.; Hanes, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Waves, currents, and longshore sand transport are calculated locally as a function of position in the nearshore region using process based numerical models. The resultant longshore sand transport is then integrated across the nearshore to provide predictions of the total longshore transport of sand due to waves and longshore currents. Model results are in close agreement with the I1-P1 correlation described by Komar and Inman (1970) and the CERC (1984) formula. Model results also indicate that the proportionality constant in the I1-P1 formula depends weakly upon the sediment size, the shape of the beach profile, and the particular local sediment flux formula that is employed. Model results indicate that the various effects and influences of sediment size tend to cancel out, resulting in little overall dependence on sediment size.

  15. Modeling of natural organic matter transport processes in groundwater.

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, T C; Mas-Pla, J; McCarthy, J F; Williams, T M

    1995-01-01

    A forced-gradient tracer test was conducted at the Georgetown site to study the transport of natural organic matter (NOM) in groundwater. In particular, the goal of this experiment was to investigate the interactions between NOM and the aquifer matrix. A detailed three-dimensional characterization of the hydrologic conductivity heterogeneity of the site was obtained using slug tests. The transport of a conservative tracer (chloride) was successfully reproduced using these conductivity data. Despite the good simulation of the flow field, NOM breakthrough curves could not be reproduced using a two-site sorption model with spatially constant parameters. Preliminary results suggest that different mechanisms for the adsorption/desorption processes, as well as their spatial variability, may significantly affect the transport and fate of NOM. PMID:7621798

  16. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  17. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  18. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  19. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  20. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  1. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  2. Transport and storage of anthropogenic C across the Greenland-Portugal OVIDE section: Observations vs NEMO-PISCES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehlen, M.; Racapé, V.; Zunino, P.; Lherminier, P.; Bopp, L.; Mercier, H.

    2016-02-01

    Authors: Racapé V., Zunino P., Lherminier P., Bopp L., Mercier, H. and Gehlen M. At present, the ocean takes up approximately one-third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. The North Atlantic Ocean is a major sink region for anthropogenic carbon (CANT) and a major contributor to its storage and transport. While evidence is growing that storage and transport are variable on interannual to decadal timescales, their evolution in recent decades and in the future remains uncertain. The variability is thought to be controlled in large part by the intensity of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), which is suggested to slow down over the 21st century. This study aims to investigate the relationship between CANT transport across the Greenland-Portugal OVIDE section and Cant storage in the North Atlantic basin, as well as their combined evolution over the past 40 years. It relies on the combination of a pluriannual data set and output from the global biogeochemical ocean general circulation model NEMO/PISCES at 1/2° spatial resolution forced by the atmospheric reanalysis DFS4.2. Based on an observation-model comparison, the CANT advective transport is largely underestimated by the model (5 times) compared to the data-based estimate. However, the vertical gradient of CANT in the water column is well reproduced by NEMO/PISCES, supporting the use of a novel indicator computed by Zunino et al. (2014) to express the variability of CANT transport (T°CANT). Following the approach by Zunino et al. (2014), the estimator, T°CANT, was first derived in the model from MOCσ and DELTA-CANT (the vertical gradient of CANT between the upper and the lower branch of MOCσ) averaged over the month of June. Next, the representativity of T°CANT derived from a single sampling event per year was evaluated against estimates computed from annual mean values of MOCσ and DELTA-CANT. After evaluation of the model skill over the period covered by observations, the model is used

  3. A CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ANY DATA BANKING (INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL) PROCESS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Study was started to discover and state explicitly the fundamentals of data banking (more commonly called information storage and retrieval). A clear...framework or hierarchical tree is displayed that includes all possible data banking processes and shows their similarities and differences. The basis of

  4. Influence of postharvest storage, processing, and extraction methods on the analysis of phenolic phytochemicals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter provides an overview of the challenges associated with accurate analysis of phenolic compounds from foods, dietary supplements, and other matrices. It discusses the significance of sample preparation, post-harvest processing, and storage conditions on the assay of phenolic phytochemica...

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869.

  6. Spatio-temporal distribution of stored-product inects around food processing and storage facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grain storage and processing facilities consist of a landscape of indoor and outdoor habitats that can potentially support stored-product insect pests, and understanding patterns of species diversity and spatial distribution in the landscape surrounding structures can provide insight into how the ou...

  7. NREL Develops Accelerated Sample Activation Process for Hydrogen Storage Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in developing a new sample activation process that reduces the time to prepare samples for measurement of hydrogen storage from several days to five minutes and provides more uniform samples. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  8. Effect of Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation and CO2 Exsolution on CO2 transport in Geological Carbon Storage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruina; Li, Rong; Ma, Jin; He, Di; Jiang, Peixue

    2017-09-19

    Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) in deep saline aquifers is an effective means for storing carbon dioxide to address global climate change. As the time after injection increases, the safety of storage increases as the CO2 transforms from a separate phase to CO2(aq) and HCO3(-) by dissolution and then to carbonates by mineral dissolution. However, subsequent depressurization could lead to dissolved CO2(aq) escaping from the formation water and creating a new separate phase which may reduce the GCS system safety. The mineral dissolution and the CO2 exsolution and mineral precipitation during depressurization change the morphology, porosity, and permeability of the porous rock medium, which then affects the two-phase flow of the CO2 and formation water. A better understanding of these effects on the CO2-water two-phase flow will improve predictions of the long-term CO2 storage reliability, especially the impact of depressurization on the long-term stability. In this Account, we summarize our recent work on the effect of CO2 exsolution and mineral dissolution/precipitation on CO2 transport in GCS reservoirs. We place emphasis on understanding the behavior and transformation of the carbon components in the reservoir, including CO2(sc/g), CO2(aq), HCO3(-), and carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), highlight their transport and mobility by coupled geochemical and two-phase flow processes, and consider the implications of these transport mechanisms on estimates of the long-term safety of GCS. We describe experimental and numerical pore- and core-scale methods used in our lab in conjunction with industrial and international partners to investigate these effects. Experimental results show how mineral dissolution affects permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, which are important phenomena affecting the input parameters for reservoir flow modeling. The porosity and the absolute permeability increase when CO2 dissolved water is continuously

  9. A novel thermochemical energy storage and transportation concept based on concentrated solar irradiation-aided CaO-looping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermeier, Jonas; Müller, Karsten; Karagiannakis, George; Stubos, Athanasios; Arlt, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    To overcome the temporal and regional gap of surplus solar energy, the concept of thermochemical heat storage is discussed. In this particular case, the application of CaO and CaCO3 as energy carrying compounds for a trans-regional energy distribution concept is analyzed regarding the effective energetic and exergetic storage density. In a comprehensive sensitivity analysis, the influences of reaction temperature, conversion and heat recovery strategies are worked out. It can be seen that the effective storage density is strongly influenced by the preheating of reactants from ambient to reaction temperature. Thus, high conversion rates during forward and reverse reaction as well as improved heat recovery ratios are necessary to achieve a high energetic storage density. In case of effective exergetic storage density, carbonation temperature reaches an optimum. The method presented in this contribution can be applied to similar thermochemical heat storage systems and the results are of great importance for the process design and development of the suggested concept.

  10. Nonlinear transport processes in tokamak plasmas. I. The collisional regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnino, Giorgio; Peeters, Philippe

    2008-06-15

    An application of the thermodynamic field theory (TFT) to transport processes in L-mode tokamak plasmas is presented. The nonlinear corrections to the linear ('Onsager') transport coefficients in the collisional regimes are derived. A quite encouraging result is the appearance of an asymmetry between the Pfirsch-Schlueter (P-S) ion and electron transport coefficients: the latter presents a nonlinear correction, which is absent for the ions, and makes the radial electron coefficients much larger than the former. Explicit calculations and comparisons between the neoclassical results and the TFT predictions for Joint European Torus (JET) plasmas are also reported. It is found that the nonlinear electron P-S transport coefficients exceed the values provided by neoclassical theory by a factor that may be of the order 10{sup 2}. The nonlinear classical coefficients exceed the neoclassical ones by a factor that may be of order 2. For JET, the discrepancy between experimental and theoretical results for the electron losses is therefore significantly reduced by a factor 10{sup 2} when the nonlinear contributions are duly taken into account but, there is still a factor of 10{sup 2} to be explained. This is most likely due to turbulence. The expressions of the ion transport coefficients, determined by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes, remain unaltered. The low-collisional regimes, i.e., the plateau and the banana regimes, are analyzed in the second part of this work.

  11. Nonlinear transport processes in tokamak plasmas. I. The collisional regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnino, Giorgio; Peeters, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    An application of the thermodynamic field theory (TFT) to transport processes in L-mode tokamak plasmas is presented. The nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients in the collisional regimes are derived. A quite encouraging result is the appearance of an asymmetry between the Pfirsch-Schlüter (P-S) ion and electron transport coefficients: the latter presents a nonlinear correction, which is absent for the ions, and makes the radial electron coefficients much larger than the former. Explicit calculations and comparisons between the neoclassical results and the TFT predictions for Joint European Torus (JET) plasmas are also reported. It is found that the nonlinear electron P-S transport coefficients exceed the values provided by neoclassical theory by a factor that may be of the order 102. The nonlinear classical coefficients exceed the neoclassical ones by a factor that may be of order 2. For JET, the discrepancy between experimental and theoretical results for the electron losses is therefore significantly reduced by a factor 102 when the nonlinear contributions are duly taken into account but, there is still a factor of 102 to be explained. This is most likely due to turbulence. The expressions of the ion transport coefficients, determined by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes, remain unaltered. The low-collisional regimes, i.e., the plateau and the banana regimes, are analyzed in the second part of this work.

  12. Process-based modeling of tsunami inundation and sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apotsos, A.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Jaffe, B.

    2011-01-01

    The infrequent and unpredictable nature of tsunamis precludes the use of field experiments to measure the hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes that occur. Instead, these processes are often approximated from laboratory, numerical, and theoretical studies or inferred from observations of the resultant sediment deposits. Here Delft3D, a three-dimensional numerical model, is used to simulate the inundation and sediment transport of a tsunami similar in magnitude to the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami over one measured and three idealized morphologies. The model is first shown to match well the observations taken at Kuala Meurisi, Sumatra, and then used to examine in detail the processes that occur during the tsunami. The model predicts that at a given cross-shore location the onshore flow accelerates rapidly to a maximum as the wavefront passes, and then gradually decelerates before reversing direction and flowing offshore. The onshore flow does not tend to zero everywhere at maximum inundation, but instead flow reversal occurs near the shoreline even as the wavefront continues to inundate landward. While some sediment is eroded by the passing wavefront, the suspension of sandy sediment is dominated by the long-duration, high-velocity backwash that occurs along the beach face and offshore of the shoreline. Some of the sediment suspended during backwash is advected shoreward by the subsequent wave, creating large spatial gradients in the suspended sediment concentrations, which may not be in equilibrium with the local hydrodynamics. The inundation and transport of sediment during a tsunami can be affected by complexities in the morphological profile and interactions between multiple waves, and many of the hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes predicted here are similar to analogous processes previously observed in the swash zone. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Trends in large wood storage and transport on the low-gradient Roanoke River, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, E. R.; Hupp, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Large wood (LW) provides essential aquatic habitat in fine-grained low-gradient rivers. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of large-river LW data for the Eastern USA, especially in the low relief clay and fine sand dominated Coastal Plain province. The purposes of our study are to determine LW abundance and transport processes for the 210 kilometer (km) Coastal Plain segment of the dam-regulated Roanoke River, North Carolina. Our methods included collecting background geomorphic data including a 200 km channel geometry survey and measurements from 701 bank erosion pins at 36 cross-sections over 132 km. LW concentrations were evaluated over a 177 km reach using georeferenced aerial video taken in March 2007. LW transport was measured using 290 radio tagged LW pieces (mean diameter = 35.0 cm, length = 9.3 m) installed between 2008 and 2010. An additional 54 floating pieces were tagged with aluminum tree tags for a one week flood study in November 2009 (mean diameter = 29.2 cm, length = 5.2 m). The longitudinal distribution of aerially surveyed individual pieces of LW was highly variable with a mean abundance of 55 pieces/km. The abundance of LW in logjams was 59 pieces/km, with logjams concentrated (21.5 logjams/km) in an actively eroding reach with relatively high sinuosity, high local LW production rates, and narrow channel widths. Most jams (70%) are available nearly year round as aquatic habitat, positioned either on the lower bank or submerged at low-water flows. Conversely, individual LW pieces are found on the upper bank, with only 18% of the population located in the channel during low-water flows. Repeat surveys of radio tagged LW determined that transport is common despite dam regulation and a low channel gradient (0.0016). The mean distance travelled by a radio tagged piece of LW was 19.0 km with a maximum of 84.6 km (49 tags moved, 53 stationary, 188 not found). The mean distance travelled by an aluminum tagged LW was 13.3 km with a maximum of 72.12 km

  14. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-22

    The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. Based on laboratory- and bench-scale testing, Mulled Coal can be stored, shipped, and burned without causing any of the plugging, pasting, carryback and freezing problems normally associated with wet coal. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: The Mulled Coal process, which has been proven to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well in a commercial coal preparation plant. The wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation. A wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems. The Mulled Coal circuit was installed in an empty bay at the Chetopa Preparation Plant. Equipment has been installed to divert a 2.7 tonnes/hr (3 tons/hr) slipstream of the froth concentrate to a dewatering centrifuge. The concentrated wet coal fines from the centrifuge dropped through a chute directly into a surge hopper and feed system for the Mulled Coal circuit. The Mulled Coal product was gravity discharged from the circuit to a truck or product discharge area from which it will be hauled to a stockpile located at the edge of the clean coal stockpile area. During the 3-month operating period, the facility produced 870 tonnes (966 tons) of the Muffed Coal for evaluation in various storage, handling, and transportation equipment and operations. Immediately following the production demonstration, the circuit was disassembled and the facility was decommissioned.

  15. Reactive Transport Analysis of Fault 'Self-sealing' Associated with CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, V.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.; Priewisch, A.; Franz, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present an extensive hydrologic and reactive transport analysis of the Little Grand Wash fault zone (LGWF), a natural analog of fault-associated leakage from an engineered CO2 repository. Injecting anthropogenic CO2 into the subsurface is suggested for climate change mitigation. However, leakage of CO2 from its target storage formation into unintended areas is considered as a major risk involved in CO2 sequestration. In the event of leakage, permeability in leakage pathways like faults may get sealed (reduced) due to precipitation or enhanced (increased) due to dissolution reactions induced by CO2-enriched water, thus influencing migration and fate of the CO2. We hypothesize that faults which act as leakage pathways can seal over time in presence of CO2-enriched waters. An example of such a fault 'self-sealing' is found in the LGWF near Green River, Utah in the Paradox basin, where fault outcrop shows surface and sub-surface fractures filled with calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The LGWF cuts through multiple reservoirs and seal layers piercing a reservoir of naturally occurring CO2, allowing it to leak into overlying aquifers. As the CO2-charged water from shallower aquifers migrates towards atmosphere, a decrease in pCO2 leads to supersaturation of water with respect to CaCO3, which precipitates in the fractures of the fault damage zone. In order to test the nature, extent and time-frame of the fault sealing, we developed reactive flow simulations of the LGWF. Model parameters were chosen based on hydrologic measurements from literature. Model geochemistry was constrained by water analysis of the adjacent Crystal Geyser and observations from a scientific drilling test conducted at the site. Precipitation of calcite in the top portion of the fault model led to a decrease in the porosity value of the damage zone, while clay precipitation led to a decrease in the porosity value of the fault core. We found that the results were sensitive to the fault architecture

  16. Fate and transport of petroleum released from leaking underground-storage tanks in areas of karst topography. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, E.

    1988-01-01

    This study determines the transport and ultimate fate of petroleum products within a region of karst geomorphology. The paper entails a complete literature review, including references that pertain to contaminant transport within karst aquifers and the remediation of hydrocarbon spills. Rapid dispersal of contaminants within cavernous karstic terrain demands prevention as the only solution, in addition to the recommended technological advances for optimal cleanup of leaking underground storage tanks. Because numerous and widespread service stations have hydrocarbon storage tanks, the contamination problem is considered a nonpoint source of pollution. Stricter standards must be imposed for regulating underground storage tanks that overly karst. Preventative measures to improve inventory control, leak detection, and upgraded tank specifications (rather than corrective actions) are necessary to protect the quality of drinking water provided by carbonate aquifers. Arkansas, louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas (the five states forming U.S. EPA Region VI) constitute the designated study area. With the exception of Louisiana, each state within the region has considerably large, karst aquifers.

  17. [Nitrate storage and transport within a typical karst aquifer system in the paralleled ridge-valley of east Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping-Heng; Yuan, Dao-Xian; Ren, You-Rong; Xie, Shi-You; He, Qiu-Fang; Hu, Xiao-Feng

    2012-09-01

    In order to investigate the nitrate storage and transport in the karst aquifer system, the hydrochemical dynamics of Qingmuguan underground river system was monitored online by achieving high-resolution data during storm events and monthly data in normal weather. The principal component analysis was employed to analyze the karst water geochemistry. Results showed that nitrate in Jiangjia spring did not share the same source with soluble iron, manganese and aluminum, and exhibited different geochemical behaviors. Nitrate was derived from land surface and infiltrated together with soil water, which was mainly stored in fissure, pore and solution crack of karst unsaturated zone, whereas soluble iron, manganese and aluminum were derived from soil erosion and directly recharged the underground river through sinkholes and shafts. Nitrate transport in the karst aquifer system could be ideally divided into three phases, including input storage, fast output and re-inputting storage. Under similar external conditions, the karstification intensity of vadose zone was the key factor to determine the dynamics of nitrate concentrations in the groundwater during storm events. Nitrate stored in the karst vadose zone was easily released, which would impair the aquatic ecosystem and pose seriously threats to the local health. Thus, to strengthen the management of ecological system, changing the land-use patterns and scientifically applying fertilizer could effectively make a contribution to controlling mass nutrient input from the surface.

  18. FATE AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM RELEASED FROM UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS in Areas of Karst Topography

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study determines the transport and ultimate fate of petroleum products within a region of karst geomorphology. The paper entails a complete literature review, including references that pertain to contaminant transport within karst aquifers

  19. FATE AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM RELEASED FROM UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS in Areas of Karst Topography

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study determines the transport and ultimate fate of petroleum products within a region of karst geomorphology. The paper entails a complete literature review, including references that pertain to contaminant transport within karst aquifers

  20. Protein oxidation during frozen storage and subsequent processing of different beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Utrera, Mariana; Parra, Vita; Estévez, Mario

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between protein and lipid oxidation and the impairment of the water holding capacity (WHC), redness and instrumental hardness occurring during 20 weeks of frozen storage (-18 °C) and subsequent processing (cooking, chilled storage) of psoas major, quadriceps femoris and longissimus dorsi beef patties. Patties were analyzed at sampling times upon thawing (weeks 0, 4, 8, 12 and 20) for lipid (TBARS, hexanal) and protein oxidation products (α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes, α-aminoadipic acid, Schiff bases). A significant impact of frozen storage on protein oxidation was found, which occurred concomitantly with a loss of WHC, redness and significant changes in the hardness of cooked patties. Heme-iron, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and to a lower extent, fatty acid composition, played a role in the oxidative stability of patties. Plausible mechanisms by which particular protein oxidation changes may lead to loss of WHC and impaired quality traits were discussed.

  1. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  2. Transport Processes from Mechanics: Minimal and Simplest Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunimovich, Leonid A.; Grigo, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    We review the current state of a fundamental problem of rigorous derivation of transport processes in classical statistical mechanics from classical mechanics. Such derivations for diffusion and momentum transport (viscosities) were obtained for minimal models of these processes involving one and two particles respectively. However, a minimal model which demonstrates heat conductivity contains three particles. Its rigorous analysis is currently out of reach for existing mathematical techniques. The gas of localized balls is widely accepted as a basis for a simplest model for derivation of Fourier's law. We suggest a modification of the localized balls gas and argue that this gas of localized activated balls is a good candidate to rigorously prove Fourier's law. In particular, hyperbolicity is derived for a reduced version of this model.

  3. Transport Processes from Mechanics: Minimal and Simplest Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunimovich, Leonid A.; Grigo, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    We review the current state of a fundamental problem of rigorous derivation of transport processes in classical statistical mechanics from classical mechanics. Such derivations for diffusion and momentum transport (viscosities) were obtained for minimal models of these processes involving one and two particles respectively. However, a minimal model which demonstrates heat conductivity contains three particles. Its rigorous analysis is currently out of reach for existing mathematical techniques. The gas of localized balls is widely accepted as a basis for a simplest model for derivation of Fourier's law. We suggest a modification of the localized balls gas and argue that this gas of localized activated balls is a good candidate to rigorously prove Fourier's law. In particular, hyperbolicity is derived for a reduced version of this model.

  4. Two-Dimensional Signal Processing and Storage and Theory and Applications of Electromagnetic Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-15

    UNIVERSITY SYSTEM OF GEORGIA SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ATLANTA, GEORGIA 30332 "Df~t nON TATE1 A Appwwed for pue lcre.a"j bttbuima Usimttod o...7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) School of Electrical Engineering P. 0. Box 12211 Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 Research Triangle Park, NC...dimensional optical storage and processing, hybrid optical/ digital signal processing, electromagnetic measurements in the time domain, and automatic radiation

  5. Linear Signal Processing for a Holographic Data Storage Channel Using Coherent Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Masaaki; Tokuyama, Kazutatsu; Tanaka, Kenji; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Fukumoto, Atsushi

    2009-03-01

    A linear channel model and a linear signal processing technique are available for a holographic data storage channel when our proposed coherent addition technique is applied to the reproduction process. As a result, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) after zero-interpixel-interference (IPI) equalization is markedly improved. Moreover, we can achieve a higher transfer rate at a lower oversampling rate owing to the almost ideal linearity of the reproduced signal.

  6. Assessment of shielding analysis methods, codes, and data for spent fuel transport/storage applications. [Radiation dose rates from shielded spent fuels and high-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Tang, J.S.; Cramer, S.N.; Gauthey, J.C.; Kirk, B.L.; Roussin, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the computational tools and existing methods used to obtain radiation dose rates from shielded spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis tools and techniques applicable to facilities/equipment designed for the transport or storage of spent nuclear fuel or HLW. Applications to cask transport, storage, and facility handling are considered. The report reviews the analytic techniques for generating appropriate radiation sources, evaluating the radiation transport through the shield, and calculating the dose at a desired point or surface exterior to the shield. Discrete ordinates, Monte Carlo, and point kernel methods for evaluating radiation transport are reviewed, along with existing codes and data that utilize these methods. A literature survey was employed to select a cadre of codes and data libraries to be reviewed. The selection process was based on specific criteria presented in the report. Separate summaries were written for several codes (or family of codes) that provided information on the method of solution, limitations and advantages, availability, data access, ease of use, and known accuracy. For each data library, the summary covers the source of the data, applicability of these data, and known verification efforts. Finally, the report discusses the overall status of spent fuel shielding analysis techniques and attempts to illustrate areas where inaccuracy and/or uncertainty exist. The report notes the advantages and limitations of several analysis procedures and illustrates the importance of using adequate cross-section data sets. Additional work is recommended to enable final selection/validation of analysis tools that will best meet the US Department of Energy's requirements for use in developing a viable HLW management system. 188 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Collecting duct principal cell transport processes and their regulation.

    PubMed

    Pearce, David; Soundararajan, Rama; Trimpert, Christiane; Kashlan, Ossama B; Deen, Peter M T; Kohan, Donald E

    2015-01-07

    The principal cell of the kidney collecting duct is one of the most highly regulated epithelial cell types in vertebrates. The effects of hormonal, autocrine, and paracrine factors to regulate principal cell transport processes are central to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the face of wide variations in food and water intake. In marked contrast with the epithelial cells lining the proximal tubule, the collecting duct is electrically tight, and ion and osmotic gradients can be very high. The central role of principal cells in salt and water transport is reflected by their defining transporters-the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), the renal outer medullary K(+) channel, and the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel. The coordinated regulation of ENaC by aldosterone, and AQP2 by arginine vasopressin (AVP) in principal cells is essential for the control of plasma Na(+) and K(+) concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and BP. In addition to these essential hormones, additional neuronal, physical, and chemical factors influence Na(+), K(+), and water homeostasis. Notably, a variety of secreted paracrine and autocrine agents such as bradykinin, ATP, endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 counterbalance and limit the natriferic effects of aldosterone and the water-retaining effects of AVP. Considerable recent progress has improved our understanding of the transporters, receptors, second messengers, and signaling events that mediate principal cell responses to changing environments in health and disease. This review primarily addresses the structure and function of the key transporters and the complex interplay of regulatory factors that modulate principal cell ion and water transport. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems.

    PubMed

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.

  9. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  10. Synthesis and processing of materials for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Travis

    thermogalvanic devices. Although thermogalvanic devices are known, there has been little exploration into the use of thermogalvanic devices for power generation and energy storage. First, this work formalizes the energy problem and introduces the operating principles of thermoelectric, galvanic, and thermogalvanic devices. Second, oxide based thermoelectric materials are explored from a synthetic and processing standpoint. Out of necessity, a new synthetic technique was invented and a novel hot-press technique was developed. Third, a solid Li-ion conducting electrolyte, based on the garnet crystal structure, is identified for the use in a thermogalvanic cell. In order to better understand the conductivity behavior, an in-depth exploration into the variables that control the ionic transport is performed on the electrolyte. Third, a thermogalvanic cell is constructed using this garnet based Li-ion conducting solid electrolyte and the first demonstration of such a cell is presented. Finally, strategies to improve the performance of thermogalvanic cells based on garnet type solid electrolytes are outlined for future work. The purpose of this work is to use an interdisciplinary approach to marry together the electrochemistry of galvanic systems with the strategies used to better semiconductor based thermoelectric materials and ceramics processing techniques to fabricate these systems. This dissertation will explore the interplay of these areas.

  11. Carbon dioxide storage in marine sediments - dissolution, transport and hydrate formation kinetics from high-pressure experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigalke, N. K.; Savy, J. P.; Pansegrau, M.; Aloisi, G.; Kossel, E.; Haeckel, M.

    2009-12-01

    By satisfying thermodynamic framework conditions for CO2 hydrate formation, pressures and temperatures of the deep marine environment are unique assets for sequestering CO2 in clathrates below the seabed. However, feasibility and safety of this storage option require an accurate knowledge of the rate constants governing the speed of physicochemical reactions following the injection of the liquefied gas into the sediments. High-pressure experiments designed to simulate the deep marine environment open the possibility to obtain the required parameters for a wide range of oceanic conditions. In an effort to constrain mass transfer coefficients and transport rates of CO2 in(to) the pore water of marine sediments first experiments were targeted at quantifying the rate of CO2 uptake by de-ionized water and seawater across a two-phase interface. The nature of the interface was controlled by selecting p and T to conditions within and outside the hydrate stability field (HSF) while considering both liquid and gaseous CO2. Concentration increase and hydrate growth were monitored by Raman spectroscopy. The experiments revealed anomalously fast transport rates of dissolved CO2 at conditions both inside and outside the HSF. While future experiments will further elucidate kinetics of CO2 transport and hydrate formation, these first results could have major significance to safety-related issues in the discussion of carbon storage in the marine environment.

  12. Evaluation of the Universal Viral Transport system for long-term storage of virus specimens for microbial forensics.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Mizuno, Natsuko

    2015-08-01

    Forensic microbial specimens, including bacteria and viruses, are collected at biocrime and bioterrorism scenes. Although it is preferable that the pathogens in these samples are alive and kept in a steady state, the samples may be stored for prolonged periods before analysis. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of storage conditions on the pathogens contained within such samples. To evaluate the capacity to preserve viable virus and the viral genome, influenza virus was added to the transport medium of the Universal Viral Transport system and stored for over 3 months at various temperatures, after which virus titrations and quantitative analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene were performed. Although viable viruses became undetectable 29 days after the medium was stored at room temperature, viruses in the medium stored at 4°C were viable even after 99 days. A quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the hemagglutinin gene was maintained for 99 days at both 4°C and room temperature. Therefore, long-term storage at 4°C has little effect on viable virus and viral genes, so the Universal Viral Transport system can be useful for microbial forensics. This study provides important information for the handling of forensic virus specimens.

  13. Impacts of Centimetre-scale Landscape Roughness on Depression Storage, Runoff and Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y. E.; Valeo, C.; Tait, M.; Johnson, E.

    2008-12-01

    Laser scanning was utilized to examine hillslope microtopography in a wildfire burn site in the Canadian Rockies, Canada. DTMs were created at scales of 0.75 cm, 10 cm, 25 cm, 50 cm, 75 cm and 1 metre; for each scale, bare surface (vegetation removed) and vegetated surfaces were analyzed. Several roughness indices, including Random Roughness, Tortuosity and Mean Upslope Depression, were calculated for bare and vegetated surfaces at the various scalinsg. Values of the roughness parameters and depression storage were found to be similar for the vegetated and bare surface DTMs, and do not change significantly as DTM grid cell resolution increases. In addition, a GIS-based approach was used to calculate depression storage for comparison with values based on roughness parameters. Mean depression storage based on the GIS approach decreases notably as DTM grid cell size increases. In contrast, values of depression storage based on the Random Roughness parameter remain stable with increasing size of grid cell. Hortonian overland flow generation was found to be affected by the values of depression storage for the various DTM scalings. The scale of the DTM was found to impact the proportion of water going into depression storage and that contributing to overland flow as time progresses. Furthermore, greater amounts of water are retained as depression storage for a particular value of rainfall excess after infiltration for the finer resolution DTMs. A modelling exercise was undertaken to examine the initiation and behaviour of overland flow from a rising groundwater table. Initially, water depths are lower than the main topographic roughness elements on the landscape, and water present on the landscape is relatively disconnected. Water flow becomes more integrated as channel flow increases.

  14. Analytical model of reactive transport processes with spatially variable coefficients.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Matthew J; Morrow, Liam C

    2015-05-01

    Analytical solutions of partial differential equation (PDE) models describing reactive transport phenomena in saturated porous media are often used as screening tools to provide insight into contaminant fate and transport processes. While many practical modelling scenarios involve spatially variable coefficients, such as spatially variable flow velocity, v(x), or spatially variable decay rate, k(x), most analytical models deal with constant coefficients. Here we present a framework for constructing exact solutions of PDE models of reactive transport. Our approach is relevant for advection-dominant problems, and is based on a regular perturbation technique. We present a description of the solution technique for a range of one-dimensional scenarios involving constant and variable coefficients, and we show that the solutions compare well with numerical approximations. Our general approach applies to a range of initial conditions and various forms of v(x) and k(x). Instead of simply documenting specific solutions for particular cases, we present a symbolic worksheet, as supplementary material, which enables the solution to be evaluated for different choices of the initial condition, v(x) and k(x). We also discuss how the technique generalizes to apply to models of coupled multispecies reactive transport as well as higher dimensional problems.

  15. The contribution of temporary storage and executive processes to category learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tengfei; Ren, Xuezhu; Schweizer, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Three distinctly different working memory processes, temporary storage, mental shifting and inhibition, were proposed to account for individual differences in category learning. A sample of 213 participants completed a classic category learning task and two working memory tasks that were experimentally manipulated for tapping specific working memory processes. Fixed-links models were used to decompose data of the category learning task into two independent components representing basic performance and improvement in performance in category learning. Processes of working memory were also represented by fixed-links models. In a next step the three working memory processes were linked to components of category learning. Results from modeling analyses indicated that temporary storage had a significant effect on basic performance and shifting had a moderate effect on improvement in performance. In contrast, inhibition showed no effect on any component of the category learning task. These results suggest that temporary storage and the shifting process play different roles in the course of acquiring new categories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Quality indicators in the storage and dispensing process in a Hospital Pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Rabuñal-Álvarez, M T; Calvin-Lamas, M; Feal-Cortizas, B; Martínez-López, L M; Pedreira-Vázquez, I; Martín-Herranz, M I

    2014-01-01

    To establish indicators for the evaluation of the quality of the storage and dispensing processes related to semiautomatic vertical (SAVCS) and horizontal (SAHCS) carousel systems. Descriptive observational study conducted between January-December 2012. Definition of quality indicators, a target value is established and an obtained value is calculated for 2012. Five quality indicators in the process of storage and dispensing of drugs were defined and calculated: indicator 1, error filling unidose trolleys: target (<1.67%), obtained (1.03%); indicator 2, filling accuracy unidose trolleys by using an SAVCS: target (<15%), obtained (11.5%); indicator 3, reliability of drug inventory in the process of drug entries using an SAHCS: target (<15%), obtained (6.53%); indicator 4, reliability of drug inventory in the picking process of orders replacement stock of clinical units using an SAHCS: target (<10%), obtained (1.97%); indicator 5, accuracy of the picking process of drug orders using an SAHCS: target (<10%), obtained (10.41%). Establishing indicators has allowed the quality in terms of safety, precision and reliability of semiautomatic systems for storage and dispensing drugs to be assessed. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of coupled transport and its effect on different electrochemical systems: Implications in high temperature energy storage batteries and proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, Preethy

    Coupled transport is studied on two electrochemical systems: Na-ZnCl 2 batteries and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). The energy storage system of interest here is based on sodium β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE): Na/BASE/ZnCl2. BASE is an excellent Na+ conductor with a very high conductivity at 300°C. Its high Na+ ion conductivity and high stability are the principal reasons for its application in electrochemical storage systems. A novel vapor phase process was invented facilitating the fabrication of high strength and moisture/CO 2 resistant BASE. A two-phase composite of alumiNa+YSZ is formed by sintering and exposed to Na2O vapor, keeping the activity of Na2O lower than that in NaAlO2. This prevents the formation of hygroscopic NaAlO2 at the grain boundaries. A thin layer of β"-alumina is formed on the surface upon exposure. Further reaction occurs by transporting Na+ ions through the formed β"-alumina and a parallel transport of O2- ions through YSZ. This occurs by a coupled transport of Na+ through β"-alumina and O 2- ions through YSZ, thus expediting the process. The second electrochemical system of interest is PEMFC. The degradation mechanism of catalysts is studied using inexpensive copper particles. The mechanism of growth involves a coupled transport of Cu2+ through the aqueous medium and an electron transport through the direct particle-to-particle contact. Effect of applied stress on coarsening of platinum was also investigated. Two platinum wires/foils were immersed in a PtCl4+DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) solution. A tensile load was applied to one wire/foil and the other one was left load-free. The wire/foil subjected to a tensile load became cathodic with respect to the unstressed wire/foil. Thus, under a tensile stress, the chemical potential of Pt decreases. This result suggests design strategies for core-shell catalysts used in PEMFCs: stable core-shell catalysts for PEMFC with Pt shell should be designed such that the shell is

  18. Characterization of solute transport properties of different types of constructed wetlands using multi-tracer data and transient storage modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Lange, Jens; Weiler, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Constructed wetlands in agricultural headwater catchments may serve as simple treatment systems to improve retention and mitigation of agricultural non-point-source pollution. To calculate and predict retention capacities of 6 different constructed wetland systems concerning micro-pollutants, we used a one-dimensional solute transport model to compare the results of a series of multi-tracer experiments. The investigated wetland systems consisted of two surface flow wetlands with permanent through flow, two vegetated ditches, a forest buffer zone and a flood detention pond. Transport behaviour was investigated using different tracers: salt and two differently sorptive fluorescent dyes (Sulphorhodamine B and fluoresceine). The hypothesis that shallow and vegetated systems offer the highest sorption capacity for sorptive but mobile pollutants was tested applying a solute transport model to the observed tracer breakthrough. The transport model OTIS (Runkel, 1998) which includes advection, dispersion and lateral exchange to a transient storage was optimized to observed breakthrough of applied tracers at defined cross-sections along the wetlands. Optimized model parameters include dispersivity, cross-sectional areas of both stream and transient storage, as well as an exchange coefficient. Sorption was included based on the KD value, mass of accessible sediment and a sorption coefficient. We assumed that each measurable cross-section is a combination of dead zones and flowing parts. For three of the wetland systems we could exclude lateral in- and outflows. For the other systems, a quantification of lateral flows was possible. We used the set of conservative tracer data to calculate conservative transport characteristics and cross-sections. Then we applied the calibrated model on the sorptive tracer data only using sorption capacity in the storage zone as a calibration parameter and observed KD values and mass of accessible sediment. The results for the different tracer

  19. The effect of long-term storage on the quality of sterilized processed cheese.

    PubMed

    Bubelová, Zuzana; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Buňková, Leona; Pospiech, Matej; Vítová, Eva; Buňka, František

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect three different storage temperatures (6, 23 and 40 °C) on the sterilized processed cheese quality during 24-month storage. Sterilized processed cheese (SPC) is a product with extended shelf life (up to 2 years). The samples of SPC were subjected to basic chemical analyses, i.e. pH-values, dry matter, fat, crude protein and ammonia content, and microbiological analyses, i.e. total number of microorganisms, number of coliforms, colony forming units of yeasts and/or moulds and spore-forming microorganisms. Furthermore, amino acid content (ion-exchange chromatography), protein profile (SDS-PAGE) and fat globules size (image analysis of microscopic technique) were monitored and sensory analysis (scale test and pair comparative test) was implemented, too. Increasing storage temperature and length evoked decrease of total amino acid content and protein nutrition value, increase of ammonia amount, protein changes, enlargement of fat globule size and deterioration of sensory properties of SPC. All the changes grew expressive with increasing storage temperature and time.

  20. Effect of processing and storage on the stability of flaxseed lignan added to dairy products.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, Helena K; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Hiidenhovi, Jaakko A; Hietaniemi, Veli; Korhonen, Hannu J T; Ryhänen, Eeva-Liisa

    2006-11-15

    This study investigated the effects of processing and storage on the stability of purified, flaxseed-derived secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) added to milk prior to the manufacture of different dairy products. We analyzed the effect of high-temperature pasteurization, fermentation, and milk renneting as well as storage on the stability of SDG added to milk, yogurt, and cheese. Also, the stability of SDG in whey-based drinks was studied. Added SDG was found to withstand the studied processes well. In edam cheese manufacture, most of the added SDG was retained in the whey fraction and 6% was found in the cheese curd. SDG was also relatively stable in edam cheese during ripening of 6 weeks at 9 degrees C and in yogurt during storage of 21 days at 4 degrees C. Up to 25% of added SDG was lost in whey-based drinks during storage of 6 months at 8 degrees C. We conclude that SDG can be successfully supplemented in dairy-based products.