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Sample records for produce promising results

  1. Earthquake prediction; new studies yield promising results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, R.

    1974-01-01

    On Agust 3, 1973, a small earthquake (magnitude 2.5) occurred near Blue Mountain Lake in the Adirondack region of northern New York State. This seemingly unimportant event was of great significance, however, because it was predicted. Seismologsits at the Lamont-Doherty geologcal Observatory of Columbia University accurately foretold the time, place, and magnitude of the event. Their prediction was based on certain pre-earthquake processes that are best explained by a hypothesis known as "dilatancy," a concept that has injected new life and direction into the science of earthquake prediction. Although much mroe reserach must be accomplished before we can expect to predict potentially damaging earthquakes with any degree of consistency, results such as this indicate that we are on a promising road. 

  2. The Promise and Challenge of Producing Biofuel Feedstocks: An Ecological Perspective (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    DeLucia, Evan

    2018-02-13

    Evan DeLucia of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the Energy Biosciences Institute talks about The Promise and Challenge of Producing Biofuel Feedstocks: An Ecological Perspective on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting.

  3. Characterization of the promising poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) producing halophilic bacterium Halomonas halophila.

    PubMed

    Kucera, Dan; Pernicová, Iva; Kovalcik, Adriana; Koller, Martin; Mullerova, Lucie; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Nebesarova, Jana; Kalina, Michal; Marova, Ivana; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Obruca, Stanislav

    2018-05-01

    This work explores molecular, morphological as well as biotechnological features of the highly promising polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producer Halomonas halophila. Unlike many other halophiles, this bacterium does not require expensive complex media components and it is capable to accumulate high intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) fractions up to 82% of cell dry mass. Most remarkably, regulating the concentration of NaCl apart from PHB yields influences also the polymer's molecular mass and polydispersity. The bacterium metabolizes various carbohydrates including sugars predominant in lignocelluloses and other inexpensive substrates. Therefore, the bacterium was employed for PHB production on hydrolysates of cheese whey, spent coffee grounds, sawdust and corn stover, which were hydrolyzed by HCl; required salinity of cultivation media was set up during neutralization by NaOH. The bacterium was capable to use all the tested hydrolysates as well as sugar beet molasses for PHB biosynthesis, indicating its potential for industrial PHB production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Promising Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow Assay Plus PCR for Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Terao, Yoshitaka; Takeshita, Kana; Nishiyama, Yasutaka; Morishita, Naoki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Morimatsu, Fumiki

    2015-08-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a frequent cause of foodborne infections, and methods for rapid and reliable detection of STEC are needed. A nucleic acid lateral flow assay (NALFA) plus PCR was evaluated for detecting STEC after enrichment. When cell suspensions of 45 STEC strains, 14 non-STEC strains, and 13 non-E. coli strains were tested with the NALFA plus PCR, all of the STEC strains yielded positive results, and all of the non-STEC and non-E. coli strains yielded negative results. The lower detection limit for the STEC strains ranged from 0.1 to 1 pg of genomic DNA (about 20 to 200 CFU) per test, and the NALFA plus PCR was able to detect Stx1- and Stx2-producing E. coli strains with similar sensitivities. The ability of the NALFA plus PCR to detect STEC in enrichment cultures of radish sprouts, tomato, raw ground beef, and beef liver inoculated with 10-fold serially diluted STEC cultures was comparable to that of a real-time PCR assay (at a level of 100 to 100,000 CFU/ml in enrichment culture). The bacterial inoculation test in raw ground beef revealed that the lower detection limit of the NALFA plus PCR was also comparable to that obtained with a real-time PCR assay that followed the U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines. Although further evaluation is required, these results suggest that the NALFA plus PCR is a specific and sensitive method for detecting STEC in a food manufacturing plant.

  5. Simultaneous co-fermentation of mixed sugars: a promising strategy for producing cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Rin; Ha, Suk-Jin; Wei, Na; Oh, Eun Joong; Jin, Yong-Su

    2012-05-01

    The lack of microbial strains capable of fermenting all sugars prevalent in plant cell wall hydrolyzates to ethanol is a major challenge. Although naturally existing or engineered microorganisms can ferment mixed sugars (glucose, xylose and galactose) in these hydrolyzates sequentially, the preferential utilization of glucose to non-glucose sugars often results in lower overall yield and productivity of ethanol. Therefore, numerous metabolic engineering approaches have been attempted to construct optimal microorganisms capable of co-fermenting mixed sugars simultaneously. Here, we present recent findings and breakthroughs in engineering yeast for improved ethanol production from mixed sugars. In particular, this review discusses new sugar transporters, various strategies for simultaneous co-fermentation of mixed sugars, and potential applications of co-fermentation for producing fuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cooperative test plots produce some promising Chinese and hybrid chestnut trees

    Treesearch

    Jesse D. Diller; Russell B. Clapper; Richard A. Jaynes

    1964-01-01

    In attempts to find a chestnut tree that is resistant to the blight fungus Endothia parasitica, Asiatic chestnuts have been imported and grown in this country, and tree breeders have worked to produce hybrid trees that might be suitable substitutes for the blight-susceptible American chestnut, Castanea dentate, in timber and nut...

  7. Promising Results from Three NASA SBIR Solar Array Technology Development Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskenazi, Mike; White, Steve; Spence, Brian; Douglas, Mark; Glick, Mike; Pavlick, Ariel; Murphy, David; O'Neill, Mark; McDanal, A. J.; Piszczor, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Results from three NASA SBIR solar array technology programs are presented. The programs discussed are: 1) Thin Film Photovoltaic UltraFlex Solar Array; 2) Low Cost/Mass Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ESCA); and 3) Stretched Lens Array SquareRigger (SLASR). The purpose of the Thin Film UltraFlex (TFUF) Program is to mature and validate the use of advanced flexible thin film photovoltaics blankets as the electrical subsystem element within an UltraFlex solar array structural system. In this program operational prototype flexible array segments, using United Solar amorphous silicon cells, are being manufactured and tested for the flight qualified UltraFlex structure. In addition, large size (e.g. 10 kW GEO) TFUF wing systems are being designed and analyzed. Thermal cycle and electrical test and analysis results from the TFUF program are presented. The purpose of the second program entitled, Low Cost/Mass Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ESCA) System, is to develop an Electrostatically Clean Solar Array meeting NASA s design requirements and ready this technology for commercialization and use on the NASA MMS and GED missions. The ESCA designs developed use flight proven materials and processes to create a ESCA system that yields low cost, low mass, high reliability, high power density, and is adaptable to any cell type and coverglass thickness. All program objectives, which included developing specifications, creating ESCA concepts, concept analysis and trade studies, producing detailed designs of the most promising ESCA treatments, manufacturing ESCA demonstration panels, and LEO (2,000 cycles) and GEO (1,350 cycles) thermal cycling testing of the down-selected designs were successfully achieved. The purpose of the third program entitled, "High Power Platform for the Stretched Lens Array," is to develop an extremely lightweight, high efficiency, high power, high voltage, and low stowed volume solar array suitable for very high power (multi-kW to MW

  8. Promising Fuel Cycle Options for R&D – Results, Insights, and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Wigeland, Roald Arnold

    2015-05-01

    The Fuel Cycle Options (FCO) campaign in the U.S. DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program conducted a detailed evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycles. The process for this study was described at the 2014 ICAPP meeting. This paper reports on detailed insights and questions from the results of the study. The comprehensive study identified continuous recycle in fast reactors as the most promising option, using either U/Pu or U/TRU recycle, and potentially in combination with thermal reactors, as reported at the ICAPP 2014 meeting. This paper describes the examination of the results in detail that indicated that theremore » was essentially no difference in benefit between U/Pu and U/TRU recycle, prompting questions about the desirability of pursuing the more complex U/TRU approach given that the estimated greater challenges for development and deployment. The results will be reported from the current effort that further explores what, if any, benefits of TRU recycle (minor actinides in addition to plutonium recycle) may be in order to inform decisions on future R&D directions. The study also identified continuous recycle using thorium-based fuel cycles as potentially promising, in either fast or thermal systems, but with lesser benefit. Detailed examination of these results indicated that the lesser benefit was confined to only a few of the evaluation metrics, identifying the conditions under which thorium-based fuel cycles would be promising to pursue. For the most promising fuel cycles, the FCO is also conducting analyses on the potential transition to such fuel cycles to identify the issues, challenges, and the timing for critical decisions that would need to be made to avoid unnecessary delay in deployment, including investigation of issues such as the effects of a temporary lack of plutonium fuel resources or supporting infrastructure. These studies are placed in the context of an overall analysis approach designed to provide comprehensive

  9. 9.9 Sales Grid Style Produces Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Robert R.; Mouton, Jane Srygley

    1970-01-01

    Selling effectiveness experiments have provided evidence that solution selling (problem solving) produces far better results than formula selling (sales technique oriented), hard sell, people-oriented selling, or order taking. (PT)

  10. Results and Indicators for Children: An Analysis to Inform Discussions about Promise Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Murphey, David; Emig, Carol; Hamilton, Kathleen; Hadley, Alena; Sidorowicz, Katie

    2009-01-01

    President Obama has proposed creation of up to 20 "Promise Neighborhoods" in communities experiencing poverty, crime, and low student achievement. Promise Neighborhoods would engage children and parents within a defined geographic area in a multifaceted strategy to meet several goals: good physical and mental health for every child, enrollment in…

  11. In-house coordination project for organ and tissue procurement: social responsibility and promising results 1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Vanessa Silva e; Moura, Luciana Carvalho; Martins, Luciana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Roberta Cristina Cardoso; Schirmer, Janine; Roza, Bartira de Aguiar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to report the results of evaluation regarding changes in the number of potential donor referrals, actual donors, and conversion rates after the implementation of an in-house organ and tissue donation for transplantation coordination project. Methods: epidemiological study, both retrospective and transversal, was performed with organ donation data from the Secretariat of Health for the State and the in-house organ donation coordination project of a beneficent hospital. The data was compared using nonparametric statistical Mann-Whitney test, and the Student's t-test, considering a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). Results: there were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05), before and after the implementation of the project on the number of potential donor notification/month (3.05 - 4.7 ), number of actual donor/month (0.78 to 1.60) and rate of conversion ( 24.7 to 34.8 %). The hospitals 1, 2, 7 and 8 had significant results in potential donor, actual donor or conversion rate. Conclusion: the presence of an in-house coordinator is promising and beneficial, the specialist is important to change the indicators of efficiency, which consequently reduces the waiting lists for organ transplants. PMID:27463111

  12. In-house coordination project for organ and tissue procurement: social responsibility and promising results.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vanessa Silva E; Moura, Luciana Carvalho; Martins, Luciana Ribeiro; Santos, Roberta Cristina Cardoso Dos; Schirmer, Janine; Roza, Bartira de Aguiar

    2016-01-01

    to report the results of evaluation regarding changes in the number of potential donor referrals, actual donors, and conversion rates after the implementation of an in-house organ and tissue donation for transplantation coordination project. epidemiological study, both retrospective and transversal, was performed with organ donation data from the Secretariat of Health for the State and the in-house organ donation coordination project of a beneficent hospital. The data was compared using nonparametric statistical Mann-Whitney test, and the Student's t-test, considering a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). there were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05), before and after the implementation of the project on the number of potential donor notification/month (3.05 - 4.7 ), number of actual donor/month (0.78 to 1.60) and rate of conversion ( 24.7 to 34.8 %). The hospitals 1, 2, 7 and 8 had significant results in potential donor, actual donor or conversion rate. the presence of an in-house coordinator is promising and beneficial, the specialist is important to change the indicators of efficiency, which consequently reduces the waiting lists for organ transplants.

  13. Randomized Trial of Reducing Ambulatory Malpractice and Safety Risk: Results of the Massachusetts PROMISES Project.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Gordon D; Reyes Nieva, Harry; Griswold, Paula; Leydon, Nicholas; Ling, Judy; Federico, Frank; Keohane, Carol; Ellis, Bonnie R; Foskett, Cathy; Orav, E John; Yoon, Catherine; Goldmann, Don; Weissman, Joel S; Bates, David W; Biondolillo, Madeleine; Singer, Sara J

    2017-08-01

    Evaluate application of quality improvement approaches to key ambulatory malpractice risk and safety areas. In total, 25 small-to-medium-sized primary care practices (16 intervention; 9 control) in Massachusetts. Controlled trial of a 15-month intervention including exposure to a learning network, webinars, face-to-face meetings, and coaching by improvement advisors targeting "3+1" high-risk domains: test result, referral, and medication management plus culture/communication issues evaluated by survey and chart review tools. Chart reviews conducted at baseline and postintervention for intervention sites. Staff and patient survey data collected at baseline and postintervention for intervention and control sites. Chart reviews demonstrated significant improvements in documentation of abnormal results, patient notification, documentation of an action or treatment plan, and evidence of a completed plan (all P<0.001). Mean days between laboratory test date and evidence of completed action/treatment plan decreased by 19.4 days (P<0.001). Staff surveys showed modest but nonsignificant improvement for intervention practices relative to controls overall and for the 3 high-risk domains that were the focus of PROMISES. A consortium of stakeholders, quality improvement tools, coaches, and learning network decreased selected ambulatory safety risks often seen in malpractice claims.

  14. Cold Atmospheric Plasma for Clinical Purposes: Promising Results in Patients and Future Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbary, Georg

    Infected chronic wounds are both socioeconomic and medical problem. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has already proven its efficacy in killing bacteria on agar plates but also the first prospective randomized controlled trial in patients. As an add-on therapy CAPs proved a highly significant decrease in bacterial load in 5 min plasma-treated wounds (34%, p < 10-6, n = 291, 36 patients) in comparison with wounds that received only standard wound care. This reduction is found in all kinds of germs, even multiresistant ones. Two minutes of plasma treatment led to a significant reduction in bacterial load as well (40%, p < 0.016, n = 70, 14 patients). The treatment is very well tolerated and no side effects occurred until now (in total more than 2,000 treatments in over 220 patients). The results of this study revealed the potential of atmospheric argon plasma treatment as a new approach to kill bacteria in terms of mutiresistancy. With the same CAP device other dermatologic diseases were treated successfully, e.g. Hailey-Hailey disease. New plasma devices using surrounding ambient air have not only greater bactericidal but also virucidal properties. These devices may herald a new era in public, personal, pet, and food hygiene, same as in decontamination. Investigations of human compatibility are promising.

  15. Simple Reshaping of the Breast in Massive Weight Loss Patients: Promising Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Ikander, Peder; Gad, Dorte; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Boljanovic, Slaven; Salzberg, Andrew; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Thomsen, Jørn Bo

    2017-02-01

    The challenging breast reshaping after massive weight loss (MWL) has been increasingly performed as the number of bariatric surgery procedures increase worldwide. The breasts often appear wide, lateralized, and deflated, with significant ptosis. The aim of this article is to share our initial experience using the lower pole subglandular advancement mastoplasty (LOPOSAM) technique to reshape the breasts in MWL patients and to elaborate the technical details and simplicity of the method in the attached video. We performed 30 LOPOSAM procedures in 15 MWL women aged 24 to 63 years from February to September 2015. We used a wise pattern mark-up and a superior based pedicle for the relocation of the nipple areola complex. The key step for the autoaugmentation was an inferior and central mound based parabola-shaped flap, which was placed in a subglandular pocket to reshape the breast and lift the inframammary crease. The median operation time for the LOPOSAM procedure was 81 minutes (range, 35-160 minutes) by 2 surgeons. The median weight loss was 64 kg (range, 45-103) and 22 body mass index units (range, 16-33) per patient. The median follow-up was 240 days (range, 105 Powered by Editorial Manager and ProduXion Manager from Aries Systems Corporation to 345). The surgical goal was achieved in all cases. Four complications occurred in 3 patients, 1 major, a hematoma-requiring surgery and 3 minor wound dehiscence. The self-reported patient satisfaction was high, 13 were very satisfied with the result, 1 satisfied, and 1 less satisfied. The LOPOSAM technique is quick and simple to perform, and the preliminary results are promising. However, a longer follow-up is needed to confirm this.

  16. Less promising results with sclerosing ethoxysclerol injections for midportion achilles tendinopathy: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    van Sterkenburg, Maayke N; de Jonge, Milko C; Sierevelt, Inger N; van Dijk, C Niek

    2010-11-01

    Local injections of the sclerosing substance polidocanol (Ethoxysclerol) have shown good clinical results in patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. After training by the inventors of the technique, sclerosing Ethoxysclerol injections were applied on a group of patients in our center. Sclerosing Ethoxysclerol injections will yield good results in the majority of patients. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. In 113 patients (140 tendons) with Achilles tendinopathy, we identified 62 patients (70 tendons) showing neovascularization on color Doppler ultrasound. Fifty-three Achilles tendons (48 patients) were treated with sclerosing Ethoxysclerol injections, with intervals of 6 weeks and a maximum of 5 sessions. Treatment was completed when neovascularization or pain had disappeared, or when there was no positive treatment effect after 3 to 4 sessions. Forty-eight patients (20 women and 28 men) with a median age of 45 years, (range, 33-68 years) were treated. Median symptom duration was 23 months (range, 3-300 months). Fifty-three tendons were treated with a median of 3 sessions of Ethoxysclerol injections. Six weeks after the last injection, 35% of patients had no complaints, 9% had minimal symptoms, 42% were the same, and 14% had more complaints. Women were 3.8 times (95% confidence interval: 1.1-13.8) more likely to have unsatisfactory outcome than men. Pain correlated positively with neovessels on ultrasound (P < .01). At 2.7 to 5.1 year follow-up, 53% had received additional (surgical/conservative) treatment; 3 of these patients (7.5%) still had complaints of Achilles tendinopathy. In 6 patients, complaints that were still present 6 weeks after treatment had resolved spontaneously by final follow-up. Our study did not confirm the high beneficial value of sclerosing neovascularization in patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Despite the retrospective design of our study, we consider it important to stress that injection of Ethoxysclerol may

  17. Application of modified-alginate encapsulated carbonate producing bacteria in concrete: a promising strategy for crack self-healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyun; Mignon, Arn; Snoeck, Didier; Wiktor, Virginie; Van Vliergerghe, Sandra; Boon, Nico; De Belie, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Self-healing concrete holds promising benefits to reduce the cost for concrete maintenance and repair as cracks are autonomously repaired without any human intervention. In this study, the application of a carbonate precipitating bacterium Bacillus sphaericus was explored. Regarding the harsh condition in concrete, B. sphaericus spores were first encapsulated into a modified-alginate based hydrogel (AM-H) which was proven to have a good compatibility with the bacteria and concrete regarding the influence on bacterial viability and concrete strength. Experimental results show that the spores were still viable after encapsulation. Encapsulated spores can precipitate a large amount of CaCO3 in/on the hydrogel matrix (around 70% by weight). Encapsulated B. sphaericus spores were added into mortar specimens and bacterial in situ activity was demonstrated by the oxygen consumption on the mimicked crack surface. While specimens with free spores added showed no oxygen consumption. This indicates the efficient protection of the hydrogel for spores in concrete. To conclude, the AM-H encapsulated carbonate precipitating bacteria have great potential to be used for crack self-healing in concrete applications.

  18. Application of modified-alginate encapsulated carbonate producing bacteria in concrete: a promising strategy for crack self-healing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianyun; Mignon, Arn; Snoeck, Didier; Wiktor, Virginie; Van Vliergerghe, Sandra; Boon, Nico; De Belie, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Self-healing concrete holds promising benefits to reduce the cost for concrete maintenance and repair as cracks are autonomously repaired without any human intervention. In this study, the application of a carbonate precipitating bacterium Bacillus sphaericus was explored. Regarding the harsh condition in concrete, B. sphaericus spores were first encapsulated into a modified-alginate based hydrogel (AM-H) which was proven to have a good compatibility with the bacteria and concrete regarding the influence on bacterial viability and concrete strength. Experimental results show that the spores were still viable after encapsulation. Encapsulated spores can precipitate a large amount of CaCO3 in/on the hydrogel matrix (around 70% by weight). Encapsulated B. sphaericus spores were added into mortar specimens and bacterial in situ activity was demonstrated by the oxygen consumption on the mimicked crack surface. While specimens with free spores added showed no oxygen consumption. This indicates the efficient protection of the hydrogel for spores in concrete. To conclude, the AM-H encapsulated carbonate precipitating bacteria have great potential to be used for crack self-healing in concrete applications. PMID:26528254

  19. Why all randomised controlled trials produce biased results.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Alexander

    2018-06-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are commonly viewed as the best research method to inform public health and social policy. Usually they are thought of as providing the most rigorous evidence of a treatment's effectiveness without strong assumptions, biases and limitations. This is the first study to examine that hypothesis by assessing the 10 most cited RCT studies worldwide. These 10 RCT studies with the highest number of citations in any journal (up to June 2016) were identified by searching Scopus (the largest database of peer-reviewed journals). This study shows that these world-leading RCTs that have influenced policy produce biased results by illustrating that participants' background traits that affect outcomes are often poorly distributed between trial groups, that the trials often neglect alternative factors contributing to their main reported outcome and, among many other issues, that the trials are often only partially blinded or unblinded. The study here also identifies a number of novel and important assumptions, biases and limitations not yet thoroughly discussed in existing studies that arise when designing, implementing and analysing trials. Researchers and policymakers need to become better aware of the broader set of assumptions, biases and limitations in trials. Journals need to also begin requiring researchers to outline them in their studies. We need to furthermore better use RCTs together with other research methods. Key messages RCTs face a range of strong assumptions, biases and limitations that have not yet all been thoroughly discussed in the literature. This study assesses the 10 most cited RCTs worldwide and shows that trials inevitably produce bias. Trials involve complex processes - from randomising, blinding and controlling, to implementing treatments, monitoring participants etc. - that require many decisions and steps at different levels that bring their own assumptions and degree of bias to results.

  20. Key Performance Indicators: From Promise to Payoff. The Productivity for Results Series No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael; Eugene, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws upon the expertise of two leading educators, Michael Casserly, director of the Council of the Great City Schools, and Michael Eugene, chief operating officer of the Orange County Public Schools in Florida. They outline a set of key performance indicators that some urban districts use to benchmark the results of their operating…

  1. Comb-Push Ultrasound Shear Elastography of Breast Masses: Initial Results Show Promise

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pengfei; Fazzio, Robert T.; Pruthi, Sandhya; Whaley, Dana H.; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose or Objective To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for classification of breast masses. Materials and Methods CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF) beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results. Results Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s) in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s). Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young’s modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC). Conclusion CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses. PMID:25774978

  2. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography of breast masses: initial results show promise.

    PubMed

    Denis, Max; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D; Fazzio, Robert T; Pruthi, Sandhya; Whaley, Dana H; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for classification of breast masses. CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF) beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results. Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s) in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s). Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young's modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC). CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses.

  3. An initial assessment of the consumer demand roundtable: Results and promise.

    PubMed

    Barker, Dianne C; Gutman, Marjorie A; Gordon, Sara R

    2010-03-01

    An initial assessment of the National Tobacco Cessation Collaborative's (NTCC) 2005-2007 Consumer Demand Roundtable (CDR) was conducted in 2008 to assess the results and products of CDR, and to offer recommendations to guide ongoing NTCC efforts to expand the demand, reach, and use of effective tobacco-cessation treatments. The evaluation was a small, retrospective, descriptive study, primarily using in-depth telephone interviews, supplemented by a review of CDR agendas, products, and web-based participant surveys. A sample of 30 tobacco-cessation leaders who had participated in at least one CDR meeting or conference was interviewed in May and June of 2008. Specific products implemented or influenced by CDR were identified, and organized by its six core strategies. Almost all respondents reported that the CDR was successful in its first goal to generate new ways of thinking about increasing demand for chronically underused evidence-based quit-smoking treatment, providing concrete examples of ways they had infused CDR concepts into the work of their organizations. The development of new products and communication messages suggested some progress in meeting the goal of identifying and catalyzing feasible innovations in treatment design, promotion, research, practice, and policy. Results suggest that the CDR, conceived as a "think tank" for the tobacco-cessation field, made sizable progress, especially in shifting the field to a new way of thinking. Continued leadership, funding, and proactive, sustained communication are needed to ensure these new innovations are further tested, implemented, and sustained. A longer-term follow-up evaluation to measure this impact is recommended. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Challenges and promises for nurse education curriculum development in Kosovo: results of an "accidental ethnography".

    PubMed

    Goepp, Julius G; Johnson, Tiesha D; Maddow, Charles L

    2008-05-01

    Kosovo's infrastructure was devastated by armed conflict through the 1990s; in 1999 a visiting inter-disciplinary team described healthcare services as being in "disarray". Several collaborative programs were initiated to enhance delivery of emergency medical (EM) services. Our inter-disciplinary team traveled to Kosovo in 2004 to evaluate EM physician education and training. A brief renewed outbreak of hostilities created a mass casualty incident. An "accidental ethnography" focused on nurse education was conducted by team members during and after the event. Results indicated low levels of professionalization of nurses as indicated by expressions of professional self-identity and self-esteem, autonomy, and submission to patriarchal attitudes. Undergraduate nurse education is restricted to a diploma program and one foreign training project, one graduate degree program exists abroad, and no national board examination exists. Nurses' social location is described as marginalized and disenfranchised, and retention of nurses is a persistent problem. Based on these observations we outline an inter-professional curriculum development program to foster professionalization of Kosovar nurses through a synthesis of participatory action research with elements of grounded theory and standard curriculum development methodologies. The collaborative, emancipatory, and empowering nature of PAR is described in the context of professionalizing nurse education programs.

  5. Sulbutiamine shows promising results in reducing fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sevim, Serhan; Kaleağası, Hakan; Taşdelen, Bahar

    2017-08-01

    Fatigue is the most frequent and often debilitating symptom for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). There are no available effective therapies for fatigue associated with MS, and it is unclear whether a successful therapy of MS leads to clinical improvement. Sulbutiamine is a lipophilic compound that crosses the blood-brain barrier more readily than thiamine and increases the levels of thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters in the brain. Whereas several clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of sulbutiamine in patients with asthenia, there have been no reports on the effects of sulbutiamine on fatigue in patients with MS. Our study was designed to evaluate the short-term effects of sulbutiamine on fatigue in patients with MS. Patients were included if fatigue was one of their three predominant symptoms. They were required to have a total score on the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) of >20, and on the Beck Depression Inventory of <17, and no relapse in the last 3 months prior to onset of the study. Patients were advised to receive 400mg orally of sulbutiamine once daily for two months. The outcome of the study was in the changes of FIS. Twenty-six patients with MS (18 females and 8 males) were selected. The patients were 18-57 years of age (mean:37,2). The average score of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of the patients was 2,71. A significant number of the subjects who were on some kind of disease modifying treatment (DMT) demonstrated obvious improvement in their total FIS scores, whereas none of the subjects who were not on any DMT improved (13/23 vs. 0/5). The average fatigue score was 77 (SD:30,5) at the baseline and 60,5 (SD:29,7) on Day 60, respectively. Sulbutiamine intake resulted in a significant reduction on the total score of FIS and on all three subscales assessing physical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning (all p-values < 0,01). There were no serious adverse events. Sulbutiamin appears to be effective in treating fatigue

  6. Veggie ISS Validation Test Results and Produce Consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Spencer, LaShelle; Smith, Trent

    2015-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system flew to the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2014. The first set of plants, Outredgeous red romaine lettuce, was grown, harvested, frozen, and returned to Earth in October. Ground control and flight plant tissue was sub-sectioned for microbial analysis, anthocyanin antioxidant phenolic analysis, and elemental analysis. Microbial analysis was also performed on samples swabbed on orbit from plants, Veggie bellows, and plant pillow surfaces, on water samples, and on samples of roots, media, and wick material from two returned plant pillows. Microbial levels of plants were comparable to ground controls, with some differences in community composition. The range in aerobic bacterial plate counts between individual plants was much greater in the ground controls than in flight plants. No pathogens were found. Anthocyanin concentrations were the same between ground and flight plants, while antioxidant and phenolic levels were slightly higher in flight plants. Elements varied, but key target elements for astronaut nutrition were similar between ground and flight plants. Aerobic plate counts of the flight plant pillow components were significantly higher than ground controls. Surface swab samples showed low microbial counts, with most below detection limits. Flight plant microbial levels were less than bacterial guidelines set for non-thermostabalized food and near or below those for fungi. These guidelines are not for fresh produce but are the closest approximate standards. Forward work includes the development of standards for space-grown produce. A produce consumption strategy for Veggie on ISS includes pre-flight assessments of all crops to down select candidates, wiping flight-grown plants with sanitizing food wipes, and regular Veggie hardware cleaning and microbial monitoring. Produce then could be consumed by astronauts, however some plant material would be reserved and returned for analysis. Implementation of

  7. Interdisciplinary research produces results in understanding planetary dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, Timothy N.; Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Remote Sensing and Image Analysis of Planetary Dunes; Flagstaff, Arizona, 12–16 June 2012. This workshop, the third in a biennial series, was convened as a means of bringing together terrestrial and planetary researchers from diverse backgrounds with the goal of fostering collaborative interdisciplinary research. The small-group setting facilitated intensive discussions of many problems associated with aeolian processes on Earth, Mars, Venus, Titan, Triton, and Pluto. The workshop produced a list of key scientifc questions about planetary dune felds.

  8. Biosurfactant-and-Bioemulsifier Produced by a Promising Cunninghamella echinulata Isolated from Caatinga Soil in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Nadielly R. Andrade; Luna, Marcos A. C.; Santiago, André L. C. M. A.; Franco, Luciana O.; Silva, Grayce K. B.; de Souza, Patrícia M.; Okada, Kaoru; Albuquerque, Clarissa D. C.; da Silva, Carlos A. Alves; Campos-Takaki, Galba M.

    2014-01-01

    A Mucoralean fungus was isolated from Caatinga soil of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, and was identified as Cunninghamella echinulata by morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. This strain was evaluated for biosurfactant/bioemulsifier production using soybean oil waste (SOW) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as substrates, added to basic saline solution, by measuring surface tension and emulsifier index and activity. The best results showed the surface water tension was reduced from 72 to 36 mN/m, and an emulsification index (E24) of 80% was obtained using engine oil and burnt engine oil, respectively. A new molecule of biosurfactant showed an anionic charge and a polymeric chemical composition consisting of lipids (40.0% w/w), carbohydrates (35.2% w/w) and protein (20.3% w/w). In addition, the biosurfactant solution (1%) demonstrated its ability for an oil displacement area (ODA) of 37.36 cm2, which is quite similar to that for Triton X-100 (38.46 cm2). The stability of the reduction in the surface water tension as well as of the emulsifier index proved to be stable over a wide range of temperatures, in pH, and in salt concentration (4%–6% w/v). The biosurfactant showed an ability to reduce and increase the viscosity of hydrophobic substrates and their molecules, suggesting that it is a suitable candidate for mediated enhanced oil recovery. At the same time, these studies indicate that renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources can be used for important biotechnological processes. PMID:25257520

  9. Biosurfactant-and-bioemulsifier produced by a promising Cunninghamella echinulata isolated from Caatinga soil in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Andrade Silva, Nadielly R; Luna, Marcos A C; Santiago, André L C M A; Franco, Luciana O; Silva, Grayce K B; de Souza, Patrícia M; Okada, Kaoru; Albuquerque, Clarissa D C; da Silva, Carlos A Alves; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2014-09-01

    A Mucoralean fungus was isolated from Caatinga soil of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, and was identified as Cunninghamella echinulata by morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. This strain was evaluated for biosurfactant/bioemulsifier production using soybean oil waste (SOW) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as substrates, added to basic saline solution, by measuring surface tension and emulsifier index and activity. The best results showed the surface water tension was reduced from 72 to 36 mN/m, and an emulsification index (E₂₄) of 80% was obtained using engine oil and burnt engine oil, respectively. A new molecule of biosurfactant showed an anionic charge and a polymeric chemical composition consisting of lipids (40.0% w/w), carbohydrates (35.2% w/w) and protein (20.3% w/w). In addition, the biosurfactant solution (1%) demonstrated its ability for an oil displacement area (ODA) of 37.36 cm², which is quite similar to that for Triton X-100 (38.46 cm²). The stability of the reduction in the surface water tension as well as of the emulsifier index proved to be stable over a wide range of temperatures, in pH, and in salt concentration (4%-6% w/v). The biosurfactant showed an ability to reduce and increase the viscosity of hydrophobic substrates and their molecules, suggesting that it is a suitable candidate for mediated enhanced oil recovery. At the same time, these studies indicate that renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources can be used for important biotechnological processes.

  10. Results of drug screening from a producer's view.

    PubMed

    Adams, J B

    1994-07-01

    The dairy industry is faced with increasing governmental and public concern about the safety of the nation's milk supply. New regulations under the Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance require that prescription drugs be properly labeled and that all tanker loads of milk be tested for beta-lactam antimicrobial residues. Concern over the use of animal drugs in an extralabel manner has prompted the National Milk Producers Federation and the American Veterinary Medical Association to develop a quality assurance program for on-farm residue prevention known as the Dairy Quality Assurance 10-Point Milk and Dairy Beef Residue Prevention Protocol. The program promotes the concept of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points, applied to a pre-harvest farm environment. Screening limitations at point of milk receipt necessitates widespread adoption of the Dairy Quality Assurance protocol to address controlled use of all animal medications under a valid relationship among veterinarian, client, and animals, thus minimizing the potential for violative residues in the milk and meat supply.

  11. Process for producing a high emittance coating and resulting article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Huong G. (Inventor); O'Brien, Dudley L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Process for anodizing aluminum or its alloys to obtain a surface particularly having high infrared emittance by anodizing an aluminum or aluminum alloy substrate surface in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution at elevated temperature and by a step-wise current density procedure, followed by sealing the resulting anodized surface. In a preferred embodiment the aluminum or aluminum alloy substrate is first alkaline cleaned and then chemically brightened in an acid bath The resulting cleaned substrate is anodized in a 15% by weight sulfuric acid bath maintained at a temperature of 30.degree. C. Anodizing is carried out by a step-wise current density procedure at 19 amperes per square ft. (ASF) for 20 minutes, 15 ASF for 20 minutes and 10 ASF for 20 minutes. After anodizing the sample is sealed by immersion in water at 200.degree. F. and then air dried. The resulting coating has a high infrared emissivity of about 0.92 and a solar absorptivity of about 0.2, for a 5657 aluminum alloy, and a relatively thick anodic coating of about 1 mil.

  12. Intention-based therapy for autism spectrum disorder: promising results of a wait-list control study in children.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Robert H; Greene, Roger L

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disability that usually manifests during the first three years of life and typically lasts throughout a person's lifetime. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of NeuroModulation Technique (NMT), a form of intention-based therapy, in improving functioning in children diagnosed with autism. A total of 18 children who met the study criteria were selected to participate. All children completed baseline measures. The children in the experimental group (n = 9) received two sessions a week of NMT for six weeks. Then, children in the wait-list control group (n = 9) received two sessions a week of NMT for six weeks. Primary efficacy outcome measures included the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavioral Inventory Autism Composite Index, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Total Score, and the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist Total Score. Our hypotheses were that children in both groups would show significant improvement over their respective baseline scores following NMT treatment, which would reflect an improvement in adaptive behaviors as well as a decrease in maladaptive behaviors. Statistical analysis indicates a significant improvement in both the experimental and wait-list control group on all primary outcome measures following NMT treatment. The wait-list control group demonstrated no significant improvement on test measures over baseline scores during the wait period. No adverse reactions were reported. These findings suggest that NMT is a promising intervention for autism that has the potential to produce a significant reduction in maladaptive behaviors and a significant increase in adaptive behaviors within a relatively short period of time. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Keeping Promises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    Commitments are between people, not schedules. Project management as practiced today creates a "commitment-free zone," because it assumes that people will commit to centrally managed schedules without providing a mechanism to ensure their work can be done. So they give it their best, but something always seems to come up ..."I tried, but you know how it is." This form of project management does not provide a mechanism to ensure that what should be done, can in fact be done at the required moment. Too often, promises reliable promise. made in coordination meetings are conditional and unreliable. It has been my experience that at times trust can be low and hard to build in this environment. The absence of reliable promises explains why on well-run projects, people are often only completing 30-50 percent of the deliverables they d promised for the week. We all know what a promise is; we have plenty of experience making them and receiving them from others. So what s the problem? The sad fact is that the project environment-like many other work environments- is often so filled with systemic dishonesty, that we don t expect promises that are reliable. Project managers excel when they manage their projects as networks of commitments and help their people learn to elicit and make reliable promises.

  14. Correlation between standard plate count and somatic cell count milk quality results for Wisconsin dairy producers.

    PubMed

    Borneman, Darand L; Ingham, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) monthly reported results for Wisconsin dairy producers. Such a correlation may indicate that Wisconsin producers effectively controlling sanitation and milk temperature (reflected in low SPC) also have implemented good herd health management practices (reflected in low SCC). The SPC and SCC results for all grade A and B dairy producers who submitted results to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, in each month of 2012 were analyzed. Grade A producer SPC results were less dispersed than grade B producer SPC results. Regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between SPC and SCC, but the R(2) value was very small (0.02-0.03), suggesting that many other factors, besides SCC, influence SPC. Average SCC (across 12 mo) for grade A and B producers decreased with an increase in the number of monthly SPC results (out of 12) that were ≤ 25,000 cfu/mL. A chi-squared test of independence showed that the proportion of monthly SCC results >250,000 cells/mL varied significantly depending on whether the corresponding SPC result was ≤ 25,000 or >25,000 cfu/mL. This significant difference occurred in all months of 2012 for grade A and B producers. The results suggest that a generally consistent level of skill exists across dairy production practices affecting SPC and SCC. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Purification and characterization of a novel tannase produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus using olive pomace as solid support, and its promising role in gallic acid production.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Abeer E; Fathy, Shadia A; Rashad, Mona M; Ezz, Magda K; Mohammed, Amira T

    2018-02-01

    Tannase is considered one of the most important industrial enzymes that find great applications in various sectors. Production of tannases through solid state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial wastes is an eco-friendly and cheap technology. Tannase was produced by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus using olive pomace as a solid support under SSF. It was purified using ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation followed by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration resulting in 64.6% enzyme yield with 1026.12U/mg specific activity and 24.21 purification fold. Pure tannase had molecular weight of 65 KDa and 66.62 KDa by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, respectively. It showed a maximal activity at 35°C having two different pH optima, one of which is acidic (4.5) and the other one is alkaline (8.5). The enzyme was stable in the acidic range of pH (4.0-5.5) for 30min, and thermostable within the temperature range 30-70°C. Using tannic acid, the enzyme had a Km value of 0.77mM and Vmax of 263.20μmolemin -1 ml -1 . The effect of different metal ions on enzymatic activity was evaluated. HPLC analysis data indicated that the purified enzyme could carry out 24.65% tannic acid conversion with 5.25 folds increase in gallic acid concentration within 30min only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Is story-based blended learning a promising avenue for skin and sexual health education? Results from the PAEDIMED project.

    PubMed

    Apfelbacher, Christian J; Deimling, Erika; Wulfhorst, Britta; Adler, Frederic; Diepgen, Thomas L; Linder, Dennis; Blenk, Holger; Stosiek, Nikolaus; Reinmann, Gabi

    2010-03-01

    The PAEDIMED study group developed a learning and teaching scenario for school health education in the area of skin and sexual health in Italy, Romania and Germany, combining web-based and traditional learning ("blended learning"). A questionnaire-based needs assessment and context analysis were conducted, based on which an education scenario was designed. Particular emphasis was put on emotional and motivational aspects, using narrative components in the didactic concept. The design process occupied a central role in the project (design-based research). Evaluation was both formative and summative. Continuous feedback was obtained from relevant stakeholders. Following a prototypical implementation, the scenario was evaluated using questionnaires. The results revealed a high level of acceptance of the education scenario as well as an increase in students' knowledge concerning skin and sexual health. Evaluation also suggested that health education is highly influenced by cultural background and habits as well as diverse contextual and personal conditions.

  17. Results of Observations of Occultations of Stars by Main-Belt and Trojan Asteroids, and the Promise of Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David W.; Herald, David Russell; Preston, Steven; Loader, Brian; Bixby Dunham, Joan

    2016-10-01

    For 40 years, the sizes and shapes of scores of asteroids have been determined from observations of asteroidal occultations, and many hundreds of high-precision positions of the asteroids relative to stars have been measured. Earlier this year, the 3000th observation of an asteroidal occultation was documented. Some of the first evidence for satellites of asteroids was obtained from the early efforts; now, the orbits and sizes of some satellites discovered by other means have been refined from occultation observations. Also, several close binary stars have been discovered, and the angular diameters of some stars have been measured from analysis of these observations. The International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA) coordinates this activity worldwide, from predicting and publicizing the events, to accurately timing the occultations from as many stations as possible, and publishing and archiving the observations. The first observations were timed visually, but now nearly all observations are either video-recorded, or recorded with CCD drift scans, allowing small magnitude-drop events to be recorded, and resulting in more consistent results. Techniques have been developed allowing one or two observers to set up multiple stations with small telescopes, video cameras, and timers, thereby recording many chords, even across a whole asteroid; some examples will be shown.Later this year, the first release of Gaia data will allow us to greatly improve the vast star catalog that we use for both predicting and analyzing these events. Although the first asteroidal data will wait until the 4th Gaia release, before that, we can greatly improve the orbits of asteroids that have occulted 3 or more stars in the past so that we can start computing the paths of future occultations by them to few km accuracy. In a couple of years, we'll be able to realistically predict one to two orders of magnitude more events than we can now, allowing efforts to be concentrated on smaller

  18. Polyoxygenated Cyclohexenoids with Promising α-Glycosidase Inhibitory Activity Produced by Phomopsis sp. YE3250, an Endophytic Fungus Derived from Paeonia delavayi.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Jiang, Bo-Guang; Li, Xiao-Nian; Wang, Ya-Ting; Liu, Si-Si; Zheng, Kai-Xuan; He, Jian; Wu, Shao-Hua

    2018-02-07

    Seven new polyoxygenated cyclohexenoids, namely, phomopoxides A-G (1-7), were isolated from the fermentation broth extract of an endophytic fungal strain Phomopsis sp. YE3250 from the medicinal plant Paeonia delavayi Franch. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic interpretation. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis and chemical derivative approach. All isolated compounds showed weak cytotoxic activities toward three human tumor cell lines (Hela, MCF-7, and NCI-H460) and weak antifungal activities against five pathogenic fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Pyricularia oryzae, Fusarium avenaceum, and Hormodendrum compactum). In addition, compounds 1-7 showed a promising α-glycosidase inhibitory activity with IC 50 values of 1.47, 1.55, 1.83, 2.76, 2.88, 3.16, and 2.94 mM, respectively, as compared with a positive control of acarbose (IC 50 = 1.22 mM).

  19. Health financing for the poor produces promising short-term effects on utilization and out-of-pocket expenditure: evidence from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Axelson, Henrik; Bales, Sarah; Minh, Pham Duc; Ekman, Björn; Gerdtham, Ulf-G

    2009-01-01

    Background Vietnam introduced the Health Care Fund for the Poor in 2002 to increase access to health care and reduce the financial burden of health expenditure faced by the poor and ethnic minorities. It is often argued that effects of financing reforms take a long time to materialize. This study evaluates the short-term impact of the program to determine if pro-poor financing programs can achieve immediate effects on health care utilization and out-of-pocket expenditure. Method Considering that the program is a non-random policy initiative rolled out nationally, we apply propensity score matching with both single differences and double differences to data from the Vietnam Household Living Standards Surveys 2002 (pre-program data) and 2004 (first post-program data). Results We find a small, positive impact on overall health care utilization. We find evidence of two substitution effects: from private to public providers and from primary to secondary and tertiary level care. Finally, we find a strong negative impact on out-of-pocket health expenditure. Conclusion The results indicate that the Health Care Fund for the Poor is meeting its objectives of increasing utilization and reducing out-of-pocket expenditure for the program's target population, despite numerous administrative problems resulting in delayed and only partial implementation in most provinces. The main lessons for low and middle-income countries from Vietnam's early experiences with the Health Care Fund for the Poor are that it managed to achieve positive outcomes in a short time-period, the need to ensure adequate and sustained funding for targeted programs, including marginal administrative costs, develop effective targeting mechanisms and systems for informing beneficiaries and providers about the program, respond to the increased demand for health care generated by the program, address indirect costs of health care utilization, and establish and maintain routine and systematic monitoring and

  20. Short hairpin RNA suppression of thymidylate synthase produces DNA mismatches and results in excellent radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Sheryl A; Cooper, Kristin S; Mannava, Sudha; Nikiforov, Mikhail A; Shewach, Donna S

    2012-12-01

    To determine the effect of short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA)-mediated suppression of thymidylate synthase (TS) on cytotoxicity and radiosensitization and the mechanism by which these events occur. shRNA suppression of TS was compared with 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) inactivation of TS with or without ionizing radiation in HCT116 and HT29 colon cancer cells. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitization were measured by clonogenic assay. Cell cycle effects were measured by flow cytometry. The effects of FdUrd or shRNA suppression of TS on dNTP deoxynucleotide triphosphate imbalances and consequent nucleotide misincorporations into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography and as pSP189 plasmid mutations, respectively. TS shRNA produced profound (≥ 90%) and prolonged (≥ 8 days) suppression of TS in HCT116 and HT29 cells, whereas FdUrd increased TS expression. TS shRNA also produced more specific and prolonged effects on dNTPs deoxynucleotide triphosphates compared with FdUrd. TS shRNA suppression allowed accumulation of cells in S-phase, although its effects were not as long-lasting as those of FdUrd. Both treatments resulted in phosphorylation of Chk1. TS shRNA alone was less cytotoxic than FdUrd but was equally effective as FdUrd in eliciting radiosensitization (radiation enhancement ratio: TS shRNA, 1.5-1.7; FdUrd, 1.4-1.6). TS shRNA and FdUrd produced a similar increase in the number and type of pSP189 mutations. TS shRNA produced less cytotoxicity than FdUrd but was equally effective at radiosensitizing tumor cells. Thus, the inhibitory effect of FdUrd on TS alone is sufficient to elicit radiosensitization with FdUrd, but it only partially explains FdUrd-mediated cytotoxicity and cell cycle inhibition. The increase in DNA mismatches after TS shRNA or FdUrd supports a causal and sufficient role for the depletion of dTTP thymidine triphosphate and consequent DNA mismatches underlying radiosensitization. Importantly, sh

  1. Launcher Roadmap for the CrVI Substitution of Surface Treatments. Screening of Trivalent-Chromium Conversion Solutions and First Promising Results for Repair Applications on Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debout, Vincent; Pettier, Sophie

    2014-06-01

    Airbus Defence and Space, Space System is involved in a global roadmap for launchers in order to substitute hexavalent chromium (CrVI) and Cadmium in the current surface treatments on metallic structures.Within this framework, a screening of trivalent chromium (CrIII) conversion solutions for touch-up applications has been carried out since this step is crucial to perform local application or to repair minor damages on launcher structures but it leads to higher risks of exposure for the workers.Three commercial CrIII conversion solutions have been evaluated on high performance aluminum alloys such as AA2024 T3 and AA7175 T7351 that are often used as structural materials.This preliminary investigation highlights the effect of surface preparation, rinsing and conversion process on the final corrosion performance of conversion coatings (CCs). The results are also discussed in terms of visual aspect and adhesion with new Cr-free primers.Two operating sets of parameters are identified with promising results that represent the first steps towards the development of a new Cr-free touch-up process.

  2. Numerical Results for a Polytropic Cosmology Interpreted as a Dust Universe Producing Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapp, J.; Cervantes-Cota, J.; Chauvet, P.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. A nivel cosmol6gico pensamos que se ha estado prodticiendo radiaci6n gravitacional en cantidades considerables dentro de las galaxias. Si los eventos prodnctores de radiaci6n gravitatoria han venido ocurriendo desde Ia epoca de Ia formaci6n de las galaxias, cuando menos, sus efectos cosmol6gicos pueden ser tomados en cuenta con simplicidad y elegancia al representar la producci6n de radiaci6n y, por consiguiente, su interacci6n con materia ordinaria fenomenol6gicamente a trave's de una ecuaci6n de estado politr6pica, como lo hemos mostrado en otros trabajos. Presentamos en este articulo resultados nunericos de este modelo. ABSTRACT A common believe in cosmology is that gravitational radiation in considerable quantities is being produced within the galaxies. Ifgravitational radiation production has been running since the galaxy formation epoch, at least, its cosmological effects can be assesed with simplicity and elegance by representing the production of radiation and, therefore, its interaction with ordinary matter phenomenologically through a polytropic equation of state as shown already elsewhere. We present in this paper the numerical results of such a model. K words: COSMOLOGY - GRAVITATION

  3. Exclusive breastfeeding promotion and neuropsychological outcomes in 5-8 year old children from Uganda and Burkina Faso: Results from the PROMISE EBF cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Tumwine, James K; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Diallo, Hama Abdoulaye; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv; Ndeezi, Grace; Bangirana, Paul; Sanou, Anselme Simeon; Kashala-Abotnes, Espérance; Boivin, Michael; Giordani, Bruno; Elgen, Irene Bircow; Holding, Penny; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Skylstad, Vilde; Nalugya, Joyce; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Meda, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    The beneficial effects from exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) have been widely acknowledged. We assessed the effect of exclusive breastfeeding promotion by peer counsellors in Uganda and Burkina Faso, on cognitive abilities, social emotional development, school performance and linear growth among 5-8 years old children. Children in the PROMISE EBF trial (2006-2008) were re-enrolled in the follow-up PROMISE Saving Brains (SB) study (2013-2015). Caretaker interviews captured sociodemographic characteristics and social emotional development using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Overall cognition and working memory were assessed using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (KABC2), cognitive flexibility was measured with the Child Category Test (CCT), and attention with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A), while school performance was measured by a standardized test on arithmetic and reading. Country-pooled, age adjusted z-scores from each of the above outcomes were entered into a linear regression model controlling for confounders. The number of children re-enrolled in the intervention and control arms were: 274/396 (69.2%) and 256/369 (69.4%) in Uganda and 265/392 (67.6%) and 288/402 (71.6%) in Burkina Faso. Assessment of cognitive ability showed small and no significant differences, of which general cognition (z-scores, 95% CI) showed the largest mean difference: -0.17 (-0.40; 0.05). Social emotional symptoms were similar across arms. There were no differences in school performance or linear growth for age detected. Peer promotion for exclusive breastfeeding in Burkina Faso and Uganda was not associated with differences at 5-8 years of age in a range of measures of child development: cognitive abilities, emotion-behaviour-social symptoms or linear growth. This study from sub Saharan Africa did not reconfirm findings elsewhere that have shown an association between exclusive breastfeeding and

  4. When mixed methods produce mixed results: integrating disparate findings about miscarriage and women's wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christina; Rowlands, Ingrid J

    2015-02-01

    To discuss an example of mixed methods in health psychology, involving separate quantitative and qualitative studies of women's mental health in relation to miscarriage, in which the two methods produced different but complementary results, and to consider ways in which the findings can be integrated. We describe two quantitative projects involving statistical analysis of data from 998 young women who had had miscarriages, and 8,083 who had not, across three waves of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. We also describe a qualitative project involving thematic analysis of interviews with nine Australian women who had had miscarriages. The quantitative analyses indicate that the main differences between young women who do and do not experience miscarriage relate to social disadvantage (and thus likelihood of relatively early pregnancy) and to a lifestyle that makes pregnancy likely: Once these factors are accounted for, there are no differences in mental health. Further, longitudinal modelling demonstrates that women who have had miscarriages show a gradual increase in mental health over time, with the exception of women with prior diagnoses of anxiety, depression, or both. By contrast, qualitative analysis of the interviews indicates that women who have had miscarriages experience deep emotional responses and a long and difficult process of coming to terms with their loss. A contextual model of resilience provides a possible framework for understanding these apparently disparate results. Considering positive mental health as including the ability to deal constructively with negative life events, and consequent emotional distress, offers a model that distinguishes between poor mental health and the processes of coping with major life events. In the context of miscarriage, women's efforts to struggle with difficult emotions, and search for meaning, can be viewed as pathways to resilience rather than to psychological distress. Statement of contribution

  5. Induction chemotherapy followed by alternating chemo-radiotherapy in non-endemic undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx: optimal compliance and promising 4-year results.

    PubMed

    Ponzanelli, Anna; Vigo, Viviana; Marcenaro, Michela; Bacigalupo, Almalina; Gatteschi, Beatrice; Ravetti, Jean-Luis; Corvò, Renzo; Benasso, Marco

    2008-08-01

    Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Induction chemotherapy may improve the results further by enhancing both loco-regional and distant control. Fifty patients with untreated, stage IV (UICC 1992) undifferentiated NPC were initially treated with three courses of epidoxorubicin, 90 mg/m(2), day 1 and cisplatin, 40 mg/m(2), days 1 and 2, every three weeks and then underwent three courses of cisplatin, 20 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-4 and fluorouracil, 200mg/m(2)/day, days 1-4 (weeks 1, 4, 7), alternated to three splits of radiation (week 2-3, 5-6, 8-9-10) up to 70 Gy. All patients but one received 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy. Toxicities from induction chemotherapy were grade III or IV mucositis (2%), grade III or IV nausea/vomiting (22%), grade III or IV hematological toxicity (6%). At the end of induction phase 12% of CRs, 84% of PRs were recorded. Toxicities from alternating chemo-radiotherapy were grade III or IV mucositis (30%), grade III or IV nausea/vomiting (8%), grade III or IV hematological toxicity (24%). Overall, 86% of CRs and 14% of PRs were observed. Four-year progression free survival and overall survival rates are 71% and 81%, respectively. In a small number of patients studied, no correlation between the level of EGFR overexpression and outcomes was detected. In locally advanced UNPC our combined program including induction chemotherapy followed by alternating chemo-radiotherapy is active and gives promising long-term outcomes with acceptable toxicity and optimal patients' compliance. This program merits to be tested in a phase III trial.

  6. Results from a first production of enhanced Silicon Sensor Test Structures produced by ITE Warsaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Frey, M.; Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M.; Hänsel, S.; Hartmann, F.; Hoffmann, K.-H.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Kucharski, K.; Macchiolo, A.; Marczewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the manufacturing process of silicon sensors is essential to ensure stable quality of the produced detectors. During the CMS silicon sensor production we were utilising small Test Structures (TS) incorporated on the cut-away of the wafers to measure certain process-relevant parameters. Experience from the CMS production and quality assurance led to enhancements of these TS. Another important application of TS is the commissioning of new vendors. The measurements provide us with a good understanding of the capabilities of a vendor's process. A first batch of the new TS was produced at the Institute of Electron Technology in Warsaw Poland. We will first review the improvements to the original CMS test structures and then discuss a selection of important measurements performed on this first batch.

  7. Activities of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme (formerly RS10) in Russia: promising results from a sub-national project.

    PubMed

    Slyunkina, Ekaterina S; Kliavin, Vladimir E; Gritsenko, Elena A; Petruhin, Alexandr B; Zambon, Francesco; He, Huan; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-12-01

    In Russia, the high Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) rate has been attributed to two well-known risk factors - the low rates of seatbelt and child restraints use and speeding. Despite the importance of understanding both speeding and seatbelt use patterns for the purpose of direct interventions or monitoring road safety situation, no study has assessed the current status of speeding among all vehicles and seatbelt wearing rates among all vehicle occupants in Russia. We are aware that alcohol is a known risk factor for RTI in the country however the work focused on seat belts and speed. This research was conducted as part of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme and focuses on observed speeding and seatbelt use in two Russian regions: Lipetskaya and Ivanovskaya Oblast. Data was collected through observational surveys on selected roads in the two interventions sites (Lipetskaya and Ivanovskaya Oblast) between October 2010 and March 2013. The percentage of seatbelt use by drivers and passengers and the percentage of speeding vehicles by speed limit and road types were calculated. Observational studies on speeding show signs that drivers are speeding less from the first survey held in July 2011 in Lipetskaya Oblast and March 2012 in Ivanovksya Oblast. Overall the observational studies showed a consistent reduction in the proportion of vehicles exceeding the speed limit: from 54.7% (2012) to 40.1% (2013) in Ivanovskaya Oblast and from 47.0% (2011) to 26.1% (2013) in Lipetskaya Oblast. Observational studies on seatbelt use demonstrate an increase in seatbelt wearing rates from the first survey held in October 2010 in Lipetskaya Oblast and April 2011 in Ivanovskaya Oblast. The overall prevalence of seatbelt use increased from 52.4% (2010) to 73.5% (2013) amongst all occupants in Lipetskaya Oblast and from 47.5% (2011) to 88.8% (2013) in Ivanovskaya Oblast. Preliminary results show some promising signs that speeding and seatbelt use are moving in the right

  8. Results from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program on Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae, 2010 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mataseje, Laura F.; Abdesselam, Kahina; Vachon, Julie; Mitchel, Robyn; Bryce, Elizabeth; Roscoe, Diane; Boyd, David A.; Embree, Joanne; Katz, Kevin; Kibsey, Pamela; Simor, Andrew E.; Taylor, Geoffrey; Turgeon, Nathalie; Langley, Joanne; Gravel, Denise; Amaratunga, Kanchana

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are increasing globally; here we report on the investigation of CPE in Canada over a 5-year period. Participating acute care facilities across Canada submitted carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 to the National Microbiology Laboratory. All CPE were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibilities, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and plasmid restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and had patient data collected using a standard questionnaire. The 5-year incidence rate of CPE was 0.09 per 10,000 patient days and 0.07 per 1,000 admissions. There were a total of 261 CPE isolated from 238 patients in 58 hospitals during the study period. blaKPC-3 (64.8%) and blaNDM-1 (17.6%) represented the highest proportion of carbapenemase genes detected in Canadian isolates. Patients who had a history of medical attention during international travel accounted for 21% of CPE cases. The hospital 30-day all-cause mortality rate for the 5-year surveillance period was 17.1 per 100 CPE cases. No significant increase in the occurrence of CPE was observed from 2010 to 2014. Nosocomial transmission of CPE, as well as international health care, is driving its persistence within Canada. PMID:27600052

  9. Results from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program on Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae, 2010 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Mataseje, Laura F; Abdesselam, Kahina; Vachon, Julie; Mitchel, Robyn; Bryce, Elizabeth; Roscoe, Diane; Boyd, David A; Embree, Joanne; Katz, Kevin; Kibsey, Pamela; Simor, Andrew E; Taylor, Geoffrey; Turgeon, Nathalie; Langley, Joanne; Gravel, Denise; Amaratunga, Kanchana; Mulvey, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are increasing globally; here we report on the investigation of CPE in Canada over a 5-year period. Participating acute care facilities across Canada submitted carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 to the National Microbiology Laboratory. All CPE were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibilities, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and plasmid restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and had patient data collected using a standard questionnaire. The 5-year incidence rate of CPE was 0.09 per 10,000 patient days and 0.07 per 1,000 admissions. There were a total of 261 CPE isolated from 238 patients in 58 hospitals during the study period. bla KPC-3 (64.8%) and bla NDM-1 (17.6%) represented the highest proportion of carbapenemase genes detected in Canadian isolates. Patients who had a history of medical attention during international travel accounted for 21% of CPE cases. The hospital 30-day all-cause mortality rate for the 5-year surveillance period was 17.1 per 100 CPE cases. No significant increase in the occurrence of CPE was observed from 2010 to 2014. Nosocomial transmission of CPE, as well as international health care, is driving its persistence within Canada. © Crown copyright 2016.

  10. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 49 CFR 40.160 - What does the MRO do when a valid test result cannot be produced and a negative result is required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What does the MRO do when a valid test result cannot be produced and a negative result is required? 40.160 Section 40.160 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification...

  12. The promise and problems of non-physician practitioners in general surgery education: Results of a multi-center, mixed-methods study of faculty.

    PubMed

    Coverdill, James E; Shelton, Jeff Scott; Alseidi, Adnan; Borgstrom, David C; Dent, Daniel L; Dumire, Russell; Fryer, Jonathan; Hartranft, Thomas H; Holsten, Steven B; Nelson, M Timothy; Shabahang, Mohsen M; Sherman, Stanley R; Termuhlen, Paula M; Woods, Randy J; Mellinger, John D

    2018-02-01

    Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants - called non-physician practitioners or NPPs - are common, but little is known about their educational promise and problems. General surgery faculty in 13 residency programs were surveyed (N = 279 with a 71% response rate) and interviewed (N = 43) about experiences with NPPs. The survey documents overall patterns and differences by program type and primary service; interviews point to deeper rationales and concerns. NPPs reduce faculty and resident workloads and teach residents. NPPs also reduce resident exposure to educationally valuable activities, and faculty sometimes round, make decisions, and operate with NPPs instead of residents. Interviews indicate that NPPs can overly reduce resident involvement in patient care, diminish resident responsibility and decision making, disrupt team dynamics, and compete for procedures. NPPs both enhance and hinder surgical education and highlight the need to more clearly articulate learning outcomes for residents and activities necessary to achieve those outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Can a minimalist model of wind forced baroclinic Rossby waves produce reasonable results?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Wandrey B.; Polito, Paulo S.; da Silveira, Ilson C. A.

    2016-04-01

    The linear theory predicts that Rossby waves are the large scale mechanism of adjustment to perturbations of the geophysical fluid. Satellite measurements of sea level anomaly (SLA) provided sturdy evidence of the existence of these waves. Recent studies suggest that the variability in the altimeter records is mostly due to mesoscale nonlinear eddies and challenges the original interpretation of westward propagating features as Rossby waves. The objective of this work is to test whether a classic linear dynamic model is a reasonable explanation for the observed SLA. A linear-reduced gravity non-dispersive Rossby wave model is used to estimate the SLA forced by direct and remote wind stress. Correlations between model results and observations are up to 0.88. The best agreement is in the tropical region of all ocean basins. These correlations decrease towards insignificance in mid-latitudes. The relative contributions of eastern boundary (remote) forcing and local wind forcing in the generation of Rossby waves are also estimated and suggest that the main wave forming mechanism is the remote forcing. Results suggest that linear long baroclinic Rossby wave dynamics explain a significant part of the SLA annual variability at least in the tropical oceans.

  14. Two Brief Measures of Alcohol Use Produce Different Results: AUDIT-C and Quick Drinking Screen

    PubMed Central

    Letourneau, Brian; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B.; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Gioia, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Several psychometrically sound measures of alcohol use have been developed to assess drinking. The AUDIT, and its shorter counterpart the AUDIT-C, which contains the first three AUDIT questions, were developed by the World Health Organization and have become the preferred brief measures for screening and evaluating problem severity. This study compared the first three questions on the AUDIT with another psychometrically sound brief measure of alcohol use, the Quick Drinking Screen (QDS). Methods Data were obtained from a randomized controlled trial of a mail-based intervention promoting self-change with 472 alcohol abusers (n = 280, no prior alcohol treatment; n = 192, prior alcohol treatment). Participants’ retrospective self-reports of alcohol consumption were collected using the QDS and the three AUDIT-C questions and compared. Although both measures contain similar questions (2 quantity-frequency and 1 binge drinking), they differ in two important ways: (a) temporal interval over which data are collected, and (b) formatting of response options (i.e., a continuous number vs. categorical). Results Intraclass correlations for drinking variables were moderate to moderately high. A repeated measures MANOVA using treatment condition and gender as variables revealed significant differences in absolute values between the two drinking measures with the QDS showing greater consumption on almost all variables. Participants’ numerical answers on the QDS were compared to their categorical answers to the similar alcohol use questions on the AUDIT-C. The comparison revealed that participants’ answers on the AUDIT-C were associated with extreme variability compared to their QDS answers. This variability suggests the AUDIT-C would be unreliable as a quantitative measure of alcohol consumption. Conclusions The differences between the three alcohol use questions on the AUDIT-C’s and the same questions on the QDS may reflect the imprecision of the AUDIT

  15. RNA editing produces glycine receptor alpha3(P185L), resulting in high agonist potency.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jochen C; Henneberger, Christian; Melnick, Igor; Racca, Claudia; Harvey, Robert J; Heinemann, Uwe; Schmieden, Volker; Grantyn, Rosemarie

    2005-06-01

    The function of supramedullary glycine receptors (GlyRs) is still unclear. Using Wistar rat collicular slices, we demonstrate GlyR-mediated inhibition of spike discharge elicited by low glycine (10 microM). Searching for the molecular basis of this phenomenon, we identified a new GlyR isoform. GlyR alpha3(P185L), a result of cytidine 554 deamination, confers high glycine sensitivity (EC50 approximately 5 microM) to neurons and thereby promotes the generation of sustained chloride conductances associated with tonic inhibition. The level of GlyR alpha3-C554U RNA editing is sensitive to experimentally induced brain lesion, inhibition of cytidine deamination by zebularine and inhibition of mRNA transcription by actinomycin D, but not to blockade of protein synthesis by cycloheximide. Conditional regulation of GlyR alpha3(P185L) is thus likely to be part of a post-transcriptional adaptive mechanism in neurons with enhanced excitability.

  16. Different Techniques For Producing Precision Holes (>20 mm) In Hardened Steel—Comparative Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, R. T.; Tanikawa, S. T.

    2009-11-01

    High speed machining (HSM), or high performance machining, has been one of the most recent technological advances. When applied to milling operations, using adequate machines, CAM programs and tooling, it allows cutting hardened steels, which was not feasible just a couple of years ago. The use of very stiff and precision machines has created the possibilities of machining holes in hardened steels, such as AISI H13 with 48-50 HRC, using helical interpolations, for example. Such process is particularly useful for holes with diameter bigger than normal solid carbide drills commercially available, around 20 mm, or higher. Such holes may need narrow tolerances, fine surface finishing, which can be obtained just by end milling operations. The present work compares some of the strategies used to obtain such holes by end milling, and also some techniques employed to finish them, by milling, boring and also by fine grinding at the same machine. Results indicate that it is possible to obtain holes with less than 0.36 m in circularity, 7.41 m in cylindricity and 0.12 m in surface roughness Ra. Additionally, there is less possibilities of obtaining heat affected layers when using such technique.

  17. Two Brief Measures of Alcohol Use Produce Different Results: AUDIT-C and Quick Drinking Screen.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Brian; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Gioia, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    categories. Results suggest that the QDS can be used to identify risky drinking and to provide a more informative characterization of a drinker's alcohol consumption than that provided by the AUDIT-C. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Impact of a peer-counseling intervention on breastfeeding practices in different socioeconomic strata: results from the equity analysis of the PROMISE-EBF trial in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Fadnes, Lars Thore; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie Stadskleiv; Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Wamani, Henry; Tumwine, James K; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2016-01-01

    Undernutrition is highly prevalent among infants in Uganda. Optimal infant feeding practices may improve nutritional status, health, and survival among children. Our study evaluates the socioeconomic distribution of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and growth outcomes among infants included in a trial, which promoted EBF by peer counselors in Uganda. Twenty-four clusters comprising one to two communities in Uganda were randomized into intervention and control arms, including 765 mother-infant pairs (PROMISE-EBF trial, 200608, ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT00397150). Intervention clusters received the promotion of EBF by peer counselors in addition to standard care. Breastfeeding and growth outcomes were compared according to wealth quintiles and intervention/control arms. Socioeconomic inequality in breastfeeding and growth outcomes were measured using the concentration index 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. We used the decomposition of the concentration index to identify factors contributing to growth inequality at 24 weeks. EBF was significantly concentrated among the poorest in the intervention group at 24 weeks postpartum, concentration index -0.060. The control group showed a concentration of breastfeeding among the richest part of the population, although not statistically significant. Stunting, wasting, and underweight were similarly significantly concentrated among the poorest in the intervention group and the total population at 24 weeks, but showing non-significant concentrations for the control group. This study shows that EBF can be successfully promoted among the poor. In addition, socioeconomic inequality in growth outcomes starts early in infancy, but the breastfeeding intervention was not strong enough to counteract this influence.

  19. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  20. Characterizing the variability in chemical composition of flowback and produced waters - results from lab and field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wilke, Franziska D. H.; Schmid, Franziska E.; Zhu, Yaling; Lipińska, Olga; Konieczyńska, Monika

    2017-04-01

    The huge volumes and unknown composition of flowback and produced waters cause major public concerns about the environmental and social compatibility of hydraulic fracturing and the exploitation of gas from unconventional reservoirs. Flowback and produced waters contain not only residues of fracking additives but also chemical species that are dissolved from the target shales themselves. Shales are a heterogeneous mixture of minerals, organic matter, and formation water and little is actually understood about the fluid-rock interactions occurring during hydraulic fracturing of the shales and their effects on the chemical composition of flowback and produced water. To overcome this knowledge gap, interactions of different shales with different artificial stimulation fluids were studied in lab experiments under ambient and elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These lab experiments showed clearly that fluid-rock interactions change the chemical composition of the initial stimulation fluid and that geochemistry of the fractured shale is relevant for understanding flowback water composition. In addition, flowback water samples were taken after hydraulic fracturing of one horizontal well in Pomeranian region, Poland and investigated for their chemical composition. With this presentation, results from lab and field studies will be presented and compared to decipher possible controls on chemical compositions of flowback and produced water.

  1. The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This study takes advantage of the unexpected announcement of the Kalamazoo Promise to study its effects on student achievement and behavior in high school. The Kalamazoo Promise provides college scholarships to graduates of Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS), a midsized urban school district in Michigan that is racially and economically diverse.…

  2. Keeping the Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whissemore, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Since its launch in September 2015, Heads Up America has collected information on nearly 125 promise programs across the country, many of which were instituted long before President Barack Obama announced the America's College Promise (ACP) plan in 2015. At least 27 new free community college programs have launched in states, communities, and at…

  3. Simultaneous Multislice Echo Planar Imaging With Blipped Controlled Aliasing in Parallel Imaging Results in Higher Acceleration: A Promising Technique for Accelerated Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Filli, Lukas; Piccirelli, Marco; Kenkel, David; Guggenberger, Roman; Andreisek, Gustav; Beck, Thomas; Runge, Val M; Boss, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of accelerated diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of skeletal muscle using echo planar imaging (EPI) applying simultaneous multislice excitation with a blipped controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration unaliasing technique. After federal ethics board approval, the lower leg muscles of 8 healthy volunteers (mean [SD] age, 29.4 [2.9] years) were examined in a clinical 3-T magnetic resonance scanner using a 15-channel knee coil. The EPI was performed at a b value of 500 s/mm2 without slice acceleration (conventional DTI) as well as with 2-fold and 3-fold acceleration. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in all 3 acquisitions. Fiber tracking performance was compared between the acquisitions regarding the number of tracks, average track length, and anatomical precision using multivariate analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Acquisition time was 7:24 minutes for conventional DTI, 3:53 minutes for 2-fold acceleration, and 2:38 minutes for 3-fold acceleration. Overall FA and MD values ranged from 0.220 to 0.378 and 1.595 to 1.829 mm2/s, respectively. Two-fold acceleration yielded similar FA and MD values (P ≥ 0.901) and similar fiber tracking performance compared with conventional DTI. Three-fold acceleration resulted in comparable MD (P = 0.199) but higher FA values (P = 0.006) and significantly impaired fiber tracking in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles (number of tracks, P < 0.001; anatomical precision, P ≤ 0.005). Simultaneous multislice EPI with blipped controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration can remarkably reduce acquisition time in DTI of skeletal muscle with similar image quality and quantification accuracy of diffusion parameters. This may increase the clinical applicability of muscle anisotropy measurements.

  4. Novel flow cytometric method for the detection of podocalyxin-positive elements in urine of patients with glomerulonephritides - first promising results.

    PubMed

    Habara, P; Marečková, H; Malíčková, K; Potyšová, Z; Hrušková, Z; Zima, T; Tesař, V

    2012-01-01

    Glomerulonephritides together create a heterogenic group of supposedly immunologically mediated diseases of glomeruli. They still belong among the most frequent causes of chronic renal failure. Detection of podocytes in urine might serve as an important marker of glomerulonephritides activity. The aim of this study was to develop a novel flow cytometric method for the detection of podocyte fragments and podocytes in urine and assess its possible use in clinical practice. We placed emphasis on the improvement of pre-analytic phase. To suppress the autofluorescence of the background, blocking solutions and magnetic separation were used. An additional surface marker CD10 (nephrilysin) was used together with routinely used podocalyxin (PCX) in order to achieve better identification of podocytes. Based on the surface marker expression, three different element types were identified in the urine samples: PCX+/CD10+ elements (EL) (supposedly podocytes), PCX-/CD10+ EL (supposedly parietal epithelial cells) and PCX+ EL. We examined a total of 36 patients who underwent renal biopsy (non-glomerular nephropathy, MGN, FSGS, IgAN, AAV and MPGN) and 27 healthy controls. Negative results were found in non-glomerular nephropathy and in MGN. In patients with FSGS and IgAN, the levels of urine elements were slightly increased. The highest levels of all elements were found in AAV and MPGN. Our first results suggest that flow cytometric detection may distinguish between glomerular and nonglomerular diseases and that the levels of urine elements might correlate with the degree of glomerular destruction.

  5. Rapamycin and Chloroquine: The In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Autophagy-Modifying Drugs Show Promising Results in Valosin Containing Protein Multisystem Proteinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nalbandian, Angèle; Llewellyn, Katrina J.; Nguyen, Christopher; Yazdi, Puya G.; Kimonis, Virginia E.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP) gene cause hereditary Inclusion body myopathy (hIBM) associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), more recently termed multisystem proteinopathy (MSP). Affected individuals exhibit scapular winging and die from progressive muscle weakness, and cardiac and respiratory failure, typically in their 40s to 50s. Histologically, patients show the presence of rimmed vacuoles and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-positive large ubiquitinated inclusion bodies in the muscles. We have generated a VCPR155H/+ mouse model which recapitulates the disease phenotype and impaired autophagy typically observed in patients with VCP disease. Autophagy-modifying agents, such as rapamycin and chloroquine, at pharmacological doses have previously shown to alter the autophagic flux. Herein, we report results of administration of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, and chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor which reverses autophagy by accumulating in lysosomes, responsible for blocking autophagy in 20-month old VCPR155H/+ mice. Rapamycin-treated mice demonstrated significant improvement in muscle performance, quadriceps histological analysis, and rescue of ubiquitin, and TDP-43 pathology and defective autophagy as indicated by decreased protein expression levels of LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, optineurin and inhibiting the mTORC1 substrates. Conversely, chloroquine-treated VCPR155H/+ mice revealed progressive muscle weakness, cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43, ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies and increased LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, and optineurin expression levels. Our in vitro patient myoblasts studies treated with rapamycin demonstrated an overall improvement in the autophagy markers. Targeting the mTOR pathway ameliorates an increasing list of disorders, and these findings suggest that VCP disease and related neurodegenerative multisystem proteinopathies can

  6. Reducing Human-Tsetse Contact Significantly Enhances the Efficacy of Sleeping Sickness Active Screening Campaigns: A Promising Result in the Context of Elimination.

    PubMed

    Courtin, Fabrice; Camara, Mamadou; Rayaisse, Jean-Baptiste; Kagbadouno, Moise; Dama, Emilie; Camara, Oumou; Traoré, Ibrahima S; Rouamba, Jérémi; Peylhard, Moana; Somda, Martin B; Leno, Mamadou; Lehane, Mike J; Torr, Steve J; Solano, Philippe; Jamonneau, Vincent; Bucheton, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Control of gambiense sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination by 2020, relies mainly on mass screening of populations at risk and treatment of cases. This strategy is however challenged by the existence of undetected reservoirs of parasites that contribute to the maintenance of transmission. In this study, performed in the Boffa disease focus of Guinea, we evaluated the value of adding vector control to medical surveys and measured its impact on disease burden. The focus was divided into two parts (screen and treat in the western part; screen and treat plus vector control in the eastern part) separated by the Rio Pongo river. Population census and baseline entomological data were collected from the entire focus at the beginning of the study and insecticide impregnated targets were deployed on the eastern bank only. Medical surveys were performed in both areas in 2012 and 2013. In the vector control area, there was an 80% decrease in tsetse density, resulting in a significant decrease of human tsetse contacts, and a decrease of disease prevalence (from 0.3% to 0.1%; p=0.01), and an almost nil incidence of new infections (<0.1%). In contrast, incidence was 10 times higher in the area without vector control (>1%, p<0.0001) with a disease prevalence increasing slightly (from 0.5 to 0.7%, p=0.34). Combining medical and vector control was decisive in reducing T. b. gambiense transmission and in speeding up progress towards elimination. Similar strategies could be applied in other foci.

  7. Early Childhood Interventions: Proven Results, Future Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoly, Lynn A.; Kilburn, M. Rebecca; Cannon, Jill S.

    2005-01-01

    Parents, policymakers, business leaders, and the general public increasingly recognize the importance of the first few years in the life of a child for promoting healthy physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development. Whether the evidence comes from sophisticated research by brain scientists or the simple observation of the…

  8. RESULTS OF MONITORING METALLO-BETA-LACTAMASE-PRODUCING STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN A MULTI-PROFILE HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Shamaeva, S K; Portnyagina, U S; Edelstein, M V; Kuzmina, A A; Maloguloval, S; Varfolomeeva, N A

    2015-01-01

    The authors present the results of long-term monitoring of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Republican Hospital No 2 of Yakutsk, Russian Federation. Hospitals across Russia, as well as the rest of the world, face a rapid appearance and a virtually unchecked spread of multiresistant and panresistant nosocomial pathogens. Especially prevalent are multidrug-resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa, most often found among the patients of intensive care and intensive therapy units, as well as surgery departments. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing strains of P. aeruginosa in a multi-profile hospital. 2,135 isolates of P. aeruginosa were studied, collected during a time span of seven years (2008-2014) from clinical specimens of hospitalised patients in acute surgery, purulent surgery, neurosurgery, otolaryngology, coloproctology departments, intensive care and intensive therapy, burn units, as well as intensive care unit for patients with acute cerebrovascular accidents and coronary care unit. Strains were identified and re-identified using established methods, NEFERMtest 24 (MICROLATEST) biochemical microtest and API (bioMerieux) test systems were used. For all carbapenem-resistant strains a phenotype screening for MBL was performed using the double-disks method with EDTA. In order to identify VIM-type and IMP-type MBL genes a real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used. Among the investigated strains the largest number of P. aeruginosa - 35.6% (761 isolates) was found in patients at intensive care and intensive therapy units. Clonal expansion of extensively drug-resistant strain P. aeruginosa ST235 (VIM-2) was determined, the resistance mechanism of which is connected to MBL. Sensitivity determination of MBL-producing isolates of P. aeruginosa has shown that isolated strains have a high level of resistance (100%) to all tested antibacterial agents: piperacillin

  9. Designing Summer Research Experiences for Teachers and Students That Promote Classroom Science Inquiry Projects and Produce Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, L. A.; Parra, J.; Rao, M.; Offerman, L.

    2007-12-01

    Research experiences for science teachers are an important mechanism for increasing classroom teachers' science content knowledge and facility with "real world" research processes. We have developed and implemented a summer scientific research and education workshop model for high school teachers and students which promotes classroom science inquiry projects and produces important research results supporting our overarching scientific agenda. The summer training includes development of a scientific research framework, design and implementation of preliminary studies, extensive field research and training in and access to instruments, measurement techniques and statistical tools. The development and writing of scientific papers is used to reinforce the scientific research process. Using these skills, participants collaborate with scientists to produce research quality data and analysis. Following the summer experience, teachers report increased incorporation of research inquiry in their classrooms and student participation in science fair projects. This workshop format was developed for an NSF Biocomplexity Research program focused on the interaction of urban climates, air quality and human response and can be easily adapted for other scientific research projects.

  10. Promising More Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.

  11. Can different primary care databases produce comparable estimates of burden of disease: results of a study exploring venous leg ulceration.

    PubMed

    Petherick, Emily S; Pickett, Kate E; Cullum, Nicky A

    2015-08-01

    Primary care databases from the UK have been widely used to produce evidence on the epidemiology and health service usage of a wide range of conditions. To date there have been few evaluations of the comparability of estimates between different sources of these data. To estimate the comparability of two widely used primary care databases, the Health Improvement Network Database (THIN) and the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) using venous leg ulceration as an exemplar condition. Cross prospective cohort comparison. GPRD and the THIN databases using data from 1998 to 2006. A data set was extracted from both databases containing all cases of persons aged 20 years or greater with a database diagnosis of venous leg ulceration recorded in the databases for the period 1998-2006. Annual rates of incidence and prevalence of venous leg ulceration were calculated within each database and standardized to the European standard population and compared using standardized rate ratios. Comparable estimates of venous leg ulcer incidence from the GPRD and THIN databases could be obtained using data from 2000 to 2006 and of prevalence using data from 2001 to 2006. Recent data collected by these two databases are more likely to produce comparable results of the burden venous leg ulceration. These results require confirmation in other disease areas to enable researchers to have confidence in the comparability of findings from these two widely used primary care research resources. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Improved Methods of Producing and Administering Extracellular Vesicles | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    An efficient method of producing purified extracellular vesicles (EVs), in conjunction with a method that blocks liver macrophages from clearing EVs from the body, has produced promising results for the use of EVs in cancer therapy.

  13. Two Measurement Methods of Leaf Dry Matter Content Produce Similar Results in a Broad Range of Species

    PubMed Central

    Vaieretti, María Victoria; Díaz, Sandra; Vile, Denis; Garnier, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf dry matter content (LDMC) is widely used as an indicator of plant resource use in plant functional trait databases. Two main methods have been proposed to measure LDMC, which basically differ in the rehydration procedure to which leaves are subjected after harvesting. These are the ‘complete rehydration’ protocol of Garnier et al. (2001, Functional Ecology 15: 688–695) and the ‘partial rehydration’ protocol of Vendramini et al. (2002, New Phytologist 154: 147–157). Methods To test differences in LDMC due to the use of different methods, LDMC was measured on 51 native and cultivated species representing a wide range of plant families and growth forms from central-western Argentina, following the complete rehydration and partial rehydration protocols. Key Results and Conclusions The LDMC values obtained by both methods were strongly and positively correlated, clearly showing that LDMC is highly conserved between the two procedures. These trends were not altered by the exclusion of plants with non-laminar leaves. Although the complete rehydration method is the safest to measure LDMC, the partial rehydration procedure produces similar results and is faster. It therefore appears as an acceptable option for those situations in which the complete rehydration method cannot be applied. Two notes of caution are given for cases in which different datasets are compared or combined: (1) the discrepancy between the two rehydration protocols is greatest in the case of high-LDMC (succulent or tender) leaves; (2) the results suggest that, when comparing many studies across unrelated datasets, differences in the measurement protocol may be less important than differences among seasons, years and the quality of local habitats. PMID:17353207

  14. Promising Emerging Mechanisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most applications of enhanced in situ bioremediation are based on biological reductive dechlorination. Anaerobic metabolism can also produce reactive minerals that allow for in situ biogeochemical transformation of chlorinated organic contaminants such as PCE, TCE, and cis-DCE. ...

  15. The Promise of Quantum Simulation.

    PubMed

    Muller, Richard P; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-08-25

    Quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH(+) molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  16. The promise of quantum simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Muller, Richard P.; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2015-07-21

    In this study, quantum simulations promise to be one of the primary applications of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history of quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and co-workers, demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH + molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggest that quantum simulations of quantum chemistry have a bright future.

  17. Formation of trichloromethane in chlorinated water and fresh-cut produce and as a result of reacting with citric acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) is commonly used by the fresh produce industry to sanitize wash water, fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. However, possible formation of harmful chlorine by-products is a concern. The objectives of this study were to compare chlorine and chlorine dioxide in t...

  18. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-01-01

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest. PMID:12495517

  19. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-11-29

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest.

  20. Beware of False Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Edward C.; Bush, Lawson, V

    2004-01-01

    The "good fruit, bad fruit" parable provides a metaphor for sound accountability. If one wants to assess the source of problems to determine quality, then one must look at what has been produced. Unfortunately, many researchers and practitioners have examined the fruit without determining the quality of the tree. This failure has allowed…

  1. Tennessee Promise: A Response to Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlepage, Ben; Clark, Teresa; Wilson, Randal; Stout, Logan

    2018-01-01

    Community colleges in Tennessee, either directly or indirectly, experienced unprecedented change as a result of Tennessee Promise. The present study explored how student support service administrators at three community colleges responded to organizational change as a result of the Tennessee Promise legislation. Investigators selected community…

  2. Cosmic ray exposure dating with in situ produced cosmogenic 3He: results from young Hawaiian lava flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurz, M.D.; Colodner, D.; Trull, T.W.; Moore, R.B.; O'Brien, K.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to determine the in situ production rate of spallation-produced cosmogenic 3He, and evaluate its use as a surface exposure chronometer, we have measured cosmogenic helium contents in a suite of Hawaiian radiocarbon-dated lava flows. The lava flows, ranging in age from 600 to 13,000 years, were collected from Hualalai and Mauna Loa volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Because cosmic ray surface-exposure dating requires the complete absence of erosion or soil cover, these lava flows were selected specifically for this purpose. The 3He production rate, measured within olivine phenocrysts, was found to vary significantly, ranging from 47 to 150 atoms g-1 yr-1 (normalized to sea level). Although there is considerable scatter in the data, the samples younger than 10,000 years are well-preserved and exposed, and the production rate variations are therefore not related to erosion or soil cover. Data averaged over the past 2000 years indicate a sea-level 3He production rate of 125 ?? 30 atoms g-1 yr-1, which agrees well with previous estimates. The longer record suggests a minimum in sea level normalized 3He production rate between 2000 and 7000 years (55 ?? 15 atoms g-1 yr-1), as compared to samples younger than 2000 years (125 ?? 30 atoms g-1 yr-1), and those between 7000 and 10,000 years (127 ?? 19 atoms g-1 yr-1). The minimum in production rate is similar in age to that which would be produced by variations in geomagnetic field strength, as indicated by archeomagnetic data. However, the production rate variations (a factor of 2.3 ?? 0.8) are poorly determined due to the large uncertainties in the youngest samples and questions of surface preservation for the older samples. Calculations using the atmospheric production model of O'Brien (1979) [35], and the method of Lal and Peters (1967) [11], predict smaller production rate variations for similar variation in dipole moment (a factor of 1.15-1.65). Because the production rate variations, archeomagnetic data

  3. Breaking a Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Will

    2003-01-01

    States with programs to match private donations to colleges often find the demand for money far exceeds what they can afford to pay. This has resulted in some private benefactors getting frustrated and withdrawing their donations. Few of the proposals to reform matching grant programs have made much headway in state legislatures, and few colleges…

  4. New Promising Strategies in Oncofertility

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Janella N.; Stanley, Nathanael B.; Nahata, Leena; Bowman-Curci, Meghan; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 70,000 adolescent and young adults (AYA) are diagnosed with cancer each year. While advancements in treatment have led to improved prognosis and survival for patients, these same treatments can adversely affect AYA reproductive capacity. Localized treatments such as surgery and radiation therapy may affect fertility by removing or damaging reproductive organs, and systemic therapies such as chemotherapy can be toxic to gonads, (ovaries and testicles), thus affecting fertility and/or endocrine function. This can be traumatic for AYA with cancer as survivors often express desire to have genetic children and report feelings of regret or depression as a result of infertility caused by cancer treatments. Areas Covered Emerging technologies in the field of assisted reproductive technology offer new promise for preserving the reproductive capacity of AYA cancer patients prior to treatment as well as providing alternatives for survivors. The following review revisits contemporary approaches to fertility preservation as well newly developing technologies. Expert Commentary There are several advances in ART that hold promise for patients and survivors. However there are challenges that inhibit uptake including poor communication between providers and patients about risks and fertility preservation options; high costs; and lack of insurance coverage for fertility preservation services. PMID:28959743

  5. [Promising networks, fruitful inquiry].

    PubMed

    Frenk, Silvestre

    2014-01-01

    This supplement of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social includes 10 original contributions, and also six current themes, all of them related to childhood obesity. It is the result of an institutional program that it has been identified as Redes de Investigación Institucional, and it has been promoted and developed by the Coordinación de Investigación of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

  6. The posterior parietal paradox: Why do functional magnetic resonance imaging and lesion studies on episodic memory produce conflicting results?

    PubMed

    Schoo, L A; van Zandvoort, M J E; Biessels, G J; Kappelle, L J; Postma, A; de Haan, E H F

    2011-03-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies addressing healthy subjects point towards posterior parietal cortex (PPC) involvement in episodic memory tasks. This is noteworthy, since neuropsychological studies usually do not connect parietal lesions to episodic memory impairments. Therefore an inventory of the possible factors behind this apparent paradox is warranted. This review compared fMRI studies which demonstrated PPC activity in episodic memory tasks, with findings with studies of patients with PPC lesions. A systematic evaluation of possible explanations for the posterior parietal paradox indicates that PPC activation in fMRI studies does not appear to be attributable to confounding cognitive/psychomotor processes, such as button pressing or stimulus processing. What may be of more importance is the extent to which an episodic memory task loads on three closely related cognitive processes: effort and attention, self-related activity, and scene and image construction. We discuss to what extent these cognitive processes can account for the paradox between lesion and fMRI results. They are strongly intertwined with the episodic memory and may critically determine in how far the PPC plays a role in a given memory task. Future patient studies might profit from specifically taking these cognitive factors into consideration in the task design. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Does the COPD assessment test (CAT(TM)) questionnaire produce similar results when self- or interviewer administered?

    PubMed

    Agusti, A; Soler-Cataluña, J J; Molina, J; Morejon, E; Garcia-Losa, M; Roset, M; Badia, X

    2015-10-01

    The COPD assessment test (CAT) is a questionnaire that assesses the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on health status, but some patients have difficulties filling it up by themselves. We examined whether the mode of administration of the Spanish version of CAT (self vs. interviewer) influences its scores and/or psychometric properties. Observational, prospective study in 49 Spanish centers that includes clinically stable COPD patients (n = 153) and patients hospitalized because of an exacerbation (ECOPD; n = 224). The CAT was self-administered (CAT-SA) or administered by an interviewer (CAT-IA) based on the investigator judgment of the patient's capacity. To assess convergent validity, the Saint George's Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) instrument were also administered. Psychometric properties were compared across modes of administration. A total of 118 patients (31 %) completed the CAT-SA and 259 (69 %) CAT-IA. Multiple regression analysis showed that mode of administration did not affect CAT scores. The CAT showed excellent psychometric properties in both modes of administration. Internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's alpha) were high (0.86 for CAT-SA and 0.85 for CAT-IA) as was test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.83 for CAT-SA and CAT-IA). Correlations with SGRQ and LCADL were moderate to strong both in CAT-SA and CAT-IA, indicating good convergent validity. Similar results were observed when testing longitudinal validity. The mode of administration does not influence CAT scores or its psychometric properties. Hence, both modes of administration can be used in clinical practice depending on the physician judgment of patient's capacity.

  8. Achieving Success in Small Business: A Self-Instruction Program for Small Business Owner-Managers. Developing Ads That Produce Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    This self-instructional module on developing ads that produce results is the sixth in a set of twelve modules designed for small business owner-managers. Competencies for this module are (1) identify three guidelines to be considered when you invest money in advertising, (2) identify the five basic elements of a printed advertisement, and (3)…

  9. Do promises matter? An exploration of the role of promises in psychological contract breach.

    PubMed

    Montes, Samantha D; Zweig, David

    2009-09-01

    Promises are positioned centrally in the study of psychological contract breach and are argued to distinguish psychological contracts from related constructs, such as employee expectations. However, because the effects of promises and delivered inducements are confounded in most research, the role of promises in perceptions of, and reactions to, breach remains unclear. If promises are not an important determinant of employee perceptions, emotions, and behavioral intentions, this would suggest that the psychological contract breach construct might lack utility. To assess the unique role of promises, the authors manipulated promises and delivered inducements separately in hypothetical scenarios in Studies 1 (558 undergraduates) and 2 (441 employees), and they measured them separately (longitudinally) in Study 3 (383 employees). The authors' results indicate that breach perceptions do not represent a discrepancy between what employees believe they were promised and were given. In fact, breach perceptions can exist in the absence of promises. Further, promises play a negligible role in predicting feelings of violation and behavioral intentions. Contrary to the extant literature, the authors' findings suggest that promises may matter little; employees are concerned primarily with what the organization delivers.

  10. Measuring the motor output of the pontomedullary reticular formation in the monkey: do stimulus-triggered averaging and stimulus trains produce comparable results in the upper limbs?

    PubMed

    Herbert, Wendy J; Davidson, Adam G; Buford, John A

    2010-06-01

    The pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) of the monkey produces motor outputs to both upper limbs. EMG effects evoked from stimulus-triggered averaging (StimulusTA) were compared with effects from stimulus trains to determine whether both stimulation methods produced comparable results. Flexor and extensor muscles of scapulothoracic, shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints were studied bilaterally in two male M. fascicularis monkeys trained to perform a bilateral reaching task. The frequency of facilitation versus suppression responses evoked in the muscles was compared between methods. Stimulus trains were more efficient (94% of PMRF sites) in producing responses than StimulusTA (55%), and stimulus trains evoked responses from more muscles per site than from StimulusTA. Facilitation (72%) was more common from stimulus trains than StimulusTA (39%). In the overall results, a bilateral reciprocal activation pattern of ipsilateral flexor and contralateral extensor facilitation was evident for StimulusTA and stimulus trains. When the comparison was restricted to cases where both methods produced a response in a given muscle from the same site, agreement was very high, at 80%. For the remaining 20%, discrepancies were accounted for mainly by facilitation from stimulus trains when StimulusTA produced suppression, which was in agreement with the under-representation of suppression in the stimulus train data as a whole. To the extent that the stimulus train method may favor transmission through polysynaptic pathways, these results suggest that polysynaptic pathways from the PMRF more often produce facilitation in muscles that would typically demonstrate suppression with StimulusTA.

  11. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge canmore » be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than

  12. Nanotechnology: Its Promise and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, Vicki

    2009-05-14

    Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.

  13. AMLCD cockpit: promise and payoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Michael P.; Jackson, Timothy W.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Reising, John M.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    The active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) has become the preferred flight instrument technology in avionics multifunction display applications. Current bubble canopy fighter cockpit applications involve sizes up to 7.8 X 7.8 in. active display. Dual use avionics versions of AMLCD technology are now as large as 6.7 X 6.7 in. active display area in the ARINC D sized color multifunction display (MFD). This is the standard instrument in all new Boeing transport aircraft and is being retrofitted into the C-17A. A special design of the ARINC D instrument is used in the Space Shuttle cockpit upgrade. Larger sizes of AMLCD were desired when decisions were made in the early 1990s for the F-22. Commercial AMLCD technology has now produced monitors at 1280 X 1024 resolution (1.3 megapixels) in sizes of 16 to 21 in. diagonal. Each of these larger AMLCDs has more information carrying capacity than the entire F-22A cockpit instrument panel shipset, comprising six separate smaller AMLCDs (1.2 megapixels total). The larger AMLCDs are being integrated into airborne mission crewstations for use in dim ambient lighting conditions. It is now time to identify and address the technology challenges of upgrading these larger AMLCDs for sunlight readable application and of developing concepts for their integration into advanced bubble canopy fighter cockpits. The overall goals are to significantly increase the informational carrying capacity to bring both sensor and information fusion into the cockpit and, thereby, to enable a significant increase in warfighter situational awareness and effectiveness. A research cockpit was built using specialized versions of the IBM 16.1 in and two smaller 10 in. AMLCDs to examine human factors and display design issues associated with these next-generation AMLCD cockpit displays. This cockpit was later upgraded to allow greater reconfigurability and flexibility in the display hardware used to conduct part- task mission simulations. The objective

  14. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  15. [A case of hyperammonemia resulting from urinary tract infection caused by urease-producing bacteria in a Parkinson's disease patient with drug-induced urinary retention].

    PubMed

    Yasunishi, Masahiro; Koumura, Akihiro; Hayashi, Yuichi; Nishida, Shohei; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman with a 9-year history of Parkinson's disease was admitted to our hospital emergently because of consciousness disturbance. Her consciousness level was 200 on the Japan coma scale (JCS), and she presented with tenderness and distension of the lower abdomen. Brain computed tomography showed normal findings. Blood tests showed an increased ammonia level (209 μg/dl) with normal AST and ALT levels. We catheterized the bladder for urinary retention. Five hours after admission, the blood ammonia level decreased to 38 μg/dl, and her consciousness level improved dramatically. Corynebacterium urearyticum, a bacterial species that produces urease, was detected by urine culture. Therefore, she was diagnosed with hyperammonemic encephalopathy resulting from urinary tract infection caused by urease-producing bacteria. In this case, urologic active agents had been administered to treat neurogenic bladder. We suspect that these drugs caused urinary obstruction and urinary tract infection. It is important to recognize that obstructive urinary tract infection caused by urease-producing bacteria can cause hyperammonemia. Neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, tend to complicate neurogenic bladder. This disease should be considered in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease who are receiving urologic active drugs.

  16. Producing colloids with microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannacci, Nicolas; Willaime, Herve; Tabeling, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Submicronic emulsions are commonly used in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and material industries. Standard microfluidic tool is particularly convenient to produce in a very controlled way either droplets of typical diameter ranging from 10 to 300 microns with a perfect monodispersity (<3%), or double emulsions as well as double droplets (janus). We report the use of microfluidic devices to produce submicronic objects. We use a hydrodynamic flow-focusing that has the advantage to generate nanodrops in a way that is slightly dependent on the fluids used. The control on such a flow authorizes the adjustment of the diameter of the colloids formed. We will show brownian particles from 860 nm to 1.3 μm in diameter obtained in such way and their clustering into crystals thanks to their high monodispersity. These first experimental results are very promising and make evident the great potential of micro and nano-fluidics to produce nano-emulsions or colloids with very controlled size that metamaterials can require.

  17. SU-E-T-502: Initial Results of a Comparison of Treatment Plans Produced From Automated Prioritized Planning Method and a Commercial Treatment Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, P; Chen, Y; Hong, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose We developed an automated treatment planning system based on a hierarchical goal programming approach. To demonstrate the feasibility of our method, we report the comparison of prostate treatment plans produced from the automated treatment planning system with those produced by a commercial treatment planning system. Methods In our approach, we prioritized the goals of the optimization, and solved one goal at a time. The purpose of prioritization is to ensure that higher priority dose-volume planning goals are not sacrificed to improve lower priority goals. The algorithm has four steps. The first step optimizes dose to the target structures, whilemore » sparing key sensitive organs from radiation. In the second step, the algorithm finds the best beamlet weight to reduce toxicity risks to normal tissue while holding the objective function achieved in the first step as a constraint, with a small amount of allowed slip. Likewise, the third and fourth steps introduce lower priority normal tissue goals and beam smoothing. We compared with prostate treatment plans from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center developed using Eclipse, with a prescription dose of 72 Gy. A combination of liear, quadratic, and gEUD objective functions were used with a modified open source solver code (IPOPT). Results Initial plan results on 3 different cases show that the automated planning system is capable of competing or improving on expert-driven eclipse plans. Compared to the Eclipse planning system, the automated system produced up to 26% less mean dose to rectum and 24% less mean dose to bladder while having the same D95 (after matching) to the target. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Pareto optimal treatment plans can be generated automatically without a trial-and-error process. The solver finds an optimal plan for the given patient, as opposed to database-driven approaches that set parameters based on geometry and population modeling.« less

  18. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  19. Educating Homeless Students: Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H., Ed.; Reed-Victor, Evelyn, Ed.

    This book is for educators who serve homeless students or students temporarily sharing houses with other families. It describes many promising strategies for working with these students. The chapters are: (1) "Educating Homeless Children and Youth: An Introduction" (James H. Stronge); (2) "Meeting the Developmental and Educational Needs of…

  20. Depletion of mucin in mucin-producing human gastrointestinal carcinoma: Results from in vitro and in vivo studies with bromelain and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L

    2015-10-20

    Aberrant expression of membrane-associated and secreted mucins, as evident in epithelial tumors, is known to facilitate tumor growth, progression and metastasis, and to provide protection against adverse growth conditions, chemotherapy and immune surveillance. Emerging evidence provides support for the oncogenic role of MUC1 in gastrointestinal carcinomas and relates its expression to an invasive phenotype. Similarly, mucinous differentiation of gastrointestinal tumors, in particular increased or de novo expression of MUC2 and/or MUC5AC, is widely believed to imply an adverse clinicopathological feature. Through formation of viscous gels, too, MUC2 and MUC5AC significantly contribute to the biology and pathogenesis of mucin-secreting gastrointestinal tumors. Here, we investigated the mucin-depleting effects of bromelain (BR) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), in nine different regimens as single or combination therapy, in in vitro (MKN45, KATOIII and LS174T cell lines) and in vivo (female nude mice bearing intraperitoneal MKN45 and LS174T) settings. The inhibitory effects of the treatment on cancer cell growth and proliferation were also evaluated in vivo. Our results suggest that a combination of BR and NAC with dual effects on growth and mucin products of mucin-expressing tumor cells is a promising candidate towards the development of novel approaches to gastrointestinal malignancies with the involvement of mucin pathology. This capability supports the use of this combination formulation in locoregional approaches for reducing the adverse effects of the aberrantly secreted gel-forming mucins, as in pseudomyxoma peritonei and similar pathologies with ectopic production of mucin.

  1. Depletion of mucin in mucin-producing human gastrointestinal carcinoma: Results from in vitro and in vivo studies with bromelain and N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of membrane-associated and secreted mucins, as evident in epithelial tumors, is known to facilitate tumor growth, progression and metastasis, and to provide protection against adverse growth conditions, chemotherapy and immune surveillance. Emerging evidence provides support for the oncogenic role of MUC1 in gastrointestinal carcinomas and relates its expression to an invasive phenotype. Similarly, mucinous differentiation of gastrointestinal tumors, in particular increased or de novo expression of MUC2 and/or MUC5AC, is widely believed to imply an adverse clinicopathological feature. Through formation of viscous gels, too, MUC2 and MUC5AC significantly contribute to the biology and pathogenesis of mucin-secreting gastrointestinal tumors. Here, we investigated the mucin-depleting effects of bromelain (BR) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), in nine different regimens as single or combination therapy, in in vitro (MKN45, KATOIII and LS174T cell lines) and in vivo (female nude mice bearing intraperitoneal MKN45 and LS174T) settings. The inhibitory effects of the treatment on cancer cell growth and proliferation were also evaluated in vivo. Our results suggest that a combination of BR and NAC with dual effects on growth and mucin products of mucin-expressing tumor cells is a promising candidate towards the development of novel approaches to gastrointestinal malignancies with the involvement of mucin pathology. This capability supports the use of this combination formulation in locoregional approaches for reducing the adverse effects of the aberrantly secreted gel-forming mucins, as in pseudomyxoma peritonei and similar pathologies with ectopic production of mucin. PMID:26436698

  2. Comparison of Results of Measurement of Dimensions of the Placed Dental Implants on Cone Beam Computed Tomography with Dimensions of the Producers of the Implants.

    PubMed

    Repesa, Merisa; Sofic, Amela; Jakupovic, Selma; Tosum, Selma; Kazazic, Lejla; Dervisevic, Almir

    2017-06-01

    One of the most frequently used method for scanning patients with indication for dental implantation in dentistry is cone beam computed tomography. Implantation, CBCT imaging and implant programme are inevitable when planning a successful replacement of lost teeth. CBCT offers exact information about available bone and its density, adjacent tooth roots, the place of mandibular canal and maxillary sinus and adjacent anatomical structure. The goal of this study is to estimate accuracy of measurements on CBCT images ofpatients who have implants of different producers and determine if there is any statistically significant correlation between four test groups regardless of the alloy of which implants are made. The study was a prospective-comparative, and included fifteen patients with hundred dental implants divided in four groups depending on the producer. Over dimensioning in the gained measurements of the whole sample on CBCT images in relation to dimensions of producers is between 0.1006mm and 0.368mm. Even though over dimensioning is measured in millimetres, it has to be taken into consideration in clinical practice when planning an implant placement, and we can recommend safety zone of 0.5mm. There have been no statistically significant differences in the gained results in over dimensioning of implants of different alloys for horizontal and vertical measurements on CBCT images of Astra Tech, Brendet titanium implants and Straumann titanium-zirconium implants. Based on the goals of the study there have been confirmed statistically significant correlations of great value (from 0.841 to 0.936) of high level of importance between manufactured value of dimensions and average dimensions values gained through CBCT imaging in four types of implants (four test groups). The total exactness of measurements on CBCT scan in this research is 96.66% for horizontal measuring and 96.92% for vertical measuring. Therefore, we can conclude that CBCT as radiological method has an

  3. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The promise of cyborg intelligence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael F; Brown, Alexander A

    2017-03-01

    Yu et al. (2016) demonstrated that algorithms designed to find efficient routes in standard mazes can be integrated with the natural processes controlling rat navigation and spatial choices, and they pointed out the promise of such "cyborg intelligence" for biorobotic applications. Here, we briefly describe Yu et al.'s work, explore its relevance to the study of comparative cognition, and indicate how work involving cyborg intelligence would benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration between behavioral scientists and engineers.

  5. Implementation of Tritium in the Lmdz-Iso General Circulation Model: First Promising Results for the Study of the Relationships Between Stratospheric Air Inputs into the Lower Troposphere in Polar Regions, Water Cycle and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauquoin, A.; Jean Baptiste, P.; Risi, C. M.; Fourre, E.; Landais, A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the links between climate and water cycle is essential in the current context of global warming. The water isotopic composition, quantified as δD, δ18O or δ17O, has a great potential to trace the organization of present-day hydrological cycle. When recorded in various archives as tree rings, sediments, ice cores, they have also been largely used to reconstruct the past evolution of climate and water. The Antarctic cap is extremely sensitive to climate change. Moreover, this region is under the influence of exchanges between the troposphere and the stratosphere because of the presence of the polar vortex. Tritium (3H) has been shown to be an appropriate tracer for the intrusion of stratospheric air masses into the lower troposphere. Natural tritium is mainly produced by the interaction of cosmic radiations with the upper atmosphere. This tritium enters the hydrological cycle in the form of tritiated water molecules (HTO) and has a radioactive half-life of 4500±8 days. In an approach combining data and model, we have first implemented tritium in the coupled Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Zoom (LMDZ) Atmospheric General Circulation Model developed at IPSL [Risi et al., 2010]: LMDZ-iso. The implementation of natural tritium uses the same model architecture as for the other water isotopes, after a correct description of associated cosmogenic production terms [Masarik and Beer, 2009]. The model is used in a configuration dedicated to the simulation of the stratosphere, with 39 layers. In this presentation, we will focus on the modeling of spatial and temporal natural variations of tritium content in precipitation. The model is validated against a compilation of available data for natural tritium. We show that the continental and latitudinal effects are well reproduced by the model and that simulated seasonal variations of the tritium content of precipitation are coherent with our current knowledge of troposphere-stratosphere exchanges. Masarik

  6. Sprouting Healthy Kids Promotes Local Produce and Healthy Eating Behavior in Austin, Texas, Middle Schools: Promoting the Use of Local Produce and Healthy Eating Behavior in Austin City Schools. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiden, Karyn

    2010-01-01

    The Sustainable Food Center, which promotes healthy food choices, partnered with six middle schools in Austin, Texas, to implement Sprouting Healthy Kids. The pilot project was designed to increase children's knowledge of the food system, their consumption of fruits and vegetables and their access to local farm produce. Most students at these…

  7. Promising treatments in development for food allergies.

    PubMed

    Rancé, Fabienne

    2004-11-01

    Up to 6% of young children and 2% of adults suffer from food allergy. Among them many have IgE-mediated food allergy, a condition with potentially fatal allergic reactions. The only proven treatment is avoidance of the offending food, which can be identified using standardised allergic tests. However, several studies have addressed possible definite treatment options for food allergy. Immunotherapy, administered orally or by systemic injections, shows promising preliminary results, but these therapeutics are based on studies with insufficient scientific support, or are associated with a high risk of severe side effects. At present, no studies can support pharmacotherapy. However, promising results were recently published with anti-IgE antibodies in a human trial, and various approaches in a mouse model of food allergy (chinese herbal medicine, specific modulation of the T-cell response). Rapidly evolving findings might provide hope for a cure for food allergy in the near future.

  8. Melanoma Vaccines: Mixed Past, Promising Future

    PubMed Central

    Ozao-Choy, Junko; Lee, Delphine J.; Faries, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Cancer vaccines were one of the earliest forms of immunotherapy to be investigated. Past attempts to vaccinate against cancer, including melanoma, have mixed results, revealing the complexity of what was thought to be a simple concept. However, several recent successes and the combination of improved knowledge of tumor immunology and the advent of new immunomodulators make vaccination a promising strategy for the future. PMID:25245965

  9. SU-F-T-195: Systematic Constraining of Contralateral Parotid Gland Led to Improved Dosimetric Outcomes for Multi-Field Optimization with Scanning Beam Proton Therapy: Promising Results From a Pilot Study in Patients with Base of Tongue Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R; Liu, A; Poenisch, F

    Purpose: Treatment planning for Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) for head and neck cancer is time-consuming due to the large number of organs-at-risk (OAR) to be considered. As there are many competing objectives and also wide range of acceptable OAR constraints, the final approved plan may not be most optimal for the given structures. We evaluated the dose reduction to the contralateral parotid by implementing standardized constraints during optimization for scanning beam proton therapy planning. Methods: Twenty-four (24) consecutive patients previously treated for base of tongue carcinoma were retrospectively selected. The doses were 70Gy, 63Gy and 57Gy (SIB in 33more » fractions) for high-, intermediate-, and standard-risk clinical target volumes (CTV), respectively; the treatment included bilateral neck. Scanning beams using MFO with standardized bilateral anterior oblique and PA fields were applied. New plans where then developed and optimized by employing additional contralateral parotid constraints at multiple defined dose levels. Using a step-wise iterative process, the volume-based constraints at each level were then further reduced until known target coverages were compromised. The newly developed plans were then compared to the original clinically approved plans using paired student t-testing. Results: All 24 newly optimized treatment plans maintained initial plan quality as compared to the approved plans, and the 98% prescription dose coverage to the CTV’s were not compromised. Representative DVH comparison is shown in FIGURE 1. The contralateral parotid doses were reduced at all levels of interest when systematic constraints were applied to V10, V20, V30 and V40Gy (All P<0.0001; TABLE 1). Overall, the mean contralateral parotid doses were reduced by 2.26 Gy on average, a ∼13% relative improvement. Conclusion: Applying systematic and volume-based contralateral parotid constraints for IMPT planning significantly reduced the dose at all

  10. Commercial video frame rates can produce reliable results for both normal and CP spastic gait's spatiotemporal, angular, and linear displacement variables.

    PubMed

    Nikodelis, Thomas; Moscha, Dimitra; Metaxiotis, Dimitris; Kollias, Iraklis

    2011-08-01

    To investigate what sampling frequency is adequate for gait, the correlation of spatiotemporal parameters and the kinematic differences, between normal and CP spastic gait, for three sampling frequencies (100 Hz, 50 Hz, 25 Hz) were assessed. Spatiotemporal, angular, and linear displacement variables in the sagittal plane along with their 1st and 2nd derivatives were analyzed. Spatiotemporal stride parameters were highly correlated among the three sampling frequencies. The statistical model (2 × 3 ANOVA) gave no interactions between the factors group and frequency, indicating that group differences were invariant of sampling frequency. Lower frequencies led to smoother curves for all the variables, with a loss of information though, especially for the 2nd derivatives, having a homologous effect as the one of oversmoothing. It is proposed that in the circumstance that only spatiotemporal stride parameters, as well as angular and linear displacements are to be used, in gait reports, then commercial video camera speeds (25/30 Hz, 50/60 Hz when deinterlaced) can be considered as a low-cost solution to produce acceptable results.

  11. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  12. Molecular characterisation of human Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains: results of an outbreak investigation, Romania, February to August 2016.

    PubMed

    Usein, Codruţa-Romaniţa; Ciontea, Adriana Simona; Militaru, Cornelia Mãdãlina; Condei, Maria; Dinu, Sorin; Oprea, Mihaela; Cristea, Daniela; Michelacci, Valeria; Scavia, Gaia; Zota, Lavinia Cipriana; Zaharia, Alina; Morabito, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    IntroductionAt the beginning of 2016, an increase in paediatric haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases was observed in Romania. The microbiological investigations allowed isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 as the causative agent from most cases. Methods: An enhanced national surveillance of HUS and severe diarrhoea was established across the country following the identification of the first cases and was carried out until August 2016. A total of 15 strains were isolated from 10 HUS and five diarrhoea cases. Strains were characterised by virulence markers (i.e. stx type/subtype, eae , ehxA genes), phylogroup, genetic relatedness and clonality using PCR-based assays, PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The first six strains were further characterised by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Results: Five PCR-defined genotypes were distinguished. All strains from HUS cases harboured stx2a and eae , with or without stx1a , while strains from diarrhoea cases carried exclusively stx1a and eae genes. PFGE resolved strains into multiple pulsotypes, compatible with a certain geographic segregation of the cases, and strains were assigned to phylogroup B1 and sequence type (ST) 21. WGS confirmed the results of conventional molecular methods, brought evidence of O26:H11 serotype, and complemented the virulence profiles. Discussion/conclusion: This first description of STEC O26 strains from cases in Romania showed that the isolates belonged to a diverse population. The virulence content of most strains highlighted a high risk for severe outcome in infected patients. Improving the national surveillance strategy for STEC infections in Romania needs to be further considered.

  13. Molecular characterisation of human Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 strains: results of an outbreak investigation, Romania, February to August 2016

    PubMed Central

    Usein, Codruţa-Romaniţa; Ciontea, Adriana Simona; Militaru, Cornelia Mãdãlina; Condei, Maria; Dinu, Sorin; Oprea, Mihaela; Cristea, Daniela; Michelacci, Valeria; Scavia, Gaia; Zota, Lavinia Cipriana; Zaharia, Alina; Morabito, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Introduction At the beginning of 2016, an increase in paediatric haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) cases was observed in Romania. The microbiological investigations allowed isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 as the causative agent from most cases. Methods: An enhanced national surveillance of HUS and severe diarrhoea was established across the country following the identification of the first cases and was carried out until August 2016. A total of 15 strains were isolated from 10 HUS and five diarrhoea cases. Strains were characterised by virulence markers (i.e. stx type/subtype, eae, ehxA genes), phylogroup, genetic relatedness and clonality using PCR-based assays, PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The first six strains were further characterised by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Results: Five PCR-defined genotypes were distinguished. All strains from HUS cases harboured stx2a and eae, with or without stx1a, while strains from diarrhoea cases carried exclusively stx1a and eae genes. PFGE resolved strains into multiple pulsotypes, compatible with a certain geographic segregation of the cases, and strains were assigned to phylogroup B1 and sequence type (ST) 21. WGS confirmed the results of conventional molecular methods, brought evidence of O26:H11 serotype, and complemented the virulence profiles. Discussion/conclusion: This first description of STEC O26 strains from cases in Romania showed that the isolates belonged to a diverse population. The virulence content of most strains highlighted a high risk for severe outcome in infected patients. Improving the national surveillance strategy for STEC infections in Romania needs to be further considered. PMID:29183554

  14. Prediction-Oriented Marker Selection (PROMISE): With Application to High-Dimensional Regression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyeon; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Lee, J Jack

    2017-06-01

    In personalized medicine, biomarkers are used to select therapies with the highest likelihood of success based on an individual patient's biomarker/genomic profile. Two goals are to choose important biomarkers that accurately predict treatment outcomes and to cull unimportant biomarkers to reduce the cost of biological and clinical verifications. These goals are challenging due to the high dimensionality of genomic data. Variable selection methods based on penalized regression (e.g., the lasso and elastic net) have yielded promising results. However, selecting the right amount of penalization is critical to simultaneously achieving these two goals. Standard approaches based on cross-validation (CV) typically provide high prediction accuracy with high true positive rates but at the cost of too many false positives. Alternatively, stability selection (SS) controls the number of false positives, but at the cost of yielding too few true positives. To circumvent these issues, we propose prediction-oriented marker selection (PROMISE), which combines SS with CV to conflate the advantages of both methods. Our application of PROMISE with the lasso and elastic net in data analysis shows that, compared to CV, PROMISE produces sparse solutions, few false positives, and small type I + type II error, and maintains good prediction accuracy, with a marginal decrease in the true positive rates. Compared to SS, PROMISE offers better prediction accuracy and true positive rates. In summary, PROMISE can be applied in many fields to select regularization parameters when the goals are to minimize false positives and maximize prediction accuracy.

  15. Cyanobacteria: Promising biocatalysts for sustainable chemical production.

    PubMed

    Knoot, Cory J; Ungerer, Justin; Wangikar, Pramod P; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2018-04-06

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes showing great promise as biocatalysts for the direct conversion of CO 2 into fuels, chemicals, and other value-added products. Introduction of just a few heterologous genes can endow cyanobacteria with the ability to transform specific central metabolites into many end products. Recent engineering efforts have centered around harnessing the potential of these microbial biofactories for sustainable production of chemicals conventionally produced from fossil fuels. Here, we present an overview of the unique chemistry that cyanobacteria have been co-opted to perform. We highlight key lessons learned from these engineering efforts and discuss advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Progress and Promise: Results from the Boston Pilot Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tung, Rosann; Ouimette, Monique; Rugen, Leah

    2006-01-01

    New research conducted by Boston's Center for Collaborative Education documents significant achievement by students who attend the city's Pilot Schools. Pilot School students are performing better than the district averages across every indicator of student engagement and performance, including the statewide standardized assessment (MCAS). In…

  17. Promising results in treating lymphoma in young people

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with a type of cancer known as primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma who received infusions of chemotherapy, but who did not have radiation therapy to an area of the thorax known as the mediastinum, had excellent outcomes, according to clinical tri

  18. Strengths and weaknesses in the supply of school food resulting from the procurement of family farm produce in a municipality in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Panmela; Martinelli, Suellen Secchi; Melgarejo, Leonardo; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen; Cavalli, Suzi Barletto

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess compliance with school food programme recommendations for the procurement of family farm produce. This study consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilising a qualitative approach based on semistructured interviews with key informants in a municipality in the State of Santa Catarina in Brazil. Study participants were managers and staff of the school food programme and department of agriculture, and representatives of a farmers' organisation. The produce delivery and demand fulfilment stages of the procurement process were carried out in accordance with the recommendations. However, nonconformities occurred in the elaboration of the public call for proposals, elaboration of the sales proposal, and fulfilment of produce quality standards. It was observed that having a diverse range of suppliers and the exchange of produce by the cooperative with neighbouring municipalities helped to maintain a regular supply of produce. The elaboration of menus contributed to planning agricultural production. However, agricultural production was not mapped before elaborating the menus in this case study and an agricultural reform settlement was left out of the programme. A number of weaknesses in the programme were identified which need to be overcome in order to promote local family farming and improve the quality of school food in the municipality.

  19. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Luiten, Esther E M; Akkerman, Ida; Koulman, Albert; Kamermans, Pauline; Reith, Hans; Barbosa, Maria J; Sipkema, Detmer; Wijffels, René H

    2003-07-01

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, (feed-)products for aquaculture and bioremediation solutions) is not the only factor to realise the commercial applications of marine biotechnology. What else is needed to exploit the promising potential of marine biotechnology and to create new industrial possibilities? In the study project 'Ocean Farming-Sustainable exploitation of marine organisms', we explore the possibilities of marine organisms to fulfill needs, such as safe and healthy food, industrial (raw) materials and renewable energy in a sustainable way. One of the three design groups is envisioning the future of strong land-based 'marine' market chains. Marine biotechnology is one of the foci of attention in this design group. This article provides a model of future-oriented thinking in which a variety of experts actively participate.

  20. The promises of qualitative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Gergen, Kenneth J; Josselson, Ruthellen; Freeman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We address the significance and implications of the formal entry of qualitative inquiry into the American Psychological Association. In our view, the discipline is enriched in new and important ways. Most prominently, the qualitative movement brings with it a pluralist orientation to knowledge and to practices of inquiry. Adding to the traditional view of knowledge as empirically supported theory are research practices congenial with varying accounts of knowledge, including, for example, knowledge as hermeneutic understanding, social construction, and practice-based experience. Added to the goal of prediction are investments in increasing cultural understanding, challenging cultural conventions, and directly fostering social change. The qualitative movement also enriches the discipline as a whole through the special ways in which it inspires new ranges of theory, fosters minority inclusion, and invites interdisciplinary collaboration. Finally, the movement holds promise in terms of the discipline's contribution to society at large. Here we focus on the advantages of knowing with others in addition to about them, and on ways in which qualitative work enhances communication with the society and the world. Realizing these potentials will depend on developments in responsible research and reporting, academic and journal policies, along with the discipline's capacities for appreciating a more comprehensive orientation to inquiry. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Telepsychiatry: Promise, potential, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence and potentially disabling consequences of mental disorders, specialized mental health services are extremely deficient, leading to the so-called ‘Mental Health Gap’. Moreover, the services are concentrated in the urban areas, further worsening the rural-urban and tertiary primary care divide. Strengthening of and expanding the existing human resources and infrastructure, and integrating mental health into primary care appear to be the two major solutions. However, both the strategies are riddled with logistic difficulties and have a long gestation period. In such a scenario, telepsychiatry or e-mental health, defined as the use of information and communication technology to provide or support psychiatric services across distances, appears to be a promising answer. Due to its enormous potential, a review of the existing literature becomes imperative. An extensive search of literature was carried out and has been presented to delineate the modes of communication, acceptability and satisfaction, reliability, outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and legal and ethical challenges related to telepsychiatry. Telepsychiatry has been applied for direct patient care (diagnosis and management), consultation, and training, education, and research purposes. Both real-time, live interaction (synchronous) and store–forward (asynchronous) types of technologies have been used for these purposes. A growing amount of literature shows that training, supervision, and consultation by specialists to primary care physicians through telepsychiatry has several advantages. In this background, we have further focused on the models of telepsychiatry best suited for India, considering that mental health care can be integrated into primary care and taken to the doorstep of patients in the community. PMID:23441027

  2. The Pea light-independent photomorphogenesis1 Mutant Results from Partial Duplication of COP1 Generating an Internal Promoter and Producing Two Distinct Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, James A.; Gray, John C.

    2000-01-01

    The pea lip1 (light-independent photomorphogenesis1) mutant shows many of the characteristics of light-grown development when grown in continuous darkness. To investigate the identity of LIP1, cDNAs encoding the pea homolog of COP1, a repressor of photomorphogenesis identified in Arabidopsis, were isolated from wild-type and lip1 pea seedlings. lip1 seedlings contained a wild-type COP1 transcript as well as a larger COP1′ transcript that contained an internal in-frame duplication of 894 bp. The COP1′ transcript segregated with the lip1 phenotype in F2 seedlings and could be translated in vitro to produce a protein of ∼100 kD. The COP1 gene in lip1 peas contained a 7.5-kb duplication, consisting of exons 1 to 7 of the wild-type sequence, located 2.5 kb upstream of a region of genomic DNA identical to the wild-type COP1 DNA sequence. Transcription and splicing of the mutant COP1 gene was predicted to produce the COP1′ transcript, whereas transcription from an internal promoter in the 2.5-kb region of DNA located between the duplicated regions of COP1 would produce the wild-type COP1 transcript. The presence of small quantities of wild-type COP1 transcripts may reduce the severity of the phenotype produced by the mutated COP1′ protein. The genomic DNA sequences of the COP1 gene from wild-type and lip1 peas and the cDNA sequences of COP1 and COP1′ transcripts have been submitted to the EMBL database under the EMBL accession numbers AJ276591, AJ276592, AJ289773, and AJ289774, respectively. PMID:11041887

  3. The Promise of Motivational Interviewing in School Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andy J.; Cloud, Richard N.; Lee, Jon; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Feil, Edward G.; Walker, Hill M.; Golly, Annemieke

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the science of developing and implementing interventions addressing school-related risk factors has produced many advances. This article addresses the promise of a cross-disciplinary practice approach known as motivational interviewing in school settings. Specifically, the supporting evidence as well as the process and principles…

  4. Alq3 nanorods: promising building blocks for optical devices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Peng, Qing; Li, Yadong

    2008-07-17

    Monodisperse Alq3 nanorods with hexagonal-prism-like morphology are produced via a facile, emulsion based synthesis route. The photoluminescence of individual nanorods differs from the bulk material. These nanorods are promising building blocks for novel optical devices. Copyright © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A Promising Development: "Promise" Scholarships Targeting Individual Communities Reduce Barriers to College Access--and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Promise Scholarships in community colleges and sources of funding. The following community colleges and their scholarships are mentioned in this article: (1) Oregon Promise, Oregon; (2) Ventura College Promise, California; (3) Kalamazoo Promise, Michigan; (4) Pittsburgh Promise, Pennsylvania; (5) SEED Scholarship, Delaware;…

  6. Lecithins - promising oil spill cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    A new, non-polluting method of cleaning up oil spills at sea as well as on land has been developed by researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Their technique is based on the use of lecithins, a byproduct of producing edible oils from plants. Lecithin molecules are hydrophyllic at one end and lipophilic at their tail ends. When they come into contact with water, they organize themselves into bilayers whose heads all face the water and whose tails are all directed towards each other. These bilayers form particles called liposomes that, when spread on water fouled by oil spills, changemore » the properties of the oil thereby stopping the spreading and breaking it down into sticky droplets that continue to float on the surface and can be easily collected. The treatment is said to be effective in both fresh and salt water and is almost temperature and pH independent. Another beneficial effect is that the physical change generated by liposomes in the spilled oil improves the ability of oil-eating bacteria in the water to remove some of the spill by bioremediation.« less

  7. First experimental results of a cryogenic stopping cell with short-lived, heavy uranium fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Haettner, E.; Dendooven, P.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Ebert, J.; Jesch, C.; Plass, W. R.; Ranjan, M.; Weick, H.; Amjad, F.; Ayet, S.; Diwisch, M.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Greiner, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Lang, J.; Moore, I. D.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rink, A.-K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Winfield, J. S.; Yavor, M. I.

    2013-11-01

    A cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) has been commissioned with 238U projectile fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. The spatial isotopic separation in flight was performed with the FRS applying a monoenergetic degrader. For the first time, a stopping cell was operated with exotic nuclei at cryogenic temperatures (70 to 100 K). A helium stopping gas density of up to 0.05\\ \\text{mg/cm}^3 was used, about two times higher than reached before for a stopping cell with RF ion repelling structures. An overall efficiency of up to 15%, a combined ion survival and extraction efficiency of about 50%, and extraction times of 24 ms were achieved for heavy α-decaying uranium fragments. Mass spectrometry with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer has demonstrated the excellent cleanliness of the CSC. This setup has opened a new field for the spectroscopy of short-lived nuclei.

  8. Baltimore Community Schools: Promise & Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Rachel E.; Connolly, Faith

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the interim progress of the Baltimore Community School (CommSch) strategy by examining outcomes for the 2014-15 school year. Results show that CommSch parents more often reported being connected with community resources by school staff compared to parents at other schools. They also were more likely to report that school…

  9. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  10. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed. PMID:29487851

  11. Project Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

  12. Carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates producing Bush group 2f beta-lactamase (SME-1) in the United States: results from the MYSTIC Programme.

    PubMed

    Gales, A C; Biedenbach, D J; Winokur, P; Hacek, D M; Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N

    2001-02-01

    Two carbapenem (imipenem, meropenem)-resistant Serratia marcescens strains were isolated in the United States (Chicago, IL) through the 1999 MYSTIC (Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection) Programme. The S. marcescens antimicrobial susceptible patterns were: susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefepime (MICs, < or = 0.25 microg/ml), and resistance to the carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem; MIC, > 32 microg/ml) and aztreonam (MIC, > = 16 microg/ml). Each S. marcescens isolate shared an identical epidemiologic type (ribotype and PFGE) and the outer membrane protein profile was also identical to those of the wild type susceptible strains from the same medical center. The PCR utilizing bla(sme-1) primers amplified a gene product that was identified as consistent with SME-1 after DNA sequencing. Imipenem and meropenem resistance due to production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes among clinical isolates is still very rare, but microbiology laboratories should be aware of these chromosomally encoded enzymes among class C beta-lactamases producing enteric bacilli such as S. marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae.

  13. Gram-negative urinary tract infections and increasing isolation of ESBL-producing or ceftazidime-resistant strains in children: results from a single-centre survey.

    PubMed

    Giardino, Stefano; Bandettini, Roberto; Perotti, Maddalena; Piaggio, Giorgio; Degl'Innocenti, Ludovica; Sacco, Rosanna; Ciucci, Antonella; Caviglia, Ilaria; Barabino, Paola; Ginocchio, Francesca; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Haupt, Riccardo; Castagnola, Elio

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an important cause of morbidity in paediatrics, especially related to urinary tract malformation and neurogenic bladder dysfunction. The infection control team of Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy, performs a prospective survey on the epidemiology of UTI in children admitted in the hospital, and data are expressed as episodes/1000 days of hospital admission. From 2007 to 2011 there was an increase in the rate of Gram-negative UTIs, especially in the Nephrology Unit (from 11.63 to 27.48, r-coefficient 0.95, P minor 0.05), associated with an increase in infections due to ESBL-producing strains (from 0.54 to 2.55, r-coefficient 0.89, P 0.05). This study indicates that there is an increase in the rate of Gram-negative UTIs, also due to resistant strains. The cause may be multifactorial, but it is noteworthy that it has been mainly observed in a ward where low-dose, long-term administration of antibacterial prophylaxis in children with urinary malformations or neurogenic bladder dysfunction is routine. This phenomenon gives cause for concern and should be monitored carefully to avoid the risk of selecting resistant bacteria that have no therapeutic options.

  14. Phenotypical and molecular responses of Arabidopsis thaliana roots as a result of inoculation with the auxin-producing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Spaepen, Stijn; Bossuyt, Stijn; Engelen, Kristof; Marchal, Kathleen; Vanderleyden, Jos

    2014-02-01

    The auxin-producing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 can promote the growth of several plant species. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was chosen as host plant to gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms that govern this interaction. The determination of differential gene expression in Arabidopsis roots after inoculation with either A. brasilense wild-type or an auxin biosynthesis mutant was achieved by microarray analysis. Arabidopsis thaliana inoculation with A. brasilense wild-type increases the number of lateral roots and root hairs, and elevates the internal auxin concentration in the plant. The A. thaliana root transcriptome undergoes extensive changes on A. brasilense inoculation, and the effects are more pronounced at later time points. The wild-type bacterial strain induces changes in hormone- and defense-related genes, as well as in plant cell wall-related genes. The A. brasilense mutant, however, does not elicit these transcriptional changes to the same extent. There are qualitative and quantitative differences between A. thaliana responses to the wild-type A. brasilense strain and the auxin biosynthesis mutant strain, based on both phenotypic and transcriptomic data. This illustrates the major role played by auxin in the Azospirillum-Arabidopsis interaction, and possibly also in other bacterium-plant interactions. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. A promising new thermoelectric material - Ruthenium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, Cronin B.; Mccormack, Joseph A.; Zoltan, Andrew; Zoltan, Leslie D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical efforts directed toward increasing thermoelectric figure of merit values by a factor of 2 or 3 have been encouraging in several respects. An accurate and detailed theoretical model developed for n-type silicon-germanium (SiGe) indicates that ZT values several times higher than currently available are expected under certain conditions. These new, high ZT materials are expected to be significantly different from SiGe, but not unreasonably so. Several promising candidate materials have been identified which may meet the conditions required by theory. One such candidate, ruthenium silicide, currently under development at JPL, has been estimated to have the potential to exhibit figure of merit values 4 times higher than conventional SiGe materials. Recent results are summarized.

  16. PROMISE AND PLAUSIBILITY: HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION DECISIONS WITH LIMITED EVIDENCE.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce; Knox, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of new medical devices and diagnostics is often hampered by lack of published evidence which makes conventional health technology assessment (HTA) difficult. We now have 5 years' experience of the Medical Technologies Advisory Committee of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom, addressing this problem. This committee assesses devices and diagnostics against claims of advantage, to produce guidance on adoption for the health service. We have reflected on the practical, technical, and intellectual processes we have used in developing guidance for the health service. When scientific and clinical evidence is sparse, promise and plausibility play an increased part in decision-making. Drivers of promise include a clear design and mechanism of action, the possibility of radical improvement in care and/or resource use, and improving health outcomes for large numbers of patients. Plausibility relates to judgements about the whether the promise is likely to be delivered in a "real world" setting. Promise and plausibility need to be balanced against the amount of evidence available. We examine the influence they may have on decision-making compared with other factors such as risk and cost. Decisions about adoption of new devices and diagnostics with little evidence are influenced by judgements of their promise and the plausibility of claims that they will provide benefits in a real-world setting. This kind of decision making needs to be transparent and this article explains how these influences can be balanced against the use of more familiar criteria.

  17. Real-World Massage Therapy Produces Meaningful Effectiveness Signal for Primary Care Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: Results of a Repeated Measures Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Elder, William G; Munk, Niki; Love, Margaret M; Bruckner, Geza G; Stewart, Kathryn E; Pearce, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    While efficacy of massage and other nonpharmacological treatments for chronic low back pain is established, stakeholders have called for pragmatic studies of effectiveness in "real-world" primary health care. The Kentucky Pain Research and Outcomes Study evaluated massage impact on pain, disability, and health-related quality of life for primary care patients with chronic low back pain. We report effectiveness and feasibility results, and make comparisons with established minimal clinically important differences. Primary care providers referred eligible patients for 10 massage sessions with community practicing licensed massage therapists. Oswestry Disability Index and SF-36v2 measures obtained at baseline and postintervention at 12 and 24 weeks were analyzed with mixed linear models and Tukey's tests. Additional analyses examined clinically significant improvement and predictive patient characteristics. Of 104 enrolled patients, 85 and 76 completed 12 and 24 weeks of data collection, respectively. Group means improved at 12 weeks for all outcomes and at 24 weeks for SF-36v2's Physical Component Summary and Bodily Pain Domain. Of those with clinically improved disability at 12 weeks, 75% were still clinically improved at 24 weeks ( P  < 0.01). For SF-36v2 Physical and Mental Component Summaries, 55.4% and 43.4%, respectively, showed clinically meaningful improvement at 12 weeks, 46.1% and 30.3% at 24 weeks. For Bodily Pain Domain, 49.4% were clinically improved at 12 weeks, 40% at 24 weeks. Adults older than age 49 years had better pain and disability outcomes than younger adults. Results provide a meaningful signal of massage effect for primary care patients with chronic low back pain and call for further research in practice settings using pragmatic designs with control groups. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Mega-solubility of quartz resulting from highly alkaline fluids produced by dissolved albite in H2O at deep crustal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhluf, A. R.; Manning, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Models of H2O-rich fluids equilibrated with rocks at high P and T fail to predict the high solubilities observed experimentally, chiefly because thermodynamic data for the most abundant solutes is lacking. We investigated the effects of dissolved albite (Ab) on the solubility of quartz (Qz) at 1.0 GPa and 675-900 °C using a piston-cylinder apparatus to quantify possible mineral buffering or enhancement effects. We found a very large enhancement effect on the solubility of Qz when dissolved in dilute aqueous Ab solutions. SiO2 concentrations are similar to Qz solubility in strongly alkaline KOH solutions. At the highest temperature of 900 °C, we found that the solubility of Qz in 1.0 molal Ab solution increases by of factor of 4.5 over that in pure H2O, which corresponds to 10.7 molal SiO2. The nearly identical solubility of Qz in KOH(aq) and Ab solutions of the same concentration, P, and T, strongly suggest that NaOH(aq) liberated from NaAlSi3O8 in H2O fluids effects SiO2 solubility in a similar manner to that of KOH(aq). The deprotonated silica dimer was found to be a key species responsible for the high solubility of Qz in KOH(aq) and is likely responsible for the high solubility of Qz in Ab solutions. While the binaries Qz-H2O, Ab-H2O, and Qz-Ab are well known at 1.0 GPa, little data exists on the ternary system. The new results help quantify the ternary relations in the Ab-Qz-H2O system, which can be used as a simple model for liquid-vapor immiscibility granitic magmas. In addition, these highly alkaline solute-rich aqueous fluids suggest a mechanism for Ab-Qz metasomatism in subduction zones, such as in the Catalina schist (Bebout and Barton 1993), which provides an alternative to high P-T magmas. Our results show that subduction zone and metasomatic fluids may be much more alkaline and have significantly higher dissolving power than previously thought.

  19. Using mid-Infrared External Reflectance Spectroscopy to Distinguish Between Different Commercially Produced Poly[Methyl MethAcrylate] (PMMA) Samples - A Null Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario; Neel, Christopher; Lacina, David

    2017-06-01

    We report (null) results of experiments testing the hypothesis that mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy can be used to distinguish samples of poly[methyl methacrylate] (PMMA) obtained from different commercial suppliers. This work was motivated by the desire for a simple non-destructive and non-invasive test for pre-sorting PMMA samples prior to use in shock and high-strain-rate experiments, where PMMA is commonly used as a standard material. We discuss: our choice of mid-IR external reflectance spectroscopy, our approach to recording reflectance spectra at near-normal (θ = 0 + / - 5 degree) incidence and for extracting the wavelength-weighted absorption spectrum from the raw reflectance data via a Kramers-Krönig analysis. We employ extensive signal, which necessitates adopting a special experimental protocol to mitigate the effects of instrumental drift. Finally, we report spectra of three PMMA samples with different commercial pedigrees, and show that they are virtually identical (+ / - 1 % error, 95% confidence); obviating the use of mid-IR reflectance spectroscopy to tell the samples apart.

  20. Evaluating the promise of recombinant transmissible vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Basinski, Andrew J.; Varrelman, Tanner J.; Smithson, Mark W.; May, Ryan H.; Remien, Christopher H.; Nuismer, Scott L.

    2018-01-01

    Transmissible vaccines have the potential to revolutionize infectious disease control by reducing the vaccination effort required to protect a population against a disease. Recent efforts to develop transmissible vaccines focus on recombinant transmissible vaccine designs (RTVs) because they pose reduced risk if intra-host evolution causes the vaccine to revert to its vector form. However, the shared antigenicity of the vaccine and vector may confer vaccine-immunity to hosts infected with the vector, thwarting the ability of the vaccine to spread through the population. We build a mathematical model to test whether a RTV can facilitate disease management in instances where reversion is likely to introduce the vector into the population or when the vector organism is already established in the host population, and the vector and vaccine share perfect cross-immunity. Our results show that a RTV can autonomously eradicate a pathogen, or protect a population from pathogen invasion, when cross-immunity between vaccine and vector is absent. If cross-immunity between vaccine and vector exists, however, our results show that a RTV can substantially reduce the vaccination effort necessary to control or eradicate a pathogen only when continuously augmented with direct manual vaccination. These results demonstrate that estimating the extent of cross-immunity between vector and vaccine is a critical step in RTV design, and that herpesvirus vectors showing facile reinfection and weak cross-immunity are promising. PMID:29279283

  1. Novel fluconazole derivatives with promising antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Thamban Chandrika, Nishad; Shrestha, Sanjib K; Ngo, Huy X; Howard, Kaitlind C; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2018-02-01

    The fungistatic nature and toxicity concern associated with the azole drugs currently on the market have resulted in an increased demand for new azole antifungal agents for which these problematic characteristics do not exist. The extensive use of azoles has resulted in fungal strains capable of resisting the action of these drugs. Herein, we report the synthesis and antifungal activity of novel fluconazole (FLC) analogues with alkyl-, aryl-, cycloalkyl-, and dialkyl-amino substituents. We evaluated their antifungal activity by MIC determination and time-kill assay as well as their safety profile by hemolytic activity against murine erythrocytes as well as cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. The best compounds from our study exhibited broad-spectrum activity against most of the fungal strains tested, with excellent MIC values against a number of clinical isolates. The most promising compounds were found to be less hemolytic than the least hemolytic FDA-approved azole antifungal agent voriconazole (VOR). Finally, we demonstrated that the synthetic alkyl-amino FLC analogues displayed chain-dependent fungal membrane disruption as well as inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis as possible mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-03-04

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a 'green' product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  3. Children's understanding of promising, lying, and false belief.

    PubMed

    Maas, Fay K

    2008-07-01

    Understanding promising and lying requires an understanding of intention and the ability to interpret mental states. The author examined (a) the extent to which 4- to 6-year-olds focus on the sincerity of the speaker's intention when the 4-to 6-year-olds make judgments about promises and lies and (b) whether false-belief reasoning skills are related to understanding promising and lying. Participants watched videotaped stories and made promise and lie judgments from their own perspective and from the listener-character's perspective. Children also completed false-belief reasoning tasks. Older children made more correct promise judgments from both perspectives. All children made correct lie judgments from the listener's perspective. The author found that Ist-order false-belief reasoning was related to making judgments from the participant's perspective; 2nd-order false-belief reasoning was related to making judgments from the listener-character's perspective. Results suggest that children's understanding of promising and lying moves from a focus on outcome toward a focus on the belief that each utterance is designed to create.

  4. Medical big data: promise and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-03-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  5. Medical big data: promise and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology. PMID:28392994

  6. Promising medications for cocaine dependence treatment.

    PubMed

    Somaini, Lorenzo; Donnini, Claudia; Raggi, Maria A; Amore, Mario; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Saracino, Maria A; Kalluppi, Marsida; Malagoli, Marco; Gerra, Maria L; Gerra, Gilberto

    2011-05-01

    Cocaine dependence is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and high vulnerability to relapse. Overall, cocaine remains one of the most used illicit drugs in the world. Given the difficulty of achieving sustained recovery, pharmacotherapy of cocaine addiction remains one of the most important clinical challenges. Recent advances in neurobiology, brain imaging and clinical trials suggest that certain medications show promise in the treatment of cocaine addiction. The pharmacotherapeutic approaches for cocaine dependence include medications able to target specific subtypes of dopamine receptors, affect different neurotransmitter systems (i.e. noradrenergic, serotonergic, cholinergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic and opioidergic pathways), and modulate neurological processes. The systematic reviews concerning the pharmacological treatment of cocaine dependence appear to indicate controversial findings and inconclusive results. The aim of future studies should be to identify the effective medications matching the specific needs of patients with specific characteristics, abandoning the strategies extended to the entire population of cocaine dependent patients. In the present review we summarize the current pharmacotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of cocaine dependence with a focus on the new patents.

  7. Uterine transplantation: a promising surrogate to surrogacy?

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michael; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Bulletti, Carlo; Frydman, Rene; Fanchin, Renato

    2011-03-01

    Infertility due to the inability of the uterus to carry a pregnancy ranks among the most unresolved issues in reproductive medicine. It affects millions of women worldwide who have congenital or acquired uterine affections, often requiring hysterectomy, and potentially represents a considerable fraction of the general infertile population. Patients suffering from severe uterine infertility are currently compelled to go through gestational surrogacy or adoption; both approaches, unfortunately, deprive them of the maternal experience of pregnancy and birth. Uterine transplantation represents an outstanding, yet complex, perspective to alleviating definitive uterine infertility. In the past decades, a number of scientific experiments conducted both in animals and women, focusing on uterine transplantation, have led to promising results. Collectively, these findings undoubtedly constitute a sound basis to clinically apply uterine transplantation in the near future. This paper is, however, an overview not only of the extent and limitations of accumulated scientific knowledge on uterine transplantation, but also its ethical implications, in an effort to define the actual place of such an approach among the therapeutic arsenal for alleviating infertility. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Distinct Patterns of Cognitive Conflict Dynamics in Promise Keepers and Promise Breakers.

    PubMed

    Calluso, Cinzia; Saulin, Anne; Baumgartner, Thomas; Knoch, Daria

    2018-01-01

    On a daily basis, we see how different people can be in keeping or breaking a given promise. However, we know very little about the cognitive conflict dynamics that underlie the decision to keep or break a promise and whether this is shaped by inter-individual variability. In order to fill this gap, we applied an ecologically valid promise decision task with real monetary consequences for all involved interaction partners and used mouse tracking to identify the dynamic, on-line cognitive processes that underlie the decision to keep or break a promise. Our findings revealed that on average, the process of breaking a promise is associated with largely curved mouse trajectories, while the process of keeping a promise was not, indicating that breaking a promise is associated with a larger conflict. Interestingly, however, this conflict pattern was strongly shaped by individual differences. Individuals who always kept their promises did not show any signs of conflict (i.e., straight mouse trajectories), indicating that they were not tempted by the monetary benefits associated with breaking the promise. In contrast, individuals who did not always keep their promise exhibited a large conflict (i.e., curved mouse trajectories), irrespective of whether they broke or kept their promise. A possible interpretation of these findings is that these individuals were always tempted by the unchosen decision option - the desire to act in a fair manner when breaking the promise and the monetary benefits when keeping the promise. This study provides the first piece of evidence that there are substantial inter-individual differences in cognitive conflict dynamics that underlie the decision to keep or break promises and that mouse tracking is able to illuminate important insights into individual differences in complex human's decision processes.

  9. Realising the Promise of Cancer Predisposition Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nazneen

    2016-01-01

    Genes in which germline mutations confer high or moderate increased risks of cancer are called cancer predisposition genes (CPG). Over 100 CPGs have been identified providing important scientific insights in many areas, particularly mechanisms of cancer causation. Moreover, clinical utilisation of CPGs has had substantial impact in diagnosis, optimised management and prevention of cancer. The recent transformative advances in DNA sequencing bring the promise of many more CPG discoveries and greater, broader clinical applications. However, there is also considerable potential for incorrect inferences and inappropriate clinical applications. Realising the promise of cancer predisposition genes for science and medicine will thus require careful navigation. PMID:24429628

  10. The epigenetic promise for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Leander; Herman, James G; Otto, Gaëtan; Bigley, Joseph W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2012-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in men and a leading cause of death. Improvements in disease management would have a significant impact and could be facilitated by the development of biomarkers, whether for diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive purposes. The blood-based prostate biomarker PSA has been part of clinical practice for over two decades, although it is surrounded by controversy. While debates of usefulness are ongoing, alternatives should be explored. Particularly with recent recommendations against routine PSA-testing, the time is ripe to explore promising biomarkers to yield a more efficient and accurate screening for detection and management of prostate cancer. Epigenetic changes, more specifically DNA methylation, are amongst the most common alterations in human cancer. These changes are associated with transcriptional silencing of genes, leading to an altered cellular biology. One gene in particular, GSTP1, has been widely studied in prostate cancer. Therefore a meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the role of this and other genes and the potential contribution to prostate cancer management and screening refinement. More than 30 independent, peer reviewed studies have reported a consistently high sensitivity and specificity of GSTP1 hypermethylation in prostatectomy or biopsy tissue. The meta-analysis combined and compared these results. GSTP1 methylation detection can serve an important role in prostate cancer managment. The meta-analysis clearly confirmed a link between tissue DNA hypermethylation of this and other genes and prostate cancer. Detection of DNA methylation in genes, including GSTP1, could serve an important role in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. TOMORROW'S READING INSTRUCTION--PARADOX AND PROMISE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, NILA BANTON

    THE PARADOXES AND PROMISES OF TOMORROWS READING INSTRUCTION ARE PROJECTED AND ANALYZED. CURRENT AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AREAS OF TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATION, CHEMISTRY, PSYCHOLOGY, AND MEDICINE ARE DISCUSSED IN LIGHT OF THE IMPACT THESE INNOVATIONS WILL MAKE ON SOCIETY. THE CHANGES IN EDUCATION IN GENERAL AND IN THE TEACHING OF READING IN…

  12. The Promise of Zoomable User Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bederson, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) have received a significant amount of attention in the 18 years since they were introduced. They have enjoyed some success, and elements of ZUIs are widely used in computers today, although the grand vision of a zoomable desktop has not materialised. This paper describes the premise and promise of ZUIs along with…

  13. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  14. The Promise and Perils of Thought Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James Robert

    2006-01-01

    A number of thought experiments are cited, some well-known, some not. These illustrate the power of thought experiments. Other examples are given that show some of the dangers. As well as examples from the science, some examples of visual reasoning from mathematics are also presented, again with an eye to illustrating their promise and perils.…

  15. Profiles of Selected Promising Professional Development Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carol; Gerber, Peter; Handley, Claire; Kronley, Robert; Parry, Megan

    In 2000, the Finance Project received a planning grant to launch a new initiative on financing professional development in education. This report represents efforts to identify and develop a database on promising new approaches to professional development in education, profiling 16 initiatives recommended by knowledge experts and representing a…

  16. 76 FR 39589 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... promote student engagement, learning, and digital literacy, as well as neighborhood communication and... that focuses on family-school partnerships and family engagement in learning. Discussion: Family and... whether students who attend a target school in the Promise Neighborhood, but live outside the neighborhood...

  17. The Promises of Moral Foundations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musschenga, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for understanding the plurality of moralities--a shared…

  18. A Legal Brief--Unfulfilled Hiring Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1988-01-01

    Using a specific case, this article reviews some common areas of contract and tort law applicable to principals and employment practices in public and private schools. The question/answer format treats contract validity, negligent misrepresentation, and constitutionality issues involved in a case based on unfulfilled hiring promises. Includes four…

  19. Promising Practices: Vocational Education Resource Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    Developed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational educational programs and services, this Vocational Education Resource Package profiles four vocational education programs at California community colleges that show promise in serving special population students. First, the Applied Mathematics for Electronics…

  20. Student Teaching: Problems and Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Gary A., Ed.; Edwards, Sara, Ed.

    The working conference "Student Teaching: Problems and Promising Practices" brought together experts representing three different role orientations: cooperating teachers, school system representatives, and teacher educators. Under discussion was the student teaching process and the nature of research that might contribute to its better…

  1. NExT: Advancing Promising Cancer Therapies

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Experimental Therapeutics (NExT) program works with researchers and top scientific experts to advance promising or novel cancer therapies from the earliest stages of research to clinical trials. Learn about recent successes from NExT in this Cancer Currents blog post.

  2. Computers and Curriculum--Promises and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Robert M.

    The educational problems of the United States have reached critical proportions, particularly if the nation is to maintain leadership in high technology industries. This document explores the promise technology offers for improving instruction and broadening alternatives for instructional delivery. The author considers how technologically assisted…

  3. Alcohol Research: Promise for the Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordis, Enoch

    Over the past 20 years, alcohol researchers have made intensive efforts to understand alcohol use and its outcomes. To date, researchers have made much progress toward understanding the causes and consequences of alcoholism and its related problems. This publication attempts to convey the great spirit and promise of alcohol research. Established…

  4. Promising Practices in Instruction of Discovery Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stefanie; Steffy, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Libraries are continually changing to meet the needs of users; this includes implementing discovery tools, also referred to as web-scale discovery tools, to make searching library resources easier. Because these tools are so new, it is difficult to establish definitive best practices for teaching these tools; however, promising practices are…

  5. A Broken Promise: Examining the Merit-Aid Policy and Implementation Gap in the Michigan Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnet, Nathan; Hermsen, Albert; Vedder, Lori; Mabry, Beth

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Michigan changed their traditional merit award to a credit contingent program based upon successful completion of 60 college credits. The Michigan Promise Scholarship was crafted by state policymakers without input from the financial aid community. This case study suggests that the change in policy resulted in two unintended consequences:…

  6. Lean in healthcare: the unfilled promise?

    PubMed

    Radnor, Zoe J; Holweg, Matthias; Waring, Justin

    2012-02-01

    In an effort to improve operational efficiency, healthcare services around the world have adopted process improvement methodologies from the manufacturing sector, such as Lean Production. In this paper we report on four multi-level case studies of the implementation of Lean in the English NHS. Our results show that this generally involves the application of specific Lean 'tools', such as 'kaizen blitz' and 'rapid improvement events', which tend to produce small-scale and localised productivity gains. Although this suggests that Lean might not currently deliver the efficiency improvements desired in policy, the evolution of Lean in the manufacturing sector also reveals this initial focus on the 'tool level'. In moving to a more system-wide approach, however, we identify significant contextual differences between healthcare and manufacturing that result in two critical breaches of the assumptions behind Lean. First, the customer and commissioner in the private sector are the one and the same, which is essential in determining 'customer value' that drives process improvement activities. Second, healthcare is predominantly designed to be capacity-led, and hence there is limited ability to influence demand or make full use of freed-up resources. What is different about this research is that these breaches can be regarded as not being primarily 'professional' in origin but actually more 'organisational' and 'managerial' and, if not addressed could severely constrain Lean's impact on healthcare productivity at the systems level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning and significance of social

  8. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research.

    PubMed

    Hankivsky, Olena; Reid, Colleen; Cormier, Renee; Varcoe, Colleen; Clark, Natalie; Benoit, Cecilia; Brotman, Shari

    2010-02-11

    Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning and significance of social

  9. Pediatric Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome: Promising Therapies.

    PubMed

    Doctor, Allan; Zimmerman, Jerry; Agus, Michael; Rajasekaran, Surender; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane; Fortenberry, James; Zajicek, Anne; Mairson, Emma; Typpo, Katri

    2017-03-01

    To describe the state of the science, identify knowledge gaps, and offer potential future research questions regarding promising therapies for children with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome presented during the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Workshop on Pediatric Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (March 26-27, 2015). Literature review, research data, and expert opinion. Not applicable. Moderated by an expert from the field, issues relevant to the association of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with a variety of conditions were presented, discussed, and debated with a focus on identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities. Summary of presentations and discussion supported and supplemented by relevant literature. Among critically ill children, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is relatively common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. For outcomes to improve, effective therapies aimed at preventing and treating this condition must be discovered and rigorously evaluated. In this article, a number of potential opportunities to enhance current care are highlighted including the need for a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medications, the effect of early and optimized nutrition, and the impact of effective glucose control in the setting of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Additionally, a handful of the promising therapies either currently being implemented or developed are described. These include extracorporeal therapies, anticytokine therapies, antitoxin treatments, antioxidant approaches, and multiple forms of exogenous steroids. For the field to advance, promising therapies and other therapies must be assessed in rigorous manner and implemented accordingly.

  10. Extravascular use of drug-eluting beads: A promising approach in compartment-based tumor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Simon; Lewis, Andrew L; Löhr, J-Matthias; Keese, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Intraperitoneal carcinomatosis (PC) may occur with several tumor entities. The prognosis of patients suffering from PC is usually poor. Present treatment depends on the cancer entity and includes systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy and surgical resection. Only few patients may also benefit from hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with a complete tumor remission. These therapies are often accompanied by severe systemic side-effects. One approach to reduce side effects is to target chemotherapeutic agents to the tumor with carrier devices. Promising experimental results have been achieved using drug-eluting beads (DEBs). A series of in vitro and in vitro experiments has been conducted to determine the suitability of their extravascular use. These encapsulation devices were able to harbor CYP2B1 producing cells and to shield them from the hosts immune system when injected intratumorally. In this way ifosfamide - which is transformed into its active metabolites by CYP2B1 - could be successfully targeted into pancreatic tumor growths. Furthermore DEBs can be used to target chemotherapeutics into the abdominal cavity for treatment of PC. If CYP2B1 producing cells are proven to be save for usage in man and if local toxic effects of chemotherapeutics can be controlled, DEBs will become promising tools in compartment-based anticancer treatment. PMID:24282349

  11. Phenotypic variability and selection of lipid-producing microalgae in a microfluidic centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estévez-Torres, André.; Mestler, Troy; Austin, Robert H.

    2010-03-01

    Isogenic cells are known to display various expression levels that may result in different phenotypes within a population. Here we focus on the phenotypic variability of a species of unicellular algae that produce neutral lipids. Lipid-producing algae are one of the most promising sources of biofuel. We have implemented a simple microfluidic method to assess lipid-production variability in a population of algae that relays on density differences. We will discuss the reasons of this variability and address the promising avenues of this technique for directing the evolution of algae towards high lipid productivity.

  12. Fulfilling the promise of holographic optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Gaylord E.

    1990-05-01

    Consider the whole class of holographic optical elements which either contain pictorial image information or have the ability to modify wavefronts. Even after many years of development, there are pitifully few marketable applications. The visionary promises that holography would create a revolution in the optics and display industries have not been fulfilled. Time has shown that, while it was relatively simple to dream up ideas for myriad applications, these ideas have generally not moved beyond laboratory demonstrations. Exceptions are a few items such as optical elements for supermarket scanners, head-up displays and laser diode lenses. This paper addresses: 1. The many promises of holographic elements 2. The difficulties of practical implementation 3. A reassessment of research and development priorities To give simple examples of these points, they are discussed mainly as they apply to one type of holographic application: automotive displays. These familiar displays give a clear example of both the promises and difficulties that holographic elements present in the world of high volume, low-costproduction. Automotive displays could be considered as a trivial application alongside more interesting fundamental research programs or high cost, sophisticated military applications. One might even consider "trivial" automotive displays to be a disreputable subject for serious researchers. The case is made that exactly the opposite is true. The resources for large scale development exist only in a healthy commercial market. An example is the Japanese funding of high technology through commercial product development. This has been shown to be effective in the development of other technologies, such as ceramics, semiconductors, solar cells and composite materials. In like manner, if holography is to become an economically important technology, more and more competent researchers must start looking outside the universities and military laboratories for support. They must

  13. Pediatric Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome: Promising Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Doctor, Allan; Zimmerman, Jerry; Agus, Michael; Rajasekaran, Surender; Wardenburg, Juliane Bubeck; Fortenberry, James; Zajicek, Anne; Typpo, Katri

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the state of the science, identify knowledge gaps, and offer potential future research questions regarding promising therapies for children with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) presented during the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Workshop on Pediatric Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (March 26-27, 2015). Data Sources Literature review, research data, and expert opinion. Study Selection Not applicable. Data Extraction Moderated by an expert from the field, issues relevant to the association of MODS with a variety of conditions were presented, discussed and debated with a focus on identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities. Data Synthesis Summary of presentations and discussion supported and supplemented by relevant literature. Conclusions Among critically ill children, MODS is relatively common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. For outcomes to improve, effective therapies aimed at preventing and treating this condition must be discovered and rigorously evaluated. In this manuscript, a number of potential opportunities to enhance current care are highlighted including the need for a better understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medications, the effect of early and optimized nutrition, and the impact of effective glucose control in the setting of MODS. Additionally, a handful of the promising therapies either currently being implemented or developed are described. These include extracorporeal therapies, anti-cytokine therapies, anti-toxin treatments, anti-oxidant approaches and multiple forms of exogenous steroids. For the field to advance, these and other therapies must be assessed in rigorous manner and implemented accordingly. PMID:28248836

  14. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    PubMed

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  15. Glycodendritic structures: promising new antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael

    2004-09-01

    DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed by dendritic cells, is able to recognize high mannosylated glycoproteins at the surface of a broad range of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. For at least some of these agents this interaction appears to be an important part of the infection process. Therefore, this lectin might be considered in the design of new antiviral drugs. In this manner, multivalent carbohydrate systems based on dendrimers and dendritic polymers are promising candidates as antiviral drugs. Boltorn hyperbranched dendritic polymers functionalized with mannose have been used to inhibit DC-SIGN-mediated infection in an Ebola-pseudotyped viral model. Their physiological solubility, lack of toxicity and especially their low price suggest the application of these glycodendritic polymers for possible formulation as microbicides.

  16. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: promise or peril?

    PubMed Central

    Mengle-Gaw, Laurel J; Schwartz, Benjamin D

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of two isoforms of the cyclooxygenase enzyme, COX-1 and COX-2, and the development of COX-2-specific inhibitors as anti-inflammatories and analgesics have offered great promise that the therapeutic benefits of NSAIDs could be optimized through inhibition of COX-2, while minimizing their adverse side effect profile associated with inhibition of COX-1. While COX-2 specific inhibitors have proven to be efficacious in a variety of inflammatory conditions, exposure of large numbers of patients to these drugs in postmarketing studies have uncovered potential safety concerns that raise questions about the benefit/risk ratio of COX-2-specific NSAIDs compared to conventional NSAIDs. This article reviews the efficacy and safety profiles of COX-2-specific inhibitors, comparing them with conventional NSDAIDs. PMID:12467519

  17. The promise and pitfalls of community resilience.

    PubMed

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Chandra, Anita; Acosta, Joie

    2013-12-01

    An important shift in terminology has occurred in emergency preparedness, and the concept of community resilience has become ubiquitous. Although enhancing community resilience is broader than preparedness, and emphasizes a distinct set of activities and participants, the terms are often used interchangeably. The implications of this shift have not been fully explored. This commentary describes the potential promise and pitfalls of the concept of community resilience and recommends strategies to overcome its limitations. We believe that resilience has the power to dramatically change this field in immense, positive ways, but some important challenges such as confusion about definitions and lack of accountability must first be overcome. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;7:603-606).

  18. Discovery of novel drugs for promising targets.

    PubMed

    Martell, Robert E; Brooks, David G; Wang, Yan; Wilcoxen, Keith

    2013-09-01

    Once a promising drug target is identified, the steps to actually discover and optimize a drug are diverse and challenging. The goal of this study was to provide a road map to navigate drug discovery. Review general steps for drug discovery and provide illustrating references. A number of approaches are available to enhance and accelerate target identification and validation. Consideration of a variety of potential mechanisms of action of potential drugs can guide discovery efforts. The hit to lead stage may involve techniques such as high-throughput screening, fragment-based screening, and structure-based design, with informatics playing an ever-increasing role. Biologically relevant screening models are discussed, including cell lines, 3-dimensional culture, and in vivo screening. The process of enabling human studies for an investigational drug is also discussed. Drug discovery is a complex process that has significantly evolved in recent years. © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Promising Themes for Antismoking Campaigns Targeting Youth and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura A.; Kybert-Momjian, Ani; Liu, Jiaying; Hornik, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Behavior change campaigns typically try to change beliefs that influence behaviors, with targeted beliefs comprising the campaign theme. We present an empirical approach for choosing among a large number of potential themes, and results from the implementation of this approach for campaigns aimed at 4 behavioral targets: (1) preventing smoking initiation among youth, and (2) preventing initiation, (3) stopping progression to daily smoking and (4) encouraging cessation among young adults. Methods An online survey of 13- to 17-year-olds and 18- to 25-year-olds in the United States (US), in which 20 potential campaign themes were represented by 154 beliefs. For each behavioral target, themes were ranked based on the strength of belief-intention and belief-behavior associations and size of the population not already endorsing the beliefs. Results The most promising themes varied across behavioral targets but 3 were consistently promising: consequences of smoking for mood, social acceptance and social popularity. Conclusions Using a robust and systematic approach, this study provides campaign developers with empirical data to inform their selection of promising themes. Findings related to the campaign to prevent initiation among youth informed the development of the US Food and Drug Administration’s “The Real Cost” campaign. PMID:28989949

  20. Improved trees: economic promises and pitfalls

    Treesearch

    George F. Dutrow

    1977-01-01

    Surging demands for wood fiber that must be produced on a decreasing acreage of forest land suggest soaring prices, a shrinking market for wood products, or both. Either of these consequences can be forestalled or prevented by implementing existing technologies, one of which is cultivation of genetically improved trees. Multiple and sizable gains from improved trees...

  1. Comparison of the oxidation products produced by tetrahalobisphenol A flame retardants as a result of potassium monopersulfate oxidation with an iron(III)-tetrakis(p-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin in the presence of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Yusuke; Maeno, Shohei; Zhu, Qianqian; Fukushima, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), commercially used halogenated flame retardants, can be found in leachates from landfills, because hydrophobic interactions with humic acids (HAs), major organic components in landfills, result in an increase in their solubility. The oxidation characteristics of TBBPA and TCBPA in the presence of HA were compared using a catalytic system comprised of a combination of iron(III)-tetrakis(p-sulfophenyl)porphyrin (FeTPPS) and KHSO5 that can mimic the enzymatic reactions that occur in landfills. The levels of degradation and dehalogenation of TBBPA and TCBPA at pH 4 were significantly lower than at pH 8, which is a typical pH value for landfill leachates. In the presence of HA at pH 8, 2-hydroxyisopropyl-2,6 -dihalophenols (2HIP-26DXPs) were detected as major by-products. These compounds are likely produced via the β-carbon scission of the substrates, and their levels decreased with increasing reaction time. The levels of coupling compounds between 2,6-dihalopnenols and TBBPA or TCBPA increased with reaction time. The 27% of Br in the degraded TBBPA and 50% of Cl in the degraded TCBPA were incorporated into the HA as a result of catalytic oxidation via the FeTPPS/KHSO5 system. These results suggest that TCBPA is incorporated into HA more readily than TBBPA. The coupling compounds between HA and halogenated intermediates from TBBPA or TCBPA were assigned by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  2. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production

    PubMed Central

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  3. Phage display as a promising approach for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Bakhshinejad, Babak; Baradaran, Behzad; Motallebnezhad, Morteza; Aghebati-Maleki, Ali; Nickho, Hamid; Yousefi, Mehdi; Majidi, Jafar

    2016-09-29

    Bacteriophages are specific antagonists to bacterial hosts. These viral entities have attracted growing interest as optimal vaccine delivery vehicles. Phages are well-matched for vaccine design due to being highly stable under harsh environmental conditions, simple and inexpensive large scale production, and potent adjuvant capacities. Phage vaccines have efficient immunostimulatory effects and present a high safety profile because these viruses have made a constant relationship with the mammalian body during a long-standing evolutionary period. The birth of phage display technology has been a turning point in the development of phage-based vaccines. Phage display vaccines are made by expressing multiple copies of an antigen on the surface of immunogenic phage particles, thereby eliciting a powerful and effective immune response. Also, the ability to produce combinatorial peptide libraries with a highly diverse pool of randomized ligands has transformed phage display into a straightforward, versatile and high throughput screening methodology for the identification of potential vaccine candidates against different diseases in particular microbial infections. These libraries can be conveniently screened through an affinity selection-based strategy called biopanning against a wide variety of targets for the selection of mimotopes with high antigenicity and immunogenicity. Also, they can be panned against the antiserum of convalescent individuals to recognize novel peptidomimetics of pathogen-related epitopes. Phage display has represented enormous promise for finding new strategies of vaccine discovery and production and current breakthroughs promise a brilliant future for the development of different phage-based vaccine platforms.

  4. Targeting aerobic glycolysis: 3-bromopyruvate as a promising anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Cardaci, Simone; Desideri, Enrico; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-02-01

    The Warburg effect refers to the phenomenon whereby cancer cells avidly take up glucose and produce lactic acid under aerobic conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor reliance on glycolysis remains not completely clear, its inhibition opens feasible therapeutic windows for cancer treatment. Indeed, several small molecules have emerged by combinatorial studies exhibiting promising anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo, as a single agent or in combination with other therapeutic modalities. Therefore, besides reviewing the alterations of glycolysis that occur with malignant transformation, this manuscript aims at recapitulating the most effective pharmacological therapeutics of its targeting. In particular, we describe the principal mechanisms of action and the main targets of 3-bromopyruvate, an alkylating agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors. Moreover, we discuss the chemo-potentiating strategies that would make unparalleled the putative therapeutic efficacy of its use in clinical settings.

  5. Impedance-based cellular assay technologies: recent advances, future promise.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Ryan

    2007-10-01

    Cell-based assays are continuing to grow in importance in the drug discovery workflow. Their early introduction holds the promise of limiting attrition in the later, more costly phases of the process. This article reviews recent advances in the development of impedance technologies for label-free cell-based assays. These systems are capable of monitoring endogenous receptor activation, and thus generate more physiologically relevant measures of pharmacological endpoints. Primary cells can be investigated as well, thus producing disease relevant information. Label-free assays significantly decrease assay development efforts and avoid many complications inherent in recombinant readout systems. Impedance-based systems have great potential to advance the utility of cell-based assays as they are applied to drug discovery and pharmacology.

  6. Vitamin D deficiency changes the intestinal microbiome reducing B vitamin production in the gut. The resulting lack of pantothenic acid adversely affects the immune system, producing a "pro-inflammatory" state associated with atherosclerosis and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Gominak, S C

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin D blood levels of 60-80ng/ml promote normal sleep. The present study was undertaken to explore why this beneficial effect waned after 2years as arthritic pain increased. Pantothenic acid becomes coenzyme A, a cofactor necessary for cortisol and acetylcholine production. 1950s experiments suggested a connection between pantothenic acid deficiency, autoimmune arthritis and insomnia. The B vitamins have been shown to have an intestinal bacterial source and a food source, suggesting that the normal intestinal microbiome may have always been the primary source of B vitamins. Review of the scientific literature shows that pantothenic acid does not have a natural food source, it is supplied by the normal intestinal bacteria. In order to test the hypothesis that vitamin D replacement slowly induced a secondary pantothenic acid deficiency, B100 (100mg of all B vitamins except 100mcg of B12 and biotin and 400mcg of folate) was added to vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D and B100 were recommended to over 1000 neurology patients. Sleep characteristics, pain levels, neurologic symptoms, and bowel complaints were recorded by the author at routine appointments. Three months of vitamin D plus B100 resulted in improved sleep, reduced pain and unexpected resolution of bowel symptoms. These results suggest that the combination of vitamin D plus B100 creates an intestinal environment that favors the return of the four specific species, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria that make up the normal human microbiome. 1) Seasonal fluctuations in vitamin D levels have normally produced changes in the intestinal microbiome that promoted weight gain in winter. Years of vitamin D deficiency, however, results in a permanently altered intestinal environment that no longer favors the "healthy foursome". 2) Humans have always had a commensal relationship with their intestinal microbiome. We supplied them vitamin D, they supplied us B vitamins. 3) The four species

  7. Graphene-like layers as promising chemiresistive sensing material for detection of alcohols at low concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, Valentina; Alfano, Brigida; Di Capua, Roberto; Alfé, Michela; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Polichetti, Tiziana; Massera, Ettore; Miglietta, Maria Lucia; Schiattarella, Chiara; Di Francia, Girolamo

    2018-01-01

    In the manifold of materials for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) sensing, graphene related materials (GRMs) gain special attention thanks to their versatility and overall chemico-physical tunability as a function of specific applications. In this work, the sensing performances of graphene-like (GL) layers, a new material belonging to the GRM family, are tested against ethanol and n-butanol. Two typologies of GL samples were produced by employing two different approaches and tested in view of their application as VOC sensors. The experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure, in dry air, and at room temperature and demonstrated that the sensing capabilities are related to the film surface features. The results indicated that GL films are promising candidates for the detection of low concentrations of VOCs at room temperature. The present investigation thus paves the way for VOC sensing optimization using cost-effective and easily scalable materials.

  8. Promising Themes for Antismoking Campaigns Targeting Youth and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura A; Kybert-Momjian, Ani; Liu, Jiaying; Hornik, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    Behavior change campaigns typically try to change beliefs that influence behaviors, with targeted beliefs comprising the campaign theme. We present an empirical approach for choosing among a large number of potential themes, and results from the implementation of this approach for campaigns aimed at 4 behavioral targets: (1) preventing smoking initiation among youth, and (2) preventing initiation, (3) stopping progression to daily smoking and (4) encouraging cessation among young adults. An online survey of 13- to 17-year-olds and 18- to 25-year-olds in the United States (US), in which 20 potential campaign themes were represented by 154 beliefs. For each behavioral target, themes were ranked based on the strength of belief-intention and belief-behavior associations and size of the population not already endorsing the beliefs. The most promising themes varied across behavioral targets but 3 were consistently promising: consequences of smoking for mood, social acceptance and social popularity. Using a robust and systematic approach, this study provides campaign developers with empirical data to inform their selection of promising themes. Findings related to the campaign to prevent initiation among youth informed the development of the US Food and Drug Administration's "The Real Cost" campaign.

  9. Understanding the Promise: A Typology of State and Local College Promise Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.; Leigh, Elaine W.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, but especially in the past few years, programs with a "promise" label have been advanced at the local, state, and federal levels. To advance understanding of the design, implementation, and impact of the many different versions of emerging programs, policymakers, practitioners, and researchers need an organizing…

  10. Bringing Promise to Washington, DC. The DC Promise Neighborhood Initiative. Program on Neighborhoods and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comey, Jennifer; Scott, Molly M.; Popkin, Susan J.; Falkenburger, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhood Initiative (DCPNI) is one of the Obama administration's major antipoverty initiatives and a core strategy of the White House's Neighborhood Revitalization Initiative. It is intended to improve educational outcomes by creating a continuum of school readiness, academic services, and family and…

  11. Promise Neighborhoods: The Promise and Politics of Community Capacity Building as Urban School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to consider how the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods (PNs) program can improve persistently low-achieving urban schools by making their "neighborhoods whole again" through community capacity building for education reform. As the "first federal initiative to put education at the…

  12. 76 FR 55889 - Reopening Notice: Promise Neighborhoods Program-Implementation Grant Competition; Promise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Education (Department) reopens the competition for transmittal of applications for new awards... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA Numbers 84.215N; 84.215P] Reopening Notice: Promise Neighborhoods...

  13. Identifying promising accessions of cherry tomato: a sensory strategy using consumers and chefs.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Mariella C; Deliza, Rosires; Ares, Gastón; Freitas, Daniela De G C; Silva, Aline L S; Carmo, Margarida G F; Abboud, Antonio C S

    2013-06-01

    An increased production of cherry and gourmet tomato cultivars that are harvested at advanced colour stages and sold at a higher price has been observed in the last 10 years. In this context, producers need information on the sensory characteristics of new cultivars and their perception by potential consumers. The aim of the present work was to obtain a sensory characterisation of nine cherry tomato cultivars produced under Brazilian organic cultivation conditions from a chef and consumer perspective. Nine organic cherry tomato genotypes were evaluated by ten chefs using an open-ended question and by 110 consumers using a check-all-that-apply question. Both methodologies provided similar information on the sensory characteristics of the cherry tomato accessions. The superimposed representation of the samples in a multiple factor analysis was similar for consumers' and chefs' descriptions (RV coefficient 0.728), although they used different methodologies. According to both panels, cherry tomatoes were sorted into five groups of samples with similar sensory characteristics. Results from the present work may provide information to help organic producers in the selection of the most promising cultivars for cultivation, taking into account consumers' and chefs' perceptions, as well as in the design of communication and marketing strategies. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises.

    PubMed

    Anand, Preetha; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Newman, Robert A; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound derived from dietary spice turmeric, possesses diverse pharmacologic effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities. Phase I clinical trials have shown that curcumin is safe even at high doses (12 g/day) in humans but exhibit poor bioavailability. Major reasons contributing to the low plasma and tissue levels of curcumin appear to be due to poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. To improve the bioavailability of curcumin, numerous approaches have been undertaken. These approaches involve, first, the use of adjuvant like piperine that interferes with glucuronidation; second, the use of liposomal curcumin; third, curcumin nanoparticles; fourth, the use of curcumin phospholipid complex; and fifth, the use of structural analogues of curcumin (e.g., EF-24). The latter has been reported to have a rapid absorption with a peak plasma half-life. Despite the lower bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy of curcumin against various human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, arthritis, neurological diseases and Crohn's disease, has been documented. Enhanced bioavailability of curcumin in the near future is likely to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of therapeutic agents for treatment of human disease.

  15. Promising Gene Therapeutics for Salivary Gland Radiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed. PMID:28286865

  16. Nutrigenomics and the stewardship of scientific promises.

    PubMed

    Penders, Bart; Goven, Joanna

    2010-09-01

    Here we analyze the rise and establishment of nutrigenomics versus nutrition science from a political perspective. We argue that the exceptionalist status of nutrigenomics has been brought about by a carefully orchestrated economy of expectation, enabling the nutrigenomics community to develop its own research agenda that differs significantly from that of nutrition science. Nutrigenomics promotes research specifically directed towards the heterogeneity of dietary guidelines, while nutrition science pursues a public health goal dominated by homogeneous health messages. Through the development of genomic technology and the protective niche created by large global funding initiatives, this heterogeneity-research agenda has been able to develop itself. Those pursuing and supporting it have, through nutrigenomics' economy of expectation, influenced public opinion, and regulatory and political structures dealing with food and health. With many big global nutrigenomics initiatives slowly approaching their end, this article hints at some of the possible political consequences of its economy of expectation and suggests that a "stewardship" of promises and expectations is in order

  17. Artificial Intelligence in Surgery: Promises and Perils.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Daniel A; Rosman, Guy; Rus, Daniela; Meireles, Ozanan R

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize major topics in artificial intelligence (AI), including their applications and limitations in surgery. This paper reviews the key capabilities of AI to help surgeons understand and critically evaluate new AI applications and to contribute to new developments. AI is composed of various subfields that each provide potential solutions to clinical problems. Each of the core subfields of AI reviewed in this piece has also been used in other industries such as the autonomous car, social networks, and deep learning computers. A review of AI papers across computer science, statistics, and medical sources was conducted to identify key concepts and techniques within AI that are driving innovation across industries, including surgery. Limitations and challenges of working with AI were also reviewed. Four main subfields of AI were defined: (1) machine learning, (2) artificial neural networks, (3) natural language processing, and (4) computer vision. Their current and future applications to surgical practice were introduced, including big data analytics and clinical decision support systems. The implications of AI for surgeons and the role of surgeons in advancing the technology to optimize clinical effectiveness were discussed. Surgeons are well positioned to help integrate AI into modern practice. Surgeons should partner with data scientists to capture data across phases of care and to provide clinical context, for AI has the potential to revolutionize the way surgery is taught and practiced with the promise of a future optimized for the highest quality patient care.

  18. Antimicrobial hydrogels: promising materials for medical application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kerong; Han, Qing; Chen, Bingpeng; Zheng, Yuhao; Zhang, Kesong; Li, Qiang; Wang, Jincheng

    2018-01-01

    The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microbes is becoming an imminent global public health problem. Local application of antibiotics might be a solution. In local application, materials need to act as the drug delivery system. The drug delivery system should be biodegradable and prolonged antibacterial effect should be provided to satisfy clinical demand. Hydrogel is a promising material for local antibacterial application. Hydrogel refers to a kind of biomaterial synthesized by a water-soluble natural polymer or a synthesized polymer, which turns into gel according to the change in different signals such as temperature, ionic strength, pH, ultraviolet exposure etc. Because of its high hydrophilicity, unique three-dimensional network, fine biocompatibility and cell adhesion, hydrogel is one of the suitable biomaterials for drug delivery in antimicrobial areas. In this review, studies from the past 5 years were reviewed, and several types of antimicrobial hydrogels according to different ingredients, different preparations, different antimicrobial mechanisms, different antimicrobial agents they contained and different applications, were summarized. The hydrogels loaded with metal nanoparticles as a potential method to solve antibiotic resistance were highlighted. Finally, future prospects of development and application of antimicrobial hydrogels are suggested. PMID:29695904

  19. Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?

    PubMed

    Iuvone, Teresa; Esposito, Giuseppe; De Filippis, Daniele; Scuderi, Caterina; Steardo, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases represent, nowadays, one of the main causes of death in the industrialized country. They are characterized by a loss of neurons in particular regions of the nervous system. It is believed that this nerve cell loss underlies the subsequent decline in cognitive and motor function that patients experience in these diseases. A range of mutant genes and environmental toxins have been implicated in the cause of neurodegenerative disorders but the mechanism remains largely unknown. At present, inflammation, a common denominator among the diverse list of neurodegenerative diseases, has been implicated as a critical mechanism that is responsible for the progressive nature of neurodegeneration. Since, at present, there are few therapies for the wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, scientists are still in search of new therapeutic approaches to the problem. An early contribution of neuroprotective and antiinflammatory strategies for these disorders seems particularly desirable because isolated treatments cannot be effective. In this contest, marijuana derivatives have attracted special interest, although these compounds have always raised several practical and ethical problems for their potential abuse. Nevertheless, among Cannabis compounds, cannabidiol (CBD), which lacks any unwanted psychotropic effect, may represent a very promising agent with the highest prospect for therapeutic use.

  20. A promising high-energy-density material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenquan; Zhang, Jiaheng; Deng, Mucong; Qi, Xiujuan; Nie, Fude; Zhang, Qinghua

    2017-08-03

    High-energy density materials represent a significant class of advanced materials and have been the focus of energetic materials community. The main challenge in this field is to design and synthesize energetic compounds with a highest possible density and a maximum possible chemical stability. Here we show an energetic compound, [2,2'-bi(1,3,4-oxadiazole)]-5,5'-dinitramide, is synthesized through a two-step reaction from commercially available reagents. It exhibits a surprisingly high density (1.99 g cm -3 at 298 K), poor solubility in water and most organic solvents, decent thermal stability, a positive heat of formation and excellent detonation properties. The solid-state structural features of the synthesized compound are also investigated via X-ray diffraction and several theoretical techniques. The energetic and sensitivity properties of the explosive compound are similar to those of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12-(hexanitrohexaaza)cyclododecane (CL-20), and the developed compound shows a great promise for potential applications as a high-energy density material.High energy density materials are of interest, but density is the limiting factor for many organic compounds. Here the authors show the formation of a high density energetic compound from a two-step reaction between commercially available compounds that exhibit good heat thermal stability and detonation properties.

  1. The Renewed Promise of Medical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary The promise of the field of Medical Informatics has been great and its impact has been significant. In 1999, the Yearbook editors of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) - also the authors of the present paper - sought to assess this impact by selecting a number of seminal papers in the field, and asking experts to comment on these articles. In particular, it was requested whether and how the expectations, represented by these papers, had been fulfilled since their publication several decades earlier. Each expert was also invited to comment on what might be expected in the future. In the present paper, these areas are briefly reviewed again. Where did these early papers have an impact and where were they not as successful as originally expected? It should be noted that the extraordinary developments in computer technology observed in the last two decades could not have been foreseen by these early researchers. In closing, some of the possibilities and limitations of research in medical informatics are outlined in the context of a framework that considers six levels of computer applications in medicine and health care. For each level, some predictions are made for the future, concluded with thoughts on fruitful areas for ongoing research in the field. PMID:27199195

  2. The Renewed Promise of Medical Informatics.

    PubMed

    van Bemmel, J H; McCray, A T

    2016-05-20

    The promise of the field of Medical Informatics has been great and its impact has been significant. In 1999, the Yearbook editors of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) - also the authors of the present paper - sought to assess this impact by selecting a number of seminal papers in the field, and asking experts to comment on these articles. In particular, it was requested whether and how the expectations, represented by these papers, had been fulfilled since their publication several decades earlier. Each expert was also invited to comment on what might be expected in the future. In the present paper, these areas are briefly reviewed again. Where did these early papers have an impact and where were they not as successful as originally expected? It should be noted that the extraordinary developments in computer technology observed in the last two decades could not have been foreseen by these early researchers. In closing, some of the possibilities and limitations of research in medical informatics are outlined in the context of a framework that considers six levels of computer applications in medicine and health care. For each level, some predictions are made for the future, concluded with thoughts on fruitful areas for ongoing research in the field.

  3. The promise of Lean in health care.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, John S; Berry, Leonard L

    2013-01-01

    An urgent need in American health care is improving quality and efficiency while controlling costs. One promising management approach implemented by some leading health care institutions is Lean, a quality improvement philosophy and set of principles originated by the Toyota Motor Company. Health care cases reveal that Lean is as applicable in complex knowledge work as it is in assembly-line manufacturing. When well executed, Lean transforms how an organization works and creates an insatiable quest for improvement. In this article, we define Lean and present 6 principles that constitute the essential dynamic of Lean management: attitude of continuous improvement, value creation, unity of purpose, respect for front-line workers, visual tracking, and flexible regimentation. Health care case studies illustrate each principle. The goal of this article is to provide a template for health care leaders to use in considering the implementation of the Lean management system or in assessing the current state of implementation in their organizations. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ATOTA-a very promising green fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, Hung The

    Despite the fact that fluorescence community nowadays has invested in developing near-infrared probes, green fluorescence dyes like fluorescein and substitutes are still among the most widely used fluorophores for labeling in cellular imaging and biomedical research. Trioxatriangulenium dye ATOTA + is a very promising green fluorophore with high extinction coefficient and outstanding fluorescence quantum yield. This study focuses on characterizing ATOTA+'s fundamental spectroscopic properties, including fluorescence and orientation of the transition moments. ATOTA's aggregation in aqueous solution and lipid bilayer membrane are also investigated. ATOTA+ has absorption maxima between 470 nm and 476 nm and emission maxima between 496 nm and 511 nm depending on the solvent. The molar extinction coefficient varies from 135,000 mol-1cm-1 in nonpolar dichloromethane to above 90,000 mol-1cm-1 in polar solvents such as methanol. The quantum yield of ATOTA+ is close to 1 in nonpolar DCM and decreases to 0.44 in polar DMF. ATOTA+'s fluorescence lifetimes vary between 3.25 ns in aprotic low polarity triacetin to 1.66 ns in polar DMF. Furthermore, both radiative and non-radiative rates are affected by solvent polarity. ATOTA+ has very low water solubility due to the presence of 6 diethyl substitutions, and forms H-aggregates with a blue-shifted absorption maxima around 450 nm and red-shifted emission maxima of 580 nm respectively with fluorescence lifetime above 20 ns. The excitation anisotropy approaches 0.35 at red edge of the absorption spectrum and shape of polarization spectrum suggests the presence of overlapping transition moments in a S0-S1 band which is confirmed by linear dichroism in stretched PVA film. In DMPC lipid vesicles, ATOTA + forms a tight ion pair with a counter anion and localizes in the hydrocarbon interior. Overall we conclude that ATOTA+ will be a highly useful and superior member of the green fluorophore family.

  5. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  6. Promises of advanced technology realized at Martin

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, R.

    1996-09-01

    The 2,488-MW Martin station is a gas/oil-fired facility that embodies today`s demand for flexible operations, technological advances, and reduced production costs. Martin station first rose up from the Everglades in the early 1980s, with the construction of two 814-MW oil-fired steam plants, Units 1 and 2. Natural-gas-firing capability was added to the balanced-draft, natural-circulation boilers in 1986, increasing the station`s fuel flexibility. Martin then leaped into the headlines in the early 1990s when it added combined-cycle (CC) Units 3 and 4. With this 860-MW expansion, FP and L boldly became the fleet leader for the advanced, 2350F-class 7FA gas turbines.more » Further pushing he technology envelope, the CC includes a three-pressure reheat steam system that raises net plant efficiency for Units 3 and 4 to 54%, on a lower-heating-value (LHV) basis. Incorporating the reheat cycle required significant redesign of the gas-turbine/heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) train, in order to maintain a rapid startup capability without exceeding metallurgical limits. Perhaps even more important than the technological achievements, Martin stands out from the crowd for its people power, which ensured that the promises of advanced technology actually came to fruition. This station`s aggressive, empowered O and M team shows that you can pioneer technology, reduce operating costs, and deliver high availability--all at the same time.« less

  7. Disruption of rcsB by a duplicated sequence in a curli-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 results in differential gene expression in relation to biofilm formation, stress responses and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Bayles, D O; Alt, D P; Looft, T; Brunelle, B W; Stasko, J A

    2017-03-08

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) strain 86-24, linked to a 1986 disease outbreak, displays curli- and biofilm-negative phenotypes that are correlated with the lack of Congo red (CR) binding and formation of white colonies (CR - ) on a CR-containing medium. However, on a CR medium this strain produces red isolates (CR + ) capable of producing curli fimbriae and biofilms. To identify genes controlling differential expression of curli fimbriae and biofilm formation, the RNA-Seq profile of a CR + isolate was compared to the CR - parental isolate. Of the 242 genes expressed differentially in the CR + isolate, 201 genes encoded proteins of known functions while the remaining 41 encoded hypothetical proteins. Among the genes with known functions, 149 were down- and 52 were up-regulated. Some of the upregulated genes were linked to biofilm formation through biosynthesis of curli fimbriae and flagella. The genes encoding transcriptional regulators, such as CsgD, QseB, YkgK, YdeH, Bdm, CspD, BssR and FlhDC, which modulate biofilm formation, were significantly altered in their expression. Several genes of the envelope stress (cpxP), heat shock (rpoH, htpX, degP), oxidative stress (ahpC, katE), nutrient limitation stress (phoB-phoR and pst) response pathways, and amino acid metabolism were downregulated in the CR + isolate. Many genes mediating acid resistance and colanic acid biosynthesis, which influence biofilm formation directly or indirectly, were also down-regulated. Comparative genomics of CR + and CR - isolates revealed the presence of a short duplicated sequence in the rcsB gene of the CR + isolate. The alignment of the amino acid sequences of RcsB of the two isolates showed truncation of RcsB in the CR + isolate at the insertion site of the duplicated sequence. Complementation of CR + isolate with rcsB of the CR - parent restored parental phenotypes to the CR + isolate. The results of this study indicate that RcsB is a global regulator affecting bacterial survival in

  8. Functionalised particles using dry powder coating in pharmaceutical drug delivery: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Dahmash, Eman Z; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2015-01-01

    Production of functionalised particles using dry powder coating is a one-step, environmentally friendly process that paves the way for the development of particles with targeted properties and diverse functionalities. Applying the first principles in physical science for powders, fine guest particles can be homogeneously dispersed over the surface of larger host particles to develop functionalised particles. Multiple functionalities can be modified including: flowability, dispersibility, fluidisation, homogeneity, content uniformity and dissolution profile. The current publication seeks to understand the fundamental underpinning principles and science governing dry coating process, evaluate key technologies developed to produce functionalised particles along with outlining their advantages, limitations and applications and discusses in detail the resultant functionalities and their applications. Dry particle coating is a promising solvent-free manufacturing technology to produce particles with targeted functionalities. Progress within this area requires the development of continuous processing devices that can overcome challenges encountered with current technologies such as heat generation and particle attrition. Growth within this field requires extensive research to further understand the impact of process design and material properties on resultant functionalities.

  9. The Promise of a College Scholarship Transforms a District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Gary W.; Ash, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Promise programs are place-based scholarships, generally tied to a city or school district, offering near-universal access to all living in the "place." While Promise programs share some characteristics with other scholarship programs, they're unique because they seek to change communities and schools. Underlying such promise programs is…

  10. Geochemical effects of CO2 injection on produced water chemistry at an enhanced oil recovery site in the Permian Basin of northwest Texas, USA: Preliminary geochemical and Li isotope results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, S.; Gardiner, J.; Phan, T. T.; Macpherson, G. L.; Diehl, J. R.; Lopano, C. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Capo, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of supercritical CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) presents an opportunity to evaluate the effects of CO2 on reservoir properties and formation waters during geologic carbon sequestration. Produced water from oil wells tapping a carbonate-hosted reservoir at an active EOR site in the Permian Basin of Texas both before and after injection were sampled to evaluate geochemical and isotopic changes associated with water-rock-CO2 interaction. Produced waters from the carbonate reservoir rock are Na-Cl brines with TDS levels of 16.5-34 g/L and detectable H2S. These brines are potentially diluted with shallow groundwater from earlier EOR water flooding. Initial lithium isotope data (δ7Li) from pre-injection produced water in the EOR field fall within the range of Gulf of Mexico Coastal sedimentary basin and Appalachian basin values (Macpherson et al., 2014, Geofluids, doi: 10.1111/gfl.12084). Pre-injection produced water 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70788-0.70795) are consistent with mid-late Permian seawater/carbonate. CO2 injection took place in October 2013, and four of the wells sampled in May 2014 showed CO2 breakthrough. Preliminary comparison of pre- and post-injection produced waters indicates no significant changes in the major inorganic constituents following breakthrough, other than a possible drop in K concentration. Trace element and isotope data from pre- and post-breakthrough wells are currently being evaluated and will be presented.

  11. A promising new treatment for solar lentigines.

    PubMed

    Colby, S I; Schwartzel, E H; Huber, F J; Highton, A; Altman, D J; Epinette, W W; Lyon, E

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this open-label study was to determine the adverse event rate of topical 4HA/tretinoin when used twice daily for up to 24 weeks with concomitant sunscreen in the treatment of solar lentigines and related hyperpigmented lesions. There were two treatment areas: bilateral dorsal forearms, including the back of the hands; and the face, including the forehead and cheek areas. Each treatment area had a target lesion at least 5 mm in diameter and was moderately darker than the surrounding skin. A nine-point bipolar scale was used for evaluation of Target Lesion Pigmentation (0 = extremely lighter than pigment of the surrounding skin, 4 = equal with pigment of surrounding skin, 8 = extremely darker than pigment of surrounding skin). The other solar lentigines present in the treatment areas also had to have an overall pigmentation grade of at least Grade 6. Twice daily applications to individual lesions in each treatment area were made for up to 24 weeks followed by a 4-week follow-up phase. Sunscreen applications (sunscreen with sun protection factor (SPF) 25 or greater) were made every morning and reapplied after six hours if additional sun exposure was expected. Clinical evaluations were performed at weeks 0, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 28. The clinical signs of Target Lesion Pigmentation and Overall Lesion Pigmentation were evaluated at each visit. A total of 96 subjects were enrolled at four study centers; 77 (80%) subjects completed the study. Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) for 4HA/tretinoin included erythema, burning/stinging/tingling, desquamation, pruritus, skin irritation, halo hypopigmentation and hypopigmentation. Five (5%) subjects discontinued from the study due to adverse events considered to be related to study medication. When used with sunscreen of SPF 25 or greater, 4HA/tretinoin was safe and well tolerated and did not produce any unexpected or unusual adverse events.

  12. EXPERT SYSTEMS SHOW PROMISE FOR CUSTOMER INQUIRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article describes results of an agreement between the North Penn Water Authority in Lansdale, Pa., and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Drinking Water Research Division, Cincinnati, Ohio, to study use of expert systems technology in a water utility. The threeyear stud...

  13. The promise and peril of chemical probes

    PubMed Central

    Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Audia, James E; Austin, Christopher; Baell, Jonathan; Bennett, Jonathan; Blagg, Julian; Bountra, Chas; Brennan, Paul E; Brown, Peter J; Bunnage, Mark E; Buser-Doepner, Carolyn; Campbell, Robert M; Carter, Adrian J; Cohen, Philip; Copeland, Robert A; Cravatt, Ben; Dahlin, Jayme L; Dhanak, Dashyant; Frederiksen, Mathias; Frye, Stephen V; Gray, Nathanael; Grimshaw, Charles E; Hepworth, David; Howe, Trevor; Huber, Kilian V M; Jin, Jian; Knapp, Stefan; Kotz, Joanne D; Kruger, Ryan G; Lowe, Derek; Mader, Mary M; Marsden, Brian; Mueller-Fahrnow, Anke; Müller, Susanne; O'Hagan, Ronan C; Overington, John P; Owen, Dafydd R; Rosenberg, Saul H; Ross, Ruth; Roth, Bryan; Schapira, Matthieu; Schreiber, Stuart L; Shoichet, Brian; Sundström, Michael; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Taunton, Jack; Toledo-Sherman, Leticia; Walpole, Chris; Walters, Michael A; Willson, Timothy M; Workman, Paul; Young, Robert N; Zuercher, William J

    2016-01-01

    Chemical probes are powerful reagents with increasing impacts on biomedical research. However, probes of poor quality or that are used incorrectly generate misleading results. To help address these shortcomings, we will create a community-driven wiki resource to improve quality and convey current best practice. PMID:26196764

  14. Examining the Culture of Poverty: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Stapleton, Joy; Ledford, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by preservice teachers' perceptions that diversity issues such as poverty would not affect their teaching, professors in 1 southeastern U.S. elementary teacher-preparation program took action, which resulted in this examination of the culture of poverty and the identification of strategies to best serve children living in poverty. The…

  15. New Teacher Distribution Methods Hold Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    With effective teaching a top policy priority, certain school districts, the federal government, and nonprofit groups are renewing efforts to pilot and study strategies for pairing effective teachers with students in low-performing, high-poverty schools. The results could offer clues about how to rectify an imbalance in the distribution of the…

  16. Rose garden promises of intelligent tutoring systems: Blossom or thorn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shute, Valerie J.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) have been in existence for over a decade. However, few controlled evaluation studies have been conducted comparing the effectiveness of these systems to more traditional instruction methods. Two main promises of ITSs are examined: (1) Engender more effective and efficient learning in relation to traditional formats; and (2) Reduce the range of learning outcome measures where a majority of individuals are elevated to high performance levels. Bloom (1984) has referred to these as the two sigma problem; to achieve two standard deviation improvements with tutoring over traditional instruction methods. Four ITSs are discussed in relation to the two promises. These tutors have undergone systematic, controlled evaluations: (1) The LISP tutor (Anderson Farrell and Sauers, 1984); (2) Smithtown (Shute and Glaser, in press); (3) Sherlock (Lesgold, Lajoie, Bunzo and Eggan, 1990); and (4) The Pascal ITS (Bonar, Cunningham, Beatty and Well, 1988). Results show that these four tutors do accelerate learning with no degradation in final outcome. Suggestions for improvements to the design and evaluation of ITSs are discussed.

  17. 7 T renal MRI: challenges and promises.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Anneloes; Hoogduin, Johannes M; Blankestijn, Peter J; Li, Xiufeng; Luijten, Peter R; Metzger, Gregory J; Raaijmakers, Alexander J E; Umutlu, Lale; Visser, Fredy; Leiner, Tim

    2016-06-01

    The progression to 7 Tesla (7 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields promises of substantial increase in signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. This increase can be traded off to increase image spatial resolution or to decrease acquisition time. However, renal 7 T MRI remains challenging due to inhomogeneity of the radiofrequency field and due to specific absorption rate (SAR) constraints. A number of studies has been published in the field of renal 7 T imaging. While the focus initially was on anatomic imaging and renal MR angiography, later studies have explored renal functional imaging. Although anatomic imaging remains somewhat limited by inhomogeneous excitation and SAR constraints, functional imaging results are promising. The increased SNR at 7 T has been particularly advantageous for blood oxygen level-dependent and arterial spin labelling MRI, as well as sodium MR imaging, thanks to changes in field-strength-dependent magnetic properties. Here, we provide an overview of the currently available literature on renal 7 T MRI. In addition, we provide a brief overview of challenges and opportunities in renal 7 T MR imaging.

  18. Improving Community College Student Persistence: An Investigation of Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Mary Beth McJunkin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, community colleges have garnered national attention in terms of their potential to produce graduates and assist in the revitalization of the national economy. This has resulted in an increased need for both community college researchers and practitioners to understand more fully the factors that influence student persistence. The…

  19. Generative models for network neuroscience: prospects and promise

    PubMed Central

    Betzel, Richard F.

    2017-01-01

    Network neuroscience is the emerging discipline concerned with investigating the complex patterns of interconnections found in neural systems, and identifying principles with which to understand them. Within this discipline, one particularly powerful approach is network generative modelling, in which wiring rules are algorithmically implemented to produce synthetic network architectures with the same properties as observed in empirical network data. Successful models can highlight the principles by which a network is organized and potentially uncover the mechanisms by which it grows and develops. Here, we review the prospects and promise of generative models for network neuroscience. We begin with a primer on network generative models, with a discussion of compressibility and predictability, and utility in intuiting mechanisms, followed by a short history on their use in network science, broadly. We then discuss generative models in practice and application, paying particular attention to the critical need for cross-validation. Next, we review generative models of biological neural networks, both at the cellular and large-scale level, and across a variety of species including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, mouse, rat, cat, macaque and human. We offer a careful treatment of a few relevant distinctions, including differences between generative models and null models, sufficiency and redundancy, inferring and claiming mechanism, and functional and structural connectivity. We close with a discussion of future directions, outlining exciting frontiers both in empirical data collection efforts as well as in method and theory development that, together, further the utility of the generative network modelling approach for network neuroscience. PMID:29187640

  20. Glue septal ablation: A promising alternative to alcohol septal ablation

    PubMed Central

    Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined as myocardial hypertrophy in the absence of another cardiac or systemic disease capable of producing the magnitude of present hypertrophy. In about 70% of patients with HCM, there is left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction (LVOTO) and this is known as obstructive type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Cases refractory to medical treatment have had two options either surgical septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation (ASA) to alleviate LVOT gradient. ASA may cause some life-threatening complications including conduction disturbances and complete heart block, hemodynamic compromise, ventricular arrhythmias, distant and massive myocardial necrosis. Glue septal ablation (GSA) is a promising technique for the treatment of HOCM. Glue seems to be superior to alcohol due to some intrinsic advantageous properties of glue such as immediate polymerization which prevents the leak into the left anterior descending coronary artery and it is particularly useful in patients with collaterals to the right coronary artery in whom alcohol ablation is contraindicated. In our experience, GSA is effective and also a safe technique without significant complications. GSA decreases LVOT gradient immediately after the procedure and this reduction persists during 12 months of follow-up. It improves New York Heart Association functional capacity and decrease interventricular septal wall thickness. Further studies are needed in order to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of this technique. PMID:27011786

  1. The Promise of Antiretrovirals for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Flash, Charlene; Krakower, Douglas; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    With an estimated 2.6 million new HIV infections diagnosed annually, the world needs new prevention strategies to partner with condom use, harm reduction approaches for injection drug users, and male circumcision. Antiretrovirals can reduce the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission and limit HIV acquisition after occupational exposure. Macaque models and clinical trials demonstrate efficacy of oral or topical antiretrovirals used prior to HIV exposure to prevent HIV transmission, ie pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Early initiation of effective HIV treatment in serodiscordant couples results in a 96% decrease in HIV transmission. HIV testing to determine serostatus and identify undiagnosed persons is foundational to these approaches. The relative efficacy of different approaches, adherence, cost and long-term safety will affect uptake and impact of these strategies. Ongoing research will help characterize the role for oral and topical formulations and help quantify potential benefits in sub-populations at risk for HIV acquisition. PMID:22351302

  2. Meat analogues: Health promising sustainable meat substitutes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Mehta, Nitin; Singh, Parminder; Malav, O P; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2017-03-24

    There is a scarcity of protein of high biological value due to rapid increase in the world population and limited natural resources. Meat is a good source of protein of high biological value but converting the vegetable protein into animal protein is not economical. There is a trend of production of healthy and delicious meat free food for satisfaction of vegetarian and personal well beings. This resulted in increasing use of low cost vegetable protein such as textured soy protein, mushroom, wheat gluten, pulses etc as a substitute for animal-protein. These simulated meat-like products, with similar texture, flavor, color, and nutritive value can be substituted directly for meat to all sections of the society.

  3. Gene therapy: a promising approach to treating spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Pádraig J; Iremonger, Kayleigh; Karyka, Evangelia; Herranz-Martín, Saúl; Shum, Ka-To; Tam, Janice Kal Van; Azzouz, Mimoun

    2014-07-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe autosomal recessive disease caused by a genetic defect in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which encodes SMN, a protein widely expressed in all eukaryotic cells. Depletion of the SMN protein causes muscle weakness and progressive loss of movement in SMA patients. The field of gene therapy has made major advances over the past decade, and gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) by in vivo or ex vivo techniques is a rapidly emerging field in neuroscience. Despite Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis being among the most common neurodegenerative diseases in humans and attractive targets for treatment development, their multifactorial origin and complicated genetics make them less amenable to gene therapy. Monogenic disorders resulting from modifications in a single gene, such as SMA, prove more favorable and have been at the fore of this evolution of potential gene therapies, and results to date have been promising at least. With the estimated number of monogenic diseases standing in the thousands, elucidating a therapeutic target for one could have major implications for many more. Recent progress has brought about the commercialization of the first gene therapies for diseases, such as pancreatitis in the form of Glybera, with the potential for other monogenic disease therapies to follow suit. While much research has been carried out, there are many limiting factors that can halt or impede translation of therapies from the bench to the clinic. This review will look at both recent advances and encountered impediments in terms of SMA and endeavor to highlight the promising results that may be applicable to various associated diseases and also discuss the potential to overcome present limitations.

  4. Natural Antioxidants and Hypertension: Promise and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kizhakekuttu, Tinoy J.; Widlansky, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension reigns as a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) has emerged as a central common pathway by which disparate influences may induce and exacerbate hypertension. Potential sources of excessive ROS in hypertension include NADPH oxidase, mitochondria, xanthine oxidase, endothelium-derived NO synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase 1 and 2, cytochrome P450 epoxygenase and transition metals. While a significant body of epidemiological and clinical data suggests that antioxidant rich diets reduce blood pressure and cardiovascular risk, randomized trials and population studies using natural antioxidants have yielded disappointing results. The reasons behind this lack of efficacy are not completely clear, but likely include a combination of 1) ineffective dosing regimens 2) the potential pro-oxidant capacity of some of these agents 3) selection of subjects less likely to benefit from antioxidant therapy (too healthy or too sick), 4) inefficiency of non-specific quenching of prevalent ROS versus prevention of excessive ROS production. Commonly used antioxidants include Vitamins A, C and E, L-arginine, flavanoids, and mitochondria targeted agents, Coenzyme Q10, acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid. Various reasons, including incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms of action of these agents, lack of target specificity, and potential inter-individual differences in therapeutic efficacy preclude us from recommending any specific natural antioxidant for antihypertensive therapy at this time. This review focuses on recent literature regarding above mentioned issues evaluating naturally occurring antioxidants with respect to their impact on hypertension. PMID:20370791

  5. Multivariate meta-analysis: potential and promise.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dan; Riley, Richard; White, Ian R

    2011-09-10

    The multivariate random effects model is a generalization of the standard univariate model. Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming more commonly used and the techniques and related computer software, although continually under development, are now in place. In order to raise awareness of the multivariate methods, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages, we organized a one day 'Multivariate meta-analysis' event at the Royal Statistical Society. In addition to disseminating the most recent developments, we also received an abundance of comments, concerns, insights, critiques and encouragement. This article provides a balanced account of the day's discourse. By giving others the opportunity to respond to our assessment, we hope to ensure that the various view points and opinions are aired before multivariate meta-analysis simply becomes another widely used de facto method without any proper consideration of it by the medical statistics community. We describe the areas of application that multivariate meta-analysis has found, the methods available, the difficulties typically encountered and the arguments for and against the multivariate methods, using four representative but contrasting examples. We conclude that the multivariate methods can be useful, and in particular can provide estimates with better statistical properties, but also that these benefits come at the price of making more assumptions which do not result in better inference in every case. Although there is evidence that multivariate meta-analysis has considerable potential, it must be even more carefully applied than its univariate counterpart in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Multivariate meta-analysis: Potential and promise

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Dan; Riley, Richard; White, Ian R

    2011-01-01

    The multivariate random effects model is a generalization of the standard univariate model. Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming more commonly used and the techniques and related computer software, although continually under development, are now in place. In order to raise awareness of the multivariate methods, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages, we organized a one day ‘Multivariate meta-analysis’ event at the Royal Statistical Society. In addition to disseminating the most recent developments, we also received an abundance of comments, concerns, insights, critiques and encouragement. This article provides a balanced account of the day's discourse. By giving others the opportunity to respond to our assessment, we hope to ensure that the various view points and opinions are aired before multivariate meta-analysis simply becomes another widely used de facto method without any proper consideration of it by the medical statistics community. We describe the areas of application that multivariate meta-analysis has found, the methods available, the difficulties typically encountered and the arguments for and against the multivariate methods, using four representative but contrasting examples. We conclude that the multivariate methods can be useful, and in particular can provide estimates with better statistical properties, but also that these benefits come at the price of making more assumptions which do not result in better inference in every case. Although there is evidence that multivariate meta-analysis has considerable potential, it must be even more carefully applied than its univariate counterpart in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21268052

  7. Promises and Limitations of RFI Canceling Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. R.

    2004-05-01

    Recent years have seen a kindling of interest in signal processing solutions to radio frequency interference (RFI) to astronomical observations. Over a dozen refereed papers and several dozen conference presentations on the subject are now in the astronomical and engineering literature. This work builds on several decades of signal processing development in the fields of acoustics and communications for which there are a number of standard texts. Radio astronomy has the unique requirement that interference must be suppressed below very low detection thresholds before the scientific results of observations can be considered reliable. These detection thresholds are several orders of magnitude lower than is typical of communications signal levels. Initial trials of coherent cancellation of TV and satellite signals and blanking of pulsed interference, such as radar and aircraft signals, are encouraging, but the signal processing power required for useful bandwidths is sobering. Simultaneous cancellation of many signals and compensation for multi-path propagation effects of distant transmitters add to the processing load and are challenges that remain to be tackled. Spectrum management is becoming increasingly complex with greater emphasis on spectrum sharing in the time and spacial domains. This requires a better understanding of long-distance propagation effects and the techniques and economics of signal separation to guide the protection of the scientific use of the radio spectrum. The traditional concept of frequency allocations will be only one aspect of spectrum management in the coming years. Active users of the spectrum will expect us to devote some of our engineering and managerial resources to spectrum sharing agreements, Hence, we need to continually build a firm technical footing upon which to base our negotiating positions. The NRAO is operated for the National Science Foundation (NSF) by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), under a cooperative agreement.

  8. Pityriasis rubra pilaris: evolution of challenges in promising treatment options.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Verma, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis that is well recognized across the globe. Erythroderma is a common presentation. A precise diagnosis of pityriasis rubra pilaris is based on morphologic features and is classified into 6 types: classic adult onset (type I), atypical adult (type II), classic juvenile (type III), circumscribed juvenile (type IV), atypical juvenile (type V), and human immunodeficiency virus-associated (type VI). Several conventional systemic and/or topical treatments are currently in use. Largely, their results are unsatisfactory and limited by long-term toxicity. The authors investigate the efficacy of a wide spectrum of drugs by examining historical (archive) and promising (modern) treatment modalities for the treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris.

  9. Interactions between 4-aminoquinoline and heme: Promising mechanism against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, Guilherme Curty; Borges, Júlio Cesar; Calvet, Claudia Magalhães; de Araújo, Humberto Pinheiro; Zuma, Aline Araujo; do Nascimento, Samara Braga; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Bernardino, Alice Maria Rolim; Pereira, Mirian Claudia de Souza; Bourguignon, Saulo Cabral

    2016-12-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The current drugs used to treat this disease have limited efficacy and produce severe side effects. Quinolines, nitrogen heterocycle compounds that form complexes with heme, have a broad spectrum of antiprotozoal activity and are a promising class of new compounds for Chagas disease chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the activity of a series of 4-arylaminoquinoline-3-carbonitrile derivatives against all forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. Compound 1g showed promising activity against epimastigote forms when combined with hemin (IC50<1 μM), with better performance than benznidazole, the reference drug. This compound also inhibited the viability of trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The potency of 1g in combination with heme was enhanced against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes, suggesting a similar mechanism of action that occurs in Plasmodium spp. The addition of hemin to the culture medium increased trypanocidal activity of analog 1g without changing the cytotoxicity of the host cell, reaching an IC50 of 11.7 μM for trypomastigotes. The mechanism of action was demonstrated by the interaction of compound 1g with hemin in solution and prevention of heme peroxidation. Compound 1g and heme treatment induced alterations of the mitochondrion-kinetoplast complex in epimastigotes and trypomastigotes and also, accumulation of electron-dense deposits in amastigotes as visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The trypanocidal activity of 4-aminoquinolines and the elucidation of the mechanism involving interaction with heme is a neglected field of research, given the parasite's lack of heme biosynthetic pathway and the importance of this cofactor for parasite survival and growth. The results of this study can improve and guide rational drug development and combination treatment strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  10. Maternity care and liability: least promising policy strategies for improvement.

    PubMed

    Sakala, Carol; Yang, Y Tony; Corry, Maureen P

    2013-01-01

    The present liability system is not serving well childbearing women and newborns, maternity care clinicians, or those who pay for maternity care. Examination of evidence about the impact of this system on maternity care led us to identify seven aims for a high-functioning liability system in this clinical context. Herein, we identify policy strategies that are unlikely to meet the proposed criteria and contribute to needed improvements. A companion paper considers more promising strategies. We considered whether 25 strategies that have been used or proposed for improvement have met or could meet the seven aims. We used a best available evidence approach and drew on more recent empirical legal studies and health services research about maternity care and liability, when available, and considered other studies when unavailable. Fifteen strategies seem to have little potential to improve liability matters in maternity care. Despite support for capping non-economic damages, a series of studies has found a modest impact at best on maternity care. Maternity-specific studies also do not lend support to tort reforms collectively and several other specific tort reforms. Some tort alternative and liability insurance reform strategies have narrow aims and are not policy priorities. Caps on non-economic damages and other tort reforms have narrow aims and have been marginally effective at best in the context of maternity care. Several other possible reforms similarly are not promising. Continued focus on these strategies is unlikely to result in the high-performing liability system that maternity care stakeholders need. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The PCORI Engagement Rubric: Promising Practices for Partnering in Research

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Susan; Schrandt, Suzanne; Forsythe, Laura; Hilliard, Tandrea S.; Paez, Kathryn A.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE Engaging patients, caregivers, and other health care stakeholders as partners in planning, conducting, and disseminating research is a promising way to improve clinical decision making and outcomes. Many researchers, patients, and other stakeholders, however, lack clarity about when and how to engage as partners within the clinical research process. To address the need for guidance on creating meaningful stakeholder partnerships in patient-centered clinical comparative effectiveness research, the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) developed the PCORI Engagement Rubric (Rubric). METHODS PCORI developed the Rubric drawing from a synthesis of the literature, a qualitative study with patients, a targeted review of engagement plans from PCORI-funded project applications, and a moderated discussion and review with PCORI’s Advisory Panel on Patient Engagement. RESULTS The Rubric provides a framework for operationalizing engagement to incorporate patients and other stakeholders in all phases of research. It includes: principles of engagement; definitions of stakeholder types; key considerations for planning, conducting, and disseminating engaged research; potential engagement activities; and examples of promising practices from PCORI-funded projects. CONCLUSIONS PCORI designed the Rubric to illustrate opportunities for engagement to researchers interested in applying for PCORI funding and to patients and other stakeholders interested in greater involvement in research. By encouraging PCORI applicants, awardees, and others to apply the rubric, PCORI hopes to shift the research paradigm from one of conducting research on patients as subjects to a pursuit carried out in collaboration with patients and other stakeholders to better reflect the values, preferences, and outcomes that matter to the patient community. PMID:28289118

  12. The Struggle between Conflicting Beliefs: On the Promise of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Ylva

    2006-01-01

    Education is thought to provide a certain outcome--a "promise". I argue that a promise that education will counteract cultural and social disintegration involves a risk of engendering narrow social and cultural incorporation. On what reasonable basis could education contribute to civic life, when contemporary Western society is represented by a…

  13. Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…

  14. Solutions for Failing High Schools: Converging Visions and Promising Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legters, Nettie; Balfanz, Robert; McPartland, James

    Promising solutions to the failings of traditional comprehensive high schools were reviewed to identify basic principles and strategies for improving high schools nationwide. Selected research studies, policy documents, and promising high school programs were reviewed. The review revealed the following principles for helping high schools better…

  15. Hydrogen: A Promising Fuel and Energy Storage Solution - Continuum

    Science.gov Websites

    Magazine | NREL Hydrogen: A Promising Fuel and Energy Storage Solution Fuel cell electric Ainscough, NREL Hydrogen: A Promising Fuel and Energy Storage Solution Electrolysis-generated hydrogen may provide a solution to fluctuations in renewable-sourced energy. As electricity from renewable resources

  16. Method of producing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-12-26

    A method of producing hydrogen is disclosed and which includes providing a first composition; providing a second composition; reacting the first and second compositions together to produce a chemical hydride; providing a liquid and reacting the chemical hydride with the liquid in a manner to produce a high pressure hydrogen gas and a byproduct which includes the first composition; and reusing the first composition formed as a byproduct in a subsequent chemical reaction to form additional chemical hydride.

  17. Quantifying Neonatal Sucking Performance: Promise of New Methods

    PubMed Central

    Capilouto, Gilson J.; Cunningham, Tommy J.; Mullineaux, David R.; Tamilia, Eleonora; Papadelis, Christos; Giannone, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal feeding has been traditionally understudied so guidelines and evidence-based support for common feeding practices are limited. A major contributing factor to the paucity of evidence-based practice in this area has been the lack of simple-to-use, low-cost tools for monitoring sucking performance. We describe new methods for quantifying neonatal sucking performance that hold significant clinical and research promise. We present early results from an ongoing study investigating neonatal sucking as a marker of risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We include quantitative measures of sucking performance to better understand how movement variability evolves during skill acquisition. Results showed the coefficient of variation of suck duration was significantly different between preterm neonates at high risk for developmental concerns (HRPT) and preterm neonates at low risk for developmental concerns (LRPT). For HRPT, results indicated the coefficient of variation of suck smoothness increased from initial feeding to discharge and remained significantly greater than healthy full-term newborns (FT) at discharge. There was no significant difference in our measures between FT and LRPT at discharge. Our findings highlight the need to include neonatal sucking assessment as part of routine clinical care in order to capture the relative risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at discharge. PMID:28324904

  18. Quantifying Neonatal Sucking Performance: Promise of New Methods.

    PubMed

    Capilouto, Gilson J; Cunningham, Tommy J; Mullineaux, David R; Tamilia, Eleonora; Papadelis, Christos; Giannone, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal feeding has been traditionally understudied so guidelines and evidence-based support for common feeding practices are limited. A major contributing factor to the paucity of evidence-based practice in this area has been the lack of simple-to-use, low-cost tools for monitoring sucking performance. We describe new methods for quantifying neonatal sucking performance that hold significant clinical and research promise. We present early results from an ongoing study investigating neonatal sucking as a marker of risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We include quantitative measures of sucking performance to better understand how movement variability evolves during skill acquisition. Results showed the coefficient of variation of suck duration was significantly different between preterm neonates at high risk for developmental concerns (HRPT) and preterm neonates at low risk for developmental concerns (LRPT). For HRPT, results indicated the coefficient of variation of suck smoothness increased from initial feeding to discharge and remained significantly greater than healthy full-term newborns (FT) at discharge. There was no significant difference in our measures between FT and LRPT at discharge. Our findings highlight the need to include neonatal sucking assessment as part of routine clinical care in order to capture the relative risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at discharge. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Pancreatic tumours produce neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, A M; Bryant, M G; Adrian, T E; Bloom, S R

    1981-04-01

    Tumour tissue may secrete substances which are not normally secreted by the original tissue. We have found that 6 out of 21 pancreatic tumours producing vasoactive intestinal peptide also produce neurotensin-like peptides. These are sometimes secreted and very high plasma levels of neurotensin-like immunoreactivity may be found in the circulation.

  20. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  1. Establishing an ISO 10001-based promise in inpatients care.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Ashiqur Rahman; Karapetrovic, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore ISO 10001:2007 in planning, designing and developing a customer satisfaction promise (CSP) intended for inpatients care. Through meetings and interviews with research participants, who included a program manager, unit managers and registered nurses, information about potential promises and their implementation was obtained and analyzed. A number of promises were drafted and one was finally selected to be developed as a CSP. Applying the standard required adaptation and novel interpretation. Additionally, ISO 10002:2004 (Clause 7) was used to design the feedback handling activities. A promise initially chosen for development turned out to be difficult to implement, experience that helped in selecting and developing the final promise. Research participants found the ISO 10001-based method useful and comprehensible. This paper presents a specific health care example of how to adapt a standard's guideline in establishing customer promises. The authors show how a promise can be used in alleviating an existing issue (i.e. communication between carers and patients). The learning can be beneficial in various health care settings. To the knowledge, this paper shows the first example of applying ISO 10001:2007 in a health care case. A few activities suggested by the standard are further detailed, and a new activity is introduced. The integrated use of ISO 10001:2007 and 10002:2004 is presented and how one can be "augmented" by the other is demonstrated.

  2. Prolonged Exposure Treatment of Chronic PTSD in Juvenile Sex Offenders: Promising Results from Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged exposure (PE) was used to treat chronic PTSD secondary to severe developmental trauma in two adolescent male sex offenders referred for residential sex offender treatment. Both youth were treatment resistant prior to initiation of PE and showed evidence of long-standing irritability and depression/anxiety. Clinical observation and…

  3. Beyond Boundaries: A Promising New Model for Security and Global Development. Carnegie Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theroux, Karen

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, a team of international security experts and researchers at the Henry L. Stimson Center launched an initiative to build an effective model for sustainable nonproliferation of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons. The project represented an exciting and innovative way of thinking about security: a dual-use approach that operated at…

  4. Novel Use of PIT Tags in Sea Cucumbers: Promising Results with the Commercial Species Cucumaria frondosa

    PubMed Central

    Gianasi, Bruno L.; Verkaik, Katie; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a reliable and innocuous mark-recapture method has limited studies that would provide essential information for the management of commercial sea cucumbers. Tagging sea cucumbers is notoriously difficult because of their plastic nature and autolysis capacities. The markers that have so far been tested, mainly on or through the body wall, were either lost rapidly or had major drawbacks (e.g. suitable only for batch identification, requiring complex analysis, causing infections, necrosis, behavioural changes and mortality). The present study explored the efficacy of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for individually marking sea cucumbers by assessing retention rates and long-term side effects of tags inserted in previously unstudied tissues/organs. Individuals of the species Cucumaria frondosa were tagged in the body wall, aquapharyngeal bulb and at the base of the oral tentacles. They were monitored closely for evidence of stress, infection, change in feeding and spawning behaviour and tag retention rate. Implanting the tag in an oral tentacle to reach the hydrovascular system of the aquapharyngeal bulb achieved the best retention rates in full-size individuals: from a maximum of 92% after 30 days to 68% at the end of the experimental period (300 days). Efficacy was lower in smaller individuals (84% after 30 d and 42% after 300 d). Following a slight increase in cloacal movements for 15 h post tagging, no side effect was noted in sea cucumbers tagged in the aquapharyngeal bulb via the tentacles. Feeding and spawning behaviours were not affected and no signs of infections or abnormal cell development in the vicinity of the tags were observed. This study indicates that marking sea cucumbers with 8.2 mm long PIT tags implanted via the oral tentacle is an effective technique, yielding relatively high retention rates over long periods without any detectable physiological or behavioural effects. PMID:26011165

  5. Promising results of cranberry in the prevention of oral Candida biofilms.

    PubMed

    Girardot, Marion; Guerineau, Amandine; Boudesocque, Leslie; Costa, Damien; Bazinet, Laurent; Enguehard-Gueiffier, Cécile; Imbert, Christine

    2014-04-01

    In the context of dental caries prevention by natural foodstuff sources, antifungal and antibiofilm activities of dry commercial extracts of cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) and two other red fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Malpighia punicifolia L.) were assessed on Candida albicans and Candida glabrata yeasts. When added to the culture medium, the cranberry extract displayed a significant anti-adhesion activity against Candida spp. when used at low concentrations. In addition, the pretreatment of surfaces with this extract induced an anti-adhesion activity mainly against C. glabrata yeasts and an antibiofilm activity against C. albicans. This activity was dependent on concentration, species, and strain. A phytochemical investigation bioguided by anti-adhesion tests against the two Candida species was carried out on crude cranberry juice to determine the active fractions. Three subfractions enriched in proanthocyanidins showed an anti-adhesion activity at low concentrations. This study investigated for the first time the interest of crude extracts of cranberry and cranberry juice fractions to prevent biofilms of C. glabrata. It highlighted the potency of consuming this fruit and using it as a source of anti-adhesion agents. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hispanic Students and the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program: Promising Results Extending to the Third College Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, Leticia; Denson, Nida; Hurtado, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Financing college is increasingly difficult for many college students and it can be especially difficult for low-income students. Using data from the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program, this study provides a portrait of the 1st and 3rd year experiences of a sample of both high achieving Hispanic scholarship recipients and non-recipients.…

  7. Assessing the Promise of Standards-Based Performance Evaluation for Principals: Results from a Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Steven Miller; Milanowski, Anthony; McKinney, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    Principals (N = 76) in a large western U.S. school district were randomly assigned to be evaluated using either a new standards-based system or to continue with the old system. It was hypothesized that principals evaluated with the new system would report clearer performance expectations, better feedback, greater fairness and system satisfaction,…

  8. Geothermal resource development for electric power generation in Indonesia: results and future promises

    SciTech Connect

    Sumitramihardja, A.; Robert, D.; Ibrahim, K.

    1986-07-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest developing countries in southeast Asia; therefore, energy demand tends to increase continuously. Fortunately, large amounts of energy resource potentials are available, among which is energy from geothermal resources. Some of these energy resources comprise exportable commodities such as oil, natural gas, and coal; others are for domestic consumption such as hydrothermal and geothermal energy. During the next several years the Indonesian government intends to accelerate development of nonexportable energies used to generate electrical power in order to save exportable energies that can bring foreign currencies. Therefore, geothermal has become a priority goal. Moreover, thismore » type of energy is of particular interest because Indonesia has a large geothermal energy potential related to the Circum-Pacific volcanic belts. These geothermal manifestations are spread throughout almost the entire archipelago, except the island of Kalimantan. Geothermal exploration in Indonesia began in 1929 when some shallow wells were drilled in Kamojang, West Java. Actual exploration for geothermal energy to generate electricity commenced in 1972. Preliminary reconnaissance surveys were made by the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia. In 1982, the state oil company, Pertamina, was placed in charge of exploration and development activities for geothermal energy in different fields, either by its own activities or in the form of joint-operation contracts with foreign companies. In addition, the state electrical company, PLN, is responsible for installing a power plant to generate and distribute electricity. Presently, several projects are at different stages of maturity. Some fields are in an exploration stage, and others are already developed.« less

  9. Gravitational-wave astronomy: delivering on the promises.

    PubMed

    Schutz, B F

    2018-05-28

    Now that LIGO and Virgo have begun to detect gravitational-wave events with regularity, the field of gravitational-wave astronomy is beginning to realize its promise. Binary black holes and, very recently, binary neutron stars have been observed, and we are already learning much from them. The future, with improved sensitivity, more detectors and detectors like LISA in different frequency bands, has even more promise to open a completely hidden side of the Universe to our exploration.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. Gravitational-wave astronomy: delivering on the promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, B. F.

    2018-05-01

    Now that LIGO and Virgo have begun to detect gravitational-wave events with regularity, the field of gravitational-wave astronomy is beginning to realize its promise. Binary black holes and, very recently, binary neutron stars have been observed, and we are already learning much from them. The future, with improved sensitivity, more detectors and detectors like LISA in different frequency bands, has even more promise to open a completely hidden side of the Universe to our exploration. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  11. UV, X-ray, and Optical Variability of the Young Star T Cha Produced by Inner Disk Obscuration: Results from a Coordinated HST, XMM-Newton, LCOGT, and SMARTS Observing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexander; France, Kevin; Walter, Frederick M.; Schneider, P. Christian; Brown, Timothy M.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2018-06-01

    The young (7 Myr) 1.5 solar mass T Tauri star T Chamaeleontis shows dramatic variability. The optical extinction varies by at least 3 magnitudes on few hour time-scales with no obvious periodicity. The obscuration is produced by material at the inner edge of the circumstellar disk and therefore characterizing the absorbing material can reveal important clues regarding the transport of gas and dust within such disks. The inner disk of T Cha is particularly interesting, because T Cha has a transitional disk with a large gap at 0.2-15 AU in the dust disk and allows study of the gas and dust structure in the terrestrial planet formation zone during this important rapid phase of protoplanetary disk evolution. For this reason we have conducted a major multi-spectral-region observing campaign to study the UV/X-ray/optical variability of T Cha. During 2018 February/March we monitored the optical photometric and spectral variability using LCOGT (Chile/South Africa/Australia) and the SMARTS telescopes in Chile. These optical data provide a broad context within which to interpret our shorter UV and X-ray observations. We observed T Cha during 3 coordinated observations (each 5 HST orbits + 25 ksec XMM; on 2018 Feb 22, Feb 26, Mar 2) using the HST COS/STIS spectrographs to measure the FUV/NUV spectra and XMM-Newton to measure the corresponding X-ray energy distribution. The observed spectral changes are well correlated and demonstrate the influence of the same absorbing material in all the spectral regions observed. By examining which spectral features change and by how much we can determine the location of different emitting regions relative to the absorbers along the line-of-sight to the star. In this poster we provide an overview of the variability seen in the different spectral regions and quantify the dust and gas content of T Cha's inner disk edge.(This work is supported by grant HST-GO-15128 and time awarded by HST, XMM-Newton, LCOGT, and SMARTS. We acknowledge the

  12. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-01-14

    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  13. Selection of promising fungal biological control agent of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).

    PubMed

    Niassy, S; Maniania, N K; Subramanian, S; Gitonga, L M; Mburu, D M; Masiga, D; Ekesi, S

    2012-06-01

    Larval stages of Frankliniella occidentalis are known to be refractory to fungal infection compared with the adult stage. The objective of this study was to identify promising fungal isolate(s) for the control of larval stages of F. occidentalis. Ten isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae and eight of Beauveria bassiana were screened for virulence against second-instar larvae of F. occidentalis. Conidial production and genetic polymorphism were also investigated. Metarhizium anisopliae isolates ICIPE 7, ICIPE 20, ICIPE 69 and ICIPE 665 had the shortest LT(50) values of 8.0-8.9 days. ICIPE 69, ICIPE 7 and ICIPE 20 had the lowest LC(50) values of 1.1 × 10(7), 2.0 × 10(7) and 3.0 × 10(7) conidia ml(-1), respectively. Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 produced significantly more conidia than M. anisopliae isolates ICIPE 7 and ICIPE 20. Internally transcribed spacers sequences alignment showed differences in nucleotides composition, which can partly explain differences in virulence. These results coupled with the previous ones on virulence and field efficacy against other species of thrips make M. anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 a good candidate. Metarhizium anisopliae isolate ICIPE 69 can be suggested for development as fungus-based biopesticide for thrips management. © International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe). Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Thermoascus aurantiacus is a promising source of enzymes for biomass deconstruction under thermophilic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thermophilic fungi have attracted increased interest for their ability to secrete enzymes that deconstruct biomass at high temperatures. However, development of thermophilic fungi as enzyme producers for biomass deconstruction has not been thoroughly investigated. Comparing the enzymatic activities of thermophilic fungal strains that grow on targeted biomass feedstocks has the potential to identify promising candidates for strain development. Thielavia terrestris and Thermoascus aurantiacus were chosen for characterization based on literature precedents. Results Thermoascus aurantiacus and Thielavia terrestris were cultivated on various biomass substrates and culture supernatants assayed for glycoside hydrolase activities. Supernatants from both cultures possessed comparable glycoside hydrolase activities when incubated with artificial biomass substrates. In contrast, saccharifications of ionic liquid pretreated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) revealed that T. aurantiacus enzymes released more glucose than T. terrestris enzymes over a range of protein mass loadings and temperatures. Temperature-dependent saccharifications demonstrated that the T. aurantiacus proteins retained higher levels of activity compared to a commercial enzyme mixture sold by Novozymes, Cellic CTec2, at elevated temperatures. Enzymes secreted by T. aurantiacus released glucose at similar protein loadings to CTec2 on dilute acid, ammonia fiber expansion, or ionic liquid pretreated switchgrass. Proteomic analysis of the T. aurantiacus culture supernatant revealed dominant glycoside hydrolases from families 5, 7, 10, and 61, proteins that are key enzymes in commercial cocktails. Conclusions T. aurantiacus produces a complement of secreted proteins capable of higher levels of saccharification of pretreated switchgrass than T. terrestris enzymes. The T. aurantiacus enzymatic cocktail performs at the same level as commercially available enzymatic cocktail for biomass deconstruction

  15. Promising Practices and Programs: Current Efforts and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    The final chapter of the issue provides a synthesis of the first eight chapters, offers conclusions and recommendations, and considers future directions regarding practices and programs with promise for high impact at community colleges around the country.

  16. The Promises and Perils of Clinical Chemoprevention: 1980–2030

    Cancer.gov

    Frank L. Meyskens, Jr, MD, Professor of Medicine and Biological Chemistry; Director, Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center; and Senior Associate Dean of Health Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, presented "The Promises and Perils of Clinical Chemoprevention: 1980–2030".

  17. Agar Disk Diffusion and Automated Microbroth Dilution Produce Similar Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Results for Salmonella Serotypes Newport, Typhimurium, and 4,5,12:i-, But Differ in Economic Cost

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kevin J.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Siler, Julie D.; Gröhn, Yrjo T.; Davis, Margaret A.; Besser, Tom E.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Data generated using different antimicrobial testing methods often have to be combined, but the equivalence of such results is difficult to assess. Here we compared two commonly used antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, automated microbroth dilution and agar disk diffusion, for 8 common drugs, using 222 Salmonella isolates of serotypes Newport, Typhimurium, and 4,5,12:i-, which had been isolated from clinical salmonellosis cases among cattle and humans. Isolate classification corresponded well between tests, with 95% overall category agreement. Test results were significantly negatively correlated, and Spearman's correlation coefficients ranged from −0.98 to −0.38. Using Cox's proportional hazards model we determined that for most drugs, a 1 mm increase in zone diameter resulted in an estimated 20%–40% increase in the hazard of growth inhibition. However, additional parameters such as isolation year or serotype often impacted the hazard of growth inhibition as well. Comparison of economical feasibility showed that agar disk diffusion is clearly more cost-effective if the average sample throughput is small but that both methods are comparable at high sample throughput. In conclusion, for the Salmonella serotypes and antimicrobial drugs analyzed here, antimicrobial susceptibility data generated based on either test are qualitatively very comparable, and the current published break points for both methods are in excellent agreement. Economic feasibility clearly depends on the specific laboratory settings, and disk diffusion might be an attractive alternative for certain applications such as surveillance studies. PMID:21877930

  18. Biochar from Coffee Residues: A New Promising Sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi; Manariotis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is mainly used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility as well as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. The objective of the present study was to characterize the surface properties of biochar produced, and to investigate the effect of thermal treatment conditions on key characteristics that affect sorptive properties. The espresso coffee residue was obtained after the coffee was brewed through espresso machines in coffee shops. The coffee residue was dried and kept in an oven at 50oC until its pyrolysis at 850oC. Pyrolysis with different coffee mass and containers were tested in order to find optimum biochar characteristics. Detailed characterization techniques were carried out to determine the properties of the produced biochar. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using the t-plot method and the Harkins & Jura equation. Total organic carbon was also determined because it is an important factor that affects sorption. The results were compared with the corresponding properties of activated carbons. The biochar produced exhibited a wide range of surface area from 21 to 770 m2/g and open surface area from 21 to 65 m2/g. It is obvious that the surface area results from the formation of pores. Actually it was calculated that up to 90% of the porosity is due to the micropores. More specifically the

  19. Neuroimaging in psychiatric pharmacogenetics research: the promise and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Mary; Smith, Ryan M; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Bhattacharjee, Abesh Kumar; Kelsoe, John R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-11-01

    The integration of research on neuroimaging and pharmacogenetics holds promise for improving treatment for neuropsychiatric conditions. Neuroimaging may provide a more sensitive early measure of treatment response in genetically defined patient groups, and could facilitate development of novel therapies based on an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying pharmacogenetic associations. This review summarizes progress in efforts to incorporate neuroimaging into genetics and treatment research on major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and addiction. Methodological challenges include: performing genetic analyses in small study populations used in imaging studies; inclusion of patients with psychiatric comorbidities; and the extensive variability across studies in neuroimaging protocols, neurobehavioral task probes, and analytic strategies. Moreover, few studies use pharmacogenetic designs that permit testing of genotype × drug effects. As a result of these limitations, few findings have been fully replicated. Future studies that pre-screen participants for genetic variants selected a priori based on drug metabolism and targets have the greatest potential to advance the science and practice of psychiatric treatment.

  20. TurboBrayton Cryocooler: A Flight Worthy and Promising Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbon, Judith A.; Swift, Walt L.; Zagarola, Mark V.; DiPirro, Mike; Whitehouse, Paul

    1999-01-01

    A new development in cryocooler technology, a reverse TurboBrayton cycle cryocooler, developed by Creare, Inc. of Hanover, NH, has now been flight tested. This cooler provides high reliability and long life. With no linear moving components common in current flight cryocoolers, the TurboBrayton cooler requires no active control systems to provide a vibration-free signature. The cooler provides first stage cooling for advanced cryogenic systems and serves as a direct replacement for stored cryogen systems with a longer lifetime. Following a successful flight on STS-95, a TurboBrayton cryocooler will be flown on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2000 to provide renewed refrigeration capability for the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). The TurboBrayton cycle cooler is a promising technology already being considered for additional flight programs such as Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) and Constellation X. These future missions require an advanced generation of the cooler that is currently under development to provide cooling at 10K and less. This paper presents an overview of the current generation cooler with recent flight test results and details the current plans and development progress on the next generation TurboBrayton technology for future missions.

  1. Cannabis and endocannabinoid modulators: Therapeutic promises and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Igor; Cahn, B. Rael

    2008-01-01

    The discovery that botanical cannabinoids such as delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol exert some of their effect through binding specific cannabinoid receptor sites has led to the discovery of an endocannabinoid signaling system, which in turn has spurred research into the mechanisms of action and addiction potential of cannabis on the one hand, while opening the possibility of developing novel therapeutic agents on the other. This paper reviews current understanding of CB1, CB2, and other possible cannabinoid receptors, their arachidonic acid derived ligands (e.g. anandamide; 2 arachidonoyl glycerol), and their possible physiological roles. CB1 is heavily represented in the central nervous system, but is found in other tissues as well; CB2 tends to be localized to immune cells. Activation of the endocannabinoid system can result in enhanced or dampened activity in various neural circuits depending on their own state of activation. This suggests that one function of the endocannabinoid system may be to maintain steady state. The therapeutic action of botanical cannabis or of synthetic molecules that are agonists, antagonists, or which may otherwise modify endocannabinoid metabolism and activity indicates they may have promise as neuroprotectants, and may be of value in the treatment of certain types of pain, epilepsy, spasticity, eating disorders, inflammation, and possibly blood pressure control. PMID:18806886

  2. The promise--and peril--of integrated cost systems.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R; Kaplan, R S

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in managerial accounting have helped executives get the information they need to make good strategic decisions. But today's enterprise resource planning systems promise even greater benefits--the chance to integrate activity-based costing, operational-control, and financial reporting systems. But managers need to approach integration very thoughtfully, or they could end up with a system that drives decision making in the wrong direction. Operational-control and ABC systems have fundamentally different purposes. Their requirements for accuracy, timeliness, and aggregation are so different that no single, fully integrated approach can be adequate for both purposes. If an integrated system used real-time cost data instead of standard rates in its ABC subsystem, for example, the result would be dangerously distorted messages about individual product profitability--and that's precisely the problem ABC systems were originally designed to address. Proper linkage and feedback between the two systems is possible, however. Through activity-based budgeting, the ABC system is linked directly to operations control: managers can determine the supply and practical capacity of resources in forthcoming periods. Linking operational control to ABC is also possible. The activity-based portion of an operational control system collects information that, while it mustn't be fed directly into the activity-based strategic cost system, can be extremely useful once it's been properly analyzed. Finally, ABC and operational control can be linked to financial reporting to generate cost of goods sold and inventory valuations--but again, with precautions.

  3. The problem and promise of scale dependency in community phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Nathan G; Enquist, Brian J; Pither, Jason; Thompson, Jill; Zimmerman, Jess K

    2006-10-01

    The problem of scale dependency is widespread in investigations of ecological communities. Null model investigations of community assembly exemplify the challenges involved because they typically include subjectively defined "regional species pools." The burgeoning field of community phylogenetics appears poised to face similar challenges. Our objective is to quantify the scope of the problem of scale dependency by comparing the phylogenetic structure of assemblages across contrasting geographic and taxonomic scales. We conduct phylogenetic analyses on communities within three tropical forests, and perform a sensitivity analysis with respect to two scaleable inputs: taxonomy and species pool size. We show that (1) estimates of phylogenetic overdispersion within local assemblages depend strongly on the taxonomic makeup of the local assemblage and (2) comparing the phylogenetic structure of a local assemblage to a species pool drawn from increasingly larger geographic scales results in an increased signal of phylogenetic clustering. We argue that, rather than posing a problem, "scale sensitivities" are likely to reveal general patterns of diversity that could help identify critical scales at which local or regional influences gain primacy for the structuring of communities. In this way, community phylogenetics promises to fill an important gap in community ecology and biogeography research.

  4. Biocompatible Polymeric Nanoparticles as Promising Candidates for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Łukasiewicz, Sylwia; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Błasiak, Ewa; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2015-06-16

    The use of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) in pharmacology provides many benefits because this approach can increase the efficacy and selectivity of active compounds. However, development of new nanocarriers requires better understanding of the interactions between NPs and the immune system, allowing for the optimization of NP properties for effective drug delivery. Therefore, in the present study, we focused on the investigation of the interactions between biocompatible polymeric NPs and a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and a human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). NPs based on a liquid core with polyelectrolyte shells were prepared by sequential adsorption of polyelectrolytes (LbL) using AOT (docusate sodium salt) as the emulsifier and the biocompatible polyelectrolytes polyanion PGA (poly-l-glutamic acid sodium salt) and polycation PLL (poly l-lysine). The average size of the obtained NPs was 80 nm. Pegylated external layers were prepared using PGA-g-PEG (PGA grafted by PEG poly(ethylene glycol)). The influence of the physicochemical properties of the NPs (charge, size, surface modification) on viability, phagocytosis potential, and endocytosis was studied. Internalization of NPs was determined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Moreover, we evaluated whether addition of PEG chains downregulates particle uptake by phagocytic cells. The presented results confirm that the obtained PEG-grafted NPs are promising candidates for drug delivery.

  5. Studies of threespine stickleback developmental evolution: progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Cresko, William A; McGuigan, Katrina L; Phillips, Patrick C; Postlethwait, John H

    2007-01-01

    A promising route for understanding the origin and diversification of organismal form is through studies at the intersection of evolution and development (evo-devo). While much has been learned over the last two decades concerning macroevolutionary patterns of developmental change, a fundamental gap in the evo-devo synthesis is the integration of mathematical population and quantitative genetics with studies of how genetic variation in natural populations affects developmental processes. This micro-evo-devo synthesis requires model organisms with which to ask empirical questions. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), long a model for studying behavior, ecology and evolution, is emerging as a prominent model micro-evo-devo system. Research on stickleback over the last decade has begun to address the genetic basis of morphological variation and sex determination, and much of this work has important implications for understanding the genetics of speciation. In this paper we review recent threespine stickleback micro-evo-devo results, and outline the resources that have been developed to make this synthesis possible. The prospects for stickleback research to speed the micro-(and macro-) evo-devo syntheses are great, and this workhorse model system is well situated to continue contributing to our understanding of the generation of diversity in organismal form for many more decades.

  6. Albendazole as a promising molecule for tumor control.

    PubMed

    Castro, L S E P W; Kviecinski, M R; Ourique, F; Parisotto, E B; Grinevicius, V M A S; Correia, J F G; Wilhelm Filho, D; Pedrosa, R C

    2016-12-01

    This work evaluated the antitumor effects of albendazole (ABZ) and its relationship with modulation of oxidative stress and induction of DNA damage. The present results showed that ABZ causes oxidative cleavage on calf-thymus DNA suggesting that this compound can break DNA. ABZ treatment decreased MCF-7 cell viability (EC 50 =44.9 for 24h) and inhibited MCF-7 colony formation (~67.5% at 5μM). Intracellular ROS levels increased with ABZ treatment (~123%). The antioxidant NAC is able to revert the cytotoxic effects, ROS generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential of MCF-7 cells treated with ABZ. Ehrlich carcinoma growth was inhibited (~32%) and survival time was elongated (~50%) in animals treated with ABZ. Oxidative biomarkers (TBARS and protein carbonyl levels) and activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD and GR) increased, and reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted in animals treated with ABZ, indicating an oxidative stress condition, leading to a DNA damage causing phosphorylation of histone H2A variant, H2AX, and triggering apoptosis signaling, which was confirmed by increasing Bax/Bcl-xL rate, p53 and Bax expression. We propose that ABZ induces oxidative stress promoting DNA fragmentation and triggering apoptosis and inducing cell death, making this drug a promising leader molecule for development of new antitumor drugs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Phosphate-Linked Silibinin Dimers (PLSd): New Promising Modified Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Romanucci, Valeria; Gravante, Raffaele; Cimafonte, Martina; Marino, Cinzia Di; Mailhot, Gilles; Brigante, Marcello; Zarrelli, Armando; Fabio, Giovanni Di

    2017-08-11

    By exploiting the regioselective protection of the hydroxyl groups of silibinin along with the well-known phosphoramidite chemistry, we have developed an efficient strategy for the synthesis of new silibinin-modified species, which we have named Phosphate-Linked Silibinin Dimers (PLSd), in which the monomer units are linked by phosphodiester bonds. The antioxidant abilities of the new PLSd were estimated on HepG2 cells using DPPH free radical scavenging and xanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. The new phosphate-metabolites showed a higher anti-oxidant activity than the silibinin, as well as very low toxicity. The ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen () and hydroxyl radical () reveals that the two dimers are able to scavenge about two times more effectively than silibinin. Finally, solubility studies have shown that the PLSd present good water solubility (more than 20 mg·L -1 ) under circumneutral pH values, whereas the silibinin was found to be very poorly soluble (less than 0.4 mg·L -1 ) and not stable under alkaline conditions. Together, the above promising results warrant further investigation of the future potential of the PLSd as anti-oxidant metabolites within the large synthetic polyphenols field.

  8. Fusarium species-a promising tool box for industrial biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Pessôa, Marina Gabriel; Paulino, Bruno Nicolau; Mano, Mario Cezar Rodrigues; Neri-Numa, Iramaia Angélica; Molina, Gustavo; Pastore, Glaucia Maria

    2017-05-01

    Global demand for biotechnological products has increased steadily over the years. Thus, need for optimized processes and reduced costs appear as a key factor in the success of this market. A process tool of high importance is the direct or indirect use of enzymes to catalyze the generation of various substances. Also, obtaining aromas and pigments from natural sources has becoming priority in cosmetic and food industries in order to supply the demand from consumers to substitute synthetic compounds, especially when by-products can be used as starting material for this purpose. Species from Fusarium genera are recognized as promising sources of several enzymes for industrial application as well as biocatalysts in the production of aromas, pigments and second generation biofuels, among others. In addition, secondary metabolites from these strains can present important biological activities for medical field. In this approach, this review brings focus on the use of Fusarium sp. strains in biotechnological production of compounds of industrial interest, showing the most recent researches in this area, results obtained and the best process conditions for each case.

  9. Tasty THC: Promises and Challenges of Cannabis Edibles.

    PubMed

    Barrus, Daniel G; Capogrossi, Kristen L; Cates, Sheryl C; Gourdet, Camille K; Peiper, Nicholas C; Novak, Scott P; Lefever, Timothy W; Wiley, Jenny L

    2016-11-01

    Food products containing cannabis extract (edibles) have emerged as a popular and lucrative facet of the legalized market for both recreational and medicinal cannabis. The many formulations of cannabis extracts used in edibles present a unique regulatory challenge for policy makers. Though edibles are often considered a safe, discreet, and effective means of attaining the therapeutic and/or intoxicating effects of cannabis without exposure to the potentially harmful risks of cannabis smoking, little research has evaluated how ingestion differs from other methods of cannabis administration in terms of therapeutic efficacy, subjective effects, and safety. The most prominent difference between ingestion and inhalation of cannabis extracts is the delayed onset of drug effect with ingestion. Consumers often do not understand this aspect of edible use and may consume a greater than intended amount of drug before the drug has taken effect, often resulting in profoundly adverse effects. Written for the educated layperson and for policy makers, this paper explores the current state of research regarding edibles, highlighting the promises and challenges that edibles present to both users and policy makers, and describes the approaches that four states in which recreational cannabis use is legal have taken regarding regulating edibles.

  10. Visualizing Chemistry: The Progess and Promise of Advanced Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Committee on Revealing Chemistry Through Advanced Chemical Imaging

    2006-09-01

    The field of chemical imaging can provide detailed structural, functional, and applicable information about chemistry and chemical engineering phenomena that have enormous impacts on medicine, materials, and technology. In recognizing the potential for more research development in the field of chemical imaging, the National Academies was asked by the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, U.S. Army, and National Cancer Institute to complete a study that would review the current state of molecular imaging technology, point to promising future developments and their applications, and suggest a research and educational agenda to enable breakthrough improvements in the ability to image molecularmore » processes simultaneously in multiple physical dimensions as well as time. The study resulted in a consensus report that provides guidance for a focused research and development program in chemical imaging and identifies research needs and possible applications of imaging technologies that can provide the breakthrough knowledge in chemistry, materials science, biology, and engineering for which we should strive. Public release of this report is expected in early October.« less

  11. Video Self-Modeling: A Promising Strategy for Noncompliant Children.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Michael I; Bellini, Scott; Markoff, Kimberly

    2014-07-01

    The current study investigated the effects of a Video Self-Modeling (VSM) intervention on the compliance and aggressive behavior of three children placed in a psychiatric hospital. Each participant viewed brief video clips of himself following simple adult instructions just prior to the school's morning session and the unit's afternoon free period. A multiple baseline design across settings was used to evaluate the effects of the VSM intervention on compliance with staff instructions and aggressive behavior on the hospital unit and in the hospital-based classroom. All three participants exhibited higher levels of compliance and fewer aggressive episodes during the intervention condition, and the effects were generally maintained when the intervention was withdrawn. Hospital staff reported at the conclusion of the study that the VSM intervention was easy to implement and beneficial for all participants. Taken altogether, the results suggest VSM is a promising, socially acceptable, and proactive intervention approach for improving the behavior of noncompliant children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived microparticles: a promising therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xi; Gong, Yong-Zhen; Wu, Ping; Liao, Duan-Fang; Zheng, Xi-Long

    2014-08-18

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that give rise to various cell types of the mesodermal germ layer. Because of their unique ability to home in on injured and cancerous tissues, MSCs are of great potential in regenerative medicine. MSCs also contribute to reparative processes in different pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, many studies have shown that only a small proportion of transplanted MSCs can actually survive and be incorporated into host tissues. The effects of MSCs cannot be fully explained by their number. Recent discoveries suggest that microparticles (MPs) derived from MSCs may be important for the physiological functions of their parent. Though the physiological role of MSC-MPs is currently not well understood, inspiring results indicate that, in tissue repair and anti-cancer therapy, MSC-MPs have similar pro-regenerative and protective properties as their cellular counterparts. Thus, MSC-MPs represent a promising approach that may overcome the obstacles and risks associated with the use of native or engineered MSCs.

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Microparticles: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xi; Gong, Yong-Zhen; Wu, Ping; Liao, Duan-Fang; Zheng, Xi-Long

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that give rise to various cell types of the mesodermal germ layer. Because of their unique ability to home in on injured and cancerous tissues, MSCs are of great potential in regenerative medicine. MSCs also contribute to reparative processes in different pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, many studies have shown that only a small proportion of transplanted MSCs can actually survive and be incorporated into host tissues. The effects of MSCs cannot be fully explained by their number. Recent discoveries suggest that microparticles (MPs) derived from MSCs may be important for the physiological functions of their parent. Though the physiological role of MSC-MPs is currently not well understood, inspiring results indicate that, in tissue repair and anti-cancer therapy, MSC-MPs have similar pro-regenerative and protective properties as their cellular counterparts. Thus, MSC-MPs represent a promising approach that may overcome the obstacles and risks associated with the use of native or engineered MSCs. PMID:25196436

  14. Medaka: a promising model animal for comparative population genomics

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Oota, Hiroki; Asaoka, Yoichi; Nishina, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koji; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Oda, Shoji; Kawamura, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Within-species genome diversity has been best studied in humans. The international HapMap project has revealed a tremendous amount of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among humans, many of which show signals of positive selection during human evolution. In most of the cases, however, functional differences between the alleles remain experimentally unverified due to the inherent difficulty of human genetic studies. It would therefore be highly useful to have a vertebrate model with the following characteristics: (1) high within-species genetic diversity, (2) a variety of gene-manipulation protocols already developed, and (3) a completely sequenced genome. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) and its congeneric species, tiny fresh-water teleosts distributed broadly in East and Southeast Asia, meet these criteria. Findings Using Oryzias species from 27 local populations, we conducted a simple screening of nonsynonymous SNPs for 11 genes with apparent orthology between medaka and humans. We found medaka SNPs for which the same sites in human orthologs are known to be highly differentiated among the HapMap populations. Importantly, some of these SNPs show signals of positive selection. Conclusion These results indicate that medaka is a promising model system for comparative population genomics exploring the functional and adaptive significance of allelic differentiations. PMID:19426554

  15. Detonation nanodiamonds are promising nontoxic delivery system for urothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Daša; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Grdadolnik, Maja; Mitev, Dimitar; Iglič, Aleš; Veranič, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) are carbon-based nanomaterials that are among the most promising nanoparticles available for biomedical applications so far. This is due to their biocompatibility, which could be contributed to their inert core and conformable surface nature. However, DNDs cytotoxicity for urothelial cells and the routes of their internalization remains an open question in the aspect of nanodiamond surface. We therefore analyzed four types of DNDs for cytotoxicity and internalization with normal urothelial cells and two types of cancer urothelial cell lines in vitro. Viability of any of the cell types we used was not compromised with any of four DNDs we evaluated after 24-, 48- and 72-h incubation in three different concentrations of DNDs. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that all four types of DNDs were endocytosed into all three types of urothelial cells tested here. We observed DNDs in endosomes, as well as in multivesicular bodies and multilamellar bodies. These results propose using of DNDs as a delivery system for urological applications in human nanomedicine.

  16. Tasty THC: Promises and Challenges of Cannabis Edibles

    PubMed Central

    Barrus, Daniel G.; Capogrossi, Kristen L.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Gourdet, Camille K.; Peiper, Nicholas C.; Novak, Scott P.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2016-01-01

    Food products containing cannabis extract (edibles) have emerged as a popular and lucrative facet of the legalized market for both recreational and medicinal cannabis. The many formulations of cannabis extracts used in edibles present a unique regulatory challenge for policy makers. Though edibles are often considered a safe, discreet, and effective means of attaining the therapeutic and/or intoxicating effects of cannabis without exposure to the potentially harmful risks of cannabis smoking, little research has evaluated how ingestion differs from other methods of cannabis administration in terms of therapeutic efficacy, subjective effects, and safety. The most prominent difference between ingestion and inhalation of cannabis extracts is the delayed onset of drug effect with ingestion. Consumers often do not understand this aspect of edible use and may consume a greater than intended amount of drug before the drug has taken effect, often resulting in profoundly adverse effects. Written for the educated layperson and for policy makers, this paper explores the current state of research regarding edibles, highlighting the promises and challenges that edibles present to both users and policy makers, and describes the approaches that four states in which recreational cannabis use is legal have taken regarding regulating edibles. PMID:28127591

  17. Immunotherapy in NSCLC: A Promising and Revolutionary Weapon.

    PubMed

    Rolfo, Christian; Caglevic, Christian; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Araujo, Antonio; Giovannetti, Elisa; Gallardo, Carolina Diaz; Pauwels, Patrick; Mahave, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    immunotherapy with chemotherapy or with targeted treatment are under research with some promising PRELIMINARY results in non-small cell lung cancer patients.This chapter attempts to summarize the development of immunotherapy treatment in non-small cell lung cancer patients and explain the results that have leaded immunotherapy as a new standard of treatment in selected NSCLC patients.

  18. A promising microbiological test for the diagnosis of drowning.

    PubMed

    Lucci, Arturo; Campobasso, Carlo P; Cirnelli, Antonello; Lorenzini, Giulio

    2008-11-20

    A number of biological and chemical tests have been developed over the years to determine whether a person was drowned. This study focuses on the potential of a microbiological test for detecting common bacterial markers of water faecal pollution such as faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS) as possible indicators of drowning. A promising previous study was carried out on central and peripheral blood samples of 42 drowned victims (20 cases in saltwater and 22 cases in freshwater) and 30 not-drowned bodies. To improve the accuracy of our previous results and also in order to investigate a possible cause of a false positive due to pulmonary passive diffusion and subsequently endogenous or exogenous bacterial invasion of the blood in the post-mortem interval (PMI), the FC and FS test was applied to bodies submerged in water but died from causes other than drowning. In the present study, blood samples collected from the left ventricle (LV), right ventricle (RV), femoral artery (FA) and, femoral vein (FV) of 10 drowned victims (5 cases in freshwater and 5 cases in seawater) and 3 not-drowned individuals with bodies submerged in water for a while after death have been analysed. Preliminary results are in agreement with other reports dealing with diatoms and marine bacteria that suggest to exclude the hypothesis of a passive penetration of sufficient quantities of drowning medium into circulation after death or during the agonal period. Based on our results there is also no evidence of a relevant dissemination of endogenous micro-flora from the gastrointestinal tract affecting the FS and FC test. There are still several other factors that could influence the applicability of post-mortem FS and FC cultures for the diagnosis of drowning and they need further investigations. The present article provides only a glimpse of the potential of the FS and FC test as bacteriological method for the diagnosis of drowning.

  19. Gracilins: Spongionella-derived promising compounds for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Leirós, Marta; Alonso, Eva; Rateb, Mostafa E; Houssen, Wael E; Ebel, Rainer; Jaspars, Marcel; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M

    2015-06-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology that is strongly linked with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The unclear origin of AD lead researchers to study several drug targets and it has been proposed that a multi-target drug would be a more promising candidate. Gracilins are sponge-derived diterpenoid compounds that have been described to act as antioxidants through mitochondrial targeting and through the induction of Nrf2 translocation. In this work gracilin H, A and L and tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1 have been studied in two neuroblastoma cellular models. First the BE(2)-M17 cell line has been used as a model for APP metabolism studies and next, SH-SY5Y-TMHT441 cells were used for AD drugs screening targeting tau phosphorylation. In vitro assays showed that gracilins were able to inhibit BACE1, reduce tau hyperphosphorylation and inhibit ERK. These positive results lead us to test gracilin H and L in 3xTg-AD mice. After chronic intraperitoneal treatments, a preliminary behavioral test pointed a positive trend on learning and spatial memory of mice treated with these compounds. Moreover in vivo assays confirmed the previous results. Amyloid-β42 and hyperphosphorylated tau levels were decreased after treatments and the ERK inhibition was also observed. This research highlights new bioactivities for gracilins, such as BACE1 and ERK inhibition, and provides more evidence for their potential therapeutic application in neurodegenerative diseases due to their multi-target activities, especially in AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. System for producing chroma signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorhaben, K. H.; Lipoma, P. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for obtaining electronic chroma signals with a single scanning-type image device is described. A color multiplexed light signal is produced using an arrangement of dichroic filter stripes. In the particular system described, a two layer filter is used to color modulate external light which is then detected by an image pickup tube. The resulting time division multiplexed electronic signal from the pickup tube is converted by a decoder into a green color signal, and a single red-blue multiplexed signal, which is demultiplexed to produce red and blue color signals. The three primary color signals can be encoded as standard NTSC color signals.

  1. Top Hispanic Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy students at the Indiana University Bloomington. For the year 2012, the listings focus on Hispanic students. Data for…

  2. Interventions for fresh produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental matrices such as soil, water, and dust harbor microorganisms. Many of the microorganisms found in the environment are essential for biogeochemical cycles and are essential for plant growth. The microbiome of the produce production environment might also contain foodborne pathogens and ...

  3. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  4. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, P. V.; Caleb, O. J.; Singh, Z.; Watkins, C. B.; Geyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  5. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or producer...

  6. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or producer...

  7. Promise-based management: the essence of execution.

    PubMed

    Sull, Donald N; Spinosa, Charles

    2007-04-01

    Critical initiatives stall for a variety of reasons--employee disengagement, a lack of coordination between functions, complex organizational structures that obscure accountability, and so on. To overcome such obstacles, managers must fundamentally rethink how work gets done. Most of the challenges stem from broken or poorly crafted commitments. That's because every company is, at its heart, a dynamic network of promises made between employees and colleagues, customers, outsourcing partners, or other stakeholders. Executives can overcome many problems in the short-term and foster productive, reliable workforces for the long-term by practicing what the authors call "promise-based management," which involves cultivating and coordinating commitments in a systematic way. Good promises share five qualities: They are public, active, voluntary, explicit, and mission based. To develop and execute an effective promise, the "provider" and the "customer" in the deal should go through three phases of conversation. The first, achieving a meeting of minds, entails exploring the fundamental questions of coordinated effort: What do you mean? Do you understand what I mean? What should I do? What will you do? Who else should we talk to? In the next phase, making it happen, the provider executes on the promise. In the final phase, closing the loop, the customer publicly declares that the provider has either delivered the goods or failed to do so. Leaders must weave and manage their webs of promises with great care-encouraging iterative conversation and making sure commitments are fulfilled reliably. If they do, they can enhance coordination and cooperation among colleagues, build the organizational agility required to seize new business opportunities, and tap employees' entrepreneurial energies.

  8. Producing Runaway Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  9. Leaders produce leaders and managers produce followers

    PubMed Central

    Khoshhal, Khalid I.; Guraya, Salman Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To elaborate the desired qualities, traits, and styles of physician’s leadership with a deep insight into the recommended measures to inculcate leadership skills in physicians. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the full-text English-language articles published during the period 2000-2015. Further search, including manual search of grey literature, was conducted from the bibliographic list of all included articles. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords “Leadership” AND “Leadership traits” AND “Leadership styles” AND “Physicians’ leadership” AND “Tomorrow’s doctors” were used for the literature search. This search followed a step-wise approach defined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The retrieved bibliographic list was analyzed and non-relevant material such as abstracts, conference proceedings, letters to editor, and short communications were excluded. Finally, 21 articles were selected for this review. Results: The literature search showed a number of leadership courses and formal training programs that can transform doctors to physician leaders. Leaders can inculcate confidence by integrating diverse views and listening; supporting skillful conversations through dialogue and helping others assess their influence and expertise. In addition to their clinical competence, physician leaders need to acquire the industry knowledge (clinical processes, health-care trends, budget), problem-solving skills, and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: This review emphasizes the need for embedding formal leadership courses in the medical curricula for fostering tomorrow doctors’ leadership and organizational skills. The in-house and off-campus training programs and workshops should be arranged for grooming the potential candidates for effective leadership. PMID:27652355

  10. Unary probabilistic and quantum automata on promise problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinova, Aida; Yakaryılmaz, Abuzer

    2018-02-01

    We continue the systematic investigation of probabilistic and quantum finite automata (PFAs and QFAs) on promise problems by focusing on unary languages. We show that bounded-error unary QFAs are more powerful than bounded-error unary PFAs, and, contrary to the binary language case, the computational power of Las-Vegas QFAs and bounded-error PFAs is equivalent to the computational power of deterministic finite automata (DFAs). Then, we present a new family of unary promise problems defined with two parameters such that when fixing one parameter QFAs can be exponentially more succinct than PFAs and when fixing the other parameter PFAs can be exponentially more succinct than DFAs.

  11. Big data analytics in healthcare: promise and potential.

    PubMed

    Raghupathi, Wullianallur; Raghupathi, Viju

    2014-01-01

    To describe the promise and potential of big data analytics in healthcare. The paper describes the nascent field of big data analytics in healthcare, discusses the benefits, outlines an architectural framework and methodology, describes examples reported in the literature, briefly discusses the challenges, and offers conclusions. The paper provides a broad overview of big data analytics for healthcare researchers and practitioners. Big data analytics in healthcare is evolving into a promising field for providing insight from very large data sets and improving outcomes while reducing costs. Its potential is great; however there remain challenges to overcome.

  12. New to Teaching: Small Changes Can Produce Big Results!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenton, Megan

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Megan Shenton, a final-year trainee teacher at Nottinghom Trent University, describes using "The Big Question" in her science teaching in a move away from objectives. The Big Question is an innovative pedagogical choice, where instead of implementing a learning objective, a question is posed at the start of the session…

  13. Interdisciplinary Research Produces Results in the Understanding of Planetary Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Hayward, Rosalyn Kay; Bourke, Mary C.

    2010-08-01

    Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Planetary Analogs—Integrating Models, Remote Sensing, and Field Data; Alamosa, Colorado, 18-21 May 2010; Dunes and other eolian bed forms are prominent on several planetary bodies in our solar system. Despite 4 decades of study, many questions remain regarding the composition, age, and origins of these features, as well as the climatic conditions under which they formed. Recently acquired data from orbiters and rovers, together with terrestrial analogs and numerical models, are providing new insights into Martian sand dunes, as well as eolian bed forms on other terrestrial planetary bodies (e.g., Titan). As a means of bringing together terrestrial and planetary researchers from diverse backgrounds with the goal of fostering collaborative interdisciplinary research, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Carl Sagan Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, the Desert Research Institute, and the U.S. National Park Service held a workshop in Colorado. The small group setting facilitated intensive discussion of problems and issues associated with eolian processes on Earth, Mars, and Titan.

  14. Notification: Controls Over Results Produced by EPA Independent Laboratories

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OPE-FY16-0022, April 5, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on controls that the EPA’s Office of Land and Emergency Management’s Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) has in place to detect or prevent fraud.

  15. The promise of ghrelin antagonism in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Helmling, Steffen; Jarosch, Florian; Klussmann, Sven

    2006-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, 300 million people are clinically obese worldwide. As a major risk factor in the development of life-threatening diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, obesity is quickly evolving into a serious public health threat on a global scale. This alarming situation calls for the development of effective treatments, including pharmacological intervention. Many biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies have embarked on the endeavor to develop safe new therapeutics for weight loss and durable weight management. Much progress has been made to improve our understanding of the regulation of energy homeostasis, but this knowledge has not yet translated into new medicines. However, it has led to the identification of molecules that promise to be highly interesting targets for therapeutic intervention. One such molecule is the enteric hormone ghrelin. Ghrelin was identified in 1999 as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Soon after its discovery ghrelin was shown to increase food intake, downregulate energy expenditure and conserve body fat, causing weight gain and adipogenesis. Unsurprisingly, these findings placed ghrelin and its receptor on the radar screens of many medical researchers in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. The resulting attention has led to a steadily growing body of evidence in support of ghrelin antagonism as a potential means to ameliorate obesity. But the causes for obesity are manifold, and skepticism about the utility of this approach remains. The current review summarizes the arguments for and against ghrelin as a potential antiobesity target and discusses recent pharmaceutical developments to interfere with this exciting pathway. 2006 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

  16. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  17. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-02-01

    A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

  18. The demosponge Halichondria (Halichondria) panicea (Pallas, 1766) as a novel source of biosurfactant-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Carmen; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf; Gerçe, Berna; Longo, Caterina; Papale, Maria; Conte, Antonella; De Domenico, Emilio; Michaud, Luigi; Lo Giudice, Angelina

    2018-06-01

    The Mediterranean sponge Halichondria (Halichondria) panicea was explored as a novel matrix for the isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. A total of 38 (out of 56) isolates gave a good response to the employed screening tests (e.g., stable emulsion detection, surface tension measurement, hemolytic activity, and blue agar plate assay) and were selected for further analyses. The thin layer chromatography revealed a possible glucidic composition of biosurfactants. Most promising strains, i.e., those able to produce stable emulsion with percentage higher than 30% and yellow spots on TLC plates, were affiliated to the genera Pseudovibrio, Acinetobacter, and Bacillus. The biosurfactant production by two isolates (i.e., Acinetobacter sp. SpN134 and Pseudovibrio sp. SpE85) was evaluated under different culture conditions, in terms of temperature, NaCl concentration, and pH. Surface tension reduction ability was more stable than the emulsification, and resulted differently influenced by salinity, temperature, and pH. Acinetobacter sp. SpN134 resulted particularly efficient and competitive if compared with other well-known biosurfactant producers. Data suggest that sponges may represent a promising matrix for the isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria, reinforcing the growing interest towards filter-feeding organisms as underexplored sources of specialized bacteria. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Process for producing silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

    1982-06-10

    A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  20. Producibility in Ship Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    INNOVATION MARINE INDUSTRY STANDARDS WELDING INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM September 1989 NSRP 0310...SEP 1989 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Shipbuilding Research Program 1989 Ship Production Symposium...Paper No. 3: Producibility in Ship Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  1. METRRA Producibility Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    diffusion disappears and all current becomes a drift current under an electric field. Because the charge injected into the p region is not 4...by the tube nonlinearity is about 50dBm below the carrier. The cavity terminates with an SMA connector which is treated as a cylindrical structure...can be neglected owhn compared to the +13dBm produced by the tube itself. This fact implies that there is no need for special treatment or design from

  2. Process for producing silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.; Carleton, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  3. Continuous thermochemical conversion process to produce oil from swine manure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ocfemia, K.; Zhang, Y.; Funk, T.; Christianson, L.; Chen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Thermochemical conversion (TCC) of livestock manure is a novel technology that has shown very promising results in treating waste and producing oil. A batch TCC system that was previously developed successfully converted 70% of swine manure volatile solids to oil and reduced manure chemical oxygen demand by ??? 75%. The necessary retention time to achieve an oil product was largely dependent on the operating temperature. The highest oil production efficiency was 80% of the volatile solids (or 70 wt % of the total solids). The average carbon and hydrogen contents were ??? 72 and 9%, respectively. The heating values for 80% of the oil products ranged from 32,000 to 36,700 kJ/kg. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AWMA 97th Annual Conference and Exhibition (Indianapolis, IN 6/22-25/2004).

  4. Producing fluid flow using 3D carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouabah, H. A.; Park, B. Y.; Zaouk, R. B.; Madou, M. J.; Green, Nicolas G.

    2008-12-01

    Moving and manipulating bio-particles and fluids on the microscale is central to many lab-on-a-chip applications. Techniques for pumping fluids which use electric fields have shown promise using both DC and AC voltages. AC techniques, however, require the use of integrated metal electrodes which have a low resistance but can suffer from unwanted chemical reactions even at low potentials. In this paper we introduce the use of carbon MEMS technology (C-MEMS), a fabrication method which produces 3D conductive polymeric structures. Results are presented of the fabrication of an innovative design of 3D AC-electroosmotic micropump and preliminary experimental measurements which demonstrate the potential of both the technology and the design.

  5. Promising applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-06-01

    The present article is a review of research works on promising applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures. It contains five main scientific subjects. The first one is the research on graphene-based transparent and flexible conductive films for displays and electrodes: efficient method ensuring uniform and controllable deposition of reduced graphene oxide thin films over large areas, large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchble transparent electrodes, utilization of graphene-based transparent conducting films and graphene oxide-based ones in many photonic and optoelectronic devices and equipments such as the window electrodes of inorganic, organic and dye-sensitized solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, light-emitting electrochemical cells, touch screens, flexible smart windows, graphene-based saturated absorbers in laser cavities for ultrafast generations, graphene-based flexible, transparent heaters in automobile defogging/deicing systems, heatable smart windows, graphene electrodes for high-performance organic field-effect transistors, flexible and transparent acoustic actuators and nanogenerators etc. The second scientific subject is the research on conductive inks for printed electronics to revolutionize the electronic industry by producing cost-effective electronic circuits and sensors in very large quantities: preparing high mobility printable semiconductors, low sintering temperature conducting inks, graphene-based ink by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite in organic solutions, and developing inkjet printing technique for mass production of high-quality graphene patterns with high resolution and for fabricating a variety of good-performance electronic devices, including transparent conductors, embedded resistors, thin-film transistors and micro supercapacitors. The third scientific subject is the research on graphene-based separation membranes: molecular dynamics simulation study on the mechanisms of the transport of

  6. Work function determination of promising electrode materials for thermionic converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, D.

    1977-01-01

    Work performed on this contract was primarily for the evaluation of selected electrode materials for thermionic energy converters. The original objective was to characterize selected nickel based superalloys up to temperatures of 1400 K. It was found that an early selection, Inconel 800 produced a high vapor pressure which interfered with the vacuum emission measurements. The program then shifted to two other areas. The first area was to obtain emission from the superalloys in a cesiated atmosphere. The cesium plasma helps to suppress the vaporization interference. The second area involved characterization of the Lanthanum-Boron series as thermionic emitters. These final two areas resulted in three journal publications which are attached to this report.

  7. Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region (RMCCS)

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-30

    The primary objective of the “Characterization of Most Promising Carbon Capture and Sequestration Formations in the Central Rocky Mountain Region” project, or RMCCS project, is to characterize the storage potential of the most promising geologic sequestration formations within the southwestern U.S. and the Central Rocky Mountain region in particular. The approach included an analysis of geologic sequestration formations under the Craig Power Station in northwestern Colorado, and application or extrapolation of those local-scale results to the broader region. A ten-step protocol for geologic carbon storage site characterization was a primary outcome of this project.

  8. The Promise of Global Networks. 1999 Annual Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Information Studies, Queenstown, MD.

    This collection of commissioned papers provides a variety of perspectives on the impact of global information networks. The following articles are included: "The Promise of Global Networks: An Introduction" (Jorge Reina Schement); "Architecture and Expectations: Networks of the World--Unite!" (Marjory S. Blumenthal); "The…

  9. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  10. Promising New Teacher Support Strategies and Their Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianda, Marcella R.; Quartz, Karen Hunter

    1995-01-01

    Describes several promising new teacher support strategies implemented by California universities and their district partners as part of the California New Teacher Project, noting resources expended to implement each strategy. The strategies are framed according to their programmatic and economic dimensions. Strategies that make the most sense…

  11. Partnerships against Violence: Promising Programs. Volume 1: Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

    This volume represents the first step in an effort to build a central repository of promising anti-violence programs. Part of a cooperative venture in the federal government, this resource guide draws on information stored in more than 30 Federal clearinghouses and resource centers. Included here are programs developed by government agencies,…

  12. Promising Directions for Research Regarding Adult Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Alan B.

    Documents about adult education in Latin America at the Survey and Analysis Center of the Adult Education Association of the U.S.A. were reviewed to identify promising research directions. A theoretical framework for research should be developed and should include definitions of concepts and variables in different settings and identification of…

  13. Fulfilling the Promise: Do MOOCS Reach the Educationally Underserved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Lorrie; Manturuk, Kim; Simpkins, Ian; Goldwasser, Molly; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    When massive open online courses (MOOCs) began, they held the promise of bringing high-quality, college-level courses from leading academic institutions to people who otherwise would not have access to that type of content. In the ensuing years, it has become clear that the majority of MOOC students are not underserved in terms of educational…

  14. Diversity's Promise for Higher Education: Making It Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daryl G.

    2009-01-01

    Daryl G. Smith's career has been devoted to studying and fostering diversity in higher education. She has witnessed and encouraged the evolution of diversity from an issue addressed sporadically on college campuses to an imperative if institutions want to succeed. In "Diversity's Promise for Higher Education", she analyzes how diversity is…

  15. Promises to Practice: Learning a PROactive Approach to Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Mary Elizabeth; Steinbrunner, Ruth K.

    2007-01-01

    Learning to be PROactive, as the title of this article suggests, means Pooling one's knowledge, Reflecting respect, and Opening oneself to action. It recognizes early childhood educators' promises to their field of practice, based on widely held beliefs and principles. Educators can apply professional ethics to everyday problem solving and their…

  16. Promising Practices for Serving Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burcham, Barbara; Carlson, Laurance

    1994-01-01

    A recent study examined 25 promising educational practices for serving students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Administrators clearly have the greatest opportunity (and power) to shape the culture of the educational environment, whether as superintendent or principal. The effective administrator provides direction by developing and…

  17. The Kalamazoo Promise and Perceived Changes in School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Gary; Jones, Jeffrey N.; Kelaher-Young, Allison J.

    2011-01-01

    The Kalamazoo Promise was announced in the fall of 2005, offering free college tuition at any public state college or university for graduates of the district who have gained acceptance to a postsecondary institution. This program was funded through the generous support of anonymous donors, and a federally-funded evaluation is underway to examine…

  18. Promise and Progress of Millihertz Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2017-01-01

    Extending the new field of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy into the millihertz band with a space-based GW observatory is a high-priority objective of international astronomy community. This paper summarizes the astrophysical promise and the technological groundwork for such an observatory, concretely focusing on the prospects for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission concept.

  19. Fulfill Promises and Avoid Breaches to Retain Satisfied, Committed Nurses.

    PubMed

    Rodwell, John; Ellershaw, Julia

    2016-07-01

    This study examines two commonly proposed mechanisms, violation and trust, to see if they mediate the relationships between the components of the psychological contract (i.e., promises, fulfillment, and breach) and their impact on the work-related outcomes of job satisfaction, intent to quit, and organizational commitment. Online surveys were completed by 459 Australian nurses. Structural equation modeling revealed that breach and fulfillment have direct and mediated effects on the outcomes, whereas promises had no impact. Violation partially mediated the relationship between breach and job satisfaction and intent to quit, while trust partially mediated the relationships between fulfillment and organizational commitment, and breach and organizational commitment. Negative experiences (i.e., breaches) were related to both increased feelings of violation and decreased feelings of trust. In contrast, positive experiences (i.e., fulfillment) increased trust but did not significantly reduce feelings of violation. Nurse and organizational managers can use these findings to improve communication with nurses so as to minimize the negative effects of breach and maximize the positive effects of fulfillment and thus improve attitudes. Nurse managers need to be careful to make promises regarding their nurses' employment that they can fulfill and to particularly avoid breaking the psychological contract. The potentially disproportionate negative effect of breach means that a breach can undo a lot of efforts to fulfill employment-related promises. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. Parent Trigger Laws and the Promise of Parental Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William C.; Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parent trigger laws have gained momentum nationally under the premise that they will increase local authority by amplifying parental voice in the decision to turn around "failing" schools. Using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework we create two conceptual models of voice and evaluate the promise of voice in California, home of…

  1. Experimental Lung Cancer Drug Shows Early Promise | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A first-of-its-kind drug is showing early promise in attacking certain lung cancers that are hard to treat because they build up resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The drug, CO-1686, performed well in a preclinical study involving xenograft and transgenic mice, as reported in the journal Cancer Discovery. It is now being evaluated for

  2. Gender Equity Expert Panel: Exemplary & Promising Gender Equity Programs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Department of Education developed the Gender Equity Expert Panel to identify promising and exemplary programs that promote gender equity in and through education. This panel of experts reviewed self-nominated programs to determine whether they met four criteria: evidence of success/effectiveness in promoting gender equity; quality of the…

  3. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstad, Anne Helene; Garrett, Gerald; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in four European countries-Poland, Spain, Slovenia, and Italy-were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  4. Promising Practices: A Teacher Resource (Grades K-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzano, Johanna Z., Ed.

    A collection of promising instructional practices for teachers of limited-English-speaking primary grade students is organized as a series of lessons on planning, classroom management, teaching procedures, and evaluation in a variety of content areas. Examples of basic learning activities intended to serve as a framework for teacher…

  5. A Bold and Promising Model with a Few Loose Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt the authors' proposal of viewing gifted education in systemic terms is a promising one. In fact, it is most refreshing to read something eclectic like this with an aim to synthesize a field of research and practice which for too long has lacked consensus in both practice and theory. The author agrees with them that a mechanistic…

  6. Report Outlines Promising Opportunities for Addressing Climate Change

    Science.gov Websites

    Report Outlines Promising Opportunities for Addressing Climate Change For more information contact , have issued a major report that finds the United States can make impressive strides toward addressing climate change through smart policies and technologies. The report, "Scenarios for a Clean Energy

  7. The Challenge and Promise of a Catholic University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesburgh, Theodore M., Ed.

    This book offers 30 papers on the continuing discussion of the nature of a Catholic university. The papers are: "Introduction: The Challenge and Promise of a Catholic University" (Theodore M. Hesburgh); "Reflections on the Mission of a Catholic University" (Harold W. Attridge); "The Difference of a Catholic…

  8. Reducing Aggressive Male Behavior in Elementary School: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Barbara; Gibson, Jamel; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Student aggression and violent behavior, especially among males, is pervasive and problematic in the classroom. When incorporated in the lesson design, promising practices (music, movement, and visual stimulation) are evidence-based strategies that may reduce male aggression in the classroom.

  9. Keeping the Promise: Going the Distance on Transfer Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorette, Rob; Byrd, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Our new report, "Keeping the Promise: Going the Distance on Transfer Reform," has found significant improvements in the creation of a seamless transfer pathway between California Community Colleges and the California State Universities (CSU) since the passage of historic transfer reform legislation, SB1440, six years ago. This report…

  10. 78 FR 72851 - Proposed Priority-Promise Zones

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official edition of the Federal Register and the Code of... Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1- 800-877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background: The Promise..., which is available free at the site. You may also access documents of the Department published in the...

  11. Every Child Every Promise Workforce Readiness. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The third "Every Child, Every Promise" research brief focuses on the large percentage of the children and youth who will enter the workforce over the next two decades are lacking enough of the "soft" or applied skills--such as teamwork, decision-making, and communication--that will help them become effective employees and managers. The report…

  12. Fulfilling the Promise of School Choice. Education Outlook. No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2008-01-01

    Nearly two decades have passed since the Wisconsin legislature enacted the landmark Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. Advocates had hoped and promised that this experiment in school choice would lead the way in transforming American schools. But it is clear by now that voucher programs and charter school laws have failed to live up to their…

  13. Penguin Promises: Encouraging Aquarium Visitors to Take Conservation Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Judy Brenda; Ballantyne, Roy; Packer, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of an innovative conservation action campaign called "Penguin Promises" implemented at uShaka Sea World in Durban, South Africa. Communication tools included interpretive signage, exhibits with and without animals, presentations, and personal interactions, along with a specially designed postcard, on…

  14. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  15. Advancing Knowledge-Building Discourse through Judgments of Promising Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Bodong; Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating promisingness of ideas is an important but underdeveloped aspect of knowledge building. The goal of this research was to examine the extent to which Grade 3 students could make promisingness judgments to facilitate knowledge-building discourse. A Promising Ideas Tool was added to Knowledge Forum software to better support…

  16. Competency Education Offers Promise and Peril for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritterband, Vicki; Heller, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lindsay Unified School District (California) exemplifies the promise of competency education (or performance-based education, as it is called locally). Since beginning its transition to the model in 2009, discipline problems have sharply dropped, the school climate has dramatically improved (as measured by the California Healthy Kids Survey), and…

  17. Improving High School Success: Searching for Evidence of Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Christopher; Fleischman, Steve; Heppen, Jessica; Jahangir, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Improving the nation's high schools--particularly those that are low-performing--involves challenges that are far easier to catalog than to surmount. In this chapter, the authors identify a handful of promising approaches that can help to achieve the goal that all students will graduate from high school well-prepared for further learning,…

  18. Passport to College: Promise Scholarship Program Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Passport to College Promise Scholarship program was created by the 2007 Washington State Legislature (House Bill 1131) to help former foster youth prepare for and succeed in college. This status report addresses four areas: (1) proposed scholarship and student support approaches; (2) estimates of the number of students who will receive…

  19. The Math Promise: Celebrating at Home and School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legnard, Danielle; Austin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Math Promise is a contract that family members make with one another. They commit to spending mathematical time together; getting to know each other's mathematical thinking and understanding; and finding time to play math games, solve problems, and notice mathematics in their daily lives. Whether parents and children are cooking in the…

  20. Promises of Money Meant to Heighten Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Does motivating students to study harder with the promise of cash sound like innovation--or bribery? That's a question educators and researchers have been debating, amid concerns that money-for-achievement programs actually decrease students' intrinsic motivation to learn and send mixed messages about studying. But the idea is catching on, with…

  1. Journey to Freedom: Reflecting on Our Responsibilities, Renewing Our Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Cheryl Crazy

    2012-01-01

    Over the past four decades, tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) have emerged as a cutting-edge approach to post-secondary education in the United States and across the world. They have emerged as exceptional institutions--and their leaders still have promises to keep and new goals to achieve. As people look to the future of the tribal…

  2. The Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. Examples of...

  3. Utility, Limitations, and Promise of Proteomics in Animal Science

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in veterinary/animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing veterinary/animal science research. E...

  4. A Guide to Promising Practices in Educational Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodinger-deUriarte, Cristina; And Others

    This guide, which is designed for individuals interested in establishing joint endeavors among schools, social service agencies, cultural institutions, businesses, industries, and/or institutions of higher education, illustrates promising practices supporting and reflecting partnership activities. Part 1 is divided into three sections detailing…

  5. Promising Teacher Practices: Students' Views about Their Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeed, Azra; Easterbrook, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, conceptual and procedural understanding, understanding the Nature of Science, and scientific literacy are considered worthy goals of school science education in modern times. The empirical study presented here reports on promising teacher practices that in the students' views afford learning opportunities and support their science…

  6. Promising School-Based Strategies and Intervention Guidelines to Increase Physical Activity of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Berta Murillo; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Lanaspa, Eduardo Generelo; Bush, Paula L.; Casterad, Javier Zaragoza; Clemente, Jose A. Julian; Gonzalez, Luis Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review describes the available scientific evidence regarding promising school-based strategies to increase physical activity of adolescents. We conducted a literature search for studies published up to 2011, regarding adolescent physical activity intervention studies that resulted in increased physical activity (regardless of…

  7. What Happened to the Promise of "Brown"? An Organizational Explanation and an Outline for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas V.

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars from a number of fields have offered explanations as to why Brown v. Board of Education came up short in fully integrating school and society. Some have argued that the decision was a result of flawed logic or misguided litigation. Others have held that Brown fell short of its promises due to a lack of federal…

  8. The Impact of Advanced Curriculum on the Achievement of Mathematically Promising Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Adelson, Jill L.; Carroll, Susan R.; Sheffield, Linda Jensen

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of Project M[superscript 3]: Mentoring Mathematical Minds was to develop and field test advanced units for mathematically promising elementary students based on exemplary practices in gifted and mathematics education. This article describes the development of the units and reports on mathematics achievement results for students in…

  9. Traveling Old Roads Deeper into the Woods Leaves Promises to Keep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1990-01-01

    Questions activities of the Holmes Group, noting that, if the activities do not result in the exemplification of excellence in teaching and teacher education, the group's claim to leadership is questionable. The criticism claims that the group discourages more fundamental and promising changes in teacher education than it advocates. (SM)

  10. Study of Air Pollution from Space Using TOMS: Challenges and Promises for Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2002-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments built by NASA has flown on US, Russian, and Japanese satellites in the last 24 years. These instruments are well known for producing spectacular maps of the ozone hole that forms over Antarctica each spring. However, it is less well known that these instruments also provided first evidence that space-based measurements in UV of sufficiently high precision and accuracy can provide valuable information to study global air quality. We will use the TOMS experience to highlight the promises and challenges of future space-based missions designed specifically for air quality studies.

  11. Producing Hydrogen With Sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1987-01-01

    Costs high but reduced by further research. Producing hydrogen fuel on large scale from water by solar energy practical if plant costs reduced, according to study. Sunlight attractive energy source because it is free and because photon energy converts directly to chemical energy when it breaks water molecules into diatomic hydrogen and oxygen. Conversion process low in efficiency and photochemical reactor must be spread over large area, requiring large investment in plant. Economic analysis pertains to generic photochemical processes. Does not delve into details of photochemical reactor design because detailed reactor designs do not exist at this early stage of development.

  12. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-09-16

    Improvements are presented in calutron devices and, more specifically, dealswith an improved mounting arrangement fer the ion source of the calutron. An important feature of the invention resides in a pluraiity of insulators so mounted as to be accessible from the exterior of the calutron tank and supporting at their inner ends the ion source. These insutators are arranged in mutually parallel relation and also parallel to the flux of the nmgnetic field, whereby the strain of the supporting elements is reduced to a minimum. In addition the support assembly is secured to a removable wall portion of the task to facilitate withdrawal and examination of the ion producing mechanism.

  13. Design Producibility Assessment System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-30

    Data Base Material Code 17 - 4PH Manufactu Description Precipitation-Handling, corrosion-resist steel Strategic? No Strip Sheet Bar Wire Tube Yes Yes Yes...planned production quantity: 10000 PRODUCTION FACILITIES 5 Select the design material: 17 - 4PH <PgUp> Page Up, <PgDn> Page Down, <Fl> Help, <Esc> Exit DPAS...vl.00 Saturday June 17 , 1989 11:06 am Design Producibility Assessment System Select the design material: 17 - 4PH Select the design material’s form

  14. Complex functionality with minimal computation: Promise and pitfalls of reduced-tracer ocean biogeochemistry models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbraith, Eric D.; Dunne, John P.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Slater, Richard D.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Dufour, Carolina O.; de Souza, Gregory F.; Bianchi, Daniele; Claret, Mariona; Rodgers, Keith B.; Marvasti, Seyedehsafoura Sedigh

    2015-12-01

    Earth System Models increasingly include ocean biogeochemistry models in order to predict changes in ocean carbon storage, hypoxia, and biological productivity under climate change. However, state-of-the-art ocean biogeochemical models include many advected tracers, that significantly increase the computational resources required, forcing a trade-off with spatial resolution. Here, we compare a state-of-the art model with 30 prognostic tracers (TOPAZ) with two reduced-tracer models, one with 6 tracers (BLING), and the other with 3 tracers (miniBLING). The reduced-tracer models employ parameterized, implicit biological functions, which nonetheless capture many of the most important processes resolved by TOPAZ. All three are embedded in the same coupled climate model. Despite the large difference in tracer number, the absence of tracers for living organic matter is shown to have a minimal impact on the transport of nutrient elements, and the three models produce similar mean annual preindustrial distributions of macronutrients, oxygen, and carbon. Significant differences do exist among the models, in particular the seasonal cycle of biomass and export production, but it does not appear that these are necessary consequences of the reduced tracer number. With increasing CO2, changes in dissolved oxygen and anthropogenic carbon uptake are very similar across the different models. Thus, while the reduced-tracer models do not explicitly resolve the diversity and internal dynamics of marine ecosystems, we demonstrate that such models are applicable to a broad suite of major biogeochemical concerns, including anthropogenic change. These results are very promising for the further development and application of reduced-tracer biogeochemical models that incorporate "sub-ecosystem-scale" parameterizations.

  15. Complex functionality with minimal computation. Promise and pitfalls of reduced-tracer ocean biogeochemistry models

    DOE PAGES

    Galbraith, Eric D.; Dunne, John P.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; ...

    2015-12-21

    Earth System Models increasingly include ocean biogeochemistry models in order to predict changes in ocean carbon storage, hypoxia, and biological productivity under climate change. However, state-of-the-art ocean biogeochemical models include many advected tracers, that significantly increase the computational resources required, forcing a trade-off with spatial resolution. Here, we compare a state-of the art model with 30 prognostic tracers (TOPAZ) with two reduced-tracer models, one with 6 tracers (BLING), and the other with 3 tracers (miniBLING). The reduced-tracer models employ parameterized, implicit biological functions, which nonetheless capture many of the most important processes resolved by TOPAZ. All three are embedded inmore » the same coupled climate model. Despite the large difference in tracer number, the absence of tracers for living organic matter is shown to have a minimal impact on the transport of nutrient elements, and the three models produce similar mean annual preindustrial distributions of macronutrients, oxygen, and carbon. Significant differences do exist among the models, in particular the seasonal cycle of biomass and export production, but it does not appear that these are necessary consequences of the reduced tracer number. With increasing CO2, changes in dissolved oxygen and anthropogenic carbon uptake are very similar across the different models. Thus, while the reduced-tracer models do not explicitly resolve the diversity and internal dynamics of marine ecosystems, we demonstrate that such models are applicable to a broad suite of major biogeochemical concerns, including anthropogenic change. Lastly, these results are very promising for the further development and application of reduced-tracer biogeochemical models that incorporate ‘‘sub-ecosystem-scale’’ parameterizations.« less

  16. Promising Ta-Ti-Zr-Si metallic glass coating without cytotoxic elements for bio-implant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, J. J.; Lin, Y. S.; Chang, C. H.; Wei, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Liao, Z. X.; Lin, C. H.; Chen, C. H.

    2018-01-01

    Tantalum (Ta) is considered as one of the most promising metal due to its high corrosion resistance, excellent biocompatibility and cell adhesion/in-growth capabilities. Although there are some researches exploring the biomedical aspects of Ta and Ta based alloys, systematic characterizations of newly developed Ta-based metallic glasses in bio-implant applications is still lacking. This study employs sputtering approach to produced thin-film Ti-based metallic glasses due to the high melting temperature of Ta (3020 °C). Two fully amorphous Ta-based metallic glasses composed of Ta57Ti17Zr15Si11 and Ta75Ti10Zr8Si7 are produced and experimentally characterized in terms of their mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties, surface hydrophilic characteristics, and in-vitro cell viability and cells attachment tests. Compare to conventional pure Ti and Ta metals, the developed Ta-based metallic glasses exhibit higher hardness and lower modulus which are better match to the mechanical properties of bone. MTS assay results show that Ta-based metallic glasses show comparable cell viability and cell attachment rate compared to that of pure Ti and Ta surface in a 72 h in-vitro test.

  17. Oleogels, a promising structured oil for decreasing saturated fatty acid concentrations: Production and food-based applications.

    PubMed

    Pehlivanoğlu, Halime; Demirci, Mehmet; Toker, Omer Said; Konar, Nevzat; Karasu, Salih; Sagdic, Osman

    2018-05-24

    Oils and fats are widely used in the food formulations in order to improve nutritional and some quality characteristics of food products. Solid fats produced from oils by hydrogenization, interesterification, and fractionation processes are widely used in different foodstuffs for these aims. In recent years, consumer awareness of relation between diet and health has increased which can cause worry about solid fat including products in terms of their high saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents. Therefore, different attempts have been carried out to find alternative ways to produce solid fat with low saturated fatty acid content. One of the promising ways is using oleogels, structuring oils with oleogelators. In this review, history, raw materials and production methods of the oleogels and their functions in oleogel quality were mentioned. Moreover, studies related with oleogel usage in different products were summarized and positive and negative aspects of oleogel were also mentioned. Considering the results of the related studies, it can be concluded that oleogels can be used in the formulation of bakery products, breakfast spreads, margarines, chocolates and chocolate-derived products and some of the meat products.

  18. EDC Cross-linking of Decellularized Tissue: A Promising Approach?

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Nadine; Christ, Torsten; Daugs, Aila; Bloch, Oliver; Holinski, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    Decellularization of xenogenous cardiovascular structures is a promising approach to create scaffolds for tissue engineering. Unfortunately, handling and pliability of the unfixed tissue is challenging. N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N9-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) is an alternative cross-linking agent to glutaraldehyde (GA). Applied in native tissue, it provides biocompatibility and shows no potential for calcification. In addition, EDC can be used to link growth factors (GFs) to tissue scaffolds after decellularization. EDC cross-linking could thereby help to improve decellularized tissue without the toxicity of GA. Porcine aortic wall tissue specimens (TS) were decellularized, treated with EDC, and coated with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Afterward, TS were subcutaneously implanted in 36 Lewis rats along with one decellularized TS without EDC treatment. After 2, 4, and 6 weeks TS were explanted from 12 rats, respectively. Vital cells were evaluated by RNA quantification, general cellular infiltration by hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E), macrophage infiltration by CD68 staining, calcification by Von-Kossa staining, and tissue degradation by measurement of TS thickness. Quantification of vital cells showed reduced reseeding of EDC-treated TS compared to noncross-linked TS after 2 (p < 0.05) and 4 weeks (p < 0.05), while after 6 weeks only EDC+VEGF showed fewer viable cells (p < 0.01). Histological evaluation confirmed a reduced infiltration of EDC-treated TS. Macrophage infiltration decreased in all groups from 2 to 6 weeks, with the smallest population in EDC+VEGF-treated TS (p > 0.05). In EDC+FGF-treated TS, macrophages were reduced after 2 weeks compared to noncross-linked TS (p < 0.05), while after 4 and 6 weeks no significant difference was found (p > 0.05). Von-Kossa staining revealed no calcification in any of the specimens. Thickness of noncross-linked and EDC+FGF-treated TS was not

  19. Assessment of herbal drugs for promising anti-Candida activity.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Sameh S M; Semreen, Mohammad H; El-Keblawy, Ali A; Abdullah, Arbab; Uppuluri, Priya; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2017-05-08

    against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and the multidrug resistant (MDR) A. baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Both extracts showed no toxicity when measured at their MIC on human erythrocytes. The results from this study suggested that L. inermis and P. oleracea extracts and/or their chemicals are likely to be promising drugs for human use against C. albicans and MDR bacteria.

  20. Dronedarone: a promising alternative for the management of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Yalta, Kenan; Turgut, Okan Onur; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Tandogan, Izzet

    2009-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently encountered chronic arrhythmia associated with significant morbidity. It is generally encountered in the elderly, and will presumably become more prevalent in the future due to the increasing proportion of the elderly in the population. Major studies on AF have demonstrated no significant difference between rhythm and rate control in terms of mortality. However, young population with new-onset or lone AF, or patients in whom the maintenance of sinus rhythm is a must (due to recurrent thromboembolic events etc.) still gives rise to significant concerns related to the obligatory long-term prophylaxis. The long-term administration of the currently available conventional agents (amiodarone, dofetilide, sotalol, propafenone,flecainide etc.) is considered as a 'double edged sword' due to the presence of life-threatening adverse effects including pro-arrhythmia and organ toxicity associated with these agents. Several molecules are being developed for the management of AF. However, only a few novel agents confer promising results with respect to safety and efficacy issues in the major studies. Dronedarone is an amiodarone analogue without iodine moiety in its structure, and is similar to amiodarone with regard to its structural and electrophysiological properties. Dronedarone is largely denuded of the potentially life-threatening adverse effects of anti-arrhythmics. Major clinical studies have demonstrated both rhythm and rate-controlling efficacy of dronedarone compared to placebo without any serious adverse effects in patients with AF. However, the ANDROMEDA trial, a large scale study including patients hospitalized for symptomatic congestive heart failure (with severely depressed left ventricular systolic functions) was prematurely terminated due to the increased mortality in the dronedarone arm compared to placebo indicating a lack of safety in this group of patients. Conversely, the recently published ATHENA study

  1. METHOD FOR PRODUCING THORIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Mason, E.A.; Cobb, C.M.

    1960-03-15

    A process for producing thorium tetrachloride from thorium concentrate comprises reacting thorium concentrates with a carbonaceous reducing agent in excess of 0.05 part by weight per part of thoriferous concentrate at a temperature in excess of 1300 deg C, cooling and comminuting the mass, chlorinating the resulting comminuting mass by suspending in a gaseous chlorinating agent in a fluidized reactor at a temperatare maintained between about l85 deg C and 770 deg C, and removing the resulting solid ThCl/sub 4/ from the reaction zone.

  2. Generation of a transplantable erythropoietin-producer derived from human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yokoo, Takashi; Fukui, Akira; Matsumoto, Kei; Ohashi, Toya; Sado, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Hideaki; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Okabe, Masataka; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2008-06-15

    Differentiation of autologous stem cells into functional transplantable tissue for organ regeneration is a promising regenerative therapeutic approach for cancer, diabetes, and many human diseases. Yet to be established, however, is differentiation into tissue capable of producing erythropoietin (EPO), which has a critical function in anemia. We report a novel EPO-producing organ-like structure (organoid) derived from human mesenchymal stem cells. Using our previously established relay culture system, a human mesenchymal stem cell-derived, human EPO-competent organoid was established in rat omentum. The organoid-derived levels of human EPO increased in response to anemia induced by rapid blood withdrawal. In addition, the presence of an organoid in rats suppressed for native (rat) EPO production enhanced recovery from anemia when compared with control animals lacking the organoid. Together these results confirmed the generation of a stem cell-derived organoid that is capable of producing EPO and sensitive to physiological regulation.

  3. Image is more than a uniform: the promise of assurance.

    PubMed

    Wocial, Lucia D; Sego, Kelly; Rager, Carrie; Laubersheimer, Shellee; Everett, Linda Q

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning of the phrase "image of the nurse" in the context of the desired brand experience of assurance. A brand is a promise that lives in the minds of consumers. Nurses play a key role in delivering on the brand promise of a hospital. Using focus groups, the authors applied a deductive approach to generate data. Discussion transcripts were analyzed by establishing codes and identifying themes. The most frequent comment from participants was that for nurses to communicate assurance, they must 1st be clean, well groomed, and understated in overall appearance. Nurse behaviors that reassure patients include being present with patients, helping patients know what to expect, and demonstrating a consistent team approach. Overall appearance and behaviors define the image of nurses and contribute significantly to the brand of assurance.

  4. Latino Immigrants, Acculturation, and Health: Promising New Directions in Research.

    PubMed

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; Echeverría, Sandra E; Flórez, Karen R

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes that we identify as promising directions--intrapersonal, interpersonal, social environmental, community, political, and global contexts, cross-cutting themes in life course and developmental approaches, and segmented assimilation--and discuss the challenges and opportunities each theme presents. This body of work, which considers acculturation in context, points to the emergence of a new wave of research that holds great promise in driving forward the study of Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. We provide suggestions to further advance the ideologic and methodologic rigor of this new wave.

  5. Thymoquinone-based nanotechnology for cancer therapy: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ballout, Farah; Habli, Zeina; Rahal, Omar Nasser; Fatfat, Maamoun; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala

    2018-05-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of black seed, is a promising anticancer molecule that inhibits cancer cell growth and progression in vitro and in vivo. Despite the promising anticancer activities of TQ, its translation to the clinic is limited by its poor bioavailability and hydrophobicity. As such, we and others encapsulated TQ in nanoparticles to improve its delivery and limit undesirable cytotoxicity. These TQ-nanoparticle formulations showed improved anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities when compared with free TQ. Here, we provide an overview of the various TQ-nanoparticle formulations, highlight their superior efficacy and discuss up-to-date solutions to further enhance TQ bioavailability and anticancer activity, thus improving potential for clinical translation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ebola vaccines in clinical trial: The promising candidates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuxiao; Li, Jingxin; Hu, Yuemei; Liang, Qi; Wei, Mingwei; Zhu, Fengcai

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ebola virus disease (EVD) has become a great threat to humans across the world in recent years. The 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa caused numerous deaths and attracted worldwide attentions. Since no specific drugs and treatments against EVD was available, vaccination was considered as the most promising and effective method of controlling this epidemic. So far, 7 vaccine candidates had been developed and evaluated through clinical trials. Among them, the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine (rVSV-EBOV) is the most promising candidate, which demonstrated a significant protection against EVD in phase III clinical trial. However, several concerns were still associated with the Ebola vaccine candidates, including the safety profile in some particular populations, the immunization schedule for emergency vaccination, and the persistence of the protection. We retrospectively reviewed the current development of Ebola vaccines and discussed issues and challenges remaining to be investigated in the future. PMID:27764560

  7. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SHADOWGRAPHS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, R.R.

    1959-08-11

    An apparatus is presented for obtaining shadowgraphs or radiographs of an object exposed to x rays or the like. The device includes the combination of a cloud chamber having the interior illuminated and a portion thereof transparent to light rays and x'rays, a controlled source of x rays spaced therefrom, photographic recording disposed laterally of the linear path intermediate the source and the chamber portion in oblique angularity in aspect to the path. The object to be studied is disposed intermediate the x-ray source and chamber in the linear path to provide an x-ray transmission barrier therebetween. The shadowgraph is produced in the cloud chamber in response to initiation of the x- ray source and recorded photographically.

  8. America Promises to Come Back: A New National Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-26

    plants, and other government capa- bilities, should be studied by a Blue-Ribbon Panel assisted by 61 industria .. and proressional associations. This ertort...Conference of the International Institute for Strate- gic Studies (IISS) on September 6th, explained that the new strategic concepts would form the basis of...Reserve forces which could be returned within a reasonable period. This may not be the case , and America’s promise to return may indeed be within the

  9. Experimental Lung Cancer Drug Shows Early Promise | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A first-of-its-kind drug is showing early promise in attacking certain lung cancers that are hard to treat because they build up resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The drug, CO-1686, performed well in a preclinical study involving xenograft and transgenic mice, as reported in the journal Cancer Discovery. It is now being evaluated for safety and efficacy in Phase I and II clinical trials.

  10. [Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2013-10-01

    The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield.

  11. Discovery and therapeutic promise of selective androgen receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiyun; Kim, Juhyun; Dalton, James T

    2005-06-01

    Androgens are essential for male development and the maintenance of male secondary characteristics, such as bone mass, muscle mass, body composition, and spermatogenesis. The main disadvantages of steroidal androgens are their undesirable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The recent discovery of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) provides a promising alternative for testosterone replacement therapies with advantages including oral bioavailability, flexibility of structural modification, androgen receptor specificity, tissue selectivity, and the lack of steroid-related side effects.

  12. Discovery AND Therapeutic Promise OF Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiyun; Kim, Juhyun; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Androgens are essential for male development and the maintenance of male secondary characteristics, such as bone mass, muscle mass, body composition, and spermatogenesis. The main disadvantages of steroidal androgens are their undesirable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The recent discovery of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) provides a promising alternative for testosterone replacement therapies with advantages including oral bioavailability, flexibility of structural modification, androgen receptor specificity, tissue selectivity, and the lack of steroid-related side effects. PMID:15994457

  13. Rapid screening of tannase producing microbes by using natural tannin

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

    2012-01-01

    Use of natural tannin in the screening of tannase producing microbes is really promising. The present work describes about the possibility and integrity of the newly formulated method over the previously reported methods. Tannin isolated from Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Bahera) was used to differentiate between tanninolytic and nontanninolytic microbes. The method is simple, sensitive and superior for the rapid screening and isolation of tannase-producing microbes. PMID:24031931

  14. Rapid screening of tannase producing microbes by using natural tannin.

    PubMed

    Jana, Arijit; Maity, Chiranjit; Halder, Suman Kumar; Pati, Bikas Ranjan; Mondal, Keshab Chandra; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

    2012-07-01

    Use of natural tannin in the screening of tannase producing microbes is really promising. The present work describes about the possibility and integrity of the newly formulated method over the previously reported methods. Tannin isolated from Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Bahera) was used to differentiate between tanninolytic and nontanninolytic microbes. The method is simple, sensitive and superior for the rapid screening and isolation of tannase-producing microbes.

  15. Promising Targets in Anti-cancer Drug Development: Recent Updates.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhupinder; Singh, Sandeep; Skvortsova, Ira; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease and its genesis and progression are extremely complex. The biggest problem in the anticancer drug development is acquiring of multidrug resistance and relapse. Classical chemotherapeutics directly target the DNA of the cell, while the contemporary anticancer drugs involve molecular-targeted therapy such as targeting the proteins possessing abnormal expression inside the cancer cells. Conventional strategies for the complete eradication of the cancer cells proved ineffective. Targeted chemotherapy was successful in certain malignancies however, the effectiveness has often been limited by drug resistance and side effects on normal tissues and cells. Since last few years, many promising drug targets have been identified for the effective treatment of cancer. The current review article describes some of these promising anticancer targets that include kinases, tubulin, cancer stem cells, monoclonal antibodies and vascular targeting agents. In addition, promising drug candidates under various phases of clinical trials are also described. Multi-acting drugs that simultaneously target different cancer cell signaling pathways may facilitate the process of effective anti-cancer drug development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Fe N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes as Promising Photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yizhu; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2016-08-16

    The photophysics and photochemistry of transition metal complexes (TMCs) has long been a hot field of interdisciplinary research. Rich metal-based redox processes, together with a high variety in electronic configurations and excited-state dynamics, have rendered TMCs excellent candidates for interconversion between light, chemical, and electrical energies in intramolecular, supramolecular, and interfacial arrangements. In specific applications such as photocatalytic organic synthesis, photoelectrochemical cells, and light-driven supramolecular motors, light absorption by a TMC-based photosensitizer and subsequent excited-state energy or electron transfer constitute essential steps. In this context, TMCs based on rare and expensive metals, such as ruthenium and iridium, are frequently employed as photosensitizers, which is obviously not ideal for large-scale implementation. In the search for abundant and environmentally benign solutions, six-coordinate Fe(II) complexes (Fe(II)L6) have been widely considered as highly desirable alternatives. However, not much success has been achieved due to the extremely short-lived triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) excited state that is deactivated by low-lying metal-centered (MC) states on a 100 fs time scale. A fundamental strategy to design useful Fe-based photosensitizers is thus to destabilize the MC states relative to the (3)MLCT state by increasing the ligand field strength, with special focus on making eg σ* orbitals on the Fe center energetically less accessible. Previous efforts to directly transplant successful strategies from Ru(II)L6 complexes unfortunately met with limited success in this regard, despite their close chemical kinship. In this Account, we summarize recent promising results from our and other groups in utilizing strongly σ-donating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands to make strong-field Fe(II)L6 complexes with significantly extended (3)MLCT lifetimes. Already some of the first

  17. Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

  18. NREL Develops Novel Method to Produce Renewable Acrylonitrile | News | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    to Produce Renewable Acrylonitrile December 7, 2017 Research paves the way for cost-competitive , and Eric Karp, part of the NREL team working on a cost-competitive, sustainable process for creating traditional process in terms of cost and yield. Now, new NREL research is showing promise toward achieving

  19. Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Procópio, Rudi Emerson de Lima; Silva, Ingrid Reis da; Martins, Mayra Kassawara; Azevedo, João Lúcio de; Araújo, Janete Magali de

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that grows in various environments, and its shape resembles filamentous fungi. The morphological differentiation of Streptomyces involves the formation of a layer of hyphae that can differentiate into a chain of spores. The most interesting property of Streptomyces is the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, such as antifungals, antivirals, antitumorals, anti-hypertensives, immunosuppressants, and especially antibiotics. The production of most antibiotics is species specific, and these secondary metabolites are important for Streptomyces species in order to compete with other microorganisms that come in contact, even within the same genre. Despite the success of the discovery of antibiotics, and advances in the techniques of their production, infectious diseases still remain the second leading cause of death worldwide, and bacterial infections cause approximately 17 million deaths annually, affecting mainly children and the elderly. Self-medication and overuse of antibiotics is another important factor that contributes to resistance, reducing the lifetime of the antibiotic, thus causing the constant need for research and development of new antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Produce Sanitation System Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    the  amount in each product’s case.     Table 2: Produce Packaging  Product  Amount  Tomatoes  25 lb  Broccoli   20 lb  Iceberg lettuce  6 heads...on  the  four  leafy green and rooted  type  FF&V  (i.e.,  broccoli ,  iceberg  lettuce,  romaine  lettuce,  and  potatoes)  to  assess  the  effect...X‐Green Soak Cycle Times  Item  Min  Tomatoes  2  Broccoli   3  Iceberg lettuce  3  Romaine lettuce  3  Potatoes  8  *Pears  2  *Pears were not

  1. Cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopička, K.; Fišer, M.; Hradilek, P.; Hanč, P.; Lebeda, O.

    2003-01-01

    Some of the cyclotron-produced radionuclides may serve as important materials for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. This lecture deals with basic information relating to various aspects of these compounds. In comparison with radionuclides/compounds used for non-medical purposes, radiopharmaceuticals are subject to a broader scale of regulations, both from the safety and efficacy point of view; besides that, there are both radioactive and medical aspects that must be taken into account for any radiopharmaceutical. According to the regulations and in compliance with general rules of work with radioactivity, radiopharmaceuticals should only be prepared/manufactured under special conditions, using special areas and special equipment and applying special procedures (e.g. sterilisation, disinfection, aseptic work). Also, there are special procedures for cleaning and maintenance. Sometimes the requirements for the product safety clash with those for the safety of the personnel; several examples of solutions pertaining to these cases are given in the lecture. Also, the specific role of cyclotron radiopharmaceuticals is discussed.

  2. A policy analysis of adult literacy promotion in the Third World: An accounting of promises made and promises fulfilled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1985-09-01

    To the individual, literacy has promised a new mentality, a new social definition, and new economic capacities. At the collective level, literacy has promised modernization of institutions, democratization of political systems, and cultural renewal of societies in the Third World. Have the promises of literacy been fulfilled? The processes of policy formulation, policy analysis and policy assessment are essentially social processes and a search for `proof' of the effects of literacy is naive, to say the least. What we need is a position on literacy promotion that is plausible, credible and probable, and thereby compelling for action. While both the enthusiasts for literacy and the sceptics continue to draw different conclusions from the same research and experience, a consensus is emerging that the question `Why Literacy?' should now be laid to rest. The question to ask now should be: `How Literacy?' In regard to the question of `How Literacy?', there are two basic positions: Should literacy be taught within the specific small-frame of the selective and intensive approach to literacy, with the provision of basic needs? Or, should literacy be taught within a large-frame of literacy as a `potential added', on a mass-scale and with the political orientation? This paper clearly opts for literacy as generative rather than merely instrumental.

  3. Promised and delivered inducements and contributions: an integrated view of psychological contract appraisal.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Lisa Schurer

    2011-07-01

    The reciprocal exchange of employees' work for pay that is central to employment relationships is viewed here through the lens of the psychological contract. A psychological contract involves promised inducements, promised contributions, delivered inducements, and delivered contributions: How an employee cognitively integrates these 4 elements is a central question in psychological contract theory. Three alternative approaches for integrating the 4 elements were drawn from discrepancy theory, from equity theory, and from need theories of satisfaction, respectively. Experimental findings disconfirmed the discrepancy and equity approaches. Findings were consistent with the premise of the needs model, which is that appraisal is driven by how psychological contract elements facilitate or hinder an employee's effort to fulfill personal needs. Results showed that promised and delivered pay and work contribute uniquely to appraisal but that they vary in their influence on appraisal. These findings were consistent with the needs model principle that elements proximal to need satisfaction matter more than distal elements. That is, what is delivered (for pay and for work) matters more than what is promised, and pay matters more than work.

  4. The interleukin-23/interleukin-17 immune axis as a promising new target in the treatment of spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yeremenko, Nataliya; Paramarta, Jacqueline E; Baeten, Dominique

    2014-07-01

    Various novel therapies for spondyloarthritis (SpA) are currently under development. In this review, we discuss the scientific rational to target the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis in SpA and give an overview of the proof-of-concept trials with drugs directed towards this axis. Cumulative evidence from genetics (e.g. the strong genetic association with the IL-23 receptor gene), in-vitro models (e.g. the increased IL-23 production upon HLA-B27 misfolding), human expression studies (e.g. the expansion of IL-17 producing innate cells in SpA) and animal models (e.g. the increased IL-17 production in HLA-B27 transgenic rats) strongly supports the involvement of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in the pathogenesis of SpA. Ustekinumab (a monoclonal antibody directed against the common p40 subunit of IL-23 and IL-12), secukinumab, ixekizumab (both monoclonal antibodies directed against IL-17A), and brodalumab a monoclonal antibody against the IL-17RA receptor) have been recently used in proof-of-concept and randomized trials in the ankylosing spondylitis and/or psoriatic arthritis subforms of SpA, with overall very promising clinical efficacy. The first results for novel drugs blocking key cytokines in the IL-23/IL-17 axis are promising in SpA and more novel compounds are upcoming. This will teach us more on the role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in the pathophysiology of SpA.

  5. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, F.F.

    1959-04-14

    This patent pertains to calutrons and more particularly to means for introducing gas at selected points in the arc chamber of a calutron source to remedy unsteadiness in the arc, The disclosed ion source has a baffle at the gas entrance in the arc chamber for directing part of the gas fiow toward the anodc end of the chamber. The resulting arc is much steadier, resulting in an ion beam of increased current.

  6. Ion producing mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, F. F.

    1959-04-14

    This patent pertains to calutrons and more particularly to means for introducing gas at selected points in the arc chamber of a calutron source to remedy unsteadiness in the arc. The disclosed ion source has a baffle at the gas entrance in the arc chamber for directing part of the gas flow toward the anode end of the chamber. The resulting arc is much steadier, resulting in an ion beam of increased current.

  7. Design, challenge, and promise of stimuli-responsive nanoantibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edson, Julius A.; Kwon, Young Jik

    2016-10-01

    Over the past few years, there have been calls for novel antimicrobials to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria. While some promising new discoveries have met this call, it is not nearly enough. The major problem is that although these new promising antimicrobials serve as a short-term solution, they lack the potential to provide a long-term solution. The conventional method of creating new antibiotics relies heavily on the discovery of an antimicrobial compound from another microbe. This paradigm of development is flawed due to the fact that microbes can easily transfer a resistant mechanism if faced with an environmental pressure. Furthermore, there has been some evidence to indicate that the environment of the microbe can provide a hint as to their virulence. Because of this, the use of materials with antimicrobial properties has been garnering interest. Nanoantibiotics, (nAbts), provide a new way to circumvent the current paradigm of antimicrobial discovery and presents a novel mechanism of attack not found in microbes yet; which may lead to a longer-term solution against drug-resistance formation. This allows for environment-specific activation and efficacy of the nAbts but may also open up and create new design methods for various applications. These nAbts provide promise, but there is still ample work to be done in their development. This review looks at possible ways of improving and optimizing nAbts by making them stimuli-responsive, then consider the challenges ahead, and industrial applications.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  9. Microparticles in sickle cell anaemia: promise and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Hebbel, Robert P; Key, Nigel S

    2016-07-01

    Blood from patients with sickle cell disease contains microparticles (MP) derived from multiple cell sources, including red cells, platelets, monocytes and endothelial cells. MPs are of great interest because of their disease associations, their status as promising biomarkers, and the intercellular communications they mediate. To illustrate the likelihood of their relevance in sickle cell disease, we discuss the nature of MP, their profiling in sickle disease, some caveats relevant to their detection, their roles in supporting coagulation and the disparate influences they may exert upon the pathobiology of sickle cell disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. N-Cinnamoylated Aminoquinolines as Promising Antileishmanial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Vale-Costa, S.; Costa-Gouveia, J.; Pérez, B.; Silva, T.; Teixeira, C.; Gomes, P.

    2013-01-01

    A series of cinnamic acid conjugates of primaquine and chloroquine were evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial activities. Although primaquine derivatives had modest activity, chloroquine conjugates exhibited potent activity against both promastigotes (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 2.6 to 21.8 μM) and intramacrophagic amastigotes (IC50 = 1.2 to 9.3 μM) of Leishmania infantum. Both the high activity of these chloroquine analogues and their mild-to-low toxicity toward host cells make them promising leads for the discovery of new antileishmanial agents. PMID:23917315

  11. N-cinnamoylated aminoquinolines as promising antileishmanial agents.

    PubMed

    Vale-Costa, S; Costa-Gouveia, J; Pérez, B; Silva, T; Teixeira, C; Gomes, P; Gomes, M S

    2013-10-01

    A series of cinnamic acid conjugates of primaquine and chloroquine were evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial activities. Although primaquine derivatives had modest activity, chloroquine conjugates exhibited potent activity against both promastigotes (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 2.6 to 21.8 μM) and intramacrophagic amastigotes (IC50 = 1.2 to 9.3 μM) of Leishmania infantum. Both the high activity of these chloroquine analogues and their mild-to-low toxicity toward host cells make them promising leads for the discovery of new antileishmanial agents.

  12. Porous liquids: A promising class of media for gas separation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Jinshui; Chai, Song -Hai; Qiao, Zhen -An; ...

    2014-11-17

    In porous liquids with empty cavities we successfully has been successfully fabricated by surface engineering of hollow structures with suitable corona and canopy species. By taking advantage of the liquid-like polymeric matrices as a separation medium and the empty cavities as gas transport pathway, this unique porous liquid can function as a promising candidate for gas separation. A facile synthetic strategy can be further extended to other types of nanostructure-based porous liquid fabrication, opening up new opportunities for preparation of porous liquids with attractive properties for specific tasks.

  13. Genetics of tardive dyskinesia: Promising leads and ways forward.

    PubMed

    Zai, Clement C; Maes, Miriam S; Tiwari, Arun K; Zai, Gwyneth C; Remington, Gary; Kennedy, James L

    2018-06-15

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially irreversible and often debilitating movement disorder secondary to chronic use of dopamine receptor blocking medications. Genetic factors have been implicated in the etiology of TD. We therefore have reviewed the most promising genes associated with TD, including DRD2, DRD3, VMAT2, HSPG2, HTR2A, HTR2C, and SOD2. In addition, we present evidence supporting a role for these genes from preclinical models of TD. The current understanding of the etiogenesis of TD is discussed in the light of the recent approvals of valbenazine and deutetrabenazine, VMAT2 inhibitors, for treating TD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The microeconomics of personalized medicine: today's challenge and tomorrow's promise.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jerel C; Furstenthal, Laura; Desai, Amar A; Norris, Troy; Sutaria, Saumya; Fleming, Edd; Ma, Philip

    2009-04-01

    'Personalized medicine' promises to increase the quality of clinical care and, in some cases, decrease health-care costs. Despite this, only a handful of diagnostic tests have made it to market, with mixed success. Historically, the challenges in this field were scientific. However, as discussed in this article, with the maturation of the '-omics' sciences, it now seems that the major barriers are increasingly related to economics. Overcoming the poor microeconomic alignment of incentives among key stakeholders is therefore crucial to catalysing the further development and adoption of personalized medicine, and we propose several actions that could help achieve this goal.

  15. Promising intervention strategies to reduce parents' use of physical punishment.

    PubMed

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Lee, Shawna J; Durrant, Joan E

    2017-09-01

    The strong and ever-growing evidence base demonstrating that physical punishment places children at risk for a range of negative outcomes, coupled with global recognition of children's inherent rights to protection and dignity, has led to the emergence of programs specifically designed to prevent physical punishment by parents. This paper describes promising programs and strategies designed for each of three levels of intervention - indicated, selective, and universal - and summarizes the existing evidence base of each. Areas for further program development and evaluation are identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Method for producing capsular polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Gil F. (Inventor); Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  17. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven

    2015-11-24

    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  18. Young Children’s Understanding That Promising Guarantees Performance: The Effects of Age and Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Evans, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies, with 102 nonmaltreated 3- to 6-year-old children and 96 maltreated 4- to 7-year-old children, examined children’s understanding of the relative strengths of “I promise,” “I will,” “I might,” and “I won’t,” to determine the most age-appropriate means of eliciting a promise to tell the truth from child witnesses. Children played a game in which they chose which of 2 boxes would contain a toy after hearing story characters make conflicting statements about their intent to place a toy in each box (e.g., one character said “I will put a toy in my box” and the other character said “I might put a toy in my box”). Children understood “will” at a younger age than “promise.” Nonmaltreated children understood that “will” is stronger than “might” by 3 years of age and that “promise” is stronger than “might” by 4 years of age. The youngest nonmaltreated children preferred “will” to “promise,” whereas the oldest nonmaltreated children preferred “promise” to “will.” Maltreated children exhibited a similar pattern of performance, but with delayed understanding that could be attributed to delays in vocabulary. The results support a modified oath for children: “Do you promise that you will tell the truth?” PMID:24127895

  19. Housing Matters for Families: Promising Practices from Child Welfare Agencies.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mary; Pergamit, Michael

    There is growing acknowledgement that housing can provide more than shelter, a basic need. Housing can also act as a foundation, helping families stay together.The provision of housing as a prevention or protective strategy against child maltreatment has not been widely used by child welfare agencies. A small subset of child welfare agencies across the country, however, is incorporating housing into their response to cases of child abuse and neglect. Using qualitative data from ongoing studies of HUD's Family Unification Program (FUP) and the Children's Bureau supportive housing demonstration for high-need child welfare involved families, we describe some of the promising practices agencies are implementing and testing. Though evaluations of these programs are not yet complete, there is a lot the field can learn from these approaches. This paper provides an overview of seven promising strategies: (1) partnering with public housing agencies and leveraging resources; (2) assessing the housing needs of child welfare involved families; (3) triaging and providing housing resources based on needs; (4) providing housing first, not. last; (5) developing housing stability plans and shared case plans; (6) screening families into housing, rather than screening out; and (7) providing housing search assistance.

  20. Duplex-imprinted nano well arrays for promising nanoparticle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangping; Manz, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    A large area nano-duplex-imprint technique is presented in this contribution using natural cicada wings as stamps. The glassy wings of the cicada, which are abundant in nature, exhibit strikingly interesting nanopillar structures over their membrane. This technique, with excellent performance despite the nonplanar surface of the wings, combines both top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication techniques. It transitions micro-nanofabrication from a cleanroom environment to the bench. Two different materials, dicing tape with an acrylic layer and a UV optical adhesive, are used to make replications at the same time, thus achieving duplex imprinting. The promise of a large volume of commercial manufacturing of these nanostructure elements can be envisaged through this contribution to speeding up the fabrication process and achieving a higher throughput. The contact angle of the replicated nanowell arrays before and after oxygen plasma was measured. Gold nanoparticles (50 nm) were used to test how the nanoparticles behaved on the untreated and plasma-treated replica surface. The experiments show that promising nanoparticle self-assembly can be obtained.

  1. Are retinoids a promise for Alzheimer's disease management?

    PubMed

    Carratù, M R; Marasco, C; Signorile, A; Scuderi, C; Steardo, L

    2012-01-01

    Retinoids regulate several physiological and pathological processes through the interaction with nuclear receptors. Retinoid-associated signaling which plays an essential role in neurodevelopment appears to remain active in the adult central nervous system (CNS), thus assuming a high significance in the context of neurodegeneration, and indeed retinoid analogs are thought to be promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The ability of retinoids to exert antioxidant effects, inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits and likely Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, tau hyperphosphorylation, Aβ-induced IL6 production and neuroinflammation, increase survival in hippocampal neurons, and reverse cognitive deficits in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is discussed. Although retinoids with their multi-target activity are revealing to be promising for management of AD which is a multifaceted biochemical phenomenon, timing as well as appropriate dosage and safety remain, however, a challenge. The end-stage lesions, namely senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, are, at present, considered an adaptive response to oxidative stress underlying AD, thus paradoxically late administration of retinoids could even suppress a protective mechanism by inhibiting Aβ deposits.

  2. Mission in the works promises precise global topographic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farr, T.; Evans, D.; Zebker, H.; Harding, D.; Bufton, J.; Dixon, T.; Vetrella, S.; Gesch, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    Significant deficiencies in the quality of today's topographic data severely limit scientific applications. Very few available data sets meet the stringent requirements of 10–30 m for global digital topography and 5 m or better vertical accuracy, and existing satellite systems are unlikely to fulfill these requirements. The Joint Topographic Science Working Group, appointed by NASA and the Italian Space Agency, concluded that radar interferometry coupled with a laser altimeter would be the most promising approach for improving data quality. By providing its own illumination at a wavelength Ion g enough to (e.g., λ = 25 cm) to penetrate clouds and rain, the interferometer would provide a global, uniform high-quality topographic data set. One mission under study, TOPSAT, is well positioned to fill this niche and promises to pave the way toward a more standardized and precise topographic database. TOPSAT would be an international mission, designed to make use of recent technology advances in such programs as NASA's New Millennium. It could be ready to launch by the end of this decade.

  3. Nanostructures as promising tools for delivery of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Brandelli, A

    2012-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been extensively investigated for their potential applications as therapeutics and food biopreservatives. The antimicrobial activity may be impaired by the susceptibility for proteolytic degradation and undesirable interactions of the antimicrobial peptide in the biological environment. Development of nanostructures for entrapment and delivery of antimicrobial peptides may represent an alternative to the direct application of these substances. Lipid nanovesicles have been developed for encapsulation of antimicrobial peptides. Phosphatidylcholine is often employed in liposome manufacture, which is mostly achieved by the thin-film hydration method. Nanofibers may allow different physical modes of drug loading, including direct adsorption on the nanofiber surface or the assembly of drug-loaded nanoparticles. Self-assembled peptides reveal attractive features as nanostructures for applications in drug delivery and promising as antimicrobial agent for treatment of brain infections. Magnetic nanoparticles and nanotubules are also potential structures for entrapment of antimicrobial peptides. Nanoparticles can be also chemically modified with specific cell surface ligands to enhance cell adhesion and site specific delivery. This article reviews the most important nanostructures as promising tools for peptide delivery systems.

  4. Stem Cell Therapy: A Promising Therapeutic Method for Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liansheng; Xu, Weilin; Li, Tao; Chen, Jingyin; Shao, Anwen; Yan, Feng; Chen, Gao

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one type of the most devastating cerebrovascular diseases worldwide, which causes high morbidity and mortality. However, efficient treatment is still lacking. Stem cell therapy has shown good neuroprotective and neurorestorative effect in ICH and is a promising treatment. In this study, our aim was to review the therapeutic effects, strategies, related mechanisms and safety issues of various types of stem cell for ICH treatment. Numerous studies had demonstrated the therapeutic effects of diverse stem cell types in ICH. The potential mechanisms include tissue repair and replacement, neurotrophy, promotion of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis, immunoregulation and anti-inflammation and so forth. The microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS) can also influence the effects of stem cell therapy. The detailed therapeutic strategies for ICH treatment such as cell type, the number of cells, time window, and the routes of medication delivery, varied greatly among different studies and had not been determined. Moreover, the safety issues of stem cell therapy for ICH should not be ignored. Stem cell therapy showed good therapeutic effect in ICH, making it a promising treatment. However, safety should be carefully evaluated, and more clinical trials are required before stem cell therapy can be extensively applied to clinical use.

  5. Promises and Pitfalls of Anchoring Vignettes in Health Survey Research

    PubMed Central

    Verdes-Tennant, Emese; McEniry, Mary; Ispány, Márton

    2016-01-01

    Data harmonization is a topic of growing importance to demographers, who increasingly conduct domestic or international comparative research. Many self-reported survey items cannot be directly compared across demographic groups or countries because these groups differ in how they use subjective response categories. Anchoring vignettes, already appearing in numerous surveys worldwide, promise to overcome this problem. However, many anchoring vignettes have not been formally evaluated for adherence to the key measurement assumptions of vignette equivalence and response consistency. This article tests these assumptions in some of the most widely fielded anchoring vignettes in the world: the health vignettes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) and World Health Survey (WHS) (representing 10 countries; n = 52,388), as well as similar vignettes in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 4,528). Findings are encouraging regarding adherence to response consistency, but reveal substantial violations of vignette equivalence both cross-nationally and across socioeconomic groups. That is, members of different sociocultural groups appear to interpret vignettes as depicting fundamentally different levels of health. The evaluated anchoring vignettes do not fulfill their promise of providing interpersonally comparable measures of health. Recommendations for improving future implementations of vignettes are discussed. PMID:26335547

  6. KIFC1: a promising chemotherapy target for cancer treatment?

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yu-Xi; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2016-07-26

    The kinesin motor KIFC1 has been suggested as a potential chemotherapy target due to its critical role in clustering of the multiple centrosomes found in cancer cells. In this regard, KIFC1 seems to be non-essential in normal somatic cells which usually possess only two centrosomes. Moreover, KIFC1 is also found to initiatively drive tumor malignancy and metastasis by stabilizing a certain degree of genetic instability, delaying cell cycle and protecting cancer cell surviving signals. However, that KIFC1 also plays roles in other specific cell types complicates the question of whether it is a promising chemotherapy target for cancer treatment. For example, KIFC1 is found functionally significant in vesicular and organelle trafficking, spermiogenesis, oocyte development, embryo gestation and double-strand DNA transportation. In this review we summarize a recent collection of information so as to provide a generalized picture of ideas and mechanisms against and in favor of KIFC1 as a chemotherapy target. And we also drew the conclusion that KIFC1 is a promising chemotherapy target for some types of cancers, because the side-effects of inhibiting KIFC1 mentioned in this review are theoretically easy to avoid, while KIFC1 is functionally indispensable during mitosis and malignancy of multi-centrosome cancer cells. Further investigations of how KIFC1 is regulated throughout the mitosis in cancer cells are needed for the understanding of the pathways where KIFC1 is involved and for further exploitation of indirect KIFC1 inhibitors.

  7. Problems, challenges and promises: perspectives on precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Duffy, David J

    2016-05-01

    The 'precision medicine (systems medicine)' concept promises to achieve a shift to future healthcare systems with a more proactive and predictive approach to medicine, where the emphasis is on disease prevention rather than the treatment of symptoms. The individualization of treatment for each patient will be at the centre of this approach, with all of a patient's medical data being computationally integrated and accessible. Precision medicine is being rapidly embraced by biomedical researchers, pioneering clinicians and scientific funding programmes in both the European Union (EU) and USA. Precision medicine is a key component of both Horizon 2020 (the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation) and the White House's Precision Medicine Initiative. Precision medicine promises to revolutionize patient care and treatment decisions. However, the participants in precision medicine are faced with a considerable central challenge. Greater volumes of data from a wider variety of sources are being generated and analysed than ever before; yet, this heterogeneous information must be integrated and incorporated into personalized predictive models, the output of which must be intelligible to non-computationally trained clinicians. Drawing primarily from the field of 'oncology', this article will introduce key concepts and challenges of precision medicine and some of the approaches currently being implemented to overcome these challenges. Finally, this article also covers the criticisms of precision medicine overpromising on its potential to transform patient care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Stem cell therapy: the great promise in lung disease.

    PubMed

    Siniscalco, Dario; Sullo, Nikol; Maione, Sabatino; Rossi, Francesco; D'Agostino, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    Lung injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pulmonary diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by loss of lung elasticity, small airway tethers, and luminal obstruction with inflammatory mucoid secretions, or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis characterized by excessive matrix deposition and destruction of the normal lung architecture, have essentially symptomatic treatments and their management is costly to the health care system.Regeneration of tissue by stem cells from endogenous, exogenous, and even genetically modified cells is a promising novel therapy. The use of adult stem cells to help with lung regeneration and repair could be a newer technology in clinical and regenerative medicine. In fact, different studies have shown that bone marrow progenitor cells contribute to repair and remodeling of lung in animal models of progressive pulmonary hypertension.Therefore, lung stem cell biology may provide novel approaches to therapy and could represent a great promise for the future of molecular medicine. In fact, several diseases can be slowed or even blocked by stem cell transplantation.

  9. Chlorinated metronidazole as a promising alternative for treating trichomoniasis.

    PubMed

    Chacon, M O; Fonseca, T H S; Oliveira, S B V; Alacoque, M A; Franco, L L; Tagliati, C A; Cassali, G D; Campos-Mota, G P; Alves, R J; Capettini, L S A; Gomes, Maria Aparecida

    2018-05-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted infection affecting humans worldwide. The main treatment for trichomoniasis is metronidazole (MTZ). However, adverse effects and reports of resistance have stimulated the development of therapeutic alternatives. The ease of manipulation of the side chains of MTZ coupled with its safety makes this molecule attractive for the development of new drugs. In this context, we evaluated the activity of the chlorinated MTZ derivative, MTZ-Cl, on sensitive and resistant strains of Trichomonas vaginalis. MTZ-Cl presented a remarkable activity against both sensitive and resistant strains. In vitro and in vivo toxicity assays indicated that the new molecule is safe for future clinical trials. Furthermore, we noticed different rates of free radical production between the sensitive and resistant strains. MTZ-Cl induced a higher release of nitric oxide (NO, ~ 9000 a.u.) by both sensitive and resistant strains. However, the sensitive strain produced a greater amount of H 2 O 2 (~ 1,800,000 a.u.) and superoxide radicals (~ 350,000 a.u.) in the presence of MTZ. In the resistant strain, production of these radicals was more prominent when MTZ-Cl was used. Collectively, these results suggest that NO is an important molecule in the trichomonacidal activity against resistant and sensitive strains, suggesting an alternative pathway for MTZ-Cl activation. We highlight the high trichomonacidal potential of MTZ-Cl, improving the effectiveness of treatment and reducing side effects. In addition, MTZ-Cl is derived from a well-established drug on the world market that presents low toxicity to human cells, suggesting its safety to proceed with future clinical trials.

  10. Preparation and Evaluation of Titanium-Based Xerogel as a Promising Coagulant for Water/Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Li, Minghui; Song, Xiaojie; Chen, Zhihao; Wu, Bingdang; Zhang, Shujuan

    2016-09-06

    The nontoxicity of titanium (Ti) and the potential to produce valuable photocatalysts from the final coagulated sludge constitute the main advantages of Ti-based coagulants over conventional ones. However, the low effluent pH and the too-fast hydrolysis limit the wide application of Ti-salt coagulants. Prehydrolysis, to some extent, is helpful to improve the coagulation performance of Ti-salt coagulants. However, the prehydrolyzed polytitanium chloride (PTC) still suffers from narrow applicable dose/pH range. A novel and efficient Ti-based coagulant, denoted as titanium xerogel coagulant (TXC), was successfully prepared by the sol-gel method with TiCl4 as the precursor and acetylacetone as a modifying agent. Compared with TiCl4, a PTC, and a commercial polyferric sulfate, the resulting TXC possessed a larger floc size, better settling property, and wider applicable coagulant dose/pH range. Moreover, the effluent pH after TXC coagulation was not significantly reduced, avoiding the corrosion problem sometimes caused by the low effluent pH. TXC exhibited good coagulation performance for several real wastewaters, especially for the wastewaters of low turbidity. These results demonstrate that gelation was a more effective strategy than prehydrolysis to overcome the inherent weaknesses of Ti salts as a type of promising coagulants.

  11. IR Materials Producibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    LiNbO 3. Preliminary prediction of the defect densities in X = 0.17 LWIR Hgl.xZnxTe were made and compared to results in HgCdTe. We continued to...Preliminary prediction of the defect densities in z = 0.17 LWIR Hgl-,Zn:Te. * Continued development of a method to calculate the temperature de- pendence of... LWIR HgZnTe 4 3 WIDE-GAP I-VI COMPOUNDS (ZnSe AS PROTOTYPE) 6 4 NONLINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS (LiNb0 3 AS THE PROTOTYPE) 9 5 WORK PLANNED 9 APPENDIX A

  12. Young children mostly keep, and expect others to keep, their promises.

    PubMed

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Köymen, Bahar; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Promises are speech acts that create an obligation to do the promised action. In three studies, we investigated whether 3- and 5-year-olds (N=278) understand the normative implications of promising in prosocial interactions. In Study 1, children helped a partner who promised to share stickers. When the partner failed to uphold the promise, 3- and 5-year-olds protested and referred to promise norms. In Study 2, when children in this same age range were asked to promise to continue a cleaning task-and they agreed-they persisted longer on the task and mentioned their obligation more frequently than without such a promise. They also persisted longer after a promise than after a cleaning reminder (Study 3). In prosocial interactions, thus, young children feel a normative obligation to keep their promises and expect others to keep their promises as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  14. METHOD OF PRODUCING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Foster, L.S.; Magel, T.T.

    1958-05-13

    A modified process is described for the production of uranium metal by means of a bomb reduction of UF/sub 4/. Difficulty is sometimes experienced in obtaining complete separation of the uranium from the slag when the process is carried out on a snnall scale, i.e., for the production of 10 grams of U or less. Complete separation may be obtained by incorporating in the reaction mixture a quantity of MnCl/sub 2/, so that this compound is reduced along with the UF/sub 4/ . As a result a U--Mn alloy is formed which has a melting point lower than that of pure U, and consequently the metal remains molten for a longer period allowing more complete separation from the slag.

  15. The Promise of Neuroprotective Agents in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Stacey E.; Potashkin, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. Since there are limited treatment options for PD, neuroprotective agents are currently being tested as a means to slow disease progression. Agents targeting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation are prime candidates for neuroprotection. This review identifies Rasagiline, Minocycline, and creatine, as the most promising neuroprotective agents for PD, and they are all currently in phase III trials. Other agents possessing protective characteristics in delaying PD include stimulants, vitamins, supplements, and other drugs. Additionally, combination therapies also show benefits in slowing PD progression. The identification of neuroprotective agents for PD provides us with therapeutic opportunities for modifying the course of disease progression and, perhaps, reducing the risk of onset when preclinical biomarkers become available. PMID:22125548

  16. Manipulating regulatory T cells: a promising strategy to treat autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dunfang; Tu, Eric; Kasagi, Shimpei; Zanvit, Peter; Chen, Qianming; Chen, WanJun

    2015-01-01

    CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are extremely important in maintaining immune tolerance. Manipulation of Treg cells, especially autoantigen-specific Treg cells is a promising approach for treatments of autoimmune disease since Treg cells may provide the advantage of antigen specificity without overall immune suppression. However, the clinical application of Treg cells has long been limited due to low numbers of Treg cells and the difficulty in identifying their antigen specificity. In this review, we summarize studies that demonstrate regression of autoimmune diseases using Treg cells as therapeutics. We also discuss approaches to generate polyclonal and autoantigen-specific Treg cells in vitro and in vivo. We also discuss our recent study that describes a novel approach of generating autoantigen-specific Treg cells in vivo and restoring immune tolerance by two steps apoptosis-antigen therapy.

  17. [Nanotechnology offers a promising therapeutic approach for hypertension treatment].

    PubMed

    Martín Giménez, V M; Kassuha, D; Manucha, W

    Hypertension is a medical condition considered one of the most important public health problems in developed countries, affecting around one billion people. Therefore, the study of its mechanisms, development and treatment is a priority. Of particular interest are the multiple contributing factors, and efforts by experts to fully understand it are also important. However, studies are currently insufficient and consequently, attention is focused on the exploration of new therapeutic approaches. This raises a growing interest in nanotechnology given the ability of certain structures to mimic the behavior of extracellular matrices. This opens a promising field in the treatment of diseases such as hypertension, where it stands to tissue engineering and its potential applications incorporating concepts such as controlled release drug, reduced side effects and receptor activation locally. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. BMI-1, a promising therapeutic target for human cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, MIN-CONG; LI, CHUN-LI; CUI, JIE; JIAO, MIN; WU, TAO; JING, LI; NAN, KE-JUN

    2015-01-01

    BMI-1 oncogene is a member of the polycomb-group gene family and a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of BMI-1 has been identified in various human cancer tissues and is known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation, cell invasion, distant metastasis, chemosensitivity and patient survival. Accumulating evidence has revealed that BMI-1 is also involved in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation and tumor initiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these biological processes remain unclear. The present review summarized the function of BMI-1 in different human cancer types and CSCs, and discussed the signaling pathways in which BMI-1 is potentially involved. In conclusion, BMI-1 may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of various cancer types. PMID:26622537

  19. Programmed death-1 & its ligands: promising targets for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shrimali, Rajeev K; Janik, John E; Abu-Eid, Rasha; Mkrtichyan, Mikayel; Khleif, Samir N

    2015-01-01

    Novel strategies for cancer treatment involving blockade of immune inhibitors have shown significant progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor immune evasion. The preclinical findings and clinical responses associated with programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand pathway blockade seem promising, making these targets highly sought for cancer immunotherapy. In fact, the anti-PD-1 antibodies, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, were recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of unresectable and metastatic melanoma resistant to anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody (ipilimumab) and BRAF inhibitor. Here, we discuss strategies of combining PD-1/PD-ligand interaction inhibitors with other immune checkpoint modulators and standard-of-care therapy to break immune tolerance and induce a potent antitumor activity, which is currently a research area of key scientific pursuit.

  20. Personalised Medicine and the Economy of Biotechnological Promise.

    PubMed

    Sturdy, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Rather than seek to distinguish hype from legitimate promise, it may be more helpful to think about personalised medicine as embodying a promissory economy which serves both to mobilize resources for research and - partly at least - to determine the ends to which that research is directed. Personalised medicine is a development of the larger promissory economy of medical biotechnology. As such, it systematically conflates public benefit with the pursuit of commercial and especially pharmaceutical interests. Consequently, research and development in personalised medicine tends to favour the production of expensive new treatments over unprofitable forms of prevention or more effective use of older therapies. A rebalancing of research priorities is needed to favour the pursuit of public benefit, even when it does not deliver private profits. This will in turn require sustained reflection, self-criticism and often self-denial on the part of public research funders and the scientists they support.

  1. Ecoinformatics (Big Data) for Agricultural Entomology: Pitfalls, Progress, and Promise.

    PubMed

    Rosenheim, Jay A; Gratton, Claudio

    2017-01-31

    Ecoinformatics, as defined in this review, is the use of preexisting data sets to address questions in ecology. We provide the first review of ecoinformatics methods in agricultural entomology. Ecoinformatics methods have been used to address the full range of questions studied by agricultural entomologists, enabled by the special opportunities associated with data sets, nearly all of which have been observational, that are larger and more diverse and that embrace larger spatial and temporal scales than most experimental studies do. We argue that ecoinformatics research methods and traditional, experimental research methods have strengths and weaknesses that are largely complementary. We address the important interpretational challenges associated with observational data sets, highlight common pitfalls, and propose some best practices for researchers using these methods. Ecoinformatics methods hold great promise as a vehicle for capitalizing on the explosion of data emanating from farmers, researchers, and the public, as novel sampling and sensing techniques are developed and digital data sharing becomes more widespread.

  2. Targeting Heat Shock Proteins in Cancer: A Promising Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Timothy F.

    2017-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a large family of chaperones that are involved in protein folding and maturation of a variety of “client” proteins protecting them from degradation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and thermal stress. Hence, they are significant regulators of cellular proliferation, differentiation and strongly implicated in the molecular orchestration of cancer development and progression as many of their clients are well established oncoproteins in multiple tumor types. Interestingly, tumor cells are more HSP chaperonage-dependent than normal cells for proliferation and survival because the oncoproteins in cancer cells are often misfolded and require augmented chaperonage activity for correction. This led to the development of several inhibitors of HSP90 and other HSPs that have shown promise both preclinically and clinically in the treatment of cancer. In this article, we comprehensively review the roles of some of the important HSPs in cancer, and how targeting them could be efficacious, especially when traditional cancer therapies fail. PMID:28914774

  3. The Promise (and Pitfalls) of Public Health Policy Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G

    2016-12-01

    Though public health policy surveillance is an integral tool in correlating the law to scientifically based public health law studies, drawing accurate legal conclusions from collected data can be challenging. Data may be of poor quality, inaccessible to law and policy makers, or inapplicable to other jurisdictions over time and place. As Burris et al. (2016) advocate, modern, sophisticated, and interactive data collection systems would render more precise legal analysis tied to public health improvements. Although policy surveillance is promising, public health officials, health care providers, attorneys, and researchers must be skilled and prepared to successfully navigate and resolve potential pitfalls for its benefits to be fully realized. Among the significant challenges related to policy surveillance are: (1) timing; (2) agenda setting; (3) predictable misuse; and (4) politics inherent in a federalist public health legal infrastructure. As public health data infrastructure is developed, better legal approaches must be simultaneously crafted to achieve optimal public health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  4. Augmented Reality Based Doppler Lidar Data Visualization: Promises and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukuru, N. W.; Calhoun, R.

    2016-06-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology in which the enables the user to view virtual content as if it existed in real world. We are exploring the possibility of using this technology to view radial velocities or processed wind vectors from a Doppler wind lidar, thus giving the user an ability to see the wind in a literal sense. This approach could find possible applications in aviation safety, atmospheric data visualization as well as in weather education and public outreach. As a proof of concept, we used the lidar data from a recent field campaign and developed a smartphone application to view the lidar scan in augmented reality. In this paper, we give a brief methodology of this feasibility study, present the challenges and promises of using AR technology in conjunction with Doppler wind lidars.

  5. Targeting Heat Shock Proteins in Cancer: A Promising Therapeutic Approach.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Suman; Burns, Timothy F

    2017-09-15

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a large family of chaperones that are involved in protein folding and maturation of a variety of "client" proteins protecting them from degradation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and thermal stress. Hence, they are significant regulators of cellular proliferation, differentiation and strongly implicated in the molecular orchestration of cancer development and progression as many of their clients are well established oncoproteins in multiple tumor types. Interestingly, tumor cells are more HSP chaperonage-dependent than normal cells for proliferation and survival because the oncoproteins in cancer cells are often misfolded and require augmented chaperonage activity for correction. This led to the development of several inhibitors of HSP90 and other HSPs that have shown promise both preclinically and clinically in the treatment of cancer. In this article, we comprehensively review the roles of some of the important HSPs in cancer, and how targeting them could be efficacious, especially when traditional cancer therapies fail.

  6. Adult neural stem cells: The promise of the future

    PubMed Central

    Taupin, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Stem cells are self-renewing undifferentiated cells that give rise to multiple types of specialized cells of the body. In the adult, stem cells are multipotents and contribute to homeostasis of the tissues and regeneration after injury. Until recently, it was believed that the adult brain was devoid of stem cells, hence unable to make new neurons and regenerate. With the recent evidences that neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain and neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in the adult central nervous system (CNS), the adult brain has the potential to regenerate and may be amenable to repair. The function(s) of NSCs in the adult CNS remains the source of intense research and debates. The promise of the future of adult NSCs is to redefine the functioning and physiopathology of the CNS, as well as to treat a broad range of CNS diseases and injuries. PMID:19300610

  7. Microchannel emulsification: A promising technique towards encapsulation of functional compounds.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Nauman; Kobayashi, Isao; Neves, Marcos A; Uemura, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi

    2017-06-13

    This review provides an overview of microchannel emulsification (MCE) for production of functional monodispersed emulsion droplets. The main emphasis has been put on functional bioactives encapsulation using grooved-type and straight-through microchannel array plates. MCE successfully encapsulates the bioactives like β-carotene, oleuropein, γ-oryzanol, β-sitosterol, L-ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid derivatives, vitamin D and quercetin. These bioactives were encapsulated in a variety of delivery systems like simple and multiple emulsions, polymeric particles, microgels, solid lipid particles and functional vesicles. The droplet generation process in MCE is based upon spontaneous transformation of interfaces rather than high energy shear stress systems. The scale-up of MCE can increase the productivity of monodispersed droplets >100 L h -1 and makes it a promising tool at industrial level.

  8. The promise of epigenomic therapeutics in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lomberk, Gwen A; Iovanna, Juan; Urrutia, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is often viewed to arise primarily by genetic alterations. However, today we know that many aspects of the cancer phenotype require a crosstalk among these genetic alterations with epigenetic changes. Indeed, aberrant gene expression patterns, driven by epigenetics are fixed by altered signaling from mutated oncogenes and tumor suppressors to define the PDAC phenotype. This conceptual framework may have significant mechanistic value and could offer novel possibilities for treating patients affected with PDAC. In fact, extensive investigations are leading to the development of small molecule drugs that reversibly modify the epigenome. These new ‘epigenetic therapeutics’ discussed herein are promising to fuel a new era of studies, by providing the medical community with new tools to treat this dismal disease. PMID:27337224

  9. Understanding retirement: the promise of life-span developmental frameworks.

    PubMed

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E

    2012-09-01

    The impending retirement of large population cohorts creates a pressing need for practical interventions to optimize outcomes at the individual and societal level. This necessitates comprehensive theoretical models that acknowledge the multi-layered nature of the retirement process and shed light on the dynamic mechanisms that drive longitudinal patterns of adjustment. The present commentary highlights ways in which contemporary life-span developmental frameworks can inform retirement research, drawing on the specific examples of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model, Baltes and Baltes Selective Optimization with Compensation Framework, Schulz and Heckhausen's Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development, and Carstensen's Socioemotional Selectivity Theory. Ultimately, a life-span developmental perspective on retirement offers not only new interpretations of known phenomena but may also help to identify novel directions for future research as well as promising pathways for interventions.

  10. Chalcones as Promising Lead Compounds on Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    León-González, Antonio J; Acero, Nuria; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores; Navarro, Inmaculada; Martín-Cordero, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Chalcones constitute a group of phenolic compounds that command an increasing interest on cancer research. Natural chalcones are widespread through the plant kingdom. The most abundant and investigated chalcones are isoliquiritigenin, flavokawain and xanthohumol, which are present in the Fabaceae, Piperaceae, Cannabaceae, and Moraceae families. These chalcones have been shown to be promising lead antitumor-chemopreventive drugs by three different activities: antioxidants, cytotoxic and apoptosis inducers. In the recent years, SAR (structure-activity relationship) has contributed towards the improvement of anticancer properties of chalcones by substituting aryl rings and introducing heterocyclic moieties. This review summarizes the anticancer activities shown by natural chalcones and the SAR and describes how different chemical moiety modifications could lead them to be therapeutically useful in the treatment of cancer.

  11. Chalcone Derivatives: Promising Starting Points for Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo N; Muratov, Eugene N; Pereira, Maristela; Peixoto, Josana C; Rosseto, Lucimar P; Cravo, Pedro V L; Andrade, Carolina H; Neves, Bruno J

    2017-07-25

    Medicinal chemists continue to be fascinated by chalcone derivatives because of their simple chemistry, ease of hydrogen atom manipulation, straightforward synthesis, and a variety of promising biological activities. However, chalcones have still not garnered deserved attention, especially considering their high potential as chemical sources for designing and developing new effective drugs. In this review, we summarize current methodological developments towards the design and synthesis of new chalcone derivatives and state-of-the-art medicinal chemistry strategies (bioisosterism, molecular hybridization, and pro-drug design). We also highlight the applicability of computer-assisted drug design approaches to chalcones and address how this may contribute to optimizing research outputs and lead to more successful and cost-effective drug discovery endeavors. Lastly, we present successful examples of the use of chalcones and suggest possible solutions to existing limitations.

  12. The promise of a cognitive perspective on jury deliberation.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jessica M; Diamond, Shari Seidman

    2010-04-01

    Despite much psychological research regarding jury decision making, surprisingly little is known about the deliberation process that gives rise to jury verdicts. We review classic jury decision-making research regarding the importance of deliberation and more recent research, investigating deliberation and hung juries, that challenges the view that deliberation does not have an important impact on verdicts. We advocate greater attention to potential cognitive processes during deliberation that might explain the transition between predeliberation preferences and a jury's ultimate verdict. We then review cognitive work in the group context generally, and the jury context specifically, illustrating the promise of a cognitive perspective on jury deliberation. Finally, we identify cognitive phenomena likely to be particularly valuable in illuminating deliberation behavior.

  13. Assistive technology and learning disabilities: today's realities and tomorrow's promises.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R B

    1998-01-01

    Many forms of technology, both "high" and "low," can help individuals with learning disabilities capitalize on their strengths and bypass, or compensate for, their disabilities. This article surveys the current status of assistive technology for this population and reflects on future promises and potential problems. In addition, a model is presented for conceptualizing assistive technology in terms of the types of barriers it helps persons with disabilities to surmount. Several current technologies are described and the research supporting their effectiveness reviewed: word processing, computer-based instruction in reading and other academic areas, interactive videodisc interventions for math, and technologies for daily life. In conclusion, three themes related to the future success of assistive technology applications are discussed: equity of access to technology; ease of technology, use; and emergent technologies, such as virtual reality.

  14. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    PubMed

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. The promise of advanced technology for future air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in all weather 4-D navigation and wake vortex attenuation research is discussed and the concept of time based metering of aircraft is recommended for increased emphasis. The far term advances in aircraft efficiency were shown to be skin friction reduction and advanced configuration types. The promise of very large aircraft, possibly all wing aircraft is discussed, as is an advanced concept for an aerial relay transportation system. Very significant technological developments were identified that can improve supersonic transport performance and reduce noise. The hypersonic transport was proposed as the ultimate step in air transportation in the atmosphere. Progress in the key technology areas of propulsion and structures was reviewed. Finally, the impact of alternate fuels on future air transports was considered and shown not to be a growth constraint.

  16. Personalised Medicine and the Economy of Biotechnological Promise

    PubMed Central

    Sturdy, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Rather than seek to distinguish hype from legitimate promise, it may be more helpful to think about personalised medicine as embodying a promissory economy which serves both to mobilize resources for research and — partly at least — to determine the ends to which that research is directed. Personalised medicine is a development of the larger promissory economy of medical biotechnology. As such, it systematically conflates public benefit with the pursuit of commercial and especially pharmaceutical interests. Consequently, research and development in personalised medicine tends to favour the production of expensive new treatments over unprofitable forms of prevention or more effective use of older therapies. A rebalancing of research priorities is needed to favour the pursuit of public benefit, even when it does not deliver private profits. This will in turn require sustained reflection, self-criticism and often self-denial on the part of public research funders and the scientists they support. PMID:28517983

  17. The PCORI Engagement Rubric: Promising Practices for Partnering in Research.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Susan; Schrandt, Suzanne; Forsythe, Laura; Hilliard, Tandrea S; Paez, Kathryn A

    2017-03-01

    Engaging patients, caregivers, and other health care stakeholders as partners in planning, conducting, and disseminating research is a promising way to improve clinical decision making and outcomes. Many researchers, patients, and other stakeholders, however, lack clarity about when and how to engage as partners within the clinical research process. To address the need for guidance on creating meaningful stakeholder partnerships in patient-centered clinical comparative effectiveness research, the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) developed the PCORI Engagement Rubric (Rubric). PCORI developed the Rubric drawing from a synthesis of the literature, a qualitative study with patients, a targeted review of engagement plans from PCORI-funded project applications, and a moderated discussion and review with PCORI's Advisory Panel on Patient Engagement. The Rubric provides a framework for operationalizing engagement to incorporate patients and other stakeholders in all phases of research. It includes: principles of engagement; definitions of stakeholder types; key considerations for planning, conducting, and disseminating engaged research; potential engagement activities; and examples of promising practices from PCORI-funded projects. PCORI designed the Rubric to illustrate opportunities for engagement to researchers interested in applying for PCORI funding and to patients and other stakeholders interested in greater involvement in research. By encouraging PCORI applicants, awardees, and others to apply the rubric, PCORI hopes to shift the research paradigm from one of conducting research on patients as subjects to a pursuit carried out in collaboration with patients and other stakeholders to better reflect the values, preferences, and outcomes that matter to the patient community. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  18. Promising systemic immunotherapies in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gildener-Leapman, Neil; Ferris, Robert L.; Bauman, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) demonstrate poor survival and significant treatment morbidity with standard therapy. The immune profile in HNSCC, whether caused by carcinogen exposure or human papillomavirus (HPV), is notably immunosuppressive. Early clinical trials of immunotherapy in HNSCC were troubled by systemic toxicity or difficulties in local administration. Now, interest in immunotherapy has been revitalized by mechanistic insights into immune evasion by HNSCC, coupled to ongoing development of novel immunotherapies. This review will summarize immune escape mechanisms in HNSCC, namely downregulation of tumor antigen (TA) presentation, aberrant regulation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family, the immunosuppressive cytokine milieu, and dysregulation of immune effector cells. Therapeutic strategies hypothesized to specifically counter HNSCC immunosuppression will then be discussed. We will survey TA-targeted monoclonal antibodies (mAb), including the prototype cetuximab, as well as adjunctive strategies to enhance antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We will review immunomodulation to restore STAT1/STAT3 activation balance. Examples of mAb therapy to block immunosuppressive cytokines, such as interleukin-6 or VEGF, will be provided. mAbs which release co-inhibitory T cell receptors such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, overexpressed in HNSCC, also hold therapeutic promise. Finally, we will describe principles for therapeutic vaccination in HPV-associated HNSCC, where non-host TAs such as viral oncoproteins represent ideal targets, and HPV-negative HNSCC, where p53 is a promising target. Insights into immunosuppression in HNSCC have elucidated mechanistic targets for immunotherapy. Rational clinical investigation may lead to effective stand alone or combinatorial treatment approaches. PMID:24126223

  19. Kombucha might be promising probiotics for consumption on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrovska, Natalia; Foing, Bernard H.

    The sanitization at permanently manned lunar bases and consuming germ-free food in a concert with effect of lunar stressors may result in crews disorders, including inflammatory and atopic states and decrease of resistance to indigenous pathogens which present in human organism in suppressed state. The administration of live microbial supplements with presumptive health benefits on human physiology might be reasonable solution to prevent disbacteriosis. Many of microbial species are associated with the fermentation of dairy products, however, they have a short self-life and so far unpractical to be used at lunar habitation. The popular "Tea mushroom" or "Kombucha Tea" is a probiotics proven by FDA that many people are now taking in health promoting diets to detoxify and revitalize the organism (Danielian, 1993; Sreeramulu et al., 2001). Kombucha is composed by symbiotic bacteria and yeasts, surrounded by a permeable membrane. The Kombucha culture is a tiny biochemical factory, producing organic acids, amino acids, enzymes, polyphenols, antibiotic substances, vitamins, enzymes as well as some other products beneficial for human health. Within the ages the Kombucha Tea has been consumed by practically all nations in Far East and now in Eastern Europe and America due to probiotic properties, and within this period the Kombucha microbial ecosystem has been selected to be remarkably adaptive to culturing conditions and resistant to adverse factors. Metagenomic approaches in a study of microbial ecosystems will allow to reconstruct the Kombucha microbiome and to elucidate unknown species and genes on the base of bioinformatics programs. Compared with Kombucha wild type, metabolically engineered strains, expected to exhibit broader substrate specificity, utilizing sugars from waste material which will be used for Kombucha fermentation. References 1. Danielian L.T. (1993) Tea fungus. Publ. House "Armenia", 112 pp. 2. Palmer C., Bik E.M., DiGiulio D.B., Relman D.A., Brown P

  20. Field-Effect Biosensors for On-Site Detection: Recent Advances and Promising Targets.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaebin; Seong, Tae Wha; Jeun, Minhong; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2017-10-01

    There is an explosive interest in the immediate and cost-effective analysis of field-collected biological samples, as many advanced biodetection tools are highly sensitive, yet immobile. On-site biosensors are portable and convenient sensors that provide detection results at the point of care. They are designed to secure precision in highly ionic and heterogeneous solutions with minimal hardware. Among various methods that are capable of such analysis, field-effect biosensors are promising candidates due to their unique sensitivity, manufacturing scalability, and integrability with computational circuitry. Recent developments in nanotechnological surface modification show promising results in sensing from blood, serum, and urine. This report gives a particular emphasis on the on-site efficacy of recently published field-effect biosensors, specifically, detection limits in physiological solutions, response times, and scalability. The survey of the properties and existing detection methods of four promising biotargets, exosomes, bacteria, viruses, and metabolites, aims at providing a roadmap for future field-effect and other on-site biosensors. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. New bimetallic EMF cell shows promise in direct energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesson, J. C.; Shimotake, H.

    1968-01-01

    Concentration cell, based upon a thermally regenerative cell principle, produces electrical energy from any large heat source. This experimental bimetallic EMF cell uses a sodium-bismuth alloy cathode and a pure liquid sodium anode. The cell exhibits reliability, corrosion resistance, and high current density performance.

  2. Vibro-acoustography: Recent advances and future promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.

    2005-09-01

    Vibro-acoustography is an imaging modality that uses ultrasound as the source of energy to explore objects at two ends of the spectrum. Employing two ultrasound beams at slightly different frequencies, this technique produces a highly localized radiation stress field that vibrates the object at the difference frequency. In response, the object produces a secondary acoustic field. This sound, which contains information about the dynamics of the object at the low difference frequency as well as objects characteristics at the ultrasound range, is used to produce an image of the object. This combination makes vibro-acoustography a unique tool to study biological tissues at low and high frequencies simultaneously. Utility of this method has already been demonstrated for a wide range of applications in vitro. In vivo applications of vibro-acoustography have been demonstrated in a recent study on human breast. It has been shown that this technique can produce high quality in vivo images at ultrasound intensities within the recommended FDA limits. Vibro-acoustography may also be used for imaging solids, such as metallic implants. This paper describes recent achievements in vibro-acoustography as well as possible future role of this technology in medicine. [This abstract includes materials patented by MF and JFG.

  3. The Promise of Multimedia Stories for Kindergarten Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhallen, Maria J. A. J.; Bus, Adriana G.; de Jong, Maria T.

    2006-01-01

    This research focuses on the ability of book-based animated stories, when well designed and produced, to have positive effects on young viewers' narrative comprehension and language skills. Sixty 5-year-olds, learning Dutch as a 2nd language, were randomly assigned to 4 experimental and 2 control conditions. The children profited to some extent…

  4. Nanostructured lipid carriers employing polyphenols as promising anticancer agents: Quality by design (QbD) approach.

    PubMed

    Bhise, Ketki; Kashaw, Sushil Kumar; Sau, Samaresh; Iyer, Arun K

    2017-06-30

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. There are several hurdles in cancer therapy because of side-effects which limits its usage. Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems have been tested against cancer in a range of scientific studies. In the recent years, advanced research on Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLCs) has garnered considerable attention owing to the advantages over their first-generation counterparts, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN). NLCs facilitate efficient loading of poorly water soluble drugs with simple methods of drug loading. Recently, there is an increased interest in polyphenols because of the evidence of their promising role in prevention of cancer. Polyphenols are produced as secondary metabolites by plants. Their role in prevention of development of tumors through variety of mechanisms and reduction of tumor cell mass has been reported. This article aims to review the science behind development of NLCs and role of polyphenols as promising anticancer agents. Principles of Quality by Design (QbD) have also been explained which are used in formulation-development of many nanoparticles, including NLCs, as reported in literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 3D-Printed Graphene/Polylactic Acid Electrodes Promise High Sensitivity in Electroanalysis.

    PubMed

    Manzanares Palenzuela, C Lorena; Novotný, Filip; Krupička, Petr; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Additive manufacturing provides a unique tool for prototyping structures toward electrochemical sensing, due to its ability to produce highly versatile, tailored-shaped devices in a low-cost and fast way with minimized waste. Here we present 3D-printed graphene electrodes for electrochemical sensing. Ring- and disc-shaped electrodes were 3D-printed with a Fused Deposition Modeling printer and characterized using cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy. Different redox probes K 3 Fe(CN) 6 :K 4 Fe(CN) 6 , FeCl 3 , ascorbic acid, Ru(NH 3 ) 6 Cl 3 , and ferrocene monocarboxylic acid) were used to assess the electrochemical performance of these devices. Finally, the electrochemical detection of picric acid and ascorbic acid was carried out as proof-of-concept analytes for sensing applications. Such customizable platforms represent promising alternatives to conventional electrodes for a wide range of sensing applications.

  6. Producing Mono-energetic Neutrons for Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepeal, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Free neutrons are seldom produced in nature and are unstable, decaying back to protons with a mean life of 881s. The only natural sources are spontaneous fission of actinides and cosmic ray interactions, both of which are rare processes. The detection of neutrons indicates unusual nuclear activity, allowing neutron detection the roll of the ``smoking gun'' for seeking potential nuclear terrorism. Recently, there has been a push for the development of new neutron detectors, ideally sufficiently inexpensive that a detector can be carried by all first responders such as police and fire fighters. One promising new material is the inorganic scintillator CLYC, a crystal of chlorine, lithium, yttrium and cesium. CLYC has a high energy resolution not only for gamma rays, but also for fast neutrons. At the University of Massachusetts, Lowell, CLYC is being developed in collaboration with local industrial companies. To evaluate its response to neutrons, in to 500 keV to 4 MeV energy range, the CN Van de Graaff generator is used to produce neutrons, via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. However, the important energy regime of 4--10 MeV is currently inaccessible. This current project is to build a gas-cell target to enable the D(d,n)3He reaction and produce neutrons of energy up to 9 MeV, an approach that has been used successfully at the University of Kentucky. The project involves some mechanical engineering management, then chamber construction, vacuum testing, developing thin window technology, and finally commissioning of the gas cell using accelerated beams. The commissioning will be physics rich in quantifying the flux and energy resolution of the neutron beam produced. Free neutrons are seldom produced in nature and are unstable, decaying back to protons with a mean life of 881s. The only natural sources are spontaneous fission of actinides and cosmic ray interactions, both of which are rare processes. The detection of neutrons indicates unusual nuclear activity, allowing

  7. Evaluation of N,N-dialkylamides as promising process extractants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, P. N.; Prabhu, D. R.; Kanekar, A. S.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2010-03-01

    Studies carried out at BARC, India on the development of new extractants for reprocessing of spent fuel suggested that while straight chain N,N-dihexyloctanamide (DHOA) is promising alternative to TBP for the reprocessing of irradiated uranium based fuels, branched chain N,N-di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA) is suitable for the selective recovery of 233U from irradiated Th. In advanced fuel cycle scenarios, the coprocessing of U/Pu stream appears attractive particularly with respect to development of proliferation resistant technologies. DHOA extracted Pu(IV) more efficiently than TBP, both at trace-level concentration as well as under uranium/plutonium loading conditions. Uranium extraction behavior of DHOA was however, similar to that of TBP during the extraction cycle. Stripping behavior of U and Pu (without any reductant) was better for DHOA than that of TBP. It was observed during batch studies that whereas 99% Pu is stripped in four stages in case of DHOA, only 89% Pu is stripped in case of TBP under identical experimental conditions. DHOA offered better fission product decontamination than that of TBP. GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) and ARTIST (Amide-based Radio-resources Treatment with Interim Storage of Transuranics) processes proposed for actinide partitioning use branched chain amides for the selective extraction of uranium from spent fuel feed solutions. The branched-alkyl monoamide (BAMA) proposed to be used in ARTIST process is N,N-di-(2-ethylhexyl)butyramide (D2EHBA). In this context, the extraction behavior of U(VI) and Pu(IV) were compared using D2EHIBA, TBP, and D2EHBA under similar concentration of nitric acid (0.5 — 6M) and of uranium (0-50g/L). These studies suggested that D2EHIBA is a promising extractant for selective extraction of uranium over plutonium in process streams. Similarly, D2EHIBA offered distinctly better decontamination of 233U over Th and fission products under THOREX feed conditions. The possibility of simultaneous

  8. The promise of e-health--a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Richard C

    2004-01-01

    Canadians value their health care system above any other social programme. Canada's system of health care faces significant financial and population pressures, relating to cost, access, quality, accountability, and the intergration of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The health-system also faces certain unique challenges that include care delivery within a highly decentralised system of financing and accountability, and care delivery to a significant portion of the population sparsely distributed across a land mass of 10 million square kilometres, in areas of extreme climatic conditions. All of these challenges are significant catalysts in the development of technologies that aim to significantly mitigate or eliminate these selfsame challenges. The system is undergoing widespread review, nationally and within each province and territory, where the bulk of care provision is financed and managed. The challenges are being addressed by national, regional and provincial initiatives in the public, private and not-for-profit sectors. The promise of e-health lies in the manner and degree to which it can mitigate or resolve these challenges to the health system and build on advancements in ICTs supporting the development of a health infostructure. Canada is actively developing and implementing technological solutions to deliver health information and health care services across the country. These solutions, while exciting and promising, also present new challenges, particularly in regard to acceptable standards, choice of technologies, overcoming traditional jurisdictional boundaries, up-front investment, and privacy and confidentiality. Many organizations and governments are working to address these challenges. Canada Health Infoway, a not-for-profit corporation, was founded by the first ministers in 2001 to accelerate the establishment of an interoperable, pan-Canadian electronic health record. It works with partners in the federal, provincial and

  9. Metallurgical and Mechanical Evaluation of 4340 Steel Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelis, Elias; Clemente, Matthew; Kerwien, Stacey; Ravindra, Nuggehalli M.; Hespos, Michael R.

    2015-03-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) was used to produce high-strength low-alloy 4340 steel specimens. Mechanical and metallurgical analyses were performed on the specimens to determine the samples with the highest strengths and the least porosity. The optimal process parameters were thus defined based on the corresponding experimental conditions. Additionally, the effects of fabricating specimens with both virgin and recycled powders were studied. Scanning electron microscopy and electron-dispersive spectroscopy were performed on both types of powders to determine the starting morphology and composition. The initial tensile results are promising, suggesting that DMLS can produce specimens equal in strength to wrought materials. However, there is evidence of cracking on several of the heat-treated tensile specimens that is unexplained. Several theories point to disturbances in the build chamber environment that went undetected while the specimens were being fabricated.

  10. Magnetic Phase Transition in Spark-Produced Ternary LaFeSi Nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jicheng; Geutjens, Ruben; Thang, Nguyen V; Li, Junjie; Guo, Xiaoai; Kéri, Albert; Basak, Shibabrata; Galbács, Gábor; Biskos, George; Nirschl, Hermann; Zandbergen, Henny W; Brück, Ekkes; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas

    2018-02-21

    Using the magnetocaloric effect in nanoparticles holds great potential for efficient refrigeration and energy conversion. The most promising candidate materials for tailoring the Curie temperature to room temperature are rare-earth-based magnetic nanoalloys. However, only few high-nuclearity lanthanide/transition-metal nanoalloys have been produced so far. Here we report, for the first time, the observation of magnetic response in spark-produced LaFeSi nanoalloys. The results suggest that these nanoalloys can be used to exploit the magnetocaloric effect near room temperature; such a finding can lead to the creation of unique multicomponent materials for energy conversion, thus helping toward the realization of a sustainable energy economy.

  11. Indole compounds may be promising medicines for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Naganuma, Makoto; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-09-01

    Indole compounds are extracted from indigo plants and have been used as blue or purple dyes for hundreds of years. In traditional Chinese medicine, herbal agents in combination with Qing-Dai (also known as indigo naturalis) have been used to treat patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to remedy inflammatory conditions. Recent studies have noted that indole compounds can be biosynthesized from tryptophan metabolites produced by various enzymes derived from intestinal microbiota. In addition to their action on indole compounds, the intestinal microbiota produce various tryptophan metabolites that mediate critical functions through distinct pathways and enzymes. Furthermore, some indole compounds, such as indigo and indirubin, act as ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This signaling pathway stimulates mucosal type 3 innate lymphoid cells to produce interleukin-22, which induces antimicrobial peptide and tight junction molecule production, suggesting a role for indole compounds during the mucosal healing process. Thus, indole compounds may represent a novel treatment strategy for UC patients. In this review, we describe the origin and function of this indole compound-containing Chinese herb, as well as the drug development of indole compounds.

  12. Transformations of Supercooled Austenite in a Promising High-Strength Steel Grade Under Continuous Cooling Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisuradze, M. V.; Ryzhkov, M. A.; Yudin, Yu. V.; Kuklina, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Special features of the transformations of supercooled austenite occurring under continuous cooling of a promising high-strength steel grade not standardized in the Russian Federation are determined. A method for evaluating the volume fractions of structure constituents formed in the steel as a result of cooling from 925°C at various constant rates within 0.025 - 75 K/sec is proposed and tested. The results are generalized in the form of a thermokinetic diagram of transformations of supercooled austenite.

  13. Chronic and acute intranasal oxytocin produce divergent social effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huiping; Michetti, Caterina; Busnelli, Marta; Managò, Francesca; Sannino, Sara; Scheggia, Diego; Giancardo, Luca; Sona, Diego; Murino, Vittorio; Chini, Bice; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Papaleo, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Intranasal administration of oxytocin (OXT) might be a promising new adjunctive therapy for mental disorders characterized by social behavioral alterations such as autism and schizophrenia. Despite promising initial studies in humans, it is not yet clear the specificity of the behavioral effects induced by chronic intranasal OXT and if chronic intranasal OXT could have different effects compared with single administration. This is critical for the aforementioned chronic mental disorders that might potentially involve life-long treatments. As a first step to address these issues, here we report that chronic intranasal OXT treatment in wild-type C57BL/6J adult mice produced a selective reduction of social behaviors concomitant to a reduction of the OXT receptors throughout the brain. Conversely, acute intranasal OXT treatment produced partial increases in social behaviors towards opposite-sex novel-stimulus female mice, while on the other hand, it decreased social exploration of same-sex novel stimulus male mice, without affecting social behavior towards familiar stimulus male mice. Finally, prolonged exposure to intranasal OXT treatments did not alter, in wild-type animals, parameters of general health such as body weight, locomotor activity, olfactory and auditory functions, nor parameters of memory and sensorimotor gating abilities. These results indicate that a prolonged over-stimulation of a 'healthy' oxytocinergic brain system, with no inherent deficits in social interaction and normal endogenous levels of OXT, results in specific detrimental effects in social behaviors.

  14. Promising and Established Investigators' Experiences Participating in the National Athletic Trainers' Association Foundation Research Mentor Programa

    PubMed Central

    Nottingham, Sara L.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Barrett, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Mentorship is a helpful resource for individuals who transition from doctoral student to tenure-track faculty member. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Research & Education Foundation offers a Research Mentor Program to provide mentorship to promising investigators, particularly as they work to establish independent lines of research. Objective: To gain the perspectives of promising and established investigators on their participation in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program. Design: Qualitative, phenomenological research. Setting: Higher education institutions. Patients or Other Participants: Seven promising investigators (5 women, 2 men) and 7 established investigators (2 women, 5 men), all of whom had completed the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program. Data Collection and Analysis: We developed and piloted interview guides designed to gain participants' perspectives on their experiences participating in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program. Semistructured telephone interviews were completed with each individual and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach, and saturation was obtained. Trustworthiness was established with the use of member checking, multiple-analyst triangulation, and data-source triangulation. Results: Three themes emerged from the interviews: (1) motivation, (2) collaboration, and (3) resources. Participants were motivated to become involved because they saw the value of mentorship, and mentees desired guidance in their research. Participants believed that collaboration on a project contributed to a positive relationship, and they also desired additional program and professional resources to support novice faculty. Conclusions: Promising and established investigators should be encouraged to engage in mentoring relationships to facilitate mentees' research agendas and professional development. The NATA Foundation and athletic training profession may consider providing

  15. Polyphenols as Promising Drugs against Main Breast Cancer Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Herranz-López, María; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common neoplasms worldwide, and in spite of clinical and pharmacological advances, it is still a clinical problem, causing morbidity and mortality. On the one hand, breast cancer shares with other neoplasms some molecular signatures such as an imbalanced redox state, cell cycle alterations, increased proliferation and an inflammatory status. On the other hand, breast cancer shows differential molecular subtypes that determine its prognosis and treatment. These are characterized mainly by hormone receptors especially estrogen receptors (ERs) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Tumors with none of these receptors are classified as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and are associated with a worse prognosis. The success of treatments partially depends on their specificity and the adequate molecular classification of tumors. New advances in anticancer drug discovery using natural compounds have been made in the last few decades, and polyphenols have emerged as promising molecules. They may act on various molecular targets because of their promiscuous behavior, presenting several physiological effects, some of which confer antitumor activity. This review analyzes the accumulated evidence of the antitumor effects of plant polyphenols on breast cancer, with special attention to their activity on ERs and HER2 targets and also covering different aspects such as redox balance, uncontrolled proliferation and chronic inflammation. PMID:29112149

  16. Can metabotyping help deliver the promise of personalised nutrition?

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Clare B; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Michael J; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-02-01

    Over a decade since the completion of the human genome sequence, the promise of personalised nutrition available to all has yet to become a reality. While the definition was originally very gene-focused, in recent years, a model of personalised nutrition has emerged with the incorporation of dietary, phenotypic and genotypic information at various levels. Developing on from the idea of personalised nutrition, the concept of targeted nutrition has evolved which refers to the delivery of tailored dietary advice at a group level rather than at an individual level. Central to this concept is metabotyping or metabolic phenotyping, which is the ability to group similar individuals together based on their metabolic or phenotypic profiles. Applications of the metabotyping concept extend from the nutrition to the medical literature. While there are many examples of the metabotype approach, there is a dearth in the literature with regard to the development of tailored interventions for groups of individuals. This review will first explore the effectiveness of personalised nutrition in motivating behaviour change and secondly, examine potential novel ways for the delivery of personalised advice at a population level through a metabotyping approach. Based on recent findings from our work, we will demonstrate a novel strategy for the delivery of tailored dietary advice at a group level using this concept. In general, there is a strong emerging evidence to support the effectiveness of personalised nutrition; future work should ascertain if targeted nutrition can motivate behaviour change in a similar manner.

  17. Hydroxychloroquine, a promising choice for coronary artery disease?

    PubMed

    Sun, Lizhe; Liu, Mengping; Li, Ruifeng; Zhao, Qiang; Liu, Junhui; Yang, Yanjie; Zhang, Lisha; Bai, Xiaofang; Wei, Yuanyuan; Ma, Qiangqiang; Zhou, Juan; Yuan, Zuyi; Wu, Yue

    2016-08-01

    Coronary artery disease is a common disease that seriously threaten the health of more than 150 million people per year. Atherosclerosis is considered to be the main cause of coronary artery disease which begins with damage or injury to the inner layer of a coronary artery, sometimes as early as childhood. The damage may be caused by various factors, including: smoking, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes and insulin resistance. Once a coronary artery disease has developed, all patients need to be treated with long term standard treatment, including heart-healthy lifestyle changes, medicines, and medical procedures or surgery. Hydroxychloroquine, an original antimalarial drug, prevents inflammation caused by lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. It is relatively safe and well-tolerated during the treatment. Since atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis have resemble mechanism and increasing clinical researches confirm that hydroxychloroquine has an important role in both anti-rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular protection (such as anti-platelet, anti-thrombotic, lipid-regulating, anti-hypertension, hypoglycemia, and so on), we hypothesize that hydroxychloroquine might be a promising choice to coronary artery disease patients for its multiple benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microencapsulation: A promising technique for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Singh, M N; Hemant, K S Y; Ram, M; Shivakumar, H G

    2010-07-01

    MICROPARTICLES OFFER VARIOUS SIGNIFICANT ADVANTAGES AS DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS, INCLUDING: (i) an effective protection of the encapsulated active agent against (e.g. enzymatic) degradation, (ii) the possibility to accurately control the release rate of the incorporated drug over periods of hours to months, (iii) an easy administration (compared to alternative parenteral controlled release dosage forms, such as macro-sized implants), and (iv) Desired, pre-programmed drug release profiles can be provided which match the therapeutic needs of the patient. This article gives an overview on the general aspects and recent advances in drug-loaded microparticles to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. An appropriately designed controlled release drug delivery system can be a foot ahead towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue, and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. The development of oral controlled release systems has been a challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain and localize the system at targeted areas of gastrointestinal tract. Microparticulate drug delivery systems are an interesting and promising option when developing an oral controlled release system. The objective of this paper is to take a closer look at microparticles as drug delivery devices for increasing efficiency of drug delivery, improving the release profile and drug targeting. In order to appreciate the application possibilities of microcapsules in drug delivery, some fundamental aspects are briefly reviewed.

  19. Microencapsulation: A promising technique for controlled drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, M.N.; Hemant, K.S.Y.; Ram, M.; Shivakumar, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Microparticles offer various significant advantages as drug delivery systems, including: (i) an effective protection of the encapsulated active agent against (e.g. enzymatic) degradation, (ii) the possibility to accurately control the release rate of the incorporated drug over periods of hours to months, (iii) an easy administration (compared to alternative parenteral controlled release dosage forms, such as macro-sized implants), and (iv) Desired, pre-programmed drug release profiles can be provided which match the therapeutic needs of the patient. This article gives an overview on the general aspects and recent advances in drug-loaded microparticles to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. An appropriately designed controlled release drug delivery system can be a foot ahead towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue, and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. The development of oral controlled release systems has been a challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain and localize the system at targeted areas of gastrointestinal tract. Microparticulate drug delivery systems are an interesting and promising option when developing an oral controlled release system. The objective of this paper is to take a closer look at microparticles as drug delivery devices for increasing efficiency of drug delivery, improving the release profile and drug targeting. In order to appreciate the application possibilities of microcapsules in drug delivery, some fundamental aspects are briefly reviewed. PMID:21589795

  20. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  1. Proteomics of the Human Placenta: Promises and Realities

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J.M.; Ackerman, W.E.; Kniss, D.A.; Takizawa, T.; Vandré, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics is an area of study that sets as its ultimate goal the global analysis of all of the proteins expressed in a biological system of interest. However, technical limitations currently hamper proteome-wide analyses of complex systems. In a more practical sense, a desired outcome of proteomics research is the translation of large protein data sets into formats that provide meaningful information regarding clinical conditions (e.g., biomarkers to serve as diagnostic and/or prognostic indicators of disease). Herein, we discuss placental proteomics by describing existing studies, pointing out their strengths and weaknesses. In so doing, we strive to inform investigators interested in this area of research about the current gap between hyperbolic promises and realities. Additionally, we discuss the utility of proteomics in discovery-based research, particularly as regards the capacity to unearth novel insights into placental biology. Importantly, when considering under studied systems such as the human placenta and diseases associated with abnormalities in placental function, proteomics can serve as a robust ‘shortcut’ to obtaining information unlikely to be garnered using traditional approaches. PMID:18222537

  2. Natural antimicrobial peptides as promising anti-HIV candidates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains to be one of the major global health problems. It is thus necessary to identify novel therapeutic molecules to combat HIV-1. Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been recognized as promising templates for developing topical microbicides. This review systematically discusses over 80 anti-HIV peptides annotated in the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). Such peptides have been discovered from bacteria, plants, and animals. Examples include gramicidin and bacteriocins from bacteria, cyclotides from plants, melittins and cecropins from insects, piscidins from fish, ascaphins, caerins, dermaseptins, esculentins, and maximins from amphibians, and cathelicidins and defensins from vertebrates. These peptides appear to work by different mechanisms and could block viral entry in multiple ways. As additional advantages, such anti-HIV peptides may possess other desired features such as antibacterial, antiparasital, spermicidal, and anticancer activity. With continued optimization of peptide stability, production, formulation and delivery methods, it is anticipated that some of these compounds may eventually become new anti-HIV drugs. PMID:26834391

  3. Cancer Chemoprevention by Dietary Polyphenols: Promising Role for Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Link, Alexander; Balaguer, Francesc; Goel, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics refers to heritable changes that are not encoded in the DNA sequence itself, but play an important role in the control of gene expression. In mammals, epigenetic mechanisms include changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs. Although epigenetic changes are heritable in somatic cells, these modifications are also potentially reversible, which makes them attractive and promising avenues for tailoring cancer preventive and therapeutic strategies. Burgeoning evidence in the last decade has provided unprecedented clues that diet and environmental factors directly influence epigenetic mechanisms in humans. Dietary polyphenols from green tea, turmeric, soybeans, broccoli and others have shown to possess multiple cell-regulatory activities within cancer cells. More recently, we have begun to understand that some of the dietary polyphenols may exert their chemopreventive effects in part by modulating various components of the epigenetic machinery in humans. In this article, we first discuss the contribution of diet and environmental factors on epigenetic alterations; subsequently, we provide a comprehensive review of literature on the role of various dietary polyphenols. In particular, we summarize the current knowledge on a large number of dietary agents and their effects on DNA methylation, histone modifications and regulation of expression of non-coding miRNAs in various in vitro and in vivo models. We emphasize how increased understanding of the chemopreventive effects of dietary polyphenols on specific epigenetic alterations may provide unique and yet unexplored novel and highly effective chemopreventive strategies for reducing the health burden of cancer and other diseases in humans. PMID:20599773

  4. Plants’ Natural Products as Alternative Promising Anti-Candida Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Sameh; Alnajdy, Dina; El-Keblawy, Ali A.; Mosa, Kareem A.; Khoder, Ghalia; Noreddin, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Candida is a serious life-threatening pathogen, particularly with immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in a broad range of immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are common in hospitalized patients and elderly people. The difficulty to eradicate Candida infections is owing to its unique switch between yeast and hyphae forms and more likely to biofilm formations that render resistance to antifungal therapy. Plants are known sources of natural medicines. Several plants show significant anti-Candida activities and some of them have lower minimum inhibitory concentration, making them promising candidates for anti-Candida therapy. However, none of these plant products is marketed for anti-Candida therapy because of lack of sufficient information about their efficacy, toxicity, and kinetics. This review revises major plants that have been tested for anti-Candida activities with recommendations for further use of some of these plants for more investigation and in vivo testing including the use of nanostructure lipid system. PMID:28989245

  5. Therapeutic RNA interference for neurodegenerative diseases: From promise to progress.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro

    2007-04-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool to manipulate gene expression in the laboratory. Due to its remarkable discriminating properties, individual genes, or even alleles can be targeted with exquisite specificity in cultured cells or living animals. Among its many potential biomedical applications, silencing of disease-linked genes stands out as a promising therapeutic strategy for many incurable disorders. Neurodegenerative diseases represent one of the more attractive targets for the development of therapeutic RNAi. In this group of diseases, the progressive loss of neurons leads to the gradual appearance of disabling neurological symptoms and premature death. Currently available therapies aim to improve the symptoms but not to halt the process of neurodegeneration. The increasing prevalence and economic burden of some of these diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD), has boosted the efforts invested in the development of interventions, such as RNAi, aimed at altering their natural course. This review will summarize where we stand in the therapeutic application of RNAi for neurodegenerative diseases. The basic principles of RNAi will be reviewed, focusing on features important for its therapeutic manipulation. Subsequently, a stepwise strategy for the development of therapeutic RNAi will be presented. Finally, the different preclinical trials of therapeutic RNAi completed in disease models will be summarized, stressing the experimental questions that need to be addressed before planning application in human disease.

  6. Volatile aldehydes are promising broad-spectrum postharvest insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hammond, D G; Rangel, S; Kubo, I

    2000-09-01

    A variety of naturally occurring aldehydes common in plants have been evaluated for their insecticidal activity and for phytotoxicity to postharvest fruits, vegetables, and grains. Twenty-nine compounds were initially screened for their activity against aphids on fava bean leaf disks. Application under reduced pressure (partial vacuum) for the first quarter of fumigation increased insecticidal activity severalfold. The 11 best aldehydes were assayed against aphids placed under the third leaf of whole heads of iceberg lettuce using the same two-tier reduced-pressure regime, which caused no additional detriment to the commodity over fumigation at atmospheric pressure. Phytotoxicity to naked and wrapped iceburg lettuce, green and red table grapes, lemon, grapefruit, orange, broccoli, avocado, cabbage, pinto bean, and rice at doses that killed 100% of aphids was recorded for three promising fumigants: propanal, (E)-2-pentenal, and 2-methyl-(E)-2-butenal. These three compounds have excellent potential as affordable postharvest insect control agents, killing 100% of the aphids with little or no detectable harm to a majority of the commodities tested. Preliminary assays indicate that similar doses are also effective against mealybugs, thrips, and whitefly.

  7. Strontium ranelate, a promising disease modifying osteoarthritis drug.

    PubMed

    Han, Weiyu; Fan, Shicai; Bai, Xiaochun; Ding, Changhai

    2017-03-01

    The articular cartilage and subchondral bone may have potential crosstalk in the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Strontium ranelate (SrR) has the ability to dissociate the bone remodeling process and to change the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. Its effect on subchondral bone makes it a potential disease- modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD) in the treatment of OA. The aim of the current review is to summarize up-to-date pharmacological and clinical data of SrR for OA treatment. Areas covered: A literature search was performed on PubMed and European Medicines Agency (EMA) website for all publications and documents related to SrR and OA. References of related studies were searched by hand. Treatment with SrR, especially at the dosage of 2 g/day, was associated with reduced radiographic knee OA progression, and with meaningful clinical improvement. It was also significantly associated with decreased MRI-assessed cartilage volume loss (CVL) and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Expert opinion: SrR could be a promising DMOAD particularly for OA patients with bone phenotypes. The clinical efficacy and side effects of SrR for OA treatment need to be further investigated in future clinical trials before clinical application.

  8. Case Series in Cognitive Neuropsychology: Promise, Perils and Proper Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Schwartz & Dell (2010) advocated for a major role for case series investigations in cognitive neuropsychology. They defined the key features of this approach and presented a number of arguments and examples illustrating the benefits of case series studies and their contribution to computational cognitive neuropsychology. In the Special Issue on “Case Series in Cognitive Neuropsychology” there are six commentaries on Schwartz and Dell (2010) as well as a response to the six commentaries by Dell and Schwartz. In this paper, I provide a brief summary of the key points made in Schwartz and Dell (2010) and I review the promise and perils of case series design as revealed by the six commentaries. I conclude by placing the set of papers within a broader perspective, providing some clarification of the historical record on case series and single case approaches, raising some cautionary notes for case series studies and situating both case series and single case approaches within the larger context of theory development in the cognitive sciences. PMID:22746685

  9. Magnetic hydroxyapatite: a promising multifunctional platform for nanomedicine application

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Sudip; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Bharathiraja, Subramaniyan; Santha Moorthy, Madhappan; Kim, Hye Hyun; Seo, Hansu; Lee, Kang Dae; Oh, Junghwan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, specific attention is paid to the development of nanostructured magnetic hydroxyapatite (MHAp) and its potential application in controlled drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, magnetic hyperthermia treatment, and the development of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Both magnetite and hydroxyapatite materials have excellent prospects in nanomedicine with multifunctional therapeutic approaches. To date, many research articles have focused on biomedical applications of nanomaterials because of which it is very difficult to focus on any particular type of nanomaterial. This study is possibly the first effort to emphasize on the comprehensive assessment of MHAp nanostructures for biomedical applications supported with very recent experimental studies. From basic concepts to the real-life applications, the relevant characteristics of magnetic biomaterials are patented which are briefly discussed. The potential therapeutic and diagnostic ability of MHAp-nanostructured materials make them an ideal platform for future nanomedicine. We hope that this advanced review will provide a better understanding of MHAp and its important features to utilize it as a promising material for multifunctional biomedical applications. PMID:29200851

  10. The promise of N-acetylcysteine in neuropsychiatry.

    PubMed

    Berk, Michael; Malhi, Gin S; Gray, Laura J; Dean, Olivia M

    2013-03-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) targets a diverse array of factors germane to the pathophysiology of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders including glutamatergic transmission, the antioxidant glutathione, neurotrophins, apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and inflammatory pathways. This review summarises the areas where the mechanisms of action of NAC overlap with known pathophysiological elements, and offers a précis of current literature regarding the use of NAC in disorders including cocaine, cannabis, and smoking addictions, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, autism, compulsive and grooming disorders, schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder. There are positive trials of NAC in all these disorders, and although many of these require replication and are methodologically preliminary, this makes it one of the most promising drug candidates in neuropsychiatric disorders. The efficacy pattern of NAC interestingly shows little respect for the current diagnostic systems. Its benign tolerability profile, its action on multiple operative pathways, and the emergence of positive trial data make it an important target to investigate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Personalized medicine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: facts and promises.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Tzouvelekis, Argyris; Maher, Toby M

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we summarize and discuss the most recent literature on personalized medicine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a chronic progressive and almost invariably lethal disease of unknown cause. This review is timely as major advances in our understanding of disease pathobiology and improvements in molecular techniques have recently led to the identification of potential surrogates of diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment. The most promising and advanced candidate biomarkers are presented based on their proposed mechanistic pathways (e.g. alveolar epithelial cell dysfunction, immune dysregulation, microbiome, extracellular matrix remodeling and fibroproliferation, epigenetic markers and metabolomics). Recent data suggest that components of the immune system may contribute to the development of IPF. A potential role for infections as a cofactor in disease development and progression or as a trigger in disease exacerbation has also recently been proposed. Clinical management of IPF is unsatisfactory because of limited availability of truly effective therapies, lack of accurate predictors of disease behavior and absence of simple short-term measures of therapeutic response. A number of putative biomarkers have been identified in patients with IPF, although none has been validated to the standard necessary for their use in either therapeutic trials or clinical practice. Currently, ongoing prospective longitudinal studies will hopefully permit such validation.

  12. Genetic Tools for the Industrially Promising Methanotroph Methylomicrobium buryatense

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, AW; Owen, S; Chu, F

    2015-02-10

    Aerobic methanotrophs oxidize methane at ambient temperatures and pressures and are therefore attractive systems for methane-based bioconversions. In this work, we developed and validated genetic tools for Methylomicrobium buryatense, a haloalkaliphilic gammaproteobacterial (type I) methanotroph. M. buryatense was isolated directly on natural gas and grows robustly in pure culture with a 3-h doubling time, enabling rapid genetic manipulation compared to many other methanotrophic species. As a proof of concept, we used a sucrose counterselection system to eliminate glycogen production in M. buryatense by constructing unmarked deletions in two redundant glycogen synthase genes. We also selected for a more genetically tractablemore » variant strain that can be conjugated with small incompatibility group P (IncP)-based broad-host-range vectors and determined that this capability is due to loss of the native plasmid. These tools make M. buryatense a promising model system for studying aerobic methanotroph physiology and enable metabolic engineering in this bacterium for industrial biocatalysis of methane.« less

  13. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  14. Medulloblastoma stem cells: Promising targets in medulloblastoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Hao; Xu, Qing-Fu; Cui, You-Hong; Li, Ningning; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Lv, Sheng-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Despite great improvements in the therapeutic regimen, relapse and leptomeningeal dissemination still pose great challenges to the long-term survival of MB patients. Developing more effective strategies has become extremely urgent. In recent years, a number of malignancies, including MB, have been found to contain a subpopulation of cancer cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), or tumor initiating/propagating cells. The CSCs are thought to be largely responsible for tumor initiation, maintenance, dissemination, and relapse; therefore, their pivotal roles have revealed them to be promising targets in MB therapy. Our growing understanding of the major medulloblastoma molecular subgroups and the derivation of some of these groups from specific stem or progenitor cells adds additional layers to the CSC knowledge base. Herein we review the current knowledge of MB stem cells, highlight the molecular mechanisms relating to MB relapse and leptomeningeal dissemination, and incorporate these with the need to develop more effective and accurate therapies for MB patients. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Promises and challenges in solid-state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Fred

    2010-03-01

    Lighting technologies based on semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer unprecedented promises that include three major benefits: (i) Gigantic energy savings enabled by efficient conversion of electrical energy to optical energy; (ii) Substantial positive contributions to sustainability through reduced emissions of global-warming gases, acid-rain gases, and toxic substances such as mercury; and (iii) The creation of new paradigms in lighting driven by the unique controllability of solid-state lighting sources. Due to the powerful nature of these benefits, the transition from conventional lighting sources to solid-state lighting is virtually assured. This presentation will illustrate the new world of lighting and illustrate the pervasive changes to be expected in lighting, displays, communications, and biotechnology. The presentation will also address the formidable challenges that must be addressed to continue the further advancement of solid-state lighting technology. These challenges offer opportunities for research and innovation. Specific challenges include light management, carrier transport, and optical design. We will present some innovative approaches in order to solve known technical challenges faced by solid-state lighting. These approaches include the demonstration and use of new optical thin-film materials with a continuously tunable refractive index. These approaches also include the use of polarization-matched structures that reduce the polarization fields in GaInN LEDs and the hotly debated efficiency droop, that is, the decreasing LED efficiency at high currents.

  16. Macrolides: a promising pharmacologic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shilin; Zhong, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there are no effective anti-inflammatory pharmacologic therapies available for COPD so far. Recent evidence suggests that an immunologic mechanism has a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Macrolides possess anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects may be helpful in the treatment of COPD. Several clinical studies have shown that long-term use of macrolides reduces the frequency of COPD exacerbations. However, the subgroups that most effectively respond to long-term treatment of macrolides still need to be determined. The potential adverse events to individuals and the microbial resistance in community populations raises great concern on the long-term use of macrolides. Thus, novel macrolides have anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating effects, but without antibiotic effects, and are promising as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of COPD. In addition, the combination of macrolides and other anti-inflammatory pharmacologic agents may be a new strategy for the treatment of COPD. PMID:28030992

  17. Nursing Education Transformation: Promising Practices in Academic Progression.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Mary Sue; Farmer, Patricia D; Sroczynski, Maureen; Close, Liz; Wortock, Jean M

    2015-09-01

    Health care has changed over the past decade; yet, nursing education has not kept pace with social and scientific advances. The Institute of Medicine report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, called for a more highly educated nursing work-force and an improved nursing education system. Since the release of that report, the Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action, supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, AARP, and the AARP Foundation, has worked with nursing education leaders to better understand existing and evolving nursing education structures. Through a consensus-building process, four overarching promising practice models, with an emphasis on seamless academic progression, emerged to advance the goals of education transformation. Key nurse educators and other stakeholders refined those models through a series of meetings, collaborative partnerships, and focused projects that were held across the United States. This article summarizes that process and provides a description of the models, challenges, common themes, recommendations, and progress to date. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Shared Curriculum Model: A Promising Practice for Education Transformation.

    PubMed

    Close, Liz; Gorski, Mary Sue; Sroczynski, Maureen; Farmer, Pat; Wortock, Jean

    2015-12-01

    The shared curriculum model is one of four successful models of academic progression identified through a consensus-building process facilitated by The Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action, with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, AARP, and the AARP Foundation. Seamless academic progression from the associate degree in nursing (ADN) to the baccalaureate degree in nursing (BSN) is achieved either by simultaneously revising both ADN and BSN curricula or by making targeted adjustments in ADN or BSN curricula to create a unified academic progression. Systematic vetting and definitive agreement on nursing prerequisites and corequisites, general education courses, nursing major content, and general degree requirements are necessary to ensure coordinated degree progression. A standardized set of expectations for beginning professional practice and for unique baccalaureate nursing knowledge ensures vital nursing content across the ADN-to-BSN continuum. Examples of state and regional ADN-to-BSN progression programs using the shared curriculum model are highlighted. The shared curriculum model is a promising practical and sustainable approach to seamless ADN-to-BSN academic progression. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Liquid Biopsy in Head and Neck Cancer: Promises and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, T; Wong, D T W

    2018-06-01

    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. It remains one of the leading causes of death, and its early detection is crucial. Liquid biopsy has emerged as a promising tool for detecting and monitoring the disease status of patients with early and advanced cancers. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and exosomal miRNAs have received enormous attention because of their apparent clinical implications. Analyses of these circulating biomarkers have paved the way for novel therapeutic approaches and precision medicine. A growing number of reports have implicated the use of circulating biomarkers for detection, treatment planning, response monitoring, and prognosis assessment. Although these new biomarkers can provide a wide range of possible clinical applications, no validated circulating biomarkers have yet been integrated into clinical practice for head and neck cancer. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of circulating biomarkers in this field, focusing on their feasibility, limitations, and key areas of clinical applications. We also highlight recent advances in salivary diagnostics and their potential application in head and neck cancer.

  20. Gene editing as a promising approach for respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yichun; Liu, Yang; Su, Zhenlei; Ma, Yana; Ren, Chonghua; Zhao, Runzhen; Ji, Hong-Long

    2018-03-01

    Respiratory diseases, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world, are dysfunctions of the nasopharynx, the trachea, the bronchus, the lung and the pleural cavity. Symptoms of chronic respiratory diseases, such as cough, sneezing and difficulty breathing, may seriously affect the productivity, sleep quality and physical and mental well-being of patients, and patients with acute respiratory diseases may have difficulty breathing, anoxia and even life-threatening respiratory failure. Respiratory diseases are generally heterogeneous, with multifaceted causes including smoking, ageing, air pollution, infection and gene mutations. Clinically, a single pulmonary disease can exhibit more than one phenotype or coexist with multiple organ disorders. To correct abnormal function or repair injured respiratory tissues, one of the most promising techniques is to correct mutated genes by gene editing, as some gene mutations have been clearly demonstrated to be associated with genetic or heterogeneous respiratory diseases. Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) systems are three innovative gene editing technologies developed recently. In this short review, we have summarised the structure and operating principles of the ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 systems and their preclinical and clinical applications in respiratory diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  2. Algae as promising organisms for environment and health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Algae, like other plants, produce a variety of remarkable compounds collectively referred to as secondary metabolites. They are synthesized by these organisms at the end of the growth phase and/or due to metabolic alterations induced by environmental stress conditions. Carotenoids, phenolic compounds, phycobiliprotein pigments, polysaccharides and unsaturated fatty acids are same of the algal natural products, which were reported to have variable biological activities, including antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, antimicroabial activity against bacteria-virus-algae-fungi, organic fertilizer and bioremediation potentials. PMID:21862867

  3. Synthetic Lethal Networks for Precision Oncology: Promises and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Shen, John Paul; Ideker, Trey

    2018-06-19

    Synthetic lethal interactions, in which the simultaneous loss-of-function of two genes produces a lethal phenotype, are being explored as a means to therapeutically exploit cancer-specific vulnerabilities and expand the scope of precision oncology. Currently, three FDA approved drugs work by targeting the synthetic lethal interaction between BRCA1/2 and PARP. This review examines additional efforts to discover networks of synthetic lethal interactions and discusses both challenges and opportunities regarding the translation of new synthetic lethal interactions into the clinic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Nonprofit health systems: a promising new class of corporate citizen.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort B

    Leading nonprofit health systems are demonstrating that communities can benefit from the emergence of this new class of corporate citizens. Just as the business sector has produced many good corporate citizens to the great advantage of American society, health systems with sufficient financial and organizational gravitas increasingly are assuming these roles, and in so doing, are making positive differences in their communities. More system leaders, however, must find compelling reasons to assume these demanding roles. They also must learn how to play citizenship roles more fully and effectively if the potential social good available through health systems' corporate citizenship is to be realized.

  5. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    PubMed

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  6. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400–500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300–800 kg lime/t TS and 25–50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5–3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22–81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59–97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59–97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9–26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising. PMID:26984372

  7. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge.

    PubMed

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-11-01

    In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400-500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300-800 kg lime/t TS and 25-50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5-3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22-81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59-97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59-97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9-26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising.

  8. Thiolated graphene oxide as promising mucoadhesive carrier for hydrophobic drugs.

    PubMed

    Pereira de Sousa, Irene; Buttenhauser, Katrin; Suchaoin, Wongsakorn; Partenhauser, Alexandra; Perrone, Mara; Matuszczak, Barbara; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-07-25

    The aim of this study was to improve the mucoadhesive properties of graphene by conjugating thiol ligands, in order to formulate an oral delivery system for hydrophobic drugs showing long mucus residence time. Graphene oxide was obtained by oxidation of graphite and then was thiolated following two synthetic paths. On the one hand, the hydroxyl groups were conjugated with thiourea passing through the formation of a brominated intermediate. On the other hand, the carboxylic acid groups were conjugated with cysteamine via carbodiimide chemistry. The mucoadhesive properties of thiolated graphene were evaluated by rheological measurements and by residence time assay. Then, valsartan was loaded on thiolated graphene and the release profile was evaluated in simulated intestinal fluid. Following both synthetic paths it was possible to obtain thiolated graphene bearing 215-302μmol SH/g product. Both products induced after 1h incubation an increase of mucus viscosity of about 22-33-fold compared to unmodified graphite. The residence time assay confirmed that 60% of thiolated graphene could be retained on intestinal mucosa after 4h incubation, whereas just 20% of unmodified graphite could be retained. Valsartan could be loaded with a drug loading of about 31±0.3% and a sustained release profile was observed for both formulations. According to the presented data, the thiolation of graphene could improve its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, thiolated graphene represents a promising platform for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs, possessing a long residence time on intestinal mucosa which allows the release of the loaded drug close to the adsorptive epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial Peptides: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy in Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Ramya; Goud, Nerella S; Saraswati, A Prasanth; Alvala, Ravi; Alvala, Mallika

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has posed a serious threat to global public health and it requires immediate action, preferably long term. Current drug therapies have failed to curb this menace due to the ability of microbes to circumvent the mechanisms through which the drugs act. From the drug discovery point of view, the majority of drugs currently employed for antimicrobial therapy are small molecules. Recent trends reveal a surge in the use of peptides as drug candidates as they offer remarkable advantages over small molecules. Newer synthetic strategies like organometalic complexes, Peptide-polymer conjugates, solid phase, liquid phase and recombinant DNA technology encouraging the use of peptides as therapeutic agents with a host of chemical functions, and tailored for specific applications. In the last decade, many peptide based drugs have been successfully approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This success can be attributed to their high specificity, selectivity and efficacy, high penetrability into the tissues, less immunogenicity and less tissue accumulation. Considering the enormity of AMR, the use of Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) can be a viable alternative to current therapeutics strategies. AMPs are naturally abundant allowing synthetic chemists to develop semi-synthetics peptide molecules. AMPs have a broad spectrum of activity towards microbes and they possess the ability to bypass the resistance induction mechanisms of microbes. The present review focuses on the potential applications of AMPs against various microbial disorders and their future prospects. Several resistance mechanisms and their strategies have also been discussed to highlight the importance in the current scenario. Breakthroughs in AMP designing, peptide synthesis and biotechnology have shown promise in tackling this challenge and has revived the interest of using AMPs as an important weapon in fighting AMR. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  10. Medical Geography: a Promising Field of Application for Geostatistics

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, P.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of health data and putative covariates, such as environmental, socio-economic, behavioral or demographic factors, is a promising application for geostatistics. It presents, however, several methodological challenges that arise from the fact that data are typically aggregated over irregular spatial supports and consist of a numerator and a denominator (i.e. population size). This paper presents an overview of recent developments in the field of health geostatistics, with an emphasis on three main steps in the analysis of areal health data: estimation of the underlying disease risk, detection of areas with significantly higher risk, and analysis of relationships with putative risk factors. The analysis is illustrated using age-adjusted cervix cancer mortality rates recorded over the 1970–1994 period for 118 counties of four states in the Western USA. Poisson kriging allows the filtering of noisy mortality rates computed from small population sizes, enhancing the correlation with two putative explanatory variables: percentage of habitants living below the federally defined poverty line, and percentage of Hispanic females. Area-to-point kriging formulation creates continuous maps of mortality risk, reducing the visual bias associated with the interpretation of choropleth maps. Stochastic simulation is used to generate realizations of cancer mortality maps, which allows one to quantify numerically how the uncertainty about the spatial distribution of health outcomes translates into uncertainty about the location of clusters of high values or the correlation with covariates. Last, geographically-weighted regression highlights the non-stationarity in the explanatory power of covariates: the higher mortality values along the coast are better explained by the two covariates than the lower risk recorded in Utah. PMID:19412347

  11. Medical Geography: a Promising Field of Application for Geostatistics.

    PubMed

    Goovaerts, P

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of health data and putative covariates, such as environmental, socio-economic, behavioral or demographic factors, is a promising application for geostatistics. It presents, however, several methodological challenges that arise from the fact that data are typically aggregated over irregular spatial supports and consist of a numerator and a denominator (i.e. population size). This paper presents an overview of recent developments in the field of health geostatistics, with an emphasis on three main steps in the analysis of areal health data: estimation of the underlying disease risk, detection of areas with significantly higher risk, and analysis of relationships with putative risk factors. The analysis is illustrated using age-adjusted cervix cancer mortality rates recorded over the 1970-1994 period for 118 counties of four states in the Western USA. Poisson kriging allows the filtering of noisy mortality rates computed from small population sizes, enhancing the correlation with two putative explanatory variables: percentage of habitants living below the federally defined poverty line, and percentage of Hispanic females. Area-to-point kriging formulation creates continuous maps of mortality risk, reducing the visual bias associated with the interpretation of choropleth maps. Stochastic simulation is used to generate realizations of cancer mortality maps, which allows one to quantify numerically how the uncertainty about the spatial distribution of health outcomes translates into uncertainty about the location of clusters of high values or the correlation with covariates. Last, geographically-weighted regression highlights the non-stationarity in the explanatory power of covariates: the higher mortality values along the coast are better explained by the two covariates than the lower risk recorded in Utah.

  12. Refinement of Promising Coating Compositions for Directionally Cast Eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Felten, E. J.; Benden, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The successful application of high creep strength, directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime-delta (Ni-19.7Cb-6Cr-2.5Al) eutectic superalloy turbine blades requires the development of suitable coatings for airfoil, root and internal blade surfaces. In order to improve coatings for the gamma/gamma prime-delta alloy, the current investigation had the goals of (1) refining promising coating compositions for directionally solidified eutectics, (2) evaluating the effects of coating/ substrate interactions on the mechanical properties of the alloy, and (3) evaluating diffusion aluminide coatings for internal surfaces. Burner rig cyclic oxidation, furnace cyclic hot corrosion, ductility, and thermal fatigue tests indicated that NiCrAlY+Pt(63 to 127 micron Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y + 6 micron Pt) and NiCrAlY(63 to 127 micron Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y) coatings are capable of protecting high temperature gas path surfaces of eutectic alloy airfoils. Burner rig (Mach 0.37) testing indicated that the useful coating life of the 127 micron thick coatings exceeded 1000 hours at 1366 K (2000 deg F). Isothermal fatigue and furnance hot corrosion tests indicated that 63 micron NiCrAlY, NiCrAlY + Pt and platinum modified diffusion aluminide (Pt + Al) coating systems are capable of protecting the relatively cooler surfaces of the blade root. Finally, a gas phase coating process was evaluated for diffusion aluminizing internal surfaces and cooling holes of air-cooled gamma/gamma prime-delta turbine blades.

  13. The promise and peril of the pharmacological enhancer Modafinil.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The neuro-enhancement Modafinil promises to dramatically increase users' waking hours without much sacrifice to clarity of thought and without serious side effects (inducing addiction). For Modafinil to be advantageous, its usage must enable access to goods that themselves improve the quality of one's life. I draw attention to a variety of conditions that must be met for an experience, activity or object to improve the quality of one's life, such as positional, relational, and saturation conditions, as well as it's being good for its own sake. I discuss and describe the contexts in which widespread usage (legal or not) of Modafinil would undermine these conditions being met, and thus users would fail to significantly improve the quality of their lives and would in fact potentially make both themselves and nonusers worse off in important respects thus far overlooked by critics. In the right contexts, where free time is protected and prolonged, Modafinil does have a variety of potential benefits including, most interestingly, a distinctive form of agency possible only in free time. The potential disadvantages and advantages highlighted in this article are relevant not only to public institutions deciding whether to legalize Modafinil's use as an enhancement but also to individuals deciding whether to use it illegally, as well as to the questions of how and whether to alter key features of one's context (e.g. regulating work hours or extending social services) rather than, or in addition, to regulating the use of enhancement drugs such as Modafinil. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Promising Technologies of Mining and Processing of Solid Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabaev, Sergey; Ivanov, Seregey; Vakhianov, Evgeniy

    2017-11-01

    The continuing growth in mineral extraction entails an increase in industrial waste, which in turn has a negative impact on the environment. Rubber-tired vehicles, in which the tires wear colossally, is mainly used as a transport for loading, unloading, transportation and other types of work in the extraction of solid minerals. The used tires are not disposed in any way, but are stored in special areas where harmful toxic substances are emitted under the influence of ultraviolet rays. Therefore, a decision was made to find a method for utilization and rational use of industrial waste in the road construction sector. The operating temperature of composite rubber-bituminous binders based on rubber crumb from the used automobile tires is estimated in this paper, which is necessary for assigning technological parameters of production and laying of asphalt-concrete mixtures produced on their basis. It is established that composite rubber-bituminous binders based on rubber chips from the used automobile tires, produced according to the two-stage technology, have the same viscosity as the original petroleum bitumen, at a temperature increased by 20°C.

  15. Evaluation of Low-Pressure Cold Plasma for Disinfection of ISS Grown Produce and Metallic Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Franco, Carolina; Hummerick, Mary E.; Maloney, Phil R.; Spencer, Lashelle E.

    2017-01-01

    Cold plasma (CP) cleaning is a dry, non-thermal process, which can provide broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity yet reportedly causes little to no damage to the object being sanitized. Since cold plasma uses no liquids, it has the distinct advantage when used in microgravity of not having to separate liquids from the item being cleaned. This paper will present results on an effort to use low pressure CP to disinfect or sterilize materials for in space applications. Exposure times from 0 to 60 minutes and pressures ranging from 0.10 to 1.0 mbar were used to optimize plasma parameters. Tests were done on produce and metal coupons to simulate medical equipment. Escherichia coli was used as the challenge organism on produce and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-32 was used on metal surfaces. Produce testing was not successful, with unacceptable kill rates and the produce being negatively impacted by exposure to the plasma. The plasma caused a 5 log reduction in the number of viable bacteria on metal coupon tests, which placed the number of viable bacteria below the detection limit. This is a very promising result showing that sterilization of medical equipment with cold plasma is feasible. Scanning Electron Microscope images were taken before and after exposure. The images after plasma exposure show that the bacteria spores have been physically affected, as their size has gotten smaller and their appearance has changed.

  16. Construction and evaluation of an exopolysaccharide-producing engineered bacterial strain by protoplast fusion for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shanshan; Luo, Yijing; Cao, Siyuan; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Jiang, Lingxi; Dong, Hanping; Yu, Li; Wu, Wei-Min

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter cloacae strain JD, which produces water-insoluble biopolymers at optimal temperature of 30°C, and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at high temperatures by protoplast fusion. The obtained fusant strain ZR3 produced exopolysaccharides at up to 45°C with optimal growth temperature at 35°C. The fusant produced exopolysaccharides of approximately 7.5 g/L or more at pH between 7.0 and 9.0. The feasibility of the enhancement of crude oil recovery with the fusant was tested in a sand-packed column at 40°C. The results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of the fusant was promising approach for MEOR. Mass growth of the fusant was confirmed in fermentor tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial safety of fresh produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The book entitled “Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce” with 23 chapters is divided into following six sections: Microbial contamination of fresh produce, Pre-harvest strategies, post-harvest interventions, Produce safety during processing and handling, Public, legal, and economic Perspectives, and Re...

  18. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    DOEpatents

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  19. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-09-02

    A method for producing a borohydride is described and which includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material which chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature which substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  20. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.

    2010-06-22

    A method for producing a borohydride is described that includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material that chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of the borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature that substantially effects the production of the borohydride.