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Sample records for producing controlled low-strength

  1. Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) produced from limestone fines and other byproducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Harsh

    Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) or flowable fill mixtures are typically specified and used in lieu of compacted fill especially for backfill, utility bedding, void fill and bridge approaches. This study developed flowable fill mixtures containing only quarry fines, fly ash, synthetic gypsum and water, for different applications without any cement or good quality aggregates, to reduce costs significantly. The study used by-products of two industries, quarry fines and fly ash, to produce cheap cementitious CLSM mixtures that are flowable in their fresh state. Successful use of quarry fines in CLSM mixtures can reduce costs related to storage and disposal of fines, save dwindling landfill space, and generate additional revenue for quarries. This study also evaluated the use of synthetic gypsum obtained from industrial waste products. The use of soil as a compacted fill is generally responsible for various issues related to differential settlement. Some of the most important causes of differential settlement are compression of poorly compacted embankment soils, poor material characteristics, non-homogeneity of embankment soils, and erosion of underlying soils. Considering limited funds available to federal and state highway agencies, the developed group of mixtures should be economically feasible and it should provide a good, constant density, homogeneous support layer with low settlement.

  2. Strength properties of fly ash based controlled low strength materials.

    PubMed

    Türkel, S

    2007-08-25

    Controlled low strength material (CLSM) is a flowable mixture that can be used as a backfill material in place of compacted soils. Flowable fill requires no tamping or compaction to achieve its strength and typically has a load carrying capacity much higher than compacted soils, but it can still be excavated easily. The selection of CLSM type should be based on technical and economical considerations for specific applications. In this study, a mixture of high volume fly ash (FA), crushed limestone powder (filler) and a low percentage of pozzolana cement have been tried in different compositions. The amount of pozzolana cement was kept constant for all mixes as, 5% of fly ash weight. The amount of mixing water was chosen in order to provide optimum pumpability by determining the spreading ratio of CLSM mixtures using flow table method. The shear strength of the material is a measure of the materials ability to support imposed stresses on the material. The shear strength properties of CLSM mixtures have been investigated by a series of laboratory tests. The direct shear test procedure was applied for determining the strength parameters Phi (angle of shearing resistance) and C(h) (cohesion intercept) of the material. The test results indicated that CLSM mixtures have superior shear strength properties compared to compacted soils. Shear strength, cohesion intercept and angle of shearing resistance values of CLSM mixtures exceeded conventional soil materials' similar properties at 7 days. These parameters proved that CLSM mixtures are suitable materials for backfill applications.

  3. Performance appraisal of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as controlled low-strength material.

    PubMed

    Razak, Hashim Abdul; Naganathan, Sivakumar; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2009-12-30

    Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) is slurry made by mixing sand, cement, ash, and water. It is primarily used as a replacement for soil and structural fillings. This paper presents the findings of a preliminary investigation carried out on the performance of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as CLSM. CLSM mixes were designed using industrial waste incineration bottom ash, and cement. Tests for density, setting time, bleed, and compressive strength on cubes under various curing conditions, corrosivity, and leaching of heavy metals and salts were carried out on the CLSM mixtures, and the results discussed. Compressive strength for the designed CLSM mixtures ranged from 0.1 to 1.7 MPa. It is shown that the variations in curing conditions have less influence on the compressive strength of CLSM at high values of water to cement ratio (w/c), but low values of w/c influences the strength of CLSM. The CLSM produced does not exhibit corrosive characters as evidenced by pH. Leaching of heavy metals and salts is higher in bleed than in leachate collected from hardened CLSM. Cement reduces the leaching of Boron in bleed. It is concluded that there is good potential for the use of industrial waste incineration bottom ash in CLSM. PMID:19665294

  4. Utilization of recycled glass as aggregate in controlled low-strength material (CLSM)

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlheiser, T.R.

    1998-10-01

    Incoming glass from curbside recycling programs is successfully being utilized as aggregate replacements. The colored glass that can not be used by local bottle manufacturers is crushed to a {1/2} in. (12.5 mm) material and used in various construction projects. The most successful use of processed glass aggregate (PGA) to date, has been in replacing up to 100% of the aggregate in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). It has proven to be successful and has gained acceptance by contractors in the Boulder, Colorado area.

  5. Admixture enhanced controlled low-strength material for direct underwater injection with minimal cross-contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, H.K.; Davidson, J.S.; Hooyman, J.L.

    1997-03-01

    Commercially available admixtures have been developed for placing traditional concrete products under water. This paper evaluates adapting anti-washout admixture (AWA) and high range water reducing admixture (HRWRA) products to enhance controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs) for underwater placement. A simple experimental scale model (based on dynamic and geometric similitude) of typical grout pump emplacement equipment has been developed to determine the percentage of cementing material washed out. The objective of this study was to identify proportions of admixtures and underwater CLSM emplacement procedures which would minimize the cross-contamination of the displaced water while maintaining the advantages of CLSM. Since the displaced water from radioactively contaminated systems must be subsequently treated prior to release to the environment, the amount of cross-contamination is important for cases in which cementing material could form hard sludges in a water treatment facility and contaminate the in-place CLSM stabilization medium.

  6. Excess foundry sand characterization and experimental investigation in controlled low-strength material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, An

    The objective of this dissertation is to provide support with technical data for the reuse of excess foundry sand. The dissertation addresses two topics: a statistical sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry waste streams, and a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). The survival analysis statistical technique is developed for processing censored characterization data with significant confidence. Using this methodology, supported by abundant characterization datasets, foundry waste streams are characterized in full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry waste streams are evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of reuse marketplace of foundry waste streams. Excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands are investigated through laboratory experiments. Technical data regarding physical characteristics of excess foundry sands, design, behavior, performance and environmental impact of fresh and hardened CLSM are presented in details. Wide span of parameters are analyzed to evaluate the qualification of integrating excess foundry sands into CLSM.

  7. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  8. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate. PMID:20852000

  9. Characterization of controlled low-strength material obtained from dewatered sludge and refuse incineration bottom ash: mechanical and microstructural perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Zhao, Youcai; Niu, Jing; Chai, Xiaoli; Su, Lianghu; Li, Yu-You; Liu, Yuan; Du, Jingru; Hojo, Toshimasa; Hu, Yong

    2013-11-15

    Potential reuse of dewatered sludge (DS) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as components to develop controlled low-strength material (CLSM) was explored. The effects of DS:MSWI bottom ash:calcium sulfoaluminate (CS¯A) cement ratio and thermal treatment of MSWI bottom ash at 900 °C on the mechanical and microstructural properties of CLSM were intensively studied to optimize the process. Results showed DS and MSWI bottom ash could be utilized for making CLSM. The CLSM prepared with milled MSWI bottom ash gave higher unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of 2.0-6.2 MPa following 1 year of curing at 1.0:0.1:0.9 ≤ DS:MSWI bottom ash:CS¯A ≤ 1.0:0.8:0.2. However, the corresponding strengths for CLSM containing thermally treated MSWI bottom ash ranged from 0.7 to 4.6 MPa, decreasing 26-65%. The microstructural analysis by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed that ettringite (C3A·3CS¯·H32, or AFt) crystals were the most important strength-producing constituents which grew into and filled the CLSM matrix pores. Milled MSWI bottom ash addition favored the formation of highly crystalline AFt phases and accordingly enhanced compressive strengths of CLSM specimens. In contrast, thermal treatment at 900 °C produced new phases such as gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and hydroxylapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)), which deteriorated the pozzolanic activity of bottom ash and caused the strengths to decrease. Leaching tests evidenced that leachable substances from CLSM samples exhibited negligible health and environmental risks. The results of this study suggested that MSWI bottom ash can be effectively recycled together with DS in developing CLSM mixtures with restricted use of CS¯A cement.

  10. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  11. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Tikalsky, Paul J.; Bahia, Hussain U.; Deng, An; Snyder, Thomas

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  12. Leaching characteristics of encapsulated controlled low-strength materials containing arsenic-bearing waste precipitates from refractory gold bioleaching.

    PubMed

    Bouzalakos, S; Dudeney, A W L; Chan, B K C

    2016-07-01

    We report on the leaching of heavy elements from cemented waste flowable fill, known as controlled low-strength materials (CLSM), for potential mine backfill application. Semi-dynamic tank leaching tests were carried out on laboratory-scale monoliths cured for 28 days and tested over 64 days of leaching with pure de-ionised water as leachant. Mineral processing waste include flotation tailings from a Spanish nickel-copper sulphide concentrate, and two bioleach neutralisation precipitates (from processing at 35°C and 70°C) from a South African arsenopyrite concentrate. Encapsulated CLSM formulations were evaluated to assess the reduction in leaching by encapsulating a 'hazardous' CLSM core within a layer of relatively 'inert' CLSM. The effect of each bioleach waste in CLSM core and tailings in CLSM encapsulating medium, are assessed in combination and in addition to CLSM with ordinary silica sand. Results show that replacing silica sand with tailings, both as core and encapsulating matrix, significantly reduced leachability of heavy elements, particularly As (from 0.008-0.190 mg/l to 0.008-0.060 mg/l), Ba (from 0.435-1.540 mg/l to 0.050-0.565 mg/l), and Cr (from 0.006-0.458 mg/l to 0.004-0.229 mg/l), to below the 'Dutch List' of groundwater contamination intervention values. Arsenic leaching was inherently high from both bioleach precipitates but was significantly reduced to below guideline values with encapsulation and replacing silica sand with tailings. Tailings proved to be a valuable encapsulating matrix largely owing to small particle size and lower hydraulic conductivity reducing diffusion transport of heavy elements. Field-scale trials would be necessary to prove this concept of encapsulation in terms of scale and construction practicalities, and further geochemical investigation to optimise leaching performance. Nevertheless, this work substantiates the need for alternative backfill techniques for sustainable management of hazardous finely-sized bulk

  13. Leaching characteristics of encapsulated controlled low-strength materials containing arsenic-bearing waste precipitates from refractory gold bioleaching.

    PubMed

    Bouzalakos, S; Dudeney, A W L; Chan, B K C

    2016-07-01

    We report on the leaching of heavy elements from cemented waste flowable fill, known as controlled low-strength materials (CLSM), for potential mine backfill application. Semi-dynamic tank leaching tests were carried out on laboratory-scale monoliths cured for 28 days and tested over 64 days of leaching with pure de-ionised water as leachant. Mineral processing waste include flotation tailings from a Spanish nickel-copper sulphide concentrate, and two bioleach neutralisation precipitates (from processing at 35°C and 70°C) from a South African arsenopyrite concentrate. Encapsulated CLSM formulations were evaluated to assess the reduction in leaching by encapsulating a 'hazardous' CLSM core within a layer of relatively 'inert' CLSM. The effect of each bioleach waste in CLSM core and tailings in CLSM encapsulating medium, are assessed in combination and in addition to CLSM with ordinary silica sand. Results show that replacing silica sand with tailings, both as core and encapsulating matrix, significantly reduced leachability of heavy elements, particularly As (from 0.008-0.190 mg/l to 0.008-0.060 mg/l), Ba (from 0.435-1.540 mg/l to 0.050-0.565 mg/l), and Cr (from 0.006-0.458 mg/l to 0.004-0.229 mg/l), to below the 'Dutch List' of groundwater contamination intervention values. Arsenic leaching was inherently high from both bioleach precipitates but was significantly reduced to below guideline values with encapsulation and replacing silica sand with tailings. Tailings proved to be a valuable encapsulating matrix largely owing to small particle size and lower hydraulic conductivity reducing diffusion transport of heavy elements. Field-scale trials would be necessary to prove this concept of encapsulation in terms of scale and construction practicalities, and further geochemical investigation to optimise leaching performance. Nevertheless, this work substantiates the need for alternative backfill techniques for sustainable management of hazardous finely-sized bulk

  14. Effect of quarry dust addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material made from industrial waste incineration bottom ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, Naganathan; Hashim, Abdul Razak; Nadzriah, Abdul Hamid Siti

    2012-06-01

    The performance of industrial waste incineration bottom ash in controlled low-strength material (CLSM) was investigated in this paper, as the quarry dust was added. CLSM mixtures were made from the industrial waste incineration bottom ash, quarry dust, and cement. Tests for fresh density, bleeding, compressive strength, shear strength, hydraulic conductivity, and excavatability were carried out. The compressive strength ranges from 60 kPa to 6790 kPa, the friction angle varies from 5° to 19°, and the cohesion is from 4 to 604 kPa. Most of the mixtures are found to be non-excavatable. It is indicated that the quarry dust addition increases the compressive strength and shear parameters, decreases bleeding, and increases the removability modulus.

  15. Adaptive control system for gas producing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fedor, Pashchenko; Sergey, Gulyaev; Alexander, Pashchenko

    2015-03-10

    Optimal adaptive automatic control system for gas producing wells cluster is proposed intended for solving the problem of stabilization of the output gas pressure in the cluster at conditions of changing gas flow rate and changing parameters of the wells themselves, providing the maximum high resource of hardware elements of automation.

  16. Low strength ultrasonication positively affects the methanogenic granules toward higher AD performance. Part I: physico-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cho, Si-Kyung; Hwang, Yu-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Jeong, In-Seok; Shin, Hang-Sik; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2013-05-01

    To elucidate the correlation between enhanced biogas production and changed physico-chemical properties of methanogenic granules after low strength ultrasonication, in this study, the effects of low strength ultrasonication on the settling velocity, permeability, porosity, and fluid collection efficiency of the methanogenic granules were investigated. In addition, their morphological changes were visualized using a scanning electron microscopic technique. The experimental results indicate that low strength ultrasonication increased both the permeability (37%) and specific surface area (230%) of the granules through the generation of greater craters and cracks on the granular surface compared to the control granules. The penetration of nutrients and substrate into the granules was thereby enhanced, and more favorable conditions for achieving higher anaerobic performance were provided to the ultrasonicated granules. The microbial community shift caused by the changed physico-chemical properties of the methanogenic granules will be further analyzed in part II of this study. PMID:23563439

  17. Low-strength ultrasonication positively affects methanogenic granules toward higher AD performance: Implications from microbial community shift.

    PubMed

    Cho, Si-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Quince, Christopher; Im, Wan-Taek; Oh, Sae-Eun; Shin, Seung Gu

    2016-09-01

    To elucidate the enhanced methane yield from organic wastes, the effects of low-strength ultrasonication on the microbial community structures in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors were for the first time analyzed using pyrosequencing. Interestingly, a more even microbial community was observed in the ultrasonicated granules than in the control, which could compensate for the decreased richness and resulted in comparable (archaea) or even higher (bacteria) diversity. The ultrasonicated granules contained higher levels of δ-Proteobacteria, of which many are reportedly potential syntrophs, as well as methanogenic genera Methanosaeta, Methanotorris, and Methanococcus. The increased presence of syntrophic bacteria with their methanogenic partners was discussed with respect to hydrogen flux; their selective proliferation seems to be responsible for the enhanced anaerobic performance. This study is the first research shedding light on the novel function of low-strength ultrasound shifting the microbial structure towards better biogas production performance, and will facilitate application of low-strength ultrasound to other bioprocesses. PMID:27150761

  18. Modeling the dynamic equilibrium of objects weakened by thin low-strength inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Skopetskii, V.V.; Deineka, V.S.; Marchenko, O.A.

    1995-11-01

    Successful development of hydroelectric power as well as the use and protection of the resources of the Azov/Black Sea basin require formulation and solution of design and control problems for hydroengineering and coastal constructions. The authors have developed two-dimensional mathematical models of dynamic equilibrium of various hydroengineering and coastal constructions with weak thin sections of natural or artificial origin (low-strength inclusions, cracks, technological seams), where shearing strength conditions must be considered. These models are applicable to objects whose dynamic characteristics can be fully described by considering their profile cross-sections (dams, coastal slopes, wave breakers). The weak thin sections are modeled by cuts with appropriate contact conditions. Finite-element algorithms have been developed for solving the corresponding initial-boundary-value problems, and a model example has been solved.

  19. Stable partial nitritation for low-strength wastewater at low temperature in an aerobic granular reactor.

    PubMed

    Isanta, Eduardo; Reino, Clara; Carrera, Julián; Pérez, Julio

    2015-09-01

    Partial nitritation for a low-strength wastewater at low temperature was stably achieved in an aerobic granular reactor. A bench-scale granular sludge bioreactor was operated in continuous mode treating an influent of 70 mg N-NH4(+) L(-1) to mimic pretreated municipal nitrogenous wastewater and the temperature was progressively decreased from 30 to 12.5 °C. A suitable effluent nitrite to ammonium concentrations ratio to a subsequent anammox reactor was maintained stable during 300 days at 12.5 °C. The average applied nitrogen loading rate at 12.5 °C was 0.7 ± 0.3 g N L(-1) d(-1), with an effluent nitrate concentration of only 2.5 ± 0.7 mg N-NO3(-) L(-1). The biomass fraction of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the granular sludge decreased from 19% to only 1% in 6 months of reactor operation at 12.5 °C. Nitrobacter spp. where found as the dominant NOB population, whereas Nitrospira spp. were not detected. Simulations indicated that: (i) NOB would only be effectively repressed when their oxygen half-saturation coefficient was higher than that of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; and (ii) a lower specific growth rate of NOB was maintained at any point in the biofilm (even at 12.5 °C) due to the bulk ammonium concentration imposed through the control strategy.

  20. Consumer versus resource control of producer diversity depends on ecosystem type and producer community structure.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, Helmut; Gruner, Daniel S; Borer, Elizabeth T; Bracken, Matthew E S; Cleland, Elsa E; Elser, James J; Harpole, W Stanley; Ngai, Jacqueline T; Seabloom, Eric W; Shurin, Jonathan B; Smith, Jennifer E

    2007-06-26

    Consumer and resource control of diversity in plant communities have long been treated as alternative hypotheses. However, experimental and theoretical evidence suggests that herbivores and nutrient resources interactively regulate the number and relative abundance of coexisting plant species. Experiments have yielded divergent and often contradictory responses within and among ecosystems, and no effort has to date reconciled this empirical variation within a general framework. Using data from 274 experiments from marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems, we present a cross-system analysis of producer diversity responses to local manipulations of resource supply and/or herbivory. Effects of herbivory and fertilization on producer richness differed substantially between systems: (i) herbivores reduced species richness in freshwater but tended to increase richness in terrestrial systems; (ii) fertilization increased richness in freshwater systems but reduced richness on land. Fertilization consistently reduced evenness, whereas herbivores increased evenness only in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Producer community evenness and ecosystem productivity mediated fertilization and herbivore effects on diversity across ecosystems. Herbivores increased producer richness in more productive habitats and in producer assemblages with low evenness. These same assemblages also showed the strongest reduction in richness with fertilization, whereas fertilization increased (and herbivory decreased) richness in producer assemblages with high evenness. Our study indicates that system productivity and producer evenness determine the direction and magnitude of top-down and bottom-up control of diversity and may reconcile divergent empirical results within and among ecosystems.

  1. Consumer versus resource control of producer diversity depends on ecosystem type and producer community structure

    PubMed Central

    Hillebrand, Helmut; Gruner, Daniel S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Bracken, Matthew E. S.; Cleland, Elsa E.; Elser, James J.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Ngai, Jacqueline T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Smith, Jennifer E.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer and resource control of diversity in plant communities have long been treated as alternative hypotheses. However, experimental and theoretical evidence suggests that herbivores and nutrient resources interactively regulate the number and relative abundance of coexisting plant species. Experiments have yielded divergent and often contradictory responses within and among ecosystems, and no effort has to date reconciled this empirical variation within a general framework. Using data from 274 experiments from marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems, we present a cross-system analysis of producer diversity responses to local manipulations of resource supply and/or herbivory. Effects of herbivory and fertilization on producer richness differed substantially between systems: (i) herbivores reduced species richness in freshwater but tended to increase richness in terrestrial systems; (ii) fertilization increased richness in freshwater systems but reduced richness on land. Fertilization consistently reduced evenness, whereas herbivores increased evenness only in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Producer community evenness and ecosystem productivity mediated fertilization and herbivore effects on diversity across ecosystems. Herbivores increased producer richness in more productive habitats and in producer assemblages with low evenness. These same assemblages also showed the strongest reduction in richness with fertilization, whereas fertilization increased (and herbivory decreased) richness in producer assemblages with high evenness. Our study indicates that system productivity and producer evenness determine the direction and magnitude of top-down and bottom-up control of diversity and may reconcile divergent empirical results within and among ecosystems. PMID:17581875

  2. Improved polyacrylamide treatments for water control in producing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Zaltoun, A.; Kohler, N. ); Guerrini, Y. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on two polyacrylamide processes for water control in producing wells which improve the efficiency of conventional polyacrylamide treatment without inducing any risk of well plugging by crosslinkers. Treatment of a gas-storage well strongly decreased water production without any adverse effect on gas injection or production for at least 3 years.

  3. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  4. Control of tissue growth by locally produced activator: Liver regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-03-01

    In general, the tissue development is controlled by growth factors and depends on the biomechanics of cells. The corresponding kinetic models are focused primarily on the early stages of the development. The attempts to construct such models for the later stages are still rare. One of the notable examples here is liver regeneration. Referring to this process, the author proposes and analyzes a generic kinetic model describing the regulation of tissue growth by locally produced activator. The model includes activator diffusion and control of the rate of cell proliferation which is described by using the Hill expression. Although this control may be moderately or strongly non-linear, the qualitative changes in the regeneration kinetics are predicted to be modest. For moderately non-linear control, the evolution of the tissue volume to the steady-state value exhibits an initial relatively short linear stage and then becomes slightly slower so that the whole kinetics is close to exponential. For strongly non-linear control, the linear stage dominates and/or the kinetics may exhibit a S-like shape feature which is, however, rather weak. The identification of such qualitative features in experimentally measured kinetics is shown to be difficult, because the error bars in the experiments are typically too large.

  5. Graphene nanosheets produced via controlled detonation of hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepal, Arjun

    We demonstrated that gram quantities of pristine graphene nanosheets (GNs) can be produced via detonation of a hydrocarbon. This one-step and catalyst-free method is eco-friendly and economical for the production of GNs. The hydrocarbons detonated were C2H2, C 2H4, C3H8 and CH4 in the presence of O2. The carbon products obtained from the detonation were analyzed by XRD, TEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy. Depending upon the ratio of O2 to C2H2, the GNs of size up to ˜ 250 nm, SSA up to ˜ 200 m2/g and yield up to 70% with 2-3 layers' stack have been obtained so far. N2O was determined as a good alternative to O2 as an oxidizer to produce GNs by detonating C2H2 with it. A two-color pyrometer was designed and calibrated to measure the temperature of the detonation of hydrocarbons. The measured detonation temperatures were in between 2700 K and 4300 K. Along with the high detonation temperature, the composition of precursor hydrocarbon was observed to be crucial as well to determine its suitability to detonate with oxidizer to produce GNs. The hydrocarbons C2H2 and C2H4 were determined as the suitable precursors to produce GNs whereas detonation of C3H8 yields mere amorphous carbon soot and CH4 gives no solid carbon while detonated with O2. It has been proposed that the hydrocarbons with C/H≥0.5 are suitable for GNs production by detonation method. Highly oxidized graphene nanosheets (OGNs) were produced by solution-based oxidation of GNs prepared via a controlled detonation of acetylene at O 2/C2H2=0.8. The produced OGNs were about 250 nm in size and hydrophilic in nature. The C/O ratio was dramatically reduced from 49:1 in the pristine GNs to about 1:1 in OGNs, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This C/O in OGNs is the least ever found in all oxidized graphitic materials that have been reported. Thus, the OGNs produced from the detonated GNs with such high degree of oxidation herein yields a novel and promising material for future applications.

  6. Low-temperature anaerobic treatment of low-strength pentachlorophenol-bearing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lopez, J; Monsalvo, V M; Puyol, D; Mohedano, A F; Rodriguez, J J

    2013-07-01

    The anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewater bearing pentachlorophenol (PCP) at psychro-mesophilic temperatures has been investigated in an expanded granular sludge bed reactor. Using an upward flow rate of 4 m h(-1), a complete removal of PCP, as well as COD removal and methanization efficiencies higher than 75% and 50%, respectively, were achieved. Methanogenesis and COD consumption were slightly affected by changes in loading rate, temperature (17-28°C) and inlet concentrations of urea and oils. Pentachlorophenol caused an irreversible inhibitory effect over both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, being the later more resistant to the toxic effect of pentachlorophenol. An auto-inhibition phenomenon was observed at PCP concentrations higher than 10 mg L(-1), which was accurately predicted by a Haldane-like model. The inhibitory effect of PCP over the COD consumption and methane production was modelled by modified pseudo-Monod and Roediger models, respectively.

  7. Biomass production of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) in constructed wetland treating low-strength domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Perbangkhem, Thaneeya; Polprasert, Chongchin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the pilot-scale constructed wetlands were fed with low-strength domestic wastewater to investigate the energy-capturing efficiency and plant productivity. Papyrus was a selected emergent macrophyte planted in the systems. The wastewater was intermittently fed to the systems, corresponding to the organic loading rates of 10, 16, 31, and 63 kg BOD/ha-d. With abundant sunshine in the tropical-climate area, papyrus converted solar radiation to biomass of about 2200-3100 g dry weight/m(2) from the two-month period of the experiments. Furthermore, the energy contents of papyrus are 16.2, 17.2, and 16.8 MJ/kg for culms, umbels, and total above-ground parts, respectively. From the plant productivity and the energy contents of papyrus obtained from this study, the energy capturing efficiencies can be estimated to be in the range of 4.4-6.0%, which are relatively high, compared with those of other plants. PMID:19758797

  8. ENTRAINMENT BY LIGAMENT-CONTROLLED EFFERVESCENT ATOMIZER-PRODUCED SPRAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Entrainment of ambient air into sprays produced by a new type of effervescent atomizer is reported. Entrainment data were obtained using a device similar to that described by Ricou & Spalding (1961). Entrainment data were analyzed using the model of Bush & Sojka (1994), in concer...

  9. Long-term investigation of a novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor for low-strength municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinxing; Wang, Zhiwei; He, Di; Li, Yaxin; Wu, Zhichao

    2015-07-01

    A novel and cost-effective electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was proposed for low-strength wastewater treatment. In this system, influent organic matter could act as electron donor in the anode chamber and then denitrification was driven on the cathodes. During 270 days of operation, a positive and time-lag correlation was found between temperature and exoelectrogenesis process. At lower temperatures (<10∼15 °C), power production in the EMBR was negligible and therefore the integration did not improve the reactor performance. With the rebound of water temperatures over 15∼20 °C, efficient redox reactions were achieved in the EMBR, which subsequently resulted in sludge reduction (27.3% lower than the control MBR) and membrane fouling alleviation. Due to the capture of electrons that were then used at the cathode to drive the denitrification process, the total nitrogen removal efficiency of the EMBR averaged 78.2% at high temperatures, despite the decrease of organic loading rate of the feed for heterotrophic denitrification. Pyrosequencing revealed that the denitrifiers of Denitratisoma, Ottowia, Sulfuritalea and Thiobacillus were notably enriched in the cathode biofilm of the EMBR at high temperatures, and 6.05% of the sequences in the activated sludge were assigned into the denitrification related phylotypes, which was 65% higher compared to that of the control MBR. The enrichment of versatile nitrate/nitrite reducers could be conducive to the autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification processes. Energy balance analysis also indicated that the total energy consumption of the EMBR was decreased by 20% compared to that of the CMBR (0.386 kWh/m(3) wastewater). Overall, the obtained results clearly demonstrate that this novel EMBR is capable of providing superior effluent quality, alleviating membrane fouling and incorporating into existing treatment facilities for improving the sustainability of wastewater treatment. PMID:25917391

  10. Long-term investigation of a novel electrochemical membrane bioreactor for low-strength municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinxing; Wang, Zhiwei; He, Di; Li, Yaxin; Wu, Zhichao

    2015-07-01

    A novel and cost-effective electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was proposed for low-strength wastewater treatment. In this system, influent organic matter could act as electron donor in the anode chamber and then denitrification was driven on the cathodes. During 270 days of operation, a positive and time-lag correlation was found between temperature and exoelectrogenesis process. At lower temperatures (<10∼15 °C), power production in the EMBR was negligible and therefore the integration did not improve the reactor performance. With the rebound of water temperatures over 15∼20 °C, efficient redox reactions were achieved in the EMBR, which subsequently resulted in sludge reduction (27.3% lower than the control MBR) and membrane fouling alleviation. Due to the capture of electrons that were then used at the cathode to drive the denitrification process, the total nitrogen removal efficiency of the EMBR averaged 78.2% at high temperatures, despite the decrease of organic loading rate of the feed for heterotrophic denitrification. Pyrosequencing revealed that the denitrifiers of Denitratisoma, Ottowia, Sulfuritalea and Thiobacillus were notably enriched in the cathode biofilm of the EMBR at high temperatures, and 6.05% of the sequences in the activated sludge were assigned into the denitrification related phylotypes, which was 65% higher compared to that of the control MBR. The enrichment of versatile nitrate/nitrite reducers could be conducive to the autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification processes. Energy balance analysis also indicated that the total energy consumption of the EMBR was decreased by 20% compared to that of the CMBR (0.386 kWh/m(3) wastewater). Overall, the obtained results clearly demonstrate that this novel EMBR is capable of providing superior effluent quality, alleviating membrane fouling and incorporating into existing treatment facilities for improving the sustainability of wastewater treatment.

  11. Pilot-scale experiment of down-flow hanging sponge for direct treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Okadera, Tomohiro; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Banjongproo, Pathan; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2014-11-01

    A pilot-scale experiment of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater was conducted over 1 year in Bangkok, Thailand, to establish an appropriate method for treatment under tropical climate conditions. Municipal wastewater with an average BOD of 19 mg/L was fed directly into the DHS reactor. Superior effluent quality (5.1 ± 3.4 mg/L TSS, 21.1 ± 9.0 mg/L COD, 2.8 ± 1.4 mg/L BOD, and 4.1 ± 1.0 mg/L TN) was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 h under an average temperature of 30 °C. The DHS reactor reached an actual HRT of 19.0 min, indicating good contact efficiency between wastewater and retained sludge. The DHS reactor retained dense sludge at 15.3-26.4 g VSS/L based on the sponge media volume. The sludge activity in terms of specific oxygen uptake rate was good. Excess sludge was produced as 0.051 g TSS/g COD removed (0.11 g TSS/g BOD removed), and a good SVI of 28 mL/g was observed. The sufficient performance was attributed to dense sludge with high activity, regardless of the low-strength wastewater. Overall, the DHS was advantageous owing to its simple operation, lack of operational problems, and low power consumption. PMID:24817263

  12. Pilot-scale experiment of down-flow hanging sponge for direct treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Okadera, Tomohiro; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Banjongproo, Pathan; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2014-11-01

    A pilot-scale experiment of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor for treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater was conducted over 1 year in Bangkok, Thailand, to establish an appropriate method for treatment under tropical climate conditions. Municipal wastewater with an average BOD of 19 mg/L was fed directly into the DHS reactor. Superior effluent quality (5.1 ± 3.4 mg/L TSS, 21.1 ± 9.0 mg/L COD, 2.8 ± 1.4 mg/L BOD, and 4.1 ± 1.0 mg/L TN) was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 h under an average temperature of 30 °C. The DHS reactor reached an actual HRT of 19.0 min, indicating good contact efficiency between wastewater and retained sludge. The DHS reactor retained dense sludge at 15.3-26.4 g VSS/L based on the sponge media volume. The sludge activity in terms of specific oxygen uptake rate was good. Excess sludge was produced as 0.051 g TSS/g COD removed (0.11 g TSS/g BOD removed), and a good SVI of 28 mL/g was observed. The sufficient performance was attributed to dense sludge with high activity, regardless of the low-strength wastewater. Overall, the DHS was advantageous owing to its simple operation, lack of operational problems, and low power consumption.

  13. Effect of reactor configuration on performance during anaerobic treatment of low strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Das, Suprotim; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is quite low for the treatment of low strength wastewaters (LSWs) due to less biogas production leading to poor mixing. LSW may be treated efficiently by providing adequate mixing in the UASB reactor when gas production is low, and sufficient mixing can be achieved by modifying reactor geometry. Hence, modifying UASB reactor geometry for enhanced mixing and evaluating its performance for the treatment of LSWs would be a worthwhile effort. In the present study, UASB reactor configuration was modified by providing a vertical baffle along the height to promote mixing of reactor contents, and is termed as modified UASB (MUASB). The performance of an on-site pilot-scale MUASB reactor was evaluated for 375 days under ambient condition for the treatment of municipal sewage as LSW and compared with that of the conventional UASB and hybrid UASB (HUASB) reactors. The MUASB reactor showed better performance in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency as compared with UASB and HUASB reactors during this study. At 4 h hydraulic retention time, the total COD removal efficiency of UASB and HUASB reactors was 53.7% and 61%, respectively, which were much lower than the total COD removal efficiency of the MUASB reactor (72.7%). The better performance observed in the MUASB reactor is possibly due to improved mixing. Depth-wise analysis of reactor liquid showed that better mixing in the MUASB reactor enhances the contact of wastewater with biomass, which contributes to the improved treatment efficiency. It seems that MUASB holds promise for LSW treatment.

  14. [Culture and control of cells producing bovine leukemia virus].

    PubMed

    Granátová, M

    1987-10-01

    In the field surveys of the occurrence of enzootic bovine leucosis caused by the bovine leucosis virus (BLV), the identification of positive animals is based on the detection of specific antiviral antibodies by serological methods. The reliability of these tests (particularly their sensitivity and specificity) depends on the quality of the virus antigen. The preparation of the antigen is based on the cultivation of BLV virus in cultures of the FLS cell line. A modified procedure of preparing the BLV antigen in the FLS cell culture is described, along with the control of its production by the immunoperoxidase test. PMID:2827363

  15. Modular motion control produces cost-effective conveying

    SciTech Connect

    Yackel, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Collectively, US power plants move as much as 800 million tons of coal a year through the mining, transport, off-loading, stockpiling and consumption sequence, most typically through the use of belt conveyors. Plant operators oversee a process that moves mountains of coal accurately and dependably, guarding against overloading, loss of conveyor-to-conveyor synchronization, belt slippage and other malfunctions. A coal-conveying motion-control system should consist of modular, turnkey motion-sensing components that can be assembled and interconnected for any application without custom engineering. Such a system can be fail-safe, provide uninterrupted protection, resist difficult environmental conditions, integrate complex multiple functions and allow power plant operators to take instant action to protect against damage in the event of a system fault.

  16. Review. Do hormonal control systems produce evolutionary inertia?

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2008-05-12

    Hormonal control systems are complex in design and well integrated. Concern has been raised that these systems might act as evolutionary constraints when animals are subject to anthropogenic environmental change. Three systems are examined in vertebrates, especially birds, that are important for assessing this possibility: (i) the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, (ii) the activational effects of sex steroids on mating effort behaviour, and (iii) sexual differentiation. Consideration of how these systems actually work that takes adequate account of the brain's role and mechanisms suggests that the first two are unlikely to be impediments to evolution. The neural and molecular networks that regulate the HPG provide both phenotypic and evolutionary flexibility, and rapid evolutionary responses to selection have been documented in several species. The neuroendocrine and molecular cascades for behaviour provide many avenues for evolutionary change without requiring a change in peripheral hormone levels. Sexual differentiation has some potential to be a source of evolutionary inertia in birds and could contribute to the lack of diversity in certain reproductive (including life history) traits. It is unclear, however, whether that lack of diversity would impede adaptation to rapid environmental change given the role of behavioural flexibility in avian reproduction.

  17. Low strength of deep San Andreas fault gouge from SAFOD core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Morrow, C.; Moore, D.; Hickman, S.

    2011-01-01

    The San Andreas fault accommodates 28-"34-???mm-???yr ????'1 of right lateral motion of the Pacific crustal plate northwestward past the North American plate. In California, the fault is composed of two distinct locked segments that have produced great earthquakes in historical times, separated by a 150-km-long creeping zone. The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is a scientific borehole located northwest of Parkfield, California, near the southern end of the creeping zone. Core was recovered from across the actively deforming San Andreas fault at a vertical depth of 2.7-???km (ref. 1). Here we report laboratory strength measurements of these fault core materials at in situ conditions, demonstrating that at this locality and this depth the San Andreas fault is profoundly weak (coefficient of friction, 0.15) owing to the presence of the smectite clay mineral saponite, which is one of the weakest phyllosilicates known. This Mg-rich clay is the low-temperature product of metasomatic reactions between the quartzofeldspathic wall rocks and serpentinite blocks in the fault. These findings provide strong evidence that deformation of the mechanically unusual creeping portions of the San Andreas fault system is controlled by the presence of weak minerals rather than by high fluid pressure or other proposed mechanisms. The combination of these measurements of fault core strength with borehole observations yields a self-consistent picture of the stress state of the San Andreas fault at the SAFOD site, in which the fault is intrinsically weak in an otherwise strong crust. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Low strength of deep San Andreas fault gouge from SAFOD core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, David A.; Morrow, Carolyn A.; Moore, Diane E.; Hickman, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    The San Andreas fault accommodates 28–34 mm yr−1 of right lateral motion of the Pacific crustal plate northwestward past the North American plate. In California, the fault is composed of two distinct locked segments that have produced great earthquakes in historical times, separated by a 150-km-long creeping zone. The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) is a scientific borehole located northwest of Parkfield, California, near the southern end of the creeping zone. Core was recovered from across the actively deforming San Andreas fault at a vertical depth of 2.7 km (ref. 1). Here we report laboratory strength measurements of these fault core materials at in situ conditions, demonstrating that at this locality and this depth the San Andreas fault is profoundly weak (coefficient of friction, 0.15) owing to the presence of the smectite clay mineral saponite, which is one of the weakest phyllosilicates known. This Mg-rich clay is the low-temperature product of metasomatic reactions between the quartzofeldspathic wall rocks and serpentinite blocks in the fault2, 3. These findings provide strong evidence that deformation of the mechanically unusual creeping portions of the San Andreas fault system is controlled by the presence of weak minerals rather than by high fluid pressure or other proposed mechanisms1. The combination of these measurements of fault core strength with borehole observations1, 4, 5 yields a self-consistent picture of the stress state of the San Andreas fault at the SAFOD site, in which the fault is intrinsically weak in an otherwise strong crust.

  19. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  20. In-situ biogas sparging enhances the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In the recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology is being considered as a very attractive alternative for wastewater treatment due to the striking advantages such as upgraded effluent quality. However, fouling control is still a problem for the application of AnMBR. This study investigated the performance of an AnMBR using mesh filter as support material to treat low-strength wastewater via in-situ biogas sparging. It was found that mesh AnMBR exhibited high and stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies with values of 95 ± 5 % and an average methane yield of 0.24 L CH4/g CODremoved. Variation of transmembrane pressure (TMP) during operation indicated that mesh fouling was mitigated by in-situ biogas sparging and the fouling rate was comparable to that of aerobic membrane bioreactor with mesh filter reported in previous researches. The fouling layer formed on the mesh exhibited non-uniform structure; the porosity became larger from bottom layer to top layer. Biogas sparging could not change the composition but make thinner thickness of cake layer, which might be benefit for reducing membrane fouling rate. It was also found that ultrasonic cleaning of fouled mesh was able to remove most foulants on the surface or pores. This study demonstrated that in-situ biogas sparging enhanced the performance of AnMBRs with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment. Apparently, AnMBRs with mesh filter can be used as a promising and sustainable technology for wastewater treatment.

  1. High strain rate characterization of low-density low-strength materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawas, Omar

    The Split Hopkinson Bar (SHB) is a reliable experimental technique for measuring high strain rate properties of high-strength, ductile materials. Attempts to apply the SHB in measurement on more compliant materials, such as polymers and foams, are limited by the maximum achievable strain and high noise-to-signal ratios. This work introduces an all-polymeric split Hopkinson bar (APSHB) experiment, which overcomes these limitations. The proposed method uses polymeric pressure bars to achieve a closer impedance match between the pressure bars and the specimen material, thus providing both low signal-to-noise ratio data and a longer input pulse for higher maximum strain. The APSHB requires very careful data reduction procedures because of the viscoelastic behavior of the incident and transmitter pressure bars. The APSHB produces high-quality stress-strain data for a variety of compliant materials, including polycarbonate, elastomer, polyurethane, and styrofoam.

  2. Biophysical and chemical handles to control the size of DNA nanoparticles produced by rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Yeon; Kim, Kyoung-Ran; Bang, Duhee; Bae, Se Won; Kim, Hak Joong; Ahn, Dae-Ro

    2016-08-16

    Although rolling circle amplification (RCA) is an efficient method to produce DNA materials for biomedical applications, it does not yield nano-sized products suitable for intracellular delivery. We here provide the ways to control the size of RCA products and show a potential application of the size-controlled DNA nanoparticles. PMID:27464359

  3. Biophysical and chemical handles to control the size of DNA nanoparticles produced by rolling circle amplification.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Yeon; Kim, Kyoung-Ran; Bang, Duhee; Bae, Se Won; Kim, Hak Joong; Ahn, Dae-Ro

    2016-08-16

    Although rolling circle amplification (RCA) is an efficient method to produce DNA materials for biomedical applications, it does not yield nano-sized products suitable for intracellular delivery. We here provide the ways to control the size of RCA products and show a potential application of the size-controlled DNA nanoparticles.

  4. Analysis of U.S. produced water controls -- Are they cost-effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes controls on produced water discharges into US waters through effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs), and general and individual discharge permits. Over the past 20 years, produced water controls have become much stricter, and in some areas, no discharge of produced water is allowed. In setting discharge standards, EPA considers vast amounts of data, makes assumptions regarding which data and what approaches are representative, selects the most appropriate analytical methods, and interprets the analytical results. Despite EPA`s considerable efforts to accurately understand and characterize the economic and environmental impacts of produced water discharges before proposing and adopting ELGs and issuing permits, current US produced water controls may be overly restrictive and not cost-effective. This paper summarizes several studies that have reviewed in detail EPA`s data, assumptions, and analytical methods for earlier proposed regulations and general permits. These include the offshore oil and gas ELGs, EPA`s Region 6 general permit for coastal waters, and most recently, the proposed ELGs for the coastal oil and gas industry. By substituting different data, using revised assumptions, and reanalyzing data that are equally or more valid, the studies reach alternate conclusions on the cost-effectiveness of current produced water controls.

  5. Process to produce silicon carbide fibers using a controlled concentration of boron oxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing polycrystalline silicon carbide includes heating an amorphous ceramic fiber that contains silicon and carbon in an environment containing boron oxide vapor. The boron oxide vapor is produced in situ by the reaction of a boron containing material such as boron carbide and an oxidizing agent such as carbon dioxide, and the amount of boron oxide vapor can be controlled by varying the amount and rate of addition of the oxidizing agent.

  6. Process to produce silicon carbide fibers using a controlled concentration of boron oxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing polycrystalline silicon carbide by heating an amorphous ceramic fiber that contains silicon and carbon in an environment containing boron oxide vapor. The boron oxide vapor is produced in situ by the reaction of a boron containing material such as boron carbide and an oxidizing agent such as carbon dioxide, and the amount of boron oxide vapor can be controlled by varying the amount and rate of addition of the oxidizing agent.

  7. Stress-corrosion cracking of low-strength carbon steels in candidate high-level waste repository environments

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G.; Parkins, R.N.

    1987-02-01

    A survey of the literature was performed to identify potential stress-corrosion cracking agents for low-strength carbon and low alloy steels in repository environments. It was found that a number of potent cracking agents are present, but stress-corrosion cracking is relatively unlikely in the bulk repository environments because of their low concentration. On the other hand, concentration of these species may occur by a number of mechanisms, and thus it is conceivable that the waste package could fail prematurely by stress corrosion. Accordingly, it is recommended that the lower concentration limits for potential cracking agents be identified under typical repository environments, in conjunction with modeling studies to assess the likelihood that the concentrating mechanisms will operate and to bound the upper limits of concentration for each mechanism. 82 refs.

  8. Kinetic and microbiological characterization of aerobic granules performing partial nitritation of a low-strength wastewater at 10 °C.

    PubMed

    Reino, Clara; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Pérez, Julio; Carrera, Julián

    2016-09-15

    A granular airlift reactor enriched in ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was operated at 10 °C performing stable partial nitritation in the long-term. The reactor treated a synthetic low-strength influent during 250 days with an average nitrogen loading rate of 0.63 ± 0.06 g N L(-1) d(-1). Nitrate production was barely detected, being the average concentration in the effluent of 0.6 ± 0.3 mg N-NO3 L(-1). Furthermore, a suitable effluent for a subsequent reactor performing the anammox process was achieved. A maximum specific growth rate as high as 0.63 ± 0.05 d(-1) was determined by performing kinetic experiments with the granular sludge in a chemostat and fitting the results to the Monod model. Pyrosequencing analysis showed a high enrichment in AOB (41 and 65% of the population were identified as Nitrosomonas genus on day 98 and 233, respectively) and an effective repression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria in the long-term. Pyrosequencing analysis also identified the coexistence of nitrifying bacteria and heterotrophic psychrotolerant microorganisms in the granular sludge. Some psychrotolerant microorganisms are producers of cryoprotective extracellular polymeric substances that could explain the better survival of the whole consortia at cold temperatures. PMID:27262119

  9. Screening of physical-chemical methods for removal of organic material, nitrogen and toxicity from low strength landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    Marttinen, S K; Kettunen, R H; Sormunen, K M; Soimasuo, R M; Rintala, J A

    2002-02-01

    Physical-chemical methods have been suggested for the treatment of low strength municipal landfill leachates. Therefore, applicability of nanofiltration and air stripping were screened in laboratory-scale for the removal of organic matter, ammonia, and toxicity from low strength leachates (NH4-N 74-220 mg/l, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 190-920 mg O2/l, EC50 = 2-17% for Raphidocelis subcapitata). Ozonation was studied as well, but with the emphasis on enhancing biodegradability of leachates. Nanofiltration (25 degrees C) removed 52-66% of COD and 27-50% of ammonia, the latter indicating that ammonia may in part have been present as ammonium salt complexes. Biological pretreatment enhanced the overall COD removal. Air stripping (24 h at pH 11) resulted in 89% and 64% ammonia removal at 20 and 6 degrees C, respectively, the stripping rate remaining below 10 mg N/l h. COD removals of 4-21% were obtained in stripping. Ozonation (20 degrees C) increased the concentration of rapidly biodegradable COD (RBCOD), but the proportion of RBCOD of total COD was still below 20% indicating poor biological treatability. The effect of the different treatments on leachate toxicity was assessed with the Daphnia acute toxicity test (Daphnia magna) and algal growth inhibition test (Raphidcocelis subcapitata). None of the methods was effective in toxicity removal. By way of comparison, treatment in a full-scale biological plant decreased leachate toxicity to half of the initial value. Although leachate toxicity significantly correlated with COD and ammonia in untreated and treated leachate, in some stripping and ozonation experiments toxicity was increased in spite of COD and ammonia removals.

  10. Feasibility of expanded granular sludge bed reactors for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.T.; Field, J.A.; Versteeg, P.; Lettinga, G. . Dept. of Environmental Technology)

    1994-08-05

    The application of the expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength soluble wastewaters using ethanol as a model substrate was investigated in laboratory-scale reactors at 30 C. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was above 80% at organic loading rates up to 12 g COD/L [center dot] d with influent concentrations as low as 100 to 200 mg COD/L. These results demonstrate the suitability of the EGSB reactor for the anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewaters. The high treatment performance can be attributed to the intense mixing regime obtained by high hydraulic and organic loads. Good mixing of the bulk liquid phase for the substrate-biomass contact and adequate expansion of the sludge bed for the degassing were obtained when the liquid upflow velocity (V[sub up]) was greater than 2.5 m/h. Under such conditions, an extremely low apparent K[sub s] value for acetoclastic methanogenesis of 9.8 mg COD/L was observed. The presence of dissolved oxygen in the wastewater had no detrimental effect on the treatment performance. Sludge piston flotation from pockets of biogas accumulating under the sludge bed occurred at V[sub up] lower than 2.5 m/h due to poor bed expansion. This problem is expected only in small diameter laboratory-scale reactors. A more important restriction of the EGSB reactor was the sludge washout occurring at V[sub up] higher than 5.5 m/h and which was intensified at organic loads higher than 7 g COD/L [center dot] d due to buoyancy forces from the gas production.

  11. Corrosivity and leaching behavior of controlled low-strength material (CLSM) made using bottom ash and quarry dust.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports the corrosivity and leaching behavior of CLSM made using two different industrial wastes i.e. bottom ash from an incineration facility and quarry dust. The leachate samples were derived from fresh and hardened CLSM mixtures, and studied for leaching and electrical resistivity. The release of various contaminants and the consequent environmental impact caused by the contaminants were studied by the measurement of contaminants in the bleed, in the leachate at 28 days, and on the leachate derived from crushed block and whole block leaching done over a period of 126 days. Results indicated that the CLSM mixtures are non corrosive; diffusion was the leaching mechanism; and the contaminants were found to be moderate to low mobility.

  12. Stress Can Be a Friend: Approaches to Producing Good Stresses That Reduce and Control Bad Stresses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demery, Marie

    Individuals can produce good stresses that will inhibit or eliminate the bad stresses of anxiety, depression, resentment, and hopelessness. This can be accomplished as individuals learn to include in their lifestyles these nine approaches: self-talk, commitment, self-control, challenge, interpersonal relations, time management, relaxation,…

  13. Start-up of single-stage partial nitrification-anammox process treating low-strength swage and its restoration from nitrate accumulation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Yandong; Peng, Yongzhen; Li, Baikun; Wang, Shuying; Zhang, Qian

    2016-10-01

    A single-stage partial nitrification-anammox (PN/A) reactor treating low-strength swage was operated for 288days to investigate the recovery of nitrogen removal from nitrate accumulation. The reactor was quickly started up by inoculating anammox sludge. However, nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) abundance gradually increased on day 25, leading to high effluent nitrate concentration. Two strategies were executed to control the effluent nitrate. In strategy I, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was kept low (0.17±0.08mg/L), but nitrate production increased from 4.71 to 38.18mg-N/L. In strategy II, intermittent aeration operation mode (aeration 7min/anoxic 21min) was adopted, which significantly lowered the nitrate concentration to 1.3mg-N/L, indicating the NOB was inhibited. The high nitrogen removal rate of 73mg-N/(L·d) was achieved. The evolution of bacterial activity and abundance verified the changes of the nitrogen removal performance and proved the intermittent aeration strategy could successfully solve the problem of nitrate build-up in the PN/A process. PMID:27423544

  14. Closed loop adaptive control of spectrum-producing step using neural networks

    DOEpatents

    Fu, C.Y.

    1998-11-24

    Characteristics of the plasma in a plasma-based manufacturing process step are monitored directly and in real time by observing the spectrum which it produces. An artificial neural network analyzes the plasma spectrum and generates control signals to control one or more of the process input parameters in response to any deviation of the spectrum beyond a narrow range. In an embodiment, a plasma reaction chamber forms a plasma in response to input parameters such as gas flow, pressure and power. The chamber includes a window through which the electromagnetic spectrum produced by a plasma in the chamber, just above the subject surface, may be viewed. The spectrum is conducted to an optical spectrometer which measures the intensity of the incoming optical spectrum at different wavelengths. The output of optical spectrometer is provided to an analyzer which produces a plurality of error signals, each indicating whether a respective one of the input parameters to the chamber is to be increased or decreased. The microcontroller provides signals to control respective controls, but these lines are intercepted and first added to the error signals, before being provided to the controls for the chamber. The analyzer can include a neural network and an optional spectrum preprocessor to reduce background noise, as well as a comparator which compares the parameter values predicted by the neural network with a set of desired values provided by the microcontroller. 7 figs.

  15. Closed loop adaptive control of spectrum-producing step using neural networks

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi Yung

    1998-01-01

    Characteristics of the plasma in a plasma-based manufacturing process step are monitored directly and in real time by observing the spectrum which it produces. An artificial neural network analyzes the plasma spectrum and generates control signals to control one or more of the process input parameters in response to any deviation of the spectrum beyond a narrow range. In an embodiment, a plasma reaction chamber forms a plasma in response to input parameters such as gas flow, pressure and power. The chamber includes a window through which the electromagnetic spectrum produced by a plasma in the chamber, just above the subject surface, may be viewed. The spectrum is conducted to an optical spectrometer which measures the intensity of the incoming optical spectrum at different wavelengths. The output of optical spectrometer is provided to an analyzer which produces a plurality of error signals, each indicating whether a respective one of the input parameters to the chamber is to be increased or decreased. The microcontroller provides signals to control respective controls, but these lines are intercepted and first added to the error signals, before being provided to the controls for the chamber. The analyzer can include a neural network and an optional spectrum preprocessor to reduce background noise, as well as a comparator which compares the parameter values predicted by the neural network with a set of desired values provided by the microcontroller.

  16. The use of controlled microbial cenoses in producers' link to increase steady functioning of artificial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somova, Lydia; Mikheeva, Galina; Somova, Lydia

    The life support systems (LSS) for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems, including biological recycling. Simple ecosystems include 3 links: producers (plants), consumers (man, animals) and reducers (microorganisms). Microorganisms are substantial component of every link of LSS. Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food. They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS. Controlled microbiocenoses can increase productivity of producer's link and protect plants from infections. The goal of this work was development of methodological bases of formation of stable, controlled microbiocenoses, intended for increase of productivity of plants and for obtaining ecologically pure production of plants. Main results of our investigations: 1. Experimental microbiocenoses, has been produced in view of the developed methodology on the basis of natural association of microorganisms by long cultivation on specially developed medium. Dominating groups are bacteria of genera: Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Rhodopseudomonas and yeast of genera: Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Torulopsis. 2. Optimal parameters of microbiocenosis cultivation (t, pH, light exposure, biogenic elements concentrations) were experimentally established. Conditions of cultivation on which domination of different groups of microbiocenosis have been found. 3. It was shown, that processing of seeds of wheat, oats, bulbs and plants Allium cepa L. (an onions) with microbial association raised energy of germination of seeds and bulbs and promoted the increase (on 20-30 %) of growth green biomass and root system of plants in comparison with the control. This work is supported by grant, Yenissey , 07-04-96806

  17. A System for Controlling the Oxygen Content of a Gas Produced by Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A mixture of air, CH4 and OH(2) is burned in a combustion chamber to produce a product gas in the test section. The OH(2) content of the product gas is compared with the OH(2) content of reference air in an OH(2) sensor. If there is a difference an error signal is produced at the output of a control circuit which by the means of a solenoid valve, regulates the flow of OH(2) into the combustion chamber to make the error signal zero. The product gas in the test section has the same oxygen content as air.

  18. Postural Control Disturbances Produced By Exposure to HMD and Dome Vr Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Two critical and unresolved human factors issues in VR systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness which is experienced in virtual worlds, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Most astronauts and cosmonauts experience perceptual and sensorimotor disturbances during and following space flight. All astronauts exhibit decrements in postural control following space flight. It has been suggested that training in virtual reality (VR) may be an effective countermeasure for minimizing perceptual and/or sensorimotor disturbances. People adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, and experimentally-produced stimulus rearrangements (e.g., reversing prisms, magnifying lenses, flight simulators, and VR systems). Adaptation is revealed by aftereffects including perceptual disturbances and sensorimotor control disturbances. The purpose of the current study was to compare disturbances in postural control produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays. Individuals recovered from motion sickness and the detrimental effects of exposure to virtual reality on postural control within one hour. Sickness severity and initial decrements in postural equilibrium decreases over days, which suggests that subjects become dual-adapted over time. These findings provide some direction for developing training schedules for VR users that facilitate adaptation, and address safety concerns about aftereffects.

  19. Controllability of runoff and soil loss from small plots treated by vinasse-produced biochar.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Hazbavi, Zeinab; Harchegani, Mahboobeh Kiani

    2016-01-15

    Many different amendments, stabilizers, and conditioners are usually applied for soil and water conservation. Biochar is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material in the absence of oxygen with the goal to be used as a soil amendment. Biochar can be produced from a wide range of biomass sources including straw, wood, manure, and other organic wastes. Biochar has been demonstrated to restore soil fertility and crop production under many conditions, but less is known about the effects of its application on soil erosion and runoff control. Therefore, a rainfall simulation study, as a pioneer research, was conducted to evaluate the performance of the application of vinasse-produced biochar on the soil erosion control of a sandy clay loam soil packed in small-sized runoff 0.25-m(2) plots with 3 replicates. The treatments were (i) no biochar (control), (ii) biochar (8 tha(-1)) application at 24h before the rainfall simulation and (iii) biochar (8 tha(-1)) application at 48 h before the rainfall simulation. Rainfall was applied at 50 mm h(-1) for 15 min. The mean change of effectiveness in time to runoff could be found in biochar application at 24 and 48 h before simulation treatment with rate of +55.10% and +71.73%, respectively. In addition, the mean runoff volume 24 and 48 h before simulation treatments decreased by 98.46% and 46.39%, respectively. The least soil loss (1.12 ± 0.57 g) and sediment concentration (1.44 ± 0.48 gl(-1)) occurred in the biochar-amended soil treated 48 h before the rainfall simulation. In conclusion, the application of vinasse-produced biochar could effectively control runoff and soil loss. This study provided a new insight into the effects of biochar on runoff, soil loss, and sediment control due to water erosion in sandy clay loam soils. PMID:26410722

  20. Controllability of runoff and soil loss from small plots treated by vinasse-produced biochar.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Hazbavi, Zeinab; Harchegani, Mahboobeh Kiani

    2016-01-15

    Many different amendments, stabilizers, and conditioners are usually applied for soil and water conservation. Biochar is a carbon-enriched substance produced by thermal decomposition of organic material in the absence of oxygen with the goal to be used as a soil amendment. Biochar can be produced from a wide range of biomass sources including straw, wood, manure, and other organic wastes. Biochar has been demonstrated to restore soil fertility and crop production under many conditions, but less is known about the effects of its application on soil erosion and runoff control. Therefore, a rainfall simulation study, as a pioneer research, was conducted to evaluate the performance of the application of vinasse-produced biochar on the soil erosion control of a sandy clay loam soil packed in small-sized runoff 0.25-m(2) plots with 3 replicates. The treatments were (i) no biochar (control), (ii) biochar (8 tha(-1)) application at 24h before the rainfall simulation and (iii) biochar (8 tha(-1)) application at 48 h before the rainfall simulation. Rainfall was applied at 50 mm h(-1) for 15 min. The mean change of effectiveness in time to runoff could be found in biochar application at 24 and 48 h before simulation treatment with rate of +55.10% and +71.73%, respectively. In addition, the mean runoff volume 24 and 48 h before simulation treatments decreased by 98.46% and 46.39%, respectively. The least soil loss (1.12 ± 0.57 g) and sediment concentration (1.44 ± 0.48 gl(-1)) occurred in the biochar-amended soil treated 48 h before the rainfall simulation. In conclusion, the application of vinasse-produced biochar could effectively control runoff and soil loss. This study provided a new insight into the effects of biochar on runoff, soil loss, and sediment control due to water erosion in sandy clay loam soils.

  1. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-02-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m2 h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future.

  2. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m2 h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future. PMID:26898640

  3. A pilot-scale forward osmosis membrane system for concentrating low-strength municipal wastewater: performance and implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Zheng, Junjian; Tang, Jixu; Wang, Xinhua; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of nutrients and energy from municipal wastewater has attracted much attention in recent years; however, its efficiency is significantly limited by the low-strength properties of municipal wastewater. Herein, we report a pilot-scale forward osmosis (FO) system using a spiral-wound membrane module to concentrate real municipal wastewater. Under active layer facing feed solution mode, the critical concentration factor (CCF) of this FO system was determined to be 8 with 0.5 M NaCl as draw solution. During long-term operation at a concentration factor of 5, (99.8 ± 0.6)% of chemical oxygen demand and (99.7 ± 0.5)% of total phosphorus rejection rates could be achieved at a flux of 6 L/(m(2) h) on average. In comparison, only (48.1 ± 10.5)% and (67.8 ± 7.3)% rejection of ammonium and total nitrogen were observed. Cake enhanced concentration polarization is a major contributor to the decrease of water fluxes. The fouling also led to the occurrence of a cake reduced concentration polarization effect, improving ammonium rejection rate with the increase of operation time in each cycle. This work demonstrates the applicability of using FO process for wastewater concentrating and also limitations in ammonium recovery that need further improvement in future. PMID:26898640

  4. Gluconic acid: an antifungal agent produced by Pseudomonas species in biological control of take-all.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajvinder; Macleod, John; Foley, William; Nayudu, Murali

    2006-03-01

    Pseudomonas strain AN5 (Ps. str. AN5), a non-fluorescent Australian bacterial isolate, is an effective biological control (biocontrol) agent of the take-all disease of wheat caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). Ps. str. AN5 controls Ggt by producing an antifungal compound which was purified by thin layer and column chromatography, and identified by NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis to be d-gluconic acid. Commercially bought pure gluconic acid strongly inhibited Ggt. Two different transposon mutants of Ps. str. AN5 which had lost take-all biocontrol did not produce d-gluconic acid. Gluconic acid production was restored, along with take-all biocontrol, when one of these transposon mutants was complemented with the corresponding open reading frame from wild-type genomic DNA. Gluconic acid was detected in the rhizosphere of wheat roots treated with the wild-type Ps. str. AN5, but not in untreated wheat or wheat treated with a transposon mutant strain which had lost biocontrol. The antifungal compounds phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, produced by other Pseudomonads and previously shown to be effective in suppressing the take-all disease, were not detected in Ps. str. AN5 extracts. These results suggest that d-gluconic acid is the most significant antifungal agent produced by Ps. str. AN5 in biocontrol of take-all on wheat roots.

  5. Influence of export control policy on the competitiveness of machine tool producing organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrstrom, Jeffrey D.

    The possible influence of export control policies on producers of export controlled machine tools is examined in this quantitative study. International market competitiveness theories hold that market controlling policies such as export control regulations may influence an organization's ability to compete (Burris, 2010). Differences in domestic application of export control policy on machine tool exports may impose throttling effects on the competitiveness of participating firms (Freedenberg, 2010). Commodity shipments from Japan, Germany, and the United States to the Russian market will be examined using descriptive statistics; gravity modeling of these specific markets provides a foundation for comparison to actual shipment data; and industry participant responses to a user developed survey will provide additional data for analysis using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. There is scarce academic research data on the topic of export control effects within the machine tool industry. Research results may be of interest to industry leadership in market participation decisions, advocacy arguments, and strategic planning. Industry advocates and export policy decision makers could find data of interest in supporting positions for or against modifications of export control policies.

  6. Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alperin, M. J.; Blair, Neal E.; Albert, D. B.; Hoehler, T. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in anoxic marine sediment is controlled by four factors: (1) the pathway of methane formation, (2) the isotopic composition of the methanogenic precursors, (3) the isotope fractionation factors for methane production, and (4) the isotope fractionation associated with methane oxidation. The importance of each factor was evaluated by monitoring stable carbon isotope ratios in methane produced by a sediment microcosm. Methane did not accumulate during the initial 42-day period when sediment contained sulfate, indicating little methane production from 'noncompetitive' substrates. Following sulfate depletion, methane accumulation proceeded in three distinct phases. First, CO2 reduction was the dominant methanogenic pathway and the isotopic composition of the methane produced ranged from -80 to -94 per thousand. The acetate concentration increased during this phase, suggesting that acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria were unable to keep pace with acetate production. Second, acetate fermentation became the dominant methanogenic pathway as bacteria responded to elevated acetate concentrations. The methane produced during this phase was progressively enriched in C-13, reaching a maximum delta(C-13) value of -42 per thousand. Third, the acetate pool experienced a precipitous decline from greater than 5 mM to less than 20 micro-M and methane production was again dominated by CO2 reduction. The delta(C-13) of methane produced during this final phase ranged from -46 to -58 per thousand. Methane oxidation concurrent with methane production was detected throughout the period of methane accumulation, at rates equivalent to 1 to 8 percent of the gross methane production rate. Thus methane oxidation was too slow to have significantly modified the isotopic signature of methane. A comparison of microcosm and field data suggests that similar microbial interactions may control seasonal variability in the isotopic composition of methane

  7. [Carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriae: epidemiology, strategies to control their spread and issues].

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, D; Batard, E; Berthelot, P; Zahar, J-R; Lucet, J-C; Fournier, S; Jarlier, V; Grandbastien, B

    2015-07-01

    The increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become a major public health concern bringing the threat of therapeutic impasses. In this context, control of the spread of highly-resistant bacteria emerging antibiotics (BHRe), such as glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Enterobacteriaceae producing carbapenemases (CPE), is based on a dual strategy of reducing the prescription of antibiotics to limit the pressure selection and preventing the spread from carriers. Prevention strategy is based on three different levels such as standard precautions for all patients with a particular focus on the management of excreta, and additional precautions for BHRe carriers. What makes it difficult is that carriage is usually completely asymptomatic, enterobacteria and enterococci are normal commensal of gut microbiota. Explosive dissemination of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases in hospital and community heralds the emergence of CPE whose import by patients with a history of hospitalization in abroad may be the main source of spread in France.

  8. Developing and optimizing bacteriophage treatment to control enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Abigail B; Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2016-11-01

    Bacteriophages are potentially useful in controlling foodborne pathogens on minimally processed products since phage application is a non-destructive treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a newly isolated environmental bacteriophage against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on fresh produce, and optimize the treatment with consideration for potential application. Seven anti E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 bacteriophages were isolated from various sources; the most promising was isolated from municipal wastewater. This isolate (designated as E. coli phage OSY-SP) was propagated with the host, in a growth medium, to a titer of 10(8) PFU/ml. Before inoculation into fresh produce, E. coli phage OSY-SP was incubated with the host bacterium, spent medium was filter-sterilized, and the resulting crude lysate was used as a source of phage inocula for preliminary experiments. For optimized testing, phage in the crude lysate was purified by ultra-centrifugation and resuspension in phosphate-buffered saline. Efficacy of phage treatments was determined as a function of fresh produce type (cut green pepper or spinach leaves), treatment time (2 or 5min rinsing), and temperature of holding treated produce (4°C, 25°, or a combination of both temperatures). Cut green pepper was treated with UV light, to eliminate background microbiota, then spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 on cut edges, and the inoculum was allowed to dry. Because of its susceptibility to damage, baby spinach leaves were not subjected to a decontamination treatment. These leaves were inoculated with the green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 B6-914 to facilitate inoculum enumeration in the presence of background microbiota. Phage suspension was applied to the inoculated fresh produce that was subsequently held for three days under variable storage conditions. The optimized phage treatment decreased the populations of pathogenic E. coli by 2.4-3.0logCFU/g on cut green

  9. Production of geopolymers using glass produced from DC plasma treatment of air pollution control (APC) residues.

    PubMed

    Kourti, Ioanna; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D; Boccaccini, A R; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-04-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues are the hazardous waste produced from cleaning gaseous emissions at energy-from-waste (EfW) facilities processing municipal solid waste (MSW). APC residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium alumino-silicate glass. This research has investigated the optimisation and properties of geopolymers prepared from this glass. Work has shown that high strength geopolymers can be formed and that the NaOH concentration of the activating solution significantly affects the properties. The broad particle size distribution of the APC residue glass used in these experiments results in a microstructure that contains unreacted glass particles included within a geopolymer binder phase. The high calcium content of APC residues may cause the formation of some amorphous calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. A mix prepared with S/L=3.4, Si/Al=2.6 and [NaOH]=6M in the activating solution, produced high strength geopolymers with compressive strengths of approximately 130 MPa. This material had high density (2070 kg/m(3)) and low porosity. The research demonstrates for the first time that glass derived from DC plasma treatment of APC residues can be used to form high strength geopolymer-glass composites that have potential for use in a range of applications.

  10. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  11. Streptomyces araujoniae Produces a Multiantibiotic Complex with Ionophoric Properties to Control Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonardo José; Crevelin, Eduardo José; Souza, Wallace Rafael; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues

    2014-12-01

    A recently described actinomycete species (Streptomyces araujoniae ASBV-1(T)) is effective against many phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of this species to inhibit Botrytis cinerea development in strawberry pseudofruit, and we identified the chemical structures of its bioactive compounds. An ethyl acetate crude extract (0.1 mg ml(-1)) of ASBV-1(T) fermentation broth completely inhibited fungus growth in strawberry pseudofruit under storage conditions. The crude extract was fractionated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; the active fraction was further evaluated by tandem mass spectrometry. ASBV-1(T) produced a multiantibiotic complex with ionophoric properties. This complex contained members of the macrotetralides class (including monactin, dinactin, trinactin, and tetranactin) and the cyclodepsipeptide valinomycin, all of which were active against B. cinerea. Furthermore, the addition of 2 mM MgSO4 and 1 mM ZnSO4 enhanced macrotetralide and valinomycin production, respectively, in the culture broth. These compounds are considered to be the main active molecules that S. araujoniae produces to control B. cinerea. Their low to moderate toxicity to humans and the environment justifies the application of ASBV-1(T) in biological control programs that aim to mitigate the damage caused by this phytopathogen. PMID:24983843

  12. Control of Histamine-Producing Bacteria and Histamine Formation in Fish Muscle by Trisodium Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Green, David P; Bolton, Greg E; McClellan-Green, Patricia D

    2015-06-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning remains the primary cause of seafood poisoning outbreaks despite preventive guidelines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of pH for the control of growth and histamine formation by histamine-producing bacteria in fish muscle. We examined pH effects on growth and histamine formation in tuna fish infusion broth and in inoculated tuna and mahi-mahi fish muscle. Histamine production was significantly less for all bacterial strains at pH 8.5 compared to pH 5.5 in tuna fish infusion broth with no significant difference in growth. Elevated pH due to phosphate treatment of fish muscle tissues significantly reduced histamine formation with no effect on the growth of histamine-producing bacteria. This study revealed that phosphate treatment of mahi-mahi and tuna fish muscle resulted in significantly lower histamine production over 4 d of storage at 10 °C. Phosphate treatment of fish muscle may serve as a secondary barrier in addition to FDA recommended time and temperature controls for reducing public health concerns of scombrotoxin fish poisoning.

  13. Pleiotropic functions of catabolite control protein CcpA in Butanol-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clostridium acetobutylicum has been used to produce butanol in industry. Catabolite control protein A (CcpA), known to mediate carbon catabolite repression (CCR) in low GC gram-positive bacteria, has been identified and characterized in C. acetobutylicum by our previous work (Ren, C. et al. 2010, Metab Eng 12:446–54). To further dissect its regulatory function in C. acetobutylicum, CcpA was investigated using DNA microarray followed by phenotypic, genetic and biochemical validation. Results CcpA controls not only genes in carbon metabolism, but also those genes in solvent production and sporulation of the life cycle in C. acetobutylicum: i) CcpA directly repressed transcription of genes related to transport and metabolism of non-preferred carbon sources such as d-xylose and l-arabinose, and activated expression of genes responsible for d-glucose PTS system; ii) CcpA is involved in positive regulation of the key solventogenic operon sol (adhE1-ctfA-ctfB) and negative regulation of acidogenic gene bukII; and iii) transcriptional alterations were observed for several sporulation-related genes upon ccpA inactivation, which may account for the lower sporulation efficiency in the mutant, suggesting CcpA may be necessary for efficient sporulation of C. acetobutylicum, an important trait adversely affecting the solvent productivity. Conclusions This study provided insights to the pleiotropic functions that CcpA displayed in butanol-producing C. acetobutylicum. The information could be valuable for further dissecting its pleiotropic regulatory mechanism in C. acetobutylicum, and for genetic modification in order to obtain more effective butanol-producing Clostridium strains. PMID:22846451

  14. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that

  15. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Johanna F.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  16. Biologically Based Methods for Control of Fumonisin-Producing Fusarium Species and Reduction of the Fumonisins.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Johanna F; van Zyl, Willem H; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and subsequent fumonisin contamination of maize adversely affect international trade and economy with deleterious effects on human and animal health. In developed countries high standards of the major food suppliers and retailers are upheld and regulatory controls deter the importation and local marketing of fumonisin-contaminated food products. In developing countries regulatory measures are either lacking or poorly enforced, due to food insecurity, resulting in an increased mycotoxin exposure. The lack and poor accessibility of effective and environmentally safe control methods have led to an increased interest in practical and biological alternatives to reduce fumonisin intake. These include the application of natural resources, including plants, microbial cultures, genetic material thereof, or clay minerals pre- and post-harvest. Pre-harvest approaches include breeding for resistant maize cultivars, introduction of biocontrol microorganisms, application of phenolic plant extracts, and expression of antifungal proteins and fumonisin degrading enzymes in transgenic maize cultivars. Post-harvest approaches include the removal of fumonisins by natural clay adsorbents and enzymatic degradation of fumonisins through decarboxylation and deamination by recombinant carboxylesterase and aminotransferase enzymes. Although, the knowledge base on biological control methods has expanded, only a limited number of authorized decontamination products and methods are commercially available. As many studies detailed the use of natural compounds in vitro, concepts in reducing fumonisin contamination should be developed further for application in planta and in the field pre-harvest, post-harvest, and during storage and food-processing. In developed countries an integrated approach, involving good agricultural management practices, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) production, and storage management, together with

  17. Control of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: a region-wide intervention.

    PubMed

    Gagliotti, C; Cappelli, V; Carretto, E; Marchi, M; Pan, A; Ragni, P; Sarti, M; Suzzi, R; Tura, G A; Moro, M L

    2014-10-30

    Starting in 2010, there was a sharp increase in infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to carbapenems in the Emilia-Romagna region in Italy. A region-wide intervention to control the spread of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CPKP) in Emilia-Romagna was carried out, based on a regional guideline issued in July 2011. The infection control measures recommended to the Health Trusts (HTs) were: phenotypic confirmation of carbapenemase production, active surveillance of asymptomatic carriers and contact isolation precautions for carriers. A specific surveillance system was activated and the implementation of control measures in HTs was followed up. A significant linear increase of incident CPKP cases over time (p<0.001) was observed at regional level in Emilia-Romagna in the pre-intervention period, while the number of cases remained stable after the launch of the intervention (p=0.48). Considering the patients hospitalised in five HTs that provided detailed data on incident cases, a downward trend was observed in incidence after the release of the regional guidelines (from 32 to 15 cases per 100,000 hospital patient days). The spread of CPKP in Emilia-Romagna was contained by a centrally-coordinated intervention. A further reduction in CPKP rates might be achieved by increased compliance with guidelines and specific activities of antibiotic stewardship.

  18. Geologic and hydrologic controls on coalbed methane producibility, Williams Fork Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Nance, H.S.; McMurry, R.G. )

    1996-01-01

    Structural and depositional setting, coal rank, gas content, permeability, hydrodynamics, and reservoir heterogeneity control the producibility of coalbed methane in the Piceance Basin. The coal-rich Upper Cretaceous, Williams Fork Formation is genetically defined and regionally correlated to the genetic sequences in the Sand Wash Basin, to the north. Net coal is thickest in north-south oriented belts which accumulated on a coastal plain, behind west-east prograding shoreline sequences. Face cleats of Late Cretaceous age strike E-NE and W-NW in the southern and northern parts of the basin, respectively, normal to the Grand Hogback thrust front. Parallelism between face-cleat strike and present-day maximum horizontal stresses may enhance or inhibit coal permeability in the north and south, respectively. Geopressure and hydropressure are both present in the basin with regional hydrocarbon overpressure dominant in the central part of the basin and hydropressure limited to the basin margins. The most productive gas wells in the basin are associated with structural terraces, anticlines, and/or correspond to Cameo-Wheeler-Fairfield coal-sandstone development, reflecting basement detached thrust-faulting, fracture-enhanced permeability, and reservoir heterogeneity. Depositional heterogeneties and thrusts faults isolate coal reservoirs along the Grand Hogback from the subsurface by restricting meteoric recharge and basinward flow of ground water. An evolving coalbed methane producibility model predicts that in the Piceance Basin extraordinary coalbed methane production is precluded by low permeability and by the absence of dynamic ground-water flow.

  19. Geologic and hydrologic controls on coalbed methane producibility, Williams Fork Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Nance, H.S.; McMurry, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Structural and depositional setting, coal rank, gas content, permeability, hydrodynamics, and reservoir heterogeneity control the producibility of coalbed methane in the Piceance Basin. The coal-rich Upper Cretaceous, Williams Fork Formation is genetically defined and regionally correlated to the genetic sequences in the Sand Wash Basin, to the north. Net coal is thickest in north-south oriented belts which accumulated on a coastal plain, behind west-east prograding shoreline sequences. Face cleats of Late Cretaceous age strike E-NE and W-NW in the southern and northern parts of the basin, respectively, normal to the Grand Hogback thrust front. Parallelism between face-cleat strike and present-day maximum horizontal stresses may enhance or inhibit coal permeability in the north and south, respectively. Geopressure and hydropressure are both present in the basin with regional hydrocarbon overpressure dominant in the central part of the basin and hydropressure limited to the basin margins. The most productive gas wells in the basin are associated with structural terraces, anticlines, and/or correspond to Cameo-Wheeler-Fairfield coal-sandstone development, reflecting basement detached thrust-faulting, fracture-enhanced permeability, and reservoir heterogeneity. Depositional heterogeneties and thrusts faults isolate coal reservoirs along the Grand Hogback from the subsurface by restricting meteoric recharge and basinward flow of ground water. An evolving coalbed methane producibility model predicts that in the Piceance Basin extraordinary coalbed methane production is precluded by low permeability and by the absence of dynamic ground-water flow.

  20. Controlling Fluences of Reactive Species Produced by Multipulse DBDs onto Wet Tissue: Frequency and Liquid Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wei; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-09-01

    Tissue covered by a thin liquid layer treated by atmospheric pressure plasmas for biomedical applications ultimately requires a reproducible protocol for human healthcare. The outcomes of wet tissue treatment by dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) depend on the plasma dose which determines the integral fluences of radicals and ions onto the tissue. These fluences are controlled in part by frequency and liquid thickness. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of multipulse DBDs interacting with wet tissue. The DBDs were simulated for 100 stationary or random streamers at different repetition rates and liquid thicknesses followed by 10 s to 2 min of afterglow. At 100 Hz, NOaq and OHaq are mixed by randomly striking streamers, although they have different rates of solvation. NOaq is nearly completely consumed by reactions with OHaq at the liquid surface. Only H2O2aq, produced through OHaq mutual reactions, survives to reach the tissue. After 100 pulses, the liquid becomes ozone-rich, in which the nitrous ion, NO2-aq, is converted to the nitric ion, NO3-aq. Reducing the pulse frequency to 10 Hz results in significant fluence of NOaq to the tissue as NOaq can escape during the interpulse period from the liquid surface where OHaq is formed. For the same reason, NO2-aq can also reach deeper into the liquid at lower frequency. Frequency and thickness of the liquid are methods to control the plasma produced aqueous species to the underlying tissue. Work supported by DOE (DE-SC0001319) and NSF (CHE-1124724).

  1. Drosophila Adiponectin Receptor in Insulin Producing Cells Regulates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism by Controlling Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Su-Jin; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Bajracharya, Rijan; Yang, Se-Yeol; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Yu, Kweon

    2013-01-01

    Adipokines secreted from adipose tissue are key regulators of metabolism in animals. Adiponectin, one of the adipokines, modulates pancreatic beta cell function to maintain energy homeostasis. Recently, significant conservation between Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian metabolism has been discovered. Drosophila insulin like peptides (Dilps) regulate energy metabolism similarly to mammalian insulin. However, in Drosophila, the regulatory mechanism of insulin producing cells (IPCs) by adipokine signaling is largely unknown. Here, we describe the discovery of the Drosophila adiponectin receptor and its function in IPCs. Drosophila adiponectin receptor (dAdipoR) has high homology with the human adiponectin receptor 1. The dAdipoR antibody staining revealed that dAdipoR was expressed in IPCs of larval and adult brains. IPC- specific dAdipoR inhibition (Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri) showed the increased sugar level in the hemolymph and the elevated triglyceride level in whole body. Dilps mRNA levels in the Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri flies were similar with those of controls. However, in the Dilp2>dAdipoR-Ri flies, Dilp2 protein was accumulated in IPCs, the level of circulating Dilp2 was decreased, and insulin signaling was reduced in the fat body. In ex vivo fly brain culture with the human adiponectin, Dilp2 was secreted from IPCs. These results indicate that adiponectin receptor in insulin producing cells regulates insulin secretion and controls glucose and lipid metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster. This study demonstrates a new adipokine signaling in Drosophila and provides insights for the mammalian adiponectin receptor function in pancreatic beta cells, which could be useful for therapeutic application. PMID:23874700

  2. Impact of test sensitivity and specificity on pig producer incentives to control Mycobacterium avium infections in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; Wisselink, Henk J; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the impact of the sensitivity and specificity of a Mycobacterium avium (Ma) test on pig producer incentives to control Ma in finishing pigs. A possible Ma control system which includes a serodiagnostic test and a penalty on finishing pigs in herds detected with Ma infection was modelled. Using a dynamic optimization model and a grid search of deliveries of herds from pig producers to slaughterhouse, optimal control measures for pig producers and optimal penalty values for deliveries with increased Ma risk were identified for different sensitivity and specificity values. Results showed that higher sensitivity and lower specificity induced use of more intense control measures and resulted in higher pig producer costs and lower Ma seroprevalence. The minimal penalty value needed to comply with a threshold for Ma seroprevalence in finishing pigs at slaughter was lower at higher sensitivity and lower specificity. With imperfect specificity a larger sample size decreased pig producer incentives to control Ma seroprevalence, because the higher number of false positives resulted in an increased probability of rejecting a batch of finishing pigs irrespective of whether the pig producer applied control measures. We conclude that test sensitivity and specificity must be considered in incentive system design to induce pig producers to control Ma in finishing pigs with minimum negative effects.

  3. Review on materials & methods to produce controlled release coated urea fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Babar; KuShaari, KuZilati; Man, Zakaria B; Basit, Abdul; Thanh, Trinh H

    2014-05-10

    With the exponential growth of the global population, the agricultural sector is bound to use ever larger quantities of fertilizers to augment the food supply, which consequently increases food production costs. Urea, when applied to crops is vulnerable to losses from volatilization and leaching. Current methods also reduce nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by plants which limits crop yields and, moreover, contributes towards environmental pollution in terms of hazardous gaseous emissions and water eutrophication. An approach that offsets this pollution while also enhancing NUE is the use of controlled release urea (CRU) for which several methods and materials have been reported. The physical intromission of urea granules in an appropriate coating material is one such technique that produces controlled release coated urea (CRCU). The development of CRCU is a green technology that not only reduces nitrogen loss caused by volatilization and leaching, but also alters the kinetics of nitrogen release, which, in turn, provides nutrients to plants at a pace that is more compatible with their metabolic needs. This review covers the research quantum regarding the physical coating of original urea granules. Special emphasis is placed on the latest coating methods as well as release experiments and mechanisms with an integrated critical analyses followed by suggestions for future research. PMID:24593892

  4. Review on materials & methods to produce controlled release coated urea fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Babar; KuShaari, KuZilati; Man, Zakaria B; Basit, Abdul; Thanh, Trinh H

    2014-05-10

    With the exponential growth of the global population, the agricultural sector is bound to use ever larger quantities of fertilizers to augment the food supply, which consequently increases food production costs. Urea, when applied to crops is vulnerable to losses from volatilization and leaching. Current methods also reduce nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by plants which limits crop yields and, moreover, contributes towards environmental pollution in terms of hazardous gaseous emissions and water eutrophication. An approach that offsets this pollution while also enhancing NUE is the use of controlled release urea (CRU) for which several methods and materials have been reported. The physical intromission of urea granules in an appropriate coating material is one such technique that produces controlled release coated urea (CRCU). The development of CRCU is a green technology that not only reduces nitrogen loss caused by volatilization and leaching, but also alters the kinetics of nitrogen release, which, in turn, provides nutrients to plants at a pace that is more compatible with their metabolic needs. This review covers the research quantum regarding the physical coating of original urea granules. Special emphasis is placed on the latest coating methods as well as release experiments and mechanisms with an integrated critical analyses followed by suggestions for future research.

  5. Large area and structured epitaxial graphene produced by confinement controlled sublimation of silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    de Heer, Walt A; Berger, Claire; Ruan, Ming; Sprinkle, Mike; Li, Xuebin; Hu, Yike; Zhang, Baiqian; Hankinson, John; Conrad, Edward

    2011-10-11

    After the pioneering investigations into graphene-based electronics at Georgia Tech, great strides have been made developing epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (EG) as a new electronic material. EG has not only demonstrated its potential for large scale applications, it also has become an important material for fundamental two-dimensional electron gas physics. It was long known that graphene mono and multilayers grow on SiC crystals at high temperatures in ultrahigh vacuum. At these temperatures, silicon sublimes from the surface and the carbon rich surface layer transforms to graphene. However the quality of the graphene produced in ultrahigh vacuum is poor due to the high sublimation rates at relatively low temperatures. The Georgia Tech team developed growth methods involving encapsulating the SiC crystals in graphite enclosures, thereby sequestering the evaporated silicon and bringing growth process closer to equilibrium. In this confinement controlled sublimation (CCS) process, very high-quality graphene is grown on both polar faces of the SiC crystals. Since 2003, over 50 publications used CCS grown graphene, where it is known as the "furnace grown" graphene. Graphene multilayers grown on the carbon-terminated face of SiC, using the CCS method, were shown to consist of decoupled high mobility graphene layers. The CCS method is now applied on structured silicon carbide surfaces to produce high mobility nano-patterned graphene structures thereby demonstrating that EG is a viable contender for next-generation electronics. Here we present for the first time the CCS method that outperforms other epitaxial graphene production methods.

  6. B cells contribute to heterogeneity of IL-17 producing cells in rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Paul Martin; Steiert, Ingeborg; Kötter, Ina; Müller, Claudia A

    2013-01-01

    Secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is the hallmark of a unique lineage of CD4 T cells designated Th17 cells, which may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and many autoimmune diseases. Recently, IL-17-producing cells other than T cells have been described, including diverse innate immune cells. Here, we show that the cellular sources of IL-17A in RA include a significant number of non-T cells. Multicolour fluorescence analysis of IL-17-expressing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) revealed larger proportions of IL-17(+)CD3(-) non-T cells in RA patients than in healthy controls (constitutive, 13.6% vs. 8.4%, and after stimulation with PMA/ionomycin 17.4% vs. 7.9% p < 0.001 in both cases). The source of IL-17 included CD3(-)CD56(+) NK cells, CD3(-)CD14(+) myeloid cells as well as the expected CD3(+)CD4(+) Th17 cells and surprisingly a substantial number of CD3(-)CD19(+) B cells. The presence of IL-17A-expressing B cells was confirmed by specific PCR of peripheral MACS-sorted CD19(+) B cells, as well as by the analysis of different EBV-transformed B cell lines. Here we report for the first time that in addition to Th17 cells and different innate immune cells B cells also contribute to the IL-17A found in RA patients and healthy controls.

  7. Stable Carbon Fractionation In Size Segregated Aerosol Particles Produced By Controlled Biomass Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masalaite, Agne; Garbaras, Andrius; Garbariene, Inga; Ceburnis, Darius; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Puida, Egidijus; Kvietkus, Kestutis; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning is the largest source of primary fine fraction carbonaceous particles and the second largest source of trace gases in the global atmosphere with a strong effect not only on the regional scale but also in areas distant from the source . Many studies have often assumed no significant carbon isotope fractionation occurring between black carbon and the original vegetation during combustion. However, other studies suggested that stable carbon isotope ratios of char or BC may not reliably reflect carbon isotopic signatures of the source vegetation. Overall, the apparently conflicting results throughout the literature regarding the observed fractionation suggest that combustion conditions may be responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of the present study was to gather more quantitative information on carbonaceous aerosols produced in controlled biomass burning, thereby having a potential impact on interpreting ambient atmospheric observations. Seven different biomass fuel types were burned under controlled conditions to determine the effect of the biomass type on the emitted particulate matter mass and stable carbon isotope composition of bulk and size segregated particles. Size segregated aerosol particles were collected using the total suspended particle (TSP) sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The results demonstrated that particle emissions were dominated by the submicron particles in all biomass types. However, significant differences in emissions of submicron particles and their dominant sizes were found between different biomass fuels. The largest negative fractionation was obtained for the wood pellet fuel type while the largest positive isotopic fractionation was observed during the buckwheat shells combustion. The carbon isotope composition of MOUDI samples compared very well with isotope composition of TSP samples indicating consistency of the results. The measurements of the stable carbon isotope ratio in

  8. Enhanced Biological Control of Phytophthora Blight of Pepper by Biosurfactant-Producing Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Özyilmaz, Ümit; Benlioglu, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching (1 × 109 cells/ml), ASM (0.1 μg a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil. PMID:25288970

  9. Control of Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli in cheese by dairy bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Callon, Cécile; Arliguie, Céline; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2016-02-01

    Bio-preservation could be a valuable way to control Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in cheese. To this end, 41 strains were screened for their inhibitory potential on model cheese curd and on pasteurized and raw milk uncooked pressed cheeses. Strains of Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Lactobacillus sp, Carnobacterium mobile, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Macrococcus caseolyticus and Hafnia alvei reduced STEC O26:H11 counts by 1.4-2.5 log cfu g(-1) and to a lesser extent STEC O157:H7 counts in pasteurized milk cheeses. Some strains can act in synergy to inhibit STEC in raw milk uncooked pressed cheeses. Inhibitory associations had no adverse effect on the sensory characteristics of these cheeses. The association of H. alvei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lc. lactis was the most inhibitory: after inoculation of this consortium into milk, STEC O26:H11 and O157:H7, inoculated at 2 log cfu ml(-1), were reduced by up to 3 log cfu g(-1) in ripened cheese. Inhibition in cheese cannot be predicted from H2O2 production in BHI medium, decreased pH or milk reduction. It is not clear what role the rapid decrease in pH during the first 6 h may play in the inhibition. Further studies will be needed to determine the nature of the inhibition.

  10. Control of litchi downy blight by zeamines produced by Dickeya zeae

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lisheng; Zhou, Jianuan; Wang, Huishan; He, Fei; Liu, Shiyin; Jiang, Zide; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Zeamines (ZMS), a class of polyamine-polyketide-nonribosomal peptide produced by bacterial isolate Dickeya zeae, were shown recently to be potent antibiotics against some bacterial pathogens. In this study, the results indicated that ZMS showed antifungal activity against Peronophythora litchii and other fungal pathogens. The activity of ZMS against the oomycete pathogen P. litchi, which causes the devastating litchi downy blight, was further investigated under in vitro and in vivo conditions. ZMS displayed potent inhibitory activity against the mycelial growth and sporangia germination of P. litchii. At a concentration of 2 μg/mL, about 99% of the sporangia germination was inhibited. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that treatment with ZMS could cause substantial damages to the oomycete endomembrane system. Furthermore, treatment of litchi fruits with ZMS solution significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the fruits decay and peel browning caused by P. litchii infection during storage at 28 °C. Taken together, our results provide useful clues on the antifungal mechanisms of ZMS, and highlight the promising potentials of ZMS as a fungicide, which in particular, may be useful for prevention and control of litchi fruits decay and browning caused by P. litchii infection during storage and transportation. PMID:26499339

  11. Emergence of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Uruguay: infection control and molecular characterization

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, C; Ingold, A; Echeverría, N; Acevedo, A; Vignoli, R; García-Fulgueiras, V; Viroga, J; Gonzalez, O; Odizzio, V; Etulain, K; Nuñez, E; Albornoz, H; Borthagaray, G; Galiana, A

    2014-01-01

    We describe the first outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP), the infection control measures adopted and the shift in resistance patterns of isolates during antibiotic treatment. The ST258 KPC-KP strain exhibited a multiresistant antibiotic phenotype including co-resistance to gentamycin, colistin and tigecycline intermediate susceptibility. Isolates before and after treatment had different behaviour concerning their antibiotic susceptibility and the population analysis profile study. A progressive increase in the aminoglycosides (acquiring amicacin resistance) and β-lactam MICs, and a decreased susceptibility to fosfomycin was observed throughout the administration of combined antimicrobial regimens including meropenem. A high meropenem resistance KPC-KP homogeneous population (MIC 256 Jg/mL), could arise from the meropenem heterogeneous low-level resistance KPC-KP population (MIC 8 Jg/mL), by the selective pressure of the prolonged meropenem therapy. The kpc gene was inserted in a Tn4401 isoform a, and no transconjugants were detected. The core measures adopted were successful to prevent evolution towards resistance dissemination. PMID:25356345

  12. Profile Control by Biased Electrodes in Large Diameter RF Produced Pl asma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Yoshinaka, Toshiro

    1998-10-01

    Control of the plasma profile has been carried out, using the voltage biasing method in the large diameter (45 cm) RF (radio frequency) produced plasma in the presence of the uniform magnetic field (less than 1200 G). Under the low filling pressure condition of 0.16 mTorr, changing the biasing voltages to the three individual end plates with concentric circular ring shapes, the radial electron density (about 10^10 cm-3) profile could be changed from the hollow to the peaked one. On the contrary, the nearly flat electron temperature (several eV) profile did not change appreciably. The azimuthal rotation velocity measured by the Mach probe, i.e. directional probe, showed the different radial profiles (but nearly uniform along the axis) depending on the biasing voltage. This velocity became slower with the low magnetic field (less than 200 G) or in the higher pressure regime up to 20 mTorr with the higher electron density. The experimental results by other biasing methods will also be presented.

  13. Control of Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli in cheese by dairy bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Callon, Cécile; Arliguie, Céline; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2016-02-01

    Bio-preservation could be a valuable way to control Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in cheese. To this end, 41 strains were screened for their inhibitory potential on model cheese curd and on pasteurized and raw milk uncooked pressed cheeses. Strains of Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc citreum, Lactobacillus sp, Carnobacterium mobile, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Macrococcus caseolyticus and Hafnia alvei reduced STEC O26:H11 counts by 1.4-2.5 log cfu g(-1) and to a lesser extent STEC O157:H7 counts in pasteurized milk cheeses. Some strains can act in synergy to inhibit STEC in raw milk uncooked pressed cheeses. Inhibitory associations had no adverse effect on the sensory characteristics of these cheeses. The association of H. alvei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lc. lactis was the most inhibitory: after inoculation of this consortium into milk, STEC O26:H11 and O157:H7, inoculated at 2 log cfu ml(-1), were reduced by up to 3 log cfu g(-1) in ripened cheese. Inhibition in cheese cannot be predicted from H2O2 production in BHI medium, decreased pH or milk reduction. It is not clear what role the rapid decrease in pH during the first 6 h may play in the inhibition. Further studies will be needed to determine the nature of the inhibition. PMID:26678131

  14. Usefulness of food chain information provided by Dutch finishing pig producers to control antibiotic residues in pork.

    PubMed

    van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P

    2012-11-01

    The EU prescribes that food business operators must use food chain information to assist in food safety control. This study analyses usefulness of food chain information about antibiotic usage covering the 60-day period prior to delivery of pigs to slaughter in the control of antibiotic residues in pork. A dataset with 479 test results for antibiotic residues in tissue samples of finishing pigs delivered to a Dutch slaughter company was linked to information provided by pig producers about antibiotic usage in these finishing pigs. Results show that twice as many producers reported using antibiotics in the group of 82 producers with antibiotic residues (11.0%) compared to the group without antibiotic residues (5.5%) (p=0.0686). For 89% of consignments with a finishing pig with antibiotic residues, the producer reported 'did not use antibiotics'. Food chain information about antibiotic usage provided by Dutch pig producers was no guarantee for absence of antibiotic residues in delivered finishing pigs.

  15. Comparison of the carbon-sequestering abilities of pineapple leaf residue chars produced by controlled combustion and by field burning.

    PubMed

    Leng, L Y; Husni, M H A; Samsuri, A W

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the chemical properties and yields of pineapple leaf residue (PLR) char produced by field burning (CF) with that produced by a partial combustion of air-dried PLR at 340 °C for 3 h in a furnace (CL). Higher total C, lignin content, and yield from CL as well as the presence of aromatic compounds in the Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of the char produced from CL suggest that the CL process was better in sequestering C than was the CF process. Although the C/N ratio of char produced from CL was low indicating a high N content of the char, the C in the char produced from CL was dominated by lignin suggesting that the decomposition of char produced from CL would be slow. To sequester C by char application, the PLR should be combusted in a controlled process rather than by burning in the field.

  16. Comparison of the carbon-sequestering abilities of pineapple leaf residue chars produced by controlled combustion and by field burning.

    PubMed

    Leng, L Y; Husni, M H A; Samsuri, A W

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the chemical properties and yields of pineapple leaf residue (PLR) char produced by field burning (CF) with that produced by a partial combustion of air-dried PLR at 340 °C for 3 h in a furnace (CL). Higher total C, lignin content, and yield from CL as well as the presence of aromatic compounds in the Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of the char produced from CL suggest that the CL process was better in sequestering C than was the CF process. Although the C/N ratio of char produced from CL was low indicating a high N content of the char, the C in the char produced from CL was dominated by lignin suggesting that the decomposition of char produced from CL would be slow. To sequester C by char application, the PLR should be combusted in a controlled process rather than by burning in the field. PMID:21958525

  17. On the electromagnetic fields produced by marine frequency domain controlled sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, marine controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) has found increasing use in hydrocarbon exploration due to its ability to detect thin resistive zones beneath the seafloor. Although it must be recognized that the quantitative interpretation of marine CSEM data over petroleum-bearing formations will typically require 2-D surveys and 2-D or 3-D modelling, the use of the 1-D approximation is useful under some circumstances and provides considerable insight into the physics of marine CSEM. It is the purpose of this paper to thoroughly explore the 1-D solutions for all four fundamental source types-vertical and horizontal, electric and magnetic dipole (VED, HED, VMD and HMD)-using a set of canonical reservoir models that encompass brine to weak to strong hydrocarbon types. The paper introduces the formalism to solve the Maxwell equations for a 1-D structure in terms of independent and unique toroidal and poloidal magnetic modes that circumscribe the salient diffusion physics. Green's functions for the two modes from which solutions for arbitrary source current distributions can be constructed are derived and used to obtain the electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by finite VED, HED, VMD and HMD sources overlying an arbitrary 1-D electrical structure. Field behaviour is analysed using the Poynting vector that represents the time-averaged flow of energy through the structure and a polarization ellipse decomposition of the triaxial seafloor EM field that is a complete field description. The behaviour of the two EM modes using unimodal VED and VMD sources is presented. The paper closes by extending these results to the bimodal HED and HMD sources.

  18. Sedimentary and tectonic controls on oil occurrences in the traditional producing area, Barinas Subbasin, Western Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Daal, J.; Martinez, G.; Salas, J.

    1996-12-31

    A Stratigraphic and Tectonic model explains the oil-field locations in the Traditional Producing Area of the Barinas Subbasin, Western Venezuela. The database for the model includes a 585-km{sup 2} 3-D seismic survey, as well as petrophysical, lithologic and biostratigraphic data from Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments. A long-term relative sea level rise from Albian through Campanian (Cretaceous) time, coincident with passive-margin basin subsidence, resulted in onlap of marginal marine sands and marine-shelf limestones and shales over crystalline metamorphic rocks of the Guayana Shield Basement. Facies changes in the Cretaceous Aguardiente, Escandalosa, and Navay Formations are related mainly to eustatic sea level changes. A tectonic pulse deformed these sediments in Late Maastrichtian to Paleocene time. An erosional unconformity that developed atop this deformed Cretaceous section relates to tectonic uplift and not to sea-level change. Onlap of Middle Eocene marine transgressive Gobernador Fm. sands and Masparrito Fm. limestones over this unconformity was driven by increased tectonic subsidence. Accelerated tectonic subsidence drowned the Masparrito carbonate platform and led to deposition of a condensed section within the lower Paguey Formation; this condensed section marks a tectonic Maximum Flooding Surface not related to eustatic sea level change. After deposition of the Eocene Paguey, and just prior to deposition of the Oligo-Miocene Parangula Formation, a second tectonic event reactivated older faults and led to growth of structural traps for Cretaceous and Eocene reservoirs. Both tectonic and eustatic events have combined to control oil occurrence in the Barinas Subbasin.

  19. Hybrid on-line optimal control strategy for producing α-amylase by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Jia; Zhou, Hong-Bo

    2011-01-01

    The combined effect of macronutrients in the extraction medium on α-amylase produced by Bacillus subtilis were studied by using response surface methodology in shaken flask cultures. The production of amylase was significantly affected by the interaction between wheat bran and the cotton seed extract in the extraction medium and by the interaction between the cotton seed extract and starch. The optimal combination in the extraction medium for maximum α-amylase production was determined as 10.80 g·L⁻¹ of wheat bran, 9.90 g·L⁻¹ of cotton seed extract, 0.5 g·L⁻¹ of starch, 2.0 g·L⁻¹ of yeast extract, 5.00 g·L⁻¹ of NaCl and 2.00 g·L⁻¹ of CaCl₂. A 12.55-fold increase of enzyme activity was recorded in the optimized medium compared to the result acquired in a minimum essential medium. The optimized medium was used to compare different cultivation strategies in fermenters. The pH-stat strategy for reducing cellular stress response and the substrate concentration-stat strategy for reducing substrate inhibition were independently investigated. The temperature-limited strategy has been proposed to solve the proteolytic digestion problem, although the high-pressure strategy resulted in high productivity. A hybrid strategy simultaneously controlling pH, temperature, substrate concentration and pO₂ was finally investigated to enhance the efficiency of the process. This hybrid strategy resulted in high activity of α-amylase, increasing the productivity almost three-fold as compared to an ordinary fed-batch culture.

  20. Characterization of air pollution control residues produced in a municipal solid waste incinerator in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Quina, Margarida J; Santos, Regina C; Bordado, João C; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2008-04-01

    This study is mainly related with the physical and chemical characterization of a solid waste, produced in a municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration process, which is usually referred as air pollution control (APC) residue. The moisture content, loss on ignition (LOI), particle size distribution, density, porosity, specific surface area and morphology were the physical properties addressed here. At the chemical level, total elemental content (TC), total availability (TA) and the leaching behaviour with compliance tests were determined, as well as the acid neutralization capacity (ANC). The main mineralogical crystalline phases were identified, and the thermal behaviour of the APC residues is also shown. The experimental work involves several techniques such as laser diffraction spectrometry, mercury porosimetry, helium pycnometry, gas adsorption, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), ion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The results point out that the APC residues do not comply with regulations in force at the developed countries, and therefore the waste should be considered hazardous. Among the considered heavy metals, lead, zinc and chromium were identified as the most problematic ones, and their total elemental quantities are similar for several samples collected in an industrial plant at different times. Moreover, the high amount of soluble salts (NaCl, KCl, calcium compounds) may constitute a major problem and should be taken into account for all management strategies. The solubility in water is very high (more than 24% for a solid/liquid ratio of 10) and thus the possible utilizations of this residue are very limited, creating difficulties also in the ordinary treatments, such as in solidification/stabilization with binders.

  1. Perceptions of veterinarians and producers concerning Johne’s disease prevalence and control in US beef cow-calf operations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Efforts to educate producers and veterinarians in the United States regarding the management, prevention and control of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection have increased over recent years. While nationwide awareness about MAP infection is improving, current level of awareness among beef producers and veterinarians is largely unknown. This study compares the perceptions of beef producers and veterinarians on the burden of MAP infection in cow-calf herds and on measures to control new infections. Questionnaires were mailed to 989 US beef producers through state Designated Johne’s Coordinators and to 1080 bovine veterinarians belonging to a US nationwide professional association. Results Twenty-two percent (34/155) of producers reported having infected animals in their herds. The mean (minimum, median, maximum) prevalence reported by producers was 0.8% (0, 0, 10). Twenty-seven percent (27/100) of producers had at least one clinical animal during the previous year. Compared to the small herds (<50 head), the mean test-positive percentages and estimated prevalences were higher in medium (50–149) and highest in large (≥150) herds. Seedstock herds had a lower prevalence and these producers were more likely to enroll in Johne’s disease (JD) control programs and test their herds. Veterinarians reported a mean overall animal level prevalence in their client herds of 5% (0, 2, 60). Similarly, 26% (0, 10, 100) of client herds had at least one infected animal. Mean percentage of infected cows within infected herds was 9% (0.01, 5, 80). Producers generally performed activities to control MAP transmission more frequently than perceived by veterinarians. Compared to veterinarians’ opinions, producers were less likely to cull cows with signs consistent with JD (P < 0.01), but more likely to test purchased additions (P < 0.01). Testing recommendations by veterinarians (n = 277) for beef cow-calf herds were bacterial

  2. HCV Specific IL-21 Producing T Cells but Not IL-17A Producing T Cells Are Associated with HCV Viral Control in HIV/HCV Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    MacParland, Sonya A.; Fadel, Saleh M.; Mihajlovic, Vesna; Fawaz, Ali; Kim, Connie; Rahman, A. K. M. Nur-ur; Liu, Jun; Kaul, Rupert; Kovacs, Colin; Grebely, Jason; Dore, Gregory J.; Wong, David K.; Ostrowski, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Decreased hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance, faster cirrhosis progression and higher HCV RNA levels are associated with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The CD4+ T helper cytokines interleukin (IL)-21 and IL-17A are associated with virus control and inflammation, respectively, both important in HCV and HIV disease progression. Here, we examined how antigen-specific production of these cytokines during HCV mono and HIV/HCV coinfection was associated with HCV virus control. Methods We measured HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A production by transwell cytokine secretion assay in PBMCs from monoinfected and coinfected individuals. Viral control was determined by plasma HCV RNA levels. Results In acutely infected individuals, those able to establish transient/complete HCV viral control tended to have stronger HCV-specific IL-21-production than non-controllers. HCV-specific IL-21 production also correlated with HCV viral decline in acute infection. Significantly stronger HCV-specific IL-21 production was detected in HAART-treated coinfected individuals. HCV-specific IL-17A production was not associated with lower plasma HCV RNA levels in acute or chronic HCV infection and responses were stronger in HIV coinfection. HCV-specific IL-21/ IL-17A responses did not correlate with microbial translocation or fibrosis. Exogenous IL-21 treatment of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells from monoinfected individuals enhanced their function although CD8+ T cells from coinfected individuals were somewhat refractory to the effects of IL-21. Conclusions These data show that HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A-producing T cells are induced in HIV/HCV coinfection. In early HIV/HCV coinfection, IL-21 may contribute to viral control, and may represent a novel tool to enhance acute HCV clearance in HIV/HCV coinfected individuals. PMID:27124305

  3. Evaluating the effect of Focus Farms on Ontario dairy producers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward control of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Roche, S M; Jones-Bitton, A; Meehan, M; Von Massow, M; Kelton, D F

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated a participatory-based, experiential learning program, Ontario Focus Farms (FF), which aimed to change dairy producer behavior to control Johne's disease (JD) in Ontario, Canada. The goals were to (1) assess the effect of FF on participating dairy producers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with regard to JD control; (2) compare changes in these factors among FF participants to changes among a group of nonparticipating dairy producers; and (3) describe the characteristics of producers who made at least one on-farm management change. Pre- and post-FF intervention questionnaires collected data on respondents' knowledge, attitudes, behavior, herd production, and demographic information; before and after JD-risk assessments were used to assess respondents' on-farm risk of JD transmission. Overall, 176 dairy producers participated in the FF process; 39.8% (70/176) of FF and 14.6% (52/357) of control participants responded to both the pre- and postintervention questionnaires. Upon comparison, FF respondents were more likely to be younger, have larger herds, and have higher management scores. The proportion of FF participants who reported making at least one on-farm change (81%) was significantly higher than that of control respondents (38%). Overall, FF respondents significantly changed their risk score in 4 out of 5 risk areas and had an average reduction of 13 points in their overall risk score between before and after risk assessments. Control respondents' risk assessment scores did not significantly change during the study period. In a JD knowledge assessment, FF and control respondents exhibited a moderate knowledge score before the intervention period, with median scores of 75.9% (22/29) in each group. The FF respondents significantly increased their score at the postintervention assessment, with a median of 82.8% (24/29); control-respondent scores did not significantly change. Both FF and control respondents held strong positive attitudes

  4. Evaluating the effect of Focus Farms on Ontario dairy producers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward control of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Roche, S M; Jones-Bitton, A; Meehan, M; Von Massow, M; Kelton, D F

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated a participatory-based, experiential learning program, Ontario Focus Farms (FF), which aimed to change dairy producer behavior to control Johne's disease (JD) in Ontario, Canada. The goals were to (1) assess the effect of FF on participating dairy producers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with regard to JD control; (2) compare changes in these factors among FF participants to changes among a group of nonparticipating dairy producers; and (3) describe the characteristics of producers who made at least one on-farm management change. Pre- and post-FF intervention questionnaires collected data on respondents' knowledge, attitudes, behavior, herd production, and demographic information; before and after JD-risk assessments were used to assess respondents' on-farm risk of JD transmission. Overall, 176 dairy producers participated in the FF process; 39.8% (70/176) of FF and 14.6% (52/357) of control participants responded to both the pre- and postintervention questionnaires. Upon comparison, FF respondents were more likely to be younger, have larger herds, and have higher management scores. The proportion of FF participants who reported making at least one on-farm change (81%) was significantly higher than that of control respondents (38%). Overall, FF respondents significantly changed their risk score in 4 out of 5 risk areas and had an average reduction of 13 points in their overall risk score between before and after risk assessments. Control respondents' risk assessment scores did not significantly change during the study period. In a JD knowledge assessment, FF and control respondents exhibited a moderate knowledge score before the intervention period, with median scores of 75.9% (22/29) in each group. The FF respondents significantly increased their score at the postintervention assessment, with a median of 82.8% (24/29); control-respondent scores did not significantly change. Both FF and control respondents held strong positive attitudes

  5. Validation of pepperoni process for control of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathleen A; Kaspar, Charles W; Sindelar, Jeffrey J; Milkowski, Andrew L; Lotz, Brian M; Kang, Jihun; Faith, Nancy G; Enache, Elena; Kataoka, A I; Henry, Craig

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the survival of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) with E. coli O157:H7 during pepperoni production. Pepperoni batter was inoculated with 7 log CFU/g of a seven-strain STEC mixture, including strains of serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157. Sausages were fermented to pH ≤4.8, heated at 53.3°C for 1 h, and dried for up to 20 days. STEC strains were enumerated at designated intervals on sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC) and Rainbow (RA) agars; enrichments were completed in modified EC (mEC) broth and nonselective tryptic soy broth (TSB). When plated on SMAC, total E. coli populations decreased 2.6 to 3.5 log after the 1-h heating step at 53.3°C, and a 4.9- to 5-log reduction was observed after 7 days of drying. RA was more sensitive in recovering survivors; log reductions on it were 1.9 to 2.6, 3.8 to 4.2, and 4.6 to 5.3 at the end of cook, and at day 7 and day 14 of drying, respectively. When numbers were less than the limit of detection by direct plating on days 14 and 20 of drying (representing a 5-log kill), no more than one of three samples in each experiment was positive by enrichment with mEC broth; however, STEC strains were recovered in TSB enrichment. Freezing the 7-day dried sausage for 2 to 3 weeks generated an additional 1- to 1.5-log kill. Confirmation by PCR revealed that O103 and O157 had the greatest survival during pepperoni productions, but all serotypes except O111 and O121 were occasionally recovered during drying. This study suggests that non-O157 STEC s trains have comparable or less ability than E. coli O157 to survive the processing steps involved in the manufacture of pepperoni. Processes suitable for control of E. coli O157 will similarly inactivate the other STEC strains tested in this study.

  6. Electricity generation and microbial community in a submerged-exchangeable microbial fuel cell system for low-strength domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jaecheul; Seon, Jiyun; Park, Younghyun; Cho, Sunja; Lee, Taeho

    2012-08-01

    A submerged type microbial fuel cell (MFC) system, which consisted of six readily exchangeable air-cathode MFCs, was evaluated for continuous treatment of low-strength domestic wastewater. When supplied with synthetic wastewater (COD 100 mg/L), the system showed increasing maximum power densities from 191 to 754 mW/m2 as COD loading rates increased (0.20-0.40 kg/m3/day). COD removal efficiencies decreased with increased COD loading rates but the effluent COD concentrations met the relevant effluent quality standard (CODMn 20 mg/L) at all conditions. The system was then operated with domestic wastewater (c.a. 100 mg COD/L) at 0.32 and 0.43 kg/m3/day. The system showed much lower power densities (116-149 mW/m2) at both loading rates, compared to synthetic wastewater. Anodic microbial communities were completely different when the wastewater type was changed. These results suggest that the newly developed MFC system could be applied to treat low-strength domestic wastewater without requiring any additional organic removal stage.

  7. Granulation of activated sludge in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Xie, Wen-Ming; Liu, Shao-Gen; Yu, Han-Qing; Wang, Ying-Zhe; Wang, Gan; Dai, Xian-Liang

    2009-02-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was achieved in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for the treatment of low-strength municipal wastewater (<200 mg L(-1) of COD, chemical oxygen demand). The volume exchange ratio and settling time of an SBR were found to be two key factors in the granulation of activated sludge grown on the low-strength municipal wastewater. After operation of 300 days, the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration in the SBR reached 9.5 g L(-1) and consisted of approximate 85% granular sludge. The average total COD removal efficiency kept at 90% and NH4+-N was almost completely depleted (approximately 95%) after the formation of aerobic granules. The granules (with a diameter over 0.212 mm) had a diameter ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 mm and had good settling ability with a settling velocity of 18-40 m h(-1). Three bacterial morphologies of rod, coccus and filament coexisted in the granules. Mathematical modeling was performed to get insight into this pilot-scale granule-based reactor. The modified IWA activated sludge model No 3 (ASM3) was able to adequately describe the pilot-scale SBR dynamics during its cyclic operation.

  8. Herbivore vs. nutrient control of marine primary producers: context-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Burkepile, Deron E; Hay, Mark E

    2006-12-01

    Pervasive overharvesting of consumers and anthropogenic nutrient loading are changing the strengths of top-down and bottom-up forces in ecosystems worldwide. Thus, identifying the relative and synergistic roles of these forces and how they differ across habitats, ecosystems, or primary-producer types is increasingly important for understanding how communities are structured. We used factorial meta-analysis of 54 field experiments that orthogonally manipulated herbivore pressure and nutrient loading to quantify consumer and nutrient effects on primary producers in benthic marine habitats. Across all experiments and producer types, herbivory and nutrient enrichment both significantly affected primary-producer abundance. They also interacted to create greater nutrient enrichment effects in the absence of herbivores, suggesting that loss of herbivores produces more dramatic effects of nutrient loading. Herbivores consistently had stronger effects than did nutrient enrichment for both tropical macroalgae and seagrasses. The strong effects of herbivory but limited effects of nutrient enrichment on tropical macroalgae suggest that suppression of herbivore populations has played a larger role than eutrophication in driving the phase shift from coral- to macroalgal-dominated reefs in many areas, especially the Caribbean. For temperate macroalgae and benthic microalgae, the effects of top-down and bottom-up forces varied as a function of the inherent productivity of the ecosystem. For these algal groups, nutrient enrichment appeared to have stronger effects in high- vs. low-productivity systems, while herbivores exerted a stronger top-down effect in low-productivity systems. Effects of herbivores vs. nutrients also varied among algal functional groups (crustose algae, upright macroalgae, and filamentous algae), within a functional group between temperate and tropical systems, and according to the metric used to measure producer abundance. These analyses suggest that human

  9. The effect of aeration and recirculation on a sand-based hybrid constructed wetland treating low-strength domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zapater-Pereyra, M; Kyomukama, E; Namakula, V; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L

    2016-08-01

    The Duplex-constructed wetland (CW) is a hybrid system composed of a vertical flow (VF) CW on top of a horizontal flow filter (HFF). Each compartment is designed to play a different role: aerobic treatment in the VF CW due to intermittent feeding and anoxic treatment in the HFF due to saturated conditions. Three Duplex-CWs were used in this study: Control, Aerated and Recirculating. The role of each compartment was tested for pollutant removal and micro-invertebrate abundance. In all systems, the VF CW removed mainly organic matter, solids and NH4(+)-N. Pathogens were removed in both compartments. Likewise, total nitrogen removal occurred in both compartments, only the Recirculating HFF was not able to denitrify the nitrogen due to the slightly more oxic conditions as compared to the other systems. All systems met discharge guidelines for organic matter, but only the Control and Aerated systems met those for total nitrogen. At the applied loading rates, the pollutant removal was not significantly enhanced by the use of aeration and recirculation. Therefore, operation as in the Control system, without aeration or recirculation, is recommended for the tested Duplex-CWs. If artificial aeration will be used in CWs, the support material should be carefully selected to allow a proper air distribution. PMID:26732367

  10. The effect of aeration and recirculation on a sand-based hybrid constructed wetland treating low-strength domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zapater-Pereyra, M; Kyomukama, E; Namakula, V; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L

    2016-08-01

    The Duplex-constructed wetland (CW) is a hybrid system composed of a vertical flow (VF) CW on top of a horizontal flow filter (HFF). Each compartment is designed to play a different role: aerobic treatment in the VF CW due to intermittent feeding and anoxic treatment in the HFF due to saturated conditions. Three Duplex-CWs were used in this study: Control, Aerated and Recirculating. The role of each compartment was tested for pollutant removal and micro-invertebrate abundance. In all systems, the VF CW removed mainly organic matter, solids and NH4(+)-N. Pathogens were removed in both compartments. Likewise, total nitrogen removal occurred in both compartments, only the Recirculating HFF was not able to denitrify the nitrogen due to the slightly more oxic conditions as compared to the other systems. All systems met discharge guidelines for organic matter, but only the Control and Aerated systems met those for total nitrogen. At the applied loading rates, the pollutant removal was not significantly enhanced by the use of aeration and recirculation. Therefore, operation as in the Control system, without aeration or recirculation, is recommended for the tested Duplex-CWs. If artificial aeration will be used in CWs, the support material should be carefully selected to allow a proper air distribution.

  11. Controlled Expansion of Supercritical Solution: A Robust Method to Produce Pure Drug Nanoparticles With Narrow Size-Distribution.

    PubMed

    Pessi, Jenni; Lassila, Ilkka; Meriläinen, Antti; Räikkönen, Heikki; Hæggström, Edward; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a robust, stable, and reproducible method to produce nanoparticles based on expansion of supercritical solutions using carbon dioxide as a solvent. The method, controlled expansion of supercritical solution (CESS), uses controlled mass transfer, flow, pressure reduction, and particle collection in dry ice. CESS offers control over the crystallization process as the pressure in the system is reduced according to a specific profile. Particle formation takes place before the exit nozzle, and condensation is the main mechanism for postnucleation particle growth. A 2-step gradient pressure reduction is used to prevent Mach disk formation and particle growth by coagulation. Controlled particle growth keeps the production process stable. With CESS, we produced piroxicam nanoparticles, 60 mg/h, featuring narrow size distribution (176 ± 53 nm). PMID:27368121

  12. Antagonistic control of microbial pathogens under iron limitations by siderophore producing bacteria in a chemostat setup.

    PubMed

    Fgaier, Hedia; Eberl, Hermann J

    2011-03-21

    Certain bacteria develop iron chelation mechanisms that allow them to scavenge dissolved iron from the environment and to make it unavailable to competitors. This is achieved by producing siderophores that bind the iron which is later liberated internally in the cell. Under conditions of iron limitation, siderophore producing bacteria have therefore an antagonistic growth advantage over other species. This has been observed in particular in agricultural and aquacultural systems, as well as in food microbiology. We investigate here the possibility of a probiotic biocontrol strategy to eradicate a well established, often pathogenic, non-chelating population by supplementing the system with generally regarded as safe siderophore producing bacteria. Set in a chemostat setup, our modeling and simulation studies suggest that this is indeed possible in a finite time treatment. PMID:21192949

  13. Competition between honeydew producers in an ant-hemipteran interaction may enhance biological control of an invasive pest.

    PubMed

    Tena, A; Hoddle, C D; Hoddle, M S

    2013-12-01

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an invasive citrus pest in southern California, which secretes honeydew and has the potential to spread a lethal bacterial disease, huanglongbing, of citrus. In urban citrus, Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), also an invasive pest, tends honeydew-producing hemipterans. We used field data to determine whether the mutualistic relationship between L. humile and six established species of honeydew producers may hinder or favor the establishment of D. citri and its biological control with Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in citrus via competition or mutualism for ants, respectively. In the field, L. humile and D. citri are engaged in a mutualistic relationship. Ants harvest solid honeydew secreted by psyllid nymphs and tended more than 55% of observed D. citri colonies. Linepithema humile displayed a preference hierarchy when tending honeydew producers infesting citrus. It responded equally or less intensively to D. citri than to other honeydew-producing species. Consequently, the mutualism between L. humile and D. citri was affected by the presence of other honeydew-producing species, and the percentage of D. citri colonies tended by L. humile. The number of ants per D. citri colony also decreased as the number of other honeydew producers increased. Diaphorina citri density was also affected by the presence of other honeydew producers. Both colony size and the number of D. citri nymphs counted per tree decreased as the number of other honeydew producers increased. Our results indicate that competition between honeydew producers for the mutualist ant L. humile may hinder the establishment of D. citri by possibly facilitating increased biological control.

  14. Competition between honeydew producers in an ant-hemipteran interaction may enhance biological control of an invasive pest.

    PubMed

    Tena, A; Hoddle, C D; Hoddle, M S

    2013-12-01

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an invasive citrus pest in southern California, which secretes honeydew and has the potential to spread a lethal bacterial disease, huanglongbing, of citrus. In urban citrus, Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), also an invasive pest, tends honeydew-producing hemipterans. We used field data to determine whether the mutualistic relationship between L. humile and six established species of honeydew producers may hinder or favor the establishment of D. citri and its biological control with Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in citrus via competition or mutualism for ants, respectively. In the field, L. humile and D. citri are engaged in a mutualistic relationship. Ants harvest solid honeydew secreted by psyllid nymphs and tended more than 55% of observed D. citri colonies. Linepithema humile displayed a preference hierarchy when tending honeydew producers infesting citrus. It responded equally or less intensively to D. citri than to other honeydew-producing species. Consequently, the mutualism between L. humile and D. citri was affected by the presence of other honeydew-producing species, and the percentage of D. citri colonies tended by L. humile. The number of ants per D. citri colony also decreased as the number of other honeydew producers increased. Diaphorina citri density was also affected by the presence of other honeydew producers. Both colony size and the number of D. citri nymphs counted per tree decreased as the number of other honeydew producers increased. Our results indicate that competition between honeydew producers for the mutualist ant L. humile may hinder the establishment of D. citri by possibly facilitating increased biological control. PMID:23941659

  15. Neural network for quality control of submunitions produced by injection loading

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.; Parkinson, W.J.; Hinde, R.F. Jr.; Wantuck, P.J.; Newman, K.E.

    1998-12-01

    Injection loading of submunitions for smart weapons is a novel automated processing technique that can benefit from adaptive process control. This paper describes how the quality of submunitions could be controlled by using a neural network code in real time. Future work is planned to demonstrate fewer rejects and pollution reduction during submunition manufacturing.

  16. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadhira, Vebi; Kurniadi, Deddy; Juliastuti, E.; Sutiswan, Adeline

    2014-03-01

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  17. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    SciTech Connect

    Nadhira, Vebi Kurniadi, Deddy Juliastuti, E. Sutiswan, Adeline

    2014-03-24

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  18. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  19. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  20. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  1. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  2. 10 CFR 74.33 - Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for uranium... and accounting for uranium enrichment facilities authorized to produce special nuclear material of low... to possess equipment capable of enriching uranium or operate an enrichment facility, and...

  3. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Abbott, James; Micklem, Chris N; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology.

  4. Engineering control of bacterial cellulose production using a genetic toolkit and a new cellulose-producing strain

    PubMed Central

    Florea, Michael; Hagemann, Henrik; Santosa, Gabriella; Micklem, Chris N.; Spencer-Milnes, Xenia; de Arroyo Garcia, Laura; Paschou, Despoina; Lazenbatt, Christopher; Kong, Deze; Chughtai, Haroon; Jensen, Kirsten; Freemont, Paul S.; Kitney, Richard; Reeve, Benjamin; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose is a strong and ultrapure form of cellulose produced naturally by several species of the Acetobacteraceae. Its high strength, purity, and biocompatibility make it of great interest to materials science; however, precise control of its biosynthesis has remained a challenge for biotechnology. Here we isolate a strain of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus (K. rhaeticus iGEM) that can produce cellulose at high yields, grow in low-nitrogen conditions, and is highly resistant to toxic chemicals. We achieved external control over its bacterial cellulose production through development of a modular genetic toolkit that enables rational reprogramming of the cell. To further its use as an organism for biotechnology, we sequenced its genome and demonstrate genetic circuits that enable functionalization and patterning of heterologous gene expression within the cellulose matrix. This work lays the foundations for using genetic engineering to produce cellulose-based materials, with numerous applications in basic science, materials engineering, and biotechnology. PMID:27247386

  5. Climate and topography control the size and flux of sediment produced on steep mountain slopes.

    PubMed

    Riebe, Clifford S; Sklar, Leonard S; Lukens, Claire E; Shuster, David L

    2015-12-22

    Weathering on mountain slopes converts rock to sediment that erodes into channels and thus provides streams with tools for incision into bedrock. Both the size and flux of sediment from slopes can influence channel incision, making sediment production and erosion central to the interplay of climate and tectonics in landscape evolution. Although erosion rates are commonly measured using cosmogenic nuclides, there has been no complementary way to quantify how sediment size varies across slopes where the sediment is produced. Here we show how this limitation can be overcome using a combination of apatite helium ages and cosmogenic nuclides measured in multiple sizes of stream sediment. We applied the approach to a catchment underlain by granodiorite bedrock on the eastern flanks of the High Sierra, in California. Our results show that higher-elevation slopes, which are steeper, colder, and less vegetated, are producing coarser sediment that erodes faster into the channel network. This suggests that both the size and flux of sediment from slopes to channels are governed by altitudinal variations in climate, vegetation, and topography across the catchment. By quantifying spatial variations in the sizes of sediment produced by weathering, this analysis enables new understanding of sediment supply in feedbacks between climate, tectonics, and mountain landscape evolution.

  6. Climate and topography control the size and flux of sediment produced on steep mountain slopes

    PubMed Central

    Riebe, Clifford S.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Lukens, Claire E.; Shuster, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Weathering on mountain slopes converts rock to sediment that erodes into channels and thus provides streams with tools for incision into bedrock. Both the size and flux of sediment from slopes can influence channel incision, making sediment production and erosion central to the interplay of climate and tectonics in landscape evolution. Although erosion rates are commonly measured using cosmogenic nuclides, there has been no complementary way to quantify how sediment size varies across slopes where the sediment is produced. Here we show how this limitation can be overcome using a combination of apatite helium ages and cosmogenic nuclides measured in multiple sizes of stream sediment. We applied the approach to a catchment underlain by granodiorite bedrock on the eastern flanks of the High Sierra, in California. Our results show that higher-elevation slopes, which are steeper, colder, and less vegetated, are producing coarser sediment that erodes faster into the channel network. This suggests that both the size and flux of sediment from slopes to channels are governed by altitudinal variations in climate, vegetation, and topography across the catchment. By quantifying spatial variations in the sizes of sediment produced by weathering, this analysis enables new understanding of sediment supply in feedbacks between climate, tectonics, and mountain landscape evolution. PMID:26630002

  7. Climate and topography control the size and flux of sediment produced on steep mountain slopes.

    PubMed

    Riebe, Clifford S; Sklar, Leonard S; Lukens, Claire E; Shuster, David L

    2015-12-22

    Weathering on mountain slopes converts rock to sediment that erodes into channels and thus provides streams with tools for incision into bedrock. Both the size and flux of sediment from slopes can influence channel incision, making sediment production and erosion central to the interplay of climate and tectonics in landscape evolution. Although erosion rates are commonly measured using cosmogenic nuclides, there has been no complementary way to quantify how sediment size varies across slopes where the sediment is produced. Here we show how this limitation can be overcome using a combination of apatite helium ages and cosmogenic nuclides measured in multiple sizes of stream sediment. We applied the approach to a catchment underlain by granodiorite bedrock on the eastern flanks of the High Sierra, in California. Our results show that higher-elevation slopes, which are steeper, colder, and less vegetated, are producing coarser sediment that erodes faster into the channel network. This suggests that both the size and flux of sediment from slopes to channels are governed by altitudinal variations in climate, vegetation, and topography across the catchment. By quantifying spatial variations in the sizes of sediment produced by weathering, this analysis enables new understanding of sediment supply in feedbacks between climate, tectonics, and mountain landscape evolution. PMID:26630002

  8. Endogenous H2O2 produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae controls FabF activity.

    PubMed

    Benisty, Rachel; Cohen, Aharon Yehonatan; Feldman, Alexandra; Cohen, Zvi; Porat, Nurith

    2010-09-01

    FabF elongation condensing enzyme is a critical factor in determining the spectrum of products produced by the FASII pathway. Its active site contains a critical cysteine-thiol residue, which is a plausible target for oxidation by H2O2. Streptococcus pneumoniae produces exceptionally high levels of H2O2, mainly through the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-P via pyruvate oxidase (SpxB). We present evidence showing that endogenous H2O2 inhibits FabF activity by specifically oxidizing its active site cysteine-thiol residue. Thiol trapping methods revealed that one of the three FabF cysteines in the wild-type strain was oxidized, whereas in an spxB mutant, defective in H2O2 production, none of the cysteines was oxidized, indicating that the difference in FabF redox state originated from endogenous H2O2. In vitro exposure of the spxB mutant to various H2O2 concentrations further confirmed that only one cysteine residue was susceptible to oxidation. By blocking FabF active site cysteine with cerulenin we show that the oxidized cysteine was the catalytic one. Inhibition of FabF activity by either H2O2 or cerulenin resulted in altered membrane fatty acid composition. We conclude that FabF activity is inhibited by H2O2 produced by S. pneumoniae. PMID:20601114

  9. Ensuring safety of home-produced eggs to control salmonellosis in Poland: lessons from an outbreak in September 2011.

    PubMed

    Zielicka-Hardy, A; Zarowna, D; Szych, J; Madajczak, G; Sadkowska-Todys, M

    2012-11-22

    Implementation of control measures in line with European Commission regulations has led to a decrease in salmonellosis in the European Union since 2004. However, control programmes do not address laying hens whose eggs are produced for personal consumption or local sale. This article reports an investigatxion of a salmonellosis outbreak linked to home-produced eggs following a family event held in a farm in September 2011 near Warsaw, Poland. In the outbreak, 34 people developed gastroenteritis symptoms. Results from a cohort study indicated a cake, prepared from raw home-produced eggs, as the vehicle of the outbreak. Laboratory analysis identified Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) in stool samples or rectal swabs from 18 of 24 people and in two egg samples. As no food items remained, we used phage typing to link the source of the outbreak with the isolated strains. Seven S. Enteritidis strains analysed (five from attendees and two from eggs) were phage type 21c. Our findings resulted in culling of the infected laying hens and symptomatic pigeons housed next to the hens. Salmonella poses as a public health problem in Poland: control measures should not forget home-produced eggs, as there is a risk of infection from their consumption.

  10. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Aonuma, Hiroka; Kojima, Mikiko; Tahara, Michiru; Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2015-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2. PMID:26466097

  11. Efficacy of home washing methods in controlling surface microbial contamination on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, Agnes; Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria L

    2006-02-01

    Much effort has been focused on sanitation of fresh produce at the commercial level; however, few options are available to the consumer. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of different cleaning methods in reducing bacterial contamination on fresh produce in a home setting. Lettuce, broccoli, apples, and tomatoes were inoculated with Listeria innocua and then subjected to combinations of the following cleaning procedures: (i) soak for 2 min in tap water, Veggie Wash solution, 5% vinegar solution, or 13% lemon solution and (ii) rinse under running tap water, rinse and rub under running tap water, brush under running tap water, or wipe with wet/dry paper towel. Presoaking in water before rinsing significantly reduced bacteria in apples, tomatoes, and lettuce, but not in broccoli. Wiping apples and tomatoes with wet or dry paper towel showed lower bacterial reductions compared with soaking and rinsing procedures. Blossom ends of apples were more contaminated than the surface after soaking and rinsing; similar results were observed between flower section and stem of broccoli. Reductions of L. innocua in both tomatoes and apples (2.01 to 2.89 log CFU/g) were more than in lettuce and broccoli (1.41 to 1.88 log CFU/g) when subjected to same washing procedures. Reductions of surface contamination of lettuce after soaking in lemon or vinegar solutions were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from lettuce soaking in cold tap water. Therefore, educators and extension workers might consider it appropriate to instruct consumers to rub or brush fresh produce under cold running tap water before consumption. PMID:16496573

  12. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Aonuma, Hiroka; Kojima, Mikiko; Tahara, Michiru; Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2015-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2. PMID:26466097

  13. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Aonuma, Hiroka; Kojima, Mikiko; Tahara, Michiru; Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2015-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2.

  14. Optically controllable dual-gate organic transistor produced via phase separation between polymer semiconductor and photochromic spiropyran molecules.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Yasushi; Hayakawa, Ryoma; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Wakayama, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    We produced an optically controllable dual-gate organic field-effect transistor by a simple one-step spin-coating of a mixed solution of photochromic spiropyran (SP) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Postannealing enhanced polymer chain ordering of P3HT to induce phase separation into an SP-rich lower layer and an SP-free upper layer. These layers worked independently as transistor channels with distinct optical responsivity. The top channel was optically inactive, but the bottom channel was optically active, because of the photoisomerization of SP. These results demonstrate the potential of our technique to produce a multifunctional photoactive organic transistor by a simple process.

  15. Modal liquid crystal lens driven by low voltage produced from a wireless controlling and driving system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Loktev, Mikhail; Vdovin, Gleb

    2005-04-01

    A wireless driving and controlling setup constructed by a coil system and a simple power metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor switch circuit for modal liquid crystal lens has been designed, fabricated and characterized. Electrical and structural modeling and analysis have been applied to the design of the wireless power transforming and controlling system. Some key electrical characteristics of coils with different diameter and winding, such as resistance, impedance, capacitance, inductance, and Q factor, which determine the driving and controlling behaviors of the coil system constructed, are given. The liquid crystal lens can be operated under relatively low driving voltage ranging from about 1.5to12Vrms. Under dynamic operation, the prototype system has shown a stable driving and controlling performance to liquid crystal lens under the condition of switching mode of a few KHz. The possibility of integrating very small coils connected in series onto a small-size silicon chip as an integrated receiver in biomedicine application has been shown experimentally.

  16. Cyclic strain and motion control produce opposite oxidative responses in two human endothelial cell types.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hak-Joon; Yee, Andrew; Eskin, Suzanne G; McIntire, Larry V

    2007-07-01

    The phenotype of endothelial cells (ECs) is specific to the vascular bed from which they originate. To examine how mechanical forces alter the phenotype of different ECs, we compared the effects of cyclic strain and motion control on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and metabolism and cell adhesion molecule expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) vs. human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). HUVEC and HAEC were subjected to cyclic strain (10% or 20%, 1 Hz), to a motion control that simulated fluid agitation over the cells without strain, or to static conditions for 24 h. We measured H(2)O(2) production with dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate and superoxide with dihydroethidium fluorescence changes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities spectrophotometrically; and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 protein expression with Western blot analyses. HUVEC under cyclic strain showed 1) higher intracellular H(2)O(2) levels, 2) increased SOD, catalase, and GPx activities, and 3) greater VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression, compared with motion control or static conditions. However, in HAEC, motion control induced higher levels of ROS, enzyme activities associated with ROS defense, and VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression than cyclic strain. The opposite responses obtained with these two human EC types may reflect their vessels of origin, in that HAEC are subjected to higher cyclic strain deformations in vivo than HUVEC.

  17. Method of Producing Controlled Thermal Expansion Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Aikin, Beverly J. M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved thermal barrier coating and method for producing and applying such is disclosed herein. The thermal barrier coatings includes a high temperature substrate, a first bond coat layer applied to the substrate of MCrAlX and a second bond coat layer of MCrAlX with particles of a particulate dispersed throughout the MCrAlX and the preferred particulate is Al2O3. The particles of the particulate dispersed throughout the second bond coat layer preferably have a diameter of less then the height of the peaks of the second bond coat layer or a diameter of less than 5 micron. The method of producing the second bond coat layer may either include the steps of mechanical alloying of particles throughout the second bond coat layer, attrition milling the particles of the particulate throughout the second bond coat layer, or using electrophoresis to disperse the particles throughout the second bond coat layer. In the preferred embodiment of the invention the first bond coat layer is applied to the substrate. and then the second bond coat layer is thermally sprayed onto the first bond coat layer. Further, in a preferred embodiment of the invention a ceramic insulating layer covers the second bond coat layer.

  18. CXCL12-producing vascular endothelial niches control acute T cell leukemia maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Lauren A.; Tikhonova, Anastasia N.; Hu, Hai; Trimarchi, Thomas; King, Bryan; Gong, Yixiao; Sanchez-Martin, Marta; Tsirigos, Aris; Littman, Dan R.; Ferrando, Adolfo; Morrison, Sean J.; Fooksman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of the microenvironment in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), or any acute leukemia, is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that T-ALL cells are in direct, stable contact with CXCL12-producing bone marrow stroma. Cxcl12 deletion from vascular endothelial, but not perivascular, cells impeded tumor growth, suggesting a vascular niche for T-ALL. Moreover, genetic targeting of CXCR4 in murine T-ALL after disease onset led to rapid, sustained disease remission, and CXCR4 antagonism suppressed human T-ALL in primary xenografts. Loss of CXCR4 targeted key T-ALL regulators, including the MYC pathway, and decreased leukemia initiating cell activity in vivo. Our data identify a T-ALL niche, and suggest targeting CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling as a powerful therapeutic approach for T-ALL. PMID:26058075

  19. Turbine exhaust diffuser with a gas jet producing a coanda effect flow control

    DOEpatents

    Orosa, John; Montgomery, Matthew

    2014-02-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub structure that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. The hub structure includes at least one jet exit located on the hub structure adjacent to the upstream end of the tail cone. The jet exit discharges a flow of gas substantially tangential to an outer surface of the tail cone to produce a Coanda effect and direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the inner boundary.

  20. Distortion and Residual Stress Control in Integrally Stiffened Structure Produced by Direct Metal Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shih-Yung; Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2007-01-01

    2-D thermo-mechanical model developed to characterize distortion and residual stresses in integral structure produced by DMD. Demonstrated as a tool to guide experimental development of DMD fabrication process for aero structures. Distortion and residual stresses are local to deposit. Most distortion develops during deposition of the first few layers; Little change in distortion or residual stresses after fifth deposit layer Most of distortion is localized just beneath the build. Thicker build plates and the use of build lands results in greatest decrease in levels of distortion. Pre-straining shown to reduce distortion. Difficult to implement, particularly for complex stiffener arrays. Clamp position has complex effect on distortion and stresses. Overall distortion reduced with decreasing clamp clearance. Larger clamp clearances induce bending. Use of pre-heat and active cooling show minor influence on panel distortion. Generate changes in thermal gradients in the build plate.

  1. Anaerobic degradation of inedible crop residues produced in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwingel, W. R.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor seeded with organisms from an anaerobic lagoon was used to study the degradation of inedible crop residues from potato and wheat crops grown in a closed environment. Conversion of this biomass into other products was also evaluated. Degradation of wheat volatile solids was about 25% where that of potato was about 50%. The main product of the anaerobic fermentation of both crops was acetic acid with smaller quantities of propionate and butyrate produced. Nitrate, known to be high in concentration in inedible potato and wheat biomass grown hydroponically, was converted to ammonia in the anaerobic reactor. Both volatile fatty acid and ammonia production may have implications in a crop production system.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of inedible crop residues produced in a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingel, W. R.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor seeded with organisms from an anaerobic lagoon was used to study the degradation of inedible crop residues from potato and wheat crops grown in a closed environment. Conversion of this biomass into other products was also evaluated. Degradation of wheat volatile solids was about 25% where that of potato was about 50%. The main product of the anaerobic fermentation of both crops was acetic acid with smaller quantities of propionate and butyrate produced. Nitrate, known to be high in concentration in inedible potato and wheat biomass grown hydroponically, was converted to ammonia in the anaerobic reactor. Both volatile fatty acid and ammonia production may have implications in a crop production system.

  3. Gel-cast glass-ceramic tissue scaffolds of controlled architecture produced via stereolithography of moulds.

    PubMed

    Chopra, K; Mummery, P M; Derby, B; Gough, J E

    2012-12-01

    Two glass-ceramic scaffolds with a simple cubic structure of 500 µm square ligaments and square channels of width 400 or 600 µm have been fabricated by gel-casting into moulds produced by stereolithography, followed by mould removal, polymer burnout and sintering. The scaffolds have crushing strengths of 41 ± 14 and 17 ± 5 Mpa, respectively. Using a method of assembling discrete slices of scaffold, we are able to study cell behaviour within a scaffold by disassembly. Both scaffold structures were seeded with primary human osteoblasts and these penetrate, adhere, spread and proliferate on the scaffold structure. The larger channel diameter scaffold shows a greater cell population (despite its smaller surface area) and more pronounced production of ECM components (collagen and mineralization) with increased time in culture. Studies of sectioned scaffolds show that cell density and ECM production decrease with depth and that the difference between the two scaffold architectures is maintained.

  4. Activity and characterization of secondary metabolites produced by a new microorganism for control of plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Hsiung; Tsou, Yi-Jung; Lin, Mei-Ju; Chern, Lih-Ling

    2010-09-30

    Microorganisms capable of utilizing vegetable tissues for growth in soils were isolated and their vegetable broth cultures were individually sprayed directly on leaves to test their ability to control Phytophthora blight of bell pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici. Liquid culture of Streptomyces strain TKA-5, a previously undescribed species obtained in this study, displayed several desirable disease control characteristics in nature, including high potency, long lasting and ability to control also black leaf spot of spoon cabbage caused by Alternaria brassicicolca. The extract was fungicidal to P. capsici but fungistatic to A. brassicicola. It was stable at high temperature and high pH. However, after exposure to pH 2 for 24h, the extract was no longer inhibitory to P. capsici although it was still strongly inhibitory to A. brassicicola. After treatment with cation or anion exchange resins, the extract lost its inhibitory effect against P. capsici but not A. brassicicola. The results suggest that the extract contained two different kinds of inhibitory metabolites, one against P. capsici with both positive and negative charges on its molecule and another against A. brassicicola with no charges on its molecule. The inhibitory metabolites were soluble in ethanol or methanol but not in water, ether or chloroform. They were dialyzable in the membrane tubing with molecular weight cut-off of 10,000, 1000 or 500 but not 100, indicating that the inhibitors have a molecular weight between 500 and 100. Results also showed that both inhibitors are not proteins. PMID:20580869

  5. Status of VLTI control system: how to make an optical interferometer a data producing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallander, Anders; Argomedo, Javier; Ballester, Pascal; Bauvir, Bertrand; Comin, Mauro; Donaldson, Rob; Duhoux, Philippe; Gennai, Alberto; Gilli, Bruno; Housen, Nico; Huxley, Alexis; Karban, Robert; Kiekebush, Mario; Longinotti, Antonio; Munoz, Ivan M.; Duc, Than Phan

    2002-12-01

    After having established routine science operations for four 8 m single dish telescopes and their first set of instruments at the Paranal Observatory, the next big engineering challenge for ESO has been the VLT Interferometer. Following an intense integration period at Paranal, first fringes were obtained in the course of last year, first with two smaller test siderostats and later with two 8 m VLT telescopes. Even though optical interferometry today may be considered more experimental than single telescope astronomy, we have aimed at developing a system with the same requirements on reliability and operability as for a single VLT telescope. The VLTI control system is responsible for controlling and co-ordinating all devices making up VLTI, where a telescope is just one out of many subsystems. Thus the pure size of the complete system increases the complexity and likelihood of failure. Secondly, some of the new subsystems introduced, in particular the delay lines and the associated fringe-tracking loop, have more demanding requirements in terms of control loop bandwidth, computing power and communication. We have developed an innovative generic multiprocessor controller within the VLT framework to address these requirements. Finally, we have decided to use the VLT science operation model, whereby the observation is driven by observation blocks with minimum human real-time interaction, which implies that VLTI is seen as one machine and not as a set of telescopes and other subsystems by the astronomical instrument. In this paper we describe the as-built architecture of the VLTI control and data flow system, emphasising how new techniques have been incorporated, while at the same time the investments in technology and know-how obtained during the VLT years have been protected. The result has been a faster development cycle, a robustness approaching that of VLT single dish telescopes and a "look and feel" identical to all other ESO observing facilities. We present

  6. Effects of light quality on the accumulation of phytochemicals in vegetables produced in controlled environments: a review.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhong Hua; Yang, Qi Chang; Liu, Wen Ke

    2015-03-30

    Phytochemicals in vegetables are important for human health, and their biosynthesis, metabolism and accumulation are affected by environmental factors. Light condition (light quality, light intensity and photoperiod) is one of the most important environmental variables in regulating vegetable growth, development and phytochemical accumulation, particularly for vegetables produced in controlled environments. With the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology, the regulation of light environments has become increasingly feasible for the provision of ideal light quality, intensity and photoperiod for protected facilities. In this review, the effects of light quality regulation on phytochemical accumulation in vegetables produced in controlled environments are identified, highlighting the research progress and advantages of LED technology as a light environment regulation tool for modifying phytochemical accumulation in vegetables.

  7. Highly stable SERS pH nanoprobes produced by co-solvent controlled AuNP aggregation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haoran; Willner, Marjorie R; Marr, Linsey C; Vikesland, Peter J

    2016-08-15

    Production of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) nanoprobes requires replicable aggregation to produce multimers with high signal intensity. Herein, we illustrate a novel, yet simple, approach to produce SERS nanoprobes through control of co-solvent composition. AuNP multimers were produced by mixing AuNP monomers in water : ethanol co-solvent for variable periods of time. By varying the water : ethanol ratio and the amount of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) present, the aggregation rate can be systematically controlled. Thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) was then added to halt the aggregation process and provide steric stability. This approach was used to produce pH nanoprobes with excellent colloidal stability in high ionic strength environments and in complex samples. The pH probe exhibits broad pH sensitivity over the range 6-11 and we calculate that a single AuNP dimer in a 35 fL volume is sufficient to generate a detectable SERS signal. As a proof-of-concept, the probes were used to detect the intracellular pH of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3). The internalized probes exhibit a strong 4-MBA signal without any interfering bands from either the cells or the culture media and produce exceptionally detailed pH maps. pH maps obtained from 19 xy surface scans and 14 yz depth scans exhibit highly consistent intracellular pH in the range of 5 to 7, thus indicating the greater reliability and reproducibility of our pH probes compared with other probes previously reported in the literature. Our water : ethanol co-solvent production process is fast, simple, and efficient. Adjustment of solvent composition may become a powerful way to produce SERS tags or nanoprobes in the future.

  8. Quality control and producing areas differentiation of Gardeniae Fructus for eight bioactive constituents by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yuan; Yin, Fangzhou; Mao, Chunqin; Li, Lin; Cai, Baochang; Lu, Tulin

    2014-03-15

    Gardeniae Fructus (G.Fructus), the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae), is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has been used for the treatment of hepatitis, jaundice, hypersonic, diabetes and hematuria. Numerous researches have demonstrated that the major active constituents in G.Fructus were responsible for the majority of medical effects of this fruit and their quantification were important for the quality control of G.Fructus. However, in the current quality control standard, only geniposide was used as characteristic marker of G.Fructus, which could not reflect the overall quality of this fruit. In order to identify more chemical makers for improving the quality control standard and evaluate producing areas differentiation of G.Fructus, in the present study, a novel and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled to an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 8 major constituents, including geniposidic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), genipin-1-β-gentiobioside (3), geniposide (4), genipin (5), rutin (6), crocin-1 (7), crocin-2 (8) in G.Fructus. Moreover, chemometric analysis techniques with principal component constituent analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) involved were introduced in statistical analysis of 8 investigated constituents in the 34 batches samples to discriminate the samples from different producing areas. The results indicated that the contents of the 8 major bioactive constituents in G.Fructus varied significantly among different producing areas. From results of the loading plot from PCA analysis, genipin-1-β-gentiobioside may have more influence in discriminating the sample from different producing areas, and which was found to be the most abundant bioactive component besides geniposide in all the 34 batches samples, suggesting that it should be added as chemical marker for further investigation on the

  9. Quality control and producing areas differentiation of Gardeniae Fructus for eight bioactive constituents by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yuan; Yin, Fangzhou; Mao, Chunqin; Li, Lin; Cai, Baochang; Lu, Tulin

    2014-03-15

    Gardeniae Fructus (G.Fructus), the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae), is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has been used for the treatment of hepatitis, jaundice, hypersonic, diabetes and hematuria. Numerous researches have demonstrated that the major active constituents in G.Fructus were responsible for the majority of medical effects of this fruit and their quantification were important for the quality control of G.Fructus. However, in the current quality control standard, only geniposide was used as characteristic marker of G.Fructus, which could not reflect the overall quality of this fruit. In order to identify more chemical makers for improving the quality control standard and evaluate producing areas differentiation of G.Fructus, in the present study, a novel and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector coupled to an electrospray tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 8 major constituents, including geniposidic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), genipin-1-β-gentiobioside (3), geniposide (4), genipin (5), rutin (6), crocin-1 (7), crocin-2 (8) in G.Fructus. Moreover, chemometric analysis techniques with principal component constituent analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) involved were introduced in statistical analysis of 8 investigated constituents in the 34 batches samples to discriminate the samples from different producing areas. The results indicated that the contents of the 8 major bioactive constituents in G.Fructus varied significantly among different producing areas. From results of the loading plot from PCA analysis, genipin-1-β-gentiobioside may have more influence in discriminating the sample from different producing areas, and which was found to be the most abundant bioactive component besides geniposide in all the 34 batches samples, suggesting that it should be added as chemical marker for further investigation on the

  10. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Yong Ho; Shin, Teak Soo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Kim, In Seon; Myung, Eul Jae; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP) formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10%) and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%), were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate). These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease. PMID:27258452

  11. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Yong Ho; Shin, Teak Soo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Kim, In Seon; Myung, Eul Jae

    2016-01-01

    Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP) formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10%) and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%), were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate). These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease. PMID:27258452

  12. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Yong Ho; Shin, Teak Soo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Kim, In Seon; Myung, Eul Jae; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP) formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10%) and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%), were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate). These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease.

  13. Challenges of glycosylation analysis and control: an integrated approach to producing optimal and consistent therapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peiqing; Woen, Susanto; Wang, Tianhua; Liau, Brian; Zhao, Sophie; Chen, Chen; Yang, Yuansheng; Song, Zhiwei; Wormald, Mark R; Yu, Chuanfei; Rudd, Pauline M

    2016-05-01

    Glycosylation of therapeutic proteins has a profound impact on their safety and efficacy. Many factors shape the glycosylation of biotherapeutics, ranging from expression systems and cell culture processes to downstream purification strategies. Various analytical technologies have been developed to address questions concerning different aspects of glycosylation. Informatics tools are also crucial for a systematic understanding of the glycosylation processes. Hence, an integrated approach is required to harness glycosylation for the production of optimal and consistent glycoprotein-based therapeutic drugs. Here, we review the latest developments and challenges in glycosylation analysis and control in the context of bioprocessing monoclonal antibodies.

  14. Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.

    1995-08-01

    Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.

  15. Continuously Tunable, Polarization Controlled, Colour Palette Produced from Nanoscale Plasmonic Pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Sadatnajafi, Catherine; Kou, Shan Shan; Lin, Jiao; Abbey, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Colour filters based on nano-apertures in thin metallic films have been widely studied due to their extraordinary optical transmission and small size. These properties make them prime candidates for use in high-resolution colour displays and high accuracy bio-sensors. The inclusion of polarization sensitive plasmonic features in such devices allow additional control over the electromagnetic field distribution, critical for investigations of polarization induced phenomena. Here we demonstrate that cross-shaped nano-apertures can be used for polarization controlled color tuning in the visible range and apply fundamental theoretical models to interpret key features of the transmitted spectrum. Full color transmission was achieved by fine-tuning the periodicity of the apertures, whilst keeping the geometry of individual apertures constant. We demonstrate this effect for both transverse electric and magnetic fields. Furthermore we have been able to demonstrate the same polarization sensitivity even for nano-size, sub-wavelength sets of arrays, which is paramount for ultra-high resolution compact colour displays.

  16. Subjective State, Blood Pressure, and Behavioral Control Changes Produced by an “Energy Shot”

    PubMed Central

    Stamates, Amy L.; Ossege, Julianne; Maloney, Sarah F.; Bardgett, Mark E.; Brown, Clifford J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks and energy shots are popular consumer beverages that are advertised to increase feelings of alertness. Typically, these products include high levels of caffeine, a mild psychostimulant drug. The scientific evidence demonstrating the specific benefits of energy products to users in terms of subjective state and objective performance is surprisingly lacking. Moreover, there are rising health concerns associated with the use of these products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a popular energy shot (5-Hour Energy®) on subjective and objective measures that were assessed hourly for 6 hours following consumption. Methods: Participants (n=14) completed a three-session study where they received the energy shot, a placebo control, and no drink. Following dose administration, participants completed subjective Profile of Mood States ratings hourly for 6 hours. Participants also repeatedly completed a behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and provided blood pressure and pulse rate readings at each hour. Results: Consumption of the energy shot did improve subjective state, as measured by increased ratings of vigor and decreased ratings of fatigue. However, the energy shot did not alter objective performance, which worsened over time. Importantly, the energy shot elevated both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Consumption of one energy shot may only result in modest benefits to subjective state. Individuals with preexisting hypertension or other medical conditions should be cautious about using these new consumer products. PMID:25054080

  17. Subjective State, Blood Pressure, and Behavioral Control Changes Produced by an "Energy Shot"

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Stamates, Amy L; Ossege, Julianne; Maloney, Sarah F; Bardgett, Mark E; Brown, Clifford J

    2014-06-01

    Background: Energy drinks and energy shots are popular consumer beverages that are advertised to increase feelings of alertness. Typically, these products include high levels of caffeine, a mild psychostimulant drug. The scientific evidence demonstrating the specific benefits of energy products to users in terms of subjective state and objective performance is surprisingly lacking. Moreover, there are rising health concerns associated with the use of these products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of a popular energy shot (5-Hour Energy(®)) on subjective and objective measures that were assessed hourly for 6 hours following consumption. Methods: Participants (n=14) completed a three-session study where they received the energy shot, a placebo control, and no drink. Following dose administration, participants completed subjective Profile of Mood States ratings hourly for 6 hours. Participants also repeatedly completed a behavioral control task (the cued go/no-go task) and provided blood pressure and pulse rate readings at each hour. Results: Consumption of the energy shot did improve subjective state, as measured by increased ratings of vigor and decreased ratings of fatigue. However, the energy shot did not alter objective performance, which worsened over time. Importantly, the energy shot elevated both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Consumption of one energy shot may only result in modest benefits to subjective state. Individuals with preexisting hypertension or other medical conditions should be cautious about using these new consumer products.

  18. Spice oils for the control of co-occurring mycotoxin-producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Juglal, S; Govinden, R; Odhav, B

    2002-04-01

    The effect of nine different oils was evaluated on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme. The experimental design to examine the inhibition of mycotoxins involved the incorporation of each of seven oils into broth and patty cultures. The fungal mycotoxin was identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Clove oil (eugenol) was the most inhibitory to the growth of A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme, followed by cinnamon (cinnamic aldehyde), oregano (thymol and carvacol) and mace oils (myristin). Neem and eucalyptus oil (cineole) did not affect fungal growth. The feasibility of implementing the results of this study to control mycotoxin toxicity was examined by costoring whole and ground cloves with mycotoxin-infected grain. Addition of both whole and ground cloves markedly reduced the aflatoxin contamination of the grain. These results clearly suggest that commonly occurring mycotoxigenic fungi can be controlled with clove oil (eugenol), thus spice oil successfully inhibited the growth of A. parasiticus and F. moniliforme, regulated the production of fumonisins. and prevented the formation of aflatoxins. The social implication of this finding is that rural communities can prevent the formation of fungal toxins in contaminated grain by simple measures. PMID:11952220

  19. Secondary economic impact of acid deposition control legislation in six coal producing states: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Guthrie, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    Among the difficult policy questions on the US environmental agenda is what to do about emissions to the earth's atmosphere of pollutants that may result in ''acid rain''. The Congress has considered several pieces of legislation spelling out potential approaches to the problem and setting goals for emission reduction, mostly emphasizing the control of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Significant policy concern is the dollar costs to the nation's economy of achieving the intended effects of the legislation and the potential impacts on economic activity---in particular, losses of both coal mining and secondary service sector employment in states and regions dependent on the mining of high sulfur coal. There are several direct economic effects of regulations such as the acid rain control legislation. One of the more obvious effects was the switching from high sulfur coal to low sulfur coal. This would result in increases in employment and coal business procurements in low sulfur coal mining regions, but also would result in lower employment and lower coal business procurements in high sulfur coal mining areas. The potential negative effects are the immediate policy concern and are the focus of this report. 15 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  20. Continuously Tunable, Polarization Controlled, Colour Palette Produced from Nanoscale Plasmonic Pixels

    PubMed Central

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Sadatnajafi, Catherine; Kou, Shan Shan; Lin, Jiao; Abbey, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Colour filters based on nano-apertures in thin metallic films have been widely studied due to their extraordinary optical transmission and small size. These properties make them prime candidates for use in high-resolution colour displays and high accuracy bio-sensors. The inclusion of polarization sensitive plasmonic features in such devices allow additional control over the electromagnetic field distribution, critical for investigations of polarization induced phenomena. Here we demonstrate that cross-shaped nano-apertures can be used for polarization controlled color tuning in the visible range and apply fundamental theoretical models to interpret key features of the transmitted spectrum. Full color transmission was achieved by fine-tuning the periodicity of the apertures, whilst keeping the geometry of individual apertures constant. We demonstrate this effect for both transverse electric and magnetic fields. Furthermore we have been able to demonstrate the same polarization sensitivity even for nano-size, sub-wavelength sets of arrays, which is paramount for ultra-high resolution compact colour displays. PMID:27312072

  1. Characterization and application of controllable local chemical changes produced by reagent delivery from a nanopipet.

    PubMed

    Piper, Joe D; Li, Chao; Lo, Chien-Jung; Berry, Richard; Korchev, Yuri; Ying, Liming; Klenerman, David

    2008-08-01

    We introduce a versatile method that allows local and repeatable delivery (or depletion) of any water-soluble reagent from a nanopipet in ionic solution to make localized controlled changes in reagent concentration at a surface. In this work, Na(+) or OH(-) ions were dosed from the pipet using pulsed voltage-driven delivery. Total internal reflection fluorescence from CoroNa Green dye in the bath for Na(+) ions or fluorescein in the bath for pH quantified the resulting changes in local surface concentration. These changes had a time response as short as 10 ms and a radius of 1-30 microm and depended on the diameter of the pipet used, the applied voltage, and the pipet-surface separation. After the pipet dosing was characterized in detail, two proof-of-concept experiments on single cells and single molecules were then performed. We demonstrated local control of the sodium-sensitive flagellar motor in single Escherichia coli chimera on the time scale of 1 s by dosing sodium and monitoring the rotation of a 1 microm diameter bead fixed to the flagellum. We also demonstrated triggered single-molecule unfolding by dosing acid from the pipet to locally melt individual molecules of duplex DNA, as observed using fluorescent resonance energy transfer.

  2. Compliance of local government towards controlling the informal milk-producing sector in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Agenbag, Mike H A; Lues, Liezel; Lues, Jan Frederick R

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the compliance of local government (LG) (metropolitan and district municipalities) with legislative requirements concerning the control of milk hygiene at production level. Municipal health services (MHS) managers are playing an increasingly important role through legislation to ensure the health and well-being of consumers and to secure consumer trust in the product. A survey questionnaire targeting 52 MHS managers or designated persons (directly responsible for milk control) at the various metropolitan municipalities (metros) and district municipalities (DMs) in South Africa was conducted. At the time of the survey the majority of metros and DMs had not been authorised by the Ministry of Health in accordance with Section 23(1) of the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, 1972 (Act 54 of 1972) in their respective areas of jurisdiction. Respondents indicated that a notable number of metros and DMs had not authorised their environmental health practitioners (EHPs) to administer the provisions of the above-mentioned Act. In accordance with this Act, this study concludes that the respective national and provincial governments, through their various departments, have to support and strengthen the capacity of municipalities to exercise power and perform their functions in this regard.

  3. Continuously Tunable, Polarization Controlled, Colour Palette Produced from Nanoscale Plasmonic Pixels.

    PubMed

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Sadatnajafi, Catherine; Kou, Shan Shan; Lin, Jiao; Abbey, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Colour filters based on nano-apertures in thin metallic films have been widely studied due to their extraordinary optical transmission and small size. These properties make them prime candidates for use in high-resolution colour displays and high accuracy bio-sensors. The inclusion of polarization sensitive plasmonic features in such devices allow additional control over the electromagnetic field distribution, critical for investigations of polarization induced phenomena. Here we demonstrate that cross-shaped nano-apertures can be used for polarization controlled color tuning in the visible range and apply fundamental theoretical models to interpret key features of the transmitted spectrum. Full color transmission was achieved by fine-tuning the periodicity of the apertures, whilst keeping the geometry of individual apertures constant. We demonstrate this effect for both transverse electric and magnetic fields. Furthermore we have been able to demonstrate the same polarization sensitivity even for nano-size, sub-wavelength sets of arrays, which is paramount for ultra-high resolution compact colour displays. PMID:27312072

  4. Continuously Tunable, Polarization Controlled, Colour Palette Produced from Nanoscale Plasmonic Pixels.

    PubMed

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Sadatnajafi, Catherine; Kou, Shan Shan; Lin, Jiao; Abbey, Brian

    2016-06-17

    Colour filters based on nano-apertures in thin metallic films have been widely studied due to their extraordinary optical transmission and small size. These properties make them prime candidates for use in high-resolution colour displays and high accuracy bio-sensors. The inclusion of polarization sensitive plasmonic features in such devices allow additional control over the electromagnetic field distribution, critical for investigations of polarization induced phenomena. Here we demonstrate that cross-shaped nano-apertures can be used for polarization controlled color tuning in the visible range and apply fundamental theoretical models to interpret key features of the transmitted spectrum. Full color transmission was achieved by fine-tuning the periodicity of the apertures, whilst keeping the geometry of individual apertures constant. We demonstrate this effect for both transverse electric and magnetic fields. Furthermore we have been able to demonstrate the same polarization sensitivity even for nano-size, sub-wavelength sets of arrays, which is paramount for ultra-high resolution compact colour displays.

  5. Quantitative real-time PCR method with internal amplification control to quantify cyclopiazonic acid producing molds in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Werning, María L; Rodríguez, Mar; Bermúdez, Elena; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-12-01

    A quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) method that includes an internal amplification control (IAC) to quantify cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-producing molds in foods has been developed. A specific primer pair (dmaTF/dmaTR) and a TaqMan probe (dmaTp) were designed on the basis of dmaT gene which encodes the enzyme dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase involved in the biosynthesis of CPA. The IAC consisted of a 105 bp chimeric DNA fragment containing a region of the hly gene of Listeria monocytogenes. Thirty-two mold reference strains representing CPA producers and non-producers of different mold species were used in this study. All strains were tested for CPA production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the designed qPCR method was demonstrated by the high linear relationship of the standard curves relating to the dmaT gene copy numbers and the Ct values obtained from the different CPA producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocol to quantify CPA-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 1-4 log cfu/g in the different food matrices. The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g. This qPCR protocol including an IAC showed good efficiency to quantify CPA-producing molds in naturally contaminated foods avoiding false negative results. This method could be used to monitor the CPA producers in the HACCP programs to prevent the risk of CPA formation throughout the food chain. PMID:22986206

  6. Quantitative real-time PCR method with internal amplification control to quantify cyclopiazonic acid producing molds in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Werning, María L; Rodríguez, Mar; Bermúdez, Elena; Córdoba, Juan J

    2012-12-01

    A quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) method that includes an internal amplification control (IAC) to quantify cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-producing molds in foods has been developed. A specific primer pair (dmaTF/dmaTR) and a TaqMan probe (dmaTp) were designed on the basis of dmaT gene which encodes the enzyme dimethylallyl tryptophan synthase involved in the biosynthesis of CPA. The IAC consisted of a 105 bp chimeric DNA fragment containing a region of the hly gene of Listeria monocytogenes. Thirty-two mold reference strains representing CPA producers and non-producers of different mold species were used in this study. All strains were tested for CPA production by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The functionality of the designed qPCR method was demonstrated by the high linear relationship of the standard curves relating to the dmaT gene copy numbers and the Ct values obtained from the different CPA producers tested. The ability of the qPCR protocol to quantify CPA-producing molds was evaluated in different artificially inoculated foods. A good linear correlation was obtained over the range 1-4 log cfu/g in the different food matrices. The detection limit in all inoculated foods ranged from 1 to 2 log cfu/g. This qPCR protocol including an IAC showed good efficiency to quantify CPA-producing molds in naturally contaminated foods avoiding false negative results. This method could be used to monitor the CPA producers in the HACCP programs to prevent the risk of CPA formation throughout the food chain.

  7. Factors controlling the size of graphene oxide sheets produced via the graphite oxide route.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shuyang; Aksay, Ilhan A

    2011-05-24

    We have studied the effect of the oxidation path and the mechanical energy input on the size of graphene oxide sheets derived from graphite oxide. The cross-planar oxidation of graphite from the (0002) plane results in periodic cracking of the uppermost graphene oxide layer, limiting its lateral dimension to less than 30 μm. We use an energy balance between the elastic strain energy associated with the undulation of graphene oxide sheets at the hydroxyl and epoxy sites, the crack formation energy, and the interaction energy between graphene layers to determine the cell size of the cracks. As the effective crack propagation rate in the cross-planar direction is an order of magnitude smaller than the edge-to-center oxidation rate, graphene oxide single sheets larger than those defined by the periodic cracking cell size are produced depending on the aspect ratio of the graphite particles. We also demonstrate that external energy input from hydrodynamic drag created by fluid motion or sonication, further reduces the size of the graphene oxide sheets through tensile stress buildup in the sheets.

  8. Peri- and Postharvest Factors in the Control of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Beef.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Rodney A; Acuff, Gary R

    2014-12-01

    Certain Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are important causes of food-borne disease, with hemorrhagic colitis and, in some cases, hemolytic-uremic syndrome as the clinical manifestations of illness. Six serogroups and one serotype of STEC (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157:H7) are responsible for the vast majority of cases in the United States. Based on recent data for all food commodities combined, 55.3% and 50.0% of the outbreaks of STEC O157 and non-O157 in the United States, respectively, are attributable to beef as a food source. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service declared these organisms as adulterants in raw, nonintact beef. In North America, cattle are a major reservoir of STEC strains, with organisms shed in the feces and contaminated hides of the animals being the main vehicle for spread to carcasses at slaughter. A number of peri- and postharvest interventions targeting STEC have been developed, and significant progress has been made in improving the microbiological quality of beef in the past 20 years as a result. However, continued improvements are needed, and accurate assessment of these interventions, especially for non-O157 STEC, would greatly benefit from improvements in detection methods for these organisms. PMID:26104455

  9. Microresonator and associated method for producing and controlling photonic signals with a photonic bandgap delay apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard Lynn (Inventor); Jones, Darryl Keith (Inventor); Keys, Andrew Scott (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    By applying a photonic signal to a microresonator that includes a photonic bandgap delay apparatus having a photonic band edge transmission resonance at the frequency of the photonic signal, the microresonator imparts a predetermined delay to the photonic signal. The photonic bandgap delay apparatus also preferably has a photonic band edge transmission resonance bandwidth which is at least as wide as the bandwidth of the photonic signal such that a uniform delay is imparted over the entire bandwidth of the photonic signal. The microresonator also includes a microresonator cavity, typically defined by a pair of switchable mirrors, within which the photonic bandgap delay apparatus is disposed. By requiring the photonic signal to oscillate within the microresonator cavity so as to pass through the photonic bandgap delay apparatus several times, the microresonator can controllably impart an adjustable delay to the photonic signal.

  10. Novel approach to control sulfamethazine misuse in food-producing animals by hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Castellari, M; Valero, A; Diaz, I; García-Regueiro, J A

    2006-10-01

    The presence of sulfamethazine residues in pig and calf hair was compared with the residual levels encountered in the corresponding edible tissues (liver and muscle) as a consequence of drug administration. Sulfamethazine up to 84.7 mg kg-1 was found in calf hair samples after a pharmacological treatment, with a significant effect of hair pigmentation. High concentrations of the parent drug were detected in calf hair for 4 weeks after administration, when sulfamethazine residues were no longer detectable in the corresponding edible tissues. In a similar way, pig hair also accumulated sulfamethazine residues up to 40.5 mg kg-1, which was more than the amount detected in the corresponding muscle and liver samples at slaughter. Hair analysis seems a suitable tool to improve the efficacy of regulatory controls, and thus the safety of the food chain and to discourage the improper use of sulfamethazine in animal farming.

  11. Microstructural study and size control of iron oxide nanoparticles produced by microemulsion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutzarova, T.; Kolev, S.; Ghelev, Ch.; Paneva, D.; Nedkov, I.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we study the possibility to control the size of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles by the microemulsion technique. We used a water-in-oil reverse microemulsion system with n-hexadecil trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant, n-butanol as a co-surfactant, n-hexanol as a continuous oil phase, and aqueous phase. The magnetite nanopowders were synthesized by a single microemulsion technique in which the aqueous phase contains only metal ions (Fe2+ and Fe3+). The particle size of the powders varied in the range of 14-36 nm depending on the preparation conditions. We studied the influence of changing the water/surfactant ratio (W 0 = 5, 10, 15, 20) and the metallic ion (Fe2+ and Fe3+) concentration on the particle size distribution and crystallinity of Fe3O4.

  12. Engineering phosphorus metabolism in plants to produce a dual fertilization and weed control system.

    PubMed

    López-Arredondo, Damar Lizbeth; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2012-09-01

    High crop yields depend on the continuous input of orthophosphate (PO(4)(−3))-based fertilizers and herbicides. Two major challenges for agriculture are that phosphorus is a nonrenewable resource and that weeds have developed broad herbicide resistance. One strategy to overcome both problems is to engineer plants to outcompete weeds and microorganisms for limiting resources, thereby reducing the requirement for both fertilizers and herbicides. Plants and most microorganisms are unable to metabolize phosphite (PO(3)(−3)), so we developed a dual fertilization and weed control system by generating transgenic plants that can use phosphite as a sole phosphorus source. Under greenhouse conditions, these transgenic plants require 30–50% less phosphorus input when fertilized with phosphite to achieve similar productivity to that obtained by the same plants using orthophosphate fertilizer and, when in competition with weeds, accumulate 2–10 times greater biomass than when fertilized with orthophosphate. PMID:22922674

  13. Novel approach to control sulfamethazine misuse in food-producing animals by hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Castellari, M; Valero, A; Diaz, I; García-Regueiro, J A

    2006-10-01

    The presence of sulfamethazine residues in pig and calf hair was compared with the residual levels encountered in the corresponding edible tissues (liver and muscle) as a consequence of drug administration. Sulfamethazine up to 84.7 mg kg-1 was found in calf hair samples after a pharmacological treatment, with a significant effect of hair pigmentation. High concentrations of the parent drug were detected in calf hair for 4 weeks after administration, when sulfamethazine residues were no longer detectable in the corresponding edible tissues. In a similar way, pig hair also accumulated sulfamethazine residues up to 40.5 mg kg-1, which was more than the amount detected in the corresponding muscle and liver samples at slaughter. Hair analysis seems a suitable tool to improve the efficacy of regulatory controls, and thus the safety of the food chain and to discourage the improper use of sulfamethazine in animal farming. PMID:16982519

  14. Producing, controlling, and stabilizing Pasteur's anthrax vaccine: creating a new industry and a health market.

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice

    2008-06-01

    When Pasteur and Chamberland hastily set up their small biological industry to meet the agricultural demand for the anthrax vaccine, their methods for preparation and production had not yet been stabilized. The process of learning how to standardize biological products was accelerated in 1882 when vaccination accidents required the revision of production norms as the first hypotheses on fixity, inalterability, and transportability of vaccines were invalidated and replaced by procedures for continuous monitoring of the calibration of vaccines and the renewal of vaccine strains. Initially, the incompleteness and ongoing development of production standards justified Pasteur's monopoly on the production of the anthrax vaccine under his immediate supervision. Later on, the Pasteur Institute maintained control of these standards in the framework of a commercial monopoly that it established on the veterinary vaccines first sent and then cultivated abroad by the Société de Vulgarisation du Vaccin Charbonneux Pasteur, founded in 1886.

  15. Braided submarine channels produced with experiments suggest scale independent controls on planform morphology similar to rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, B.; Lai, S. Y. J.; Komatsu, Y.; Paola, C.

    2015-12-01

    There are two dominant planform morphologies in channelized aggradational sedimentary systems; meandering and braided. Within marine settings meandering channels formed from turbidity and density currents are the most abundant. Braided channels are rare, and it is unclear if the few documented cases are generated by spontaneous bar deposition or are an artifact of erosive events or seafloor bathymetry. This is in contrast to fluvial systems wherein both meandering and braided planforms are common, and led us to the question if submarine channels require different conditions from river systems to obtain braided planform morphologies. We ran two experimental series wherein we provided density currents with an initial channel geometry known to produce braiding in natural and experimental river systems. Fluvial braiding occurs across a wide range of scales, and we predicted the same would hold true for subaqueous systems. The two experiments had initial width to depth ratios of 1000:1 and 350:1 and similar sediment to saline water discharge ratios of 0.02 and 0.03, and a saline current with a density contrast similar to natural currents. The experiments freely evolved a network of individual channels separated by depositional bars. Moreover, existing stability model theory for fluvial systems successfully explains both braided and meandering submarine channels from a compilation of lab and field examples. This suggests the aspect ratio of the flow determines the planform morphology, and that it is a scale independent phenomenon. The rarity of braided submarine channels in nature is more likely explained by factors that inhibit channel widening in submarine systems as compared to fluvial systems. We suggest the cause is a combination of the relatively thicker flow depths of turbidity currents that require commensurately wider flows, and a variety of feedbacks that tend to yield higher overbank sedimentation rates in submarine channels compared to fluvial systems.

  16. Gamma irradiation: a method to produce an abiotic control for biological activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Stoquart, C; Vázquez-Rodríguez, G A; Servais, P; Barbeau, B

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the feasibility of using gamma irradiation to inhibit the microbial activity of biological powder activated carbon (PAC) without impacting its adsorptive properties. First of all, the range of dose of gamma rays required to produce abiotic PAC was selected on the basis of heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) inactivation and methylene blue (MB) adsorption kinetics. Doses inferior to 10 kGy were not sufficient to inhibit the culture of heterotrophic bacteria. On the other hand, doses superior to 15 kGy were demonstrated to affect the adsorption rate of MB. Consequently, a dose comprised between 10 and 15 kGy was selected for further investigation. In order to validate the adequacy of the range of dose (i.e. 10-15 kGy), adsorption characteristics were tested by monitoring the removal kinetics of refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC). No significant differences were observed between irradiated and non-irradiated biological PAC for the adsorption of RDOC. Irradiated, non-irradiated and virgin PAC were also evaluated in terms of abundance of viable (using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight method) bacteria and in terms of heterotrophic biomass activity. The results of the BacLight method demonstrated that attachment of the biofilm on the PAC was not impacted by the irradiation and heterotrophic activity measurements demonstrated that the latter could be radically reduced in the range of dose selected. In conclusion, when using a proper dose, the gamma irradiation of colonized activated carbon drastically reduced the heterotrophic activity on activated carbon without significantly impacting its adsorptive behaviour. PMID:24617066

  17. Gamma irradiation: a method to produce an abiotic control for biological activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Stoquart, C; Vázquez-Rodríguez, G A; Servais, P; Barbeau, B

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the feasibility of using gamma irradiation to inhibit the microbial activity of biological powder activated carbon (PAC) without impacting its adsorptive properties. First of all, the range of dose of gamma rays required to produce abiotic PAC was selected on the basis of heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) inactivation and methylene blue (MB) adsorption kinetics. Doses inferior to 10 kGy were not sufficient to inhibit the culture of heterotrophic bacteria. On the other hand, doses superior to 15 kGy were demonstrated to affect the adsorption rate of MB. Consequently, a dose comprised between 10 and 15 kGy was selected for further investigation. In order to validate the adequacy of the range of dose (i.e. 10-15 kGy), adsorption characteristics were tested by monitoring the removal kinetics of refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC). No significant differences were observed between irradiated and non-irradiated biological PAC for the adsorption of RDOC. Irradiated, non-irradiated and virgin PAC were also evaluated in terms of abundance of viable (using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight method) bacteria and in terms of heterotrophic biomass activity. The results of the BacLight method demonstrated that attachment of the biofilm on the PAC was not impacted by the irradiation and heterotrophic activity measurements demonstrated that the latter could be radically reduced in the range of dose selected. In conclusion, when using a proper dose, the gamma irradiation of colonized activated carbon drastically reduced the heterotrophic activity on activated carbon without significantly impacting its adsorptive behaviour.

  18. A Plant-Produced Bacteriophage Tailspike Protein for the Control of Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Miletic, Sean; Simpson, David J.; Szymanski, Christine M.; Deyholos, Michael K.; Menassa, Rima

    2016-01-01

    The receptor binding domain of the tailspike protein Gp9 from the P22 bacteriophage was recently shown to reduce Salmonella colonization in the chicken gut. In this study, we transiently expressed the receptor binding domain of the Gp9 tailspike protein in Nicotiana benthamiana, and targeted it to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or to the chloroplasts. Gp9 was also fused to either an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) or hydrophobin I tag, which were previously described to improve accumulation levels of recombinant proteins. The highest levels of recombinant protein accumulation occurred when unfused Gp9 was targeted to the ER. Lower levels of chloroplast-targeted Gp9 were also detected. ELP-fused Gp9 was purified and demonstrated to bind to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in vitro. Upon oral administration of lyophilized leaves expressing Gp9-ELP to newly hatched chickens, we found that this tailspike protein has the potential to be used as a therapeutic to control Salmonella contamination in chickens. PMID:26779243

  19. Metallurgical Mechanisms Controlling Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 2219 Produced By Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Taminger, Karen M. B.; Begley, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) layer-additive manufacturing process has been developed to directly fabricate complex geometry components. EBF3 introduces metal wire into a molten pool created on the surface of a substrate by a focused electron beam. Part geometry is achieved by translating the substrate with respect to the beam to build the part one layer at a time. Tensile properties have been demonstrated for electron beam deposited aluminum and titanium alloys that are comparable to wrought products, although the microstructures of the deposits exhibit features more typical of cast material. Understanding the metallurgical mechanisms controlling mechanical properties is essential to maximizing application of the EBF3 process. In the current study, mechanical properties and resulting microstructures were examined for aluminum alloy 2219 fabricated over a range of EBF3 process variables. Material performance was evaluated based on tensile properties and results were compared with properties of Al 2219 wrought products. Unique microstructures were observed within the deposited layers and at interlayer boundaries, which varied within the deposit height due to microstructural evolution associated with the complex thermal history experienced during subsequent layer deposition. Microstructures exhibited irregularly shaped grains, typically with interior dendritic structures, which were described based on overall grain size, morphology, distribution, and dendrite spacing, and were correlated with deposition parameters. Fracture features were compared with microstructural elements to define fracture paths and aid in definition of basic processing-microstructure-property correlations.

  20. Metallurgical Mechanisms Controlling Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 2219 Produced by Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Tainger, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    The electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) layer-additive manufacturing process has been developed to directly fabricate complex geometry components. EBF3 introduces metal wire into a molten pool created on the surface of a substrate by a focused electron beam. Part geometry is achieved by translating the substrate with respect to the beam to build the part one layer at a time. Tensile properties demonstrated for electron beam deposited aluminum and titanium alloys are comparable to wrought products, although the microstructures of the deposits exhibit cast features. Understanding the metallurgical mechanisms controlling mechanical properties is essential to maximizing application of the EBF3 process. Tensile mechanical properties and microstructures were examined for aluminum alloy 2219 fabricated over a range of EBF3 process variables. Unique microstructures were observed within the deposited layers and at interlayer boundaries, which varied within the deposit height due to microstructural evolution associated with the complex thermal history experienced during subsequent layer deposition. Microstructures exhibited irregularly shaped grains with interior dendritic structures, described based on overall grain size, morphology, distribution, and dendrite spacing, and were correlated with deposition parameters. Fracture features were compared with microstructural elements to define fracture paths and aid in definition of basic processing-microstructure-property correlations.

  1. Srf-dependent paracrine signals produced by myofibers control satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Guerci, Aline; Lahoute, Charlotte; Hébrard, Sophie; Collard, Laura; Graindorge, Dany; Favier, Maryline; Cagnard, Nicolas; Batonnet-Pichon, Sabrina; Précigout, Guillaume; Garcia, Luis; Tuil, David; Daegelen, Dominique; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia

    2012-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscles adapt their fiber size to workload. We show that serum response factor (Srf) is required for satellite cell-mediated hypertrophic muscle growth. Deletion of Srf from myofibers and not satellite cells blunts overload-induced hypertrophy, and impairs satellite cell proliferation and recruitment to pre-existing fibers. We reveal a gene network in which Srf within myofibers modulates interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2/interleukin-4 expressions and therefore exerts a paracrine control of satellite cell functions. In Srf-deleted muscles, in vivo overexpression of interleukin-6 is sufficient to restore satellite cell proliferation but not satellite cell fusion and overall growth. In contrast cyclooxygenase-2/interleukin-4 overexpression rescue satellite cell recruitment and muscle growth without affecting satellite cell proliferation, identifying altered fusion as the limiting cellular event. These findings unravel a role for Srf in the translation of mechanical cues applied to myofibers into paracrine signals, which in turn will modulate satellite cell functions and support muscle growth.

  2. A Plant-Produced Bacteriophage Tailspike Protein for the Control of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Miletic, Sean; Simpson, David J; Szymanski, Christine M; Deyholos, Michael K; Menassa, Rima

    2015-01-01

    The receptor binding domain of the tailspike protein Gp9 from the P22 bacteriophage was recently shown to reduce Salmonella colonization in the chicken gut. In this study, we transiently expressed the receptor binding domain of the Gp9 tailspike protein in Nicotiana benthamiana, and targeted it to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or to the chloroplasts. Gp9 was also fused to either an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) or hydrophobin I tag, which were previously described to improve accumulation levels of recombinant proteins. The highest levels of recombinant protein accumulation occurred when unfused Gp9 was targeted to the ER. Lower levels of chloroplast-targeted Gp9 were also detected. ELP-fused Gp9 was purified and demonstrated to bind to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in vitro. Upon oral administration of lyophilized leaves expressing Gp9-ELP to newly hatched chickens, we found that this tailspike protein has the potential to be used as a therapeutic to control Salmonella contamination in chickens. PMID:26779243

  3. Crossover Cutting During Hamstring Fatigue Produces Transverse Plane Knee Control Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Nyland, John A.; Caborn, David N.M.; Shapiro, Robert; Johnson, Darren L.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of eccentric work-induced hamstring fatigue on sagittal and transverse plane (axial) knee and ankle biodynamics and kinetics during a running crossover cut directional change (functional pivot shift). Design and Setting: A pretest-posttest, single-group intervention experimental design was employed. All data were collected in a biodynamics laboratory. Subjects: Twenty healthy athletic females were trained for 3 weeks in crossover cutting before testing. Measurements: Data were sampled during 3 unfatigued and 3 fatigued (20% eccentric isokinetic knee-flexor torque reduction) crossover cut trials. Three-dimensional kinematic and ground reaction-force data were sampled at 200 Hz and 1000 Hz, respectively, and joint moment estimates were calculated. Data were standardized to initial force-plate heelstrike for comparisons of mean differences between conditions using paired t tests with Bonferroni adjustments. Pearson product-moment correlations compared kinematic and eccentric hamstring-torque relationships. Results: During internal rotation phase 1, between heelstrike and impact absorption, mean internal rotation velocity increased by 21.2°/s ± 114°/s. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak transverse plane knee rotation during propulsion decreased by 3.1° ± 9°. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak ankle plantar flexor moment onsets occurred 12.7 ± 53 milliseconds earlier, and this activation demonstrated a moderately positive relationship with the onset of mean peak knee internal rotation during propulsion and a weak negative relationship with mean peak hamstring torque/lean body weight. Conclusions: The increased knee internal rotation velocity during phase I indicates transverse plane dynamic knee-control deficits during hamstring fatigue. Earlier peak ankle plantar-flexor moments and decreased internal rotation during phase II in the presence of hamstring fatigue may represent compensatory attempts at dynamic

  4. Reactive Infection Control Strategy for Control of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase (NDM)-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Analyzed Using Whole-Genome Sequencing: Hits and Misses.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Kalisvar; Ng, Oon Tek; Khong, Wei Xin; Xia, Eryu; Teo, Yik-Ying; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Lye, David Chien; Chow, Angela Liping; Krishnan, Prabha; Ang, Brenda Sze

    2016-08-01

    Genetically distinct isolates of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified from the clinical cultures of 6 patients. Screening of shared-ward contacts identified 2 additional NDM-positive patients. Phylogenetic analysis proved that 1 contact was a direct transmission while the other was unrelated to the index, suggesting hidden routes of transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:987-990. PMID:27143092

  5. Hydraulic continuity and biological effects of low strength very low frequency electromagnetic waves: Case of microbial biofilm growth in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Merlin; Noamen, Omri; Evelyne, Gonze; Eric, Valette; Gilles, Cauffet; Marc, Henry

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to elucidate the interactions between water, subjected to electromagnetic waves of very low frequency (VLF) (kHz) with low strength electromagnetic fields (3.5 mT inside the coils), and the development of microbial biofilms in this exposed water. Experimental results demonstrate that in water exposed to VLF electromagnetic waves, the biomass of biofilm is limited if hydraulic continuity is achieved between the electromagnetic generator and the biofilm media. The measured amount of the biofilm's biomass is approximately a factor two lower for exposed biofilm than the non-exposed biofilm. Measurements of electromagnetic fields in the air and simulations exhibit very low intensities of fields (<10 nT and 2 V/m) in the biofilm-exposed region at a distance of 1 m from the electromagnetic generator. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields of the quoted intensities cannot explain thermal and ionizing effects on the biofilm. A variable electrical potential with a magnitude close to 20 mV was detected in the tank in hydraulic continuity with the electromagnetic generator. The application of quantum field theory may help to explain the observed effects in this case.

  6. Start-up of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process using low activity anammox inoculum to treat low strength UASB effluent.

    PubMed

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Frison, N; Di Fabio, S; Noutsopoulos, C; Fatone, F

    2013-11-01

    The start-up of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal process was examined in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using low activity anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) inoculum. The SBR received effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) that treated low strength wastewater. The volumetric nitrogen loading rate (vNLR) was first 0.24 ± 0.11 kg Nm(-3)d(-1) and then reduced to 0.10 ± 0.02 kg Nm(-3)d(-1). The average specific anammox activity was 2.27 ± 1.31 mg N (gVSS h)(-1), at 30°C representing an increase of 161% compared to the inoculum. The decrease in vNLR did not significantly affect anammox activity, but resulted in a decrease of denitrifying heterotrophic activity to very low levels after the first 30 days owing to the decrease of organic loading rate (OLR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the stable presence of anammox bacteria in biomass. Numerous filamentous microorganisms were present, several of which were in a state of endogenous respiration. PMID:24077156

  7. Emergence and outbreak of carbapenemase-producing KPC-3 Klebsiella pneumoniae in Spain, September 2009 to February 2010: control measures.

    PubMed

    Robustillo Rodela, A; Díaz-Agero Pérez, C; Sanchez Sagrado, T; Ruiz-Garbajosa, P; Pita López, M J; Monge, V

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the epidemiological features of the first outbreak caused by KPC3 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-3-KP) in Spain and how it was effectively controlled. From 16 September 2009 to the end of February 2010, seven patients infected or colonised with KPC-3-KP were detected. Stool surveillance cultures were recovered from patients, doctors, nurses, nursing assistants, cleaners and hospital porters working in the affected units. Hand swabs were taken from workers and patients’ relatives for culturing. Environmental samples were also taken. Patients infected or colonised with KPC-3-KP were placed in single rooms under contact precautions and 4% chlorhexidine soap was used for their daily hygiene. Staff attended educational seminars and workshops on hand hygiene and isolation of patients. An alcohol-based disinfectant was used for surface cleaning and disinfecting. The floor was cleaned with a disinfectant containing benzalkonium chloride and didecyldimethylammonium. All samples collected were negative for KPC-3-KP. After implementing the control measures, no further cases were reported in the affected units. All cases had comorbidities, long hospital stay and aggressive/intensive antimicrobial treatment. This study emphasises the importance of early intensification of infection control to interrupt the transmission of KPC-producing organisms. PMID:22370016

  8. Dynamics and control of the expansion of finite-size plasmas produced in ultraintense laser-matter interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Peano, F.; Martins, J. L.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Coppa, G.; Peinetti, F.; Mulas, R.

    2007-05-15

    The strong influence of the electron dynamics provides the possibility of controlling the expansion of laser-produced plasmas by appropriately shaping the laser pulse. A simple irradiation scheme is proposed to tailor the explosion of large deuterium clusters, inducing the formation of shock structures, capable of driving nuclear fusion reactions. Such a scenario has been thoroughly investigated, resorting to two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Furthermore, the intricate dynamics of ions and electrons during the collisionless expansion of spherical nanoplasmas has been analyzed in detail using a self-consistent ergodic-kinetic model. This study clarifies the transition from hydrodynamic-like to Coulomb-explosion regimes.

  9. A Matter of Low Self-Control? Exploring Differences Between Child Pornography Possessors and Child Pornography Producers/Distributers Using Self-Control Theory.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Shelly L; Navarro, Jordana N; Jasinski, Jana L

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the demographic and background characteristic differences between those arrested for child pornography (CP) possession (only), or CP production/distribution, or an attempted or completed sexual exploitation of a minor (SEM) that involved the Internet in some capacity within the context of self-control theory using data from the second wave of the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (N-JOV2). Results indicate few demographic similarities, which thereby suggest these are largely heterogeneous groupings of individuals. Results also indicate CP producers/distributers engaged in a greater number of behaviors indicative of low self-control compared with CP possessors. Specifically, offenders arrested for CP production/distribution were more likely to have (a) had problems with drugs/alcohol at the time of the crime and (b) been previously violent. In contrast, the only indicator of low self-control that reached statistical significance for CP possessors was the previous use of violence. Moreover, in contrast to CP producers/distributers, full-time employment and marital status may be important factors to consider in the likelihood of arrest for CP possessors, which is congruent with the tenets of self-control theory. PMID:25394664

  10. A Matter of Low Self-Control? Exploring Differences Between Child Pornography Possessors and Child Pornography Producers/Distributers Using Self-Control Theory.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Shelly L; Navarro, Jordana N; Jasinski, Jana L

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the demographic and background characteristic differences between those arrested for child pornography (CP) possession (only), or CP production/distribution, or an attempted or completed sexual exploitation of a minor (SEM) that involved the Internet in some capacity within the context of self-control theory using data from the second wave of the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (N-JOV2). Results indicate few demographic similarities, which thereby suggest these are largely heterogeneous groupings of individuals. Results also indicate CP producers/distributers engaged in a greater number of behaviors indicative of low self-control compared with CP possessors. Specifically, offenders arrested for CP production/distribution were more likely to have (a) had problems with drugs/alcohol at the time of the crime and (b) been previously violent. In contrast, the only indicator of low self-control that reached statistical significance for CP possessors was the previous use of violence. Moreover, in contrast to CP producers/distributers, full-time employment and marital status may be important factors to consider in the likelihood of arrest for CP possessors, which is congruent with the tenets of self-control theory.

  11. Control of particle size by feed composition in the nanolatexes produced via monomer-starved semicontinuous emulsion copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, Shahriar

    2015-05-01

    Conventional batch and semicontinuous emulsion copolymerizations often produce large particles whose size cannot be easily correlated with the comonomer feed compositions, and are to some degree susceptible to composition drift. In contrast, we found that copolymer nanolatexes made via semicontinuous monomer-starved emulsion copolymerizations are featured with an average nanoparticle size being controlled by the feed composition, a high conversion achieved, and a high degree of particle composition uniformity. This was achieved because the rate of particle growth, during nucleation, was controlled by the rate of comonomer addition, and the copolymer composition, surfactant parking area on the particles, and nucleation efficiency determined by the comonomer feed composition. Two model systems, methyl methacrylate/styrene and vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate, with significant differences in water solubility were studied. Monomers were added to the aqueous solution of sodium dodecylsulfate and potassium persulfate at a low rate to achieve high instantaneous conversions. PMID:25617612

  12. Human Exposure to Wastewater-Derived Pharmaceuticals in Fresh Produce: A Randomized Controlled Trial Focusing on Carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Paltiel, Ora; Fedorova, Ganna; Tadmor, Galit; Kleinstern, Geffen; Maor, Yehoshua; Chefetz, Benny

    2016-04-19

    Fresh water scarcity has led to increased use of reclaimed wastewater as an alternative and reliable source for crop irrigation. Beyond microbiological safety, concerns have been raised regarding contamination of reclaimed wastewater by xenobiotics including pharmaceuticals. This study focuses on carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant drug which is ubiquitously detected in reclaimed wastewater, highly persistent in soil, and taken up by crops. In a randomized controlled trial we demonstrate that healthy individuals consuming reclaimed wastewater-irrigated produce excreted carbamazepine and its metabolites in their urine, while subjects consuming fresh water-irrigated produce excreted undetectable or significantly lower levels of carbamazepine. We also report that the carbamazepine metabolite pattern at this low exposure level differed from that observed at therapeutic doses. This "proof of concept" study demonstrates that human exposure to xenobiotics occurs through ingestion of reclaimed wastewater-irrigated produce, providing real world data which could guide risk assessments and policy designed to ensure the safe use of wastewater for crop irrigation. PMID:27021726

  13. Soft sensor control of metabolic fluxes in a recombinant Escherichia coli fed-batch cultivation producing green fluorescence protein.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Robert; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-10-01

    A soft sensor approach is described for controlling metabolic overflow from mixed-acid fermentation and glucose overflow metabolism in a fed-batch cultivation for production of recombinant green fluorescence protein (GFP) in Escherichia coli. The hardware part of the sensor consisted of a near-infrared in situ probe that monitored the E. coli biomass and an HPLC analyzer equipped with a filtration unit that measured the overflow metabolites. The computational part of the soft sensor used basic kinetic equations and summations for estimation of specific rates and total metabolite concentrations. Two control strategies for media feeding of the fed-batch cultivation were evaluated: (1) controlling the specific rates of overflow metabolism and mixed-acid fermentation metabolites at a fixed pre-set target values, and (2) controlling the concentration of the sum of these metabolites at a set level. The results indicate that the latter strategy was more efficient for maintaining a high titer and low variability of the produced recombinant GFP protein.

  14. Splenic Red Pulp Macrophages Produce Type I Interferons as Early Sentinels of Malaria Infection but Are Dispensable for Control

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Charles C.; Nelson, Christopher S.; Wilson, Emily B.; Hou, Baidong; DeFranco, Anthony L.; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Type I interferons (T1IFNs) are among the earliest cytokines produced during infections due to their direct regulation by innate immune signaling pathways. Reports have suggested that T1IFNs are produced during malaria infection, but little is known about the in vivo cellular origins of T1IFNs or their role in protection. We have found that in addition to plasmacytoid dendritic cells, splenic red pulp macrophages (RPMs) can generate significant quantities of T1IFNs in response to P. chabaudi infection in a TLR9-, MYD88-, and IRF7-dependent manner. Furthermore, T1IFNs regulate expression of interferon-stimulated genes redundantly with Interferon-gamma (IFNG), resulting in redundancy for resistance to experimental malaria infection. Despite their role in sensing and promoting immune responses to infection, we observe that RPMs are dispensable for control of parasitemia. Our results reveal that RPMs are early sentinels of malaria infection, but that effector mechanisms previously attributed to RPMs are not essential for control. PMID:23144737

  15. Use of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches.

    PubMed

    Lauková, A; Kandričáková, A; Ščerbová, J

    2015-06-01

    Probiotic enterococci can produce bacteriocins. Enterococcus faecium AL41 is an Enterocin M-producing, probiotic strain which has previously shown beneficial effect in broiler chickens. In this study, it was used to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches in a 42-day experiment with an experimental group (EG, 40 ostriches) and a control group (CG, 46). In addition to feed mixture, the ostriches in EG received Ent. faecium AL41 (10(9) CFU ml(-1); by rifampicin-marked variant) 400 μl per animal per day in their drinking water for 21 days. Sampling was carried out at the start of the experiment (at day 0/1), at day 21 (after 21 days of AL41 application) and at day 42 (21 days after AL41 cessation). Faeces (mixture, n = 6) were treated using the standard microbiological dilution method and cultivated on selective media (ISO). The highest count of AL41 was found at day 42. Its identity was confirmed with PCR and Maldi-Tof. The ostriches were free of Salmonella and Campylobacter cells. At day 21, antimicrobial effect was demonstrated by significant reduction in coagulase-positive and negative staphylococci in EG compared to CG (P < 0·001) and coliforms, Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas-like bacteria (P < 0·001). We conclude that AL41 can be used to control intestinal microbiota in farm ostriches. Significance and impact of the study: Ostriches are excellent for high intensity farming in a wide range of climates, requiring only limited space and giving high yields per hectare. They are reared mainly for their meat. Although adult birds possess quite good immunity, young birds can be threatened by spoilage bacteria, especially when they are transferred from the nests to the farm area. Based on our previous results related to the beneficial effect of bacteriocin-producing, probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium AL41 in poultry or rabbits, we decided to test its ability to control intestinal microbiota in farming ostriches which has never been tested previously. PMID

  16. Simultaneous denitrification and denitrifying phosphorus removal in a full-scale anoxic-oxic process without internal recycle treating low strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qibin; Chen, Qiuwen

    2016-01-01

    Performance of a full-scale anoxic-oxic activated sludge treatment plant (4.0×10(5) m(3)/day for the first-stage project) was followed during a year. The plant performed well for the removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the process of treating domestic wastewater within a temperature range of 10.8°C to 30.5°C. Mass balance calculations indicated that COD utilization mainly occurred in the anoxic phase, accounting for 88.2% of total COD removal. Ammonia nitrogen removal occurred 13.71% in the anoxic zones and 78.77% in the aerobic zones. The contribution of anoxic zones to total nitrogen (TN) removal was 57.41%. Results indicated that nitrogen elimination in the oxic tanks was mainly contributed by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). The reduction of phosphorus mainly took place in the oxic zones, 61.46% of the total removal. Denitrifying phosphorus removal was achieved biologically by 11.29%. Practical experience proved that adaptability to gradually changing temperature of the microbial populations was important to maintain the plant overall stability. Sudden changes in temperature did not cause paralysis of the system just lower removal efficiency, which could be explained by functional redundancy of microorganisms that may compensate the adverse effects of temperature changes to a certain degree. Anoxic-oxic process without internal recycling has great potential to treat low strength wastewater (i.e., TN<35 mg/L) as well as reducing operation costs. PMID:26899656

  17. Simultaneous denitrification and denitrifying phosphorus removal in a full-scale anoxic-oxic process without internal recycle treating low strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qibin; Chen, Qiuwen

    2016-01-01

    Performance of a full-scale anoxic-oxic activated sludge treatment plant (4.0×10(5) m(3)/day for the first-stage project) was followed during a year. The plant performed well for the removal of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the process of treating domestic wastewater within a temperature range of 10.8°C to 30.5°C. Mass balance calculations indicated that COD utilization mainly occurred in the anoxic phase, accounting for 88.2% of total COD removal. Ammonia nitrogen removal occurred 13.71% in the anoxic zones and 78.77% in the aerobic zones. The contribution of anoxic zones to total nitrogen (TN) removal was 57.41%. Results indicated that nitrogen elimination in the oxic tanks was mainly contributed by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). The reduction of phosphorus mainly took place in the oxic zones, 61.46% of the total removal. Denitrifying phosphorus removal was achieved biologically by 11.29%. Practical experience proved that adaptability to gradually changing temperature of the microbial populations was important to maintain the plant overall stability. Sudden changes in temperature did not cause paralysis of the system just lower removal efficiency, which could be explained by functional redundancy of microorganisms that may compensate the adverse effects of temperature changes to a certain degree. Anoxic-oxic process without internal recycling has great potential to treat low strength wastewater (i.e., TN<35 mg/L) as well as reducing operation costs.

  18. Southern blight disease of tomato control by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase producing Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Ritu; Agrawal, Lalit; Gupta, Swati; Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Sumit; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    abstract Tomato cultivation is highly susceptible for soil born diseases and among them southern blight disease caused by Scelerotium rolfsii is very common. For its management use of chemical fungicides is not very successful as their spores are able to survive for many years in the soil. As an alternative eco-friendly approach to control the disease antagonistic microbes are being characterized.Among them plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488 (B-30488) with antagonistic properties, multiple PGP attributes stress tolerance and ACC deaminase enzyme activity is characterized to decipher its mode of action against S. rolfsii under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro results obtained from this study clearly demonstrate that B-30488 has ability to show antagonistic properties under different abiotic stresses against S. rolfsii. Similar results were also obtained from in vivo experiments where B-30488 inoculation has efficiently controlled the disease caused by S. rolfsii and improve the plant growth. Deleterious enhanced ethylene level in S. rolfsii infected plants was also ameliorated by inoculation of ACC deaminase producing B-30488. The ACC accumulation, ACO and ACS activities were also modulated in S. rolfsii infected plants. Results from defense enzymes and other biochemical attributes were also support the role of B-30488 inoculation in ameliorating the biotic stress caused by S. rolfsii in tomato plants. These results were further validated by pathogen related gene expression analysis by real time PCR. Overall results from the present study may be concluded that ACC deaminase producing B-30488 has ability to control the southern blight disease caused by S. rolfsii and commercial bioinoculant package may be developed. PMID:26825539

  19. An innovative matrix controlling drug delivery produced by thermal treatment of DC tablets containing polycarbophil and ethylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Caviglioli, Gabriele; Baldassari, Sara; Cirrincione, Paola; Russo, Eleonora; Parodi, Brunella; Gatti, Paolo; Drava, Giuliana

    2013-12-15

    An innovative matrix, produced by thermal treatment on direct compression (DC) tablets containing polycarbophil (POL) and ethylcellulose (EC), identified as matrix forming polymers, and able to control the release of diltiazem hydrochloride, was developed. At pH 7.2, 72 ± 1.2% (w/w) of drug loaded was released in 25 h, mostly at constant rate. This swellable and unerodible matrix controls drug release by an anomalous transport mechanism. The modifications induced by the thermal treatment are irreversible and can be used to control and characterize the matrix. A 3-component constrained mixture design allowed the investigation of the experimental domain in which the matrix forms and the computation of a mathematical model that can be used to optimize the formulation properties. The release rate can be modulated (0.032-0.064% drug released/min) through the choice of suitable treatment conditions and tablet composition. The maximum amount of diltiazem hydrochloride released by zero-order kinetics, at the lowest release rate, occurs for POL:EC ratio in the range of 1:1-2:3 with 20-30% of diluent. The tablets are able to load up to 50% (w/w) of diltiazem hydrochloride without losing their properties. A stability study performed on a selected formulation containing DTZ showed stability for at least 2.7 years at RT conditions.

  20. Risk factors for bloodstream infections due to colistin-resistant KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: results from a multicenter case-control-control study.

    PubMed

    Giacobbe, D R; Del Bono, V; Trecarichi, E M; De Rosa, F G; Giannella, M; Bassetti, M; Bartoloni, A; Losito, A R; Corcione, S; Bartoletti, M; Mantengoli, E; Saffioti, C; Pagani, N; Tedeschi, S; Spanu, T; Rossolini, G M; Marchese, A; Ambretti, S; Cauda, R; Viale, P; Viscoli, C; Tumbarello, M

    2015-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of colistin resistance (ColR) Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (Kp) is a matter of concern because of its unfavourable impact on mortality of KPC-Kp bloodstream infections (BSI) and the shortage of alternative therapeutic options. A matched case-control-control analysis was conducted. The primary study end point was to assess risk factors for ColR KPC-Kp BSI. The secondary end point was to describe mortality and clinical characteristics of these infections. To assess risk factors for ColR, 142 patients with ColR KPC-Kp BSI were compared to two controls groups: 284 controls without infections caused by KPC-Kp (control group A) and 284 controls with colistin-susceptible (ColS) KPC-Kp BSI (control group B). In the first multivariate analysis (cases vs. group A), previous colistin therapy, previous KPC-Kp colonization, ≥3 previous hospitalizations, Charlson score ≥3 and neutropenia were found to be associated with the development of ColR KPC-Kp BSI. In the second multivariate analysis (cases vs. group B), only previous colistin therapy, previous KPC-Kp colonization and Charlson score ≥3 were associated with ColR. Overall, ColR among KPC-Kp blood isolates increased more than threefold during the 4.5-year study period, and 30-day mortality of ColR KPC-Kp BSI was as high as 51%. Strict rules for the use of colistin are mandatory to staunch the dissemination of ColR in KPC-Kp-endemic hospitals.

  1. Treatment of CELSS and PCELSS waste to produce nutrients for plant growth. [Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems and Partially Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modell, M.; Meissner, H.; Karel, M.; Carden, J.; Lewis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The research program entitled 'Development of a Prototype Experiment for Treating CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems) and PCELSS (Partially Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems) Wastes to Produce Nutrients for Plant Growth' consists of two phases: (1) the development of the neccessary facilities, chemical methodologies and models for meaningful experimentation, and (2) the application of what methods and devices are developed to the interfacing of waste oxidation with plant growth. Homogeneous samples of freeze-dried human feces and urine have been prepared to ensure comparability of test results between CELSS waste treatment research groups. A model of PCELSS food processing wastes has been developed, and an automated gas chromatographic system to analyze oxidizer effluents was designed and brought to operational status. Attention is given the component configuration of the wet oxidation system used by the studies.

  2. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Janice L; Felix, Carlos Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity. PMID:11835696

  3. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: pre- and postharvest control measures to ensure safety of dairy cattle products.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hussein S; Sakuma, Toshie

    2005-01-01

    The large number of cases of human illness caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) worldwide has raised safety concerns for foods of bovine origin. These human illnesses include diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Severe cases end with chronic renal failure, chronic nervous system deficiencies, and death. Over 100 STEC serotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, are known to cause these illnesses and to be shed in cattle feces. Thus, cattle are considered reservoirs of these foodborne pathogens. Because beef and dairy products were responsible for a large number of STEC outbreaks, efforts have been devoted to developing and implementing control measures that assure safety of foods derived from dairy cattle. These efforts should reduce consumers' safety concerns and support a competitive dairy industry at the production and processing levels. The efficacy of control measures both before harvest (i.e., on-farm management practices) and after harvest (i.e., milk processing and meat packing) for decreasing the risk of STEC contamination of dairy products was evaluated. The preharvest measures included sanitation during milking and management practices designed to decrease STEC prevalence in the dairy herd (i.e., animal factors, manure handling, drinking water, and both feeds and feeding). The postharvest measures included the practices or treatments that could be implemented during processing of milk, beef, or their products to eliminate or minimize STEC contamination.

  4. Rapid control of a hospital-wide outbreak caused by extensively drug-resistant OXA-72-producing Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Siu, Leung-Kei; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Chun-Yu; Hung, Ching-Tzu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2011-06-01

    Extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAb) emerges as an important pathogen of health care-associated infections and outbreaks worldwide. During January and February 2006, there was a hospital-wide outbreak of XDRAb at a medical center in Taiwan. Without limiting the usage of carbapenems or the closure of any ward, this outbreak was effectively controlled. We investigated the molecular epidemiology and reported the infection control experiences. XDRAb is defined as A baumannii that is resistant to multiple antibiotics but susceptible to tigecycline and polymyxin B. During the outbreak, the clinical and environmental XDRAb isolates were collected and studied by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and polymerase chain reaction for Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamases, imipenemases, and oxacillinases (OXA). Our measures to control the outbreak included private room isolation of patients until there were three successive negative cultures, reinforcement of contact precautions, daily environmental cleansing with room-dedicated cleaning tools and sodium hypochlorite, and careful auditing of adherence. During the outbreak, 32 clinical XDRAb isolates came from 13 patients who were hospitalized in four intensive care units and three wards. Most (7 of 13, 53.8%) cases were associated with a surgical intensive care unit. The results from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis study indicated that all isolates were of one genotype. All 32 isolates harbored ISAba1-bla(OxA-51-like) and bla(OxA-72) genes. After this outbreak till August 2010, further incidences of XDRAb were sporadic cases of XDRAb with different clones and did not reach the level of outbreak. To our knowledge, this is the first reported hospital-wide outbreak caused by OXA-72 carbapenemase-producing A baumannii in the Asia-Pacific region, with successful and sustained control. Although the source or vehicle of the outbreak was not identified, our results

  5. Broad and efficient control of major foodborne pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli by mixtures of plant-produced colicins.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Steve; Stephan, Anett; Hahn, Simone; Bortesi, Luisa; Jarczowski, Franziska; Bettmann, Ulrike; Paschke, Anne-Katrin; Tusé, Daniel; Stahl, Chad H; Giritch, Anatoli; Gleba, Yuri

    2015-10-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one of the leading causes of bacterial enteric infections worldwide, causing ∼100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalizations, and 90 deaths annually in the United States alone. These illnesses have been linked to consumption of contaminated animal products and vegetables. Currently, other than thermal inactivation, there are no effective methods to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. Colicins are nonantibiotic antimicrobial proteins, produced by E. coli strains that kill or inhibit the growth of other E. coli strains. Several colicins are highly effective against key EHEC strains. Here we demonstrate very high levels of colicin expression (up to 3 g/kg of fresh biomass) in tobacco and edible plants (spinach and leafy beets) at costs that will allow commercialization. Among the colicins examined, plant-expressed colicin M had the broadest antimicrobial activity against EHEC and complemented the potency of other colicins. A mixture of colicin M and colicin E7 showed very high activity against all major EHEC strains, as defined by the US Department of Agriculture/Food and Drug Administration. Treatments with low (less than 10 mg colicins per L) concentrations reduced the pathogenic bacterial load in broth culture by 2 to over 6 logs depending on the strain. In experiments using meats spiked with E. coli O157:H7, colicins efficiently reduced the population of the pathogen by at least 2 logs. Plant-produced colicins could be effectively used for the broad control of pathogenic E. coli in both plant- and animal-based food products and, in the United States, colicins could be approved using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory approval pathway.

  6. Broad and efficient control of major foodborne pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli by mixtures of plant-produced colicins

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Steve; Stephan, Anett; Hahn, Simone; Bortesi, Luisa; Jarczowski, Franziska; Bettmann, Ulrike; Paschke, Anne-Katrin; Tusé, Daniel; Stahl, Chad H.; Giritch, Anatoli; Gleba, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one of the leading causes of bacterial enteric infections worldwide, causing ∼100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalizations, and 90 deaths annually in the United States alone. These illnesses have been linked to consumption of contaminated animal products and vegetables. Currently, other than thermal inactivation, there are no effective methods to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. Colicins are nonantibiotic antimicrobial proteins, produced by E. coli strains that kill or inhibit the growth of other E. coli strains. Several colicins are highly effective against key EHEC strains. Here we demonstrate very high levels of colicin expression (up to 3 g/kg of fresh biomass) in tobacco and edible plants (spinach and leafy beets) at costs that will allow commercialization. Among the colicins examined, plant-expressed colicin M had the broadest antimicrobial activity against EHEC and complemented the potency of other colicins. A mixture of colicin M and colicin E7 showed very high activity against all major EHEC strains, as defined by the US Department of Agriculture/Food and Drug Administration. Treatments with low (less than 10 mg colicins per L) concentrations reduced the pathogenic bacterial load in broth culture by 2 to over 6 logs depending on the strain. In experiments using meats spiked with E. coli O157:H7, colicins efficiently reduced the population of the pathogen by at least 2 logs. Plant-produced colicins could be effectively used for the broad control of pathogenic E. coli in both plant- and animal-based food products and, in the United States, colicins could be approved using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory approval pathway. PMID:26351689

  7. Investigation of structure and properties of novel multi-layer clay nanocomposite films produced controllably by continuous chaotic advection blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesha, Chaitra

    A unique processing technique based on chaotic advection developed at Clemson University and shown to controllably produce structured materials in the past was employed to produce structured nanocomposites with a high degree of clay orientation as well as localization of platelets within layers of nanoscale thicknesses. Continuous lengths of nanocomposites with different clay contents were extruded in the form of films by feeding separately melts of virgin polyamide-6 polymer and polyamide 6-clay masterbatch into a continuous chaotic advection blender. A variety of composite structures were producible at fixed clay compositions. The internal structure was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nanocomposites with novel in-situ multi-layered structures and a high degree of platelet orientation were formed by the recursive stretching and folding of the melt domains due to chaotic advection. Clay platelets were localized within discrete regions to form alternating virgin and platelet-rich layers leading to a hierarchical structure with multiple nano-scales. The thicknesses of the layers reduced with prolonged chaotic advection, eventually leading to nanocomposites in which the multi-layering was no longer discernible. The oriented platelets appeared to be homogenously dispersed through the bulk of the nanocomposite. Investigation of the morphology of the matrix by XRD showed that the homogeneity of the crystalline phase and the orientation of polymer chains parallel to the film surface increased with increased chaotic advection. Also, as the layer thickness reduced, the number of polymer chains restricted by clay platelets increased causing the gamma-crystalline fraction to increase. While XRD results suggested a change in total crystallinity with chaotic advection and clay content but without a specific trend, no change in crystallinity was measured by DSC. Such contradictions are

  8. Key Factors Controlling the Growth of Biological Soil Crusts: Towards a Protocol to Produce Biocrusts in Greenhouse Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Ayuso, Sergio; María Giraldo Silva, Ana; Nelson, Corey; Barger, Nichole; Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (= biocrusts) are topsoil communities comprise of, but not limited to, cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, and mosses that grow intimately associated with soil particles in drylands. Biocrusts have central ecological roles in these areas as sources of carbon and nutrients, and efficiently retain water and prevent soil erosion, which improves soil structure and promotes soil fertility. However, human activities, such as cattle grazing, hiking or military training, are rapidly striking biocrusts. Although it is well known that the inoculation with cyanobacteria or lichens can enhance the recovery of biocrusts in degraded soils, little is known about the factors that control their growth rates. Using soil and inocula from four different sites located in one cold desert (Utah) and in one hot desert (New Mexico), we performed a fractional factorial experiment involving seven factors (water, light, P, N, calcium carbonate, trace metals and type of inoculum) to screen their effects on the growth of biocrusts. After four months, we measured the concentration of chlorophyll a, and we discovered that water, light and P, N or P+N were the most important factors controlling the growth of biocrusts. In the experimental treatments involving these three factors we measured a similar concentration of chlorophyll a (or even higher) to this found in the field locations. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene segment using universal bacteria primers revealed a microbial community composition in the biocrusts grown that closely corresponds to initial measurements made on inocula. In summary, based on our success in obtaining biocrust biomass from natural communities in greenhouse facilities, without significantly changing its community composition at the phylum and cyanobacterial level, we are paving the road to propose a protocol to produce a high quality-nursed inoculum aiming to assist restoration of arid and semi-arid ecosystems affected by large-scale disturbances.

  9. Differential presynaptic control of the synaptic effectiveness of cutaneous afferents evidenced by effects produced by acute nerve section

    PubMed Central

    Rudomin, P; Jiménez, I; Chávez, D

    2013-01-01

    In the anaesthetized cat, the acute section of the saphenous (Saph) and/or the superficial peroneal (SP) nerves was found to produce a long-lasting increase of the field potentials generated in the dorsal horn by stimulation of the medial branch of the sural (mSU) nerve. This facilitation was associated with changes in the level of the tonic primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of the mSU intraspinal terminals. The mSU afferent fibres projecting into Rexed's laminae III–IV were subjected to a tonic PAD that was reduced by the acute section of the SP and/or the Saph nerves. The mSU afferents projecting deeper into the dorsal horn (Rexed's laminae V–VI) were instead subjected to a tonic PAD that was increased after Saph and SP acute nerve section. A differential control of the synaptic effectiveness of the low-threshold cutaneous afferents according to their sites of termination within the dorsal horn is envisaged as a mechanism that allows selective processing of sensory information in response to tactile and nociceptive stimulation or during the execution of different motor tasks. PMID:23478136

  10. Imported Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Clones in a Greek Hospital: Impact of Infection Control Measures for Restraining Their Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Poulou, Aggeliki; Voulgari, Evangelia; Vrioni, Georgia; Xidopoulos, Grigorios; Pliagkos, Aris; Chatzipantazi, Vassiliki; Markou, Fani

    2012-01-01

    The recent emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains represents a major threat for hospitalized patients. We document the dissemination and control of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clones in a Greek hospital. During a 3-year study period (January 2009 to December 2011), carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from clinical samples from 73 individual patients. Phenotyping and molecular testing confirmed that 52 patients were infected with K. pneumoniae carbapenemase 2 (KPC-2) producers, 12 were infected with VIM-1 producers, and the remaining 9 were infected with isolates producing both KPC-2 and VIM-1 enzymes. Twenty-eight of these clinical cases were characterized as imported health care associated, and 23 of these were attributed to KPC producers and 5 were attributed to KPC and VIM producers. The remaining 45 cases were deemed hospital acquired. In the second year of the study, intensified infection control intervention was implemented, followed by active surveillance and carrier isolation in the third year. The incidence of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae patient cases decreased from 0.52/1,000 patient days in 2009 to 0.32/1,000 patient days in 2010 (P = 0.075). Following these additional infection control measures, the incidence fell to 0.21/1,000 patient days in 2011 and differed significantly from that in 2009 (P = 0.0028). Despite the fact that the imported cases of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae were equally distributed over this 3-year period, the incidence of hospital-acquired cases decreased from 0.36/1,000 patient days in 2009 to 0.19/1,000 patient days in 2010 (P = 0.058) and to 0.1/1,000 patient days in 2011 (P = 0.0012). Our findings suggest that rigorous infection control measures and active surveillance can effectively reduce the incidence of secondary transmission due to KPC-producing pathogens. PMID:22649010

  11. Insulin-Producing Cells From Adult Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Control Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes In Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gabr, Mahmoud M.; Zakaria, Mahmoud M.; Refaie, Ayman F.; Ismail, Amani M.; Abou-El-Mahasen, Mona A.; Ashamallah, Sylvia A.; Khater, Sherry M.; El-Halawani, Sawsan M.; Ibrahim, Rana Y.; Uin, Gan Shu; Kloc, Malgorzata; Calne, Roy Y.; Ghoneim, Mohamed A.

    2013-01-01

    Harvesting, expansion and directed differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) could provide an autologous source of surrogate β-cells that would alleviate the limitations of availability and/or allogenic rejection following pancreatic or islet transplantation. Bone marrow cells were obtained from three adult type 2 diabetic volunteers and 3 non-diabetic donors. After 3 days in culture, adherent MSCs were expanded for 2 passages. At passage 3, differentiation was carried out in a 3-staged procedure. Cells were cultured in a glucose-rich medium containing several activation and growth factors. Cells were evaluated in-vitro by flow cytometry, immunolabelling, Rt-PCR and human insulin and c-peptide release in responses to increasing glucose concentrations. One thousand cell-clusters were inserted under the renal capsule of diabetic nude mice followed by monitoring of their diabetic status. At the end of differentiation, ~5–10% of cells were immunofluorescent for insulin, c-peptide or glucagon; insulin and c-peptide were co-expressed. Nanogold immunolabelling for electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of c-peptide in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) expressed transcription factors and genes of pancreatic hormones similar to those expressed by pancreatic islets. There was a stepwise increase in human insulin and c-peptide release by IPCs in response to increasing glucose concentrations. Transplantation of IPCs into nude diabetic mice resulted in control of their diabetic status for 3 months. The sera of IPC-transplanted mice contained human insulin and c-peptide but negligible levels of mouse insulin. When the IPCs-bearing kidneys were removed, rapid return of diabetic state was noted. BM-MSCs from diabetic and non-diabetic human subjects could be differentiated without genetic manipulation to form IPCs which, when transplanted, could maintain euglycaemia in diabetic mice for 3 months

  12. 7 CFR 301.81-11 - Imported fire ant detection, control, exclusion, and enforcement program for nurseries producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Imported fire ant detection, control, exclusion, and..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-11 Imported fire ant detection, control, exclusion, and enforcement program for nurseries...

  13. 7 CFR 301.81-11 - Imported fire ant detection, control, exclusion, and enforcement program for nurseries producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Imported fire ant detection, control, exclusion, and..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-11 Imported fire ant detection, control, exclusion, and enforcement program for nurseries...

  14. Biological control of Rhizoctonia root rot on bean by phenazine- and cyclic lipopeptide-producing Pseudomonas CMR12a

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas CMR12a was previously selected as an efficient biocontrol strain producing phenazines and cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs). In this study, biocontrol capacity of Pseudomonas CMR12a against Rhizoctonia root rot of bean and the involvement of phenazines and CLPs in this ability were tested. Two ...

  15. Validation of fermentation and cooking parameters for dry-fermented sausage to control Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) have been occasionally associated with causing illness due to under-processed and/or undercooked raw, further processed, and/or fermented meats. Regarding the latter, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (...

  16. 21 CFR 212.40 - How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers and closures I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PET drugs and the containers and closures I package them in? 212.40 Section 212.40 Food and Drugs FOOD..., and Closures § 212.40 How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers... not use in PET drug production any lot that does not meet its specifications, including any...

  17. 21 CFR 212.40 - How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs and the containers and closures I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PET drugs and the containers and closures I package them in? 212.40 Section 212.40 Food and Drugs FOOD... Components, Containers, and Closures § 212.40 How must I control the components I use to produce PET drugs... specifications. You must not use in PET drug production any lot that does not meet its specifications,...

  18. Phasic transition from goal-directed to habitual control over drug-seeking produced by conflicting reinforcer expectancy.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee; Field, Matt; Rose, Abigail K

    2013-01-01

    The transition from goal-directed to habitual control over drug-seeking has been experimentally demonstrated in animals, but there have been no comparable reports in humans. Following a recent animal design, the current study employed an outcome-devaluation procedure to test whether goal-directed control over tobacco seeking would be abolished by alcohol expectancy. Eighty smokers first learned that two responses earned tobacco or chocolate points, respectively, before tobacco was devalued by health warnings and smoking satiety. Participants were then presented with either a glass of beer/wine or water with instructions that this item could be consumed after the task (alternative reward). Then choice between the tobacco and chocolate response was measured in extinction to assess goal-directed control of tobacco seeking, in a nominal Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) test to assess stimulus control of tobacco seeking, and in a reacquisition test to assess the impact of direct feedback from the outcomes. The results showed that alcohol expectancy selectively abolished goal-directed control of tobacco seeking but not stimulus control or the impact of feedback from outcomes. These data suggest that 'endogenous' retrieval of low drug value governing goal-directed regulation of drug seeking is disrupted by conflicting appraisal of an alternative reinforcer, promoting habitual control, which may play a role in relapse.

  19. Genetic control of biosynthesis and transport of riboflavin and flavin nucleotides and construction of robust biotechnological producers.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2011-06-01

    Riboflavin [7,8-dimethyl-10-(1'-d-ribityl)isoalloxazine, vitamin B₂] is an obligatory component of human and animal diets, as it serves as the precursor of flavin coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide, which are involved in oxidative metabolism and other processes. Commercially produced riboflavin is used in agriculture, medicine, and the food industry. Riboflavin synthesis starts from GTP and ribulose-5-phosphate and proceeds through pyrimidine and pteridine intermediates. Flavin nucleotides are synthesized in two consecutive reactions from riboflavin. Some microorganisms and all animal cells are capable of riboflavin uptake, whereas many microorganisms have distinct systems for riboflavin excretion to the medium. Regulation of riboflavin synthesis in bacteria occurs by repression at the transcriptional level by flavin mononucleotide, which binds to nascent noncoding mRNA and blocks further transcription (named the riboswitch). In flavinogenic molds, riboflavin overproduction starts at the stationary phase and is accompanied by derepression of enzymes involved in riboflavin synthesis, sporulation, and mycelial lysis. In flavinogenic yeasts, transcriptional repression of riboflavin synthesis is exerted by iron ions and not by flavins. The putative transcription factor encoded by SEF1 is somehow involved in this regulation. Most commercial riboflavin is currently produced or was produced earlier by microbial synthesis using special selected strains of Bacillus subtilis, Ashbya gossypii, and Candida famata. Whereas earlier RF overproducers were isolated by classical selection, current producers of riboflavin and flavin nucleotides have been developed using modern approaches of metabolic engineering that involve overexpression of structural and regulatory genes of the RF biosynthetic pathway as well as genes involved in the overproduction of the purine precursor of riboflavin, GTP. PMID:21646432

  20. Iron-Binding Compounds from Agrobacterium spp.: Biological Control Strain Agrobacterium rhizogenes K84 Produces a Hydroxamate Siderophore

    PubMed Central

    Penyalver, Ramón; Oger, Philippe; López, María M.; Farrand, Stephen K.

    2001-01-01

    Iron-binding compounds were produced in various amounts in response to iron starvation by a collection of Agrobacterium strains belonging to the species A. tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes, and A. vitis. The crown gall biocontrol agent A. rhizogenes strain K84 produced a hydroxamate iron chelator in large amounts. Production of this compound, and also of a previously described antibiotic-like substance called ALS84, occurred only in cultures of strain K84 grown in iron-deficient medium. Similarly, sensitivity to ALS84 was expressed only when susceptible cells were tested in low-iron media. Five independent Tn5-induced mutants of strain K84 affected in the production of the hydroxamate iron chelator showed a similar reduction in the production of ALS84. One of these mutants, M8-10, was completely deficient in the production of both agents and grew poorly compared to the wild type under iron-limiting conditions. Thus, the hydroxamate compound has siderophore activity. A 9.1-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA containing the Tn5 insertion from this mutant was cloned and marker exchanged into wild-type strain K84. The homogenote lost the ability to produce the hydroxamate siderophore and also ALS84. A cosmid clone was isolated from a genomic library of strain K84 that restored to strain M8-10 the ability to produce of the siderophore and ALS84, as well as growth in iron-deficient medium. This cosmid clone contained the region in which Tn5 was located in the mutant. Sequence analysis showed that the Tn5 insert in this mutant was located in an open reading frame coding for a protein that has similarity to those of the gramicidin S synthetase repeat superfamily. Some such proteins are required for synthesis of hydroxamate siderophores by other bacteria. Southern analysis revealed that the biosynthetic gene from strain K84 is present only in isolates of A. rhizogenes that produce hydroxamate-type compounds under low-iron conditions. Based on physiological and genetic analyses showing

  1. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M

    2007-12-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.

  2. Johne’s disease in Canada Part II: Disease impacts, risk factors, and control programs for dairy producers

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Shawn L.B.; Keefe, Greg P.; Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John; Barkema, Herman W.

    2006-01-01

    Part I of this 2-part review examined the clinical stages, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and epidemiology of Johne’s disease, providing information relevant to Canada, where available. In Part II, a critical review of the economic impacts of the disease, risk factors, and important control measures are presented to enable Canadian bovine practitioners to successfully implement control strategies and participate in control programs. In cattle positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, there is a 2.4 times increase in the risk of their being culled, and their lactational 305-day milk production is decreased by at least 370 kg. Reduced slaughter value and premature culling account for losses of CDN$1330 per year per infected 50-cow herd. Research has failed to show a consistent association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis test status and reduced fertility or risk of clinical or subclinical mastitis. Host level factors include age and level of exposure, along with source of exposure, such as manure, colostrum, or milk. Agent factors involve the dose of infectious agent and strains of bacteria. Environmental management factors influence the persistence of the bacteria and the level of contamination in the environment. Emphasizing a risk factor approach, various control strategies are reviewed, including a number of national control programs currently in place throughout the world, specifically Australia, The Netherlands, and the United States. By reviewing the scientific literature about Johne’s disease, control of the disease could be pursued through informed implementation of rational biosecurity efforts and the strategic use of testing and culling. PMID:17147140

  3. Utilizing qualitative methods in survey design: examining Texas cattle producers' intent to participate in foot-and-mouth disease detection and control.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Dean, Wesley R; McIntosh, W Alex; Scott, H Morgan

    2012-02-01

    The effective control of an outbreak of a highly contagious disease such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States will require a strong partnership between the animal agriculture industry and the government. However, because of the diverse number of economic, social, and psychological influences affecting livestock producers, their complete cooperation during an outbreak may not be assured. We conducted interviews with 40 individuals involved in the Texas cattle industry in order to identify specific behaviors where producer participation or compliance may be reduced. Through qualitative analysis of these interviews, we identified specific factors which the participants suggested would influence producer behavior in regard to FMD detection and control. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as an initial guide, we developed an expanded theoretical framework in order to allow for the development of a questionnaire and further evaluation of the relative importance of the relationships indicated in the framework. A 2-day stakeholder workshop was used to develop and critique the final survey instruments. The behaviors which we identified where producer compliance may be reduced included requesting veterinary examination of cattle with clinical signs of FMD either before or during an outbreak of FMD, gathering and holding cattle at the date and time requested by veterinary authorities, and maintaining cattle in their current location during an outbreak of FMD. In addition, we identified additional factors which may influence producers' behavior including risk perception, trust in other producers and regulatory agencies, and moral norms. The theoretical frameworks presented in this paper can be used during an outbreak to assess barriers to and social pressures for producer compliance, prioritize the results in terms of their effects on behavior, and improve and better target risk communication strategies.

  4. A system and methodology for measuring volatile organic compounds produced by hydroponic lettuce in a controlled environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charron, C. S.; Cantliffe, D. J.; Wheeler, R. M.; Manukian, A.; Heath, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    A system and methodology were developed for the nondestructive qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile emissions from hydroponically grown 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), photoperiod, and temperature were automatically controlled and monitored in a growth chamber modified for the collection of plant volatiles. The lipoxygenase pathway products (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were emitted by lettuce plants after the transition from the light period to the dark period. The volatile collection system developed in this study enabled measurements of volatiles emitted by intact plants, from planting to harvest, under controlled environmental conditions.

  5. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    SciTech Connect

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-03-15

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [Spanish] Los procedimientos de control de calidad para Bactrocera philippinensis Drew y Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) usados en programas de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) fueron establecidos en la facilidad de cria en masa del Instituto Filipino de Investigacion Nuclear. Estudios basicos sobre la irradiacion de las pupas, sistemas de almacenaje/empaque, procedimientos del envio, longevidad, estudios de esterilidad y la determinacion del color de ojo de la pupa en relacion con el desarrollo fisiologico en regimenes diferentes de temperatura fueron investigados. Estos estudios proveeran una linea de informacion basica para el desarrollo de protocolos de control de calidad para una expansion de los programas de campo para B. philippinensis con un componente de TIS en el futuro. (author)

  6. Greenhouse production of Impatiens wallerana using a controlled-release fertiliser produces quality finished plants with enhanced garden performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management during production can greatly influence post-production quality of plants. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of controlled release fertilizer (CRF) applied at the time of plug planting on the garden performance (post-production) of impatiens (Impatiens wal...

  7. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids. PMID:22251652

  8. Dense arrays of highly aligned graphene nanoribbons produced by substrate-controlled metal-assisted etching of graphene.

    PubMed

    Solís-Fernández, Pablo; Yoshida, Kazuma; Ogawa, Yui; Tsuji, Masaharu; Ago, Hiroki

    2013-12-01

    Dense arrays of aligned graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are fabricated by substrate-controlled etching of large-area single-layer graphene. An adequate choice of etching substrate and catalyst deposition method allows densities up to 25 nanoribbons μm(-1) to be obtained with average widths of 19 nm. The efficacy of the method is evidenced by the high on/off ratios of back-gated transistors made with these GNRs, which can go up to 5000. PMID:24030892

  9. Rope-producing strains of Bacillus spp. from wheat bread and strategy for their control by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Olimpia; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Greco, Teresa; Villani, Francesco

    2003-04-01

    Two types of white wheat bread (high- and low-type loaves) were investigated for rope spoilage. Thirty of the 56 breads tested developed rope spoilage within 5 days; the high-type loaves were affected by rope spoilage more than the low-type loaves. Sixty-one Bacillus strains were isolated from ropy breads and were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic traits. All of the isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis by biochemical tests, but molecular assays (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR assay, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, and sequencing of the V3 region of 16S ribosomal DNA) revealed greater Bacillus species variety in ropy breads. In fact, besides strains of B. subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, and isolates of Bacillus clausii and Bacillus firmus were also identified. All of the ropy Bacillus isolates exhibited amylase activity, whereas only 32.4% of these isolates were able to produce ropiness in bread slices after treatment at 96 degrees C for 10 min. Strains of lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from sourdough were first selected for antirope activity on bread slices and then used as starters for bread-making experiments. Prevention of growth of approximately 10(4) rope-producing B. subtilis G1 spores per cm(2) on bread slices for more than 15 days was observed when heat-treated cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum E5 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides A27 were added. Growth of B. subtilis G1 occurred after 7 days in breads started with Saccharomyces cerevisiae T22, L. plantarum E5, and L. mesenteroides A27. PMID:12676716

  10. Nosocomial Outbreak of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria in South Africa: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    de Jager, Pieter; Chirwa, Tobias; Naidoo, Shan; Perovic, Olga; Thomas, Juno

    2015-01-01

    Objective New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Gram-negative bacteria have spread globally and pose a significant public health threat. There is a need to better define risk factors and outcomes of NDM-1 clinical infection. We assessed risk factors for nosocomial infection with NDM-1-producers and associated in-hospital mortality. Methods A matched case-control study was conducted during a nosocomial outbreak of NDM-1-producers in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) in South Africa. All patients from whom NDM-1-producers were identified were considered (n=105). Cases included patients admitted during the study period in whom NDM-1 producing Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from clinical specimens collected ≥48 hours after admission, and where surveillance definitions for healthcare-associated infections were met. Controls were matched for age, sex, date of hospital admission and intensive-care admission. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for NDM-1 clinical infection and associated in-hospital mortality. Findings 38 cases and 68 controls were included. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common NDM-1-producer (28/38, 74%). Cases had longer mean hospital stays (44.0 vs. 13.3 days; P < 0.001) and ICU stays (32.5 vs. 8.3 days; P < 0.001). Adjusting for co-morbid disease, the in-hospital mortality of cases was significantly higher than controls (55.3% vs. 14.7%; AOR, 11.29; P < 0.001). Higher Charlson co-morbidity index score (5.2 vs. 4.1; AOR, 1.59; P = 0.005), mechanical ventilation days (7.47 vs. 0.94 days; AOR, 1.32; P = 0.003) and piperacillin/tazobactam exposure (11.03 vs. 1.05 doses; AOR, 1.08; P = 0.013) were identified as risk factors on multivariate analysis. Cases had a significantly higher likelihood of in-hospital mortality when the NDM-1-producer was Klebsiella pneumoniae (AOR, 16.57; P = 0.007), or when they had a bloodstream infection (AOR, 8.84; P = 0.041). Conclusion NDM-1 infection is associated with

  11. Oxidation-reduction potential changes in aeration tanks and microprofiles of activated sludge floc in medium- and low-strength wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Li, Baikun; Bishop, Paul L

    2004-01-01

    Real-time control of aeration tank operation is key to high-efficiency pollutant removal and energy savings. One of the aims of this study was to examine the potential for using redox potential (oxidation-reduction potential [ORP]) to indicate wastewater quality online in aeration tanks treating medium (chemical oxygen demand [COD] of 70 to 150 mg/L) and low (COD of 15 to 30 mg/L) pollutant-concentration wastewaters. The field-scale data provide a good relationship between ORP values and nutrient removal along the length of the aeration tanks. The ORP values increased dramatically as organic matter was removed along the aeration tanks, indicating the improvement of the bulk liquor redox status. Dissolved oxygen higher than 1.0 mg/L was necessary for good biodegradation and improvement of the liquid redox status. Nitrification occurred at higher ORP values (380 to 420 mV) than was the case for organic substrate oxidation (250 to 300 mV). The microprofiles obtained from microelectrode measurements substantiate the heterogeneity of the microbial processes inside activated sludge flocs. Because of microbial oxygen utilization, the aerobic region in the activated sludge floc was limited to the top layer (0.1 to 0.2 mm) of the activated sludge aggregate present in medium-strength wastewater, with an anoxic zone dominating inside the flocs. When dissolved oxygen in the bulk water was higher than 4.0 mg/L, the anoxic zone inside the floc disappeared. At low wastewater pollutant concentrations, the ORP and dissolved oxygen inside the activated sludge aggregates were higher than those from medium-strength wastewater. The prospect of using ORP as an online control approach for aeration tank operation and the potential reasons for activated sludge floc size varying with pollutant strengths are also discussed.

  12. The impact of equol-producing status in modifying the effect of soya isoflavones on risk factors for CHD: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Birru, Rahel L; Ahuja, Vasudha; Vishnu, Abhishek; Evans, Rhobert W; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Miura, Katsuyuki; Usui, Takeshi; Sekikawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the ability to produce equol, a metabolite of the soya isoflavone daidzein, is beneficial to coronary health. Equol, generated by bacterial action on isoflavones in the human gut, is biologically more potent than dietary sources of isoflavones. Not all humans are equol producers. We investigated whether equol-producing status is favourably associated with risk factors for CHD following an intervention by dietary soya isoflavones. We systematically reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCT) that evaluated the effect of soya isoflavones on risk factors for CHD and that reported equol-producing status. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials published up to April 2015 and hand-searched bibliographies to identify the RCT. Characteristics of participants and outcomes measurements were extracted and qualitatively analysed. From a total of 1671 studies, we identified forty-two articles that satisfied our search criteria. The effects of equol on risk factors for CHD were mainly based on secondary analyses in these studies, thus with inadequate statistical power. Although fourteen out of the forty-two studies found that equol production after a soya isoflavone intervention significantly improved a range of risk factors including cholesterol and other lipids, inflammation and blood pressure variables, these results need further verification by sufficiently powered studies. The other twenty-eight studies primarily reported null results. RCT of equol, which has recently become available as a dietary supplement, on CHD and its risk factors are awaited. PMID:27547393

  13. Controlled assembly of SNAP-PNA-fluorophore systems on DNA templates to produce fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Zahra; Hanley, Quentin

    2014-10-15

    The SNAP protein is a widely used self-labeling tag that can be used for tracking protein localization and trafficking in living systems. A model system providing controlled alignment of SNAP-tag units can provide a new way to study clustering of fusion proteins. In this work, fluorescent SNAP-PNA conjugates were controllably assembled on DNA frameworks, forming dimers, trimers, and tetramers. Modification of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) with the O(6)-benzyl guanine (BG) group allowed the generation of site-selective covalent links between PNA and the SNAP protein. The modified BG-PNAs were labeled with fluorescent Atto dyes and subsequently chemo-selectively conjugated to SNAP protein. Efficient assembly into dimer and oligomer forms was verified via size exclusion chromatography (SEC), electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and fluorescence spectroscopy. DNA-directed assembly of homo- and heterodimers of SNAP-PNA constructs induced homo- and hetero-FRET, respectively. Longer DNA scaffolds controllably aligned similar fluorescent SNAP-PNA constructs into higher oligomers exhibiting homo-FRET. The combined SEC and homo-FRET studies indicated the 1:1 and saturated assemblies of SNAP-PNA-fluorophore:DNA formed preferentially in this system. This suggested a kinetic/stoichiometric model of assembly rather than binomially distributed products. These BG-PNA-fluorophore building blocks allow facile introduction of fluorophores and/or assembly directing moieties onto any protein containing SNAP. Template-directed assembly of PNA-modified SNAP proteins may be used to investigate clustering behavior both with and without fluorescent labels, which may find use in the study of assembly processes in cells.

  14. DC-pulsed voltage electrochemical method based on duty cycle self-control for producing TERS gold tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilchenko, V. E.; Kharintsev, S. S.; Salakhov, M. Kh

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a modified dc-pulsed low voltage electrochemical method in which a duty cycle is self tuned while etching. A higher yield of gold tips suitable for performing tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) measurements is demonstrated. The improvement is caused by the self-control of the etching rate along the full surface of the tip. A capability of the gold tips to enhance a Raman signal is exemplified by TERS spectroscopy of single walled carbon nanotubes bundle, sulfur and vanadium oxide.

  15. Analysis of the interplay between neurochemical control of respiration and upper airway mechanics producing upper airway obstruction during sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Longobardo, G S; Evangelisti, C J; Cherniack, N S

    2008-02-01

    Increased loop gain (a function of both controller gain and plant gain), which results in instability in feedback control, is of major importance in producing recurrent central apnoeas during sleep but its role in causing obstructive apnoeas is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of loop gain in producing obstructive sleep apnoeas. Owing to the complexity of factors that may operate to produce obstruction during sleep, we used a mathematical model to sort them out. The model used was based on our previous model of neurochemical control of breathing, which included the effects of chemical stimuli and changes in alertness on respiratory pattern generator activity. To this we added a model of the upper airways that contained a narrowed section which behaved as a compressible elastic tube and was tethered during inspiration by the contraction of the upper airway dilator muscles. These muscles in the model, as in life, responded to changes in hypoxia, hypercapnia and alertness in a manner similar to the action of the chest wall muscles, opposing the compressive action caused by the negative intraluminal pressure generated during inspiration which was magnified by the Bernoulli Effect. As the velocity of inspiratory airflow increased, with sufficiently large increase in airflow velocity, obstruction occurred. Changes in breathing after sleep onset were simulated. The simulations showed that increases in controller gain caused the more rapid onset of obstructive apnoeas. Apnoea episodes were terminated by arousal. With a constant controller gain, as stiffness decreased, obstructed breaths appeared and periods of obstruction recurred longer after sleep onset before disappearing. Decreased controller gain produced, for example, by breathing oxygen eliminated the obstructive apnoeas resulting from moderate reductions in constricted segment stiffness. This became less effective as stiffness was reduced more. Contraction of the upper airway muscles

  16. Splicing factors control C. elegans behavioural learning in a single neuron by producing DAF-2c receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Masahiro; Naito, Yasuki; Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Iino, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing generates protein diversity essential for neuronal properties. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this process and its relevance to physiological and behavioural functions are poorly understood. To address these issues, we focused on a cassette exon of the Caenorhabditis elegans insulin receptor gene daf-2, whose proper variant expression in the taste receptor neuron ASER is critical for taste-avoidance learning. We show that inclusion of daf-2 exon 11.5 is restricted to specific neuron types, including ASER, and is controlled by a combinatorial action of evolutionarily conserved alternative splicing factors, RBFOX, CELF and PTB families of proteins. Mutations of these factors cause a learning defect, and this defect is relieved by DAF-2c (exon 11.5+) isoform expression only in a single neuron ASER. Our results provide evidence that alternative splicing regulation of a single critical gene in a single critical neuron is essential for learning ability in an organism. PMID:27198602

  17. Identification and manipulation of soil properties to improve the biological control performance of phenazine-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Ownley, Bonnie H; Duffy, Brion K; Weller, David M

    2003-06-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79RN(10) protects wheat against take-all disease caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici; however, the level of protection in the field varies from site to site. Identification of soil factors that exert the greatest influence on disease suppression is essential to improving biocontrol. In order to assess the relative importance of 28 soil properties on take-all suppression, seeds were treated with strain 2-79RN(10) (which produces phenazine-1-carboxylate [PCA(+)]) or a series of mutants with PCA(+) and PCA(-) phenotypes. Bacterized seeds were planted in 10 soils, representative of the wheat-growing region in the Pacific Northwest. Sixteen soil properties were correlated with disease suppression. Biocontrol activity of PCA(+) strains was positively correlated with ammonium-nitrogen, percent sand, soil pH, sodium (extractable and soluble), sulfate-sulfur, and zinc. In contrast, biocontrol was negatively correlated with cation-exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable acidity, iron, manganese, percent clay, percent organic matter (OM), percent silt, total carbon, and total nitrogen. Principal component factor analysis of the 16 soil properties identified a three-component solution that accounted for 87 percent of the variance in disease rating (biocontrol). A model was identified with step-wise regression analysis (R(2) = 0.96; Cp statistic = 6.17) that included six key soil properties: ammonium-nitrogen, CEC, iron, percent silt, soil pH, and zinc. As predicted by our regression model, the biocontrol activity of 2-79RN(10) was improved by amending a soil low in Zn with 50 micro g of zinc-EDTA/g of soil. We then investigated the negative correlation of OM with disease suppression and found that addition of OM (as wheat straw) at rates typical of high-OM soils significantly reduced biocontrol activity of 2-79RN(10).

  18. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mamtesh; Patel, Sanjay KS; Kalia, Vipin C

    2009-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA. PMID:19619289

  19. Control of head morphogenesis in an invertebrate asexually produced larva-like bud ( Cassiopea andromeda; Cnidaria: Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Thieme, Claudia; Hofmann, Dietrich Kurt

    2003-04-01

    Scyphopolyps of Cassiopea andromeda propagate asexually by forming larva-like buds which separate from the parent in a developmentally quiescent state. These buds metamorphose into sessile polyps when exposed to specific biogenic, chemical inducers. Morphogenesis of transversely dissected buds indicates the presence of pattern-determining signals; whereas the basal bud fragments may still form a complete scyphistoma the apical bud fragments develop spontaneously in the absence of an inducer into a polyp head without stalk and foot. Based on these findings Neumann (dissertation, Cologne University, 1980) postulated a head-inhibiting signal which is released at the basal pole and inhibits head formation at the apical end. Contrary to this hypothesis dissection itself might induce the development of head structures. The present study deals with the control of polyp head formation in C. andromeda. It concentrates on two points, namely the postulated head inhibitor and the involvement of compounds known to act during metamorphosis (the enzyme protein kinase C and the specific metamorphosis inducer Z-GPGGPA). We found that compared to intact buds and apical bud fragments transversely incised buds reached an intermediate stage of head development. This confirms Neumann's hypothesis. Consequently we focused on the mode of action and the chemical nature of the head-inhibiting signal in C. andromeda. Our results indicate that the head inhibitor may be included in one of six pooled fractions isolated from bud homogenate via gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column. The inhibitor is supposed to be water-soluble and to have a molecular weight of 850-1,500 Da. Furthermore we prove that head formation is not promoted by the metamorphosis-inducer Z-GPGGPA but is prevented by the inhibitors psychosine, chelerythrine and RO-32-0432 showing the involvement of protein kinase C in this process. PMID:12690450

  20. Control of head morphogenesis in an invertebrate asexually produced larva-like bud ( Cassiopea andromeda; Cnidaria: Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Thieme, Claudia; Hofmann, Dietrich Kurt

    2003-04-01

    Scyphopolyps of Cassiopea andromeda propagate asexually by forming larva-like buds which separate from the parent in a developmentally quiescent state. These buds metamorphose into sessile polyps when exposed to specific biogenic, chemical inducers. Morphogenesis of transversely dissected buds indicates the presence of pattern-determining signals; whereas the basal bud fragments may still form a complete scyphistoma the apical bud fragments develop spontaneously in the absence of an inducer into a polyp head without stalk and foot. Based on these findings Neumann (dissertation, Cologne University, 1980) postulated a head-inhibiting signal which is released at the basal pole and inhibits head formation at the apical end. Contrary to this hypothesis dissection itself might induce the development of head structures. The present study deals with the control of polyp head formation in C. andromeda. It concentrates on two points, namely the postulated head inhibitor and the involvement of compounds known to act during metamorphosis (the enzyme protein kinase C and the specific metamorphosis inducer Z-GPGGPA). We found that compared to intact buds and apical bud fragments transversely incised buds reached an intermediate stage of head development. This confirms Neumann's hypothesis. Consequently we focused on the mode of action and the chemical nature of the head-inhibiting signal in C. andromeda. Our results indicate that the head inhibitor may be included in one of six pooled fractions isolated from bud homogenate via gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column. The inhibitor is supposed to be water-soluble and to have a molecular weight of 850-1,500 Da. Furthermore we prove that head formation is not promoted by the metamorphosis-inducer Z-GPGGPA but is prevented by the inhibitors psychosine, chelerythrine and RO-32-0432 showing the involvement of protein kinase C in this process.

  1. Intramuscular fat content in meat-producing animals: development, genetic and nutritional control, and identification of putative markers.

    PubMed

    Hocquette, J F; Gondret, F; Baéza, E; Médale, F; Jurie, C; Pethick, D W

    2010-02-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content plays a key role in various quality traits of meat. IMF content varies between species, between breeds and between muscle types in the same breed. Other factors are involved in the variation of IMF content in animals, including gender, age and feeding. Variability in IMF content is mainly linked to the number and size of intramuscular adipocytes. The accretion rate of IMF depends on the muscle growth rate. For instance, animals having a high muscularity with a high glycolytic activity display a reduced development of IMF. This suggests that muscle cells and adipocytes interplay during growth. In addition, early events that influence adipogenesis inside the muscle (i.e proliferation and differentiation of adipose cells, the connective structure embedding adipocytes) might be involved in interindividual differences in IMF content. Increasing muscularity will also dilute the final fat content of muscle. At the metabolic level, IMF content results from the balance between uptake, synthesis and degradation of triacylglycerols, which involve many metabolic pathways in both adipocytes and myofibres. Various experiments revealed an association between IMF level and the muscle content in adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein, the activities of oxidative enzymes, or the delta-6-desaturase level; however, other studies failed to confirm such relationships. This might be due to the importance of fatty acid fluxes that is likely to be responsible for variability in IMF content during the postnatal period rather than the control of one single pathway. This is evident in the muscle of most fish species in which triacylglycerol synthesis is almost zero. Genetic approaches for increasing IMF have been focused on live animal ultrasound to derive estimated breeding values. More recently, efforts have concentrated on discovering DNA markers that change the distribution of fat in the body (i.e. towards IMF at the expense of the carcass fatness

  2. Control of the Biofilms Formed by Curli- and Cellulose-Expressing Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Using Treatments with Organic Acids and Commercial Sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2015-05-01

    Biofilms are a mixture of bacteria and extracellular products secreted by bacterial cells and are of great concern to the food industry because they offer physical, mechanical, and biological protection to bacterial cells. This study was conducted to quantify biofilms formed by different Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces and to determine the effectiveness of sanitizing treatments in control of these biofilms. STEC producing various amounts of cellulose (n = 6) or curli (n = 6) were allowed to develop biofilms on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces at 28°C for 7 days. The biofilms were treated with 2% acetic or lactic acid and manufacturer-recommended concentrations of acidic or alkaline sanitizers, and residual biofilms were quantified. Treatments with the acidic and alkaline sanitizers were more effective than those with the organic acids for removing the biofilms. Compared with their counterparts, cells expressing a greater amount of cellulose or curli formed more biofilm mass and had greater residual mass after sanitizing treatments on polystyrene than on stainless steel. Research suggests that the organic acids and sanitizers used in the present study differed in their ability to control biofilms. Bacterial surface components and cell contact surfaces can influence both biofilm formation and the efficacy of sanitizing treatments. These results provide additional information on control of biofilms formed by STEC. PMID:25951395

  3. Control of the Biofilms Formed by Curli- and Cellulose-Expressing Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Using Treatments with Organic Acids and Commercial Sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2015-05-01

    Biofilms are a mixture of bacteria and extracellular products secreted by bacterial cells and are of great concern to the food industry because they offer physical, mechanical, and biological protection to bacterial cells. This study was conducted to quantify biofilms formed by different Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces and to determine the effectiveness of sanitizing treatments in control of these biofilms. STEC producing various amounts of cellulose (n = 6) or curli (n = 6) were allowed to develop biofilms on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces at 28°C for 7 days. The biofilms were treated with 2% acetic or lactic acid and manufacturer-recommended concentrations of acidic or alkaline sanitizers, and residual biofilms were quantified. Treatments with the acidic and alkaline sanitizers were more effective than those with the organic acids for removing the biofilms. Compared with their counterparts, cells expressing a greater amount of cellulose or curli formed more biofilm mass and had greater residual mass after sanitizing treatments on polystyrene than on stainless steel. Research suggests that the organic acids and sanitizers used in the present study differed in their ability to control biofilms. Bacterial surface components and cell contact surfaces can influence both biofilm formation and the efficacy of sanitizing treatments. These results provide additional information on control of biofilms formed by STEC.

  4. Ex Vivo Application of Secreted Metabolites Produced by Soil-Inhabiting Bacillus spp. Efficiently Controls Foliar Diseases Caused by Alternaria spp.

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S. A.; Patel, Jaimin S.; Green, Kari B.; Ali, Mohammad; Brennan, Mary; Norman, David

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biological control agents (BCAs) are largely used as live products to control plant pathogens. However, due to variable environmental and ecological factors, live BCAs usually fail to produce desirable results against foliar pathogens. In this study, we investigated the potential of cell-free culture filtrates of 12 different bacterial BCAs isolated from flower beds for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria spp. In vitro studies showed that culture filtrates from two isolates belonging to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens displayed strong efficacy and potencies against Alternaria spp. The antimicrobial activity of the culture filtrate of these two biological control agents was effective over a wider range of pH (3.0 to 9.0) and was not affected by autoclaving or proteolysis. Comparative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses showed that a complex mixture of cyclic lipopeptides, primarily of the fengycin A and fengycin B families, was significantly higher in these two BCAs than inactive Bacillus spp. Interaction studies with mixtures of culture filtrates of these two species revealed additive activity, suggesting that they produce similar products, which was confirmed by LC-tandem MS analyses. In in planta pre- and postinoculation trials, foliar application of culture filtrates of B. subtilis reduced lesion sizes and lesion frequencies caused by Alternaria alternata by 68 to 81%. Taken together, our studies suggest that instead of live bacteria, culture filtrates of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens can be applied either individually or in combination for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria species. PMID:26519395

  5. Ex Vivo Application of Secreted Metabolites Produced by Soil-Inhabiting Bacillus spp. Efficiently Controls Foliar Diseases Caused by Alternaria spp.

    PubMed

    Ali, Gul Shad; El-Sayed, Ashraf S A; Patel, Jaimin S; Green, Kari B; Ali, Mohammad; Brennan, Mary; Norman, David

    2015-10-30

    Bacterial biological control agents (BCAs) are largely used as live products to control plant pathogens. However, due to variable environmental and ecological factors, live BCAs usually fail to produce desirable results against foliar pathogens. In this study, we investigated the potential of cell-free culture filtrates of 12 different bacterial BCAs isolated from flower beds for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria spp. In vitro studies showed that culture filtrates from two isolates belonging to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens displayed strong efficacy and potencies against Alternaria spp. The antimicrobial activity of the culture filtrate of these two biological control agents was effective over a wider range of pH (3.0 to 9.0) and was not affected by autoclaving or proteolysis. Comparative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses showed that a complex mixture of cyclic lipopeptides, primarily of the fengycin A and fengycin B families, was significantly higher in these two BCAs than inactive Bacillus spp. Interaction studies with mixtures of culture filtrates of these two species revealed additive activity, suggesting that they produce similar products, which was confirmed by LC-tandem MS analyses. In in planta pre- and postinoculation trials, foliar application of culture filtrates of B. subtilis reduced lesion sizes and lesion frequencies caused by Alternaria alternata by 68 to 81%. Taken together, our studies suggest that instead of live bacteria, culture filtrates of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens can be applied either individually or in combination for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria species.

  6. Risk Factors and Outcomes Associated with Acquisition of Colistin-Resistant KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: a Matched Case-Control Study▿

    PubMed Central

    Zarkotou, Olympia; Pournaras, Spyros; Voulgari, Evangelia; Chrysos, Georgios; Prekates, Athanassios; Voutsinas, Dionysios; Themeli-Digalaki, Katerina; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2010-01-01

    A matched 1:3 case-control study investigated factors predicting colistin-resistant versus colistin-susceptible KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae acquisition and its impact on patient outcomes. Case patients were more often admitted from other institutions (P = 0.019) and had longer therapy with β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (P = 0.002) and higher overall mortality (P = 0.05). All 52 study isolates were clonally related, suggesting horizontal dissemination. None of these parameters independently predicted colistin resistance, which probably occurred in a susceptible KPC-KP strain that was subsequently disseminated horizontally. PMID:20375234

  7. Development of a real-time PCR assay with an internal amplification control for detection of Gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria in fish.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Jones, Jessica L; Benner, Ronald; Burkhardt, William

    2011-05-01

    Prompt detection of bacteria that contribute to scombrotoxin (histamine) fish poisoning can aid in the detection of potentially toxic fish products and prevent the occurrence of illness. We report development of the first real-time PCR method for rapid detection of Gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) in fish. The real-time PCR assay was 100% inclusive for detecting high-histamine producing isolates and did not detect any of the low- or non-histamine producing isolates. The efficiency of the assay with/without internal amplification control ranged from 96-104% and in the presence of background flora and inhibitory matrices was 92/100% and 73-96%, respectively. This assay was used to detect HPB from naturally contaminated yellowfin tuna, bluefish, and false albacore samples. Photobacterium damselae (8), Plesiomonas shigelloides (2), Shewanella sp. (1), and Morganella morganii (1) were subsequently isolated from the real-time PCR positive fish samples. These results indicate that the real-time PCR assay developed in this study is a rapid and sensitive method for detecting high-HPB. The assay may be adapted for quantification of HPB, either directly or with an MPN-PCR method. PMID:21356438

  8. Design of an internal amplification control for a duplex PCR used in the detection of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in pediatric feces.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Ibáñez, Ángel Gabriel; Lucero-Estrada, Cecilia; Chialva, Constanza; Zárate, Juan Manuel; Juri-Ayub, Maximiliano; Escudero, María Esther

    2015-12-01

    A conventional PCR targeted directly to the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in diarrheal stools of symptomatic patients may require the introduction of internal controls to detect false negative results. In the present study, we designed a competitive internal amplification control (IAC) to be included in a well-known PCR protocol used to amplify the stx1and stx2 genes from STEC isolates. The IAC was introduced in the PCR reaction and amplified when E. coli O157:H7 cultures and contaminated pediatric feces were assayed. When STEC concentration was 10(3) CFU ml(-1) in pure culture and 10(4) CFU g(-1) in contaminated stools, the IAC at concentration of 0.143 pg μl(-1) in the PCR reaction mixture was co-amplified with the stx2 sequence, producing bands of 279 and 349 bp, respectively. These STEC values were considered the detection limits of the duplex PCR. The specific detection of STEC by duplex PCR including IAC might be achieved directly on pediatric feces when the pathogen load reaches concentrations of at least 10(4) CFU g(-1).

  9. Use of a Genetically Enhanced, Pediocin-Producing Starter Culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, To Control Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Buyong, Nurliza; Kok, Jan; Luchansky, John B.

    1998-01-01

    Cheddar cheese was prepared with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, a starter culture which contains pMC117 coding for pediocin PA-1. About 75 liters of pasteurized milk (containing ca. 3.6% fat) was inoculated with strain MM217 (ca. 106 CFU per ml) and a mixture of three Listeria monocytogenes strains (ca. 103 CFU per ml). The viability of the pathogen and the activity of pediocin in the cheese were monitored at appropriate intervals throughout the manufacturing process and during ripening at 8°C for 6 months. In control cheese made with the isogenic, non-pediocin-producing starter culture L. lactis subsp. lactis MM210, the counts of the pathogen increased to about 107 CFU per g after 2 weeks of ripening and then gradually decreased to about 103 CFU per g after 6 months. In the experimental cheese made with strain MM217, the counts of L. monocytogenes decreased to 102 CFU per g within 1 week of ripening and then decreased to about 10 CFU per g within 3 months. The average titer of pediocin in the experimental cheese decreased from approximately 64,000 arbitrary units (AU) per g after 1 day to 2,000 AU per g after 6 months. No pediocin activity (<200 AU per g) was detected in the control cheese. Also, the presence of pMC117 in strain MM217 did not alter the cheese-making quality of the starter culture, as the rates of acid production, the pH values, and the levels of moisture, NaCl, and fat of the control cheese and the experimental cheese were similar. Our data revealed that pediocin-producing starter cultures have significant potential for protecting natural cheese against L. monocytogenes. PMID:9835572

  10. Risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and non-O157 illness in The Netherlands, 2008-2012, using periodically surveyed controls.

    PubMed

    Friesema, I H M; Schotsborg, M; Heck, M E O C; Van Pelt, W

    2015-05-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections have been associated with severe illness. Ruminants are seen as the main reservoir and the major transmission route is considered to be foodborne. In The Netherlands, a case-control study was conducted, using data collected during 2008-2012. Patients were interviewed and controls completed a self-administered questionnaire. Patients travelling abroad were excluded from the analyses. STEC O157 and non-O157 were examined separately and differentiated into two age groups (<10 years, ⩾10 years). We included 130 O157 cases, 78 non-O157 cases and 1563 controls. In both age groups of O157 patients, raw spreadable sausage was the main risk factor for infection. For STEC non-O157 cases aged <10 years, contact with farm animals was the main risk factor and in non-O157 cases aged ⩾10 years, consumption of beef was the main risk factor. During 2008-2012, risk factors for STEC infections in the Dutch population differed between age groups and serogroup categories, and were related to eating meat and contact with farm animals. Advising the public about the risks of consuming raw or undercooked meat (products) and hygiene habits in case of contact with farm animals, could help in the prevention of STEC infections. PMID:25195737

  11. Project Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfinger, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The grocery store produce section used to be a familiar but rather dull place. There were bananas next to the oranges next to the limes. Broccoli was next to corn and lettuce. Apples and pears, radishes and onions, eggplants and zucchinis all lay in their appropriate bins. Those days are over. Now, broccoli may be next to bok choy, potatoes beside…

  12. Topical application of doxepin hydrochloride, capsaicin and a combination of both produces analgesia in chronic human neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    McCleane, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Aims To assess the analgesic efficacy of topical administration of 3.3% doxepin hydrochloride, 0.025% capsaicin and a combination of 3.3% doxepin and 0.025% capsaicin in human chronic neuropathic pain. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 200 consenting adult patients. Patients applied placebo, doxepin, capsaicin or doxepin/capsaicin cream daily for 4 weeks. Patients recorded on a daily basis overall pain, shooting, burning, paraesthesia and numbness using a 0–10 visual analogue scale during the week prior to cream application (baseline levels) and for the 4 week study period. Side-effects and desire to continue treatment were also recorded. Results Overall pain was significantly reduced by doxepin, capsaicin and doxepin/capsaicin to a similar extent. The analgesia with doxepin/capsaicin was of more rapid onset. Capsaicin significantly reduced sensitivity and shooting pain. Burning pain was increased by doxepin and by capsaicin and to a lesser extent by doxepin/capsaicin. Side-effects were minor. One patient requested to continue placebo cream, 17 doxepin cream, 13 capsaicin and 9 the combination of doxepin and capsaicin. Conclusions Topical application of 3.3% doxepin, 0.025% capsaicin and 3.3% doxepin/0.025% capsaicin produces analgesia of similar magnitude. The combination produces more rapid analgesia. PMID:10848721

  13. Controlled reduction of red mud waste to produce active systems for environmental applications: heterogeneous Fenton reaction and reduction of Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Costa, Regina C C; Moura, Flávia C C; Oliveira, Patrícia E F; Magalhães, Fabiano; Ardisson, José D; Lago, Rochel M

    2010-02-01

    In this work, controlled reduction of red mud with H(2) was used to produce active systems for two different environmental applications, i.e. the heterogeneous Fenton reaction and the reduction of Cr(VI). Mössbauer, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed that at different temperatures, i.e. 300, 400, 500 and 600 degrees C, H(2) reduces red mud to different phases, mainly Fe(3)O(4), Fe(0)/Fe(3)O(4) and Fe(0). These Fe phases are dispersed on Al, Si and Ti oxides present in the red mud and show high reactivity towards two environmental applications, i.e. the heterogeneous Fenton reaction and the reduction of Cr(VI). Reduction with H(2) at 400 degrees C showed the best results for the oxidation of the model dye methylene blue with H(2)O(2) at neutral pH due to the presence of the composite Fe(0)/Fe(3)O(4). The reduced red mud at 500-600 degrees C produced Fe(0) highly active for the reduction of Cr(VI) in aqueous medium. Another feature of these red mud based system is that after deactivation due to extensive use they can be completely regenerated by simple treatment with H(2).

  14. Surface Tension Guided Hanging-Drop: Producing Controllable 3D Spheroid of High-Passaged Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Forming Inductive Microtissues for Hair-Follicle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bojie; Miao, Yong; Wang, Jin; Fan, Zhexiang; Du, Lijuan; Su, Yongsheng; Liu, Bingcheng; Hu, Zhiqi; Xing, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Human dermal papilla (DP) cells have been studied extensively when grown in the conventional monolayer. However, because of great deviation from the real in vivo three-dimensional (3D) environment, these two-dimensional (2D) grown cells tend to lose the hair-inducible capability during passaging. Hence, these 2D caused concerns have motivated the development of novel 3D culture techniques to produce cellular microtissues with suitable mimics. The hanging-drop approach is based on surface tension-based technique and the interaction between surface tension and gravity field that makes a convergence of liquid drops. This study used this technique in a converged drop to form cellular spheroids of dermal papilla cells. It leads to a controllable 3Dspheroid model for scalable fabrication of inductive DP microtissues. The optimal conditions for culturing high-passaged (P8) DP spheroids were determined first. Then, the morphological, histological and functional studies were performed. In addition, expressions of hair-inductive markers including alkaline phosphatase, α-smooth muscle actin and neural cell adhesion molecule were also analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining and immunoblotting. Finally, P8-DP microtissues were coimplanted with newborn mouse epidermal cells (EPCs) into nude mice. Our results indicated that the formation of 3D microtissues not only endowed P8-DP microtissues many similarities to primary DP, but also confer these microtissues an enhanced ability to induce hair-follicle (HF) neogenesis in vivo. This model provides a potential to elucidate the native biology of human DP, and also shows the promising for the controllable and scalable production of inductive DP cells applied in future follicle regeneration.

  15. Transcription strategy in a Closterovirus: a novel 5'-proximal controller element of Citrus Tristeza Virus produces 5'- and 3'-terminal subgenomic RNAs and differs from 3' open reading frame controller elements.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Siddarame; Ayllón, María A; Satyanarayana, Tatineni; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Dawson, William O

    2003-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) produces more than thirty 3'- or 5'-terminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) that accumulate to various extents during replication in protoplasts and plants. Among the most unusual species are two abundant populations of small 5'-terminal sgRNAs of approximately 800 nucleotides (nt) termed low-molecular-weight tristeza (LMT1 and LMT2) RNAs. Remarkably, CTV replicons with all 10 3' genes deleted produce only the larger LMT1 RNAs. These 5'-terminal positive-sense sgRNAs do not have corresponding negative strands and were hypothesized to be produced by premature termination during plus-strand genomic RNA synthesis. We characterized a cis-acting element that controls the production of the LMT1 RNAs. Since manipulation of this cis-acting element in its native position (the L-ProI region of replicase) was not possible because the mutations negatively affect replication, a region (5'TR) surrounding the putative termination sites (nt approximately 550 to 1000) was duplicated in the 3' end of a CTV replicon to allow characterization. The duplicated sequence continued to produce a 5'-terminal plus-strand sgRNA, here much larger ( approximately 11 kb), apparently by termination. Surprisingly, a new 3'-terminal sgRNA was observed from the duplicated 5'TR. A large 3'-terminal sgRNA resulting from the putative promoter activity of the native 5'TR was not observed, possibly because of the down-regulation of a promoter approximately 19 kb from the 3' terminus. However, we were able to observe a sgRNA produced from the native 5'TR of a small defective RNA, which placed the native 5'TR closer to the 3' terminus, demonstrating sgRNA promoter activity of the native 5'TR. Deletion mutagenesis mapped the promoter and the terminator activities of the 5'TR (in the 3' position in the CTV replicon) to a 57-nt region, which was folded by the MFOLD computer program into two stem-loops. Mutations in the putative stem-loop structures equally reduced or prevented production

  16. Defectless Monolithic Low-k/Cu Interconnects Produced by Chemically Controlled Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process with In situ End-Point-Detection Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, Makoto; Onodera, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Akira; Hoshino, Susumu; Hayashi, Yoshihiro

    2009-04-01

    Defectless monolithic low-k/Cu interconnects have been obtained for low-power LSIs by a chemically controlled local chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process to remove a Cu/TaN barrier on hydrophobic SiOCH low-k films. In the first step, Cu-CMP, a unique end-point-detection (EDP) method is implemented to detect a very thin Cu layer (˜100 nm) that remains on the TaN barrier by in situ white-light interferometry, which is implemented in the local CMP apparatus where the wafers undergoing polishing are oriented face-up. In the second step, TaN-CMP, a SiO2 hard-mask (HM) layer on the low-k film is selectively removed to reduce the nonuniformity of the Cu line thickness, and accordingly, those of the resistance and capacitance. Here, a CMP slurry with an oxidizer is used to change the low-k surface from a hydrophobic condition to a hydrophilic condition, improving wettability and reducing the number of scratches and abrasive particles. In the post-CMP cleaning, an alkaline rinse solution with an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of less than -0.5 V vs a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) produces a clean low-k surface resulting in monolithic low-k/Cu interconnects with excellent dielectric properties comparable to those of SiO2/Cu interconnects.

  17. A versatile, non genetically modified organism (GMO)-based strategy for controlling low-producer mutants in Bordetella pertussis cultures using antigenic modulation.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Philippe; Slock, Thomas; Smessaert, Vincent; De Rop, Philippe; Dehottay, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The uncontrolled presence of non-producer mutants negatively affects bioprocesses. In Bordetella pertussis cultures, avirulent mutants emerge spontaneously and accumulate. We characterized the dynamics of accumulation using high-throughput growth assays and competition experiments between virulent and avirulent (bvg(-) ) isolates. A fitness advantage of bvg(-) cells was identified as the main driver for bvg(-) accumulation under conditions of high virulence factor production. Conversely, under conditions that reduce their expression (antigenic modulation), bvg(-) takeover could be avoided. A control strategy was derived, which consists in applying modulating conditions whenever virulence factor production is not required. It has a wide range of applications, from routine laboratory operations to vaccine manufacturing, where pertussis toxin yields were increased 1.4-fold by performing early pre-culture steps in modulating conditions. Because it only requires subtle modifications of the culture medium and does not involve genetic modifications, this strategy is applicable to any B. pertussis isolate, and should facilitate regulatory acceptance of process changes for vaccine production. Strategies based on the same concept, could be derived for other industrially relevant micro-organisms. This study illustrates how a sound scientific understanding of physiological principles can be turned into a practical application for the bioprocess industry, in alignment with Quality by Design principles.

  18. Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in children with acute diarrhoea and controls in Teresina/PI, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria do Rosário Conceição Moura; Magalhães, Paula Prazeres; Macêdo, Antônio da Silva; Franco, Roger Teixeira; Penna, Francisco José; Mendes, Edilberto Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    This 3.5-year prospective study was conducted to ascertain the level of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) associated diarrhoea in children from Teresina, a northeastern state of Brazil. Passed faecal specimens from 400 patients (250 with and 150 without diarrhoea) up to 60 months of age attending from 2004 to 2007 at two public hospitals were investigated. Conventional microbiology methods and PCR were employed. Escherichia coli was isolated from 390 children, 240 of them with diarrhoea. A total of 117 AEEC strains were cultivated from specimens from 63 children, 37 with and 26 without diarrhoea. No association between AEEC and diarrhoea was observed. Atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (a-EPEC) (79.4%) was more commonly found than typical EPEC (t-EPEC). Association between EPEC and EPEC subtypes and diarrhoea was not detected. Mixed infection by t-EPEC and a-EPEC and infection by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) were rare. Enteropathogenic E. coli was more common in males and in children aged less than 12 months. Correlation between serotyping and PCR results was 0.19. High resistance rates of AEEC to ampicillin, cephalotin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were found. In conclusion, EPEC is very common in children with diarrhoea and controls in the population we studied, with a-EPEC predominating. This diarrhoeagenic E. coli (DEC) pathotype is more common in infant males and is resistant to drugs frequently used in clinical practice.

  19. Effects of the organic acids produced by a lactic acid bacterium in Apis mellifera colony development, Nosema ceranae control and fumagillin efficiency.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías; Negri, Pedro; Plischuk, Santiago; Szawarski, Nicolás; De Piano, Fiorella; De Feudis, Leonardo; Eguaras, Martín; Audisio, Carina

    2013-12-27

    The European honey bee Apis mellifera is known to be affected by many parasites and pathogens that have great impact over the insect development. Among parasites affecting bee health, Nosema ceranae is one of the main biotic factors affecting colony populations. As honey bee populations decline, interest in pathogenic and mutualistic relationships between bees and microorganisms has increased. The main goal of the current study was to assess the effect of the oral administration of the metabolites produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 (mainly organic acids) supplemented in syrup, on: (I) N. ceranae sporulation dynamics before and after fumagillin application, and (II) performance of A. mellifera colonies. Different experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these bacterial metabolites on bees: in vitro administration revealed no toxic effects against bees. Colonies fed with the lactic acids incremented their beehive population and also the amount of fat bodies per bee. Finally, the organic acids reduced the intensity of the pathogen after the second application of treatment as well as enhanced the fumagillin efficiency. This study provides important information for the development of new control substances against nosemosis.

  20. A versatile, non genetically modified organism (GMO)-based strategy for controlling low-producer mutants in Bordetella pertussis cultures using antigenic modulation.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Philippe; Slock, Thomas; Smessaert, Vincent; De Rop, Philippe; Dehottay, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The uncontrolled presence of non-producer mutants negatively affects bioprocesses. In Bordetella pertussis cultures, avirulent mutants emerge spontaneously and accumulate. We characterized the dynamics of accumulation using high-throughput growth assays and competition experiments between virulent and avirulent (bvg(-) ) isolates. A fitness advantage of bvg(-) cells was identified as the main driver for bvg(-) accumulation under conditions of high virulence factor production. Conversely, under conditions that reduce their expression (antigenic modulation), bvg(-) takeover could be avoided. A control strategy was derived, which consists in applying modulating conditions whenever virulence factor production is not required. It has a wide range of applications, from routine laboratory operations to vaccine manufacturing, where pertussis toxin yields were increased 1.4-fold by performing early pre-culture steps in modulating conditions. Because it only requires subtle modifications of the culture medium and does not involve genetic modifications, this strategy is applicable to any B. pertussis isolate, and should facilitate regulatory acceptance of process changes for vaccine production. Strategies based on the same concept, could be derived for other industrially relevant micro-organisms. This study illustrates how a sound scientific understanding of physiological principles can be turned into a practical application for the bioprocess industry, in alignment with Quality by Design principles. PMID:26014907

  1. Effects of the organic acids produced by a lactic acid bacterium in Apis mellifera colony development, Nosema ceranae control and fumagillin efficiency.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Matías; Negri, Pedro; Plischuk, Santiago; Szawarski, Nicolás; De Piano, Fiorella; De Feudis, Leonardo; Eguaras, Martín; Audisio, Carina

    2013-12-27

    The European honey bee Apis mellifera is known to be affected by many parasites and pathogens that have great impact over the insect development. Among parasites affecting bee health, Nosema ceranae is one of the main biotic factors affecting colony populations. As honey bee populations decline, interest in pathogenic and mutualistic relationships between bees and microorganisms has increased. The main goal of the current study was to assess the effect of the oral administration of the metabolites produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 (mainly organic acids) supplemented in syrup, on: (I) N. ceranae sporulation dynamics before and after fumagillin application, and (II) performance of A. mellifera colonies. Different experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these bacterial metabolites on bees: in vitro administration revealed no toxic effects against bees. Colonies fed with the lactic acids incremented their beehive population and also the amount of fat bodies per bee. Finally, the organic acids reduced the intensity of the pathogen after the second application of treatment as well as enhanced the fumagillin efficiency. This study provides important information for the development of new control substances against nosemosis. PMID:23978352

  2. Infrared sensor-based aerosol sanitization system for controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Ha, Jae-Won; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    An economical aerosol sanitization system was developed based on sensor technology for minimizing sanitizer usage, while maintaining bactericidal efficacy. Aerosol intensity in a system chamber was controlled by a position-sensitive device and its infrared value range. The effectiveness of the infrared sensor-based aerosolization (ISA) system to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on spinach leaf surfaces was compared with conventional aerosolization (full-time aerosol treated), and the amount of sanitizer consumed was determined after operation. Three pathogens artificially inoculated onto spinach leaf surfaces were treated with aerosolized peracetic acid (400 ppm) for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at room temperature (22 ± 2°C). Using the ISA system, inactivation levels of the three pathogens were equal or better than treatment with conventional full-time aerosolization. However, the amount of sanitizer consumed was reduced by ca. 40% using the ISA system. The results of this study suggest that an aerosol sanitization system combined with infrared sensor technology could be used for transportation and storage of fresh produce efficiently and economically as a practical commercial intervention. PMID:24853521

  3. Injectable PLGA/Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Microcapsules Produced by Supercritical Emulsion Extraction Technology: An In Vitro Study on Teriparatide/Gentamicin Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Della Porta, Giovanna; Campardelli, Roberta; Cricchio, Vincenzo; Oliva, Francesco; Maffulli, Nicola; Reverchon, Ernesto

    2016-07-01

    Supercritical emulsion extraction (SEE) is proposed as a green and effective strategy for the fabrication of chitosan-covered poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (chi-PLGA) injectable microcapsules for the controlled release of teriparatide (THA) and teriparatide/gentamicin sulfate (THA/Gen). These formulations can be used for locally bone pathologies treatment or in complex fracture healing of aged patients. Several oil-water (o-w) and water-oil-water (w-o-w) emulsions were processed by SEE to produce multifunctional microcapsules containing hydroxyapatite (HA) within a poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) matrix (up to 24 mg/g) and with both THA (0.45 mg/g) and Gen (up to 9 mg/g). Chitosan coating was also successfully added, as external layer (0.4 μm). SEE-fabricated microcapsules showed good encapsulation efficiency (up to 90%) for all the drugs tested and a mean size ranging between 1.4 (±0.4) μm and 2.2 (±0.5) μm. Different drug amounts loaded and microcapsules compositions assured a controlled drug release over a wide range of times and concentrations, as in vitro monitored in PBS medium at 37°C for 15/20 days. HA embedded into the biopolymer structure delayed the THA release profile; chitosan coating strongly reduced the initial drug "burst" release. In addition, the coencapsulation of both THA and Gen, which have very different water solubility, accelerated the release profile of the less water-soluble drug. No drugs degradation was also monitored after the SEE manufacturing. Apparent drug diffusivities (D) were calculated by fitting of the release profiles. In the case of Gen, D ranged between 2.9 × 10(-8) and 1.6 × 10(-9) cm(2)s(-1) if the drug was entrapped in simple PLGA or in the chitosan-coated microcapsules, respectively. In the case of THA, the calculated values ranged between 8.1 × 10(-9) and 7.4 × 10(-10) cm(2)s(-1) when the drug was entrapped in PLGA/HA microcapsules or in the chitosan-coated ones, respectively. These mass transfer values

  4. Bacteriocin-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Mangrove Forests in Southern Thailand as Potential Bio-Control Agents: Purification and Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis KT2W2L.

    PubMed

    Hwanhlem, Noraphat; Biscola, Vanessa; El-Ghaish, Shady; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Dousset, Xavier; Haertlé, Thomas; H-Kittikun, Aran; Chobert, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to purify and characterize the bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis KT2W2L previously isolated from mangrove forests in southern Thailand, in order to evaluate its potential as new food protective agent. The active peptide from the cell-free supernatant of this strain was purified in 4 steps: (1) precipitation with 70 % saturated ammonium sulfate, (2) elution on a reversed-phase cartridge using different concentrations of acetonitrile, (3) cation-exchange chromatography and (4) final purification by reversed-phase HPLC on a C8 column. The molecular mass of 3,329.5254 Da of the purified bacteriocin, determined by mass spectrometry, is nearly identical to that of peptide nisin Z. The activity of the purified bacteriocin was unaffected by pH (2.0-10.0), thermostable but was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes. The bacteriocin activity was stable after 8 weeks of storage at -20 °C and 7 weeks of storage at 4 °C, but decreased after 3 weeks of storage at 37 °C. It was stable when incubated for 1 month at 4 °C in 0-30 % NaCl. Inhibitory spectrum of this bacteriocin showed a wide range of activity against similar bacterial strains, food-spoilage and food-borne pathogens. L. lactis subsp. lactis KT2W2L was sensitive to kanamycin, penicillin and tetracycline but resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin and vancomycin. The fragment obtained after amplification of genomic DNA from L. lactis subsp. lactis KT2W2L, with specific primers for bacteriocin genes, presented 99 % homology to the nisin Z gene. PCR amplification demonstrated that L. lactis subsp. lactis KT2W2L does not harbor virulence genes cylA, cylB, efaAfs and esp. The bacteriocin and its producing strain may find application as bio-preservatives for reduction in food-spoilage and food-borne pathogens in food products.

  5. Blast damage control during underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    Tracer blasting is commonly used in Canadian underground mines for overbreak control. It involves tracing a column of ANFO with a low strength detonating cord. In order to investigate the effectiveness of tracer blasting in perimeter control and to understand its mechanism, a field experimentation was conducted which involved drifting, benching and pipe tests. Initially, a comparison between tracer blasting and other explosive products was made on the basis of half cast factor and percentage overbreak. It was found that tracer blasting produced relatively much lower damage. The following observations were made during tracer blasting experiments: (a) reduction in ground vibrations; (b) partial deflagration and desensitization of ANFO; (c) reduction in the total available explosive energy; (d) continuous side initiation of ANFO column; (e) lateral VOD of ANFO was much less than the steady state VOD; (f) energy partitioning was more in favor of gas energy. It was observed that tracer blasting has the potential of being very cost effective and safer technique for overbreak control. A mechanism of tracer blasting has also been proposed in this paper.

  6. Manufacturing and producibility technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing/producibility working group within the Advanced High-Pressure O2/H2 Technology Program are summarized. The objectives of the M/P working group are: to develop and evaluate process and manufacturing techniques for advanced propulsion hardware design and selected materials; and to optimize the producibility of (SSME) components and assemblies by improved performance, increased life, greater reliability, and/or reduced cost. The technologies being developed include: plasma arc, laser, and inertia welding; combustion chamber and turbine blade coatings; coating processes; high performance alloy electroforming; and process control technology.

  7. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Neonatal Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteremia: A 12-Year Case-Control-Control Study of a Referral Center in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Horng; Lee, I-Ta; Chu, Shih-Ming; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Hsuan-Rong; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) in the neonatal intensive care unit was characterized by comparison with two control groups: a susceptible control group and a general base population group over 2001 to 2012. The influence of ESBL production on mortality was studied in all study subjects and ESBL-GNB isolates were microbiologically characterized. We identified 77 episodes of ESBL-GNB (14.2% of all neonatal late-onset GNB), which were caused by Klebsiella spp. (62.3%), E. coli (20.8%) and Enterobacter spp. (16.9%). Most ESBL-GNB strains were genetically unrelated and the SHV-type ESBLs were the most prevalent (67% of isolates). Comparison with both control groups disclosed previous usage of 3rd generation cephalosporin (odds ratio [OR], 4.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.03-10.97; P < 0.001), and underlying renal disease (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.10-15.08; P = 0.035) as independent risk factors for ESBL-GNB. Inadequate empiric antibiotics, a higher illness severity, higher rates of infectious complications and sepsis-attributable mortality were more frequently seen in neonates with ESBL-GNB than those with non-ESBL GNB (20.8% and 15.6% vs. 9.2% and 7.9%, respectively; P = 0.008 and 0.049, respectively). Neonates with underlying secondary hypertension (OR, 7.22; 95% CI, 2.17-24.06) and infectious complications after bacteremia (OR, 6.66; 95% CI, 1.81-19.31) were identified as independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality. ESBL-GNB accounted for one-seventh of all neonatal gram-negative bacteremia, especially in neonates exposed to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Neonates with ESBL-GNB bacteremia more frequently received inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy, which were associated with a higher rate of infectious complications and an adverse outcome. PMID:27505270

  8. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Neonatal Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteremia: A 12-Year Case-Control-Control Study of a Referral Center in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shih-Ming; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Hsuan-Rong; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) in the neonatal intensive care unit was characterized by comparison with two control groups: a susceptible control group and a general base population group over 2001 to 2012. The influence of ESBL production on mortality was studied in all study subjects and ESBL-GNB isolates were microbiologically characterized. We identified 77 episodes of ESBL-GNB (14.2% of all neonatal late-onset GNB), which were caused by Klebsiella spp. (62.3%), E. coli (20.8%) and Enterobacter spp. (16.9%). Most ESBL-GNB strains were genetically unrelated and the SHV-type ESBLs were the most prevalent (67% of isolates). Comparison with both control groups disclosed previous usage of 3rd generation cephalosporin (odds ratio [OR], 4.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.03–10.97; P < 0.001), and underlying renal disease (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.10–15.08; P = 0.035) as independent risk factors for ESBL-GNB. Inadequate empiric antibiotics, a higher illness severity, higher rates of infectious complications and sepsis-attributable mortality were more frequently seen in neonates with ESBL-GNB than those with non-ESBL GNB (20.8% and 15.6% vs. 9.2% and 7.9%, respectively; P = 0.008 and 0.049, respectively). Neonates with underlying secondary hypertension (OR, 7.22; 95% CI, 2.17–24.06) and infectious complications after bacteremia (OR, 6.66; 95% CI, 1.81–19.31) were identified as independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality. ESBL-GNB accounted for one-seventh of all neonatal gram-negative bacteremia, especially in neonates exposed to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Neonates with ESBL-GNB bacteremia more frequently received inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy, which were associated with a higher rate of infectious complications and an adverse outcome. PMID:27505270

  9. A COMPOUND PRODUCED BY FRUIGIVOROUS TEPHRITIDAE (DIPTERA) LARVAE PROMOTES OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOR BY THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We co...

  10. Geologic controls on movement of produced-water releases at US geological survey research Site A, Skiatook lake, Osage county, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Smith, B.D.; Abbott, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Highly saline produced water was released from multiple sources during oil field operations from 1913 to 1973 at the USGS research Site A on Skiatook Lake in northeastern Oklahoma. Two pits, designed to hold produced water and oil, were major sources for release of these fluids at the site. Produced water spills from these and other features moved downslope following topography and downdip by percolating through permeable eolian sand and colluvium, underlying permeable sandstone, and, to a lesser extent, through shales and mudstones. Saline water penetrated progressively deeper units as it moved through the gently dipping bedrock to the north and NW. A large eroded salt scar north of the pits coincides with underlying fine-grained rocks that have retained substantial concentrations of salt, causing slow revegetation. Where not eroded, thick eolian sand or permeable sandstone bedrock is near the surface, and vegetation has been little affected or has reestablished itself after the introduced salt was flushed by precipitation. The extent of salt-contaminated bedrock extends well beyond existing surface salt scars. These results indicate that one of the legacies of surface salt spills can be a volume of subsurface salinization larger than the visible surface disturbance. ?? 2007.

  11. Density and temperature characterization of long-scale length, near-critical density controlled plasma produced from ultra-low density plastic foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. N.; Iwawaki, T.; Morita, K.; Antici, P.; Baton, S. D.; Filippi, F.; Habara, H.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Nicolaï, P.; Nazarov, W.; Rousseaux, C.; Starodubstev, M.; Tanaka, K. A.; Fuchs, J.

    2016-02-01

    The ability to produce long-scale length (i.e. millimeter scale-length), homogeneous plasmas is of interest in studying a wide range of fundamental plasma processes. We present here a validated experimental platform to create and diagnose uniform plasmas with a density close or above the critical density. The target consists of a polyimide tube filled with an ultra low-density plastic foam where it was heated by x-rays, produced by a long pulse laser irradiating a copper foil placed at one end of the tube. The density and temperature of the ionized foam was retrieved by using x-ray radiography and proton radiography was used to verify the uniformity of the plasma. Plasma temperatures of 5-10 eV and densities around 1021 cm-3 are measured. This well-characterized platform of uniform density and temperature plasma is of interest for experiments using large-scale laser platforms conducting High Energy Density Physics investigations.

  12. Use of whole-genome sequencing to trace, control and characterize the regional expansion of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing ST15 Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kai; Lokate, Mariette; Deurenberg, Ruud H.; Tepper, Marga; Arends, Jan P.; Raangs, Erwin G. C.; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome; Grundmann, Hajo; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2016-01-01

    The study describes the transmission of a CTX-M-15-producing ST15 Klebsiella pneumoniae between patients treated in a single center and the subsequent inter-institutional spread by patient referral occurring between May 2012 and September 2013. A suspected epidemiological link between clinical K. pneumoniae isolates was supported by patient contact tracing and genomic phylogenetic analysis from May to November 2012. By May 2013, a patient treated in three institutions in two cities was involved in an expanding cluster caused by this high-risk clone (HiRiC) (local expansion, CTX-M-15 producing, and containing hypervirulence factors). A clone-specific multiplex PCR was developed for patient screening by which another patient was identified in September 2013. Genomic phylogenetic analysis including published ST15 genomes revealed a close homology with isolates previously found in the USA. Environmental contamination and lack of consistent patient screening were identified as being responsible for the clone dissemination. The investigation addresses the advantages of whole-genome sequencing in the early detection of HiRiC with a high propensity of nosocomial transmission and prolonged circulation in the regional patient population. Our study suggests the necessity for inter-institutional/regional collaboration for infection/outbreak management of K. pneumoniae HiRiCs. PMID:26864946

  13. Density and temperature characterization of long-scale length, near-critical density controlled plasma produced from ultra-low density plastic foam.

    PubMed

    Chen, S N; Iwawaki, T; Morita, K; Antici, P; Baton, S D; Filippi, F; Habara, H; Nakatsutsumi, M; Nicolaï, P; Nazarov, W; Rousseaux, C; Starodubstev, M; Tanaka, K A; Fuchs, J

    2016-02-29

    The ability to produce long-scale length (i.e. millimeter scale-length), homogeneous plasmas is of interest in studying a wide range of fundamental plasma processes. We present here a validated experimental platform to create and diagnose uniform plasmas with a density close or above the critical density. The target consists of a polyimide tube filled with an ultra low-density plastic foam where it was heated by x-rays, produced by a long pulse laser irradiating a copper foil placed at one end of the tube. The density and temperature of the ionized foam was retrieved by using x-ray radiography and proton radiography was used to verify the uniformity of the plasma. Plasma temperatures of 5-10 eV and densities around 10(21) cm(-3) are measured. This well-characterized platform of uniform density and temperature plasma is of interest for experiments using large-scale laser platforms conducting High Energy Density Physics investigations.

  14. Effects of curing sodium nitrite additive and natural meat fat on growth control of Listeria monocytogenes by the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus curvatus strain CWBI-B28.

    PubMed

    Kouakou, P; Ghalfi, H; Destain, J; Dubois-Dauphin, R; Evrard, P; Thonart, P

    2009-09-01

    In realistic model meat systems, the separate and combined effects of fat content and sodium nitrite on the antilisterial activity of the bacteriocin of Lactobacillus curvatus CWBI-B28 were studied. In laboratory fermentations where Listeria monocytogenes was co-cultured at 4 degrees C with bacteriocin-producing CWBI-B28 in lean pork meat (fat content: 13%) without added nitrite, a strong antilisterial effect was observed after one week. The effect was maintained for an additional week, after which a slight and very gradual rebound was observed. Both added nitrite (20 ppm) and a high-fat content (43%) were found to antagonise this antilisterial effect, the Listeria cfu count reached after six weeks being 200 times as high in high-fat meat with added nitrite than in lean meat without nitrite. This antagonism could not be attributed to slower growth of the bacteriocin-producing strain, since CWBI-B28 grew optimally in fat-rich meat with 20 ppm sodium nitrite. Bacteriocin activity was also measured in the samples. The observed activity levels are discussed in relation to the degree of antilisterial protection conferred.

  15. Density and temperature characterization of long-scale length, near-critical density controlled plasma produced from ultra-low density plastic foam

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. N.; Iwawaki, T.; Morita, K.; Antici, P.; Baton, S. D.; Filippi, F.; Habara, H.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Nicolaï , P.; Nazarov, W.; Rousseaux, C.; Starodubstev, M.; Tanaka, K. A.; Fuchs, J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to produce long-scale length (i.e. millimeter scale-length), homogeneous plasmas is of interest in studying a wide range of fundamental plasma processes. We present here a validated experimental platform to create and diagnose uniform plasmas with a density close or above the critical density. The target consists of a polyimide tube filled with an ultra low-density plastic foam where it was heated by x-rays, produced by a long pulse laser irradiating a copper foil placed at one end of the tube. The density and temperature of the ionized foam was retrieved by using x-ray radiography and proton radiography was used to verify the uniformity of the plasma. Plasma temperatures of 5–10 eV and densities around 1021 cm−3 are measured. This well-characterized platform of uniform density and temperature plasma is of interest for experiments using large-scale laser platforms conducting High Energy Density Physics investigations. PMID:26923471

  16. Density and temperature characterization of long-scale length, near-critical density controlled plasma produced from ultra-low density plastic foam.

    PubMed

    Chen, S N; Iwawaki, T; Morita, K; Antici, P; Baton, S D; Filippi, F; Habara, H; Nakatsutsumi, M; Nicolaï, P; Nazarov, W; Rousseaux, C; Starodubstev, M; Tanaka, K A; Fuchs, J

    2016-01-01

    The ability to produce long-scale length (i.e. millimeter scale-length), homogeneous plasmas is of interest in studying a wide range of fundamental plasma processes. We present here a validated experimental platform to create and diagnose uniform plasmas with a density close or above the critical density. The target consists of a polyimide tube filled with an ultra low-density plastic foam where it was heated by x-rays, produced by a long pulse laser irradiating a copper foil placed at one end of the tube. The density and temperature of the ionized foam was retrieved by using x-ray radiography and proton radiography was used to verify the uniformity of the plasma. Plasma temperatures of 5-10 eV and densities around 10(21) cm(-3) are measured. This well-characterized platform of uniform density and temperature plasma is of interest for experiments using large-scale laser platforms conducting High Energy Density Physics investigations. PMID:26923471

  17. User Experience May be Producing Greater Heart Rate Variability than Motor Imagery Related Control Tasks during the User-System Adaptation in Brain-Computer Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz M; Gutiérrez-Begovich, David A; Argüello-García, Janet; Sepulveda, Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Ricardo A

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) is technology that is developing fast, but it remains inaccurate, unreliable and slow due to the difficulty to obtain precise information from the brain. Consequently, the involvement of other biosignals to decode the user control tasks has risen in importance. A traditional way to operate a BCI system is via motor imagery (MI) tasks. As imaginary movements activate similar cortical structures and vegetative mechanisms as a voluntary movement does, heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a parameter to improve the detection of MI related control tasks. However, HR is very susceptible to body needs and environmental demands, and as BCI systems require high levels of attention, perceptual processing and mental workload, it is important to assess the practical effectiveness of HRV. The present study aimed to determine if brain and heart electrical signals (HRV) are modulated by MI activity used to control a BCI system, or if HRV is modulated by the user perceptions and responses that result from the operation of a BCI system (i.e., user experience). For this purpose, a database of 11 participants who were exposed to eight different situations was used. The sensory-cognitive load (intake and rejection tasks) was controlled in those situations. Two electrophysiological signals were utilized: electroencephalography and electrocardiography. From those biosignals, event-related (de-)synchronization maps and event-related HR changes were respectively estimated. The maps and the HR changes were cross-correlated in order to verify if both biosignals were modulated due to MI activity. The results suggest that HR varies according to the experience undergone by the user in a BCI working environment, and not because of the MI activity used to operate the system.

  18. User Experience May be Producing Greater Heart Rate Variability than Motor Imagery Related Control Tasks during the User-System Adaptation in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz M.; Gutiérrez-Begovich, David A.; Argüello-García, Janet; Sepulveda, Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Ricardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) is technology that is developing fast, but it remains inaccurate, unreliable and slow due to the difficulty to obtain precise information from the brain. Consequently, the involvement of other biosignals to decode the user control tasks has risen in importance. A traditional way to operate a BCI system is via motor imagery (MI) tasks. As imaginary movements activate similar cortical structures and vegetative mechanisms as a voluntary movement does, heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a parameter to improve the detection of MI related control tasks. However, HR is very susceptible to body needs and environmental demands, and as BCI systems require high levels of attention, perceptual processing and mental workload, it is important to assess the practical effectiveness of HRV. The present study aimed to determine if brain and heart electrical signals (HRV) are modulated by MI activity used to control a BCI system, or if HRV is modulated by the user perceptions and responses that result from the operation of a BCI system (i.e., user experience). For this purpose, a database of 11 participants who were exposed to eight different situations was used. The sensory-cognitive load (intake and rejection tasks) was controlled in those situations. Two electrophysiological signals were utilized: electroencephalography and electrocardiography. From those biosignals, event-related (de-)synchronization maps and event-related HR changes were respectively estimated. The maps and the HR changes were cross-correlated in order to verify if both biosignals were modulated due to MI activity. The results suggest that HR varies according to the experience undergone by the user in a BCI working environment, and not because of the MI activity used to operate the system. PMID:27458384

  19. User Experience May be Producing Greater Heart Rate Variability than Motor Imagery Related Control Tasks during the User-System Adaptation in Brain-Computer Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz M; Gutiérrez-Begovich, David A; Argüello-García, Janet; Sepulveda, Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Ricardo A

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) is technology that is developing fast, but it remains inaccurate, unreliable and slow due to the difficulty to obtain precise information from the brain. Consequently, the involvement of other biosignals to decode the user control tasks has risen in importance. A traditional way to operate a BCI system is via motor imagery (MI) tasks. As imaginary movements activate similar cortical structures and vegetative mechanisms as a voluntary movement does, heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed as a parameter to improve the detection of MI related control tasks. However, HR is very susceptible to body needs and environmental demands, and as BCI systems require high levels of attention, perceptual processing and mental workload, it is important to assess the practical effectiveness of HRV. The present study aimed to determine if brain and heart electrical signals (HRV) are modulated by MI activity used to control a BCI system, or if HRV is modulated by the user perceptions and responses that result from the operation of a BCI system (i.e., user experience). For this purpose, a database of 11 participants who were exposed to eight different situations was used. The sensory-cognitive load (intake and rejection tasks) was controlled in those situations. Two electrophysiological signals were utilized: electroencephalography and electrocardiography. From those biosignals, event-related (de-)synchronization maps and event-related HR changes were respectively estimated. The maps and the HR changes were cross-correlated in order to verify if both biosignals were modulated due to MI activity. The results suggest that HR varies according to the experience undergone by the user in a BCI working environment, and not because of the MI activity used to operate the system. PMID:27458384

  20. Production of nano-solid dispersions using a novel solvent-controlled precipitation process - Benchmarking their in vivo performance with an amorphous micro-sized solid dispersion produced by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Íris; Corvo, M Luísa; Serôdio, Pedro; Vicente, João; Pinto, João F; Temtem, Márcio

    2016-10-10

    A novel solvent controlled precipitation (SCP) process based on microfluidization was assessed to produce solid dispersions of carbamazepine, a poorly water-soluble drug with dissolution-rate limited absorption. A half-factorial design (2(3-1)+2 central points) was conducted to study the effect of different formulation variables (viz. polymer type, drug load, and feed solids' concentration) on the particle size and morphology, drug's solid state and drug's molecular distribution within the carrier of the co-precipitated materials produced. Co-precipitated powders were isolated via spray drying (SD). Nano-composite aggregated particles were obtained among all the tests. The particle size of the aggregates was dependent on the feed solids' concentration, while the level of aggregation between nanoparticles was dependent on the drug-polymer ratio. Both amorphous and crystalline nano-solid dispersions were produced using the proposed SCP process. The solid dispersion produced was dependent on both the type of polymeric stabilizer chosen and the drug load. Controls of amorphous and crystalline nano-solid dispersions produced by SCP and an amorphous micro-solid dispersion produced by SD were tested for: in vitro dissolution, in vivo pharmacokinetics in mice, and long-term storage physical stability. Both nano-amorphous and nano-crystalline presented faster dissolution rates and enhanced bioavailabilities than the micro-sized amorphous powder. The reduction of particle size to the nano-scale was found to be more important than the amorphization of the drug. The long-term physical stability of the amorphous nano-solid dispersion and the amorphous micro-solid dispersion were comparable. PMID:27519665

  1. Production of nano-solid dispersions using a novel solvent-controlled precipitation process - Benchmarking their in vivo performance with an amorphous micro-sized solid dispersion produced by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Íris; Corvo, M Luísa; Serôdio, Pedro; Vicente, João; Pinto, João F; Temtem, Márcio

    2016-10-10

    A novel solvent controlled precipitation (SCP) process based on microfluidization was assessed to produce solid dispersions of carbamazepine, a poorly water-soluble drug with dissolution-rate limited absorption. A half-factorial design (2(3-1)+2 central points) was conducted to study the effect of different formulation variables (viz. polymer type, drug load, and feed solids' concentration) on the particle size and morphology, drug's solid state and drug's molecular distribution within the carrier of the co-precipitated materials produced. Co-precipitated powders were isolated via spray drying (SD). Nano-composite aggregated particles were obtained among all the tests. The particle size of the aggregates was dependent on the feed solids' concentration, while the level of aggregation between nanoparticles was dependent on the drug-polymer ratio. Both amorphous and crystalline nano-solid dispersions were produced using the proposed SCP process. The solid dispersion produced was dependent on both the type of polymeric stabilizer chosen and the drug load. Controls of amorphous and crystalline nano-solid dispersions produced by SCP and an amorphous micro-solid dispersion produced by SD were tested for: in vitro dissolution, in vivo pharmacokinetics in mice, and long-term storage physical stability. Both nano-amorphous and nano-crystalline presented faster dissolution rates and enhanced bioavailabilities than the micro-sized amorphous powder. The reduction of particle size to the nano-scale was found to be more important than the amorphization of the drug. The long-term physical stability of the amorphous nano-solid dispersion and the amorphous micro-solid dispersion were comparable.

  2. Effects of pH control and concentration on microbial oil production from Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the effluent of a low-cost organic waste fermentation system producing volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Kim, Young Mo; Choi, Yun-Nam; Xu, Xu; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced from low-cost organic waste to the major carbon sources of microalgae cultivation for highly efficient biofuel production. An integrated process that consists of a sewage sludge fermentation system producing VFAs (SSFV) and mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was operated to produce microbial lipids economically. The effluents from the SSFV diluted to different concentrations at the level of 100%, 50%, and 15% were prepared for the C. vulgaris cultivation and the highest biomass productivity (433±11.9 mg/L/d) was achieved in the 100% culture controlling pH at 7.0. The harvested biomass included lipid contents ranging from 12.87% to 20.01% under the three different effluent concentrations with and without pH control. The composition of fatty acids from C. vulgaris grown on the effluents from the SSFV complied with the requirements of high-quality biodiesel. These results demonstrated that VFAs produced from the SSFV are favorable carbon sources for cultivating C. vulgaris.

  3. A bi-hemispheric neuronal network model of the cerebellum with spontaneous climbing fiber firing produces asymmetrical motor learning during robot control

    PubMed Central

    Pinzon-Morales, Ruben-Dario; Hirata, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    To acquire and maintain precise movement controls over a lifespan, changes in the physical and physiological characteristics of muscles must be compensated for adaptively. The cerebellum plays a crucial role in such adaptation. Changes in muscle characteristics are not always symmetrical. For example, it is unlikely that muscles that bend and straighten a joint will change to the same degree. Thus, different (i.e., asymmetrical) adaptation is required for bending and straightening motions. To date, little is known about the role of the cerebellum in asymmetrical adaptation. Here, we investigate the cerebellar mechanisms required for asymmetrical adaptation using a bi-hemispheric cerebellar neuronal network model (biCNN). The bi-hemispheric structure is inspired by the observation that lesioning one hemisphere reduces motor performance asymmetrically. The biCNN model was constructed to run in real-time and used to control an unstable two-wheeled balancing robot. The load of the robot and its environment were modified to create asymmetrical perturbations. Plasticity at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses in the biCNN model was driven by error signal in the climbing fiber (cf) input. This cf input was configured to increase and decrease its firing rate from its spontaneous firing rate (approximately 1 Hz) with sensory errors in the preferred and non-preferred direction of each hemisphere, as demonstrated in the monkey cerebellum. Our results showed that asymmetrical conditions were successfully handled by the biCNN model, in contrast to a single hemisphere model or a classical non-adaptive proportional and derivative controller. Further, the spontaneous activity of the cf, while relatively small, was critical for balancing the contribution of each cerebellar hemisphere to the overall motor command sent to the robot. Eliminating the spontaneous activity compromised the asymmetrical learning capabilities of the biCNN model. Thus, we conclude that a bi

  4. A bi-hemispheric neuronal network model of the cerebellum with spontaneous climbing fiber firing produces asymmetrical motor learning during robot control.

    PubMed

    Pinzon-Morales, Ruben-Dario; Hirata, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    To acquire and maintain precise movement controls over a lifespan, changes in the physical and physiological characteristics of muscles must be compensated for adaptively. The cerebellum plays a crucial role in such adaptation. Changes in muscle characteristics are not always symmetrical. For example, it is unlikely that muscles that bend and straighten a joint will change to the same degree. Thus, different (i.e., asymmetrical) adaptation is required for bending and straightening motions. To date, little is known about the role of the cerebellum in asymmetrical adaptation. Here, we investigate the cerebellar mechanisms required for asymmetrical adaptation using a bi-hemispheric cerebellar neuronal network model (biCNN). The bi-hemispheric structure is inspired by the observation that lesioning one hemisphere reduces motor performance asymmetrically. The biCNN model was constructed to run in real-time and used to control an unstable two-wheeled balancing robot. The load of the robot and its environment were modified to create asymmetrical perturbations. Plasticity at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses in the biCNN model was driven by error signal in the climbing fiber (cf) input. This cf input was configured to increase and decrease its firing rate from its spontaneous firing rate (approximately 1 Hz) with sensory errors in the preferred and non-preferred direction of each hemisphere, as demonstrated in the monkey cerebellum. Our results showed that asymmetrical conditions were successfully handled by the biCNN model, in contrast to a single hemisphere model or a classical non-adaptive proportional and derivative controller. Further, the spontaneous activity of the cf, while relatively small, was critical for balancing the contribution of each cerebellar hemisphere to the overall motor command sent to the robot. Eliminating the spontaneous activity compromised the asymmetrical learning capabilities of the biCNN model. Thus, we conclude that a bi

  5. Effectiveness of the live attenuated rotavirus vaccine produced by a domestic manufacturer in China studied using a population-based case-control design.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shan-Shan; Li, Yue; Wang, Song-Mei; Zhang, Xin-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Jing-Chen; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Wang, Xuan-Yi

    2015-10-01

    A universal rotavirus (RV) immunization program is a potentially cost-effective measure for preventing RV infection in China. However, the efficacy of the only licensed RV vaccine (Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine, LLR), which is made by a domestic manufacturer, has not been proven by a properly designed clinical trial. In October 2011 to March 2012, to measure the potential protection provided by LLR, a case-control study nested in a population-based active diarrhea surveillance study of children <5 years of age was conducted in rural Zhengding county. During the study period, 308 episodes of diarrhea were identified as being caused by RV infection, resulting in an incidence rate of 48.0/1000 people/year. The predominant RV serotype was G3 (61.5%), followed by G1 (15.2%), and G9 (6.5%). Overall, a protection of 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0%-52.0%) was identified, and higher protection was found among moderate RV gastroenteritis cases caused by the serotype G3 (52.0% 95% CI: 2.0%-76.1%). A concurrently conducted case-control study comparing non-RV viral diarrheal cases with non-diarrheal controls in the same population found that the RV vaccine offered no protection against non-RV diarrhea. Even under a less ideal immunization schedule, the oral LLR conferred a certain level of protection against RV gastroenteritis. However, further studies are needed to understand the full characteristics of the LLR, including its efficacy when administered following the optimal regimen, the potential risk of inducing intussusception, and the direct and indirect protective effects of LLR.

  6. Effectiveness of the live attenuated rotavirus vaccine produced by a domestic manufacturer in China studied using a population-based case-control design.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shan-Shan; Li, Yue; Wang, Song-Mei; Zhang, Xin-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Jing-Chen; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Wang, Xuan-Yi

    2015-10-01

    A universal rotavirus (RV) immunization program is a potentially cost-effective measure for preventing RV infection in China. However, the efficacy of the only licensed RV vaccine (Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine, LLR), which is made by a domestic manufacturer, has not been proven by a properly designed clinical trial. In October 2011 to March 2012, to measure the potential protection provided by LLR, a case-control study nested in a population-based active diarrhea surveillance study of children <5 years of age was conducted in rural Zhengding county. During the study period, 308 episodes of diarrhea were identified as being caused by RV infection, resulting in an incidence rate of 48.0/1000 people/year. The predominant RV serotype was G3 (61.5%), followed by G1 (15.2%), and G9 (6.5%). Overall, a protection of 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0%-52.0%) was identified, and higher protection was found among moderate RV gastroenteritis cases caused by the serotype G3 (52.0% 95% CI: 2.0%-76.1%). A concurrently conducted case-control study comparing non-RV viral diarrheal cases with non-diarrheal controls in the same population found that the RV vaccine offered no protection against non-RV diarrhea. Even under a less ideal immunization schedule, the oral LLR conferred a certain level of protection against RV gastroenteritis. However, further studies are needed to understand the full characteristics of the LLR, including its efficacy when administered following the optimal regimen, the potential risk of inducing intussusception, and the direct and indirect protective effects of LLR. PMID:26576341

  7. Effectiveness of the live attenuated rotavirus vaccine produced by a domestic manufacturer in China studied using a population-based case–control design

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Shan-Shan; Li, Yue; Wang, Song-Mei; Zhang, Xin-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Jing-Chen; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Wang, Xuan-Yi

    2015-01-01

    A universal rotavirus (RV) immunization program is a potentially cost-effective measure for preventing RV infection in China. However, the efficacy of the only licensed RV vaccine (Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine, LLR), which is made by a domestic manufacturer, has not been proven by a properly designed clinical trial. In October 2011 to March 2012, to measure the potential protection provided by LLR, a case–control study nested in a population-based active diarrhea surveillance study of children <5 years of age was conducted in rural Zhengding county. During the study period, 308 episodes of diarrhea were identified as being caused by RV infection, resulting in an incidence rate of 48.0/1000 people/year. The predominant RV serotype was G3 (61.5%), followed by G1 (15.2%), and G9 (6.5%). Overall, a protection of 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0%–52.0%) was identified, and higher protection was found among moderate RV gastroenteritis cases caused by the serotype G3 (52.0% 95% CI: 2.0%–76.1%). A concurrently conducted case–control study comparing non-RV viral diarrheal cases with non-diarrheal controls in the same population found that the RV vaccine offered no protection against non-RV diarrhea. Even under a less ideal immunization schedule, the oral LLR conferred a certain level of protection against RV gastroenteritis. However, further studies are needed to understand the full characteristics of the LLR, including its efficacy when administered following the optimal regimen, the potential risk of inducing intussusception, and the direct and indirect protective effects of LLR. PMID:26576341

  8. A fast and simple dose-calibrator-based quality control test for the radionuclidic purity of cyclotron-produced 99mTc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguay, J.; Hou, X.; Esquinas, P.; Vuckovic, M.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2015-11-01

    Cyclotron production of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc through the 100Mo(p,2n){{}99\\text{m}} Tc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based 99Mo generation by nuclear fission of 235U. Like most radioisotope production methods, cyclotron production of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc will result in creation of unwanted impurities, including Tc and non-Tc isotopes. It is important to measure the amounts of these impurities for release of cyclotron-produced {{}99\\text{m}} Tc (CPTc) for clinical use. Detection of radioactive impurities will rely on measurements of their gamma (γ) emissions. Gamma spectroscopy is not suitable for this purpose because the overwhelming presence of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc and the count-rate limitations of γ spectroscopy systems preclude fast and accurate measurement of small amounts of impurities. In this article we describe a simple and fast method for measuring γ emission rates from radioactive impurities in CPTc. The proposed method is similar to that used to identify 99Mo breakthrough in generator-produced {{}99\\text{m}} Tc: one dose calibrator (DC) reading of a CPTc source placed in a lead shield is followed by a second reading of the same source in air. Our experimental and theoretical analysis show that the ratio of DC readings in lead to those in air are linearly related to γ emission rates from impurities per MBq of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc over a large range of clinically-relevant production conditions. We show that estimates of the γ emission rates from Tc impurities per MBq of {{}99\\text{m}} Tc can be used to estimate increases in radiation dose (relative to pure {{}99\\text{m}} Tc) to patients injected with CPTc-based radiopharmaceuticals. This enables establishing dosimetry-based clinical-release criteria that can be tested using commercially-available dose calibrators. We show that our approach is highly sensitive to the presence of {{}93\\text{g}} Tc, {{}93\\text{m}} Tc, {{}94\\text{g}} Tc, {{}94\\text{m}} Tc

  9. A fast and simple dose-calibrator-based quality control test for the radionuclidic purity of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Esquinas, P; Vuckovic, M; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2015-11-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the (100)Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. Like most radioisotope production methods, cyclotron production of 99mTc will result in creation of unwanted impurities, including Tc and non-Tc isotopes. It is important to measure the amounts of these impurities for release of cyclotron-produced 99mTc (CPTc) for clinical use. Detection of radioactive impurities will rely on measurements of their gamma (γ) emissions. Gamma spectroscopy is not suitable for this purpose because the overwhelming presence of 99mTc and the count-rate limitations of γ spectroscopy systems preclude fast and accurate measurement of small amounts of impurities. In this article we describe a simple and fast method for measuring γ emission rates from radioactive impurities in CPTc. The proposed method is similar to that used to identify (99)Mo breakthrough in generator-produced 99mTc: one dose calibrator (DC) reading of a CPTc source placed in a lead shield is followed by a second reading of the same source in air. Our experimental and theoretical analysis show that the ratio of DC readings in lead to those in air are linearly related to γ emission rates from impurities per MBq of 99mTc over a large range of clinically-relevant production conditions. We show that estimates of the γ emission rates from Tc impurities per MBq of 99mTc can be used to estimate increases in radiation dose (relative to pure 99mTc) to patients injected with CPTc-based radiopharmaceuticals. This enables establishing dosimetry-based clinical-release criteria that can be tested using commercially-available dose calibrators. We show that our approach is highly sensitive to the presence of 93gTc, 93mTc, 94gTc, 94mTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, and 96gTc, in addition to a number of non-Tc impurities.

  10. A fast and simple dose-calibrator-based quality control test for the radionuclidic purity of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Esquinas, P; Vuckovic, M; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2015-11-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the (100)Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. Like most radioisotope production methods, cyclotron production of 99mTc will result in creation of unwanted impurities, including Tc and non-Tc isotopes. It is important to measure the amounts of these impurities for release of cyclotron-produced 99mTc (CPTc) for clinical use. Detection of radioactive impurities will rely on measurements of their gamma (γ) emissions. Gamma spectroscopy is not suitable for this purpose because the overwhelming presence of 99mTc and the count-rate limitations of γ spectroscopy systems preclude fast and accurate measurement of small amounts of impurities. In this article we describe a simple and fast method for measuring γ emission rates from radioactive impurities in CPTc. The proposed method is similar to that used to identify (99)Mo breakthrough in generator-produced 99mTc: one dose calibrator (DC) reading of a CPTc source placed in a lead shield is followed by a second reading of the same source in air. Our experimental and theoretical analysis show that the ratio of DC readings in lead to those in air are linearly related to γ emission rates from impurities per MBq of 99mTc over a large range of clinically-relevant production conditions. We show that estimates of the γ emission rates from Tc impurities per MBq of 99mTc can be used to estimate increases in radiation dose (relative to pure 99mTc) to patients injected with CPTc-based radiopharmaceuticals. This enables establishing dosimetry-based clinical-release criteria that can be tested using commercially-available dose calibrators. We show that our approach is highly sensitive to the presence of 93gTc, 93mTc, 94gTc, 94mTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, and 96gTc, in addition to a number of non-Tc impurities. PMID:26449791

  11. Novel, band-controlled metal oxide compositions for semiconductor-mediated photocatalytic splitting of water to produce H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Narendra M.

    2013-02-05

    Semiconductor-mediated photo-catalytic dissociation of water offers a unique opportunity for the production of H{sub 2}, a sustainable source of energy. More efficient and chemically stable photo-catalysts, however, remain a vital requirement for commercial viability of this process. The recent research in my group has focused on the synthesis of several new metal oxide (MO) photo-catalysts, such as: LaInO{sub 3}, GaFeO{sub 3}, InVO{sub 4}, In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} and nanotubular TiO{sub 2}. These samples of controlled grain morphology have been synthesized by using different synthesis protocols and with and without coating of a noble metal co-catalyst. The doping of an impurity, either at cationic or at anionic lattice site, has helped in the tailoring of band structure and making these oxides visible-light-sensitive. Our study has revealed that the surface characteristics, grain morphology, band structure, and doping-induced lattice imperfections control the photo-physical properties and overall photo-catalytic water splitting activity of these metal/MO composites [1-6]. We have demonstrated that, besides promoting certain charge-transfer steps, metal-semiconductor interfaces influence the adsorption of water molecules and their subsequent interaction with photo-generated electron-hole pair at the catalyst surface. The role played by the above-mentioned micro-structural properties in photo-catalytic water splitting process will be discussed.

  12. A feedback mechanism to control apoptosis occurs in the digestive gland of the oyster crassostrea gigas exposed to the paralytic shellfish toxins producer Alexandrium catenella.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Jean-Luc; Medhioub, Walid; Vergnes, Agnes; Abi-Khalil, Celina; Savar, Véronique; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Laabir, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    To better understand the effect of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) accumulation in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, we experimentally exposed individual oysters for 48 h to a PSTs producer, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. In comparison to the effect of the non-toxic Alexandrium tamarense, on the eight apoptotic related genes tested, Bax and BI.1 were significantly upregulated in oysters exposed 48 h to A. catenella. Among the five detoxification related genes tested, the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) was shown to be correlated with toxin concentration in the digestive gland of oysters exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate. Beside this, we observed a significant increase in ROS production, a decrease in caspase-3/7 activity and normal percentage of apoptotic cells in this tissue. Taken together, these results suggest a feedback mechanism, which may occur in the digestive gland where BI.1 could play a key role in preventing the induction of apoptosis by PSTs. Moreover, the expression of CYP1A, Bax and BI.1 were found to be significantly correlated to the occurrence of natural toxic events, suggesting that the expression of these genes together could be used as biomarker to assess the biological responses of oysters to stress caused by PSTs. PMID:25257788

  13. A Feedback Mechanism to Control Apoptosis Occurs in the Digestive Gland of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas Exposed to the Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Producer Alexandrium catenella

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Jean-Luc; Medhioub, Walid; Vergnes, Agnes; Abi-khalil, Celina; Savar, Véronique; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Laabir, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the effect of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) accumulation in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, we experimentally exposed individual oysters for 48 h to a PSTs producer, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. In comparison to the effect of the non-toxic Alexandrium tamarense, on the eight apoptotic related genes tested, Bax and BI.1 were significantly upregulated in oysters exposed 48 h to A. catenella. Among the five detoxification related genes tested, the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) was shown to be correlated with toxin concentration in the digestive gland of oysters exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate. Beside this, we observed a significant increase in ROS production, a decrease in caspase-3/7 activity and normal percentage of apoptotic cells in this tissue. Taken together, these results suggest a feedback mechanism, which may occur in the digestive gland where BI.1 could play a key role in preventing the induction of apoptosis by PSTs. Moreover, the expression of CYP1A, Bax and BI.1 were found to be significantly correlated to the occurrence of natural toxic events, suggesting that the expression of these genes together could be used as biomarker to assess the biological responses of oysters to stress caused by PSTs. PMID:25257788

  14. Pdx1 and controlled culture conditions induced differentiation of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells to insulin-producing clusters.

    PubMed

    Chun, So Young; Mack, David L; Moorefield, Emily; Oh, Se Heang; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Pettenati, Mark J; Yoo, James J; Coppi, Paolo De; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the differentiation of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs) into insulin-producing clusters in vitro. Adenovirally-delivered mouse Pdx1 (Ad-Pdx1) induced human Pdx1 expression in hAFSCs and enhanced the coordinated expression of downstream β-cell markers. When Ad-Pdx1-transduced hAFSCs were sequentially treated with activin A, bFGF and nicotinamide and the culture plate surface coated with poly-l-ornithine, the expression of islet-associated human mRNAs for Pdx1, Pax6, Ngn3 and insulin was increased. C-peptide ELISA confirmed that Ad-Pdx1-transduced hAFSCs processed and secreted insulin in a manner consistent with that pathway in pancreatic β-cells. To sustain the β-cell-like phenotype and investigate the effect of three-dimensional (3D) conformation on the differentiation of hAFSCs, Pdx1-transduced cells were encapsulated in alginate and cultured long-term under serum-free conditions. Over 2 weeks, partially differentiated hAFSC clusters increased in size and increased insulin secretion. Taken together, these data demonstrate that ectopic Pdx1 expression initiates pancreatic differentiation in hAFSCs and that a β-cell-like phenotype can be augmented by culture conditions that mimic the stromal components and 3D geometry associated with pancreatic islets.

  15. A feedback mechanism to control apoptosis occurs in the digestive gland of the oyster crassostrea gigas exposed to the paralytic shellfish toxins producer Alexandrium catenella.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Jean-Luc; Medhioub, Walid; Vergnes, Agnes; Abi-Khalil, Celina; Savar, Véronique; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Laabir, Mohamed

    2014-09-25

    To better understand the effect of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) accumulation in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, we experimentally exposed individual oysters for 48 h to a PSTs producer, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. In comparison to the effect of the non-toxic Alexandrium tamarense, on the eight apoptotic related genes tested, Bax and BI.1 were significantly upregulated in oysters exposed 48 h to A. catenella. Among the five detoxification related genes tested, the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) was shown to be correlated with toxin concentration in the digestive gland of oysters exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate. Beside this, we observed a significant increase in ROS production, a decrease in caspase-3/7 activity and normal percentage of apoptotic cells in this tissue. Taken together, these results suggest a feedback mechanism, which may occur in the digestive gland where BI.1 could play a key role in preventing the induction of apoptosis by PSTs. Moreover, the expression of CYP1A, Bax and BI.1 were found to be significantly correlated to the occurrence of natural toxic events, suggesting that the expression of these genes together could be used as biomarker to assess the biological responses of oysters to stress caused by PSTs.

  16. Clinical-Grade Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Produced Under Various Good Manufacturing Practice Processes Differ in Their Immunomodulatory Properties: Standardization of Immune Quality Controls

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Cedric; Pacelli, Luciano; Bassi, Giulio; Dulong, Joelle; Bifari, Francesco; Bezier, Isabelle; Zanoncello, Jasmina; Ricciardi, Mario; Latour, Maelle; Bourin, Philippe; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Sensebé, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Clinical-grade mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are usually expanded from bone marrow (BMMSCs) or adipose tissue (ADSCs) using processes mainly differing in the use of fetal calf serum (FCS) or human platelet lysate (PL). We aimed to compare immune modulatory properties of clinical-grade MSCs using a combination of fully standardized in vitro assays. BMMSCs expanded with FCS (BMMSC-FCS) or PL (BMMSC-PL), and ADSC-PL were analyzed in quantitative phenotypic and functional experiments, including their capacity to inhibit the proliferation of T, B, and NK cells. The molecular mechanisms supporting T-cell inhibition were investigated. These parameters were also evaluated after pre-stimulation of MSCs with inflammatory cytokines. BMMSC-FCS, BMMSC-PL, and ADSC-PL displayed significant differences in expression of immunosuppressive and adhesion molecules. Standardized functional assays revealed that resting MSCs inhibited proliferation of T and NK cells, but not B cells. ADSC-PL were the most potent in inhibiting T-cell growth, a property ascribed to interferon-γ-dependent indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. MSCs did not stimulate allogeneic T cell proliferation but were efficiently lysed by activated NK cells. The systematic use of quantitative and reproducible validation techniques highlights differences in immunological properties of MSCs produced using various clinical-grade processes. ADSC-PL emerge as a promising candidate for future clinical trials. PMID:23339531

  17. Control of beef spoilage by a sulfide-producing Lactobacillus sake strain with bacteriocinogenic Leuconostoc gelidum UAL187 during anaerobic storage at 2 degrees C.

    PubMed Central

    Leisner, J J; Greer, G G; Stiles, M E

    1996-01-01

    Chill-stored, vacuum-packaged beef inoculated with sulfide-producing Lactobacillus sake 1218 developed a distinct sulfide odor within 3 weeks of storage at 2 degrees C, at which time the bacteria had reached maximum numbers of 10(6) CFU cm(-2). Coinoculation of the meat with the wild-type, bacteriocinogenic (Bac+) strain of Leuconostoc gelidum UAL187 delayed the spoilage by L. sake 1218 for up to 8 weeks of storage. Coinoculation of meat samples with an isogenic, slowly growing Bac+ variant, UAL187-22, or with the Bac- variant UAL187-13 did not delay the onset of spoilage by L. sake 1218. The study showed that spoilage of chill-stored, vacuum-packaged beef by a susceptible target organism could be dramatically delayed by the Bac+ wild-type strain of L. gelidum UAL187. Inoculation with L. sake 1218 can be used as a model system to determine the efficacy of biopreservation of vacuum-packaged meats. PMID:8779597

  18. Clinical-grade mesenchymal stromal cells produced under various good manufacturing practice processes differ in their immunomodulatory properties: standardization of immune quality controls.

    PubMed

    Menard, Cedric; Pacelli, Luciano; Bassi, Giulio; Dulong, Joelle; Bifari, Francesco; Bezier, Isabelle; Zanoncello, Jasmina; Ricciardi, Mario; Latour, Maelle; Bourin, Philippe; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Sensebé, Luc; Tarte, Karin; Krampera, Mauro

    2013-06-15

    Clinical-grade mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are usually expanded from bone marrow (BMMSCs) or adipose tissue (ADSCs) using processes mainly differing in the use of fetal calf serum (FCS) or human platelet lysate (PL). We aimed to compare immune modulatory properties of clinical-grade MSCs using a combination of fully standardized in vitro assays. BMMSCs expanded with FCS (BMMSC-FCS) or PL (BMMSC-PL), and ADSC-PL were analyzed in quantitative phenotypic and functional experiments, including their capacity to inhibit the proliferation of T, B, and NK cells. The molecular mechanisms supporting T-cell inhibition were investigated. These parameters were also evaluated after pre-stimulation of MSCs with inflammatory cytokines. BMMSC-FCS, BMMSC-PL, and ADSC-PL displayed significant differences in expression of immunosuppressive and adhesion molecules. Standardized functional assays revealed that resting MSCs inhibited proliferation of T and NK cells, but not B cells. ADSC-PL were the most potent in inhibiting T-cell growth, a property ascribed to interferon-γ-dependent indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. MSCs did not stimulate allogeneic T cell proliferation but were efficiently lysed by activated NK cells. The systematic use of quantitative and reproducible validation techniques highlights differences in immunological properties of MSCs produced using various clinical-grade processes. ADSC-PL emerge as a promising candidate for future clinical trials.

  19. In situ produced 10Be depth profiles and luminescence data tracing climatic and tectonic control on terrace formation, Danube River, Central Europe, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Braucher, Régis; Novothny, Ágnes; Csillag, Gábor; Fodor, László; Molnár, Gábor; Madarász, Balázs; Aster Team

    2015-04-01

    The terrace sequence of the Hungarian part of the Danube valley preserves a record of varying tectonic uplift rates along the river course and throughout several climate stages. To establish the chronology of formation of these terraces, two different dating methods on alluvial terraces were used: 1) in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be, which yield the time of abandonment of the terrace and 2) luminescence dating, which provides burial ages of the sediment. In situ produced cosmogenic 10Be samples originated from vertical depth profiles to enable the determination of both the exposure time and the denudation rate at each locality. We used Monte Carlo approach to model the denudation rate-corrected exposure ages. Post-IR IRSL measurements were carried out on K-feldspar samples to obtain the ages of sedimentation. The highest and oldest terrace remnants (tIV-VI) yield a minimum 10Be exposure age of 800 ka close to MIS 22, the onset of major continental glaciations of Quaternary age, suggesting climatic signal of the abandonment of the uppermost terrace levels. For the lower terraces it was possible to reveal close correlation with MIS stages using IRSL ages. The new chronology enables the distinction of tIIb (60-110 ka; MIS 4-5d) and tIIIa (130-190 ka; MIS 6) in the study area. Surface denudation rates were well constrained by the cosmogenic 10Be depth profiles between 5.9 m/Ma and 10.0 m/Ma for all terraces. Maximum incision rates of the Danube were calculated for middle and late Pleistocene times. These rates were increasing from west to east, toward the more elevated Transdanubian Range from 0.05 mm/a to 0.12 mm/a. Incision rates derived from the age of the low terraces (0.13 mm/a) may suggest a slight acceleration of uplift towards present. Our research was supported by the OTKA PD83610, PD100315, NK60455, K062478, K83150 and F042799, the French-Hungarian Balaton-Tét Project (FR-32/2007; TÉT_11-2-2012-0005), the Bolyai János Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy

  20. "Carbon in Underland": A multidisciplinary approach to producing an informative animated video for the Center for Nanoscale Control of Geological CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molins, S.; Cappuccio, J. A.; Berry, I.; Miller, J.; Bourg, I. C.; Kelly, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the 'Science for Our Nation's Energy Future, Summit and Forum', each of the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) created in 2009 by the US Department of Energy was invited to design a short, engaging film with the central goal to educate, inspire, and entertain an intelligent but not expert audience about the extraordinary science, innovation and people in their center. The Center for Nanoscale Control of Geological CO2 (NCGC) is an EFRC that is building a next generation understanding of molecular-to-pore-scale processes critical to controlling the flow,transport, and ultimate mineralization in porous rock media, in particular as applied to geologic sequestration of CO2. In response to the invitation, the NCGC assembled a team that included several young scientists, the Center project manager, and members from the Public Affairs and Creative Services Office of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the objective of preparing a submission. A videographer from the Creative Services Office was responsible for overall management including production, art direction, and editing, while scientists from the Center were responsible for scientific content and original storyline concept. The Center project manager facilitated the communication between team members. A group of scientists together with the project manager developed the original idea, which was refined and given shape as a script in dialogue form by a science writer from Public Affairs. The objective was to communicate scientific content in an entertaining manner with a simple storyline. In a second phase, the script was revised further by scientists for content. Clips from experiments and modeling simulations were requested from the Center's scientists to illustrate the scientific content. Video production and animation were done by the videographer and an animator in an iterative process that involve feedback from the Center team. The final cut was edited to meet the maximum length

  1. Control on molecular weight reduction of poly(ε-caprolactone) during melt spinning--a way to produce high strength biodegradable fibers.

    PubMed

    Pal, Jit; Kankariya, Nimesh; Sanwaria, Sunita; Nandan, Bhanu; Srivastava, Rajiv K

    2013-10-01

    Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is known for its biocompatibility and biodegradability. These features of PCL have resulted into significant academic as well as industrial research interests for use of this polymer in various areas including biomedical and tissue engineering. Three-dimensional porous scaffolds, controlled drug release systems and nerve guides are some of the forms in which this polymer has been used. Despite these forms, fibers made of PCL have not gained much attention due to PCL's low melting point (57-60 °C) and relatively inferior mechanical properties as compared to poly(L-lactide) (PLA). Also the polymer is sensitive to the process conditions of melt spinning which leads to degradation of PCL when subjected to high temperatures in the presence of air or moisture. Here we present an approach in which addition of a bilactone, bis-(ε-caprolactone-4-yl) (BCY), during melt spinning of PCL resulted into monofilament fibers having tenacity as high as 2500 MPa. The cross-linking of PCL which occurred due to BCY transesterification compensated for molecular weight reduction of the polymer under melt spinning conditions. PCL monofilament fibers thus developed have enhanced thermo-mechanical properties and therefore have high potential to be used in tissue engineering applications in the form of sutures, a mesh or a non-woven.

  2. Combined therapy of insulin-producing cells and haematopoietic stem cells offers better diabetic control than only haematopoietic stem cells' infusion for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dave, Shruti D; Trivedi, Hargovind L; Gopal, Saroj C; Chandra, Tulika

    2014-09-08

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic condition characterised by impaired blood sugar metabolism and autoimmunity. We report two children: a 5-year-old girl on exogenous insulin therapy of 30 IU/day and a 9-year-old boy on short-acting insulin 30 IU/day, long-acting insulin 70 IU/day, with IDDM since 4 and 7 years, respectively. We infused in vitro-generated donor bone marrow (BM)-derived haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in patient 1 and insulin-secreting cells trans-differentiated from autologous adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells along with BM-HSC in patient 2 under non-myeloablative conditioning. Patient 1 improved during the initial 6 months, but then again lost metabolic control with increased blood sugar levels and insulin requirement of 32 IU/day; we lost her to follow-up after 18 months. Patient 2, over follow-up of 24.87 months, has stable blood sugar levels with glycosylated haemoglobin of 6.4% and present insulin requirement of 15 IU/day.

  3. Effect of process control agent on the porous structure and mechanical properties of a biomedical Ti-Sn-Nb alloy produced by powder metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Nouri, A; Hodgson, P D; Wen, C E

    2010-04-01

    The influence of different amounts and types of process control agent (PCA), i.e., stearic acid and ethylene bis-stearamide, on the porous structure and mechanical properties of a biomedical Ti-16Sn-4Nb (wt.%) alloy was investigated. Alloy synthesis was performed on elemental metal powders using high-energy ball milling for 5h. Results indicated that varying the PCA content during ball milling led to a drastic change in morphology and particle-size distribution of the ball-milled powders. Porous titanium alloy samples sintered from the powders ball milled with the addition of various amounts of PCA also revealed different pore morphology and porosity. The Vickers hardness of the sintered titanium alloy samples exhibited a considerable increase with increasing PCA content. Moreover, the addition of larger amounts of PCA in the powder mixture resulted in a significant increase in the elastic modulus and peak stress for the sintered porous titanium alloy samples under compression. It should also be mentioned that the addition of PCA introduced contamination (mainly carbon and oxygen) into the sintered porous product.

  4. Combined therapy of insulin-producing cells and haematopoietic stem cells offers better diabetic control than only haematopoietic stem cells’ infusion for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Shruti D; Trivedi, Hargovind L; Gopal, Saroj C; Chandra, Tulika

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic condition characterised by impaired blood sugar metabolism and autoimmunity. We report two children: a 5-year-old girl on exogenous insulin therapy of 30 IU/day and a 9-year-old boy on short-acting insulin 30 IU/day, long-acting insulin 70 IU/day, with IDDM since 4 and 7 years, respectively. We infused in vitro-generated donor bone marrow (BM)-derived haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in patient 1 and insulin-secreting cells trans-differentiated from autologous adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells along with BM-HSC in patient 2 under non-myeloablative conditioning. Patient 1 improved during the initial 6 months, but then again lost metabolic control with increased blood sugar levels and insulin requirement of 32 IU/day; we lost her to follow-up after 18 months. Patient 2, over follow-up of 24.87 months, has stable blood sugar levels with glycosylated haemoglobin of 6.4% and present insulin requirement of 15 IU/day. PMID:25199184

  5. Short bouts of high-intensity resistance-style training produce similar reductions in fasting blood glucose of diabetic offspring and controls.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ryan D; Nelson, Arnold G; Kraemer, Robert R

    2014-10-01

    Family history of diabetes (FH) is associated with impaired cardiometabolic function. Aerobic exercise improves insulin sensitivity, though resistance training studies on fasting glucose (FG) in FH are lacking. This study examined the effects of 7 weeks of high-intensity-resistance-focused training (HIRFT), including circuit, core, and plyometric resistance training on FG in FH and matched controls (CON). We hypothesized that HIRFT would reduce FG levels, with greater reductions in CON. Thirty-eight healthy men and women (23.5 ± 2 years; 171 ± 7.4 cm; 71 ± 14 kg) participated in 7 weeks of HIRFT including full-body, plyometric, and core resistance training on alternate days. Fasting glucose was analyzed before and after the 7-week training before and after workouts. One repetition maximum was calculated for bench press, squat, and deadlift before and after training. Body mass index and resting HR remained unchanged. Fasting glucose declined similarly between groups with training (-0.23 ± 0.08 vs. -0.20 ± 0.07 mmol·L, p < 0.01 for FH and CON, respectively), whereas strength increased (kg) (bench: 8.0 ± 1.8, squat: 19.4 ± 4.6, deadlift: 16.4 ± 3.6, overall mean percent increase: 38.9 ± 9.2, p < 0.001). Ten-minute postexercise glucose decreased (-0.65 mmol·L, p = 0.05) with training, with no differences between groups. Changes in FG and strength increase were inversely correlated (r = -0.519, p = 0.05). Strength increased equally between groups. Data indicate that HIRFT reduces FG concentrations similarly in FH and CON, making it effective for improving FG in FH. PMID:25051004

  6. Mineralogical and geochemical controls on the release of trace elements from slag produced by base- and precious-metal smelting at abandoned mine sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, N.M.; Seal, R.R.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    toxicity guideline. Geochemical modeling of the leachate chemistry suggests that leachates from the Vermont, Tennessee and Clayton slags are saturated with amorphous silica and Al hydroxide. Therefore, the dissolution of silicate and oxide phases, the oxidation of sulfide phases, as well as the precipitation of secondary phases may control the composition of leachate from slags. The presence of secondary minerals on slag deposits in the field is evidence that these materials are reactive. The petrographic data and results of leaching tests from this study indicate slag may be a source of potentially toxic metals at abandoned mine sites.

  7. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SHADOWGRAPHS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, R.R.

    1959-08-11

    An apparatus is presented for obtaining shadowgraphs or radiographs of an object exposed to x rays or the like. The device includes the combination of a cloud chamber having the interior illuminated and a portion thereof transparent to light rays and x'rays, a controlled source of x rays spaced therefrom, photographic recording disposed laterally of the linear path intermediate the source and the chamber portion in oblique angularity in aspect to the path. The object to be studied is disposed intermediate the x-ray source and chamber in the linear path to provide an x-ray transmission barrier therebetween. The shadowgraph is produced in the cloud chamber in response to initiation of the x- ray source and recorded photographically.

  8. Produce handling and processing practices.

    PubMed Central

    Beuchat, L. R.; Ryu, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decade, outbreaks of human illness associated with the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits (or unpasteurized products produced from them) have increased in the United States. Changes in agronomic, harvesting, distribution, processing, and consumption patterns and practices have undoubtedly contributed to this increase. Pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Bacillus cereus are naturally present in some soil, and their presence on fresh produce is not rare. Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio cholerae, parasites, and viruses are more likely to contaminate fresh produce through vehicles such as raw or improperly composted manure, irrigation water containing untreated sewage, or contaminated wash water. Contact with mammals, reptiles, fowl, insects, and unpasteurized products of animal origin offers another avenue through which pathogens can access produce. Surfaces, including human hands, which come in contact with whole or cut produce represent potential points of contamination throughout the total system of growing, harvesting, packing, processing, shipping, and preparing produce for consumption. Treatment of produce with chlorinated water reduces populations of pathogenic and other microorganisms on fresh produce but cannot eliminate them. Reduction of risk for human illness associated with raw produce can be better achieved through controlling points of potential contamination in the field; during harvesting; during processing or distribution; or in retail markets, food-service facilities, or the home. PMID:9366597

  9. Crucial Role of Gamma Interferon-Producing CD4+ Th1 Cells but Dispensable Function of CD8+ T Cell, B Cell, Th2, and Th17 Responses in the Control of Brucella melitensis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vitry, Marie-Alice; De Trez, Carl; Goriely, Stanislas; Dumoutier, Laure; Akira, Shizuo; Ryffel, Bernhard; Carlier, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis that causes abortion in domestic animals and chronic febrile disease associated with serious complications in humans. There is currently no approved vaccine against human brucellosis, and antibiotic therapy is long and costly. Development of a safe protective vaccine requires a better understanding of the roles played by components of adaptive immunity in the control of Brucella infection. The importance of lymphocyte subsets in the control of Brucella growth has been investigated separately by various research groups and remains unclear or controversial. Here, we used a large panel of genetically deficient mice to compare the importance of B cells, transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP-1), and major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent pathways of antigen presentation as well as T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17-mediated responses on the immune control of Brucella melitensis 16 M infection. We clearly confirmed the key function played by gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing Th1 CD4+ T cells in the control of B. melitensis infection, whereas IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells or B cell-mediated humoral immunity plays only a modest role in the clearance of bacteria during primary infection. In the presence of a Th1 response, Th2 or Th17 responses do not really develop or play a positive or negative role during the course of B. melitensis infection. On the whole, these results could improve our ability to develop protective vaccines or therapeutic treatments against brucellosis. PMID:23006848

  10. Acute benefits of the microbial-derived isoflavone metabolite equol on arterial stiffness in men prospectively recruited according to equol producer phenotype: a double-blind randomized controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Hazim, Sara; Curtis, Peter J; Schär, Manuel Y; Ostertag, Luisa M; Kay, Colin D; Minihane, Anne-Marie; Cassidy, Aedín

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is much speculation with regard to the potential cardioprotective benefits of equol, a microbial-derived metabolite of the isoflavone daidzein, which is produced in the large intestine after soy intake in 30% of Western populations. Although cross-sectional and retrospective data support favorable associations between the equol producer (EP) phenotype and cardiometabolic health, few studies have prospectively recruited EPs to confirm this association. Objective: The aim was to determine whether the acute vascular benefits of isoflavones differ according to EP phenotype and subsequently investigate the effect of providing commercially produced S-(–)equol to non-EPs. Design: We prospectively recruited male EPs and non-EPs (n = 14/group) at moderate cardiovascular risk into a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to examine the acute effects of soy isoflavones (80-mg aglycone equivalents) on arterial stiffness [carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV)], blood pressure, endothelial function (measured by using the EndoPAT 2000; Itamar Medical), and nitric oxide at baseline (0 h) and 6 and 24 h after intake. In a separate assessment, non-EPs consumed 40 mg S-(–)equol with identical vascular measurements performed 2 h after intake. Results: After soy intake, cfPWV significantly improved in EPs at 24 h (cfPWV change from 0 h: isoflavone, −0.2 ± 0.2 m/s; placebo, 0.6 ± 0.2 m/s; P < 0.01), which was significantly associated with plasma equol concentrations (R = −0.36, P = 0.01). No vascular effects were observed in EPs at 6 h or in non-EPs at any time point. Similarly, no benefit of commercially produced S-(–)equol was observed in non-EPs despite mean plasma equol concentrations reaching 3.2 μmol/L. Conclusions: Acute soy intake improved cfPWV in EPs, equating to an 11–12% reduced risk of cardiovascular disease if sustained. However, a single dose of commercially produced equol had no cardiovascular benefits in non-EPs. These

  11. Producing VOT contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofqvist, Anders

    2001-05-01

    The development of voice onset time (VOT) as an acoustic index for studying and classifying stop consonants also prompted a large number of studies examining laryngeal activity and interarticulator timing related to VOT. A collaboration between the Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics at the University of Tokyo and Haskins Laboratories resulted in a long line of studies using electromyographic and other techniques that provided much of the empirical foundations for what we know about laryngeal function in speech, in particular the production of voiced and voiceless consonants. This presentation will review the articulatory control of VOT differences. To make a consonant voiceless, a speaker uses a combination of glottal abduction and vocal fold tensing. The distinction between voiceless stops with long and short VOT is basically due to a difference in the timing between the glottal abduction gesture and the oral closing and opening gestures. Variations in the size of the glottal gesture also occur. More generally, variations in interarticulator timing between glottal and oral movements are used to produce the different stop categories that occur in the languages of the world. [Work supported by NIH.

  12. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  13. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, P V; Caleb, O J; Singh, Z; Watkins, C B; Geyer, M

    2014-06-13

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  14. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, P. V.; Caleb, O. J.; Singh, Z.; Watkins, C. B.; Geyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  15. Vehicle gas producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, E. E.

    1980-05-01

    The present petroleum supply situation with the possibility of unscheduled interruptions and the definite expectation of continued price increases calls for an investigation of the use of solid fuels for the propulsion of vehicles. The paper reviews the use of solid fuel gas producers with high thermal efficiency on motor vehicles, especially trucks and buses. Some economic comparisons are presented for pre-World War II conditions. Suggestions are made for possible future development of vehicle gas producers. The types of producers are described, along with their performance, special problems, and the importance of fuel properties.

  16. Naturally produced carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-Santos, C.; Martínez-Hernández, A. L.; Consultchi, A.; Rodríguez, R.; Castaño, V. M.

    2003-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes represent an impressive kind of materials with diverse unexpected properties, and different methods to artificially produce them have been developed. Recently, they have also been synthesized at low temperatures, demonstrating that these materials might exist in fluids or carbon rocks of the Earth's crust. A new type of natural encapsulated carbon nanotubes found in a coal-petroleum mix is presented. These findings show that all allotropic carbon forms known up to date can be produced in Nature, where pressure, catalysts particles, shear stress and parameters other than exclusively very high temperature, seem to play an important role for producing nanotubes.

  17. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-01-14

    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  18. Resonating feathers produce courtship song.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, Kimberly S; Elias, Damian O; Mason, Andrew; Montealegre-Z, Fernando

    2010-03-22

    Male Club-winged Manakins, Machaeropterus deliciosus (Aves: Pipridae), produce a sustained tonal sound with specialized wing feathers. The fundamental frequency of the sound produced in nature is approximately 1500 Hz and is hypothesized to result from excitation of resonance in the feathers' hypertrophied shafts. We used laser Doppler vibrometry to determine the resonant properties of male Club-winged Manakin's wing feathers, as well as those of two unspecialized manakin species. The modified wing feathers exhibit a response peak near 1500 Hz, and unusually high Q-values (a measure of resonant tuning) for biological objects (Q up to 27). The unmodified wing feathers of the Club-winged Manakin do not exhibit strong resonant properties when measured in isolation. However, when measured still attached to the modified feathers (nine feathers held adjacent by an intact ligament), they resonate together as a unit near 1500 Hz, and the wing produces a second harmonic of similar or greater amplitude than the fundamental. The feathers of the control species also exhibit resonant peaks around 1500 Hz, but these are significantly weaker, the wing does not resonate as a unit and no harmonics are produced. These results lend critical support to the resonant stridulation hypothesis of sound production in M. deliciosus. PMID:19906670

  19. Resonating feathers produce courtship song

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Kimberly S.; Elias, Damian O.; Mason, Andrew; Montealegre-Z, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Male Club-winged Manakins, Machaeropterus deliciosus (Aves: Pipridae), produce a sustained tonal sound with specialized wing feathers. The fundamental frequency of the sound produced in nature is approximately 1500 Hz and is hypothesized to result from excitation of resonance in the feathers' hypertrophied shafts. We used laser Doppler vibrometry to determine the resonant properties of male Club-winged Manakin's wing feathers, as well as those of two unspecialized manakin species. The modified wing feathers exhibit a response peak near 1500 Hz, and unusually high Q-values (a measure of resonant tuning) for biological objects (Q up to 27). The unmodified wing feathers of the Club-winged Manakin do not exhibit strong resonant properties when measured in isolation. However, when measured still attached to the modified feathers (nine feathers held adjacent by an intact ligament), they resonate together as a unit near 1500 Hz, and the wing produces a second harmonic of similar or greater amplitude than the fundamental. The feathers of the control species also exhibit resonant peaks around 1500 Hz, but these are significantly weaker, the wing does not resonate as a unit and no harmonics are produced. These results lend critical support to the resonant stridulation hypothesis of sound production in M. deliciosus. PMID:19906670

  20. Producing CD-ROMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyams, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue presents 11 articles that address issues relating to the production of CD-ROMs. Highlights include current uses of CD-ROM; standards; steps involved in producing CD-ROMs, including data capture, conversion, and tagging, product design, and indexing; authoring; selecting indexing and retrieval software; costs; multimedia CD-ROMs; and…

  1. Top Hispanic Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy students at the Indiana University Bloomington. For the year 2012, the listings focus on Hispanic students. Data for…

  2. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yohei; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) were almost nonexistent up to the 1990s, but are today encountered routinely in hospitals and other healthcare facilities in many countries including the United States. KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was the first to emerge and spread globally and is endemic in the United States, Israel, Greece, and Italy. Recently, NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae and OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae appear to be disseminating from South Asia and Northern Africa, respectively. They are almost always resistant to all β-lactams including carbapenems and many other classes. Mortality from invasive CPE infections reaches up to 40%. To obtain the maximal benefit from the limited options available, dosing of antimicrobial agents should be optimized based on pharmacokinetic data, especially for colistin and carbapenems. In addition, multiple observational studies have associated combination antimicrobial therapy with lower mortality compared with monotherapy for these infections. The outcomes appear to be especially favorable when patients are treated with a carbapenem and a second agent such as colistin, tigecycline, and gentamicin, but the best approach is yet to be defined. PMID:25643272

  3. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  4. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a 'green' product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  5. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  6. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOEpatents

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-02-01

    A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

  7. Process for producing silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

    1982-06-10

    A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  8. Method of producing imines

    DOEpatents

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  9. Fosfomycin versus meropenem in bacteraemic urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (FOREST): study protocol for an investigator-driven randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rosso-Fernández, Clara; Sojo-Dorado, Jesús; Barriga, Angel; Lavín-Alconero, Lucía; Palacios, Zaira; López-Hernández, Inmaculada; Merino, Vicente; Camean, Manuel; Pascual, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Kindelán, Natera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Finding therapeutic alternatives to carbapenems in infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is imperative. Although fosfomycin was discovered more than 40 years ago, it was not investigated in accordance with current standards and so is not used in clinical practice except in desperate situations. It is one of the so-called neglected antibiotics of high potential interest for the future. Methods and analysis The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the clinical non-inferiority of intravenous fosfomycin with regard to meropenem for treating bacteraemic urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by ESBL-EC. This is a ‘real practice’ multicentre, open-label, phase III randomised controlled trial, designed to compare the clinical and microbiological efficacy, and safety of intravenous fosfomycin (4 g/6 h) and meropenem (1 g/8 h) as targeted therapy for this infection; a change to oral therapy is permitted after 5 days in both arms, in accordance with predetermined options. The study design follows the latest recommendations for designing trials investigating new options for multidrug-resistant bacteria. Secondary objectives include the study of fosfomycin concentrations in plasma and the impact of both drugs on intestinal colonisation by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Andalusian Coordinating Institutional Review Board (IRB) for Biomedical Research (Referral Ethics Committee), which obtained approval from the local ethics committees at all participating sites in Spain (22 sites). Data will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Discussion This project is proposed as an initial step in the investigation of an orphan antimicrobial of low cost with high potential as a therapeutic alternative in common infections such as UTI in selected patients. These results may have a

  10. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  11. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  12. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  13. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  14. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or...

  15. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, E.O.

    1958-09-16

    Improvements are presented in calutron devices and, more specifically, dealswith an improved mounting arrangement fer the ion source of the calutron. An important feature of the invention resides in a pluraiity of insulators so mounted as to be accessible from the exterior of the calutron tank and supporting at their inner ends the ion source. These insutators are arranged in mutually parallel relation and also parallel to the flux of the nmgnetic field, whereby the strain of the supporting elements is reduced to a minimum. In addition the support assembly is secured to a removable wall portion of the task to facilitate withdrawal and examination of the ion producing mechanism.

  16. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to improvements in calutron devices and particularly describes a novel ion source. The unique feature of this source lies in the shaping of the ionizing electron stream to conform to the arc plasma boundary at the exit slit of the ionization chamber, thereby increasing the ion density produced at the plasma boundary. The particular structure consists of an electron source disposed at onc end of an elongated ionization chambcr and a coilimating electrode positioned to trim the electron stream to a crescent shape before entering the ionization chamber.

  17. Consuming Research, Producing Policy?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.; Stoddart, Greg L.

    2003-01-01

    The authors’ 1990 article “Producing Health, Consuming Health Care” presented a conceptual framework for synthesizing a rapidly growing body of findings on the nonmedical determinants of health. The article received a very positive response, and here the authors reflect on what lessons might be learned from that response about the style or content of effective interdisciplinary communication. Much substantive knowledge has been accumulated since 1990, and a number of different frameworks have been developed before and since. The authors situate theirs within this literature and consider how they might have modified it if they “knew then what they know now.” They ask what impact this article, and the much broader stream of research on the determinants of health, has had on public policy? PMID:12604475

  18. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  19. ION PRODUCING MECHANISMS

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-02-10

    Ion generating means and means for producing ions of material for isotopic separation are discussed. One feature of the invention resides in providing a heater means located in the source block approximately equidistant from a charge reservoir and an arc chamber, whereby the heat distribution in the block is such as to avoid overheating and to maintain the temperature of the various critical localities of the unit at their optimum values. Another feature consists of a pair of plates disposed on either side of the arc chamber exit opening to define a narrow slit for the egression of the ion beam. When the adjacent edges of the plates have become worn, the plates may be detached and reversed to use the opposite edges thereof to define the exit opening.

  20. Insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Insa S; Kania, Gabriela; Blyszczuk, Przemyslaw; Wobus, Anna M

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells offer great potential for cell replacement and tissue engineering therapies because of their almost unlimited proliferation capacity and the potential to differentiate into cellular derivatives of all three primary germ layers. This chapter describes a strategy for the in vitro differentiation of mouse ES cells into insulin-producing cells. The three-step protocol does not select for nestin-expressing cells as performed in previous differentiation systems. It includes (1) the spontaneous differentiation of ES cells via embryoid bodies and (2) the formation of progenitor cells of all three primary germ layers (multilineage progenitors) followed by (3) directed differentiation into the pancreatic lineage. The application of growth and extracellular matrix factors, including laminin, nicotinamide, and insulin, leads to the development of committed pancreatic progenitors, which subsequently differentiate into islet-like clusters that release insulin in response to glucose. During differentiation, transcript levels of pancreas-specific transcription factors (i.e., Pdx1, Pax4) and of genes specific for early and mature beta cells, including insulin, islet amyloid pancreatic peptide, somatostatin, and glucagon, are upregulated. C-peptide/insulin-positive islet-like clusters are formed, which release insulin in response to high glucose concentrations at terminal stages. The differentiated cells reveal functional properties with respect to voltage-activated Na+ and ATP-modulated K+ channels and normalize blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice. In conclusion, we demonstrate the efficient differentiation of murine ES cells into insulin-producing cells, which may help in the future to establish ES cell-based therapies in diabetes mellitus.

  1. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  2. Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

  3. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  4. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Backus, J.G.

    1958-08-19

    A novel ion source is described for use in a calutron which has the prime adwantage of reducing the nunnber of unwanted ions in the ion generating mechamism.An important feature of the invention resides In an arc chamber having a lining of the polyisotopic material to be treated In the calutron and bombardment of the linirg with positive ions of a light gas to induce sputtering and ionization of the lining. With the reduction of unwanted ions in the source beam provided by the described source, the calutron operation may be more accurately controlled.

  5. Effect of antimicrobials applied on the surface of beef subprimals via an air-assisted electrostatic spraying system(ESS)or the Sprayed Lethality in Container(SLIC)method to control Shiga toxin-producing cells of Escherichia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the efficacy of an air-assisted electrostatic spraying system (ESS) and/or the Sprayed Lethality in Container (SLIC®) method to deliver antimicrobials onto the surface of beef subprimals to reduce levels of Shiga toxin-producing cells of Escherichia coli (STEC). In brief, beef subprimal...

  6. Evaluaiton of a novel antimicrobial solution and its potential for control E. coli O157:H7, non-O157:H7 shiga toxin-producing E. coli, Salmononella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial solution made with chitosan, lauric arginate ester, and organic acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli cocktails and to test its potential to b...

  7. A framework for developing research protocols for evaluation of microbial hazards and controls during production that pertain to the quality of agricultural water contacting fresh produce that may be consumed raw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural water may contact fresh produce during irrigation and/or when crop protection sprays (e.g., cooling to prevent sunburn, frost protection, and agrochemical mixtures) are applied. This document provides a framework for designing research studies that would add to our understanding of preh...

  8. Method for producing capsular polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  9. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven

    2015-11-24

    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  10. Producing Runaway Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  11. R-body-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pond, F R; Gibson, I; Lalucat, J; Quackenbush, R L

    1989-03-01

    Until 10 years ago, R bodies were known only as diagnostic features by which endosymbionts of paramecia were identified as kappa particles. They were thought to be limited to the cytoplasm of two species in the Paramecium aurelia species complex. Now, R bodies have been found in free-living bacteria and other Paramecium species. The organisms now known to form R bodies include the cytoplasmic kappa endosymbionts of P. biaurelia and P. tetraurelia, the macronuclear kappa endosymbionts of P. caudatum, Pseudomonas avenae (a free-living plant pathogen), Pseudomonas taeniospiralis (a hydrogen-oxidizing soil microorganism), Rhodospirillum centenum (a photosynthetic bacterium), and a soil bacterium, EPS-5028, which is probably a pseudomonad. R bodies themselves fall into five distinct groups, distinguished by size, the morphology of the R-body ribbons, and the unrolling behavior of wound R bodies. In recent years, the inherent difficulties in studying the organization and assembly of R bodies by the obligate endosymbiont kappa, have been alleviated by cloning and expressing genetic determinants for these R bodies (type 51) in Escherichia coli. Type 51 R-body synthesis requires three low-molecular-mass polypeptides. One of these is modified posttranslationally, giving rise to 12 polypeptide species, which are the major structural subunits of the R body. R bodies are encoded in kappa species by extrachromosomal elements. Type 51 R bodies, produced in Caedibacter taeniospiralis, are encoded by a plasmid, whereas bacteriophage genomes probably control R-body synthesis in other kappa species. However, there is no evidence that either bacteriophages or plasmids are present in P. avenae or P. taeniospiralis. No sequence homology was detected between type 51 R-body-encoding DNA and DNA from any R-body-producing species, except C. varicaedens 1038. The evolutionary relatedness of different types of R bodies remains unknown. PMID:2651865

  12. RANDOM PULSE GENERATOR PRODUCING FIDUCIAL MARKS

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, W.F.

    1960-02-01

    The apparatus for automatically applying a fiducial marking, having a nonrepetitive pattern, to a plurality of simultaneously made records comprises, in series, a bypass filter, a trigger circuit, and a pulse generator, with printing means connected to and controlled by the pulse generator for simultaneously making the visible fiducial marks on a plurality of simultaneously produced records.

  13. Improving the microbiological safety of veal: validation of hot water rinse plus lactic acid spray in combination with scalding for hide-on carcasses to control Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bob veal calves (n=6) were assigned to six hide-on carcass treatments for each of 5 replications. Primary treatments were no-scald, scald, or scalding with chemical; secondary treatments were no-treatment control or lactic acid. Hides were inoculated with non-pathogenic rifampicin-resistant Escheric...

  14. Structure, sedimentology, coal quality, and hydrology of the Black Warrior Basin in Alabama: Controls on the occurrence and producibility of coalbed methane. Topical report, August 1, 1987-December 20, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Pashin, J.C.

    1991-03-01

    Geologic evaluation of critical production parameters in the Black Warrior basin employed an interdisciplinary approach that utilized structural, sedimentologic, coal-quality, hydrologic, completion, and production data. Results indicate that geologic structure affected sedimentation, coalification, hydrogeology, and the ultimate occurrence and producibility of coalbed methane. Geologic trend analysis was used to characterize regional coalbed-methane potential, and results indicate that many parts of the basin have untapped resources. Some highly productive trends coincide with northeast-trending structures that apparently are zones of enhanced fracture permeability. Water-production data indicate that many high-permeability trends exist that are not associated with exceptional coalbed-methane production and that the coal beds are structurally compartmentalized reservoirs. Water-level data indicate that all highly productive coalbed-methane wells occur where reservoir pressure has been lowered significantly. Therefore, highly productive areas apparently represent structural compartments where formation pressure has been lowered enough to facilitate desorption of a large quantity of methane. Results of the research suggest that completion technology and field design can be tailored to specific geologic settings to produce from reservoir compartments that are readily depressurized, thereby optimizing reservoir drainage.

  15. [Metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts].

    PubMed

    Yan, Huifang; Ding, Mingzhu; Yuan, Yingjin

    2014-02-01

    In order to study the inherent difference among terpenes producing yeasts from the point of metabolomics, we selected taxadiene producing yeasts as the model system. The changes of cellular metabolites during fermentation log phase of artificial functional yeasts were determined using metabolomics methods. The results represented that compared to W303-1A as a blank control, the metabolites in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle and several amino acids were influenced. And due to the changes of metabolites, the growth of cells was inhibited to a certain extent. Among the metabolites identified, citric acid content in taxadiene producing yeasts changed the most, the decreasing amplitude reached 90% or more. Therefore, citric acid can be a marker metabolite for the future study of artificial functional yeasts. The metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts can provide more information in further studies on optimization of terpenes production in heterologous chassis.

  16. 7 CFR 1124.10 - Producer-handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... care and management of the dairy animals and the other resources and facilities designated in paragraph... and management of the producer-handler and are operated as the producer-handler's own enterprise and... the complete and exclusive control, ownership and management of the producer-handler and is...

  17. 7 CFR 1131.10 - Producer-handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... care and management of the dairy animals and the other resources and facilities designated in paragraph... and management of the producer-handler and are operated as the producer-handler's own enterprise and... the complete and exclusive control, ownership and management of the producer-handler and is...

  18. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wackett, LP

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels.

  19. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1979-01-09

    Method for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T .gtorsim. 600.degree. C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

  20. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-09

    Method is disclosed for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T [approx gt] 600 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10[sup 3] [mu]m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants. 1 fig.

  1. Producing liquid oxygen in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David; Warden, Nicole; Wharton, Barry

    2016-09-01

    A number of organisations have provided instructions on how to produce small quantities of liquid oxygen in the classroom using liquid nitrogen and a copper condensation coil (Lister 1995 Classic Chemistry Demonstrations (London: Royal Society of Chemistry) pp 61–2, French and Hibbert 2010 Phys. Educ. 45 221–2). The method presented below describes a process which is believed to be safer as it contains the oxygen during production and produces a controllable amount of the liquid. The method also has the advantage that it can be conducted using cheap and easily available materials.

  2. Producing liquid oxygen in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David; Warden, Nicole; Wharton, Barry

    2016-09-01

    A number of organisations have provided instructions on how to produce small quantities of liquid oxygen in the classroom using liquid nitrogen and a copper condensation coil (Lister 1995 Classic Chemistry Demonstrations (London: Royal Society of Chemistry) pp 61-2, French and Hibbert 2010 Phys. Educ. 45 221-2). The method presented below describes a process which is believed to be safer as it contains the oxygen during production and produces a controllable amount of the liquid. The method also has the advantage that it can be conducted using cheap and easily available materials.

  3. Detonation control

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2016-10-25

    Detonation control modules and detonation control circuits are provided herein. A trigger input signal can cause a detonation control module to trigger a detonator. A detonation control module can include a timing circuit, a light-producing diode such as a laser diode, an optically triggered diode, and a high-voltage capacitor. The trigger input signal can activate the timing circuit. The timing circuit can control activation of the light-producing diode. Activation of the light-producing diode illuminates and activates the optically triggered diode. The optically triggered diode can be coupled between the high-voltage capacitor and the detonator. Activation of the optically triggered diode causes a power pulse to be released from the high-voltage capacitor that triggers the detonator.

  4. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  5. SiO2@Au core-shell nanospheres self-assemble to form colloidal crystals that can be sintered and surface modified to produce pH-controlled membranes.

    PubMed

    Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia Anne A; Zharov, Ilya

    2013-03-19

    We prepared colloidal crystals by self-assembly of gold-coated silica nanospheres, and free-standing nanoporous membranes by sintering these colloidal crystals. We modified the nanopore surface with ionizable functional groups, by forming a monolayer of L-cysteine or by surface-initiated polymerization of methacrylic acid. Diffusion experiments for the cationic dye Rhodamine B through L-cysteine-modified membranes showed a decrease in flux upon addition of an acid due to the nanopore surface becoming positively charged. Diffusion experiments for the neutral dye, ferrocenecarboxaldehyde, through the PMAA-modified membranes showed a 13-fold increase in flux upon addition of an acid resulting from the protonated polymer collapsing onto the nanopore surface leading to larger pore size. Our results demonstrate that SiO2@Au core-shell nanospheres can self-assemble into colloidal crystals and that transport through the corresponding surface-modified Au-coated colloidal membranes can be controlled by pH.

  6. Method for producing catalysis from coal

    DOEpatents

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Derbyshire, Frank; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Jagtoyen, Marit

    1998-01-01

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

  7. Method for producing catalysts from coal

    DOEpatents

    Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

    1998-02-24

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

  8. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.

    2010-06-22

    A method for producing a borohydride is described that includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material that chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of the borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature that substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  9. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.

    2008-09-02

    A method for producing a borohydride is described and which includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material which chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature which substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  10. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    DOEpatents

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  11. Microbial safety of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book entitled “Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce” with 23 chapters is divided into following six sections: Microbial contamination of fresh produce, Pre-harvest strategies, post-harvest interventions, Produce safety during processing and handling, Public, legal, and economic Perspectives, and Re...

  12. Producing Multiculturalism in Higher Education: Who's Producing What for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urciuoli, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    Explores the ways in which multiculturalism is institutionally produced in a small liberal arts college. States that administrative concerns with multiculturalism are shaped by the market in students; academic multiculturalist concerns are shaped by the market in textual production. (CMK)

  13. Methods of producing cesium-131

    SciTech Connect

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  14. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOEpatents

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  15. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOEpatents

    Dees, H.C.

    1997-12-30

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  16. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  17. Jet Shockwaves Produce Gamma Rays

    NASA Video Gallery

    Theorists believe that GRB jets produce gamma rays by two processes involving shock waves. Shells of material within the jet move at different speeds and collide, generating internal shock waves th...

  18. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOEpatents

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  19. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  20. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    PubMed

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  1. Superconducting lead particles produced by chemical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fariss, T.L.; Nixon, W.E.; Bucelot, T.J.; Deaver, B.S. Jr.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1982-09-01

    The superconductivity of extremely small lead particles has been studied as a function of size, surface condition, and connectivity using chemical techniques to produce particles of well-controlled size and shape suspended in insulating media. Approximately monodisperse suspensions of equiaxed, rod, and lath-shaped particles of lead halides and other lead compounds suspended in gelatin, polyacrylamide, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyvinyl alcohol, methyl cellulose, and hydroxyethyl cellulose have been produced. These particles have been reduced to pseudomorphs of lead in the liquid phase or the suspensions have been coated on substrates and dried before reduction. Reducing solutions containing aminoiminomethanesulfinic acid are effective with particles of lead halides, lead phosphate, lead sulfate, and lead tartrate. Suspensions of smaller discrete lead particles have also been produced by direct reduction of solutions of soluble lead salts containing suitable polymers, chelating, and stabilizing agents. Dispersions with mean particle dimensions between 3 nm and 5 ..mu..m, and a narrow size-frequency distribution, have been produced. The superconductivity of the particles has been characterized by measurements of the magnetization as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The larger particles have a transition temperature of 7.2 K, the same as bulk lead; however, for particles of characteristic dimensions less than 20 nm, the transition temperature is lower by approx.0.1 K.

  2. Cosmic ray produced isotopes in terrestrial systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, D.

    1998-12-01

    Continuing improvements in the sensitivity of measurement of cosmic ray produced isotopes in environmental samples have progressively broadened the scope of their applications to characterise and quantify a wide variety of processes in Earth and planetary sciences. In this article, the author concentrates on the new developments in the field of nuclear geophysics, based on isotopic changes produced by cosmic rays in the terrestrial systems. This field, which is best described as cosmic ray geophysics, has roots with the discovery of cosmogenic 14C on the Earth by Willard Libby in 1948, and grew rapidly at first, but slowed down during the '60s and '70s. In the '80s, there was a renaissance in cosmic ray produced isotope studies, thanks mainly to the developments of the accelerator mass spectrometry technique capable of measuring minute amounts of radioactivity in terrestrial samples. This technological advance has considerably enhanced the applications of cosmic ray produced isotopes and today one finds them being used to address diverse problems in Earth and planetary sciences. The author discusses the present scope of the field of cosmic ray geophysics with an emphasis on geomorphology. It is stressed that this is the decade in which this field, which has been studied passionately by geographers, geomorphologists and geochemists for more than five decades, has at its service nuclear methods to introduce numeric time controls in the range of centuries to millions of years.

  3. Enzymatic browning and its control in fresh-cut produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic browning of damaged tissues of fruits and vegetables during postharvest handling and processing degrades the sensory properties and nutritional value and discourages the consumer purchase of fresh-cut products. Consequently, enzymatic browning results in significant economic losses for the...

  4. Controlling Technically Produced Noise to Reduce Psychological Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlestam, Gosta

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the causes and problems associated with increasing levels of noise pollution in urban societies. Particular attention is given to noise emanating from aircraft and to possible means of reducing this problem and its resulting psychological stress and social strain. (JR)

  5. System for producing chroma signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorhaben, K. H.; Lipoma, P. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for obtaining electronic chroma signals with a single scanning-type image device is described. A color multiplexed light signal is produced using an arrangement of dichroic filter stripes. In the particular system described, a two layer filter is used to color modulate external light which is then detected by an image pickup tube. The resulting time division multiplexed electronic signal from the pickup tube is converted by a decoder into a green color signal, and a single red-blue multiplexed signal, which is demultiplexed to produce red and blue color signals. The three primary color signals can be encoded as standard NTSC color signals.

  6. Producing and Detecting Correlated Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C. I.; Schellekens, M.; Perrin, A.; Krachmalnicoff, V.; Viana Gomes, J.; Trebbia, J.-B.; Esteve, J.; Chang, H.; Bouchoule, I.; Boiron, D.; Aspect, A.; Jeltes, T.; McNamara, J.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2006-11-07

    We discuss experiments to produce and detect atom correlations in a degenerate or nearly degenerate gas of neutral atoms. First we treat the atomic analog of the celebrated Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment, in which atom correlations result simply from interference effects without any atom interactions. We have performed this experiment for both bosons and fermions. Next we show how atom interactions produce correlated atoms using the atomic analog of spontaneous four-wave mixing. Finally, we briefly mention experiments on a one dimensional gas on an atom chip in which correlation effects due to both interference and interactions have been observed.

  7. Producing miniature threads. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.; Robb, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    Miniature precision actuators, timers, and switches typically utilize miniature threads to provide convenient assembly, disassembly and adjustment. Thread rolling provides high-quality external threads with greater strength and lower cost than other thread-producing techniques. Tap breakage is a significant problem when 0.5 and 0.6 Unified National Miniature (UNM) threads must be produced in hard materials such as SAE K95100 high-permeability magnetic steel. Aluminum parts can be tapped with no difficulty in these sizes. Stainless steel 0.5 UNM screws break at loads of 21 lb (53 N). Thread failure occurs at thread heights of 62% full thread or lower.

  8. Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Allen; Youngster, Ilan; McAdam, Alexander J

    2015-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is among the common causes of foodborne gastroenteritis. STEC is defined by the production of specific toxins, but within this pathotype there is a diverse group of organisms. This diversity has important consequences for understanding the pathogenesis of the organism, as well as for selecting the optimum strategy for diagnostic testing in the clinical laboratory. This review includes discussions of the mechanisms of pathogenesis, the range of manifestations of infection, and the several different methods of laboratory detection of Shiga toxin-producing E coli.

  9. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry (AES). The WSO found in produced water samples was primarily polar in nature and distributed between the low and midrange carbon ranges. Typical levels of total extractable material (TEM) was about 20 mg/L; that associated with the aromatic fraction was present at 0.2 mg/L and that in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction was present at less than 0.02 mg/L. Formic, acetic, and propionic acids were also found in the produced water, occurring at a total concentration of 30 mg/L. It was estimated that the presence of 30 mg/L organic acids would artificially overstate TEM content by 2 mg/L. Of the five tested parameters, the factor that most controlled the total WSO in produced water was that of aqueous phase pH. Beyond a value of pH7 significant quantities of C{sub 10}-C{sub 20} range material become markedly soluble as they deprotonate in a basic aqueous phase. Both the absolute and relative volumes of GOM brine and crude additionally affected total WSO. Produced water appeared to reach a saturation level of WSO at a.50% water/oil ratio. Pressure slightly enhanced WSO by increasing the relative quantity of C{sub 6}-C{sub 10} range material. Temperature primarily altered the relative ratio of carbon ranges within the WSO without significantly elevating the total WSO in the GOM brine. Salinity had the least affect on the chemical character or the carbon size of WSO in produced water.

  10. METHOD FOR PRODUCING DIBORON TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, J.W.; Holzmann, R.T.

    1961-08-01

    A method of producing diboron tetrachloride from boron trichloride is described. Gaseous boron trichloride is passed through a cavity resonating at a microwave frequency whereby a portion of the boron trichloride is converted into diboron tetrachloride. The diboron tetrachloride may then be separated from the boron trichloride by conventional means. (AEC)

  11. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first time, it has…

  12. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…

  13. Institutional Producers of Physics Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Marianne; Watterson, Hermine M.

    In order to identify producers of physics research and to determine their relative productivity, institutional affiliations of authors as given in nine physics journals were studied. Organizations were classified and analyzed by type and geographical location, and productivity established. Findings indicate that organizations differ in their rate…

  14. Marine bacteria which produce tetrodotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Simidu, U; Noguchi, T; Hwang, D F; Shida, Y; Hashimoto, K

    1987-01-01

    A number of type strains of marine bacteria, including members of the family Vibrionaceae, were cultured and examined for tetrodotoxin productivity by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most of the Vibrionaceae strains produced tetrodotoxin, anhydrotetrodotoxin, or both. PMID:3310884

  15. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  16. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, N.L.

    1983-11-10

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  17. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Norman L.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  18. Environmental considerations of livestock producers.

    PubMed

    Morse, D

    1995-09-01

    Regulatory agencies and citizens have placed great emphasis on sustainability of natural resources. Individuals involved in animal husbandry should understand the basic components associated with air and water quality issues. An increase in regulations governing land, air, and water resources increases the need for educators, researchers, and producers to realize impacts of current and potential legislation. Regulations and enforcement should be based on sound scientific data. Research scientists should play an active role in designing and carrying out research. Sustainability of land and economics of production are better incentives to entice producers to change than are regulations. Educational opportunities exist to promote environmental stewardship and the importance of maintaining natural resources. This paper will review current air and water quality regulations and provide examples of current activities that focus on environmental stewardship. Individuals should understand the importance of cooperative work to ensure that realistic enforcement and future regulation development be economically feasible and environmentally sound.

  19. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  20. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    1996-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  1. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Harvey, B.G.

    1954-09-14

    >This patent relates to improvements in the method for producing uranium tetrafluoride by treating an aqueous solutlon of a uranyl salt at an elevated temperature with a reducing agent effective in acld solutlon in the presence of hydrofluoric acid. Uranium tetrafluoride produced this way frequentiy contains impurities in the raw material serving as the source of uranium. Uranium tetrafluoride much less contaminated with impurities than when prepared by the above method can be prepared from materials containing such impurities by first adding a small proportion of reducing agent so as to cause a small fraction, for example 1 to 5% of the uranium tetrafluoride to be precipitated, rejecting such precipitate, and then precipitating and recovering the remainder of the uranium tetrafluoride.

  2. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  3. Electromagnetic radiation produces frame dragging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, L.; Barreto, W.

    2012-09-01

    It is shown that for a generic electrovacuum spacetime, electromagnetic radiation produces vorticity of worldlines of observers in a Bondi-Sachs frame. Such an effect (and the ensuing gyroscope precession with respect to the lattice) which is a reminiscence of generation of vorticity by gravitational radiation, may be linked to the nonvanishing of components of the Poynting and the super-Poynting vectors on the planes othogonal to the vorticity vector. The possible observational relevance of such an effect is commented upon.

  4. Method of producing cyclohexasilane compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy; Anderson, Kenneth; Boudjouk, Philip R; Schulz, Douglas L

    2015-03-10

    A method of preparing a cyclohexasilane compound from trichlorosilane is provided. The method includes contacting trichlorosilane with a reagent composition to produce a compound containing a tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion, such as a tetradecachlorocyclohexasilane dianion. The reagent composition typically includes (a) tertiary polyamine ligand; and (b) a deprotonating reagent, such as a tertiary amine having a pKa of at least about 10.5. Methods of converting the tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion-containing compound to cyclohexasilane or a dodecaorganocyclohexasilane are also provided.

  5. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Lawrence W.; Soderholm, Sidney C.

    1990-01-01

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  6. PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anicetti, R.J.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

  7. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  8. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  9. Producing Gestures Facilitates Route Learning

    PubMed Central

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  10. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    PubMed

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  11. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Poston, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  12. Method of producing nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Ohira, T.; Kumano, Y.; Nakao, T.

    1982-01-01

    A large capacity nickel electrode is provided in which the charging efficiency and discharge utilization coefficient are improved in comparison to nickel electrodes which are produced by the conventional method. Nickel electrodes retaining nickel active material or nickel active material and cobalt compounds on a porous nickel substrate are immersed in a cobalt sulfate aqueous solution whose pH is adjusted in the range of 3.5 to 6.0, followed by crystallization of the hydroxide or oxide by pyrolysis or immersion in alkali, thereby coating the surface of the nickel active material with cobalt crystals and simultaneously promoting alloying of the nickel-cobalt.

  13. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  14. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  15. METHOD FOR PRODUCING THORIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Mason, E.A.; Cobb, C.M.

    1960-03-15

    A process for producing thorium tetrachloride from thorium concentrate comprises reacting thorium concentrates with a carbonaceous reducing agent in excess of 0.05 part by weight per part of thoriferous concentrate at a temperature in excess of 1300 deg C, cooling and comminuting the mass, chlorinating the resulting comminuting mass by suspending in a gaseous chlorinating agent in a fluidized reactor at a temperatare maintained between about l85 deg C and 770 deg C, and removing the resulting solid ThCl/sub 4/ from the reaction zone.

  16. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Deresinski, Stan

    2014-01-01

    The continuing emergence of infections due to multidrug resistant bacteria is a serious public health problem. Klebsiella pneumoniae, which commonly acquires resistance encoded on mobile genetic elements, including ones that encode carbapenemases, is a prime example. K. pneumoniae carrying such genetic material, including both blaKPC and genes encoding metallo-β-lactamases, have spread globally. Many carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae are resistant to multiple antibiotic classes beyond β-lactams, including tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. The optimal treatment, if any, for infections due to these organisms is unclear but, paradoxically, appears to often require the inclusion of an optimally administered carbapenem. PMID:25343037

  17. Biochemical degradation treats produced water

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-20

    In Colombia, Kelt Oil Co. employs a lined, reed-based, root-zone filtering system to remove contaminants from water produced with crude oil. The roots of the reeds absorb the contaminants. The treated water is then used for agriculture. Kelt has operated te system for over 1 year near Trinidad, in the Casanare district of eastern Colombia. After 1 year, the system removed 90% of the phenol compounds. It expects 3 years will be required for the system to achieve full efficiency.

  18. Method for producing a tube

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rohde, Steven B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Turner, Timothy S.

    2007-01-02

    A method is described for producing tubular substrates having parallel spaced concentric rings of electrical conductors that can be used as the drift tube of an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). The invention comprises providing electrodes on the inside of a tube that are electrically connected to the outside of the tube through conductors that extend between adjacent plies of substrate that are combined to form the tube. Tubular substrates are formed from flexible polymeric printed wiring board materials, ceramic materials and material compositions of glass and ceramic, commonly known as Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). The adjacent plies are sealed together around the electrode.

  19. Producing graphite with desired properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, J. M.; Imprescia, R. J.; Reiswig, R. D.; Smith, M. C.

    1971-01-01

    Isotropic or anisotropic graphite is synthesized with precise control of particle size, distribution, and shape. The isotropic graphites are nearly perfectly isotropic, with thermal expansion coefficients two or three times those of ordinary graphites. The anisotropic graphites approach the anisotropy of pyrolytic graphite.

  20. Process for producing 8-fluoropurines

    DOEpatents

    Barrio, J.R.; Satyamurthy, N.; Namavari, M.; Phelps, M.E.

    1999-01-19

    An efficient, regio-controlled approach to the synthesis of 8-fluoropurines by direct fluorination of purines with dilute elemental fluorine, or acetyl hypofluorite, is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a purine compound is dissolved in a polar solvent and reacted with a dilute mixture of F{sub 2} in He or other inert gas.

  1. Does salmon brain produce insulin?

    PubMed

    Plisetskaya, E M; Bondareva, V M; Duan, C; Duguay, S J

    1993-07-01

    To address the question whether fish brain can produce insulin, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbusha) brains were extracted and processed according to the procedure developed for purification of pancreatic insulin (Rusakov and Bondareva, 1979). Biological and immunological activity of the resulting material was evaluated respectively by a cartilage sulfation assay and by radioimmunoassay homologous for salmon insulin. Preparations from salmon brain stimulated the [35S]sulfate uptake into salmon branchial cartilage with a potency comparable to pure mammalian or salmon insulins but lower than that of mammalian insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I). In contrast, only trace amounts of radioimmunoreactive insulin could be detected by homologous radioimmunoassay. To determine whether insulin mRNA was present in salmon brain, primers specific for salmon proinsulin and salmon prepro-IGF-I were designed to amplify corresponding cDNA regions by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Insulin mRNA was found only in the endocrine pancreas (Brockmann body) while IGF-I mRNA was detected in the brain, liver, and the Brockmann body. Our results suggest that in fish pancreatic-type insulin is most likely produced only in the endocrine pancreas and then transported to the brain through blood/cerebrospinal fluid system. However, it does not exclude a possibility that some yet unknown insulin-like substances may be expressed in the neural system of ectotherm vertebrates.

  2. Dade recovery plant producing electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The 3000 tons/day resource recovery plant in Dade County (Florida) is described. Following a year-long contract dispute, the plant is said to be ready to: (1) accept four types of waste; (2) produce refuse-derived fuel; and (3) generate electricity for sale to Florida Power and Light at a rate of 285 million kilowatt hrs/year. Waste accepted include: (1) regular household garbage; (2) trash wastes including commercial refuse, furniture, rubber tires, appliances, tree cuttings, and other bulky items; (3) pathological wastes from hospitals and health centers; and (4) demolition materials which are routed directly to a landfill. The plant cost $165 million to construct and occupies 120 acres including 80 acres of landfill. The hydrasposal system includes four pulpers used to produce refuse-derived fuel (4300 Btu/lb). Flotation tanks and jigs are used to separate aluminium and non-ferrous metals (which are sold for recycling). The plant is described as having the potential of disposing of 60% of all the household and commercial solid wastes generated in Dade County. (MJJ)

  3. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  4. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  5. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  6. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  7. 7 CFR 989.157 - Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of... AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations Quality Control § 989.157 Raisins produced from grapes grown outside of California. (a) Any raisins produced...

  8. Method for producing ceramic particles and agglomerates

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Gleiman, Seth S.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2001-01-01

    A method for generating spherical and irregularly shaped dense particles of ceramic oxides having a controlled particle size and particle size distribution. An aerosol containing precursor particles of oxide ceramics is directed into a plasma. As the particles flow through the hot zone of the plasma, they melt, collide, and join to form larger particles. If these larger particles remain in the hot zone, they continue melting and acquire a spherical shape that is retained after they exit the hot zone, cool down, and solidify. If they exit the hot zone before melting completely, their irregular shape persists and agglomerates are produced. The size and size distribution of the dense product particles can be controlled by adjusting several parameters, the most important in the case of powder precursors appears to be the density of powder in the aerosol stream that enters the plasma hot zone. This suggests that particle collision rate is responsible for determining ultimate size of the resulting sphere or agglomerate. Other parameters, particularly the gas flow rates and the microwave power, are also adjusted to control the particle size distribution.

  9. ANTIPROTONS PRODUCED IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.

    2014-08-20

    We present the energy spectrum of an antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNRs). The model includes the reacceleration of antiprotons already existing in the interstellar medium as well as the creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shocks. It is shown that the production of antiprotons in SNRs produces a considerable effect in their resultant energy spectrum, making it essentially flatter above 10 GeV so that the spectrum at TeV energies increases by a factor of 5. The calculated antiproton spectrum is consistent with the PAMELA data, which correspond to energies below 100 GeV. As a consistency check, we have also calculated within the same model the energy spectra of secondary nuclei and show that the measured boron-to-carbon ratio is consistent with the significant SNR contribution.

  10. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  11. CVD-produced boron filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wawner, F. E.; Debolt, H. E.; Suplinskas, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for producing boron filaments with an average tensile strength of 6.89 GPa has been developed which involves longitudinal splitting of the filament and core (substrate) removal by etching. Splitting is accomplished by a pinch wheel device which continuously splits filaments in lengths of 3.0 m by applying a force to the side of the filament to create a crack which is then propagated along the axis by a gentle sliding action. To facilitate the splitting, a single 10 mil tungsten substrate is used instead of the usual 0.5 mil substrate. A solution of hot 30% hydrogen peroxide is used to remove the core without attacking the boron. An alternative technique is to alter the residual stress by heavily etching the filament. Average strengths in the 4.83-5.52 GPa range have been obtained by etching an 8 mil filament to 4 mil.

  12. HFIR-produced medical radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Alexander, C.W.

    1997-12-01

    We have experimentally determined the yields of a number of medical radioisotopes produced in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Hydraulic Tube (HT) facility. The HT facility is located in the very high flux region in the flux trap of the reactor, providing on-line access capability while the reactor is operating. The HT facility consists of nine vertically stacked capsules centered just adjacent to the core horizontal midplane. HFIR operates at a nominal power level of 85 MW. The capabilities of the HFIR-HT facilities offer increased efficiency, greater availability, and optimization of radioisotope production, and, as a result, the conservation of rare or expensive target isotopes.

  13. Method of producing metallic materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2004-02-10

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from 2-7 additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  14. Methods for producing secreted polypeptides

    DOEpatents

    Maiyuran, Suchindra; Fidantsef, Ana; Brody, Howard

    2008-07-01

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a polypeptide, comprising: (a) cultivating a fungal host cell in a medium conducive for the production of the polypeptide, wherein the fungal host cell comprises a nucleic acid construct comprising a first nucleotide sequence encoding a signal peptide operably linked to a second nucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide, wherein the first nucleotide sequence is foreign to the second nucleotide sequence and the 3' end of the first nucleotide sequence is immediately upstream of the initiator codon of the second nucleotide sequence. The present invention also relates to the isolated signal peptide sequences and to constructs, vectors, and fungal host cells comprising the signal peptide sequences operably linked to nucleotide sequences encoding polypeptides.

  15. Combustion method for producing fullerenes

    DOEpatents

    Howard, J.B.; McKinnon, J.T.

    1993-12-28

    A method for synthesizing fullerenes in flames is provided. Fullerenes are prepared by burning carbon-containing compounds in a flame and collecting the condensable. The condensable contain the desired fullerenes. Fullerene yields can be optimized and fullerene composition can be selectively varied. Fullerene yields and compositions are determined by selectively controlling flame conditions and parameters such as C/O ratio, pressure, temperature, residence time, diluent concentration and gas velocity. 4 figures.

  16. Combustion method for producing fullerenes

    DOEpatents

    Howard, Jack B.; McKinnon, J. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A method for synthesizing fullerenes in flames is provided. Fullerenes are prepared by burning carbon-containing compounds in a flame and collecting the condensibles. The condensibles contain the desired fullerenes. Fullerene yields can be optimized and fullerene composition can be selectively varied. Fullerene yields and compositions are determined by selectively controlling flame conditions and parameters such as C/O ratio, pressure, temperature, residence time, diluent concentration and gas velocity.

  17. Screening For Alcohol-Producing Microbes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.

    1988-01-01

    Dye reaction rapidly identifies alcohol-producing microbial colonies. Method visually detects alcohol-producing micro-organisms, and distinguishes them from other microbial colonies that do not produce alcohol. Method useful for screening mixed microbial populations in environmental samples.

  18. 7 CFR 926.7 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.7 Producer. Producer is synonymous with grower and means any person who produces cranberries for market and has...

  19. 7 CFR 926.7 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.7 Producer. Producer is synonymous with grower and means any person who produces cranberries for market and has...

  20. 7 CFR 926.7 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.7 Producer. Producer is synonymous with grower and means any person who produces cranberries for market and has...

  1. 7 CFR 926.7 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.7 Producer. Producer is synonymous with grower and means any person who produces cranberries for market and has...

  2. 7 CFR 926.7 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.7 Producer. Producer is synonymous with grower and means any person who produces cranberries for market and has...

  3. 7 CFR 1280.116 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.116 Producer. Producer means any person who owns and produces lambs in the United States for sale....

  4. Produced water exposure alters bacterial response to biocides.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Lipus, Daniel; Bibby, Kyle

    2014-11-01

    Microbial activity during the holding and reuse of wastewater from hydraulic fracturing operations, termed produced water, may lead to issues with corrosion, sulfide release, and fouling. Biocides are applied to control biological activity, often with limited efficacy, which is typically attributed to chemical interactions with the produced water. However, it is unknown whether there is a biologically driven mechanism to biocide tolerance in produced water. Here, we demonstrate that produced water exposure results in an enhanced tolerance against the typically used biocide glutaraldehyde and increased susceptibility to the oxidative biocide hypochlorite in a native and a model bacteria and that this altered resistance is due to the salinity of the produced water. In addition, we elucidate the genetic response of the model organism Pseudomonas fluorescens to produced water exposure to provide a mechanistic interpretation of the altered biocide resistance. The RNA-seq data demonstrated the induction of genes involved in osmotic stress, energy production and conversion, membrane integrity, and protein transport following produced water exposure, which facilitates bacterial survival and alters biocide tolerance. Efforts to fundamentally understand biocide resistance mechanisms, which enable the optimization of biocide application, hold significant implications for greening of the fracturing process through encouraging produced water recycling. Specifically, these results suggest the necessity of optimizing biocide application at the level of individual shale plays, rather than historical experience, based upon produced water characteristics and salinity. PMID:25279933

  5. Phytotoxins produced by plant pathogenic Streptomyces species.

    PubMed

    Bignell, D R D; Fyans, J K; Cheng, Z

    2014-02-01

    Streptomyces is a large genus consisting of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria that are best known for their capability of producing a vast array of medically and agriculturally useful secondary metabolites. In addition, a small number of Streptomyces spp. are capable of colonizing and infecting the underground portions of living plants and causing economically important crop diseases such as potato common scab (CS). Research into the mechanisms of Streptomyces plant pathogenicity has led to the identification and characterization of several phytotoxic secondary metabolites that are known or suspected of contributing to diseases in various plants. The best characterized are the thaxtomin phytotoxins, which play a critical role in the development of CS, acid scab and soil rot of sweet potato. In addition, the best-characterized CS-causing pathogen, Streptomyces scabies, produces a molecule that is predicted to resemble the Pseudomonas syringae coronatine phytotoxin and which contributes to seedling disease symptom development. Other Streptomyces phytotoxic secondary metabolites that have been identified include concanamycins, FD-891 and borrelidin. Furthermore, there is evidence that additional, unknown metabolites may participate in Streptomyces plant pathogenicity. Such revelations have implications for the rational development of better management procedures for controlling CS and other Streptomyces plant diseases.

  6. Phytotoxins produced by plant pathogenic Streptomyces species.

    PubMed

    Bignell, D R D; Fyans, J K; Cheng, Z

    2014-02-01

    Streptomyces is a large genus consisting of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria that are best known for their capability of producing a vast array of medically and agriculturally useful secondary metabolites. In addition, a small number of Streptomyces spp. are capable of colonizing and infecting the underground portions of living plants and causing economically important crop diseases such as potato common scab (CS). Research into the mechanisms of Streptomyces plant pathogenicity has led to the identification and characterization of several phytotoxic secondary metabolites that are known or suspected of contributing to diseases in various plants. The best characterized are the thaxtomin phytotoxins, which play a critical role in the development of CS, acid scab and soil rot of sweet potato. In addition, the best-characterized CS-causing pathogen, Streptomyces scabies, produces a molecule that is predicted to resemble the Pseudomonas syringae coronatine phytotoxin and which contributes to seedling disease symptom development. Other Streptomyces phytotoxic secondary metabolites that have been identified include concanamycins, FD-891 and borrelidin. Furthermore, there is evidence that additional, unknown metabolites may participate in Streptomyces plant pathogenicity. Such revelations have implications for the rational development of better management procedures for controlling CS and other Streptomyces plant diseases. PMID:24131731

  7. 7 CFR 1230.615 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... Producer means a person who produces porcine animals in the United States for sale in commerce....

  8. 7 CFR 1230.615 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... Producer means a person who produces porcine animals in the United States for sale in commerce....

  9. 7 CFR 1230.615 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... Producer means a person who produces porcine animals in the United States for sale in commerce....

  10. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Smith, James L; Fratamico, Pina M; Gunther, Nereus W

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, it is estimated that non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause more illnesses than STEC O157:H7, and the majority of cases of non-O157 STEC infections are due to serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, referred to as the top six non-O157 STEC. The diseases caused by non-O157 STEC are generally milder than those induced by O157 STEC; nonetheless, non-O157 STEC strains have also been associated with serious illnesses such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, as well as death. Ruminants, particularly cattle, are reservoirs for both O157 and non-O157 STEC, which are transmitted to humans by person-to-person or animal contact and by ingestion of food or water contaminated with animal feces. Improved strategies to control STEC colonization and shedding in cattle and contamination of meat and produce are needed. In general, non-O157 STEC respond to stresses such as acid, heat, and other stresses induced during food preparation similar to O157 STEC. Similar to O157:H7, the top six non-O157 STEC are classified as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, and regulatory testing for these pathogens began in June 2012. Due to the genetic and phenotypic variability of non-O157 STEC strains, the development of accurate and reliable methods for detection and isolation of these pathogens has been challenging. Since the non-O157 STEC are responsible for a large portion of STEC-related illnesses, more extensive studies on their physiology, genetics, pathogenicity, and evolution are needed in order to develop more effective control strategies.

  11. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC).

    PubMed

    Karmali, Mohamed A; Gannon, Victor; Sargeant, Jan M

    2010-01-27

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other Verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) are zoonotic pathogens associated with food and waterborne illness around the world. E. coli O157:H7 has been implicated in large outbreaks as well as in sporadic cases of haemorrhagic colitis and the sometimes fatal haemolytic uremic syndrome. VTs produced by these bacteria are thought to damage host endothelial cells in small vessels of the intestine, kidney and brain resulting in thrombotic microangiopathy. All VTs have the same subunit structure, glycolipid cell receptor and inhibit protein synthesis. During VTEC infection, it is thought one or more bacterial adhesins initiates colonization and establishes intimate attachment and is responsible for the translocation of a variety of effectors which alter the structure and function of host cells. VTEC are widespread in animals but ruminants are thought to be their natural reservoir. E. coli O157:H7 colonizes the terminal colon of cattle and can be shed in very large numbers by specific herdmates known as "supershedders". Faeces containing these organisms act as a source of contamination for a variety of foods and the environment. Many VTEC control efforts have been investigated along the "farm to fork" continuum including, vaccination of cattle with colonization factors, and the use of novel antimicrobials, such as bacteriocins, chloral hydrate, bacteriophage and substances which disrupt quorum sensing. In addition, many barriers have been developed for use in the slaughter and food processing industry such as steam pasteurization and irradiation. Despite these efforts many scientific, technical and regulatory challenges remain in the control and prevention of VTEC-associated human illness.

  12. Can cirrus clouds produce glories?

    PubMed

    Sassen, K; Arnott, W P; Barnett, J M; Aulenbach, S

    1998-03-20

    A vague glory display was photographed over central Utah from an airplane beginning its descent through a cirrus cloud layer with an estimated cloud top temperature of -45 and -55 degrees C. Photographic analysis reveals a single reddish-brown ring of 2.5-3.0 degrees radius around the antisolar point, although a second ring appeared visually to have been present over the brief observation period. Mie and approximate nonspherical theory scattering simulations predict a population of particles with modal diameters between 9 and 15 mum. Although it is concluded that multiple-ringed glories can be accounted for only through the backscattering of light from particles that are strictly spherical in shape, the poor glory colorization in this case could imply the presence of slightly aspherical ice particles. The location of this display over mountainous terrain suggests that it was generated by an orographic wave cloud, which we speculate produced numerous frozen cloud droplets that only gradually took on crystalline characteristics during growth.

  13. Hydrodynamic Instabilities Produced by Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo-Cruz, Julio Cesar Ruben; Hernandez-Zapata, Sergio; Ruiz-Chavarria, Gerardo

    2012-11-01

    When a liquid layer (alcohol in the present work) is in an environment where its relative humidity is less than 100 percent evaporation appears. When RH is above a certain threshold the liquid is at rest. If RH decreases below this threshold the flow becomes unstable, and hydrodynamic cells develop. The aim of this work is to understand the formation of those cells and its main features. Firstly, we investigate how the cell size depends on the layer width. We also study how temperature depends on the vertical coordinate when the cells are present. An inverse temperature gradient is found, that is, the bottom of liquid layer is colder than the free surface. This shows that the intuitive idea that the cells are due to a direct temperature gradient, following a Marangoni-like process, does not work. We propose the hypothesis that the evaporation produce a pressure gradient that is responsible of the cell development. On the other hand, using a Schlieren technique we study the topography of the free surface when cells are present. Finally the alcohol vapor layer adjacent to the liquid surface is explored using scattering experiments, giving some insight on the plausibility of the hypothesis described previously. Authors acknowledge support by DGAPA-UNAM under project IN116312 ``Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos.''

  14. Ion produced cometary organic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baratta, G. Antonio; Strazzulla, G.

    1992-01-01

    For several years many experimental results have been obtained on the chemical and physical changes induced by ion and electron irradiation of materials with a view to their Astrophysical relevance. Among the studied effects, one of particular interest is the formation of an organic refractory residue left over after ion irradiation and warming-up at room temperature. We call this residue IPHAC (ion produced hydrogenated amorphous carbon). Although 'in situ' infrared spectroscopy points out the formation of new molecular species during bombardment at low temperature, it is not clear if IPHAC is already formed or if its formation is triggered by temperature increase during warming-up of the irradiated target. Since Raman Spectroscopy is a technique particularly suitable for the analysis of carbonaceous materials, we have thought and build-up an experimental apparatus to obtain Raman Spectra of frozen hydrocarbons during ion irradiation. The present experimental results point out clearly to the formation of IPHAC already at low T and low energy deposition (approximately equal to a few eV/C-atom).

  15. Study on Base Management Pattern of Food Producing Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weibin

    When the food producing enterprises often comply with food safety regulations and industry management system passively, we need to consider can they transform their production and business pattern in order to avoid the food safety incidents completely? The answer is yes. The food producing enterprises can develop to the two directions of material planting and products in circulation through base management pattern substituting for the original operation pattern of in-plant processing and outside sales. The food producing enterprises should establish coordination and safe supervision mechanisms in order to achieve the management objectives of unified production, controllable risks and scale magnitude.

  16. 7 CFR 1280.117 - Producer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.117 Producer information. Producer information means activities designed to provide producers, feeders, and first handlers with... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer information. 1280.117 Section...

  17. Autotrophic nitrogen removal from low strength waste water at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Tim L G; Wang, Yang; Kampman, Christel; Zeeman, Grietje; Temmink, Hardy; Buisman, Cees J N

    2012-05-01

    Direct anaerobic treatment of municipal waste waters allows for energy recovery in the form of biogas. A further decrease in the energy requirement for waste water treatment can be achieved by removing the ammonium in the anaerobic effluent with an autotrophic process, such as anammox. Until now, anammox has mainly been used for treating warm (>30 °C) and concentrated (>500 mg N/L) waste streams. Application in the water line of municipal waste water treatment poses the challenges of a lower nitrogen concentration (<100 mg N/L) and a lower temperature (≤ 20 °C). Good biomass retention and a short HRT are required to achieve a sufficiently high nitrogen loading rate. For this purpose a 4.5 L gaslift reactor was inoculated with a small amount of anammox granules and operated for 253 days at 20 °C. The synthetic influent contained (69 ± 5) mg (NH(4)(+) + NO(2)(-))/L and 20 vol.% of anaerobically stabilised effluent. Results showed a clear increase in nitrogen loading rate (NLR) up to 0.31 g (NH(4) + NO(2))-N/(L × d) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5.3 h. A low effluent concentration of 0.03-0.17 mg (NH(4)(+)+NO(2)(-))-N/L could be achieved. Anammox biomass was retained as granules and as a biofilm on the reactor walls, which contributed 54 and 46%, respectively, towards total activity. The biomass was further characterised by an estimated net growth rate of 0.040 d(-1) and an apparent activation energy of 72 kJ/mol. The results presented in this paper showed that anammox bacteria can be applied for autotrophic nitrogen removal from the water line at a municipal waste water treatment plant. Combining direct anaerobic treatment with autotrophic nitrogen removal opens opportunities for energy-efficient treatment of municipal waste waters.

  18. Treatment of low strength domestic wastewater by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, N.H.; Torres, C.L.; Speece, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    The tropical environment of Puerto Rico offers great potential for using anaerobic treatment in place of conventional, aerobic activated sludge processes in the treatment of its warm, dilute municipal wastewaters. It will minimize the troublesome problem of land disposal of municipal sludges, achieve secondary effluent standards and not be an energy intensive form of treatment. When the infrastructure of sewage treatment needs to be improved, anaerobic sewage treatment may serve as one of the better alternatives. Anaerobic sewage treatment is a totally enclosed process. It has very little environmental impact on the surrounding areas of the treatment site. However, sometimes its effluent may cause serious odor problems. There are many small communities in Puerto Rico where the anaerobic process can be an ideal form of treatment for their sewage. This study is focused on using the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process for treating raw domestic sewage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance and stability of the UASB process for treating raw sewage and to ascertain the effect on efficiency of hydraulic detention time of the UASB reactor. A further key objective was to evaluate the impact on process performance of a packed bed solids removals device following the UASB reactor.

  19. High strain rate characterization of low-density low-strength materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawas, O.; Brar, N. S.; Brockman, R. A.

    1998-07-01

    The Conventional Split Hopkinson Bar (CSHB) is a reliable experimental technique for measuring high strain rate properties of high-strength materials. Attempts to use the CSHB for similar measurements in more compliant materials, such as plastics and foams, are limited by the maximum achievable strain and high noise-to-signal ratios. This work introduces an all-polymeric split Hopkinson bar (APSHB) experiment, which overcomes these limitations. The proposed method uses polymeric pressure bars to achieve a closer impedance match between the pressure bars and the specimen materials, thus providing both low noise-to-signal ratio data and a longer input pulse for higher maximum strain. Data reduction procedures for APSHB that account for the viscoelastic behavior of the pressure bars are presented. Comparing the high strain rate response of 1100 Al obtained from CSHB and APSHB validates these procedures. Stress-strain data at strain rates of 500-2000/s for polycarbonate, polyurethane foam, and styrofoam are presented.

  20. Low temperature partial nitritation/anammox in a moving bed biofilm reactor treating low strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Eva M; Agrawal, Shelesh; Karst, Søren M; Horn, Harald; Nielsen, Per H; Lackner, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Municipal wastewater collected in areas with moderate climate is subjected to a gradual temperature decrease from around 20 °C in summer to about 10 °C in winter. A lab-scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with carrier material (K3 from AnoxKaldnes) was used to test the tolerance of the overall partial nitritation/anammox process to this temperature gradient. A synthetic influent, containing only ammonium and no organic carbon was used to minimize denitrification effects. After stable reactor operation at 20 °C, the temperature was slowly reduced by 2 °C per month and afterward held constant at 10 °C. Along the temperature decrease, the ammonium conversion dropped from an average of 40 gN m(-3) d(-1) (0.2 gN kgTSS h(-1)) at 20 °C to about 15 gN m(-3) d(-1) (0.07 gN kg TSS h(-1)) at 10 °C, while the effluent concentration was kept <8 mg NH4-N l(-1) during the whole operation. This also resulted in doubling of the hydraulic retention time over the temperature ramp. The MBBR with its biofilm on 10 mm thick carriers proved to sufficiently sustain enough biomass to allow anammox activity even at 10 °C. Even though there was a minor nitrite-build up when the temperature dropped below 12.5 °C, reactor performance recovered as the temperature decrease continued. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA amplicon analysis revealed a relatively stable community composition over the entire experimental period.

  1. Feasibility of normal tissue dose reduction in radiotherapy using low strength magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youngseob; Jung, In-Hye; Kwak, Jungwon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Toxicity of mucosa is one of the major concerns of radiotherapy (RT), when a target tumor is located near a mucosal lined organ. Energy of photon RT is transferred primarily by secondary electrons. If these secondary electrons could be removed in an internal cavity of mucosal lined organ, the mucosa will be spared without compromising the target tumor dose. The purpose of this study was to present a RT dose reduction in near target inner-surface (NTIS) of internal cavity, using Lorentz force of magnetic field. Materials and Methods Tissue equivalent phantoms, composed with a cylinder shaped internal cavity, and adjacent a target tumor part, were developed. The phantoms were irradiated using 6 MV photon beam, with or without 0.3 T of perpendicular magnetic field. Two experimental models were developed: single beam model (SBM) to analyze central axis dose distributions and multiple beam model (MBM) to simulate a clinical case of prostate cancer with rectum. RT dose of NTIS of internal cavity and target tumor area (TTA) were measured. Results With magnetic field applied, bending effect of dose distribution was visualized. The depth dose distribution of SBM showed 28.1% dose reduction of NTIS and little difference in dose of TTA with magnetic field. In MBM, cross-sectional dose of NTIS was reduced by 33.1% with magnetic field, while TTA dose were the same, irrespective of magnetic field. Conclusion RT dose of mucosal lined organ, located near treatment target, could be modulated by perpendicular magnetic field. PMID:26484306

  2. Multifunction audio digitizer. [producing direct delta and pulse code modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention includes apparatus which simultaneously produces both direct delta modulation and pulse code modulation. An input signal, after amplification, is supplied to a window comparator which supplies a polarity control signal to gate the output of a clock to the appropriate input of a binary up-down counter. The control signals provide direct delta modulation while the up-down counter output provides pulse code modulation.

  3. Surface-enabled propulsion and control of colloidal microwheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasci, T. O.; Herson, P. S.; Neeves, K. B.; Marr, D. W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Propulsion at the microscale requires unique strategies such as the undulating or rotating filaments that microorganisms have evolved to swim. These features however can be difficult to artificially replicate and control, limiting the ability to actuate and direct engineered microdevices to targeted locations within practical timeframes. An alternative propulsion strategy to swimming is rolling. Here we report that low-strength magnetic fields can reversibly assemble wheel-shaped devices in situ from individual colloidal building blocks and also drive, rotate and direct them along surfaces at velocities faster than most other microscale propulsion schemes. By varying spin frequency and angle relative to the surface, we demonstrate that microwheels can be directed rapidly and precisely along user-defined paths. Such in situ assembly of readily modified colloidal devices capable of targeted movements provides a practical transport and delivery tool for microscale applications, especially those in complex or tortuous geometries.

  4. Surface-enabled propulsion and control of colloidal microwheels

    PubMed Central

    Tasci, T. O.; Herson, P. S.; Neeves, K. B.; Marr, D. W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Propulsion at the microscale requires unique strategies such as the undulating or rotating filaments that microorganisms have evolved to swim. These features however can be difficult to artificially replicate and control, limiting the ability to actuate and direct engineered microdevices to targeted locations within practical timeframes. An alternative propulsion strategy to swimming is rolling. Here we report that low-strength magnetic fields can reversibly assemble wheel-shaped devices in situ from individual colloidal building blocks and also drive, rotate and direct them along surfaces at velocities faster than most other microscale propulsion schemes. By varying spin frequency and angle relative to the surface, we demonstrate that microwheels can be directed rapidly and precisely along user-defined paths. Such in situ assembly of readily modified colloidal devices capable of targeted movements provides a practical transport and delivery tool for microscale applications, especially those in complex or tortuous geometries. PMID:26725747

  5. Surface-enabled propulsion and control of colloidal microwheels.

    PubMed

    Tasci, T O; Herson, P S; Neeves, K B; Marr, D W M

    2016-01-04

    Propulsion at the microscale requires unique strategies such as the undulating or rotating filaments that microorganisms have evolved to swim. These features however can be difficult to artificially replicate and control, limiting the ability to actuate and direct engineered microdevices to targeted locations within practical timeframes. An alternative propulsion strategy to swimming is rolling. Here we report that low-strength magnetic fields can reversibly assemble wheel-shaped devices in situ from individual colloidal building blocks and also drive, rotate and direct them along surfaces at velocities faster than most other microscale propulsion schemes. By varying spin frequency and angle relative to the surface, we demonstrate that microwheels can be directed rapidly and precisely along user-defined paths. Such in situ assembly of readily modified colloidal devices capable of targeted movements provides a practical transport and delivery tool for microscale applications, especially those in complex or tortuous geometries.

  6. Oligomeric Recombinant H5 HA1 Vaccine Produced in Bacteria Protects Ferrets from Homologous and Heterologous Wild-Type H5N1 Influenza Challenge and Controls Viral Loads Better than Subunit H5N1 Vaccine by Eliciting High-Affinity Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Swati; Dimitrova, Milena; Munjal, Ashok; Fontana, Juan; Crevar, Corey J.; Carter, Donald M.; Ross, Ted M.

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant hemagglutinin from influenza viruses with pandemic potential can be produced rapidly in various cell substrates. In this study, we compared the functionality and immunogenicity of bacterially produced oligomeric or monomeric HA1 proteins from H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/04) with those of the egg-based licensed subunit H5N1 (SU-H5N1) vaccine in ferrets challenged with homologous or heterologous H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza strains. Ferrets were vaccinated twice with the oligomeric or monomeric rHA1 or with SU-H5N1 (Sanofi Pasteur) emulsified with Titermax adjuvant and were challenged with wild-type homologous (A/Vietnam/1203/04; clade 1) or heterologous (A/Whooperswan/Mongolia/244/2005; clade 2.2) virus. Only the oligomeric rHA1 (not the monomeric rHA1) immunogen and the SU-H5N1 vaccine provided protection against the lethality and morbidity of homologous and heterologous highly pathogenic H5N1. Oligomeric rHA1 generated more cross-neutralizing antibodies and higher levels of serum antibody binding to HA1, with stronger avidity and a better IgG/IgM ratio, than monomeric HA1 and SU-H5N1 vaccines, as determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Importantly, viral loads after heterologous H5N1 challenge were more efficiently controlled in ferrets vaccinated with the oligomeric rHA1 immunogen than in SU-H5N1-vaccinated ferrets. The reduction of viral loads in the nasal washes correlated strongly with higher-avidity antibodies to oligomeric rHA1 derived from H5N1 clade 1 and clade 2.2 viruses, as measured by SPR. This is the first study to show the role of antibody avidity for the HA1 globular head domain in reduction of viral loads in the upper respiratory tract, which could significantly reduce viral transmission. PMID:22951833

  7. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces and microbial safety of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fresh produce is a central component of a healthy diet. However, contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables such as leafy greens, tomatoes, cantaloupes is a source of ongoing concern for consumers. Growers, packers, processors and retailers work to control the incidenc...

  8. Process for producing astatine-211 for radiopharmaceutical use

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Lambrecht, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    A process for reliably and consistently producing astatine-211 in small controlled volumes of a solution, which is selected from a choice of solvents that are useful in selected radiopharmaceutical procedures in which the At-211 activities are to be applied.

  9. Process for producing astatine-211 for radiopharmaceutical use

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, S.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1984-04-10

    A process is described for reliably and consistently producing astatine-211 in small controlled volumes of a solution, which is selected from a choice of solvents that are useful in selected radiopharmaceutical procedures in which the At-211 activities are to be applied. 4 figures, 1 table.

  10. Method and system for producing complex-shape objects

    DOEpatents

    Jeantette, Francisco P.; Keicher, David M.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system are provided for producing complex, three-dimensional, net shape objects from a variety of powdered materials. The system includes unique components to ensure a uniform and continuous flow of powdered materials as well as to focus and locate the flow of powdered materials with respect to a laser beam which results in the melting of the powdered material. The system also includes a controller so that the flow of molten powdered materials can map out and form complex, three-dimensional, net-shape objects by layering the molten powdered material. Advantageously, such complex, three-dimensional net-shape objects can be produced having material densities varying from 90% of theoretical to fully dense, as well as a variety of controlled physical properties. Additionally, such complex, three-dimensional objects can be produced from two or more different materials so that the composition of the object can be transitioned from one material to another.

  11. PRODUCING ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Segre, E.; Kennedy, J.W.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-10-13

    This patent broadly discloses the production of plutonium by the neutron bombardment of uranium to produce neptunium which decays to plutonium, and the fissionability of plutonium by neutrons, both fast and thermal, to produce energy and fission products.

  12. 7 CFR 1150.110 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.110 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production of milk...

  13. 7 CFR 1150.110 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.110 Producer. Producer means any person engaged in the production of milk...

  14. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  15. 7 CFR 1430.510 - New producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New producers. 1430.510 Section 1430.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF....510 New producers. Notwithstanding other provisions of this subpart, producers who were new...

  16. 7 CFR 1430.510 - New producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false New producers. 1430.510 Section 1430.510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF....510 New producers. Notwithstanding other provisions of this subpart, producers who were new...

  17. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  18. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  19. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  20. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  1. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  2. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  3. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  4. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  5. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  6. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  7. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  8. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  10. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  11. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  12. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  13. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  14. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  15. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  16. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  17. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  18. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...

  20. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent...